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Sample records for ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway

  1. Kip1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Tam, S W; Theodoras, A M; Pagano, M

    1997-04-01

    The cell cycle has been the object of extensive studies for the past years. A complex network of molecular interactions has been identified. In particular, a class of cell cycle inhibitory proteins has been identified but details of the molecular mechanism of their action have yet to be resolved. These inhibitors regulate the progression through G1 and the G1/S transition via the inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity. The potential function of these negative regulators as tumor suppressors provides new insights into the link between the cell cycle and oncogenesis. Kip1 is a potent inhibitor of Cdks. In quiescent cells Kip1 accumulates without an increase in mRNA or protein synthesis. We demonstrated that cell cycle regulation of Kip1 levels, both in normal and transformed human cells, occurs via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In a crude in vitro system, Kip1 is ubiquitinated and degraded in an ATP dependent manner and inhibition or depletion of the proteasome blocks Kip1 degradation. Human Ubc2 and Ubc3, the homologs of yeast Rad6 and Cdc34 gene products respectively, are specifically involved in the ubiquitination of Kip1. Compared to proliferating cells, quiescent cells contain a far lower amount of Kip1 ubiquitinating activity. These results represent the first demonstration that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a role in the regulation of a cell cycle protein in human cells, namely the Cdk inhibitor Kip1. The specific proteolysis of Kip1 may be involved in the pathway of inactivation of Cdks. PMID:9209391

  2. Exploring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Protein Degradation Pathway in Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Tamara J.; McWatters, Melissa K.; McQuade, Kristi L.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory investigating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in yeast. In this exercise, the enzyme beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed in yeast under the control of a stress response promoter. Following exposure to heat stress to induce beta-gal expression, cycloheximide is added to halt…

  3. Exploring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Protein Degradation Pathway in Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Tamara J.; McWatters, Melissa K.; McQuade, Kristi L.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory investigating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in yeast. In this exercise, the enzyme beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed in yeast under the control of a stress response promoter. Following exposure to heat stress to induce beta-gal expression, cycloheximide is added to halt

  4. Ubiquitin Proteasomal Pathway Mediated Degradation of p53 in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Adil; Norris, David A.; Fujita, Mayumi

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin proteasomal pathway (UPP) is the principle mechanism for protein catabolism and affects cellular processes critical for survival and proliferation. Levels of tumor suppressor protein p53 are very low in cells due to its rapid turnover by UPP-mediated degradation. While p53 is mutated in human cancers, most human melanomas maintain wild-type conformation. In this study, to investigate the effects of UPP inhibitor in vitro and in vivo, we used a genetically-engineered mouse model (GEMM) that has the same genetic alterations as those of human melanomas. Melanoma cells were established from mouse tumors and named 8B20 cells. Treatment of 8B20 cells with the UPP inhibitors, MG132 and clasto-lactacystin-?-lactone, led to an increase in levels of p53 while treatment with non-proteasomal inhibitors did not alter p53 levels. UPP inhibitors induced formation of heavy molecular weight ubiquitinated proteins, a hallmark of UPP inhibition, and p53-specific poly-ubiquitinated products in 8B20 cells. To further decipher the mechanism of p53 stabilization, we investigated half-life of p53 in cells treated with cycloheximide to block de novo protein synthesis. Treatment of 8B20 cells with MG132 led to an increase in the half-life of p53. Further analysis revealed that p53 stabilization was not mediated by phosphorylation of Ser-15 and Ser-20 residues. In vivo studies showed that MG132 induced p53 overexpression and reduced tumor growth, suggesting an important role of p53 stabilization in controlling melanoma. Taken together, our studies provide a proof of principle for using a GEMM to address the mechanisms of action and efficacy of melanoma treatment. PMID:21167122

  5. p27 degradation by an ellipticinium series of compound via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Pamarthy, Deepika; Tan, Mingjia; Wu, Min; Chen, Jianyong; Yang, Dajun; Wang, Shaomeng; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yi

    2007-03-01

    The ellipticinium and its derivatives have been studied as anti-cancer agents with preferentially cyto-toxicity to the brain tumor cell lines. During the course of our study to determine whether an ellipticine derivative, API59-Cl would sensitize radio-resistant U87 glioblastoma cells to radiation, we found that it reduced the level of p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. API59-Cl induced a dose and time dependent p27 reduction in U87 cells. The compound-induced p27 reduction was also seen in three additional glioblastoma lines, T98G, U251 and U118 as well as in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Mechanistic study of API59-Cl mediated p27 reduction revealed that it was not due to an altered p27 transcription, rather due to a shortened protein half-life as a result of enhanced p27 degradation. Indeed, API59-Cl induced p27 degradation was dependent on ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, particularly E3 ubiquitin ligase component, Skp2, but not Cullin-4A/4B, and can be largely blocked by proteasome inhibitors MG132 or PS341. Finally, we demonstrated that API59-Cl inhibited U87 cell growth with an IC50 of 1.7 muM, which is independent of its p27 degrading activity. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that the ellipticinium class of small molecule compounds promotes p27 degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The finding could provide a new tool to further understand the mechanism of p27 degradation. PMID:17312389

  6. THE TRIAGE OF DAMAGED PROTEINS: DEGRADATION BY THE UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME PATHWAY OR REPAIR BY MOLECULAR CHAPERONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulation of damaged proteins is causally related to many age-related diseases. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) plays a role in selective degradation of damaged proteins, whereas molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, are involved in refolding denatured proteins. This work demo...

  7. Activin-βC modulates cachexia by repressing the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagic degradation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Francesco Elia; Risbridger, Gail; Gold, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer-associated cachexia and muscle wasting are considered key determinants of cancer-related death and reduction in the quality of life of cancer patients. A crucial link has been established between activin signaling and skeletal muscle atrophy-hypertrophy. We previously showed that activin-βC, a novel activin-A antagonist, is a tumor modulator that abolishes the cancer-associated cachexia in a mouse genetic model of gonadal tumorigenesis, in which the normal balance of inhibin/activin signalling is disrupted by a targeted mutation in the Inha gene (inhibin α-KO mouse). This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanism by which activin-βC increases survival and abolishes cancer-associated cachexia in α-KO mice. We hypothesized that overexpression of activin-βC modulates the cachexia phenotype by antagonizing the activin signaling pathway and repressing muscle wasting via the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagic-lysosomal degradation pathways. Methods Male and female ActC++, α-KO, and α-KO/ActC++ mice and WT littermate controls were studied. Western blot analysis for the specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, markers of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway, Beclin-1, p62, and LC3A/B, effectors Smad-2, Smad-3 and myostatin was performed in the gastrocnemius of age-matched mice. Histopathology of the gastrocnemius and survival analysis were also conducted in animals from the same breeding cohort. Serum levels of activin-A, inflammatory cytokines, hormonal profile, and bone density were also assessed. Results Increased levels of atrogin-1, MuRF-1, Beclin-1, p62, LC3A/B-I, Smad-2 and serum levels of activin-A were noted in the α-KO mice. These mice developed gonadal cancers followed by severe weight loss, and reduced survival. Overexpression of activin- βC antagonized the activin signaling cascade, attenuating the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagic-lysosomal degradation pathways, and reduced serum levels of activin-A. α-KO/ActC++ mice displayed a less aggressive cachectic phenotype, reduced tumor weight, and prolonged survival. Conclusion Our findings show for the first time a specific effect of activin-βC on muscle wasting and transcription factors involved in muscle protein degradation. The study indicates that activin-βC may be a novel therapy to abrogate cancer-associated weight loss and prolong survival. PMID:26673867

  8. Glutathiolation Enhances the Degradation of ?C-crystallin in Lens and Reticulocyte Lysates, Partially via the UbiquitinProteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Madeleine; Zhang, Xinyu; Taylor, Allen; Liu, Bingfen; Liang, Jack J.; Shang, Fu

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE S-glutathiolated proteins are formed in the lens during aging and cataractogenesis. The objective of this work was to explore the role of the ubiquitinproteasome pathway in eliminating S-glutathiolated ?C-crystallin. METHODS Recombinant human ?C-crystallin was mixed with various concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and diamide at 25C for 1 hour. The extent of glutathiolation of the ?C-crystallin was determined by mass spectrometry. Native and S-glutathiolated ?C-crystallins were labeled with 125I, and proteolytic degradation was determined using both lens fiber lysate and reticulocyte lysate as sources of ubiquitinating and proteolytic enzymes. Far UV circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence intensity, and binding to the hydrophobic fluorescence probe 4,4?-dianilino-1,1?-binaphthalene-5,5?-disulfonic acid (Bis-ANS), were used to characterize the native and glutathiolated ?C-crystallins. RESULTS On average, two and five of the eight cysteines in ?C-crystallin were glutathiolated when molar ratios of ?C-crystallin-GSH-diamide were 1:2:5 and 1:10:25, respectively. Native ?C-crystallin was resistant to degradation in both lens fiber lysate and reticulocyte lysate. However, glutathiolated ?C-crystallin showed a significant increase in proteolytic degradation in both lens fiber and reticulocyte lysates. Proteolysis was stimulated by addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Ubc4 and was substantially inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a dominant negative form of ubiquitin, indicating that at least part of the proteolysis was mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Spectroscopic analyses of glutathiolated ?C-crystallin revealed conformational changes and partial unfolding, which may provide a signal for the ubiquitin-dependent degradation. CONCLUSIONS The present data demonstrate that oxidative modification by glutathiolation can render lens proteins more susceptible to degradation by the ubiquitinproteasome pathway. Together with previous results, these data support the concept that the ubiquitinproteasome pathway serves as a general protein quality-control mechanism. PMID:16877417

  9. Ubiquitin Proteasome-dependent Degradation of the Transcriptional Coactivator PGC-1? via the N-terminal Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Trausch-Azar, Julie; Leone, Teresa C.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Schwartz, Alan L.

    2010-01-01

    PGC-1? is a potent, inducible transcriptional coactivator that exerts control on mitochondrial biogenesis and multiple cellular energy metabolic pathways. PGC-1? levels are controlled in a highly dynamic manner reflecting regulation at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Here, we demonstrate that PGC-1? is rapidly degraded in the nucleus (t 0.3 h) via the ubiquitin proteasome system. An N-terminal deletion mutant of 182 residues, PGC182, as well as a lysine-less mutant form, are nuclear and rapidly degraded (t 0.5 h), consistent with degradation via the N terminus-dependent ubiquitin subpathway. Both PGC-1? and PGC182 degradation rates are increased in cells under low serum conditions. However, a naturally occurring N-terminal splice variant of 270 residues, NT-PGC-1? is cytoplasmic and stable (t >7 h), providing additional evidence that PGC-1? is degraded in the nucleus. These results strongly suggest that the nuclear N terminus-dependent ubiquitin proteasome pathway governs PGC-1? cellular degradation. In contrast, the cellular localization of NT-PCG-1? results in a longer-half-life and possible distinct temporal and potentially biological actions. PMID:20713359

  10. Ubiquitin proteasome pathway-mediated degradation of proteins: effects due to site-specific substrate deamidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation, aggregation, and precipitation of proteins are etiologic for age-related diseases, particularly cataract, because the precipitates cloud the lens. Deamidation of crystallins is associated with protein precipitation, aging, and cataract. Among the roles of the ubiquitin proteasome p...

  11. Heat Shock Protein 70 Regulates Degradation of the Mumps Virus Phosphoprotein via the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Toru; Kita, Shunsuke; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Aoki, Natsuko; Mori, Yoshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Takeda, Makoto; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mumps virus (MuV) infection induces formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs). Growing evidence indicates that IBs are the sites where RNA viruses synthesize their viral RNA. However, in the case of MuV infection, little is known about the viral and cellular compositions and biological functions of the IBs. In this study, pulldown purification and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp72) was a binding partner of MuV phosphoprotein (P protein), which was an essential component of the IB formation. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses revealed that Hsp72 was colocalized with the P protein in the IBs, and its expression was increased during MuV infection. Knockdown of Hsp72 using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) had little, if any, effect on viral propagation in cultured cells. Knockdown of Hsp72 caused accumulation of ubiquitinated P protein and delayed P protein degradation. These results show that Hsp72 is recruited to IBs and regulates the degradation of MuV P protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. IMPORTANCE Formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) is a common characteristic feature in mononegavirus infections. IBs are considered to be the sites of viral RNA replication and transcription. However, there have been few studies focused on host factors recruited to the IBs and their biological functions. Here, we identified stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp72) as the first cellular partner of mumps virus (MuV) phosphoprotein (P protein), which is an essential component of the IBs and is involved in viral RNA replication/transcription. We found that the Hsp72 mobilized to the IBs promoted degradation of the MuV P protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our data provide new insight into the role played by IBs in mononegavirus infection. PMID:25552722

  12. Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and cellular responses to oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is the primary cytosolic proteolytic machinery for the selective degradation of various forms of damaged proteins. Thus, the UPP is an important protein quality control mechanism. In the canonical UPP, both ubiquitin and the 26S proteasome are involved. Subs...

  13. Bile acid signaling pathways increase stability of Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP) by inhibiting ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ji; Xiao, Zhen; Kanamaluru, Deepthi; Min, Gyesik; Yau, Peter M; Veenstra, Timothy D; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Steve; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H Eric; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2009-04-15

    Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP) inhibits activities of numerous transcription factors involved in diverse biological pathways. As an important metabolic regulator, SHP plays a key role in maintaining cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis by inhibiting cholesterol conversion to bile acids. While SHP gene induction by increased bile acids is well established, whether SHP activity is also modulated remains unknown. Here, we report surprising findings that SHP is a rapidly degraded protein via the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway and that bile acids or bile acid-induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) increases stability of hepatic SHP by inhibiting proteasomal degradation in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent manner. SHP was ubiquitinated at Lys122 and Lys123, and mutation of these sites altered its stability and repression activity. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that upon bile acid treatment, SHP was phosphorylated at Ser26, within an ERK motif in SHP, and mutation of this site dramatically abolished SHP stability. Surprisingly, SHP stability was abnormally elevated in ob/ob mice and diet-induced obese mice. These results demonstrate an important role for regulation of SHP stability in bile acid signaling in normal conditions, and that abnormal stabilization of SHP may be associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. PMID:19390091

  14. APC/CCdh1 Targets Brain-Specific Kinase 2 (BRSK2) for Degradation via the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Yingli; Luo, Ting; Gu, Xiuting; Chen, Fang; Yu, Long

    2012-01-01

    Studies of brain-specific kinase 2 (BRSK2), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, and its homologs suggest that they are multifunctional regulators of cell-cycle progression. BRSK2, which contains a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain, is polyubiquitinated in cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms and exact biological function of BRSK2 remain unclear. Herein, we show that BRSK2 co-localizes with the centrosomes during mitosis. We also demonstrate that BRSK2 protein levels fluctuate during the cell cycle, peaking during mitosis and declining in G1 phase. Furthermore, Cdh1, rather than Cdc20, promotes the degradation of BRSK2 in vivo. Consistent with this finding, knock-down of endogenous Cdh1 blocks BRSK2 degradation during the G1 phase. The conserved KEN box of BRSK2 is required for anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/CCdh1)-dependent degradation. Additionally, overexpression of either BRSK2(WT) or BRSK2(ΔKEN) increases the percentage of cells in G2/M. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that BRSK2 regulates cell-cycle progression controlled by APC/CCdh1 through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:23029325

  15. The Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway in Keratin Intermediate Filament Protein Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Rogel, Micah R.; Jaitovich, Ariel; Ridge, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    Lung injury, whether caused by hypoxic or mechanical stresses, elicits a variety of responses at the cellular level. Alveolar epithelial cells respond and adapt to such injurious stimuli by reorganizing the cellular cytoskeleton, mainly accomplished through modification of the intermediate filament (IF) network. The structural and mechanical integrity in epithelial cells is maintained through this adaptive reorganization response. Keratin, the predominant IF expressed in epithelial cells, displays highly dynamic properties in response to injury, sometimes in the form of degradation of the keratin IF network. Post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation, targets keratin proteins for degradation in these circumstances. As with other structural and regulatory proteins, turnover of keratin is regulated by the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway. The degradation process begins with activation of Ub by the Ub-activating enzyme (E1), followed by the exchange of Ub to the Ub-conjugating enzyme (E2). E2 shuttles the Ub molecule to the substrate-specific Ub ligase (E3), which then delivers the Ub to the substrate protein, thereby targeting it for degradation. In some cases of injury and IF-related disease, aggresomes form in epithelial cells. The mechanisms that regulate aggresome formation are currently unknown, although proteasome overload may play a role. Therefore, a more complete understanding of keratin degradationcauses, mechanisms, and consequenceswill allow for a greater understanding of epithelial cell biology and lung pathology alike. PMID:20160151

  16. A nuclear ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway targets inner nuclear membrane protein Asi2 for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Boban, Mirta; Pantazopoulou, Marina; Schick, Anna; Ljungdahl, Per O.; Foisner, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear envelope consists of inner and outer nuclear membranes. While the outer membrane is an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum, the inner nuclear membrane represents a unique membranous environment containing specific proteins. The mechanisms of integral inner nuclear membrane protein degradation are unknown. Here we investigated the turnover of Asi2, an integral INM protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that Asi2 is degraded by the proteasome and independent of the vacuole exhibiting a half-life of ? 45 min. Asi2 exhibits enhanced stability in mutants lacking the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc6 or Ubc7, or the E3 ubiquitin ligase Doa10. Consistently, Asi2 is post-translationally modified by poly-ubiquitylation in a Ubc7- and Doa10-dependent manner. Importantly Asi2 degradation is significantly reduced in a sts1-2 mutant that fails to accumulate proteasomes in the nucleus, indicating that Asi2 is degraded in the nucleus. Our results reveal a molecular pathway that affects the stability of integral proteins of the inner nuclear membrane and indicate that Asi2 is subject to protein quality control in the nucleus. PMID:24928896

  17. Colorectal Carcinogenesis, Radiation Quality, and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Fornace, Albert J

    2016-01-01

    Adult colorectal epithelium undergoes continuous renewal and maintains homeostatic balance through regulated cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway involving the transcriptional co-activator ?-catenin is important for colorectal development and normal epithelial maintenance, and deregulated Wnt/?-catenin signaling has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Colorectal carcinogenesis has been linked to radiation exposure, and radiation has been demonstrated to alter Wnt/?-catenin signaling, as well as the proteasomal pathway involved in the degradation of the signaling components and thus regulation of ?-catenin. The current review discusses recent progresses in our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis in relation to different types of radiation and roles that radiation quality plays in deregulating ?-catenin and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) for colorectal cancer initiation and progression. PMID:26819641

  18. Colorectal Carcinogenesis, Radiation Quality, and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Fornace, Albert J

    2016-01-01

    Adult colorectal epithelium undergoes continuous renewal and maintains homeostatic balance through regulated cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway involving the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin is important for colorectal development and normal epithelial maintenance, and deregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Colorectal carcinogenesis has been linked to radiation exposure, and radiation has been demonstrated to alter Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as the proteasomal pathway involved in the degradation of the signaling components and thus regulation of β-catenin. The current review discusses recent progresses in our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis in relation to different types of radiation and roles that radiation quality plays in deregulating β-catenin and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) for colorectal cancer initiation and progression. PMID:26819641

  19. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Ashok N.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) has emerged as a new molecular mechanism that controls wide-ranging functions in the nervous system, including fine-tuning of synaptic connections during development and synaptic plasticity in the adult organism. In the UPP, attachment of a small protein, ubiquitin, tags the substrates for

  20. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Ashok N.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) has emerged as a new molecular mechanism that controls wide-ranging functions in the nervous system, including fine-tuning of synaptic connections during development and synaptic plasticity in the adult organism. In the UPP, attachment of a small protein, ubiquitin, tags the substrates for…

  1. Ubiquitin/proteasome pathway impairment in neurodegeneration: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qian; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome pathway is the major proteolytic quality control system in cells. In this review we discuss the impact of a deregulation of this pathway on neuronal function and its causal relationship to the intracellular deposition of ubiquitin protein conjugates in pathological inclusion bodies in all the major chronic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons and Huntingtons diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We describe the intricate nature of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and discuss the paradox of protein aggregation, i.e. its potential toxic/protective effect in neurodegeneration. The relations between some of the dysfunctional components of the pathway and neurodegeneration are presented. We highlight possible ubiquitin/proteasome pathway-targeting therapeutic approaches, such as activating the proteasome, enhancing ubiquitination and promoting SUMOylation that might be important to slow/treat the progression of neurodegeneration. Finally, a model time line is presented for neurodegeneration starting at the initial injurious events up to protein aggregation and cell death, with potential time points for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20131003

  2. Tripartite motif 16 suppresses breast cancer stem cell properties through regulation of Gli-1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Juntao; Xu, Tao; Tian, Tao; Fu, Xiao; Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Suoni; Shi, Tingting; Suo, Aili; Ruan, Zhiping; Guo, Hui; Yao, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cancer progression and patient prognosis. Tripartite motif16(TRIM16) is a proteasome coactivator that regulates proteolytic activity in eukaryotic cells. Abundant evidence has shown that TRIM16 is lowly expressed in a number of human carcinomas. In a previous study, we demonstrated that TRIM16 suppressed cancer malignancy and that TRIM16 expression levels were associated with favorable prognostic parameters of patients with cancer. However, the precise role of this motif in the pathogenesis of breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we examined 29human breast cancer specimens, and found that TRIM16 was lowly expressed in breast cancers; thus, TRIM16 expression is negatively correlated with metastasis in breast cancer patients. Moreover, we showed that TRIM16 suppressed CSC properties in a population of breast cancer cells. TRIM16 depletion resulted in an increased proportion of CSCs relative to breast cancer cells when several assays were used to assess CSC properties. Finally, we demonstrated that TRIM16 directly regulated the degradation of Gli?1 protein via the ubiquitin?proteasome pathway. In conclusion, we propose that inhibition of CSC properties may be one of the functions of TRIM16 as a suppressor of breast cancer progression. PMID:26718507

  3. The ubiquitin ligase FBG1 promotes the degradation of the disease-linked protein torsinA through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and macroautophagy

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Kara L; Glenn, Kevin A; Bode, Nicole; Wen, Hsiang M; Paulson, Henry L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is a dominantly inherited, disabling neurological disorder with low penetrance that is caused by the deletion of a glutamic acid (?E) in the protein torsinA. We previously showed that torsinA(wt) is degraded through macroautophagy while torsinA(?E) is targeted to the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). The different catabolism of torsinA(wt) and (?E) potentially modulates torsinA(wt):torsinA(?E) stoichiometry. Therefore, gaining a mechanistic understanding on how the protein quality control machinery clears torsinA(?E) in neurons may uncover important regulatory steps in disease pathogenesis. Here, we asked whether FBG1, a ubiquitin ligase known to degrade neuronal glycoproteins, is implicated in the degradation of torsinA(?E) by the UPP. In a first set of studies completed in cultured cells, we show that FBG1 interacts with and influences the steady-state levels of torsinA(wt) and (?E). Interestingly, FBG1 achieves this effect promoting the degradation of torsinA not only through the UPP, but also by macroautophagy. To determine the potential clinical significance of these findings, we asked if eliminating expression of Fbg1 triggers a motor phenotype in torsinA(?E) knock in mice, a model of non-manifesting DYT1 mutation carriers. We detected differences in spontaneous locomotion between aged torsinA(?E) knock in-Fbg1 knock out and control mice. Furthermore, neuronal levels of torsinA were unaltered in Fbg1 null mice, indicating that redundant systems likely compensate in vivo for the absence of this ubiquitin ligase. In summary, our studies support a non-essential role for FBG1 on the degradation of torsinA and uncover a novel link of FBG1 to the autophagy pathway. PMID:22917612

  4. Pristimerin Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells by Down-regulating Bcl-2 through ROS-dependent Ubiquitin-proteasomal Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong Bo; Gao, Xiaohua; Deeb, Dorrah; Arbab, Ali S; Gautam, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Pristimerin is a quinonemethide triterpenoid with the potential of a promising anticancer agent. Pristimerin (PM) has shown anticancer activity against a range of cancer cell lines, but its activity for prostate cancer has not been adequately investigated. In the present study we have examined the underlying mechanisms of the apoptotic response of the hormone-sensitive (LNCaP) and hormone-refractory (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines to PM. Treatment with PM induced apoptosis in both cell lines as characterized by increased annexin V-binding and cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases-3 and -9. It also induced mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Response to PM is regulated by Bcl-2 since it down-regulated Bcl-2 expression and overexpression of Bcl-2 rendered prostate cancer cells resistant to PM. ROS plays a role in down-regulation of Bcl-2, since treatment with PM in the presence of various ROS modulators, e.g., n-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general purpose antioxidant; diphenylene iodonium (DPI), a NADPH inhibitor; rotenone (ROT), a mitochondrial electron transport chain interrupter rotenone or MnTBAP, a O2 scavenger, attenuated the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Furthermore, ROS is also involved in the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Bcl-2 as both of these events were blocked by O 2? scavenger MnTBAP. Thus, pristimerin induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells predominately through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by inhibiting antiapoptic Bcl-2 through a ROS-dependent ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation pathway. PMID:24877026

  5. Bisretinoid degradation and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Janet R; Zhou, Jilin; Ghosh, Shanti Kaligotla; Liu, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Bisretinoid fluorophores of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) lipofuscin have been shown to undergo degradation in two ways, the first involving photofragmentation following photooxidation of their polyene structure and the second being enzyme-mediated and limited, thus far, to in vitro models employing horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Here we show that both of these processes impact the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of the RPE cell. By measuring the consumption of A2E and all-trans-retinal dimer by HPLC, we confirmed that both HRP-mediated and photodegradation of the compounds occurred and that in both cases the chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like activities of the proteasome system were decreased. With HRP-mediated degradation of A2E, there was a small negative impact on cell viability that was not mitigated by elevating gluthathione in the cell. PMID:24664748

  6. What do we really know about the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoe, R. T.; Goldberg, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Studies of many different rodent models of muscle wasting have indicated that accelerated proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the principal cause of muscle atrophy induced by fasting, cancer cachexia, metabolic acidosis, denervation, disuse, diabetes, sepsis, burns, hyperthyroidism and excess glucocorticoids. However, our understanding about how muscle proteins are degraded, and how the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is activated in muscle under these conditions, is still very limited. The identities of the important ubiquitin-protein ligases in skeletal muscle, and the ways in which they recognize substrates are still largely unknown. Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that one set of ubquitination enzymes, E2(14K) and E3(alpha), which are responsible for the 'N-end rule' system of ubiquitination, plays an important role in muscle, especially in catabolic states. However, their functional significance in degrading different muscle proteins is still unclear. This review focuses on the many gaps in our understanding of the functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy, and highlights the strengths and limitations of the different experimental approaches used in such studies.

  7. Plant ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and its role in gibberellin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Deng, Xing Wang

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in plants, like in other eukaryotes, targets numerous intracellular regulators and thus modulates almost every aspect of growth and development. The well-known and best-characterized outcome of ubiquitination is mediating target protein degradation via the 26S proteasome, which represents the major selective protein degradation pathway conserved among eukaryotes. In this review, we will discuss the molecular composition, regulation and function of plant UPS, with a major focus on how DELLA protein degradation acts as a key in gibberellin signal transduction and its implication in the regulation of plant growth. PMID:21788985

  8. Ubiquitin-Proteasome-mediated Degradation of Keratin Intermediate Filaments in Mechanically Stimulated A549 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jaitovich, Ariel; Mehta, Semil; Na, Ni; Ciechanover, Aaron; Goldman, Robert D.; Ridge, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that shear stress induces phosphorylation and disassembly of keratin intermediate filaments (IFs). Shear stress also induces a time- and strain-dependent degradation of keratin IFs, and the current study examines the mechanisms involved in degradation of keratin proteins in human A549 cells exposed to 024 h of shear stress (7.530 dynes/cm2). Ubiquitin was found to be covalently associated with keratin proteins immunoprecipitated from shear-stressed cells, and pretreatment with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 prevented the degradation of the keratin IF network. Importantly, phosphorylation of K8 Ser-73 is required for the shear stress-mediated ubiquitination, disassembly, and degradation of the keratin IF network. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that shear stress caused the thin array of keratin fibrils observed in control cells to be reorganized into a perinuclear aggregate, known as an aggresome, and that ubiquitin was also associated with this structure. Finally, the E2 enzymes, UbcH5b, -c, and Ubc3, but not E2-25K are required for the shear stress-mediated ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation of keratin proteins. These data suggest that shear stress promotes the disassembly and degradation of the keratin IF network via phosphorylation and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:18617517

  9. Protein Degradation by Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Formation and Labilization of Contextual Conditioning Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fustiñana, María Sol; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this…

  10. Protein Degradation by Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Formation and Labilization of Contextual Conditioning Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fustiana, Mara Sol; de la Fuente, Vernica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this

  11. Tripartite degrons confer diversity and specificity on regulated protein degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Guharoy, Mainak; Bhowmick, Pallab; Sallam, Mohamed; Tompa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Specific signals (degrons) regulate protein turnover mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here we systematically analyse known degrons and propose a tripartite model comprising the following: (1) a primary degron (peptide motif) that specifies substrate recognition by cognate E3 ubiquitin ligases, (2) secondary site(s) comprising a single or multiple neighbouring ubiquitinated lysine(s) and (3) a structurally disordered segment that initiates substrate unfolding at the 26S proteasome. Primary degron sequences are conserved among orthologues and occur in structurally disordered regions that undergo E3-induced folding-on-binding. Posttranslational modifications can switch primary degrons into E3-binding-competent states, thereby integrating degradation with signalling pathways. Degradation-linked lysines tend to be located within disordered segments that also initiate substrate degradation by effective proteasomal engagement. Many characterized mutations and alternative isoforms with abrogated degron components are implicated in disease. These effects result from increased protein stability and interactome rewiring. The distributed nature of degrons ensures regulation, specificity and combinatorial control of degradation. PMID:26732515

  12. Distinct functions of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway influence nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Thomas G; Yu, Shirong; Zhou, Zheng; Waters, Raymond; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Reed, Simon H

    2006-06-01

    The Rad23/Rad4 nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein complex functions at an early stage of the NER reaction, possibly promoting the recognition of damaged DNA. Here we show that Rad4 protein is ubiquitinated and degraded in response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and identify a novel cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligase required for this process. We also show that this novel ubiquitin ligase is required for optimal NER. Our results demonstrate that optimal NER correlates with the ubiquitination of Rad4 following UV radiation, but not its subsequent degradation. Furthermore, we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) regulates NER via two distinct mechanisms. The first occurs independently of de novo protein synthesis, and requires Rad23 and a nonproteolytic function of the 19S regulatory complex of the 26S proteasome. The second requires de novo protein synthesis, and relies on the activity of the newly identified E3 ubiquitin ligase. These studies reveal that, following UV radiation, NER is mediated by nonproteolytic activities of the UPP, via the ubiquitin-like domain of Rad23 and UV radiation-induced ubiquitination of Rad4. PMID:16675952

  13. An optimal ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the nervous system: the role of deubiquitinating enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ristic, Gorica; Tsou, Wei-Ling; Todi, Sokol V.

    2014-01-01

    The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway (UPP), which is critical for normal function in the nervous system and is implicated in various neurological diseases, requires the small modifier protein ubiquitin to accomplish its duty of selectively degrading short-lived, abnormal or misfolded proteins. Over the past decade, a large class of proteases collectively known as deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) has increasingly gained attention in all manners related to ubiquitin. By cleaving ubiquitin from another protein, DUBs ensure that the UPP functions properly. DUBs accomplish this task by processing newly translated ubiquitin so that it can be used for conjugation to substrate proteins, by regulating the where, when, and why of UPP substrate ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, and by recycling ubiquitin for re-use by the UPP. Because of the reliance of the UPP on DUB activities, it is not surprising that these proteases play important roles in the normal activities of the nervous system and in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the functions of DUBs in the nervous system. We focus on their role in the UPP, and make the argument that understanding the UPP from the perspective of DUBs can yield new insight into diseases that result from anomalous intra-cellular processes or inter-cellular networks. Lastly, we discuss the relevance of DUBs as therapeutic options for disorders of the nervous system. PMID:25191222

  14. Ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation of antiapoptotic survivin facilitates induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pristimerin

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YONG BO; GAO, XIAOHUA; DEEB, DORAH; BRIGOLIN, CHRIS; ZHANG, YIGUAN; SHAW, JIAJIU; PINDOLIA, KIRIT; GAUTAM, SUBHASH C.

    2014-01-01

    Pristimerin (PM), a quinonemethide triterpenoid, is a promising anticancer agent with potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against cancer cell lines. However, the anticancer activity and mechanisms of PM in prostate cancer cells have not been adequately investigated. Here we report that the degradation of survivin plays an important role in the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of PM in carcinoma of the prostate (CaP) cell lines. Treatment with PM inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3 cells as characterized by the loss of cell viability and an increase in Annexin V-binding and cleavage of PARP-1, respectively. The antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of PM were associated with the inhibition of cell cycle regulatory proteins, antiapoptotic survivin and members of the Bcl-2 family. Data showed that response to PM is regulated by survivin since overexpression of survivin rendered CaP cells resistant to PM. Furthermore, downregulation of survivin by PM was mediated through the ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Together, these data demonstrate that pristimerin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in CaP cells by abolishing survivin through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:25175770

  15. Limiting the power of p53 through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is critical in restraining the activities of the p53 tumor suppressor. Numerous E3 and E4 ligases regulate p53 levels. Additionally, deubquitinating enzymes that modify p53 directly or indirectly also impact p53 function. When alterations of these proteins result in increased p53 activity, cells arrest in the cell cycle, senesce, or apoptose. On the other hand, alterations that result in decreased p53 levels yield tumor-prone phenotypes. This review focuses on the physiological relevance of these important regulators of p53 and their therapeutic implications. PMID:25128494

  16. Targeting Tumor Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway with Polyphenols for Chemosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Min; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q. Ping

    2012-01-01

    The development of tumor drug resistance is one of the biggest obstacles on the way to achieve a favorable outcome of chemotherapy. Among various strategies that have been explored to overcome drug resistance, the combination of current chemotherapy with plant polyphenols as a chemosensitizer has emerged as a promising one. Plant polyphenols are a group of phytochemicals characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. Mechanistic studies suggest that polyphenols have multiple intracellular targets, one of which is the proteasome complex. The proteasome is a proteolytic enzyme complex responsible for intracellular protein degradation and has been shown to play an important role in tumor growth and the development of drug resistance. Therefore, proteasome inhibition by plant polyphenols could be one of the mechanisms contributing to their chemosensitizing effect. Plant polyphenols that have been identified to possess proteasome-inhibitory activity include (−)-epigallocatechins-3-gallate (EGCG), genistein, luteolin, apigenin, chrysin, quercetin, curcumin and tannic acid. These polyphenols have exhibited an appreciable effect on overcoming resistance to various chemotherapeutic drugs as well as multidrug resistance in a broad spectrum of tumors ranging from carcinoma and sarcoma to hematological malignances. The in vitro and in vivo studies on polyphenols with proteasome-inhibitory activity have built a solid foundation to support the idea that they could serve as a chemosensitizer for the treatment of cancer. In-depth mechanistic studies and identification of optimal regimen are needed in order to eventually translate this laboratory concept into clinical trials to actually benefit current chemotherapy. PMID:22292765

  17. Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in regulating abundance of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27.

    PubMed

    Pagano, M; Tam, S W; Theodoras, A M; Beer-Romero, P; Del Sal, G; Chau, V; Yew, P R; Draetta, G F; Rolfe, M

    1995-08-01

    The p27 mammalian cell cycle protein is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Both in vivo and in vitro, p27 was found to be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc2 and Ubc3 were specifically involved in the ubiquitination of p27. Compared with proliferating cells, quiescent cells exhibited a smaller amount of p27 ubiquitinating activity, which accounted for the marked increase of p27 half-life measured in these cells. Thus, the abundance of p27 in cells is regulated by degradation. The specific proteolysis of p27 may represent a mechanism for regulating the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases. PMID:7624798

  18. Regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy pathways after acute LPS and epoxomicin administration in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is a major protein degradation pathway that is activated during sepsis and has been proposed as a therapeutic target for preventing skeletal muscle loss due to cachexia. Although several studies have investigated the modulation of proteasome activity in response to LPS administration, none have characterized the overall UPP response to LPS administration in the fate of proteasome inhibition. Methods Here, we determined the modulation pattern of the main key components of the UPP in the gastrocnemius (GAS) of mice during the acute phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated endotoxemia (7.5mg/kg 8h) by measuring all three ?1, ?2 and ?5 activites of the 20S and 26S proteasomes, the levels of steady state polyubiquitinated proteins, mRNA levels of muscle ligases, as well as signaling pathways regulating the UPP. Another goal was to assess the effects of administration of a specific proteasome inhibitor (epoxomicin, 0.5mg/kg) on UPP response to sepsis. Results The acute phase of LPS-induced endotoxemia lowered GAS/body weight ratio and increased MuRF1 and MAFbx mRNA concomitantly to an activation of the pathways known to regulate their expression. Unexpectedly, we observed a decrease in all 20S and 26S proteasome activities measured in GAS, which might be related to oxidative stress, as oxidized proteins (carbonyl levels) increase with LPS. While significantly inhibiting 20S and 26S proteasome ?5 activities in heart and liver, epoxomicin did not lower proteasome activity in GAS. However, the increase in mRNA expression of the muscle ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx were partially rescued without affecting the other investigated signaling pathways. LPS also strongly activated autophagy, which could explain the observed GAS atrophy with LPS-induced reduction of proteasome activity. Conclusions Our results highlight an opposite regulation of UPP in the early hours of LPS-induced muscle atrophy by showing reduced proteasome activities and increased mRNA expression of muscle specific ligases. Furthermore, our data do not support any preventive effect of epoxomicin in muscle atrophy due to acute cachexia since proteasome activities are not further repressed. PMID:24885455

  19. Lack of myotubularin (MTM1) leads to muscle hypotrophy through unbalanced regulation of the autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways.

    PubMed

    Al-Qusairi, Lama; Prokic, Ivana; Amoasii, Leonela; Kretz, Christine; Messaddeq, Nadia; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in the phosphoinositide phosphatase myotubularin (MTM1) results in X-linked myotubular/centronuclear myopathy (XLMTM), characterized by a severe decrease in muscle mass and strength in patients and murine models. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the muscle hypotrophy is unclear. Here we show that the IGF1R/Akt pathway is affected in Mtm1-deficient murine muscles, characterized by an increase in IGF1 receptor and Akt levels in both the presymptomatic and symptomatic phases. Moreover, up-regulation of atrogenes was observed in the presymptomatic phase of the myopathy, supporting overactivation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In parallel, the autophagy machinery was affected as indicated by the increase in the number of autophagosomes and of autophagy markers, such as LC3 and P62. However, phosphorylation of FOXO3a and mTOR were abnormal at late but not at early stages of the disease, suggesting that myotubularin acts both upstream in the IGF1R/Akt pathway and downstream on the balance between the autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways in vivo. Adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of Mtm1 into Mtm1-null muscles rescued muscle mass and normalized the expression levels of IGF1 receptor, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and autophagy markers. These data support the hypothesis that the unbalanced regulation of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and the autophagy machinery is a primary cause of the XLMTM pathogenesis. PMID:23695157

  20. Oxidative stress, NF-?B and the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway in the pathology of calpainopathy.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Dhanarajan; Alexander, Mathew; Oommen, Anna

    2013-10-01

    The neuromuscular disorder, calpainopathy (LGMD 2A), is a major muscular dystrophy classified under limb girdle muscular dystrophies. Genetic mutations of the enzyme calpain 3 cause LGMD 2A. Calpainopathy is phenotypically observed as progressive muscle wasting and weakness. Pathomechanisms of muscle wasting of calpainopathy remain poorly understood. Oxidative stress, NF-?B and the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway underlie the pathology of several muscle wasting conditions but their role in calpainopathic dystrophy is not known. Oxidative and nitrosative stress, the source of reactive oxygen species, NF-?B signaling and protein ubiquitinylation were studied in 15 calpainopathic and 8 healthy control human muscle biopsies. Oxidative stress and NF-?B/IKK ? signaling were increased in calpainopathic muscle and may contribute to increased protein ubiquitinylation and muscle protein loss. Preventing oxidative stress or inhibition of NF-?B signaling could be considered for treatment of LGMD 2A. PMID:23846623

  1. TLR4 mediates the impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways induced by ethanol treatment in brain

    PubMed Central

    Pla, A; Pascual, M; Renau-Piqueras, J; Guerri, C

    2014-01-01

    New evidence indicates the involvement of protein degradation dysfunctions in neurodegeneration, innate immunity response and alcohol hepatotoxicity. We recently demonstrated that ethanol increases brain proinflammatory mediators and causes brain damage by activating Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in glia. However, it is uncertain if the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways are involved in ethanol-induced brain damage and whether the TLR4 response is implicated in proteolytic processes. Using the cerebral cortex of WT and TLR4-knockout mice with and without chronic ethanol treatment, we demonstrate that ethanol induces poly-ubiquitinated proteins accumulation and promotes immunoproteasome activation by inducing the expression of ?2i, ?5i and PA28?, although it decreases the 20S constitutive proteasome subunits (?2, ?5). Ethanol also upregulates mTOR phosphorylation, leading to a downregulation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ATG12, ATG5, cathepsin B, p62, LC3) and alters the volume of autophagic vacuoles. Notably, mice lacking TLR4 receptors are protected against ethanol-induced alterations in protein degradation pathways. In summary, the present results provide the first evidence demonstrating that chronic ethanol treatment causes proteolysis dysfunctions in the mouse cerebral cortex and that these events are TLR4 dependent. These findings could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced brain damage. PMID:24556681

  2. TLR4 mediates the impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways induced by ethanol treatment in brain.

    PubMed

    Pla, A; Pascual, M; Renau-Piqueras, J; Guerri, C

    2014-01-01

    New evidence indicates the involvement of protein degradation dysfunctions in neurodegeneration, innate immunity response and alcohol hepatotoxicity. We recently demonstrated that ethanol increases brain proinflammatory mediators and causes brain damage by activating Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in glia. However, it is uncertain if the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways are involved in ethanol-induced brain damage and whether the TLR4 response is implicated in proteolytic processes. Using the cerebral cortex of WT and TLR4-knockout mice with and without chronic ethanol treatment, we demonstrate that ethanol induces poly-ubiquitinated proteins accumulation and promotes immunoproteasome activation by inducing the expression of β2i, β5i and PA28α, although it decreases the 20S constitutive proteasome subunits (α2, β5). Ethanol also upregulates mTOR phosphorylation, leading to a downregulation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ATG12, ATG5, cathepsin B, p62, LC3) and alters the volume of autophagic vacuoles. Notably, mice lacking TLR4 receptors are protected against ethanol-induced alterations in protein degradation pathways. In summary, the present results provide the first evidence demonstrating that chronic ethanol treatment causes proteolysis dysfunctions in the mouse cerebral cortex and that these events are TLR4 dependent. These findings could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced brain damage. PMID:24556681

  3. Formation of distinct inclusion bodies by inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Junho; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Joe, Cheol O.; Kang, Seok-Seong

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Distinct inclusion bodies are developed by inhibition of UPP and ALP. {yields} The inclusion bodies differ in morphology, localization and formation process. {yields} The inclusion bodies are distinguishable by the localization of TSC2. {yields} Inhibition of both UPP and ALP simultaneously induces those inclusion bodies. -- Abstract: Accumulation of misfolded proteins is caused by the impairment of protein quality control systems, such as ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) and autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP). In this study, the formation of inclusion bodies was examined after the blockade of UPP and/or ALP in A549 cells. UPP inhibition induced a single and large inclusion body localized in microtubule-organizing center. Interestingly, however, ALP inhibition generated dispersed small inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm. Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 was selectively accumulated in the inclusion bodies of UPP-inhibited cells, but not those of ALP-inhibited cells. Blockade of transcription and translation entirely inhibited the formation of inclusion body induced by UPP inhibition, but partially by ALP inhibition. Moreover, the simultaneous inhibition of two protein catabolic pathways independently developed two distinct inclusion bodies within a single cell. These findings clearly demonstrated that dysfunction of each catabolic pathway induced formation and accumulation of unique inclusion bodies on the basis of morphology, localization and formation process in A549 cells.

  4. TGF-β Induces Degradation of PTHrP Through Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; He, Guangchun; Yao, Hui; Song, Liujiang; Zeng, Liang; Peng, Xiaoning; Rosol, Thomas J.; Deng, Xiyun

    2015-01-01

    Both transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulate important cellular processes, such as apoptosis in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms of regulation of PTHrP by TGF-β are largely unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β regulates the expression of PTHrP protein through a post-translational mechanism. Using hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines as the in vitro model, we investigated the effects of TGF-β on protein expression and post-translational processing of PTHrP. We found that TGF-β treatment led to protein degradation of PTHrP through the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway. We also provided evidence to show that Smurf2 was the E3 ligase responsible for the ubiquitination of PTHrP. Furthermore, using immunohistochemistry on human hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and a tissue array, we found that the expression of PTHrP was predominantly in the cancer cells, whereas the expression of TGF-β was present in non-neoplastic liver tissue adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism whereby TGF-β may regulate PTHrP in hepatocellular carcinogenesis and lack of TGF-β in hepatocellular carcinoma may promote cancer progression. Promotion of PTHrP degradation provides a novel target of therapeutic intervention to sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cytostatic and/or pro-apoptotic signals. PMID:26000041

  5. Design Principles Involving Protein Disorder Facilitate Specific Substrate Selection and Degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System.

    PubMed

    Guharoy, Mainak; Bhowmick, Pallab; Tompa, Peter

    2016-03-25

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) regulates diverse cellular pathways by the timely removal (or processing) of proteins. Here we review the role of structural disorder and conformational flexibility in the different aspects of degradation. First, we discuss post-translational modifications within disordered regions that regulate E3 ligase localization, conformation, and enzymatic activity, and also the role of flexible linkers in mediating ubiquitin transfer and reaction processivity. Next we review well studied substrates and discuss that substrate elements (degrons) recognized by E3 ligases are highly disordered: short linear motifs recognized by many E3s constitute an important class of degrons, and these are almost always present in disordered regions. Substrate lysines targeted for ubiquitination are also often located in neighboring regions of the E3 docking motifs and are therefore part of the disordered segment. Finally, biochemical experiments and predictions show that initiation of degradation at the 26S proteasome requires a partially unfolded region to facilitate substrate entry into the proteasomal core. PMID:26851277

  6. Protein Phosphatase Methyl-Esterase PME-1 Protects Protein Phosphatase 2A from Ubiquitin/Proteasome Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, Ryotaro; Miura, Akane; Usui, Tatsuya; Mudrak, Ingrid; Ogris, Egon; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a conserved essential enzyme that is implicated as a tumor suppressor based on its central role in phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. Protein phosphatase methyl esterase (PME-1) catalyzes specifically the demethylation of the C-terminal Leu309 residue of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). It has been shown that PME-1 affects the activity of PP2A by demethylating PP2Ac, but also by directly binding to the phosphatase active site, suggesting loss of PME-1 in cells would enhance PP2A activity. However, here we show that PME-1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit lower PP2A activity than wild type MEFs. Loss of PME-1 enhanced poly-ubiquitination of PP2Ac and shortened the half-life of PP2Ac protein resulting in reduced PP2Ac levels. Chemical inhibition of PME-1 and rescue experiments with wild type and mutated PME-1 revealed methyl-esterase activity was necessary to maintain PP2Ac protein levels. Our data demonstrate that PME-1 methyl-esterase activity protects PP2Ac from ubiquitin/proteasome degradation. PMID:26678046

  7. Activation of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway by silk fibroin modified chitosan nanoparticles in hepatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Hui; Chung, Tze-Wen; Lu, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Jong, Shiang-Bin; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Liao, Pao-Chi; Lin, Po-Chiao; Tyan, Yu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a protein with bulky hydrophobic domains and can be easily purified as sericin-free silk-based biomaterial. Silk fibroin modified chitosan nanoparticle (SF-CSNP), a biocompatible material, has been widely used as a potential drug delivery system. Our current investigation studied the bio-effects of the SF-CSNP uptake by liver cells. In this experiment, the characterizations of SF-CSNPs were measured by particle size analysis and protein assay. The average size of the SF-CSNP was 311.9 10.7 nm, and the average zeta potential was +13.33 0.3 mV. The SF coating on the SF-CSNP was 6.27 0.17 ?g/mL. Moreover, using proteomic approaches, several proteins involved in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were identified by analysis of differential protein expressions of HepG2 cell uptake the SF-CSNP. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the SF-CSNP may be involved in liver cancer cell survival and proliferation. PMID:25588218

  8. Production of Infectious Dengue Virus in Aedes aegypti Is Dependent on the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Choy, Milly M; Sessions, October M; Gubler, Duane J; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2015-11-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed up-regulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector. PMID:26566123

  9. Production of Infectious Dengue Virus in Aedes aegypti Is Dependent on the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed up-regulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector. PMID:26566123

  10. Activation of the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway by Silk Fibroin Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles in Hepatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Hui; Chung, Tze-Wen; Lu, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Jong, Shiang-Bin; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Liao, Pao-Chi; Lin, Po-Chiao; Tyan, Yu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a protein with bulky hydrophobic domains and can be easily purified as sericin-free silk-based biomaterial. Silk fibroin modified chitosan nanoparticle (SF-CSNP), a biocompatible material, has been widely used as a potential drug delivery system. Our current investigation studied the bio-effects of the SF-CSNP uptake by liver cells. In this experiment, the characterizations of SF-CSNPs were measured by particle size analysis and protein assay. The average size of the SF-CSNP was 311.9 10.7 nm, and the average zeta potential was +13.33 0.3 mV. The SF coating on the SF-CSNP was 6.27 0.17 ?g/mL. Moreover, using proteomic approaches, several proteins involved in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were identified by analysis of differential protein expressions of HepG2 cell uptake the SF-CSNP. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the SF-CSNP may be involved in liver cancer cell survival and proliferation. PMID:25588218

  11. Protein degradation by ubiquitinproteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory

    PubMed Central

    Sol Fustiana, Mara; de la Fuente, Vernica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

  12. Protein degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory.

    PubMed

    Sol Fustiana, Mara; de la Fuente, Vernica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

  13. Activation of the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway in a Mouse Model of Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rayavarapu, Sree; Coley, William; der Meulen, Jack H. Van; Cakir, Erdinc; Tappeta, Kathyayini; Kinder, Travis B.; Dillingham, Blythe C.; Brown, Kristy J.; Hathout, Yetrib; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myositis is characterized by severe muscle weakness. We and others have previously shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of myositis. The present study was undertaken to identify perturbed pathways and assess their contribution to muscle disease in a mouse myositis model. Methods Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to identify alterations in the skeletal muscle proteome of myositic mice in vivo. Differentially altered protein levels identified in the initial comparisons were validated using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry spike-in strategy and further confirmed by immunoblotting. In addition, we evaluated the effect of a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, on the disease phenotype, using well-standardized functional, histologic, and biochemical assessments. Results With the SILAC technique we identified significant alterations in levels of proteins belonging to the ER stress response, ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP), oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, cytoskeleton, and muscle contractile apparatus categories. We validated the myositis-related changes in the UPP and demonstrated a significant increase in the ubiquitination of muscle proteins as well as a specific increase in ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL-1) in myositis, but not in muscle affected by other dystrophies or normal muscle. Inhibition of the UPP with bortezomib significantly improved muscle function and also significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor ? expression in the skeletal muscle of mice with myositis. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ER stress activates downstream UPPs and contributes to muscle degeneration and that UCHL-1 is a potential biomarker for disease progression. UPP inhibition offers a potential therapeutic strategy for myositis. PMID:24022788

  14. Vitamin D deficiency-induced muscle wasting occurs through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and is partially corrected by calcium in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Mehrajuddin; Kalam, Ramesh; Qadri, Syed Syh; Madabushi, Seshacharyulu; Ismail, Ayesha

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency leads to muscle wasting in both animals and humans. A vitamin D-deficient rat model was created using Sprague Dawley male rats. We studied the involvement of the ubiquitin proteasome and other proteolytic pathways in vitamin D deficiency-induced muscle atrophy. To delineate the effect of hypocalcemia that accompanies D deficiency, a group of deficient rats was supplemented with high calcium alone. Total protein degradation in muscle was assessed by release of tyrosine; proteasomal, lysosomal, and calpain enzyme activities were studied using specific substrates by fluorometry, and E2 enzyme expression was assessed by Western blot analysis. Muscle histology was done by myosin ATPase staining method, whereas 3-methylhistidine in the urine was estimated using HPLC. Muscle gene expression was measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Total protein degradation in muscle and the level of 3-methylhistidine in urine were increased in the deficient group compared with the control group. Proteasomal enzyme activities, expression of the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and ubiquitin conjugates were increased in the deficient group compared with controls. On the other hand, lysosomal and calpain activities were not altered. Type II fiber area, a marker for muscle atrophy, was decreased in the deficient muscle compared with control muscle. Muscle atrophy marker genes and proteasomal subunit genes were up-regulated, whereas myogenic genes were down-regulated in D-deficient muscle. From the results it appears that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway is the major pathway involved in vitamin D deficiency-induced muscle protein degradation and that calcium supplementation alone in the absence of vitamin D partially corrects the changes. PMID:23928374

  15. CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2009-08-28

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

  16. Regulation of Jak2 through the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Involves Phosphorylation of Jak2 on Y1007 and Interaction with SOCS-1

    PubMed Central

    Ungureanu, Daniela; Saharinen, Pipsa; Junttila, Ilkka; Hilton, Douglas J.; Silvennoinen, Olli

    2002-01-01

    The family of cytoplasmic Janus (Jak) tyrosine kinases plays an essential role in cytokine signal transduction, regulating cell survival and gene expression. Ligand-induced receptor dimerization results in phosphorylation of Jak2 on activation loop tyrosine Y1007 and stimulation of its catalytic activity, which, in turn, results in activation of several downstream signaling cascades. Recently, the catalytic activity of Jak2 has been found to be subject to negative regulation through various mechanisms including association with SOCS proteins. Here we show that the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis pathway is involved in the regulation of the turnover of activated Jak2. In unstimulated cells Jak2 was monoubiquitinated, and interleukin-3 or gamma interferon stimulation induced polyubiquitination of Jak2. The polyubiquitinated Jak2 was rapidly degraded through proteasomes. By using different Jak2 mutants we show that tyrosine-phosphorylated Jak2 is preferentially polyubiquitinated and degraded. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Y1007 on Jak2 was required for proteasomal degradation and for SOCS-1-mediated downregulation of Jak2. The proteasome inhibitor treatment stabilized the Jak2-SOCS-1 protein complex and inhibited the proteolysis of Jak2. In summary, these results indicate that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway negatively regulates tyrosine-phosphorylated Jak2 in cytokine receptor signaling, which provides an additional mechanism to control activation of Jak2 and maintain cellular homeostasis. PMID:11971965

  17. Memory formation for trace fear conditioning requires ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Reis, David S; Jarome, Timothy J; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2013-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address this question. Here we use a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount of polyubiquibated protein. Other animals were trained with similar procedures but were infused with either a proteasome inhibitor (clasto-lactacystin ?-lactone) or a translation inhibitor (anisomycin) in the PFC immediately after training. Our results show increased UPS-mediated protein degradation in the PFC following trace but not delay fear conditioning. Additionally, post-training proteasome or translation inhibition significantly impaired trace but not delay fear memory when tested the next day. Our results further support the idea that the PFC is critical for trace but not delay fear conditioning and highlight the role of UPS-mediated degradation as critical for synaptic plasticity. PMID:24167477

  18. Nuclear ubiquitin proteasome degradation affects WRKY45 function in the rice defense program

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Akane; Inoue, Haruhiko; Goto, Shingo; Nakayama, Akira; Sugano, Shoji; Hayashi, Nagao; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptional activator WRKY45 plays a major role in the salicylic acid/benzothiadiazole-induced defense program in rice. Here, we show that the nuclear ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) plays a role in regulating the function of WRKY45. Proteasome inhibitors induced accumulation of polyubiquitinated WRKY45 and transient up-regulation of WRKY45 target genes in rice cells, suggesting that WRKY45 is constantly degraded by the UPS to suppress defense responses in the absence of defense signals. Mutational analysis of the nuclear localization signal indicated that UPS-dependent WRKY45 degradation occurs in the nuclei. Interestingly, the transcriptional activity of WRKY45 after salicylic acid treatment was impaired by proteasome inhibition. The same C-terminal region in WRKY45 was essential for both transcriptional activity and UPS-dependent degradation. These results suggest that UPS regulation also plays a role in the transcriptional activity of WRKY45. It has been reported that AtNPR1, the central regulator of the salicylic acid pathway in Arabidopsis, is regulated by the UPS. We found that OsNPR1/NH1, the rice counterpart of NPR1, was not stabilized by proteasome inhibition under uninfected conditions. We discuss the differences in post-translational regulation of salicylic acid pathway components between rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:23013464

  19. Analysis of the Protein Kinase A-Regulated Proteome of Cryptococcus neoformans Identifies a Role for the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Capsule Formation

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, J. M. H.; Caza, M.; Croll, D.; Stoynov, N.; Foster, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningitis in immunocompromised individuals. The expression of virulence factors, including capsule and melanin, is in part regulated by the cyclic-AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signal transduction pathway. In this study, we investigated the influence of PKA on the composition of the intracellular proteome to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the regulation that underpins virulence. Through quantitative proteomics, enrichment and bioinformatic analyses, and an interactome study, we uncovered a pattern of PKA regulation for proteins associated with translation, the proteasome, metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and virulence-related functions. PKA regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in C. neoformans showed a striking parallel with connections between PKA and protein degradation in chronic neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases. Further investigation of proteasome function with the inhibitor bortezomib revealed an impact on capsule production as well as hypersusceptibility for strains with altered expression or activity of PKA. Parallel studies with tunicamycin also linked endoplasmic reticulum stress with capsule production and PKA. Taken together, the data suggest a model whereby expression of PKA regulatory and catalytic subunits and the activation of PKA influence proteostasis and the function of the endoplasmic reticulum to control the elaboration of the polysaccharide capsule. Overall, this study revealed both broad and conserved influences of the cAMP/PKA pathway on the proteome and identified proteostasis as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cryptococcosis. PMID:26758180

  20. The ubiquitinproteasome pathway protects Chlamydomonas reinhardtii against selenite toxicity, but is impaired as reactive oxygen species accumulate

    PubMed Central

    Vallentine, Patrick; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Xie, Jiahua; Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitinproteasome pathway (UPP) coordinates a myriad of physiological processes in higher plants, including abiotic stress responses, but it is less well characterized in algal species. In this study, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was used to gain insights into the role of the UPP during moderate and severe selenite stress at three different time points. The data indicate that activity of the UPP in response to selenium (Se) stress was both time and dose dependent. Moderate selenite stress increased proteasome activity, protein ubiquitination and the proteasomal removal of malformed selenoproteins. However, severe Se stress caused by prolonged selenite treatment or high selenite concentration decreased proteasome activity, inhibited protein ubiquitination and prevented the proteasomal removal of selenoproteins. The UPP impairment during severe Se stress was associated with the observed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including mitochondrial superoxide. Additionally, proteasomal inhibition decreased the concentration of chlorophyll in cultures challenged with Se. Therefore, although the UPP protects Chlamydomonas against Se stress, severe oxidative stress induced by selenite toxicity likely hinders the UPP's capacity to mediate a stress response. The possibility that stress tolerance in plants is dependent upon optimal UPP activity and maintenance is discussed. PMID:25301821

  1. Hsp40 regulates the amount of keratin proteins via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Uchiumi, Asato; Katagata, Yohtaro

    2012-02-01

    Keratins represent important structural components of intermediate filament proteins. Their expression profiles are remarkably tissue-specific. Recent data have shown that keratins associate with many proteins including heat shock proteins (HSP). We recently identified cell-specific keratin and HSP expression. We aimed to gain further insight into the regulation of keratins by specific inhibition through knockdown of Hsp40 in human keratinocyte cells. Keratin-HSP interaction in HaCaT cell lysate was evaluated by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. Immunofluorescence, was used to examine the co-localization of keratins and Hsp40. Hsp40 depletion led to an increase in the levels of keratin proteins (K5, K14, K10) and a decrease in keratin ubiquitination without influencing keratin gene expression. Our results demonstrate direct or indirectly association of Hsp40 and imply that expressed keratin proteins were regulated by Hsp40 depending on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in HaCaT. Furthermore, the K10 differentiation marker was increased by knockdown of Hsp40. The results presented in this study indicate that Hsp40 is related to the differentiation exchange of keratin pairs. PMID:22075554

  2. Roles for the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Protein Quality Control and Signaling in the Retina: Implications in the Pathogenesis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Fu; Taylor, Allen

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of damaged or postsynthetically modified proteins and dysregulation of inflammatory responses and angiogenesis in the retina/RPE are thought be etiologically related to formation of drusen and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays crucial roles in protein quality control, cell cycle control and signal transduction. Selective degradation of aberrant proteins by the UPP is essential for timely removal of potentially cytotoxic damaged or otherwise abnormal proteins. Proper function of the UPP is thought to be required for cellular function. In contrast, age- or stress induced- impairment the UPP or insufficient UPP capacity may contribute to the accumulation of abnormal proteins, cytotoxicity in the retina, and AMD. Crucial roles for the UPP in eye development, regulation of signal transduction, and antioxidant responses are also established. Insufficient UPP capacity in retina and RPE can result in dysregulation of signal transduction, abnormal inflammatory responses and CNV. There are also interactions between the UPP and lysosomal proteolytic pathways (LPP). Means that modulate the proteolytic capacity are making their way into new generation of pharmacotherapies for delaying age-related diseases and may augment the benefits of adequate nutrition, with regard to diminishing the burden of AMD. PMID:22521794

  3. Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of S-RNase in a solanaceous cross-compatibility reaction.

    PubMed

    Entani, Tetsuyuki; Kubo, Ken-ichi; Isogai, Shin; Fukao, Yoichiro; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Isogai, Akira; Takayama, Seiji

    2014-06-01

    Many plants have a self-incompatibility (SI) system in which the rejection of self-pollen is determined by multiple haplotypes at a single locus, termed S. In the Solanaceae, each haplotype encodes a single ribonuclease (S-RNase) and multiple S-locus F-box proteins (SLFs), which function as the pistil and pollen SI determinants, respectively. S-RNase is cytotoxic to self-pollen, whereas SLFs are thought to collaboratively recognize non-self S-RNases in cross-pollen and detoxify them via the ubiquitination pathway. However, the actual mechanism of detoxification remains unknown. Here we isolate the components of a SCF(SLF) (SCF=SKP1-CUL1-F-box-RBX1) from Petunia pollen. The SCF(SLF) polyubiquitinates a subset of non-self S-RNases in vitro. The polyubiquitinated S-RNases are degraded in the pollen extract, which is attenuated by a proteasome inhibitor. Our findings suggest that multiple SCF(SLF) complexes in cross-pollen polyubiquitinate non-self S-RNases, resulting in their degradation by the proteasome. PMID:24689760

  4. Degradation of TDP-43 and its pathogenic form by autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoju; Fan, Huadong; Ying, Zheng; Li, Bin; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Guanghui

    2010-01-18

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein functioning in the regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing. TDP-43 is accumulated in ubiquitinated inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseased brains. However, the pathways involved in the clearance of TDP-43 and its pathogenic form (TDP-25), a truncated form of TDP-43, are still not elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the protein levels of TDP-43 and TDP-25 were increased in cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, or an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, whereas, they were decreased in cells treated with an enhancer of autophagy, trehalose. Furthermore, more protein level changes of TDP-25 than TDP-43 were observed in cells treated with above inhibitors or enhancer. Thus, our data suggest that TDP-43 and TDP-25 are degraded by both proteasome and autophagy with TDP-25 being more regulated. PMID:19944744

  5. Neuroinflammation and J2 prostaglandins: linking impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondria to neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E; Rockwell, Patricia; Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Thomas; Serrano, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The immune response of the CNS is a defense mechanism activated upon injury to initiate repair mechanisms while chronic over-activation of the CNS immune system (termed neuroinflammation) may exacerbate injury. The latter is implicated in a variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, HIV dementia, and prion diseases. Cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), which are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into bioactive prostanoids, play a central role in the inflammatory cascade. J2 prostaglandins are endogenous toxic products of cyclooxygenases, and because their levels are significantly increased upon brain injury, they are actively involved in neuronal dysfunction induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which J2 prostaglandins (1) exert their actions, (2) potentially contribute to the transition from acute to chronic inflammation and to the spreading of neuropathology, (3) disturb the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondrial function, and (4) contribute to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and demyelination in Krabbe disease. We conclude by discussing the therapeutic potential of targeting the J2 prostaglandin pathway to prevent/delay neurodegeneration associated with neuroinflammation. In this context, we suggest a shift from the traditional view that cyclooxygenases are the most appropriate targets to treat neuroinflammation, to the notion that J2 prostaglandin pathways and other neurotoxic prostaglandins downstream from cyclooxygenases, would offer significant benefits as more effective therapeutic targets to treat chronic neurodegenerative diseases, while minimizing adverse side effects. PMID:25628533

  6. Neuroinflammation and J2 prostaglandins: linking impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondria to neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.; Rockwell, Patricia; Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Thomas; Serrano, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The immune response of the CNS is a defense mechanism activated upon injury to initiate repair mechanisms while chronic over-activation of the CNS immune system (termed neuroinflammation) may exacerbate injury. The latter is implicated in a variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, HIV dementia, and prion diseases. Cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), which are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into bioactive prostanoids, play a central role in the inflammatory cascade. J2 prostaglandins are endogenous toxic products of cyclooxygenases, and because their levels are significantly increased upon brain injury, they are actively involved in neuronal dysfunction induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which J2 prostaglandins (1) exert their actions, (2) potentially contribute to the transition from acute to chronic inflammation and to the spreading of neuropathology, (3) disturb the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondrial function, and (4) contribute to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and demyelination in Krabbe disease. We conclude by discussing the therapeutic potential of targeting the J2 prostaglandin pathway to prevent/delay neurodegeneration associated with neuroinflammation. In this context, we suggest a shift from the traditional view that cyclooxygenases are the most appropriate targets to treat neuroinflammation, to the notion that J2 prostaglandin pathways and other neurotoxic prostaglandins downstream from cyclooxygenases, would offer significant benefits as more effective therapeutic targets to treat chronic neurodegenerative diseases, while minimizing adverse side effects. PMID:25628533

  7. Skp2 inhibits osteogenesis by promoting ubiquitin-proteasome degradation of Runx2.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Gatha; Kumar, Yogesh; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Shukla, Nidhi; Kapoor, Isha; Kanaujiya, Jitendra Kumar; Lochab, Savita; Ahmed, Shakil; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 is essential for osteoblast differentiation. The activity of Runx2 is tightly regulated at transcriptional as well as post-translational level. However, regulation of Runx2 stability by ubiquitin mediated proteasomal degradation by E3 ubiquitin ligases is little-known. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that Skp2, an SCF family E3 ubiquitin ligase negatively targets Runx2 by promoting its polyubiquitination and proteasome dependent degradation. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Skp2 physically interacts with Runx2 both in a heterologous as well as physiologically relevant system. Functional consequences of Runx2-Skp2 physical interaction were then assessed by promoter reporter assay. We show that Skp2-mediated downregulation of Runx2 led to reduced Runx2 transactivation and osteoblast differentiation. On the contrary, inhibition of Skp2 restored Runx2 levels and promoted osteoblast differentiation. We further show that Skp2 and Runx2 proteins are co-expressed and show inverse relation in vivo such as in lactating, ovariectomized and estrogen-treated ovariectomized animals. Together, these data demonstrate that Skp2 targets Runx2 for ubiquitin mediated degradation and hence negatively regulate osteogenesis. Therefore, the present study provides a plausible therapeutic target for osteoporosis or cleidocranial dysplasia caused by the heterozygous mutation of Runx2 gene. PMID:26778333

  8. Intracellular Protein Degradation: From a Vague Idea through the Lysosome and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and onto Human Diseases and Drug Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Ciechanover, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Between the 1950s and 1980s, scientists were focusing mostly on how the genetic code was transcribed to RNA and translated to proteins, but how proteins were degraded had remained a neglected research area. With the discovery of the lysosome by Christian de Duve it was assumed that cellular proteins are degraded within this organelle. Yet, several independent lines of experimental evidence strongly suggested that intracellular proteolysis was largely non-lysosomal, but the mechanisms involved have remained obscure. The discovery of the ubiquitin-proteasome system resolved the enigma. We now recognize that degradation of intracellular proteins is involved in regulation of a broad array of cellular processes, such as cell cycle and division, regulation of transcription factors, and assurance of the cellular quality control. Not surprisingly, aberrations in the system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease, such as malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders, which led subsequently to an increasing effort to develop mechanism-based drugs. PMID:23908826

  9. Functional Annotation of Small Noncoding RNAs Target Genes Provides Evidence for a Deregulated Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Persengiev, Stephan; Kondova, Ivanela; Bontrop, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of CAG repeats in the ataxin 1 (ATXN1) gene. In affected cerebellar neurons of patients, mutant ATXN1 accumulates in ubiquitin-positive nuclear inclusions, indicating that protein misfolding is involved in SCA1 pathogenesis. In this study, we functionally annotated the target genes of the small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that were selectively activated in the affected brain compartments. The primary targets of these RNAs, which exhibited a significant enrichment in the cerebellum and cortex of SCA1 patients, were members of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Thus, we identified and functionally annotated a plausible regulatory pathway that may serve as a potential target to modulate the outcome of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23094141

  10. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design. PMID:26909134

  11. The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates plant hormone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Santner, Aaron; Estelle, Mark

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Plants utilize the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to modulate nearly every aspect of growth and development. Ubiquitin is covalently attached to target proteins through the action of three enzymes known as E1, E2, and E3. The ultimate outcome of this post-translational modification depends on the nature of the ubiquitin linkage and the extent of polyubiquitination. In most cases, ubiquitination results in degradation of the target protein in the 26S proteasome. During the last 10 years it has become clear that the UPS plays a prominent regulatory role in hormone biology. E3 ubiquitin ligases in particular actively participate in hormone perception, de-repression of hormone signaling pathways, degradation of hormone specific transcription factors, and regulation of hormone biosynthesis. It is certain that additional functions will be discovered as more of the nearly 1200 potential E3s in plants are elucidated. PMID:20409276

  12. Stuck between a ROS and a hard place: Analysis of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in selenocysteine treated Brassica napus reveals different toxicities during selenium assimilation.

    PubMed

    Dimkovikj, Aleksandar; Fisher, Brian; Hutchison, Kim; Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2015-06-01

    During the selenium assimilation pathway, inorganic selenate and selenite are reduced to form selenocysteine (Sec). Tolerance to selenium in plants has long been attributable to minimizing the replacement of cysteine with selenocysteine, which can result in nonspecific selenoproteins that are potentially misfolded. Despite this widely accepted assumption, there is no evidence in higher plants demonstrating that selenocysteine induces toxicity by resulting in malformed proteins. In this study, we use Brassica napus to analyze the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which is capable of removing misfolded proteins. Sec rapidly increased proteasome activity and levels of ubiquitinated proteins, strongly indicating that selenocysteine induces protein misfolding. Proteasome inhibition increased the amount of selenium in protein in Sec-treated plants. Collectively, these data provide a mechanism that accounts for Sec toxicity. Additionally, Sec did not cause oxidative stress as judged by examining levels of superoxide using fluorescent microscopy. Therefore, the cellular response to Sec is different compared to selenite, which was recently shown to increase antioxidant metabolism in response to elevated mitochondrial superoxide that ultimately impaired proteasome activity. Therefore, plants must contend with two divergent modes of cytotoxicity during selenium assimilation. Selenite can result in oxidative stress, but increased flux of selenite reduction can yield Sec that in turn can cause protein misfolding. PMID:25974369

  13. Intracellular Dynamics of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome-System

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Maisha; Enenkel, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major degradation pathway for short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells. Targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome-system are proteins regulating a broad range of cellular processes including cell cycle progression, gene expression, the quality control of proteostasis and the response to geno- and proteotoxic stress. Prior to degradation, the proteasomal substrate is marked with a poly-ubiquitin chain. The key protease of the ubiquitin system is the proteasome. In dividing cells, proteasomes exist as holo-enzymes composed of regulatory and core particles. The regulatory complex confers ubiquitin-recognition and ATP dependence on proteasomal protein degradation. The catalytic sites are located in the proteasome core particle. Proteasome holo-enzymes are predominantly nuclear suggesting a major requirement for proteasomal proteolysis in the nucleus. In cell cycle arrested mammalian or quiescent yeast cells, proteasomes deplete from the nucleus and accumulate in granules at the nuclear envelope (NE) / endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. In prolonged quiescence, proteasome granules drop off the NE / ER membranes and migrate as stable organelles throughout the cytoplasm, as thoroughly investigated in yeast. When quiescence yeast cells are allowed to resume growth, proteasome granules clear and proteasomes are rapidly imported into the nucleus. Here, we summarize our knowledge about the enigmatic structure of proteasome storage granules and the trafficking of proteasomes and their substrates between the cyto- and nucleoplasm. Most of our current knowledge is based on studies in yeast. Their translation to mammalian cells promises to provide keen insight into protein degradation in non-dividing cells which comprise the majority of our body’s cells. PMID:26339477

  14. The degradation of kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein of D. salina (DsKCBP) is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ke; Li, Jie; Han, Kang; Jiang, Haili; Xue, Lexun

    2013-04-01

    Kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein (KCBP) is a member of kinesin-14 subfamily with unconventional domains distinct from other kinesins. This unique kinesin has the myosin tail homology 4 domain (MyTH4) and band4.1, ezrin, radixin and moesin domain (FERM) at the N-terminal which interact with several cytoskeleton proteins. Although KCBP is implicated in several microtubule-related cellular processes, studies on the KCBP of Dunaliella salina (DsKCBP) have not been reported. In this study, the roles of DsKCBP in flagella and cytoskeleton were investigated and the results showed that DsKCBP was present in flagella and upregulated during flagellar assembly indicting that it may be a flagellar kinesin and plays a role in flagellar assembly. A MyTH4-FERM domain of the DsKCBP was identified as a microtubule and actin interacting site. The interaction of DsKCBP with both microtubules and actin microfilaments suggests that this kinesin may be employed to coordinate these two cytoskeleton elements in algal cells. To gain more insights into the cellular function of the kinesin, DsKCBP-interacting proteins were examined using yeast two-hybrid screen. A 26S proteasome subunit Rpn8 was identified as a novel interacting partner of DsKCBP and the MyTH4-FERM domain was necessary for the interaction of DsKCBP with Rpn8. Furthermore, the DsKCBP was polyubiquitinated and up-regulated by proteasome inhibitor and degraded by ubiquitin-proteasome system indicating that proteasome is related to kinesin degradation. PMID:23271117

  15. Activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of cachectic rats bearing a hepatoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracos, V. E.; DeVivo, C.; Hoyle, D. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Rats implanted with Yoshida ascites hepatoma (YAH) show a rapid and selective loss of muscle protein due mainly to a marked increase (63-95%) in the rate of protein degradation (compared with rates in muscles of pair-fed controls). To define which proteolytic pathways contribute to this increase, epitrochlearis muscles from YAH-bearing and control rats were incubated under conditions that modify different proteolytic systems. Overall proteolysis in either group of rats was not affected by removal of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Inhibition of lysosomal function with methylamine reduced proteolysis (-12%) in muscles from YAH-bearing rats, but not in muscles of pair-fed rats. When ATP production was also inhibited, the remaining accelerated proteolysis in muscles of tumor-bearing rats fell to control levels. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and a 27-kDa proteasome subunit in Western blot analysis. Levels of mRNA encoding components of proteolytic systems were quantitated using Northern hybridization analysis. Although their total RNA content decreased 20-38%, pale muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin mRNA (590-880%) and mRNA for multiple subunits of the proteasome (100-215%). Liver, kidney, heart, and brain showed no weight loss and no change in these mRNA species. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats also showed small increases (30-40%) in mRNA for cathepsins B and D, but not for calpain I or heat shock protein 70. Our findings suggest that accelerated muscle proteolysis and muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats result primarily from activation of the ATP-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and the proteasome.

  16. The Stability of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor WBSCR22 Is Regulated by Interaction with TRMT112 via Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    unap, Kadri; Leetsi, Lilian; Matsoo, Maarja; Kurg, Reet

    2015-01-01

    The human WBSCR22 protein is a 18S rRNA methyltransferase involved in pre-rRNA processing and ribosome 40S subunit biogenesis. Recent studies have shown that the protein function in ribosome synthesis is independent of its enzymatic activity. In this work, we have studied the WBSCR22 protein interaction partners by SILAC-coupled co-immunoprecipitation assay and identified TRMT112 as the interaction partner of WBSCR22. Knock-down of TRMT112 expression decreased the WBSCR22 protein level in mammalian cells, suggesting that the stability of WBSCR22 is regulated through the interaction with TRMT112. The localization of the TRMT112 protein is determined by WBSCR22, and the WBSCR22-TRMT112 complex is localized in the cell nucleus. We provide evidence that the interaction between WBSCR22/Bud23 and TRMT112/Trm112 is conserved between mammals and yeast, suggesting that the function of TRMT112 as a co-activator of methyltransferases is evolutionarily conserved. Finally, we show that the transiently expressed WBSCR22 protein is ubiquitinated and degraded through the proteasome pathway, revealing the tight control of the WBSCR22 protein level in the cells. PMID:26214185

  17. Differential ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy signaling following rotator cuff tears and suprascapular nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunil K; Kim, Hubert T; Feeley, Brian T; Liu, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated role of Akt/mTOR signaling in rotator cuff muscle atrophy and determined that there was differential in signaling following tendon transection (TT) and suprascapular nerve (SSN) denervation (DN), suggesting that atrophy following TT and DN was modulated by different protein degradation pathways. In this study, two muscle proteolytic systems that have been shown to be potent regulators of muscle atrophy in other injury models, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy, were evaluated following TT and DN. In addition to examining protein degradation, this study assessed protein synthesis rate following these two surgical models to understand how the balance between protein degradation and synthesis results in atrophy following rotator cuff injury. In contrast to the traditional theory that protein synthesis is decreased during muscle atrophy, this study suggests that protein synthesis is up-regulated in rotator cuff muscle atrophy following both surgical models. While the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was a major contributor to the atrophy seen following DN, autophagy was a major contributor following TT. The findings of this study suggest that protein degradation is the primary factor contributing to atrophy following rotator cuff injury. However, different proteolytic pathways are activated if SSN injury is involved. PMID:24018537

  18. Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and some peptidases during seed germination and copper stress in bean cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Karmous, Ins; Chaoui, Abdelilah; Jaouani, Khadija; Sheehan, David; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Scoccianti, Valeria; Crinelli, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The role of the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway and some endo- and aminopeptidases (EPs and APs, respectively) was studied in cotyledons of germinating bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Ub system appeared to be important both in the early (3 days) and late (9 days) phases of germination. In the presence of copper, an increase in protein carbonylation and a decrease in reduced -SH pool occurred, indicating protein damage. This was associated with an enhancement in accumulation of malondialdehyde, a major product of lipid peroxidation, and an increase in content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), showing oxidative stress generation. Moreover, copper induced inactivation of the Ub-proteasome (EC 3.4.25) pathway and inhibition of leucine and proline aminopeptidase activities (EC 3.4.11.1 and EC 3.4.11.5, respectively), thus limiting their role in modulating essential metabolic processes, such as the removal of regulatory and oxidatively-damaged proteins. By contrast, total trypsin and chymotrypsin-like activities (EC 3.4.21.4 and EC 3.4.21.1, respectively) increased after copper exposure, in parallel with a decrease in their inhibitor capacities (i.e. trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity), suggesting that these endoproteases are part of the protective mechanisms against copper stress. PMID:24486582

  19. An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. regulates gene expression of ubiquitin-proteasome system enzymes in skeletal muscle: Potential role in the treatment of sarcopenic obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Kilroy, Gail; Day, Britton C.; Wang, Zhong Q.; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.; Floyd, Z. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is linked to insulin resistance, a primary component of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The problem of obesity-related insulin resistance is compounded when age-related skeletal muscle loss, called sarcopenia, occurs with obesity. Skeletal muscle loss results from elevated levels of protein degradation and prevention of obesity-related sarcopenic muscle loss will depend on strategies that target pathways involved in protein degradation. An extract from Artemisia dracunculus, termed PMI5011 improves insulin signaling and increases skeletal muscle myofiber size in a rodent model of obesity-related insulin resistance. This study examines the effect of PMI5011 on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, a central regulator of muscle protein degradation. Materials and Methods Gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis skeletal muscle was obtained from KK-Ay obese diabetic mice fed a control or 1% (w/w) PMI5011-supplemented diet. Regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system was determined using realtime qRT-PCR. Results While MuRF-1 ubiquitin ligase gene expression is consistently down-regulated in skeletal muscle, atrogin-1, Fbxo40 and Traf6 expression is differentially regulated by PMI5011. Genes encoding other enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system ranging from ubiquitin to ubiquitin-specific proteases are also regulated by PMI5011. In addition, expression of the gene encoding the microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3), a ubiquitin-like protein pivotal to autophagy-mediated protein degradation, is down-regulated by PMI5011 in the vastus lateralis. Conclusion PMI5011 alters the gene expression of ubiquitin-proteasome system enzymes that are essential regulators of skeletal muscle mass. This suggests PMI5011 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of obesity-linked sarcopenia by regulating ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation. PMID:24985101

  20. Physalin B not only inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway but also induces incomplete autophagic response in human colon cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-ming; Han, Wei; Li, Jia; Hu, Li-hong; Zhou, Yu-bo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of physalin B insolated from Physalis divericata on human colon cancer cells in vitro and its anticancer mechanisms. Methods: Human HCT116 colon cancer cell line was tested. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected, and relevant proteins were measured using Western blot analyses. Autophagosomes were observed in stable GFP-LC3 HCT116 cells. Localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes was evaluated in GFP-LC3/RFP-LAMP1-co-transfected cells. Microtubules and F-actin microfilaments were observed with confocal microscope. Mitochondrial ROS (mito-ROS) was detected with flow cytometry in the cells stained with MitoSox dye. Results: Physalin B inhibited the viability of HCT116 cells with an IC50 value of 1.35 μmol/L. Treatment of the cells with physalin B (2.5–10 μmol/L) induced apoptosis and the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3. Meanwhile, physalin B treatment induced autophagosome formation, and accumulation of LC3-II and p62, but decreased Beclin 1 protein level. Marked changes of microtubules and F-actin microfilaments were observed in physalin B-treated cells, which led to the blockage of co-localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Physalin B treatment dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK in the cells, whereas the p38 inhibitor SB202190, ERK inhibitor U0126 or JNK inhibitor SP600125 could partially reduce physalin B-induced PARP cleavage and p62 accumulation. Moreover, physalin B treatment dose-dependently increased mito-ROS production in the cells, whereas the ROS scavenger NAC could reverse physalin B-induced effects, including incomplete autophagic response, accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, changes of microtubules and F-actin, activation of p38, ERK and JNK, as well as cell death and apoptosis. Conclusion: Physalin B induces mito-ROS, which not only inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway but also induces incomplete autophagic response in HCT116 cells in vitro. PMID:25832431

  1. Impairment of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway by Methyl N-(6-Phenylsulfanyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate Leads to a Potent Cytotoxic Effect in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Nilambra; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in proteasome inhibitors as a novel class of anticancer drugs. We report that fenbendazole (FZ) (methyl N-(6-phenylsulfanyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate) exhibits a potent growth-inhibitory activity against cancer cell lines but not normal cells. We show here, using fluorogenic substrates, that FZ treatment leads to the inhibition of proteasomal activity in the cells. Succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-methylcoumarinamide (MCA), benzyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Leu-Glu-7-amido-4-MCA, and t-butoxycarbonyl-Gln-Ala-Arg-7-amido-4-MCA fluorescent derivatives were used to assess chymotrypsin-like, post-glutamyl peptidyl-hydrolyzing, and trypsin-like protease activities, respectively. Non-small cell lung cancer cells transiently transfected with an expression plasmid encoding pd1EGFP and treated with FZ showed an accumulation of the green fluorescent protein in the cells due to an increase in its half-life. A number of apoptosis regulatory proteins that are normally degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway like cyclins, p53, and I?B? were found to be accumulated in FZ-treated cells. In addition, FZ induced distinct ER stress-associated genes like GRP78, GADD153, ATF3, IRE1?, and NOXA in these cells. Thus, treatment of human NSCLC cells with fenbendazole induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, reactive oxygen species production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release that eventually led to cancer cell death. This is the first report to demonstrate the inhibition of proteasome function and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress/reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cell lines by fenbendazole, which may represent a new class of anticancer agents showing selective toxicity against cancer cells. PMID:22745125

  2. Maintenance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system activity correlates with visible skin benefits.

    PubMed

    Imbert, I; Gondran, C; Oberto, G; Cucumel, K; Dal Farra, C; Domloge, N

    2010-12-01

    Researches on longevity and anti-ageing molecules have clearly evidenced the potential to increase lifespan of the cells. These recent scientific data raise interests and questions on the capacity of the cells to live longer and maintain their fundamental mechanisms of protection, reparation or degradation of abnormal proteins to maintain their capital of healthy and functional cellular activity. In this concern, this study was focused on the ubiquitin-proteasome system as an essential cellular tool to maintain the pool of functionally active proteins allowing renewal of proteins and degradation of damaged proteins. As the proteasome keeps the 'cells health capital', it should be particularly interesting to associate the maintenance of the proteasome activity with increasing longevity. Indeed, although oxidative stress damage increases with ageing leading to collagen and cellular membrane alterations, it also leads to a reduction in the proteasome activity which is critical for the cells. The aim of this study was to better understand the cellular role of the proteasome and to provide new data showing the skin beneficial effects in activating the overall system of ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. For this purpose, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of maintaining the ubiquitin-proteasome activity in basal and stress conditions on young versus aged cells. Experiments have included evaluation of a newly developed dimerized tripeptide targeting specifically the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our results have demonstrated that maintenance of this essential mechanism that participates in abnormal protein elimination and protein renewal allows maintaining cellular integrity that correlates with visible skin benefits. PMID:20572889

  3. Targeting the ubiquitinproteasome system for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Min; Schmitt, Sara; Buac, Daniela; Dou, Q Ping

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS) degrades 80 90% of intracellular proteins. Cancer cells take advantage of the UPS for their increased growth and decreased apoptotic cell death. Thus, the components that make up the UPS represent a diverse group of potential anti-cancer targets. The success of the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib not only proved that the proteasome is a feasible and valuable anti-cancer target, but also inspired researchers to extensively explore other potential targets of this pathway. Areas covered This review provides a broad overview of the UPS and its role in supporting cancer development and progression, especially in aspects of p53 inactivation, p27 turnover and NF-?B activation. Also, efforts toward the development of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) targeting different steps in this pathway for cancer treatment are reviewed and discussed. Expert opinion Whereas some of the targets in the UPS, such as the 20S pro-teasome, Nedd8 activating enzyme and HDM2, have been well-established and validated, there remains a large pool of candidates waiting to be investigated. Development of SMIs targeting the UPS has been largely facilitated by state-of-the-art technologies such as high-throughput screening and computer-assisted drug design, both of which require a better understanding of the targets of interest. PMID:23822887

  4. Ubiquitin-proteasome system and mitochondria - reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; Glickman, Michael H

    2011-02-01

    Recently, sporadic links have been published between mitochondria - membrane-confined organelles - and the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for removal of cellular proteins. For example, Fzo1, a mitochondrial outer membrane mitofusin was shown to be ubiquitinated by a ubiquitin ligase, Cdc53(MDM30), and degraded by the proteasome. Two additional ubiquitin ligases, MITOL/MARCH-V and MULAN, as well as a deubiquitinating enzyme, Ubp16/USP30, are embedded in mitochondrial outer membranes and participate in mitochondrial dynamics. Defects in mitochondrial morphology or respiration capacity are also reported for mutations in other UPS components such as the Ub ligases Parkin and Rsp5 as well as in proteasome subunits. These examples are likely to reflect a pervasive involvement of UPS in recycling of mitochondria-associated proteins. The flux of imported proteins and the proximity to oxidative phosphorylation results in abundant damaged or misfolded proteins that generate the need for a responsive quality control system. Within the mitochondrial matrix there is a self-contained ATP-dependent system for protein turnover. However at the outer membrane, the UPS may play a corresponding role in recycling either membrane-embedded or imported proteins. In a parallel process, ubiquitination also partakes in selection of damaged mitochondria to the lysozome/vacuole via autophagy. In the reverse direction, components of the UPS are sensitive to cellular REDOX potential, and as such are affected by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration. This review will try to address the regulation of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function by UPS, as well as the reciprocal relationship between aberrant ROS produced by mitochondria and ubiquitination or proteasome activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The 26S Proteasome: When degradation is just not enough! PMID:20674813

  5. The role of allostery in the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Nussinov, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System is involved in many cellular processes including protein degradation. Degradation of a protein via this system involves two successive steps: ubiquitination and degradation. Ubiquitination tags the target protein with ubiquitin-like proteins, such as ubiquitin, SUMO and NEDD8, via a cascade involving three enzymes: activating enzyme E1, conjugating enzyme E2, and E3 ubiquitin ligases. The proteasomes recognize the ubiquitin-like protein tagged substrate proteins and degrade them. Accumulating evidence indicates that allostery is a central player in the regulation of ubiquitination, as well as deubiquitination and degradation. Here, we provide an overview of the key mechanistic roles played by allostery in all steps of these processes, and highlight allosteric drugs targeting them. Throughout the review, we emphasize the crucial mechanistic role played by linkers in allosterically controlling the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System action by biasing the sampling of the conformational space, which facilitate the catalytic reactions of the ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we propose that allostery may similarly play key roles in the regulation of molecular machines in the cell, and as such allosteric drugs can be expected to be increasingly exploited in therapeutic regimes. PMID:23234564

  6. Roles and potential therapeutic targets of the ubiquitin proteasome system in muscle wasting

    PubMed Central

    Nury, David; Doucet, Christine; Coux, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Muscle wasting, characterized by the loss of protein mass in myofibers, is in most cases largely due to the activation of intracellular protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). During the last decade, mechanisms contributing to this activation have been unraveled and key mediators of this process identified. Even though much remains to be understood, the available information already suggests screens for new compounds inhibiting these mechanisms and highlights the potential for pharmaceutical drugs able to treat muscle wasting when it becomes deleterious. This review presents an overview of the main pathways contributing to UPS activation in muscle and describes the present state of efforts made to develop new strategies aimed at blocking or slowing muscle wasting. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; ). PMID:18047744

  7. Plant Signaling: Ubiquitin Pulls the Trigger on Chloroplast Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qihua; Jarvis, Paul

    2016-01-11

    Diverse proteolytic pathways regulate chloroplasts. Recent work has revealed significant new roles for chloroplast ubiquitination in stress adaptation, involving targeted protein removal through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, or selective, whole-chloroplast degradation. PMID:26766233

  8. MURF2B, a Novel LC3-Binding Protein, Participates with MURF2A in the Switch between Autophagy and Ubiquitin Proteasome System during Differentiation of C2C12 Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pizon, Véronique; Rybina, Sofia; Gerbal, Fabien; Delort, Florence; Vicart, Patrick; Baldacci, Giuseppe; Karsenti, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system and macroautophagy are proteolytic pathways essential in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis during differentiation and remodelling of skeletal muscle. In both pathways, proteins to be degraded are tagged with polyubiquitin. In skeletal muscles, the MURF2 proteins display E3 ubiquitin ligase structure suggesting that they may covalently attach ubiquitin polypeptides to still unknown target proteins. So far only MURF2A isoforms were studied and shown to interact with p62/SQSTM1, a protein implicated in macroautophagic and ubiquitin proteasome system degradations. Here, we analyzed the MURF2B and MURF2A proteins and show that the ratio of the isoforms changes during differentiation of muscle C2C12 cells and that the shift of the isoforms expression follows the sequential activation of autophagic or proteasomal degradation. We also show that MURF2B has a functional domain needed for its interaction with LC3, a protein needed for autophagic vesicles formation. Using specific MURF2 RNAi cells we observed that MURF2A and MURF2B are both needed for the formation of autophagosomes and that in the absence of MURF2B, the cells expressing MURF2A display an activated ubiquitin proteasome system implicated in the degradation of p62/SQSTM1 by UPS. Altogether, our results indicate that MURF2A and MURF2B proteins could participate in the molecular switch between the two ubiquitin degradative pathways. PMID:24124537

  9. The Impact of Paeoniflorin on α-Synuclein Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is the major active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix. It plays a neuroprotective role by regulating autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. In this study, we found PF significantly reduced cell damage caused by MPP+, returning cells to normal state. Cell viability significantly improved after 24 h exposure to RAPA and PF in the MPP+ group (all P < 0.01). CAT and SOD activities were significantly decreased after PF and RAPA treatment, compared with MPP+ (P < 0.001). In addition, MPP+ activated both LC3-II and E1; RAPA increased LC3-II but inhibited E1. PF significantly upregulated both LC3-II (autophagy) and E1 (ubiquitin-proteasome pathway) expression (P < 0.001), promoted degradation of α-synuclein, and reduced cell damage. We show MPP+ enhanced immunofluorescence signal of intracellular α-synuclein and LC3. Fluorescence intensity of α-synuclein decreased after PF treatment. In conclusion, these data show PF reversed the decline of proteasome activity caused by MPP+ and significantly upregulated both autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, promoted the degradation of α-synuclein, and reduced cell damage. These findings suggest PF is a potential therapeutic medicine for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26693241

  10. Proinflammatory cytokines downregulate connexin 43-gap junctions via the ubiquitin-proteasome system in rat spinal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Morioka, Norimitsu; Kitamura, Tomoya; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytic gap junctions formed by connexin 43 (Cx43) are crucial for intercellular communication between spinal cord astrocytes. Various neurological disorders are associated with dysfunctional Cx43-gap junctions. However, the mechanism modulating Cx43-gap junctions in spinal astrocytes under pathological conditions is not entirely clear. A previous study showed that treatment of spinal astrocytes in culture with pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interferon-? (IFN-?) decreased both Cx43 expression and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) via a c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent pathway. The current study further elaborates the intracellular mechanism that decreases Cx43 under an inflammatory condition. Cycloheximide chase analysis revealed that TNF-? (10ng/ml) alone or in combination with IFN-? (5ng/ml) accelerated the degradation of Cx43 protein in cultured spinal astrocytes. The reduction of both Cx43 expression and GJIC induced by a mixture of TNF-? and IFN-? were blocked by pretreatment with proteasome inhibitors MG132 (0.5?M) and epoxomicin (25nM), a mixture of TNF-? and IFN-? significantly increased proteasome activity and Cx43 ubiquitination. In addition, TNF-? and IFN-?-induced activation of ubiquitin-proteasome systems was prevented by SP600125, a JNK inhibitor. Together, these results indicate that a JNK-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system is induced under an inflammatory condition that disrupts astrocytic gap junction expression and function, leading to astrocytic dysfunction and the maintenance of the neuroinflammatory state. PMID:26212436

  11. Targeting the ubiquitin proteasome system in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lisa J; Irvine, Alexandra E

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in cellular protein homeostasis through the targeted destruction of damaged/misfolded proteins and regulatory proteins that control critical cellular functions. The UPS comprises a sequential series of enzymatic activities to covalently attach ubiquitin to proteins to target them for degradation through the proteasome. Aberrancies within this system have been associated with transformation and tumourigenesis and thus, the UPS represents an attractive target for the development of anti-cancer therapies. The use of the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, in the treatment of Plasma Cell Myeloma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma has validated the UPS as a therapeutic target. Following on its success, efforts are focused on the development of second-generation proteasome inhibitors and small molecule inhibitors of other components of the UPS. This review will provide an overview of the UPS and discuss current and novel therapies targeting the UPS. PMID:24183816

  12. Regulation of Akt-mTOR, ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways in response to formoterol administration in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Joassard, Olivier Roger; Amirouche, Adel; Gallot, Yann Simon; Desgeorges, Marine Maud; Castells, Josiane; Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Berthon, Phanélie; Freyssenet, Damien Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Administration of β2-agonists triggers skeletal muscle anabolism and hypertrophy. We investigated the time course of the molecular events responsible for rat skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to 1, 3 and 10 days of formoterol administration (i.p. 2000μg/kg/day). A marked hypertrophy of rat tibialis anterior muscle culminated at day 10. Phosphorylation of Akt, ribosomal protein S6, 4E-BP1 and ERK1/2 was increased at day 3, but returned to control level at day 10. This could lead to a transient increase in protein translation and could explain previous studies that reported increase in protein synthesis following β2-agonist administration. Formoterol administration was also associated with a significant reduction in MAFbx/atrogin-1 mRNA level (day 3), suggesting that formoterol can also affect protein degradation of MAFbx/atrogin1 targeted substrates, including MyoD and eukaryotic initiation factor-3f (eIF3-f). Surprisingly, mRNA level of autophagy-related genes, light chain 3 beta (LC3b) and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 1 (Gabarapl1), as well as lysosomal hydrolases, cathepsin B and cathepsin L, was significantly and transiently increased after 1 and/or 3 days, suggesting that autophagosome formation would be increased in response to formoterol administration. However, this has to be relativized since the mRNA level of Unc-51-like kinase1 (Ulk1), BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein3 (Bnip3), and transcription factor EB (TFEB), as well as the protein content of Ulk1, Atg13, Atg5-Atg12 complex and p62/Sqstm1 remained unchanged or was even decreased in response to formoterol administration. These results demonstrate that the effects of formoterol are mediated, in part, through the activation of Akt-mTOR pathway and that other signaling pathways become more important in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass with chronic administration of β2-agonists. PMID:23916784

  13. Melatonin, bone regulation and the ubiquitin-proteasome connection: A review.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Jerry; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-01-15

    Recently, investigators have shown that ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation is critical in regulating the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. The major signal transduction pathways regulating bone formation are the RANK/NF-κB pathway and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These signal transduction pathways regulate the activity of mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is one of the major signaling pathways in the differentiation of osteoblasts. The ubiquitin ligases that are reported to be of major significance in regulating these pathways are the ubiquitin SCF(B-TrCP) ligase (which regulates activation of NF-κB via degradation of IkBα in osteoclasts, and regulates bone transcription factors via degradation of β-catenin), the Keap-Cul3-Rbx1 ligase (which regulates degradation of IkB kinase, Nrf2, and the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2), and Smurf1. Also of significance in regulating osteoclastogenesis is the deubiquitinase, CYLD (cylindramatosis protein), which facilitates the separation of NF-κB from IkBα. The degradation of CYLD is also under the regulation of SCF(B-TrCP). Proteasome inhibitors influence the activity of mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts, but also modulate the differentiation of precursor cells into osteoblasts. Preclinical studies show that melatonin also influences bone metabolism by stimulating bone growth and inhibiting osteoclast activity. These actions of melatonin could be interpreted as being mediated by the ubiquitin ligases SCF(B-TrCP) and Keap-Cul3-Rbx, or as an inhibitory effect on proteasomes. Clinical trials of the use of melatonin in the treatment of bone disease, including multiple myeloma, using both continuous and intermittent modes of administration, are warranted. PMID:26706287

  14. Inhibition of Proteasome Activity Strongly Affects Kiwifruit Pollen Germination. Involvement of the Ubiquitin/Proteasome Pathway as a Major Regulator1

    PubMed Central

    Speranza, Anna; Scoccianti, Valeria; Crinelli, Rita; Calzoni, Gian Lorenzo; Magnani, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic complex that acts as primary protease of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway in eukaryotes. We provide here the first evidence that the proteasome plays a key role in regulating pollen tube growth. Immunoblotting experiments revealed the presence of high levels of free ubiquitin and ubiquitin conjugates in rehydrated and germinating pollen of kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa (A. Chev) C. F. Liang et A. R. Ferguson]. Proteasome activity, assayed fluorometrically, accompanied the progression of germination. Specific inhibitors of proteasome function such as benzyloxycarbonyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal (MG-132), clasto-lactacystin ?-lactone, and epoxomicin significantly decreased tube growth or altered tube morphology. High-molecular mass, ubiquitinated proteins accumulated in MG-132- and ?-lactone-treated pollen, indicating that proteasome function was effectively impaired. The inhibitors were also able to decrease in vitro proteasome activity in pollen extracts. Because MG-132 can inhibit calpains, as well as the proteasome, trans-epoxy succinyl-l-leucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E-64), an inhibitor of cysteine proteases, was investigated. Some reduction in tube growth rate was observed, but only at 80 ?m E-64, and no abnormal tubes were produced. Furthermore, no inhibition of tube growth was observed when another inhibitor of cysteine proteases, leupeptin, or inhibitors of serine and aspartic proteases (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and pepstatin) were used. Our results indicate that protein turnover during tube organization and elongation in kiwifruit pollen is important, and our results also implicate the ubiquitin/26S proteasome as the major proteolytic pathway involved. PMID:11457965

  15. I-kappaBalpha depletion by transglutaminase 2 and mu-calpain occurs in parallel with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seok; Han, Byeong-Gu; Park, Kang-Seo; Lee, Byung Il; Kim, Soo-Youl; Bae, Chang-Dae

    2010-08-20

    Transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) is a calcium-dependent, cross-linking enzyme that catalyzes iso-peptide bond formation between peptide-bound lysine and glutamine residues. TGase 2 can activate NF-kappaB through the polymerization-mediated depletion of I-kappaBalpha without IKK activation. This NF-kappaB activation mechanism is associated with drug resistance in cancer cells. However, the polymers cannot be detected in cells, while TGase 2 over-expression depletes free I-kappaBalpha, which raises the question of how the polymerized I-kappaBalpha can be metabolized in cells. Among proteasome, lysosome and calpain systems, calpain inhibition was found to effectively increase the accumulation of I-kappaBalpha polymers in MCF7 cells transfected with TGase 2, and induced high levels of I-kappaBalpha polymers as well in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that naturally express a high level of TGase 2. Inhibition of calpain also boosted the level of I-kappaBalpha polymers in HEK-293 cells in case of TGase 2 transfection either with I-kappaBalpha or I-kappaBalpha mutant (S32A, S36A). Interestingly, the combined inhibition of calpain and the proteasome resulted in an increased accumulation of both I-kappaBalpha polymers and I-kappaBalpha, concurrent with an inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. This suggests that mu-calpain proteasome-dependent I-kappaBalpha polymer degradation may contribute to cancer progression through constitutive NF-kappaB activation. PMID:20659425

  16. The ubiquitin-proteasome system in cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mearini, Giulia; Schlossarek, Saskia; Willis, Monte S; Carrier, Lucie

    2008-12-01

    Since proteins play crucial roles in all biological processes, the finely tuned equilibrium between their synthesis and degradation regulates cellular homeostasis. Controlling the quality of proteome informational content is essential for cell survival and function. After initial synthesis, membrane and secretory proteins are modified, folded, and assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas other proteins are synthesized and processed in the cytosol. Cells have different protein quality control systems, the molecular chaperones, which help protein folding and stabilization, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and lysosomes, which degrade proteins. It has generally been assumed that UPS and lysosomes are regulated independently and serve distinct functions. The UPS degrades both cytosolic, nuclear proteins, and myofibrillar proteins, whereas the lysosomes degrade most membrane and extracellular proteins by endocytosis as well as cytosolic proteins and organelles via autophagy. Over the last two decades, the UPS has been increasingly recognized as a major system in several biological processes including cell proliferation, adaptation to stress and cell death. More recently, activation or impairment of the UPS has been reported in cardiac disease and recent evidence indicate that autophagy is a key mechanism to maintain cardiac structure and function. This review mainly focuses on the UPS and its various components in healthy and diseased heart, but also summarizes recent data suggesting parallel activation of the UPS and autophagy in cardiac disease. PMID:18634872

  17. Ubiquitin, Proteasomes and Proteolytic Mechanisms Activated by Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Vik; Mitch, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) includes 3 enzymes that conjugate ubiquitin to intracellular proteins that are then recognized and degraded in the proteasome. The process participates in the regulation of cell metabolism. In the kidney, the UPS regulates the turnover of transporters and signaling proteins and its activity is down regulated in acidosis-induced proximal tubular cell hypertrophy. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), muscle wasting occurs because complications of CKD including acidosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, and increased angiotensin II levels stimulate the UPS to degrade muscle proteins. This response also includes caspase-3 and calpains which act to cleave muscle proteins to provide substrates for the UPS. For example, caspase-3 degrades actomyosin, leaving a 14kD fragment of actin in muscle. The 14 kD actin fragment is increased in muscle of patient with kidney disease, burn injury and surgery. In addition, acidosis, insulin resistance, inflammation and angiotensin II stimulate glucocorticoid production. Glucocorticoids are also required for the muscle wasting that occurs in CKD. Thus, the UPS is involved in regulating kidney function and participates in highly organized responses that degrade muscle protein in response to loss of kidney function. PMID:18723090

  18. Measuring activity in the ubiquitin-proteasome system: from large scale discoveries to single cells analysis.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Adam T; Woss, Gregery S; Park, Jessica H; Waters, Marcey L; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2013-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the primary pathway responsible for the recognition and degradation of misfolded, damaged, or tightly regulated proteins in addition to performing essential roles in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, and the immune response. While traditional biochemical techniques have proven useful in the identification of key proteins involved in this pathway, the implementation of novel reporters responsible for measuring enzymatic activity of the UPS has provided valuable insight into the effectiveness of therapeutics and role of the UPS in various human diseases such as multiple myeloma and Huntington's disease. These reporters, usually consisting of a recognition sequence fused to an analytical handle, are designed to specifically evaluate enzymatic activity of certain members of the UPS including the proteasome, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquitinating enzymes. This review highlights the more commonly used reporters employed in a variety of scenarios ranging from high-throughput screening of novel inhibitors to single cell microscopy techniques measuring E3 ligase or proteasome activity. Finally, a recent study is presented highlighting the development of a novel degron-based substrate designed to overcome the limitations of current reporting techniques in measuring E3 ligase and proteasome activity in patient samples. PMID:23686610

  19. EGF signalling activates the ubiquitin proteasome system to modulate C. elegans lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Rogers, Jason; Murphy, Coleen T; Rongo, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling regulates growth and differentiation. Here, we examine the function of EGF signalling in Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. We find that EGF signalling regulates lifespan via the Ras-MAPK pathway and the PLZF transcription factors EOR-1 and EOR-2. As animals enter adulthood, EGF signalling upregulates the expression of genes involved in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), including the Skp1-like protein SKR-5, while downregulating the expression of HSP16-type chaperones. Using reporters for global UPS activity, protein aggregation, and oxidative stress, we find that EGF signalling alters protein homoeostasis in adults by increasing UPS activity and polyubiquitination, while decreasing protein aggregation. We show that SKR-5 and the E3/E4 ligases that comprise the ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) complex are required for the increase in UPS activity observed in adults, and that animals that lack SKR-5 or the UFD have reduced lifespans and indications of oxidative stress. We propose that as animals enter fertile adulthood, EGF signalling switches the mechanism for maintaining protein homoeostasis from a chaperone-based approach to an approach involving protein elimination via augmented UPS activity. PMID:21673654

  20. The ubiquitin proteasome system postsynaptically regulates glutamatergic synaptic function

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Kevin F.; Miller, Stephanie L. H.; Friedman, David B.; Broadie, Kendal

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) actively controls protein dynamics and local abundance via regulated protein degradation. This study investigates UPS roles in the regulation of postsynaptic function and molecular composition in the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) genetic system. To specifically impair UPS function postsynaptically, the UAS/GAL4 transgenic method was employed to drive postsynaptic expression of proteasome ?2 and ?6 subunit mutant proteins, which operate through a dominant negative mechanism to block proteasome function. When proteasome mutant subunits were constitutively expressed, excitatory junctional current (EJC) amplitudes were increased, demonstrating that postsynaptic proteasome function limits neurotransmission strength. Interestingly, the alteration in synaptic strength was calcium-dependent and miniature EJCs had significantly smaller mean amplitudes and more rapid mean decay rates. Postsynaptic levels of the Drosophila PSD-95/SAP97 homologue, discs large (DLG), and the GluRIIB-containing glutamate receptor were increased, but GluRIIA-containing receptors were unaltered. With acute postsynaptic proteasome inhibition using an inducible transgenic system, neurotransmission was similarly elevated with the same specific increase in postsynaptic GluRIIB abundance. These findings demonstrate postsynaptic proteasome regulation of glutamatergic synaptic function that is mediated through specific regulation of GluRIIB-containing glutamate receptors. PMID:17363264

  1. Differential roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy in the clearance of soluble and aggregated TDP-43 species

    PubMed Central

    Scotter, Emma L.; Vance, Caroline; Nishimura, Agnes L.; Lee, Youn-Bok; Chen, Han-Jou; Urwin, Hazel; Sardone, Valentina; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Rogelj, Boris; Rubinsztein, David C.; Shaw, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43, also known as TARDBP) is the major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Large TDP-43 aggregates that are decorated with degradation adaptor proteins are seen in the cytoplasm of remaining neurons in ALS and FTD patients post mortem. TDP-43 accumulation and ALS-linked mutations within degradation pathways implicate failed TDP-43 clearance as a primary disease mechanism. Here, we report the differing roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy in the clearance of TDP-43. We have investigated the effects of inhibitors of the UPS and autophagy on the degradation, localisation and mobility of soluble and insoluble TDP-43. We find that soluble TDP-43 is degraded primarily by the UPS, whereas the clearance of aggregated TDP-43 requires autophagy. Cellular macroaggregates, which recapitulate many of the pathological features of the aggregates in patients, are reversible when both the UPS and autophagy are functional. Their clearance involves the autophagic removal of oligomeric TDP-43. We speculate that, in addition to an age-related decline in pathway activity, a second hit in either the UPS or the autophagy pathway drives the accumulation of TDP-43 in ALS and FTD. Therapies for clearing excess TDP-43 should therefore target a combination of these pathways. PMID:24424030

  2. Targeting the ubiquitin proteasome system: beyond proteasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xolalpa, Wendy; Perez-Galan, Patricia; Rodrguez, Manuel S; Rou, Gal

    2013-01-01

    The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) has been considered as privileged pharmacological target for drug development due to the tremendous potential for intervention on multiple pathologies including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, immune diseases and multiple infections. The pharmacological potential of the UPS was revealed after the unpredicted success of proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of some haematological malignancies. After a decade of clinical use of bortezomib, this review summarizes part of the learned experience and recent advances on the development of alternative inhibitors of the UPS. A new generation of inhibitors, including those targeting subsets of proteasomes, are under investigation and it is likely that some of them will reach clinical trials. Beyond the proteasome inhibition, there are also other targets that can be blocked to attain directly or indirectly the UPS system. The ubiquitylation status of protein substrates is intimately linked to other post-translational modifications of the ubiquitin family, increasing the number of potential targets for clinical intervention. In addition to the obvious subsets of ubiquitin-conjugating and de-conjugating enzymes, a group of enzymatic activities regulating SUMOylation or NEDDylation have a potential impact on the activity of the UPS. The novel strategies explore the active site of those enzymes and/or the target recognition surfaces. The first inhibitors of these parallel pathways appeared to tackle a limited number of protein targets playing important roles on diverse pathologies. Although, a large majority of them have not yet been tested in clinical trials, the new inhibitors are expected to have fewer side effects than proteasome inhibitors. PMID:23181575

  3. Dysregulation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System by Curcumin Suppresses Coxsackievirus B3 Replication▿

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xiaoning; Wang, Yahong; Wong, Jerry; Zhang, Jingchun; McManus, Bruce M.; Luo, Honglin

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from the spice turmeric, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties by modulating multiple cellular machineries. It inhibits several intracellular signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), casein kinase II (CKII), and the COP9 signalosome (CSN), in various cell types. It has also been recently demonstrated that exposure to curcumin leads to the dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Coxsackievirus infection is associated with various diseases, including myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. In searching for new antiviral agents against coxsackievirus, we found that treatment with curcumin significantly reduced viral RNA expression, protein synthesis, and virus titer and protected cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis. We further demonstrated that reduction of viral infection by curcumin was unlikely due to inhibition of CVB3 binding to its receptors or CVB3-induced activation of MAPKs. Moreover, gene silencing of CKII and Jab1, a component of CSN, by small interfering RNAs did not inhibit the replication of coxsackievirus, suggesting that the antiviral action of curcumin is independent of these pathways. Finally, we showed that curcumin treatment reduced both the 20S proteasome proteolytic activities and the cellular deubiquitinating activities, leading to increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and decreased protein levels of free ubiquitin. We have recently demonstrated that the UPS-mediated protein degradation and/or modification plays a critical role in the regulation of coxsackievirus replication. Thus, our results suggest an important antiviral effect of curcumin wherein it potently inhibits coxsackievirus replication through dysregulation of the UPS. PMID:17229707

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of Marinesco bodies, using antibodies against proteins implicated in the ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy and aggresome formation.

    PubMed

    Odagiri, Saori; Tanji, Kunikazu; Mori, Fumiaki; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kamitani, Tetsu; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Marinesco bodies (MBs) are spherical eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus. Previous immunohistochemical studies have shown that MBs are positive for ubiquitin, p62 and SUMO-1, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitination and related proteins in the formation or disaggregation of MBs. However, the involvement is not thoroughly understood. Therefore, we immunohistochemically examined the midbrain from five control subjects ranged from 53 to 84 years old. MBs were positive for various proteins implicated in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (ubiquitin, p62, EDD1, NEDD8, NUB1, SUMO-1 and SUMO-2), aggresome formation (HDAC6) and autophagy (ubiquitin, p62, LC3, GABARAP and GATE-16). These findings suggest that proteins related to ubiquitination, proteasomal degradation and autophagy are involved in the formation or disaggregation of MBs. PMID:22118216

  5. PPAR? AF-2 Domain Functions as a Component of a Ubiquitin-dependent Degradation Signal

    PubMed Central

    Kilroy, G.E.; Zhang, X.; Floyd, Z.E.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) functions as the master switch in adipocyte development and is important in regulating glucose metabolism. PPAR? is rapidly degraded in adipocytes by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway under basal and ligand-activated conditions. Proteasome inhibition increases PPAR? activity, indicating disposal of PPAR? by the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates PPAR? activity. However, the signals and factors required for recognition of PPAR? by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway are unknown. To begin understanding how the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway interacts with PPAR?, we designed a series of constructs containing each PPAR? domain expressed as a fusion protein with the GAL4 DNA binding domain. The ability of each PPAR? domain to alter the stability of the GAL4 DNA binding domain and to undergo ubiquitylation was assessed via western blot analysis. In addition, luciferase reporter assays were used to assay PPAR? transcriptional activity. Using this approach, we determined that the AF-1 and ligand binding domains of PPAR? are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. However, only the ligand binding domain is conjugated to ubiquitin. The AF-2 helix of the ligand binding domain is required for maximum ubiquitylation, but is not essential for ligand-dependent ubiquitin conjugation. Finally, luciferase reporter assays show a fully functional ubiquitin system is required for PPAR? activation. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is an integral determinant of PPAR? activity, targeting PPAR? for proteasomal degradation via ubiquitin independent and ubiquitin dependent mechanisms. PMID:19148122

  6. The ubiquitin-proteasome system: opportunities for therapeutic intervention in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel E

    2015-02-01

    The destruction of proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome system is a multi-step, complex process involving polyubiquitination of substrate proteins, followed by proteolytic degradation by the macromolecular 26S proteasome complex. Inhibitors of the proteasome promote the accumulation of proteins that are deleterious to cell survival, and represent promising anti-cancer agents. In multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, treatment with the first-generation proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, or the second-generation inhibitor, carfilzomib, has demonstrated significant therapeutic benefit in humans. This has prompted United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approval of these agents and development of additional second-generation compounds with improved properties. There is considerable interest in extending the benefits of proteasome inhibitors to the treatment of solid tumor malignancies. Herein, we review progress that has been made in the preclinical development and clinical evaluation of different proteasome inhibitors in solid tumors. In addition, we describe several novel approaches that are currently being pursued for the treatment of solid tumors, including drug combinatorial strategies incorporating proteasome inhibitors and the targeting of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system that are distinct from the 26S proteasome complex. PMID:24659480

  7. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System as a Prospective Molecular Target for Cancer Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Di; Dou, Q. Ping

    2012-01-01

    Proteasomes are large multicatalytic proteinase complexes located in the cytosol and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for the degradation of most intracellular proteins and therefore plays an essential regulatory role in critical cellular processes including cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Besides involving in normal cellular functions and homeostasis, the alteration of proteasomal activity contributes to the pathological states of several clinical disorders including inflammation, neurodegeneration and cancer. It has been reported that human cancer cells possess elevated level of proteasome activity and are more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than normal cells, indicating that the inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system could be used as a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this review we summarize several specific aspects of research for the proteasome complex, including the structure and catalytic activities of the proteasome, properties and mechanisms of action of various proteasome inhibitors, and finally the clinical development of proteasome inhibitors as novel anticancer agents. PMID:20491623

  8. The ubiquitin-proteasome system: opportunities for therapeutic intervention in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    The destruction of proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome system is a multi-step, complex process involving polyubiquitination of substrate proteins, followed by proteolytic degradation by the macromolecular 26S proteasome complex. Inhibitors of the proteasome promote the accumulation of proteins that are deleterious to cell survival, and represent promising anti-cancer agents. In multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, treatment with the first generation proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, or the second generation inhibitor carfilzomib, has demonstrated significant therapeutic benefit in humans. This has prompted US FDA approval of these agents and development of additional second generation compounds with improved properties. There is considerable interest in extending the benefits of proteasome inhibitors to the treatment of solid tumor malignancies. Herein we review progress that has been made in the preclinical development and clinical evaluation of different proteasome inhibitors in solid tumors. In addition, we describe several novel approaches that are currently being pursued for the treatment of solid tumors, including drug combinatorial strategies incorporating proteasome inhibitors, and the targeting of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system that are distinct from the 26S proteasome complex. PMID:24659480

  9. It Is All about (U)biquitin: Role of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and UCHL1 in Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Tramutola, Antonella; Di Domenico, Fabio; Barone, Eugenio; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D Allan

    2016-01-01

    Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of "aberrant" proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased efficiency of degradative systems. One of the most important cellular proteolytic systems responsible for the removal of oxidized proteins in the cytosol and in the nucleus is the proteasomal system. Several studies have demonstrated the impairment of the proteasome in AD thus suggesting a direct link between accumulation of oxidized/misfolded proteins and reduction of this clearance system. In this review we discuss the impairment of the proteasome system as a consequence of oxidative stress and how this contributes to AD neuropathology. Further, we focus the attention on the oxidative modifications of a key component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, UCHL1, which lead to the impairment of its activity. PMID:26881020

  10. Sent to Destroy: The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Regulates Cell Signaling and Protein Quality Control in Cardiovascular Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Monte S.; Townley-Tilson, W.H. Davin; Kang, Eunice Y.; Homeister, Jonathon W.; Patterson, Cam

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in biological processes integral to the development of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. The UPS prototypically recognizes specific protein substrates and places polyubiquitin chains on them for subsequent destruction by the proteasome. This system is in place to degrade not only misfolded and damaged proteins, but is essential also in regulating a host of cell signaling pathways involved in proliferation, adaptation to stress, regulation of cell size, and cell death. During the development of the cardiovascular system, the UPS regulates cell signaling by modifying transcription factors, receptors, and structural proteins. Later, in the event of cardiovascular diseases as diverse as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and ischemia reperfusion injury, ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome are implicated in protecting and exacerbating clinical outcomes. However, when misfolded and damaged proteins are ubiquitinated by the UPS, their destruction by the proteasome is not always possible due to their aggregated confirmations. Recent studies have discovered how these ubiquitinated misfolded proteins can be destroyed by alternative specific mechanisms. The cytosolic receptors p62, NBR, and HDAC6 recognize aggregated ubiquitinated proteins and target them for autophagy in the process of selective autophagy. Even the ubiquitination of multiple proteins within whole organelles that drive the more general macro-autophagy may be due, in part, to similar ubiquitin-driven mechanisms. In summary, the cross-talk between the UPS and autophagy highlight the pivotal and diverse roles the UPS plays in maintaining protein quality control and regulating cardiovascular development and disease. PMID:20167943

  11. Myostatin Activates the Ubiquitin-Proteasome and Autophagy-Lysosome Systems Contributing to Muscle Wasting in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Tao; Yang, Ya-Jun; Huang, Ren-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Our evidence demonstrated that CKD upregulated the expression of myostatin, TNF-α, and p-IkBa and downregulated the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and FoxO3a, which were also associated with protein degradation and muscle atrophy. The autophagosome formation and protein expression of autophagy-related genes were increased in muscle of CKD rats. The mRNA level and protein expression of MAFbx and MuRF-1 were also upregulated in CKD rats, as well as proteasome activity of 26S. Moreover, activation of myostatin elicited by TNF-α induces C2C12 myotube atrophy via upregulating the expression of autophagy-related genes, including MAFbx and MuRF1 and proteasome subunits. Inactivation of FoxO3a triggered by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented the myostatin-induced increase of expression of MuRF1, MAFbx, and LC3-II protein in C2C12 myotubes. The findings were further consolidated by using siRNA interference and overexpression of myostatin. Additionally, expression of myostatin was activated by TNF-α via a NF-κB dependent pathway in C2C12 myotubes, while inhibition of NF-κB activity suppressed myostatin and improved myotube atrophy. Collectively, myostatin mediated CKD-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of the autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. PMID:26448817

  12. It Is All about (U)biquitin: Role of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and UCHL1 in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tramutola, Antonella; Di Domenico, Fabio; Barone, Eugenio; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2016-01-01

    Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased efficiency of degradative systems. One of the most important cellular proteolytic systems responsible for the removal of oxidized proteins in the cytosol and in the nucleus is the proteasomal system. Several studies have demonstrated the impairment of the proteasome in AD thus suggesting a direct link between accumulation of oxidized/misfolded proteins and reduction of this clearance system. In this review we discuss the impairment of the proteasome system as a consequence of oxidative stress and how this contributes to AD neuropathology. Further, we focus the attention on the oxidative modifications of a key component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, UCHL1, which lead to the impairment of its activity. PMID:26881020

  13. Regulation of mitochondrial genome inheritance by autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system: implications for health, fitness, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Hee; Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease. PMID:25028670

  14. Regulation of Mitochondrial Genome Inheritance by Autophagy and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Implications for Health, Fitness, and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease. PMID:25028670

  15. Roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the effects of drugs of abuse

    PubMed Central

    Massaly, Nicolas; Francs, Bernard; Mouldous, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Because of its ability to regulate the abundance of selected proteins the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in neuronal and synaptic plasticity. As a result various stages of learning and memory depend on UPS activity. Drug addiction, another phenomenon that relies on neuroplasticity, shares molecular substrates with memory processes. However, the necessity of proteasome-dependent protein degradation for the development of addiction has been poorly studied. Here we first review evidences from the literature that drugs of abuse regulate the expression and activity of the UPS system in the brain. We then provide a list of proteins which have been shown to be targeted to the proteasome following drug treatment and could thus be involved in neuronal adaptations underlying behaviors associated with drug use and abuse. Finally we describe the few studies that addressed the need for UPS-dependent protein degradation in animal models of addiction-related behaviors. PMID:25610367

  16. Monitoring of ubiquitin-proteasome activity in living cells using a Degron (dgn)-destabilized green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based reporter protein.

    PubMed

    Greussing, Ruth; Unterluggauer, Hermann; Koziel, Rafal; Maier, Andrea B; Jansen-Drr, Pidder

    2012-01-01

    Proteasome is the main intracellular organelle involved in the proteolytic degradation of abnormal, misfolded, damaged or oxidized proteins (1, 2). Maintenance of proteasome activity was implicated in many key cellular processes, like cell's stress response (3), cell cycle regulation and cellular differentiation (4) or in immune system response (5). The dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system has been related to the development of tumors and neurodegenerative diseases (4, 6). Additionally, a decrease in proteasome activity was found as a feature of cellular senescence and organismal aging (7, 8, 9, 10). Here, we present a method to measure ubiquitin-proteasome activity in living cells using a GFP-dgn fusion protein. To be able to monitor ubiquitin-proteasome activity in living primary cells, complementary DNA constructs coding for a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-dgn fusion protein (GFP-dgn, unstable) and a variant carrying a frameshift mutation (GFP-dgnFS, stable (11)) are inserted in lentiviral expression vectors. We prefer this technique over traditional transfection techniques because it guarantees a very high transfection efficiency independent of the cell type or the age of the donor. The difference between fluorescence displayed by the GFP-dgnFS (stable) protein and the destabilized protein (GFP-dgn) in the absence or presence of proteasome inhibitor can be used to estimate ubiquitin-proteasome activity in each particular cell strain. These differences can be monitored by epifluorescence microscopy or can be measured by flow cytometry. PMID:23169445

  17. Gambogic acid is cytotoxic to cancer cells through inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Felth, Jenny; Lesiak-Mieczkowska, Karolina; D'Arcy, Padraig; Haglund, Caroline; Gullbo, Joachim; Larsson, Rolf; Linder, Stig; Bohlin, Lars; Frykns, Mrten; Rickardson, Linda

    2013-06-01

    Gambogic acid (GA), displays cytotoxicity towards a wide variety of tumor cells and has been shown to affect many important cell-signaling pathways. In the present work, we investigated the mechanism of action of GA by analysis of drug-induced changes in gene expression profiles and identified GA and the derivative dihydro GA as possible inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Both GA and dihydro GA inhibited proteasome function in cells resulting in the accumulation of polyubiquitin complexes. In vitro experiments showed that both GA and dihydro GA inhibited 20S chymotrypsin activity and the inhibitory effects of GA and dihydro GA on proteasome function corresponded with apoptosis induction and cell death. In conclusion, our results show that GA and dihydro GA exert their cytotoxic activity through inhibition of the UPS, specifically by acting as inhibitors of the chymotrypsin activity of the 20S proteasome. PMID:23179339

  18. A role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Moss, Andrew; Blackburn-Munro, Gordon; Garry, Emer M; Blakemore, James A; Dickinson, Tracey; Rosie, Roberta; Mitchell, Rory; Fleetwood-Walker, Susan M

    2002-02-15

    Neuropathic pain (characterized by hyperalgesia and allodynia to mechanical and thermal stimuli) causes cellular changes in spinal dorsal horn neurons, some of which parallel those in synaptic plasticity associated with learning. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH) appears to play a key role in long-term facilitation in Aplysia. The cooperation of UCH with the proteolytic enzyme complex known as the proteasome is required for the degradation of a number of signaling molecules within the cell that may remove normal restraints on synaptic plasticity. We have used electrophysiology, in situ hybridization histochemistry, semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and in vivo behavioral reflex analysis to investigate the ubiquitin-proteasome system in a model of neuropathic pain. In neuropathic animals, ionophoretic application of selective proteasome inhibitors attenuated dorsal horn neuron firing evoked by normally innocuous brush or cold stimuli and by noxious mustard oil stimuli. In control animals, only mustard oil-evoked responses were inhibited. Intrathecal administration of proteasome inhibitors attenuated hyperalgesia and allodynia in neuropathic rats. Expression of UCH-L1 (a rat homolog of Aplysia neuronal UCH and of the human UCH-L1, also known as PGP 9.5) and its mRNA were selectively increased within the ipsilateral dorsal horn of neuropathic rats, supporting the idea of a role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system in nociceptive processing. Proteasome inhibitors selectively attenuate allodynic and hyperalgesic responses in neuropathic pain, with some reduction in normal nociceptive, but not non-nociceptive responses, and potentially represent a novel therapeutic strategy for neuropathic pain. PMID:11850463

  19. Ageing has no effect on the regulation of the ubiquitin proteasome-related genes and proteins following resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Renae J.; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Della Gatta, Paul; Garnham, Andrew; Russell, Aaron P.; Lamon, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a critical component of the ageing process. Age-related muscle wasting is due to disrupted muscle protein turnover, a process mediated in part by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). Additionally, older subjects have been observed to have an attenuated anabolic response, at both the molecular and physiological levels, following a single-bout of resistance exercise (RE). We investigated the expression levels of the UPP-related genes and proteins involved in muscle protein degradation in 10 older (60–75 years) vs. 10 younger (18–30 years) healthy male subjects at basal as well as 2 h after a single-bout of RE. MURF1, atrogin-1 and FBXO40, their substrate targets PKM2, myogenin, MYOD, MHC and EIF3F as well as MURF1 and atrogin-1 transcriptional regulators FOXO1 and FOXO3 gene and/or protein expression levels were measured via real time PCR and western blotting, respectively. At basal, no age-related difference was observed in the gene/protein levels of atrogin-1, MURF1, myogenin, MYOD and FOXO1/3. However, a decrease in FBXO40 mRNA and protein levels was observed in older subjects, while PKM2 protein was increased. In response to RE, MURF1, atrogin-1 and FBXO40 mRNA were upregulated in both the younger and older subjects, with changes observed in protein levels. In conclusion, UPP-related gene/protein expression is comparably regulated in healthy young and old male subjects at basal and following RE. These findings suggest that UPP signaling plays a limited role in the process of age-related muscle wasting. Future studies are required to investigate additional proteolytic mechanisms in conjunction with skeletal muscle protein breakdown (MPB) measurements following RE in older vs. younger subjects. PMID:24550841

  20. Coordinated Regulation of Nuclear Receptor CAR by CCRP/DNAJC7, HSP70 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Timsit, Yoav E.; Negishi, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    The constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role as a coordinate transcription factor in the regulation of various hepatic metabolic pathways for chemicals such as drugs, glucose, fatty acids, bilirubin, and bile acids. Currently, it is known that in its inactive state, CAR is retained in the cytoplasm in a protein complex with HSP90 and the tetratricopeptide repeat protein cytosoplasmic CAR retention protein (CCRP). Upon activation by phenobarbital (PB) or the PB-like inducer 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]-benzene (TCPOBOP), CAR translocates into the nucleus. We have identified two new components to the cytoplasmic regulation of CAR: ubiquitin-dependent degradation of CCRP and protein-protein interaction with HSP70. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (5 M) causes CAR to accumulate in the cytoplasm of transfected HepG2 cells. In the presence of MG132, TCPOBOP increases CCRP ubiquitination in HepG2 cells co-expressing CAR, while CAR ubiquitination was not detected. MG132 treatment of HepG2 also attenuated of TCPOBOP-induced CAR transcriptional activation on reporter constructs which contain CAR-binding DNA elements derived from the human CYP2B6 gene. The elevation of cytoplasmic CAR protein with MG132 correlated with an increase of HSP70, and to a lesser extent HSP60. Both CCRP and CAR were found to interact with endogenous HSP70 in HepG2 cells by immunoprecipitation analysis. Induction of HSP70 levels by heat shock also increased cytoplasmic CAR levels, similar to the effect of MG132. Lastly, heat shock attenuated TCPOBOP-induced CAR transcriptional activation, also similar to the effect of MG132. Collectively, these data suggest that ubiquitin-proteasomal regulation of CCRP and HSP70 are important contributors to the regulation of cytoplasmic CAR levels, and hence the ability of CAR to respond to PB or PB-like inducers. PMID:24789201

  1. Muscle wasting in chronic kidney disease: the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system and its clinical impact

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Vik R.

    2007-01-01

    Muscle wasting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other catabolic diseases (e.g. sepsis, diabetes, cancer) can occur despite adequate nutritional intake. It is now known that complications of these various disorders, including acidosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, and increased glucocorticoid and angiotensin II production, all activate the ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS) to degrade muscle proteins. The initial step in this process is activation of caspase-3 to cleave the myofibril into its components (actin, myosin, troponin, and tropomyosin). Caspase-3 is required because the UPS minimally degrades the myofibril but rapidly degrades its component proteins. Caspase-3 activity is easily detected because it leaves a characteristic 14kD actin fragment in muscle samples. Preliminary evidence from several experimental models of catabolic diseases, as well as from studies in patients, indicates that this fragment could be a useful biomarker because it correlates well with the degree of muscle degradation in dialysis patients and in other catabolic conditions. PMID:17987322

  2. An Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. Inhibits Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activity and Preserves Skeletal Muscle Mass in a Murine Model of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Wang, Zhong Q.; Acharya, Priyanka; Zhang, Xian H.; Yu, Yongmei; Kilroy, Gail; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.; Floyd, Z. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Impaired insulin signaling is a key feature of type 2 diabetes and is associated with increased ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent protein degradation in skeletal muscle. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI5011) improves insulin action by increasing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. We sought to determine if the effect of PMI5011 on insulin signaling extends to regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. C2C12 myotubes and the KK-Ay murine model of type 2 diabetes were used to evaluate the effect of PMI5011 on steady-state levels of ubiquitylation, proteasome activity and expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases that are upregulated with impaired insulin signaling. Our results show that PMI5011 inhibits proteasome activity and steady-state ubiquitylation levels in vitro and in vivo. The effect of PMI5011 is mediated by PI3K/Akt signaling and correlates with decreased expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Under in vitro conditions of hormonal or fatty acid-induced insulin resistance, PMI5011 improves insulin signaling and reduces Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 protein levels. In the KK-Ay murine model of type 2 diabetes, skeletal muscle ubiquitylation and proteasome activity is inhibited and Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression is decreased by PMI5011. PMI5011-mediated changes in the ubiquitin-proteasome system in vivo correlate with increased phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a and increased myofiber size. The changes in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression, ubiquitin-proteasome activity and myofiber size modulated by PMI5011 in the presence of insulin resistance indicate the botanical extract PMI5011 may have therapeutic potential in the preservation of muscle mass in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23437325

  3. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. inhibits ubiquitin-proteasome activity and preserves skeletal muscle mass in a murine model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Wang, Zhong Q; Acharya, Priyanka; Zhang, Xian H; Yu, Yongmei; Kilroy, Gail; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T; Floyd, Z Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Impaired insulin signaling is a key feature of type 2 diabetes and is associated with increased ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent protein degradation in skeletal muscle. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI5011) improves insulin action by increasing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. We sought to determine if the effect of PMI5011 on insulin signaling extends to regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. C2C12 myotubes and the KK-A(y) murine model of type 2 diabetes were used to evaluate the effect of PMI5011 on steady-state levels of ubiquitylation, proteasome activity and expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases that are upregulated with impaired insulin signaling. Our results show that PMI5011 inhibits proteasome activity and steady-state ubiquitylation levels in vitro and in vivo. The effect of PMI5011 is mediated by PI3K/Akt signaling and correlates with decreased expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Under in vitro conditions of hormonal or fatty acid-induced insulin resistance, PMI5011 improves insulin signaling and reduces Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 protein levels. In the KK-A(y) murine model of type 2 diabetes, skeletal muscle ubiquitylation and proteasome activity is inhibited and Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression is decreased by PMI5011. PMI5011-mediated changes in the ubiquitin-proteasome system in vivo correlate with increased phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a and increased myofiber size. The changes in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression, ubiquitin-proteasome activity and myofiber size modulated by PMI5011 in the presence of insulin resistance indicate the botanical extract PMI5011 may have therapeutic potential in the preservation of muscle mass in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23437325

  4. The ubiquitin proteasome system in glia and its role in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anne H. P.; Reits, Eric A. J.; Hol, Elly M.

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is crucial for intracellular protein homeostasis and for degradation of aberrant and damaged proteins. The accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and Huntingtons disease, leading to the hypothesis that proteasomal impairment is contributing to these diseases. So far, most research related to the UPS in neurodegenerative diseases has been focused on neurons, while glial cells have been largely disregarded in this respect. However, glial cells are essential for proper neuronal function and adopt a reactive phenotype in neurodegenerative diseases, thereby contributing to an inflammatory response. This process is called reactive gliosis, which in turn affects UPS function in glial cells. In many neurodegenerative diseases, mostly neurons show accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins, suggesting that glial cells may be better equipped to maintain proper protein homeostasis. During an inflammatory reaction, the immunoproteasome is induced in glia, which may contribute to a more efficient degradation of disease-related proteins. Here we review the role of the UPS in glial cells in various neurodegenerative diseases, and we discuss how studying glial cell function might provide essential information in unraveling mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25152710

  5. Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in ABA Signaling: From Perception to Action.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feifei; Wu, Yaorong; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Protein post-translational modification (PTM) by ubiquitination has been observed during many aspects of plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ubiquitin-proteasome system precisely regulates phytohormone signaling by affecting protein activity, localization, assembly, and interaction ability. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone, and plays important roles in plants under normal or stressed growth conditions. The ABA signaling pathway is composed of phosphatases, kinases, transcription factors, and membrane ion channels. It has been reported that multiple ABA signaling transducers are subjected to the regulations by ubiquitination. In particular, recent studies have identified different types of E3 ligases that mediate ubiquitination of ABA receptors in different cell compartments. This review focuses on modulation of these components by monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination that occurs in the plasma membrane, endomembranes, and from the cytosol to the nucleus; this implies the existence of retrograde and trafficking processes that are regulated by ubiquitination in ABA signaling. A number of single-unit E3 ligases, components of multi-subunit E3 ligases, E2s, and specific subunits of the 26S proteasome involved in ABA signal regulation are discussed. Dissecting the precise functions of ubiquitination in the ABA pathway may help us understand key factors in the signaling of other phytohormones regulated by ubiquitination and other types of PTMs. PMID:26455462

  6. Hepatitis B Virus HBx Protein Interactions with the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Marissa M.; Slagle, Betty L.

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis, and the latter is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV encodes a 17-kDa regulatory protein, HBx, which is required for virus replication. Although the precise contribution(s) of HBx to virus replication is unknown, many viruses target cellular pathways to create an environment favorable for virus replication. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a major conserved cellular pathway that controls several critical processes in the cell by regulating the levels of proteins involved in cell cycle, DNA repair, innate immunity, and other processes. We summarize here the interactions of HBx with components of the UPS, including the CUL4 adaptor DDB1, the cullin regulatory complex CSN, and the 26S proteasome. Understanding how these protein interactions benefit virus replication remains a challenge due to limited models in which to study HBV replication. However, studies from other viral systems that similarly target the UPS provide insight into possible strategies used by HBV. PMID:25421893

  7. Ubiquitinproteasome system involvement in Huntingtons disease

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Zaira; Lucas, Jose J.

    2014-01-01

    Huntingtons disease (HD) is a genetic autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin (htt) gene. This triplet expansion encodes a polyglutamine stretch (polyQ) in the N-terminus of the high molecular weight (348-kDa) and ubiquitously expressed protein htt. Normal individuals have between 6 and 35 CAG triplets, while expansions longer than 40 repeats lead to HD. The onset and severity of the disease depend on the length of the polyQ tract: the longer the polyglutamine stretch (polyQ) is, the earlier the disease begins and the more severe the symptoms are. One of the main histopathological hallmarks of HD is the presence of intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusion bodies, whose prominent and invariant feature is the presence of ubiquitin (Ub); therefore, they can be detected with anti-ubiquitin and anti-proteasome antibodies. This, together with the observation that mutations in components of the ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS) give rise to some neurodegenerative diseases, suggests that UPS impairment may be causative of HD. Even though the link between disrupted Ub homeostasis and protein aggregation to HD is undisputed, the functional significance of these correlations and their mechanistic implications remains unresolved. Moreover, there is no consistent evidence documenting an accompanying decrease in levels of free Ub or disruption of Ub pool dynamics in neurodegenerative disease or models thus suggesting that the Ub-conjugate accumulation may be benign and just underlie lesion in 26S function. In this chapter we will elaborate on the different studies that have been performed using different experimental approaches, in order to shed light to this matter. PMID:25324717

  8. The regulation of glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lily; Jiang, Li; Ding, Xiang-dong; Liu, Jian-feng; Zhang, Qin

    2015-09-11

    Glucose as one of the nutrition factors plays a vital role in the regulation of milk fat synthesis. Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a vital proteolytic pathway in all eukaryotic cells through timely marking, recognizing and degrading the poly-ubiquitinated protein substrates. Previous studies indicated that UPS plays a considerable role in controlling the triglyceride (TG) synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to confirm the link between high-glucose and UPS and its regulation mechanism on milk fat synthesis in BMEC (bovine mammary epithelial cells). We incubated BMEC with normal (17.5mm/L) and high-glucose (25mm/L) with and without proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin and found that, compared with the control (normal glucose and without proteasome inhibitor), both high-glucose concentration and proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin could increase the accumulation of TG and poly-ubiquitinated proteins, and reduce significantly three proteasome activities (chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like). In addition, high-glucose concentration combined with proteasome inhibitor further enhanced the increase of the poly-ubiquitinated protein level and the decrease of proteasome activities. Our results suggest that the regulation of high-glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by UPS in BMEC, and high-glucose exposure could lead to a hypersensitization of BMEC to UPS inhibition which in turn results in increased milk fat synthesis. PMID:26231798

  9. Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy in regulation of insulin sensitivity in serum-starved 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yemin; Ye, Mao; Chen, Leyuan Jack; Li, Mingxin; Tang, Zhao; Wang, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy are two conserved intracellular proteolytic pathways, responsible for degradation of most cellular proteins in living cells. Currently, both the UPS and autophagy have been suggested to be associated with pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes. However, underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of the UPS and autophagy on insulin sensitivity in serum-starved 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results show that serum depletion resulted in activation of the UPS and autophagy, accompanied with increased insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of the UPS with bortezomib (BZM), a highly selective, reversible 26S proteasome inhibitor induced compensatory activation of autophagy but did not affect significantly insulin action. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy dramatically mitigated serum starvation-elevated insulin sensitivity. In addition, autophagy inhibition compromised UPS function and led to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Inability of the UPS by BMZ exacerbated autophagy inhibition-induced ER stress and UPR. These results suggest that protein quality control maintained by the UPS and autophagy is required for preserving insulin sensitivity. Importantly, adaptive activation of autophagy plays a critical role in serum starvation-induced insulin sensitization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25959705

  10. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 Replication, and Its Activity May Be Mediated through Dysregulation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Min; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Lin; Chu, Ying; Song, Hong-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is widely used as an antioxidant or an NF-?B inhibitor. It has been reported to inhibit the replication of human rhinoviruses, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and influenza virus. In this paper, we report that PDTC could inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). PDTC suppressed the expression of HSV-1 and HSV-2 viral immediate early (IE) and late (membrane protein gD) genes and the production of viral progeny. This antiviral property was mediated by the dithiocarbamate moiety of PDTC and required the presence of Zn2+. Although PDTC could potently block reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, it was found that this property did not contribute to its anti-HSV activity. PDTC showed no activity in disrupting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation induced by viral infection that was vital for the virus's propagation. We found that PDTC modulated cellular ubiquitination and, furthermore, influenced HSV-2-induced I?B-? degradation to inhibit NF-?B activation and enhanced PML stability in the nucleus, resulting in the inhibition of viral gene expression. These results suggested that the antiviral activity of PDTC might be mediated by its dysregulation of the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:23740985

  11. Prion-mediated neurodegeneration is associated with early impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Chris; Goold, Rob; Andre, Ralph; Devoy, Anny; Ortega, Zaira; Moonga, Julie; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Lucas, José J; Collinge, John; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2016-03-01

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterised by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the brain. The critical relationship between aberrant protein misfolding and neurotoxicity currently remains unclear. The accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins has been linked to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. As the principal route for protein degradation in mammalian cells, this could have profound detrimental effects on neuronal function and survival. Here, we determine the temporal onset of UPS dysfunction in prion-infected Ub(G76V)-GFP reporter mice, which express a ubiquitin fusion proteasome substrate to measure in vivo UPS activity. We show that the onset of UPS dysfunction correlates closely with PrP(Sc) deposition, preceding earliest behavioural deficits and neuronal loss. UPS impairment was accompanied by accumulation of polyubiquitinated substrates and found to affect both neuronal and astrocytic cell populations. In prion-infected CAD5 cells, we demonstrate that activation of the UPS by the small molecule inhibitor IU1 is sufficient to induce clearance of polyubiquitinated substrates and reduce misfolded PrP(Sc) load. Taken together, these results identify the UPS as a possible early mediator of prion pathogenesis and promising target for development of future therapeutics. PMID:26646779

  12. The ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurodegenerative diseases: precipitating factor, yet part of the solution

    PubMed Central

    Dantuma, Nico P.; Bott, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases based on the presence of deposits consisting of ubiquitylated proteins in affected neurons. It has been postulated that aggregation-prone proteins associated with these disorders, such as α-synuclein, β-amyloid peptide, and polyglutamine proteins, compromise UPS function, and delay the degradation of other proteasome substrates. Many of these substrates play important regulatory roles in signaling, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis, and their inadvertent stabilization due to an overloaded and improperly functioning UPS may thus be responsible for cellular demise in neurodegeneration. Over the past decade, numerous studies have addressed the UPS dysfunction hypothesis using various model systems and techniques that differ in their readout and sensitivity. While an inhibitory effect of some disease proteins on the UPS has been demonstrated, increasing evidence attests that the UPS remains operative in many disease models, which opens new possibilities for treatment. In this review, we will discuss the paradigm shift that repositioned the UPS from being a prime suspect in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration to an attractive therapeutic target that can be harnessed to accelerate the clearance of disease-linked proteins. PMID:25132814

  13. The ubiquitin proteasome system Implications for cell cycle control and the targeted treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bassermann, Florian; Eichner, Ruth; Pagano, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Two families of E3 ubiquitin ligases are prominent in cell cycle regulation and mediate the timely and precise ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation of key cell cycle proteins: the SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) complex and the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome). While certain SCF ligases drive cell cycle progression throughout the cell cycle, APC/C (in complex with either of two substrate recruiting proteins: Cdc20 and Cdh1) orchestrates exit from mitosis (APC/CCdc20) and establishes a stable G1 phase (APC/CCdh1). Upon DNA damage or perturbation of the normal cell cycle, both ligases are involved in checkpoint activation. Mechanistic insight into these processes has significantly improved over the last ten years, largely due to a better understanding of APC/C and the functional characterization of multiple F-box proteins, the variable substrate recruiting components of SCF ligases. Here, we review the role of SCF- and APC/C-mediated ubiquitylation in the normal and perturbed cell cycle and discuss potential clinical implications of SCF and APC/C functions. PMID:23466868

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma and Regulations by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stravodimou, Athina; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Voutsadakis, Ioannis A.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal forms of human cancer. Although progress in oncology has improved outcomes in many forms of cancer, little progress has been made in pancreatic carcinoma and the prognosis of this malignancy remains grim. Several molecular abnormalities often present in pancreatic cancer have been defined and include mutations in K-ras, p53, p16, and DPC4 genes. Nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR?) has a role in many carcinomas and has been found to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. It plays generally a tumor suppressor role antagonizing proteins promoting carcinogenesis such as NF-?B and TGF?. Regulation of pathways involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis is effectuated by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS). This paper will examine PPAR? in pancreatic cancer, the regulation of this nuclear receptor by the UPS, and their relationship to other pathways important in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23049538

  15. Minireview: Hey U(PS): Metabolic and Proteolytic Homeostasis Linked via AMPK and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Patterson, Cam

    2014-01-01

    One of the master regulators of both glucose and lipid cellular metabolism is 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). As a metabolic pivot that dynamically responds to shifts in nutrient availability and stress, AMPK dysregulation is implicated in the underlying molecular pathology of a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, neurological diseases, and aging. Although the regulation of AMPK enzymatic activity by upstream kinases is an active area of research, less is known about regulation of AMPK protein stability and activity by components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the cellular machinery responsible for both the recognition and degradation of proteins. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that AMPK regulates overall proteasome activity and individual components of the UPS. This review serves to identify the current understanding of the interplay between AMPK and the UPS and to promote further exploration of the relationship between these regulators of energy use and amino acid availability within the cell. PMID:25099013

  16. The ubiquitin-proteasome system in cancer, a major player in DNA repair. Part 2: transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J; Patrikidou, Anna; Daliani, Danai D; Papandreou, Christos N

    2009-01-01

    DNA repair is an indispensable part of a cells defence system against the devastating effects of DNA-damaging conditions. The regulation of this function is a really demanding situation, particularly when the stressing factors persist for a long time. In such cases, the depletion of existing DNA repair proteins has to be compensated by the induction of the analogous gene products. In addition, the arrest of transcription, which is another result of many DNA-damaging agents, needs to be overcome through regulation of transcription-specific DNA repair pathways. The involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cancer- and chemotherapy-related DNA-damage repair relevant to the above transcriptional modification mechanisms are illustrated in this review. Furthermore, the contribution of UPS to the regulation of localization and accessibility of DNA repair proteins to chromatin, in response to cellular stress is discussed. PMID:19522844

  17. PPAR-gamma AF-2 domain functions as a component of a ubiquitin-dependent degradation signal.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Gail E; Zhang, Xiaoying; Floyd, Z Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) functions as the "master switch" in adipocyte development and is important in regulating glucose metabolism. PPAR-gamma is rapidly degraded in adipocytes by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway under basal and ligand-activated conditions. Proteasome inhibition increases PPAR-gamma activity, indicating disposal of PPAR-gamma by the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates PPAR-gamma activity. However, the signals and factors required for recognition of PPAR-gamma by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway are unknown. To begin understanding how the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway interacts with PPAR-gamma, we designed a series of constructs containing each PPAR-gamma domain expressed as a fusion protein with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. The ability of each PPAR-gamma domain to alter the stability of the GAL4 DNA-binding domain and to undergo ubiquitylation was assessed via western blot analysis. In addition, luciferase reporter assays were used to assay PPAR-gamma transcriptional activity. Using this approach, we determined that the AF-1 and ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of PPAR-gamma are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. However, only the LBD is conjugated to ubiquitin. The AF-2 helix of the LBD is required for maximum ubiquitylation, but is not essential for ligand-dependent ubiquitin conjugation. Finally, luciferase reporter assays show a fully functional ubiquitin system is required for PPAR-gamma activation. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is an integral determinant of PPAR-gamma activity, targeting PPAR-gamma for proteasomal degradation via ubiquitin independent and ubiquitin dependent mechanisms. PMID:19148122

  18. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Alzheimer's Disease and Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bing; Radulovic, Miroslav; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E; Cardozo, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a crucial protein degradation system in eukaryotes. Herein, we will review advances in the understanding of the role of several proteins of the UPS in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The UPS consists of many factors that include E3 ubiquitin ligases, ubiquitin hydrolases, ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules, and the proteasome itself. An extensive body of work links UPS dysfunction with AD pathogenesis and progression. More recently, the UPS has been shown to have vital roles in recovery of function after SCI. The ubiquitin hydrolase (Uch-L1) has been proposed to increase cellular levels of mono-ubiquitin and hence to increase rates of protein turnover by the UPS. A low Uch-L1 level has been linked with A? accumulation in AD and reduced neuroregeneration after SCI. One likely mechanism for these beneficial effects of Uch-L1 is reduced turnover of the PKA regulatory subunit and consequently, reduced signaling via CREB. The neuron-specific F-box protein Fbx2 ubiquitinates ?-secretase thus targeting it for proteasomal degradation and reducing generation of A?. Both Uch-L1 and Fbx2 improve synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in mouse AD models. The role of Fbx2 after SCI has not been examined, but abolishing -secretase reduces neuronal recovery after SCI, associated with reduced myelination. UBB+1, which arises through a frame-shift mutation in the ubiquitin gene that adds 19 amino acids to the C-terminus of ubiquitin, inhibits proteasomal function and is associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles in patients with AD, Pick's disease and Down's syndrome. These advances in understanding of the roles of the UPS in AD and SCI raise new questions but, also, identify attractive and exciting targets for potential, future therapeutic interventions. PMID:26858599

  19. Atrophy, hypertrophy, and hypoxemia induce transcriptional regulators of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the rat heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In skeletal muscle, transcript levels of proteins regulating the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) increase with atrophy and decrease with hypertrophy. Whether the same is true for heart muscle is not known. We set out to characterize the transcriptional profile of regulators of the UPS during atrop...

  20. Targeting the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Heart Disease: The Basis for New Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Novel therapeutic strategies to treat heart failure are greatly needed. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) affects the structure and function of cardiac cells through targeted degradation of signaling and structural proteins. This review discusses both beneficial and detrimental consequences of modulating the UPS in the heart. Recent Advances: Proteasome inhibitors were first used to test the role of the UPS in cardiac disease phenotypes, indicating therapeutic potential. In early cardiac remodeling and pathological hypertrophy with increased proteasome activities, proteasome inhibition prevented or restricted disease progression and contractile dysfunction. Conversely, enhancing proteasome activities by genetic manipulation, pharmacological intervention, or ischemic preconditioning also improved the outcome of cardiomyopathies and infarcted hearts with impaired cardiac and UPS function, which is, at least in part, caused by oxidative damage. Critical Issues: An understanding of the UPS status and the underlying mechanisms for its potential deregulation in cardiac disease is critical for targeted interventions. Several studies indicate that type and stage of cardiac disease influence the dynamics of UPS regulation in a nonlinear and multifactorial manner. Proteasome inhibitors targeting all proteasome complexes are associated with cardiotoxicity in humans. Furthermore, the type and dosage of proteasome inhibitor impact the pathogenesis in nonuniform ways. Future Directions: Systematic analysis and targeting of individual UPS components with established and innovative tools will unravel and discriminate regulatory mechanisms that contribute to and protect against the progression of cardiac disease. Integrating this knowledge in drug design may reduce adverse effects on the heart as observed in patients treated with proteasome inhibitors against noncardiac diseases, especially cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 23222343. PMID:25133688

  1. Regulation of TRAIL-Receptor Expression by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Sarhan, Dhifaf; DArcy, Padraig; Lundqvist, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- receptor (TRAIL-R) family has emerged as a key mediator of cell fate and survival. Ligation of TRAIL ligand to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway characterized by the recruitment of death domains, assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), caspase activation and ultimately apoptosis. Conversely the decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4, which lack the pro-apoptotic death domain, function to dampen the apoptotic response by competing for TRAIL ligand. The tissue restricted expression of the decoy receptors on normal but not cancer cells provides a therapeutic rational for the development of selective TRAIL-mediated anti-tumor therapies. Recent clinical trials using agonistic antibodies against the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptors or recombinant TRAIL have been promising; however the number of patients in complete remission remains stubbornly low. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance are relatively unexplored but may in part be due to TRAIL-R down-regulation or shedding of TRAIL-R by tumor cells. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying TRAIL resistance is required. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been shown to regulate TRAIL-R members suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the UPS may be a novel strategy to augment TRAIL-based therapies and increase efficacies. We recently identified b-AP15 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. Interestingly, exposure of tumor cell lines to b-AP15 resulted in increased TRAIL-R2 expression and enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cell death in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, targeting the UPS may represent a novel strategy to increase the cell surface expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL-R on cancer cells and should be considered in clinical trials targeting TRAIL-receptors in cancer patients. PMID:25318057

  2. Search for Inhibitors of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System from Natural Sources for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval of the proteasome inhibitor, Velcade(®), by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma, inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been attracting increasing attention as promising drug leads for cancer therapy. While the development of drugs for diseases related to this proteolytic system has mainly been achieved by searching libraries of synthetic small molecules or chemical modifications to drug leads, limited searches have been conducted on natural sources. We have been searching natural sources for inhibitors that target this proteolytic system through in-house screening. Our recent studies on the search for natural inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, particularly, inhibitors against the proteasome, E1 enzyme (Uba1), E2 enzyme (Ubc13-Uev1A heterodimer), and E3 enzyme (Hdm2), and also those against deubiquitinating enzyme (USP7), are reviewed here. PMID:26833439

  3. Mitochondrial and Ubiquitin Proteasome System Dysfunction in Ageing and Disease: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jaime M.; Olson, Lars; Coppotelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system have been described as two hallmarks of the ageing process. Additionally, both systems have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of many age-related diseases, particularly neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Interestingly, these two systems are closely interconnected, with the ubiquitin proteasome system maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis by regulating organelle dynamics, the proteome, and mitophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction impairing cellular protein homeostasis by oxidative damage. Here, we review the current literature and argue that the interplay of the two systems should be considered in order to better understand the cellular dysfunction observed in ageing and age-related diseases. Such an approach may provide valuable insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process, and further discovery of treatments to counteract ageing and its associated diseases. Furthermore, we provide a hypothetical model for the heterogeneity described among individuals during ageing. PMID:26287188

  4. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feilong; Lerman, Amir; Herrmann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an integral part of the protein metabolism and protein quality control in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in a number of biological processes of significance for vascular biology and pathology such as oxidative stress, inflammation, foam cell formation, and apoptosis. This review summarizes both indirect and direct lines of evidence for a role of the UPS in atherosclerosis from the initiation to the progression and complication stage and concludes with a future perspective. PMID:26064796

  5. Defective regulation of the ubiquitin/proteasome system in the hypothalamus of obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Ignacio-Souza, Leticia M; Bombassaro, Bruna; Pascoal, Livia B; Portovedo, Mariana A; Razolli, Daniela S; Coope, Andressa; Victorio, Sheila C; de Moura, Rodrigo F; Nascimento, Lucas F; Arruda, Ana P; Anhe, Gabriel F; Milanski, Marciane; Velloso, Licio A

    2014-08-01

    In both human and experimental obesity, inflammatory damage to the hypothalamus plays an important role in the loss of the coordinated control of food intake and energy expenditure. Upon prolonged maintenance of increased body mass, the brain changes the defended set point of adiposity, and returning to normal weight becomes extremely difficult. Here we show that in prolonged but not in short-term obesity, the ubiquitin/proteasome system in the hypothalamus fails to maintain an adequate rate of protein recycling, leading to the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. This is accompanied by an increased colocalization of ubiquitin and p62 in the arcuate nucleus and reduced expression of autophagy markers in the hypothalamus. Genetic protection from obesity is accompanied by the normal regulation of the ubiquitin/proteasome system in the hypothalamus, whereas the inhibition of proteasome or p62 results in the acceleration of body mass gain in mice exposed for a short period to a high-fat diet. Thus, the defective regulation of the ubiquitin/proteasome system in the hypothalamus may be an important mechanism involved in the progression and autoperpetuation of obesity. PMID:24892821

  6. Reproductive Cytotoxicity Is Predicted by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy and Confirmed by Ubiquitin Proteasome Immunohistochemistry in a Theophylline-Induced Model of Rat Testicular and Epididymal Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengowski, M. W.; Sutovsky, P.; Hedlund, L. W.; Guyot, D. J.; Burkhardt, J. E.; Thompson, W. E.; Sutovsky, M.; Johnson, G. A.

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the testicular changes in the rat induced by the nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and ubiquitin immunostaining techniques. In vivo T1- and T2-weighted images were acquired at 2 T under anesthesia. Increased signal observed in the theophylline-treated rats suggests that leakage of MRM contrast was occurring. In vivo MRM results indicate that day 16 testis displayed an increased T1-weighted water signal in the area of the seminiferous tubule that decreased by day 32. These findings were validated by histopathology, suggesting that in vivo MRM has the sensitivity to predict changes in testis and epididymal tissues. The participation of the ubiquitin system was investigated, using probes for various markers of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. MRM can be used to detect subtle changes in the vascular perfusion of organ systems, and the up-regulation/mobilization of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may be one of the mechanisms used in theophylline-treated epididymis to remove damaged cells before storage in the cauda epididymis. The combined use of in vivo MRM and subsequent tissue or seminal analysis for the presence of ubiquitin in longitudinal studies may become an important biomarker for assessing testis toxicities drug studies.

  7. The ubiquitin-proteasome system in cancer, a major player in DNA repair. Part 1: post-translational regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J; Patrikidou, Anna; Daliani, Danai D; Papandreou, Christos N

    2009-01-01

    DNA repair is a fundamental cellular function, indispensable for cell survival, especially in conditions of exposure to environmental or pharmacological effectors of DNA damage. The regulation of this function requires a flexible machinery to orchestrate the reversal of harmful DNA lesions by making use of existing proteins as well as inducible gene products. The accumulation of evidence for the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in DNA repair pathways, that is reviewed here, has expanded its role from a cellular waste disposal basket to a multi-dimensional regulatory system. This review is the first of two that attempt to illustrate the nature and interactions of all different DNA repair pathways where UPS is demonstrated to be involved, with special focus on cancer- and chemotherapy-related DNA-damage repair. In this first review, we will be presenting the proteolytic and non-proteolytic roles of UPS in the post-translational regulation of DNA repair proteins, while the second review will focus on the UPS-dependent transcriptional response of DNA repair after DNA damage and stress. PMID:19522845

  8. Targeting botulinum neurotoxin persistence by the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yien Che; Maditz, Rhyan; Kuo, Chueh-ling; Fishman, Paul S.; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Oyler, George A.; Weissman, Allan M.

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent natural toxins known. The effects of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) can last several months, whereas the effects of BoNT serotype E (BoNT/E), which shares the same synaptic target, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), last only several weeks. The long-lasting effects or persistence of BoNT/A, although desirable for therapeutic applications, presents a challenge for medical treatment of BoNT intoxication. Although the mechanisms for BoNT toxicity are well known, little is known about the mechanisms that govern the persistence of the toxins. We show that the recombinant catalytic light chain (LC) of BoNT/E is ubiquitylated and rapidly degraded in cells. In contrast, BoNT/A LC is considerably more stable. Differential susceptibility of the catalytic LCs to ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis therefore might explain the differential persistence of BoNT serotypes. In this regard we show that TRAF2, a RING finger protein implicated in ubiquitylation, selectively associates with BoNT/E LC and promotes its proteasomal degradation. Given these data, we asked whether BoNT/A LC could be targeted for rapid proteasomal degradation by redirecting it to characterized ubiquitin ligase domains. We describe chimeric SNAP25-based ubiquitin ligases that target BoNT/A LC for degradation, reducing its duration in a cellular model for toxin persistence. PMID:20823219

  9. Ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated proteolysis is involved in the response to flooding stress in soybean roots, independent of oxygen limitation.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Yuki; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-04-01

    Ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated proteolysis plays an important role in the response to several environmental stresses. Here, we described the relationship of the proteolysis in the flooding stress in soybean (Glycine max L. cultivar Enrei). Immunoblot analyses were performed using antibodies against two subunits of 26S proteasome, Rpt5 and Rpn10, 20S proteasome and two subunits of COP9 signalosome (CSN), CSN4 and CSN5, to compare between flooded and untreated roots. We also examined their protein amounts in the condition of low oxygen. Moreover, crude extracts from flooded or untreated roots incubated with or without a proteasome inhibitor MG132 were analyzed by proteomics technique. We revealed that the amount of ubiquitinated proteins in soybean roots decreased after flooding treatment and increased to levels similar to controls after de-submergence. Both CSN4 and CSN5 accumulated following flooding treatment, although no significant difference was observed in proteasome. Low oxygen had no effect on the amount of ubiquitinated proteins or CSN4. By 2D-PAGE, the amount of 6 proteins changed significantly following MG132 treatment in flooding stressed plants. We conclude that the accumulation of CSN proteins might enhance the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins independent of hypoxia caused by flooding, thereby lowering their abundance during flooding stress. PMID:22325888

  10. Phosphorylation and activation of ubiquitin-specific protease-14 by Akt regulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Daichao; Shan, Bing; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Zhu, Kezhou; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Huawang; Liu, Min; Shi, Linyu; Liang, Wei; Qian, Lihui; Xiao, Juan; Wang, Lili; Pan, Lifeng; Finley, Daniel; Yuan, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), which controls the turnover of short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells, is critical in maintaining cellular proteostasis. Here we show that USP14, a major deubiquitinating enzyme that regulates the UPS, is a substrate of Akt, a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase critical in mediating intracellular signaling transducer for growth factors. We report that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of USP14 at Ser432, which normally blocks its catalytic site in the inactive conformation, activates its deubiquitinating activity in vitro and in cells. We also demonstrate that phosphorylation of USP14 is critical for Akt to regulate proteasome activity and consequently global protein degradation. Since Akt can be activated by a wide range of growth factors and is under negative control by phosphoinosotide phosphatase PTEN, we suggest that regulation of UPS by Akt-mediated phosphorylation of USP14 may provide a common mechanism for growth factors to control global proteostasis and for promoting tumorigenesis in PTEN-negative cancer cells. PMID:26523394

  11. Phosphorylation and activation of ubiquitin-specific protease-14 by Akt regulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daichao; Shan, Bing; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Zhu, Kezhou; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Huawang; Liu, Min; Shi, Linyu; Liang, Wei; Qian, Lihui; Xiao, Juan; Wang, Lili; Pan, Lifeng; Finley, Daniel; Yuan, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), which controls the turnover of short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells, is critical in maintaining cellular proteostasis. Here we show that USP14, a major deubiquitinating enzyme that regulates the UPS, is a substrate of Akt, a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase critical in mediating intracellular signaling transducer for growth factors. We report that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of USP14 at Ser432, which normally blocks its catalytic site in the inactive conformation, activates its deubiquitinating activity in vitro and in cells. We also demonstrate that phosphorylation of USP14 is critical for Akt to regulate proteasome activity and consequently global protein degradation. Since Akt can be activated by a wide range of growth factors and is under negative control by phosphoinosotide phosphatase PTEN, we suggest that regulation of UPS by Akt-mediated phosphorylation of USP14 may provide a common mechanism for growth factors to control global proteostasis and for promoting tumorigenesis in PTEN-negative cancer cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10510.001 PMID:26523394

  12. The UbiquitinProteasome System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Daniel; Ulrich, Helle D.; Sommer, Thomas; Kaiser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Protein modifications provide cells with exquisite temporal and spatial control of protein function. Ubiquitin is among the most important modifiers, serving both to target hundreds of proteins for rapid degradation by the proteasome, and as a dynamic signaling agent that regulates the function of covalently bound proteins. The diverse effects of ubiquitylation reflect the assembly of structurally distinct ubiquitin chains on target proteins. The resulting ubiquitin code is interpreted by an extensive family of ubiquitin receptors. Here we review the components of this regulatory network and its effects throughout the cell. PMID:23028185

  13. Regulation of autophagy and the ubiquitinproteasome system by the FoxO transcriptional network during muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Giulia; Romanello, Vanina; Pescatore, Francesca; Armani, Andrea; Paik, Ji-Hye; Frasson, Laura; Seydel, Anke; Zhao, Jinghui; Abraham, Reimar; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Blaauw, Bert; DePinho, Ronald A.; Sandri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Stresses like low nutrients, systemic inflammation, cancer or infections provoke a catabolic state characterized by enhanced muscle proteolysis and amino acid release to sustain liver gluconeogenesis and tissue protein synthesis. These conditions activate the family of Forkhead Box (Fox) O transcription factors. Here we report that muscle-specific deletion of FoxO members protects from muscle loss as a result of the role of FoxOs in the induction of autophagylysosome and ubiquitinproteasome systems. Notably, in the setting of low nutrient signalling, we demonstrate that FoxOs are required for Akt activity but not for mTOR signalling. FoxOs control several stressresponse pathways such as the unfolded protein response, ROS detoxification, DNA repair and translation. Finally, we identify FoxO-dependent ubiquitin ligases including MUSA1 and a previously uncharacterised ligase termed SMART (Specific of Muscle Atrophy and Regulated by Transcription). Our findings underscore the central function of FoxOs in coordinating a variety of stress-response genes during catabolic conditions. PMID:25858807

  14. Regulation of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system by the FoxO transcriptional network during muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Giulia; Romanello, Vanina; Pescatore, Francesca; Armani, Andrea; Paik, Ji-Hye; Frasson, Laura; Seydel, Anke; Zhao, Jinghui; Abraham, Reimar; Goldberg, Alfred L; Blaauw, Bert; DePinho, Ronald A; Sandri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Stresses like low nutrients, systemic inflammation, cancer or infections provoke a catabolic state characterized by enhanced muscle proteolysis and amino acid release to sustain liver gluconeogenesis and tissue protein synthesis. These conditions activate the family of Forkhead Box (Fox) O transcription factors. Here we report that muscle-specific deletion of FoxO members protects from muscle loss as a result of the role of FoxOs in the induction of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems. Notably, in the setting of low nutrient signalling, we demonstrate that FoxOs are required for Akt activity but not for mTOR signalling. FoxOs control several stress-response pathways such as the unfolded protein response, ROS detoxification, DNA repair and translation. Finally, we identify FoxO-dependent ubiquitin ligases including MUSA1 and a previously uncharacterised ligase termed SMART (Specific of Muscle Atrophy and Regulated by Transcription). Our findings underscore the central function of FoxOs in coordinating a variety of stress-response genes during catabolic conditions. PMID:25858807

  15. Mechanisms Stimulating Muscle Wasting in Chronic Kidney Disease: The Roles of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Myostatin

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sandhya S.; Mitch, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Catabolic conditions including chronic kidney disease (CKD), cancer, and diabetes cause muscle atrophy. The loss of muscle mass worsens the burden of disease because it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To avoid these problems or to develop treatment strategies, the mechanisms leading to muscle wasting must be identified. Specific mechanisms uncovered in CKD generally occur in other catabolic conditions. These include stimulation of protein degradation in muscle arising from activation of caspase-3 and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). These proteases act in a coordinated fashion with caspase-3 initially cleaving the complex structure of proteins in muscle yielding fragments that are substrates which are degraded by the UPS. Fortunately, the UPS exhibits remarkable specificity for proteins to be degraded because it is the major intracellular proteolytic system. Without a high level of specificity cellular functions would be disrupted. The specificity is accomplished by complex reactions that depend on recognition of a protein substrate by specific E3 ubiquitin ligases. In muscle, the specific ligases are Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 and their expression has characteristics of a biomarker of accelerated muscle proteolysis. Specific complications of CKD (metabolic acidosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, and angiotensin II) activate caspase-3 and the UPS through mechanisms that include glucocorticoids and impaired insulin or IGF-1 signaling. Mediators activate myostatin which functions as a negative growth factor in muscle. In models of cancer or CKD, strategies that block myostatin prevent muscle wasting suggesting that therapies which block myostatin could prevent muscle wasting in catabolic conditions. PMID:23292175

  16. A Chaperone-Assisted Degradation Pathway Targets Kinetochore Proteins to Ensure Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Kriegenburg, Franziska; Jakopec, Visnja; Poulsen, Esben G.; Nielsen, Sofie Vincents; Roguev, Assen; Krogan, Nevan; Gordon, Colin; Fleig, Ursula; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Cells are regularly exposed to stress conditions that may lead to protein misfolding. To cope with this challenge, molecular chaperones selectively target structurally perturbed proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In mammals the co-chaperone BAG-1 plays an important role in this system. BAG-1 has two orthologues, Bag101 and Bag102, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that both Bag101 and Bag102 interact with 26S proteasomes and Hsp70. By epistasis mapping we identify a mutant in the conserved kinetochore component Spc7 (Spc105/Blinkin) as a target for a quality control system that also involves, Hsp70, Bag102, the 26S proteasome, Ubc4 and the ubiquitin-ligases Ubr11 and San1. Accordingly, chromosome missegregation of spc7 mutant strains is alleviated by mutation of components in this pathway. In addition, we isolated a dominant negative version of the deubiquitylating enzyme, Ubp3, as a suppressor of the spc7-23 phenotype, suggesting that the proteasome-associated Ubp3 is required for this degradation system. Finally, our data suggest that the identified pathway is also involved in quality control of other kinetochore components and therefore likely to be a common degradation mechanism to ensure nuclear protein homeostasis and genome integrity. PMID:24497846

  17. Metabolomic Quantitative Trait Loci (mQTL) Mapping Implicates the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Cardiovascular Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, William E.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Stevens, Robert; Craig, Damian; Bain, James R.; Grass, Elizabeth; Haynes, Carol; Kwee, Lydia; Qin, Xuejun; Slentz, Dorothy H.; Krupp, Deidre; Muehlbauer, Michael; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Gregory, Simon G.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Shah, Svati H.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of certain circulating short-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (SCDA), long-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (LCDA) and medium chain acylcarnitine (MCA) metabolites are heritable and predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Little is known about the biological pathways that influence levels of most of these metabolites. Here, we analyzed genetics, epigenetics, and transcriptomics with metabolomics in samples from a large CVD cohort to identify novel genetic markers for CVD and to better understand the role of metabolites in CVD pathogenesis. Using genomewide association in the CATHGEN cohort (N = 1490), we observed associations of several metabolites with genetic loci. Our strongest findings were for SCDA metabolite levels with variants in genes that regulate components of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (USP3, HERC1, STIM1, SEL1L, FBXO25, SUGT1) These findings were validated in a second cohort of CATHGEN subjects (N = 2022, combined p = 8.4x10-6–2.3x10-10). Importantly, variants in these genes independently predicted CVD events. Association of genomewide methylation profiles with SCDA metabolites identified two ER stress genes as differentially methylated (BRSK2 and HOOK2). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) pathway analyses driven by gene variants and SCDA metabolites corroborated perturbations in ER stress and highlighted the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) arm. Moreover, culture of human kidney cells in the presence of levels of fatty acids found in individuals with cardiometabolic disease, induced accumulation of SCDA metabolites in parallel with increases in the ER stress marker BiP. Thus, our integrative strategy implicates the UPS arm of the ER stress pathway in CVD pathogenesis, and identifies novel genetic loci associated with CVD event risk. PMID:26540294

  18. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Alzheimer’s Disease and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Bing; Radulovic, Miroslav; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.; Cardozo, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a crucial protein degradation system in eukaryotes. Herein, we will review advances in the understanding of the role of several proteins of the UPS in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The UPS consists of many factors that include E3 ubiquitin ligases, ubiquitin hydrolases, ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules, and the proteasome itself. An extensive body of work links UPS dysfunction with AD pathogenesis and progression. More recently, the UPS has been shown to have vital roles in recovery of function after SCI. The ubiquitin hydrolase (Uch-L1) has been proposed to increase cellular levels of mono-ubiquitin and hence to increase rates of protein turnover by the UPS. A low Uch-L1 level has been linked with Aβ accumulation in AD and reduced neuroregeneration after SCI. One likely mechanism for these beneficial effects of Uch-L1 is reduced turnover of the PKA regulatory subunit and consequently, reduced signaling via CREB. The neuron-specific F-box protein Fbx2 ubiquitinates β-secretase thus targeting it for proteasomal degradation and reducing generation of Aβ. Both Uch-L1 and Fbx2 improve synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in mouse AD models. The role of Fbx2 after SCI has not been examined, but abolishing ß-secretase reduces neuronal recovery after SCI, associated with reduced myelination. UBB+1, which arises through a frame-shift mutation in the ubiquitin gene that adds 19 amino acids to the C-terminus of ubiquitin, inhibits proteasomal function and is associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles in patients with AD, Pick’s disease and Down’s syndrome. These advances in understanding of the roles of the UPS in AD and SCI raise new questions but, also, identify attractive and exciting targets for potential, future therapeutic interventions. PMID:26858599

  19. Cadmium interferes with the degradation of ATF5 via a post-ubiquitination step of the proteasome degradation pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Uekusa, Hiroyuki; Namimatsu, Mihoko; Hiwatashi, Yusuke; Akimoto, Takuya; Nishida, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Shigeru Takahashi, Yuji

    2009-03-13

    ATF5 is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. In the current study, using a transient transfection system to express FLAG epitope fusion proteins of ATF5, we have shown that CdCl{sub 2} or NaAsO{sub 3} increases the protein levels of ATF5 in cells, and that cadmium stabilizes the ATF5 protein. Proteasome inhibitors had a similar effect to cadmium on the cellular accumulation of ATF5. Proteasome inhibition led to an increase in ubiquitinated ATF5, while cadmium did not appear to reduce the extent of ATF5 ubiquitination. ATF5 contains a putative nuclear export signal within its N-terminus. We demonstrated that whereas deletion of N-terminal region resulted in a increase of ATF5 levels, this region does not appear to be involved in the ubiquitination of ATF5. These results indicate that ATF5 is targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and that cadmium slows the rate of ATF5 degradation via a post-ubiquitination mechanism.

  20. Pathogenesis of human mitochondrial diseases is modulated by reduced activity of the ubiquitin/proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Segref, Alexandra; Kevei, va; Pokrzywa, Wojciech; Schmeisser, Kathrin; Mansfeld, Johannes; Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; Ensenauer, Regina; Glickman, Michael H; Ristow, Michael; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondria maintain cellular homeostasis by coordinating ATP synthesis with metabolic activity, redox signaling, and apoptosis. Excessive levels of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote mitochondrial dysfunction, triggering numerous metabolic disorders. However, the molecular basis for the harmful effects of excessive ROS formation is largely unknown. Here, we identify a link between mitochondrial stress and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, which supports cellular surveillance both in Caenorhabditis elegans and humans. Worms defective in respiration with elevated ROS levels are limited in turnover of a GFP-based substrate protein, demonstrating that mitochondrial stress affects the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS). Intriguingly, we observed similar proteolytic defects for disease-causing IVD and COX1 mutations associated with mitochondrial failure in humans. Together, these results identify a conserved link between mitochondrial metabolism and ubiquitin-dependent proteostasis. Reduced UPS activity during pathological conditions might potentiate disease progression and thus provides a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24703696

  1. Regulation of Pluripotency and Cellular Reprogramming by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Shannon M.; Aranda-Orgilles, Beatriz; Strikoudis, Alexandros; Apostolou, Effie; Loizou, Evangelia; Moran-Crusio, Kelly; Farnsworth, Charles L.; Koller, Antonius A.; Dasgupta, Ramanuj; Silva, Jeffrey C.; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Chen, Emily I.; Aifantis, Iannis

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While transcriptional regulation of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation has been extensively studied, only a small number of studies have addressed the roles for post-translational modifications in these processes. A key mechanism of post-translational modification is ubiquitination by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Here we map, using shotgun proteomics, the ubiquitinated protein landscape during ES cell differentiation and induced pluripotency. Moreover, using UPS-targeted RNAi screens, we identify novel regulators of pluripotency and differentiation. We focus on two of these proteins, the deubiquitinating enzyme, Psmd14, and the E3 ligase, Fbxw7, and characterize their importance in ES cell pluripotency and cellular reprogramming. This is the first global characterization of the UPS as a key regulator of stem cell pluripotency, opening the way for future studies that focus on specific UPS enzymes or ubiquitinated substrates. PMID:23103054

  2. Accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates in a polyglutamine disease model occurs without global ubiquitin/proteasome system impairment

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Christa J.; Bttcher, Claudia; Ortega, Zaira; Smith, Ruben; Florea, Bogdan I.; Daz-Hernndez, Miguel; Brundin, Patrik; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Li, Jia-Yi; Lucas, Jose J.; Dantuma, Nico P.

    2009-01-01

    Aggregation-prone proteins have been suggested to overwhelm and impair the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD). Overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin (N-mutHtt), an aggregation-prone polyQ protein responsible for HD, obstructs the UPS in cellular models. Furthermore, based on the accumulation of polyubiquitin conjugates in brains of R6/2 mice, which express human N-mutHtt and are one of the most severe polyQ disorder models, it has been proposed that UPS dysfunction is a consistent feature of this pathology, occurring in both in vitro and in vivo models. Here, we have exploited transgenic mice that ubiquitously express a ubiquitin fusion degradation proteasome substrate to directly assess the functionality of the UPS in R6/2 mice or the slower onset R6/1 mice. Although expression of N-mutHtt caused a general inhibition of the UPS in PC12 cells, we did not observe an increase in the levels of proteasome reporter substrate in the brains of R6/2 and R6/1 mice. We show that the increase in ubiquitin conjugates in R6/2 mice can be primarily attributed to an accumulation of large ubiquitin conjugates that are different from the conjugates observed upon UPS inhibition. Together our data show that polyubiquitylated proteins accumulate in R6/2 brain despite a largely operative UPS, and suggest that neurons are able to avoid or compensate for the inhibitory effects of N-mutHtt. PMID:19666572

  3. Protein Degradation Pathways Regulate the Functions of Helicases in the DNA Damage Response and Maintenance of Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Joshua A.; Suhasini, Avvaru N.; Brosh, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of helicases or helicase-like proteins, often mediated by ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways, plays important regulatory roles in cellular mechanisms that respond to DNA damage or replication stress. The Blooms syndrome helicase (BLM) provides an example of how helicase degradation pathways, regulated by post-translational modifications and protein interactions with components of the Fanconi Anemia (FA) interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair pathway, influence cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, and replication restart. The FANCM DNA translocase can be targeted by checkpoint kinases that exert dramatic effects on FANCM stability and chromosomal integrity. Other work provides evidence that degradation of the F-box DNA helicase (FBH1) helps to balance translesion synthesis (TLS) and homologous recombination (HR) repair at blocked replication forks. Degradation of the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a DNA translocase and ubiquitylating enzyme, influences the choice of post replication repair (PRR) pathway. Stability of the Werner syndrome helicase-nuclease (WRN) involved in the replication stress response is regulated by its acetylation. Turning to transcription, stability of the Cockayne Syndrome Group B DNA translocase (CSB) implicated in transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is regulated by a CSA ubiquitin ligase complex enabling recovery of RNA synthesis. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that helicases can be targeted for degradation to maintain genome homeostasis. PMID:25906194

  4. Effect of lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction on the abnormal aggregation of ?-synuclein in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, RUNQING; ZHAO, JIE; ZHANG, JIEWEN; LIU, WEI; ZHAO, MEIYING; LI, JIANGTAO; LV, JUAN; LI, YANAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction on the abnormal aggregation of ?-synuclein, and to analyze its role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). PC12 cells subjected to nerve growth factor-induced differentiation were used as the cell model to study the dopaminergic neurons, and the lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E64) and, respectively, were used exclusively and in combination to treat the PC12 cells. The viability and metabolic state of the cells was assessed using the MTT assay; flow cytometry was used to measure the rate of cell apoptosis; and the double immunofluorescence method was applied to observe the formation of thioflavin S- and ?-synuclein protein-positive aggregates and inclusion bodies in the PC12 cells. In addition, the Hoechst 33258 staining method was used to observe the apoptosis of the ?-synuclein protein and thioflavin-S double-labeled cells. Following the administration of the lysosomal and proteasomal pathway inhibitors, the cell viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and the cell apoptosis rate increased. The proportion of PC12 cells with ?-synuclein protein-positive aggregates and inclusion bodies in the E64 group was 7.94%, compared with 20.33 and 36.77% in the lactacystin and combination treatment groups, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the number of inclusion body-positive cells in the treatment groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.78%) (P<0.05). Apoptosis was evident in the double-positive cells with ?-synuclein protein-positive inclusion bodies (17.291.54%). In conclusion, lysosomal and proteasomal dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD through the induction of abnormal ?-synuclein protein aggregation in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26136940

  5. A therapeutic dose of doxorubicin activates ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated proteolysis by acting on both the ubiquitination apparatus and proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinbao; Zheng, Hanqiao; Tang, Mingxin; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Wang, Xuejun

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) degrades abnormal proteins and most unneeded normal proteins, thereby playing a critical role in protein homeostasis in the cell. Proteasome inhibition is effective in treating certain forms of cancer, while UPS dysfunction is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of many severe and yet common diseases. It has been previously shown that doxorubicin (Dox) enhances the degradation of a UPS surrogate substrate in mouse hearts. To address the underlying mechanism, in the present study, we report that 1) Dox not only enhances the degradation of an exogenous UPS reporter (GFPu) but also antagonizes the proteasome inhibitor-induced accumulation of endogenous substrates (e.g., β-catenin and c-Jun) of the UPS in cultured NIH 3T3 cells and cardiomyocytes; 2) Dox facilitates the in vitro degradation of GFPu and c-Jun by the reconstituted UPS via the enhancement of proteasomal function; 3) Dox at a therapeutically relevant dose directly stimulates the peptidase activities of purified 20S proteasomes; and 4) Dox increases, whereas proteasome inhibition decreases, E3 ligase COOH-terminus of heat shock protein cognate 70 in 3T3 cells via a posttranscriptional mechanism. These new findings suggest that Dox activates the UPS by acting directly on both the ubiquitination apparatus and proteasome. PMID:18978187

  6. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Lucie; Schlossarek, Saskia; Willis, Monte S; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2010-01-15

    Cardiomyopathies represent an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death. Most forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are familial with an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. Over the last 20 years, the genetic basis of the disease has been largely unravelled. HCM is considered as a sarcomeropathy involving mutations in sarcomeric proteins, most often beta-myosin heavy chain and cardiac myosin-binding protein C. 'Missense' mutations, more common in the former, are associated with dysfunctional proteins stably integrated into the sarcomere. 'Nonsense' and frameshift mutations, more common in the latter, are associated with low mRNA and protein levels derived from the diseased allele, leading to haploinsufficiency of the remaining healthy allele. The two quality control systems responsible for the removal of the affected mRNAs and proteins are the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), respectively. This review discusses clinical and genetic aspects of HCM and the role of NMD and UPS in the regulation of mutant proteins, evidence for impairment of UPS as a pathogenic factor, as well as potential therapies for HCM. PMID:19617224

  7. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Molecular Chaperone Deregulation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sulistio, Yanuar Alan; Heese, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    One of the shared hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of misfolded proteins. Therefore, it is suspected that normal proteostasis is crucial for neuronal survival in the brain and that the malfunction of this mechanism may be the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases. The accumulation of amyloid plaques (APs) composed of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of misfolded Tau proteins are the defining pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The accumulation of these proteins indicates a faulty protein quality control in the AD brain. An impaired ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) could lead to negative consequences for protein regulation, including loss of function. Another pivotal mechanism for the prevention of misfolded protein accumulation is the utilization of molecular chaperones. Molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), are highly involved in protein regulation to ensure proper folding and normal function. In this review, we elaborate on the molecular basis of AD pathophysiology using recent data, with a particular focus on the role of the UPS and molecular chaperones as the defensive mechanism against misfolded proteins that have prion-like properties. In addition, we propose a rational therapy approach based on this mechanism. PMID:25561438

  8. Functions of plastid protein import and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in plastid development.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qihua; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Plastids, such as chloroplasts, are widely distributed endosymbiotic organelles in plants and algae. Apart from their well-known functions in photosynthesis, they have roles in processes as diverse as signal sensing, fruit ripening, and seed development. As most plastid proteins are produced in the cytosol, plastids have developed dedicated translocon machineries for protein import, comprising the TOC (translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts) and TIC (translocon at the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts) complexes. Multiple lines of evidence reveal that protein import via the TOC complex is actively regulated, based on the specific interplay between distinct receptor isoforms and diverse client proteins. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of protein import regulation, particularly in relation to control by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and how such regulation changes plastid development. The diversity of plastid import receptors (and of corresponding preprotein substrates) has a determining role in plastid differentiation and interconversion. The controllable turnover of TOC components by the UPS influences the developmental fate of plastids, which is fundamentally linked to plant development. Understanding the mechanisms by which plastid protein import is controlled is critical to the development of breakthrough approaches to increase the yield, quality and stress tolerance of important crop plants, which are highly dependent on plastid development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. PMID:25762164

  9. Polypharmacology of small molecules targeting the ubiquitinproteasome and ubiquitin-like systems

    PubMed Central

    Amelio, Ivano; Landr, Vivien; Knight, Richard A.; Lisitsa, Andrey; Melino, Gerry; Antonov, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS) and ubiquitin-like signalling systems (UBL) has been considered a promising therapeutic strategy to treat cancer, neurodegenerative and immunological disorders. There have been multiple efforts recently to identify novel compounds that efficiently modulate the activities of different disease-specific components of the UPS-UBL. However, it is evident that polypharmacology (the ability to affect multiple independent protein targets) is a basic property of small molecules and even highly potent molecules would have a number of off target effects. Here we have explored publicly available high-throughput screening data covering a wide spectrum of currently accepted drug targets in order to understand polypharmacology of small molecules targeting different components of the UPS-UBL. We have demonstrated that molecules targeting a given UPS-UBL protein also have high odds to target a given off target spectrum. Moreover, the off target spectrum differs significantly between different components of UPS-UBL. This information can be utilized further in drug discovery efforts, to improve drug efficiency and to reduce the risk of potential side effects of the prospective drugs designed to target specific UPS-UBL components. PMID:25991664

  10. Cereblon is recruited to aggresome and shows cytoprotective effect against ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Naoya; Wakabayashi, Satoru; Matsumoto, Kodai; Yamada, Haruka; Asahi, Toru

    2015-09-01

    Cereblon (CRBN) is encoded by a candidate gene for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability (ID). The nonsense mutation, R419X, causes deletion of 24 amino acids at the C-terminus of CRBN, leading to mild ID. Although abnormal CRBN function may be associated with ID disease onset, its cellular mechanism is still unclear. Here, we examine the role of CRBN in aggresome formation and cytoprotection. In the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, exogenous CRBN formed perinuclear inclusions and co-localized with aggresome markers. Endogenous CRBN also formed perinuclear inclusions under the same condition. Treatment with a microtubule destabilizer or an inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of CRBN blocked formation of CRBN inclusions. Biochemical analysis showed CRBN containing inclusions were high-molecular weight, ubiquitin-positive. CRBN overexpression in cultured cells suppressed cell death induced by proteasome inhibitor. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous CRBN in cultured cells increased cell death induced by proteasome inhibitor, compared with control cells. Our results show CRBN is recruited to aggresome and has functional roles in cytoprotection against ubiquitin-proteasome system impaired condition. PMID:26188093

  11. Ubiquitin-proteasome system controls ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Kiyono, Tohru; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Era, Saho; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that organize numerous key signals during developments and tissue homeostasis. Ciliary microtubule doublet, named axoneme, is grown directly from the distal end of mother centrioles through a multistep process upon cell cycle exit; however, the instructive signals that initiate these events are poorly understood. Here we show that ubiquitin-proteasome machinery removes trichoplein, a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, from mother centrioles and thereby causes Aurora-A inactivation, leading to ciliogenesis. Ciliogenesis is blocked if centriolar trichoplein is stabilized by treatment with proteasome inhibitors or by expression of non-ubiquitylatable trichoplein mutant (K50/57R). Started from two-stepped global E3 screening, we have identified KCTD17 as a substrate-adaptor for Cul3-RING E3 ligases (CRL3s) that polyubiquitylates trichoplein. Depletion of KCTD17 specifically arrests ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension through aberrant trichoplein-Aurora-A activity. Thus, CRL3-KCTD17 targets trichoplein to proteolysis to initiate the axoneme extension during ciliogenesis. PMID:25270598

  12. MYC Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Amy S.; Sears, Rosalie C.

    2014-01-01

    The MYC oncoprotein is an essential transcription factor that regulates the expression of many genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, and metabolic pathways. Thus, it is important to keep MYC activity in check in normal cells in order to avoid unwanted oncogenic changes. Normal cells have adapted several ways to control MYC levels, and these mechanisms can be disrupted in cancer cells. One of the major ways in which MYC levels are controlled in cells is through targeted degradation by the ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS). Here, we discuss the role of the UPS in the regulation of MYC protein levels and review some of the many proteins that have been shown to regulate MYC protein stability. In addition, we discuss how this relates to MYC transcriptional activity, human cancers, and therapeutic targeting. PMID:24591536

  13. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Plays a Role in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Moushimi; Keck, Forrest; Lindquist, Michael; Voss, Kelsey; Scavone, Lauren; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Roberts, Brian; Bailey, Charles; Schmaljohn, Connie; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2015-01-01

    Many viruses have been implicated in utilizing or modulating the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) to enhance viral multiplication and/or to sustain a persistent infection. The mosquito-borne Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the Togaviridae family and is an important biodefense pathogen and select agent. There are currently no approved vaccines or therapies for VEEV infections; therefore, it is imperative to identify novel targets for therapeutic development. We hypothesized that a functional UPS is required for efficient VEEV multiplication. We have shown that at non-toxic concentrations Bortezomib, a FDA-approved inhibitor of the proteasome, proved to be a potent inhibitor of VEEV multiplication in the human astrocytoma cell line U87MG. Bortezomib inhibited the virulent Trinidad donkey (TrD) strain and the attenuated TC-83 strain of VEEV. Additional studies with virulent strains of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) demonstrated that Bortezomib is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the New World alphaviruses. Time-of-addition assays showed that Bortezomib was an effective inhibitor of viral multiplication even when the drug was introduced many hours post exposure to the virus. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the VEEV capsid protein is ubiquitinated in infected cells, which was validated by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequent studies revealed that capsid is ubiquitinated on K48 during early stages of infection which was affected by Bortezomib treatment. This study will aid future investigations in identifying host proteins as potential broad spectrum therapeutic targets for treating alphavirus infections. PMID:25927990

  14. Contribution of the autophagy-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasomal proteolytic systems to total proteolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes.

    PubMed

    Seiliez, Iban; Dias, Karine; Cleveland, Beth M

    2014-12-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is recognized as the major contributor to total proteolysis in mammalian skeletal muscle, responsible for 50% or more of total protein degradation in skeletal muscle, whereas the autophagic-lysosome system (ALS) plays a more minor role. While the relative contribution of these systems to muscle loss is well documented in mammals, little is known in fish species. The current study uses myotubes derived from rainbow trout myogenic precursor cells as an in vitro model of white muscle tissue. Cells were incubated in complete or serum-deprived media or media supplemented with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and exposed to selective proteolytic inhibitors to determine the relative contribution of the ALS and UPS to total protein degradation in myotubes in different culture conditions. Results indicate that the ALS is responsible for 30-34% and 50% of total protein degradation in myotubes in complete and serum-deprived media, respectively. The UPS appears to contribute much less to total protein degradation at almost 4% in cells in complete media to nearly 17% in serum-deprived cells. IGF-1 decreases activity of both systems, as it inhibited the upregulation of both proteolytic systems induced by serum deprivation. The combined inhibition of both the ALS and UPS reduced degradation by a maximum of 55% in serum-deprived cells, suggesting an important contribution of other proteolytic systems to total protein degradation. Collectively, these data identify the ALS as a potential target for strategies aimed at improving muscle protein retention and fillet yield through reductions in protein degradation. PMID:25274907

  15. Temperature-sensitive Post-translational Regulation of Plant Omega-3 Fatty-acid Desaturases Is Mediated by the Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    O'Quin, Jami B.; Bourassa, Linda; Zhang, Daiyuan; Shockey, Jay M.; Gidda, Satinder K.; Fosnot, Spencer; Chapman, Kent D.; Mullen, Robert T.; Dyer, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature represent a major physiological challenge to membranes of poikilothermic organisms. In plants, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized omega-3 fatty-acid desaturases (Fad3) increase the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids at cooler temperatures, but the FAD3 genes themselves are typically not up-regulated during this adaptive response. Here, we expressed two closely related plant FAD3 genes in yeast cells and found that their enzymes produced significantly different amounts of omega-3 fatty acids and that these differences correlated to differences in rates of protein turnover. Domain-swapping and mutagenesis experiments revealed that each protein contained a degradation signal in its N terminus and that the charge density of a PEST-like sequence within this region was largely responsible for the differences in rates of protein turnover. The half-life of each Fad3 protein was increased at cooler temperatures, and protein degradation required specific components of the ER-associated degradation pathway including the Cdc48 adaptor proteins Doa1, Shp1, and Ufd2. Expression of the Fad3 proteins in tobacco cells incubated with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 further confirmed that they were degraded via the proteasomal pathway in plants. Collectively, these findings indicate that Fad3 protein abundance is regulated by a combination of cis-acting degradation signals and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that modulation of Fad3 protein amounts in response to temperature may represent one mechanism of homeoviscous adaptation in plants. PMID:20452984

  16. Stressing the ubiquitin-proteasome system without 20S proteolytic inhibition selectively kills cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Anchoori, Ravi K; Khan, Saeed R; Sueblinvong, Thanasak; Felthauser, Alicia; Iizuka, Yoshie; Gavioli, Riccardo; Destro, Federica; Isaksson Vogel, Rachel; Peng, Shiwen; Roden, Richard B S; Bazzaro, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer cells exhibit an increased requirement for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation associated with an elevated metabolic turnover rate, and for specific signaling pathways, notably HPV E6-targeted degradation of p53 and PDZ proteins. Natural compounds with antioxidant properties including flavonoids and triterpenoids hold promise as anticancer agents by interfering with ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. An increasing body of evidence indicates that their ?-? unsaturated carbonyl system is the molecular determinant for inhibition of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation up-stream of the catalytic sites of the 20S proteasome. Herein we report the identification and characterization of a new class of chalcone-based, potent and cell permeable chemical inhibitors of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, and a lead compound RAMB1. RAMB1 inhibits ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation without compromising the catalytic activities of the 20S proteasome, a mechanism distinct from that of Bortezomib. Treatment of cervical cancer cells with RAMB1 triggers unfolded protein responses, including aggresome formation and Hsp90 stabilization, and increases p53 steady state levels. RAMB1 treatment results in activation of lysosomal-dependent degradation pathways as a mechanism to compensate for increasing levels of poly-ubiquitin enriched toxic aggregates. Importantly, RAMB1 synergistically triggers cell death of cervical cancer cells when combined with the lysosome inhibitor Chloroquine. PMID:21909374

  17. The N-end rule pathway catalyzes a major fraction of the protein degradation in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, V.; Lecker, S. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, overall protein degradation involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system. One property of a protein that leads to rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation is the presence of a basic, acidic, or bulky hydrophobic residue at its N terminus. However, in normal cells, substrates for this N-end rule pathway, which involves ubiquitin carrier protein (E2) E214k and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) E3alpha, have remained unclear. Surprisingly, in soluble extracts of rabbit muscle, we found that competitive inhibitors of E3alpha markedly inhibited the 125I-ubiquitin conjugation and ATP-dependent degradation of endogenous proteins. These inhibitors appear to selectively inhibit E3alpha, since they blocked degradation of 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, but did not affect the degradation of proteins whose ubiquitination involved other E3s. The addition of several E2s or E3alpha to the muscle extracts stimulated overall proteolysis and ubiquitination, but only the stimulation by E3alpha or E214k was sensitive to these inhibitors. A similar general inhibition of ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins was observed with a dominant negative inhibitor of E214k. Certain substrates of the N-end rule pathway are degraded after their tRNA-dependent arginylation. We found that adding RNase A to muscle extracts reduced the ATP-dependent proteolysis of endogenous proteins, and supplying tRNA partially restored this process. Finally, although in muscle extracts the N-end rule pathway catalyzes most ubiquitin conjugation, it makes only a minor contribution to overall protein ubiquitination in HeLa cell extracts.

  18. Contribution of the autophagy-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasomal proteolytic systems to total proteolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major proteolytic systems are thought to (co-) operate in the skeletal muscle of vertebrates, the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS) and the autophagic/lysosomal system (ALS). While their relative contribution to muscle loss has been already well documented in mammals, little is known in fish sp...

  19. Amino-terminal arginylation as a degradation signal for selective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Cha-Molstad, Hyunjoo; Kwon, Yong Tae; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy lysosome system are the two major protein degradation machineries in eukaryotic cells. These two systems coordinate the removal of unwanted intracellular materials, but the mechanism by which they achieve this synchronization is largely unknown. The ubiquitination of substrates serves as a universal degradation signal for both systems. Our study revealed that the amino-terminal Arg, a canonical N-degron in the ubiquitin-proteasome system, also acts as a degradation signal in autophagy. We showed that many ER residents, such as BiP, contain evolutionally conserved arginylation permissive pro-N-degrons, and that certain inducers like dsDNA or proteasome inhibitors cause their translocation into the cytoplasm where they bind misfolded proteins and undergo amino-terminal arginylation by arginyl transferase 1 (ATE1). The amino-terminal Arg of BiP binds p62, which triggers p62 oligomerization and enhances p62-LC3 interaction, thereby stimulating autophagic delivery and degradation of misfolded proteins, promoting cell survival. This study reveals a novel ubiquitin-independent mechanism for the selective autophagy pathway, and provides an insight into how these two major protein degradation pathways communicate in cells to dispose the unwanted proteins. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 487-488] PMID:26303972

  20. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on ?-synuclein aggregation and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Hongjun

    2016-03-01

    Dopaminergic neurons (PC12 cells) were treated with different doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), to investigate their effects on ?-Synuclein (?-Syn) aggregation and their mechanism of action. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were performed. Exposure to TiO2-NPs increased ?-Syn expression (p < 0.05) and induced dose-dependent ?-Syn aggregation. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine partially inhibited ?-Syn expression induced by a 200 ?g/ml dose of TiO2-NPs. TiO2-NPs reduced the expressions of parkin and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase protein, and were associated with oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system also contributed to ?-Syn aggregation. The potentially neurotoxic TiO2-NPs may cause Parkinson's disease. PMID:25386730

  1. FBG1 Is the Final Arbitrator of A1AT-Z Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, John H.; Wen, Hsiang; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Glenn, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is the leading cause of childhood liver failure and one of the most common lethal genetic diseases. The disease-causing mutant A1AT-Z fails to fold correctly and accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the liver, resulting in hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in a subset of patients. Furthermore, A1AT-Z sequestration in hepatocytes leads to a reduction in A1AT secretion into the serum, causing panacinar emphysema in adults. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the details by which A1AT-Z is degraded in hepatic cell lines. We identified the ubiquitin ligase FBG1, which has been previously shown to degrade proteins by both the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and autophagy, as being key to A1AT-Z degradation. Using chemical and genetic approaches we show that FBG1 degrades A1AT-Z through both the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy. Overexpression of FBG1 decreases the half-life of A1AT-Z and knocking down FBG1 in a hepatic cell line, and in mice results in an increase in ATAT. Finally, we show that FBG1 degrades A1AT-Z through a Beclin1-dependent arm of autophagy. In our model, FBG1 acts as a safety ubiquitin ligase, whose function is to re-ubiquitinate ER proteins that have previously undergone de-ubiquitination to ensure they are degraded. PMID:26295339

  2. Aerobic exercise training improves oxidative stress and ubiquitin proteasome system activity in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Henrique Soares; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Matsuo Junior, Eduardo Hiroshi; de Orleans Carvalho de Moura, Elizabeth; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Montemor, Jairo; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the level of oxidative stress contribute to the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertension. Moreover, aerobic exercise training (AET) is an important therapy for the treatment of hypertension, but its effects on the UPS are not completely known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AET on UPS's activity and oxidative stress level in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A total of 53 Wistar and SHR rats were randomly divided into sedentary and trained groups. The AET protocol was 5×/week in treadmill for 13 weeks. Exercise tolerance test, non-invasive blood pressure measurement, echocardiographic analyses, and left ventricle hemodynamics were performed during experimental period. The expression of ubiquitinated proteins, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), Akt, phospho-Akt(ser473), GSK3β, and phospho-GSK3β(ser9) were analyzed by western blotting. The evaluation of lipid hydroperoxide concentration was performed using the xylenol orange method, and the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity was measured by fluorimetric assay. Sedentary hypertensive group presented cardiac hypertrophy, unaltered expression of total Akt, phospho-Akt, total GSK3β and phospho-GSK3β, UPS hyperactivity, increased lipid hydroperoxidation as well as elevated expression of 4-HNE but normal cardiac function. In contrast, AET significantly increased exercise tolerance, decreased resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive animals. In addition, the AET increased phospho-Akt expression, decreased phospho-GSK3β, and did not alter the expression of total Akt, total GSK3β, and ubiquitinated proteins, however, significantly attenuated 4-HNE levels, lipid hydroperoxidation, and UPS's activity toward normotensive group levels. Our results provide evidence for the main effect of AET on attenuating cardiac ubiquitin proteasome hyperactivity and oxidative stress in SHR rats. PMID:25626892

  3. Glycoprotein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum: identification of released oligosaccharides reveals a second ER-associated degradation pathway for Golgi-retrieved proteins.

    PubMed

    Alonzi, Dominic S; Kukushkin, Nikolay V; Allman, Sarah A; Hakki, Zalihe; Williams, Spencer J; Pierce, Lorna; Dwek, Raymond A; Butters, Terry D

    2013-08-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a key cellular process whereby misfolded proteins are removed from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for subsequent degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. In the present work, analysis of the released, free oligosaccharides (FOS) derived from all glycoproteins undergoing ERAD, has allowed a global estimation of the mechanisms of this pathway rather than following model proteins through degradative routes. Examining the FOS produced in endomannosidase-compromised cells following α-glucosidase inhibition has revealed a mechanism for clearing Golgi-retrieved glycoproteins that have failed to enter the ER quality control cycle. The Glc3Man7GlcNAc2 FOS species has been shown to be produced in the ER lumen by a mechanism involving a peptide: N-glycanase-like activity, and its production was sensitive to disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking. The detection of this oligosaccharide was unaffected by the overexpression of EDEM1 or cytosolic mannosidase, both of which increased the production of previously characterised cytosolically localised FOS. The lumenal FOS identified are therefore distinct in their production and regulation compared to FOS produced by the conventional route of misfolded glycoproteins directly removed from the ER. The production of such lumenal FOS is indicative of a novel degradative route for cellular glycoproteins that may exist under certain conditions. PMID:23503623

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Cranial (Superior) Cervical Ganglia Reveals Beta-Amyloid and Ubiquitin Proteasome System Perturbations in an Equine Multiple System Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Eaton, Samantha L; Keen, John A; Cumyn, Elizabeth M; Arnott, Danielle M; Chen, Wenzhang; Lamont, Douglas J; Graham, Laura C; Llavero Hurtado, Maica; Pemberton, Alan; Wishart, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) is an acute, predominantly fatal, multiple system neuropathy of grazing horses with reported incidence rates of ?2%. An apparently identical disease occurs in multiple species, including but not limited to cats, dogs, and rabbits. Although the precise etiology remains unclear, ultrastructural findings have suggested that the primary lesion lies in the glycoprotein biosynthetic pathway of specific neuronal populations. The goal of this study was therefore to identify the molecular processes underpinning neurodegeneration in EGS. Here, we use a bottom-up approach beginning with the application of modern proteomic tools to the analysis of cranial (superior) cervical ganglion (CCG, a consistently affected tissue) from EGS-affected patients and appropriate control cases postmortem. In what appears to be the proteomic application of modern proteomic tools to equine neuronal tissues and/or to an inherent neurodegenerative disease of large animals (not a model of human disease), we identified 2,311 proteins in CCG extracts, with 320 proteins increased and 186 decreased by greater than 20% relative to controls. Further examination of selected proteomic candidates by quantitative fluorescent Western blotting (QFWB) and subcellular expression profiling by immunohistochemistry highlighted a previously unreported dysregulation in proteins commonly associated with protein misfolding/aggregation responses seen in a myriad of human neurodegenerative conditions, including but not limited to amyloid precursor protein (APP), microtubule associated protein (Tau), and multiple components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Differentially expressed proteins eligible for in silico pathway analysis clustered predominantly into the following biofunctions: (1) diseases and disorders, including; neurological disease and skeletal and muscular disorders and (2) molecular and cellular functions, including cellular assembly and organization, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction (including epinephrine, dopamine, and adrenergic signaling and receptor function), and small molecule biochemistry. Interestingly, while the biofunctions identified in this study may represent pathways underpinning EGS-induced neurodegeneration, this is also the first demonstration of potential molecular conservation (including previously unreported dysregulation of the UPS and APP) spanning the degenerative cascades from an apparently unrelated condition of large animals, to small animal models with altered neuronal vulnerability, and human neurological conditions. Importantly, this study highlights the feasibility and benefits of applying modern proteomic techniques to veterinary investigations of neurodegenerative processes in diseases of large animals. PMID:26364976

  5. Proteomic Profiling of Cranial (Superior) Cervical Ganglia Reveals Beta-Amyloid and Ubiquitin Proteasome System Perturbations in an Equine Multiple System Neuropathy*

    PubMed Central

    McGorum, Bruce C.; Pirie, R. Scott; Eaton, Samantha L.; Keen, John A.; Cumyn, Elizabeth M.; Arnott, Danielle M.; Chen, Wenzhang; Lamont, Douglas J.; Graham, Laura C.; Llavero Hurtado, Maica; Pemberton, Alan; Wishart, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) is an acute, predominantly fatal, multiple system neuropathy of grazing horses with reported incidence rates of ∼2%. An apparently identical disease occurs in multiple species, including but not limited to cats, dogs, and rabbits. Although the precise etiology remains unclear, ultrastructural findings have suggested that the primary lesion lies in the glycoprotein biosynthetic pathway of specific neuronal populations. The goal of this study was therefore to identify the molecular processes underpinning neurodegeneration in EGS. Here, we use a bottom-up approach beginning with the application of modern proteomic tools to the analysis of cranial (superior) cervical ganglion (CCG, a consistently affected tissue) from EGS-affected patients and appropriate control cases postmortem. In what appears to be the proteomic application of modern proteomic tools to equine neuronal tissues and/or to an inherent neurodegenerative disease of large animals (not a model of human disease), we identified 2,311 proteins in CCG extracts, with 320 proteins increased and 186 decreased by greater than 20% relative to controls. Further examination of selected proteomic candidates by quantitative fluorescent Western blotting (QFWB) and subcellular expression profiling by immunohistochemistry highlighted a previously unreported dysregulation in proteins commonly associated with protein misfolding/aggregation responses seen in a myriad of human neurodegenerative conditions, including but not limited to amyloid precursor protein (APP), microtubule associated protein (Tau), and multiple components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Differentially expressed proteins eligible for in silico pathway analysis clustered predominantly into the following biofunctions: (1) diseases and disorders, including; neurological disease and skeletal and muscular disorders and (2) molecular and cellular functions, including cellular assembly and organization, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction (including epinephrine, dopamine, and adrenergic signaling and receptor function), and small molecule biochemistry. Interestingly, while the biofunctions identified in this study may represent pathways underpinning EGS-induced neurodegeneration, this is also the first demonstration of potential molecular conservation (including previously unreported dysregulation of the UPS and APP) spanning the degenerative cascades from an apparently unrelated condition of large animals, to small animal models with altered neuronal vulnerability, and human neurological conditions. Importantly, this study highlights the feasibility and benefits of applying modern proteomic techniques to veterinary investigations of neurodegenerative processes in diseases of large animals. PMID:26364976

  6. Role of the ubiquitinproteasome system in cardiac dysfunction of adipose triglyceride lipase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Mussbacher, Marion; Stessel, Heike; Wlkart, Gerald; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd; Schrammel, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Systemic deletion of the gene encoding for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in mice leads to severe cardiac dysfunction due to massive accumulation of neutral lipids in cardiomyocytes. Recently, impaired peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) signaling has been described to substantially contribute to the observed cardiac phenotype. Disturbances of the ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS) have been implicated in numerous cardiac diseases including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential role of UPS in cardiac ATGL deficiency. Our results demonstrate prominent accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in hearts of ATGL-deficient mice, an effect that was abolished upon cardiomyocyte-directed overexpression of ATGL. In parallel, cardiac protein expression of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1a, which catalyzes the first step of the ubiquitination cascade, was significantly upregulated in ATGL-deficient hearts. Dysfunction of the UPS was accompanied by activation of NF-?B signaling. Moreover, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperon protein disulfide isomerase was significantly upregulated in ATGL-deficient hearts. Chronic treatment of ATGL-deficient mice with the PPAR? agonist Wy14,643 improved proteasomal function, prevented NF-?B activation and decreased oxidative stress. In summary, our data point to a hitherto unrecognized link between proteasomal function, PPAR? signaling and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25285770

  7. Lipotoxic Stress Induces Pancreatic ?-Cell Apoptosis through Modulation of Bcl-2 Proteins by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Litwak, Sara A.; Wali, Jibran A.; Pappas, Evan G.; Saadi, Hamdi; Stanley, William J.; Varanasi, L. Chitra; Kay, Thomas W. H.; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ?-cell loss induced by saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) is believed to contribute to type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have shown induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased ubiquitinated proteins, and deregulation of the Bcl-2 family in the pancreas of type 2 diabetic patients. However, the precise mechanism of ?-cell death remains unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that the FFA palmitate blocks the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and causes apoptosis through induction of ER stress and deregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. We found that palmitate and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 induced ER stress in ?-cells, resulting in decreased expression of the prosurvival proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and Bcl-XL, and upregulation of the prodeath BH3-only protein PUMA. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of the UPS by sulforaphane ameliorated ER stress, upregulated prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins, and protected ?-cells from FFA-induced cell death. Furthermore, transgenic overexpression of Bcl-2 protected islets from FFA-induced cell death in vitro and improved glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo. Together our results suggest that targeting the UPS and Bcl-2 protein expression may be a valuable strategy to prevent ?-cell demise in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26064977

  8. Zerumbone, an electrophilic sesquiterpene, induces cellular proteo-stress leading to activation of ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kohta; Nakahata, Erina; Irie, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-11

    Zerumbone, a sesquiterpene present in Zingiber zerumbet Smith, has been implicated as a promising chemopreventive agent. Interestingly, a number of studies have revealed that its potent bioactivities are dependent on the electrophilic moiety of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group, while our recent findings showed its chemical potential for binding to cellular proteins through a Michael reaction. In the present study, modifications of proteins by zerumbone led to their insolubilization in vitro. In living cell models, zerumbone induced ubiquitination and aggregation of cellular proteins, which demonstrated its substantial proteo-toxicity. On the other hand, it was also revealed that zerumbone possesses potential for activating intracellular proteolysis mechanisms of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Furthermore, it up-regulated expressions of pro-autophagic genes including p62, which is known as a cargo receptor of aggrephagy, the selective autophagic process for protein aggregates. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 cells with zerumbone conferred a phenotype resistant to cytotoxicity and protein modifications by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, an endogenous lipid peroxidation product, in a p62-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that protein modifications by zerumbone cause mild proteo-stress, thereby activating intracellular proteolysis machineries to maintain protein homeostasis. We consider these effects on proteolysis mechanisms to be hormesis, which provides beneficial functions through mild biological stresses. PMID:23219816

  9. Oxidative stress regulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system and immunoproteasome functioning in a mouse model of X-adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Launay, Nathalie; Ruiz, Montserrat; Fourcade, Stéphane; Schlüter, Agatha; Guilera, Cristina; Ferrer, Isidre; Knecht, Erwin; Pujol, Aurora

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative damage is a pivotal aetiopathogenic factor in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. This is a neurometabolic disease characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids owing to the loss of function of the peroxisomal transporter Abcd1. Here, we used the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mouse model and patient's fibroblasts to detect malfunctioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome system resulting from the accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins, some involved in bioenergetic metabolism. Furthermore, the immunoproteasome machinery appears upregulated in response to oxidative stress, in the absence of overt inflammation. i-Proteasomes are recruited to mitochondria when fibroblasts are exposed to an excess of very-long-chain fatty acids in response to oxidative stress. Antioxidant treatment regulates proteasome expression, prevents i-proteasome induction and translocation of i-proteasomes to mitochondria. Our findings support a key role of i-proteasomes in quality control in mitochondria during oxidative damage in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and perhaps in other neurodegenerative conditions with similar pathogeneses. PMID:23436506

  10. The F-box Protein FBXO25 Promotes the Proteasome-dependent Degradation of ELK-1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Felipe R.; Manfiolli, Adriana O.; Soares, Cludia S.; Baqui, Munira M. A.; Koide, Tie; Gomes, Marcelo D.

    2013-01-01

    FBXO25 is one of the 69 known human F-box proteins that serve as specificity factors for a family of ubiquitin ligases composed of SKP1, Rbx1, Cullin1, and F-box protein (SCF1) that are involved in targeting proteins for degradation across the ubiquitin proteasome system. However, the substrates of most SCF E3 ligases remain unknown. Here, we applied an in chip ubiquitination screen using a human protein microarray to uncover putative substrates for the FBXO25 protein. Among several novel putative targets identified, the c-fos protooncogene regulator ELK-1 was characterized as the first endogenous substrate for SCF1(FBXO25) E3 ligase. FBXO25 interacted with and mediated the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of ELK-1 in HEK293T cells. In addition, FBXO25 overexpression suppressed induction of two ELK-1 target genes, c-fos and egr-1, in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Together, our findings show that FBXO25 mediates ELK-1 degradation through the ubiquitin proteasome system and thereby plays a role in regulating the activation of ELK-1 pathway in response to mitogens. PMID:23940030

  11. Breaking down protein degradation mechanisms in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Robert C; Lange, Stephan; Sheikh, Farah

    2013-04-01

    Regulated protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal/autophagy systems is critical for homeostatic protein turnover in cardiac muscle and for proper cardiac function. The discovery of muscle-specific components in these systems has illuminated how aberrations in their levels are pivotal to the development of cardiac stress and disease. New evidence suggests that equal importance in disease development should be given to ubiquitously expressed degradation components. These are compartmentalized within cardiac muscles and, when mislocalized, can be critical in the development of specific cardiac diseases. Here, we discuss how alterations in the compartmentalization of degradation components affect disease states, the tools available to investigate these mechanisms, as well as recent discoveries that highlight the therapeutic value of targeting these pathways in disease. PMID:23453282

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus UL76 Elicits Novel Aggresome Formation via Interaction with S5a of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Rung; Jiang, Meei Jyh; Wang, Hung-Hsueh; Hu, Cheng-Hui; Hsu, Ming-Shan; Hsi, Edward; Duh, Chang-Yih

    2013-01-01

    HCMV UL76 is a member of a conserved Herpesviridae protein family (Herpes_UL24) that is involved in viral production, latency, and reactivation. UL76 presents as globular aggresomes in the nuclei of transiently transfected cells. Bioinformatic analyses predict that UL76 has a propensity for aggregation and targets cellular proteins implicated in protein folding and ubiquitin-proteasome systems (UPS). Furthermore, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments suggests that UL76 reduces protein mobility in the aggresome, which indicates that UL76 elicits the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Moreover, in the absence of other viral proteins, UL76 interacts with S5a, which is a major receptor of polyubiquitinated proteins for UPS proteolysis via its conserved region and the von Willebrand factor type A (VWA) domain of S5a. We demonstrate that UL76 sequesters polyubiquitinated proteins and S5a to nuclear aggresomes in biological proximity. After knockdown of endogenous S5a by RNA interference techniques, the UL76 level was only minimally affected in transiently expressing cells. However, a significant reduction in the number of cells containing UL76 nuclear aggresomes was observed, which suggests that S5a may play a key role in aggresome formation. Moreover, we show that UL76 interacts with S5a in the late phase of viral infection and that knockdown of S5a hinders the development of both the replication compartment and the aggresome. In this study, we demonstrate that UL76 induces a novel nuclear aggresome, likely by subverting S5a of the UPS. Given that UL76 belongs to a conserved family, this underlying mechanism may be shared by all members of the Herpesviridae. PMID:23966401

  13. Response of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System to Memory Retrieval After Extended-Access Cocaine or Saline Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Werner, Craig T; Milovanovic, Mike; Christian, Daniel T; Loweth, Jessica A; Wolf, Marina E

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in the retrieval-induced destabilization of cocaine- and fear-related memories in Pavlovian paradigms. However, nothing is known about its role in memory retrieval after self-administration of cocaine, an operant paradigm, or how the length of withdrawal from cocaine may influence retrieval mechanisms. Here, we examined UPS activity after an extended-access cocaine self-administration regimen that leads to withdrawal-dependent incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving. Controls self-administered saline. In initial experiments, memory retrieval was elicited via a cue-induced seeking/retrieval test on withdrawal day (WD) 50-60, when craving has incubated. We found that retrieval of cocaine- and saline-associated memories produced similar increases in polyubiquitinated proteins in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), compared with rats that did not undergo a seeking/retrieval test. Measures of proteasome catalytic activity confirmed similar activation of the UPS after retrieval of saline and cocaine memories. However, in a subsequent experiment in which testing was conducted on WD1, proteasome activity in the NAc was greater after retrieval of cocaine memory than saline memory. Analysis of other brain regions confirmed that effects of cocaine memory retrieval on proteasome activity, relative to saline memory retrieval, depend on withdrawal time. These results, combined with prior studies, suggest that the relationship between UPS activity and memory retrieval depends on training paradigm, brain region, and time elapsed between training and retrieval. The observation that mechanisms underlying cocaine memory retrieval change depending on the age of the memory has implications for development of memory destabilization therapies for cue-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. PMID:26044907

  14. Recent technical developments in the study of ER-associated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Kamura, Takumi; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a mechanism during which native and misfolded proteins are recognized and retrotranslocated across the ER membrane to the cytosol for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Like other cellular pathways, the factors required for ERAD have been analyzed using both conventional genetic and biochemical approaches. More recently, however, an integrated top-down approach has identified a functional network that underlies the ERAD system. In turn, bottom-up reconstitution has become increasingly sophisticated and elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate recognition, ubiquitylation, retrotranslocation, and degradation. In addition, a live cell imaging technique and a site-specific in vivo photo-crosslinking approach have further dissected specific steps during ERAD. These technical developments have revealed an unexpected dynamicity of the membrane-associated ERAD complex. In this article, we will discuss how these technical developments have improved our understanding of the ERAD pathway and have led to new questions. PMID:24867671

  15. ERK promotes tumorigenesis by inhibiting FOXO3a via MDM2-mediated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jer-Yen; Zong, Cong S.; Xia, Weiya; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Ding, Qingqing; Xie, Xiaoming; Lang, Jing-Yu; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chang, Chun-Ju; Huang, Wei-Chien; Huang, Hsin; Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Lee, Dung-Fang; Li, Long-Yuan; Lien, Huang-Chun; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Chang, King-Jen; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Muller, William J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Yu, Dihua; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2008-01-01

    The RASERK pathway is known to play a pivotal role in differentiation, proliferation and tumour progression. Here, we show that ERK downregulates Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a) by directly interacting with and phosphorylating FOXO3a at Ser 294, Ser 344 and Ser 425, which consequently promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The ERK-phosphorylated FOXO3a degrades via an MDM2-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the non-phosphorylated FOXO3a mutant is resistant to the interaction and degradation by murine double minute 2 (MDM2), thereby resulting in a strong inhibition of cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Taken together, our study elucidates a novel pathway in cell growth and tumorigenesis through negative regulation of FOXO3a by RASERK and MDM2. PMID:18204439

  16. Prion promoted phosphorylation of heterologous amyloid is coupled with ubiquitin-proteasome system inhibition and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zi; Stone, David E.; Liebman, Susan W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with conversion of a soluble protein into amyloid deposits, but how this is connected to toxicity remains largely unknown. Here, we explore mechanisms of amyloid associated toxicity using yeast. [PIN+], the prion form of the Q/N-rich Rnq1 protein, was known to enhance aggregation of heterologous proteins, including the overexpressed Q/N-rich amyloid forming domain of Pin4 (Pin4C), and Pin4C aggregates were known to attract chaperones, including Sis1. Here we show that in [PIN+] but not [pin?] cells, overexpression of Pin4C is deadly and linked to hyperphosphorylation of aggregated Pin4C. Furthermore, Pin4C aggregation, hyperphosphorylation and toxicity are simultaneously reversed by Sis1 overexpression. Toxicity may result from proteasome overload because hyperphosphorylated Pin4C aggregation is associated with reduced degradation of a ubiquitin-protein degradation reporter. Finally, hyperphosphorylation of endogenous full-length Pin4 was also facilitated by [PIN+], revealing that a prion can regulate posttranslational modification of another protein. PMID:25039275

  17. Casein Kinase 1?-dependent Wee1 Protein Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Penas, Clara; Ramachandran, Vimal; Simanski, Scott; Lee, Choogon; Madoux, Franck; Rahaim, Ronald J.; Chauhan, Ruchi; Barnaby, Omar; Schurer, Stephan; Hodder, Peter; Steen, Judith; Roush, William R.; Ayad, Nagi G.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic mitotic entry is controlled by Cdk1, which is activated by the Cdc25 phosphatase and inhibited by Wee1 tyrosine kinase, a target of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Here we use a reporter of Wee1 degradation, K328M-Wee1-luciferase, to screen a kinase-directed chemical library. Hit profiling identified CK1?-dependent Wee1 degradation. Small-molecule CK1? inhibitors specifically disrupted Wee1 destruction and arrested HeLa cell proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition, siRNA knockdown, or conditional deletion of CK1? also reduced Wee1 turnover. Thus, these studies define a previously unappreciated role for CK1? in controlling the cell cycle. PMID:24817118

  18. JNK1 participates in the VHL-independent HIF-1? degradation pathway by regulating Hsp90/Hsp70 turnover and the HDAC6-dependent chaperone activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongyun; Li, Jingxia; Costa, Max; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia induced factor-1? (HIF-1?) is a master transcription factor that is critical for the regulation of various cellular functions. HIF-1? is rapidly degraded via a von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene product (VHL)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in normoxia conditions. Most recent studies reveal that heat-shock proteins (Hsp) can regulate HIF-1? protein degradation via a VHL-independent pathway. Here we demonstrate that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is required for such an Hsp-dependent HIF-1? regulation. HIF-1? stabilization was impaired in JNK1?/? cells, and could be rescued by reconstitutional expression of JNK1 in either hypoxia or chemical-mimicked hypoxia conditions. This phenomena was confirmed in different cell lines using the shRNA-JNK1 knockdown approach. Accordingly, HIF-1-dependent transcriptional activity and its downstream genes expression were dramatically reduced in JNK1-deficient cells. We further found that in JNK1?/? cells the low expression level of Hsp90/Hsp70 proteins affected the protective roles of these chaperones in maintaining newly synthesized HIF-1? stabilization, and forced expression of Hsp90 or Hsp70 in JNK1?/? cells showed a notable increase in HIF-1? stability compared with that of parental cells. Furthermore, our studies found that defective HDAC6 expression and subsequently increased Hsp90 acetylation could account for the reduction of Hsp90 chaperon activity in JNK1?/? cells. Taken together, our studies provide strong evidence for a novel function of JNK1 in regulating VHL-independent HIF-1? degradation. PMID:20068160

  19. The role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in cerebellar development and medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Jerry; Ghavami, Saeid; Marzban, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cells precursors are derived from the upper rhombic lip and migrate tangentially independent of glia along the subpial stream pathway to form the external germinal zone. Postnatally, granule cells migrate from the external germinal zone radially through the Purkinje cell layer, guided by Bergmann glia fibers, to the internal granular cell layer.Medulloblastomas (MBs) are the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. Many of these tumors develop from precursor cells of the embryonic rhombic lips. Four main groups of MB are recognized. The WNT group of MBs arise primarily from the lower rhombic lip and embryonic brainstem. The SHH group of MBs originate from cerebellar granule cell precursors in the external germinal zone of the embryonic cerebellum. The cellular origins of type 3 and type 4 MBs are not clear.Several ubiquitin ligases are revealed to be significant factors in development of the cerebellum as well as in the initiation and maintenance of MBs. Proteasome dysfunction at a critical stage of development may be a major factor in determining whether progenitor cells which are destined to become granule cells differentiate normally or become MB cells. We propose the hypothesis that proteasomal activity is essential to regulate the critical transition between proliferating granule cells and differentiated granule cells and that proteasome dysfunction may lead to MB. Proteasome dysfunction could also account for various mutations in MBs resulting from deficiencies in DNA checkpoint and repair mechanisms prior to development of MBs.Data showing a role for the ubiquitin ligases ?-TrCP, FBW7, Huwe1, and SKP2 in MBs suggest the possibility of a classification of MBs based on the expression (over expression or under expression) of specific ubiquitin ligases which function as oncogenes, tumor suppressors or cell cycle regulators. PMID:26475605

  20. Inhibition of Ubiquitin Proteasome System Rescues the Defective Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) Protein Causing Chianina Cattle Pseudomyotonia* ?

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Elisa; Testoni, Stefania; Gentile, Arcangelo; Cal, Tito; Ottolini, Denis; Villa, Antonello; Brini, Marisa; Betto, Romeo; Mascarello, Francesco; Nissen, Poul; Sandon, Dorianna; Sacchetto, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    A missense mutation in ATP2A1 gene, encoding sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) protein, causes Chianina cattle congenital pseudomyotonia, an exercise-induced impairment of muscle relaxation. Skeletal muscles of affected cattle are characterized by a selective reduction of SERCA1 in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. In this study, we provide evidence that the ubiquitin proteasome system is involved in the reduced density of mutated SERCA1. The treatment with MG132, an inhibitor of ubiquitin proteasome system, rescues the expression level and membrane localization of the SERCA1 mutant in a heterologous cellular model. Cells co-transfected with the Ca2+-sensitive probe aequorin show that the rescued SERCA1 mutant exhibits the same ability of wild type to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis within cells. These data have been confirmed by those obtained ex vivo on adult skeletal muscle fibers from a biopsy from a pseudomyotonia-affected subject. Our data show that the mutation generates a protein most likely corrupted in proper folding but not in catalytic activity. Rescue of mutated SERCA1 to sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane can re-establish resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and prevent the appearance of pathological signs of cattle pseudomyotonia. PMID:25288803

  1. L166P MUTANT DJ-1, CAUSATIVE FOR RECESSIVE PARKINSON'S DISEASE IS DEGRADED THROUGH THE UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Mutations in a gene on chromosome 1, DJ-1, have been reported recently to be associated with recessive, early-onset Parkinson's disease. Whilst one mutation is a large deletion that is predicted to produce an effective knockout of the gene, the second is a point ...

  2. Small-Molecule NSC59984 Restores p53 Pathway Signaling and Antitumor Effects against Colorectal Cancer via p73 Activation and Degradation of Mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengliang; Zhou, Lanlan; Hong, Bo; van den Heuvel, A Pieter J; Prabhu, Varun V; Warfel, Noel A; Kline, Christina Leah B; Dicker, David T; Kopelovich, Levy; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-09-15

    The tumor-suppressor p53 prevents cancer development via initiating cell-cycle arrest, cell death, repair, or antiangiogenesis processes. Over 50% of human cancers harbor cancer-causing mutant p53. p53 mutations not only abrogate its tumor-suppressor function, but also endow mutant p53 with a gain of function (GOF), creating a proto-oncogene that contributes to tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and chemo- or radiotherapy resistance. Thus, targeting mutant p53 to restore a wild-type p53 signaling pathway provides an attractive strategy for cancer therapy. We demonstrate that small-molecule NSC59984 not only restores wild-type p53 signaling, but also depletes mutant p53 GOF. NSC59984 induces mutant p53 protein degradation via MDM2 and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. NSC59984 restores wild-type p53 signaling via p73 activation, specifically in mutant p53-expressing colorectal cancer cells. At therapeutic doses, NSC59984 induces p73-dependent cell death in cancer cells with minimal genotoxicity and without evident toxicity toward normal cells. NSC59984 synergizes with CPT11 to induce cell death in mutant p53-expressing colorectal cancer cells and inhibits mutant p53-associated colon tumor xenograft growth in a p73-dependent manner in vivo. We hypothesize that specific targeting of mutant p53 may be essential for anticancer strategies that involve the stimulation of p73 in order to efficiently restore tumor suppression. Taken together, our data identify NSC59984 as a promising lead compound for anticancer therapy that acts by targeting GOF-mutant p53 and stimulates p73 to restore the p53 pathway signaling. PMID:26294215

  3. Aggresome-like structure induced by isothiocyanates is novel proteasome-dependent degradation machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Lixin; Gan, Nanqin; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2009-10-16

    Unwanted or misfolded proteins are either refolded by chaperones or degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When UPS is impaired, misfolded proteins form aggregates, which are transported along microtubules by motor protein dynein towards the juxta-nuclear microtubule-organizing center to form aggresome, a single cellular garbage disposal complex. Because aggresome formation results from proteasome failure, aggresome components are degraded through the autophagy/lysosome pathway. Here we report that small molecule isothiocyanates (ITCs) can induce formation of aggresome-like structure (ALS) through covalent modification of cytoplasmic {alpha}- and {beta}-tubulin. The formation of ALS is related to neither proteasome inhibition nor oxidative stress. ITC-induced ALS is a proteasome-dependent assembly for emergent removal of misfolded proteins, suggesting that the cell may have a previously unknown strategy to cope with misfolded proteins.

  4. Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Short-Term Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in PC12 Cells and Hypothalamic and Brainstem Neurons from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Possible Implications in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Carbajosa, Nadia A. Longo; Corradi, Gerardo; Verrilli, Mara A. Lopez; Guil, Mara J.; Vatta, Marcelo S.; Gironacci, Mariela M.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamines biosynthesis, is involved in hypertension development. In this study we investigated whether UPS regulated TH turnover in PC12 cells and hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and whether this system was impaired in hypertension. PC12 cells were exposed to proteasome or lysosome inhibitors and TH protein level evaluated by Western blot. Lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, induced an increase of 8615% in TH levels after 30 min of incubation, then it started to decrease up to 6 h to reach control levels and finally it rose up to 35.28.5% after 24 h. Bafilomycin, a lysosome inhibitor, did not alter TH protein levels during short times, but it increased TH by 9222% above basal after 6 h treatment. Before degradation proteasome substrates are labeled by conjugation with ubiquitin. Efficacy of proteasome inhibition on TH turnover was evidenced by accumulation of ubiquitinylated TH after 30 min. Further, the inhibition of proteasome increased the quantity of TH phosphorylated at Ser40, which is essential for TH activity, by 2.70.3 fold above basal. TH protein level was upregulated in neurons from hypothalami and brainstem of SHR when the proteasome was inhibited during 30 min, supporting that neuronal TH is also short-term regulated by the proteasome. Since the increased TH levels reported in hypertension may result from proteasome dysfunction, we evaluate proteasme activity. Proteasome activity was significantly reduced by 674% in hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from SHR while its protein levels did not change. Present findings show that TH is regulated by the UPS. The impairment in proteasome activity observed in SHR neurons may be one of the causes of the increased TH protein levels reported in hypertension. PMID:25710381

  5. An Ultra-High Throughput Cell-Based Screen for Wee1 Degradation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    MADOUX, FRANCK; SIMANSKI, SCOTT; CHASE, PETER; MISHRA, JITENDRA K.; ROUSH, WILLIAM R.; AYAD, NAGI G.; HODDER, PETER

    2011-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase Wee1 is part of a key cellular sensing mechanism that signals completion of DNA replication, ensuring proper timing of entry into mitosis. Wee1 acts as an inhibitor of mitotic entry by phosphorylating cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1. Wee1 activity is mainly regulated at the protein level through its phosphorylation and subsequent degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. To facilitate identification of small molecules preventing Wee1 degradation, a homogeneous cell-based assay was developed using HeLa cells transiently transfected with a Wee1-Luciferase fusion protein. To insure uHTS compatibility, the assay was scaled to 1,536-well plate format and cells were transfected in bulk and cryopreserved. This miniaturized homogenous assay demonstrated robust performance, with a calculated Z? factor of 0.650.05. The assay was screened against a publicly available library of ~218,000 compounds in order to identify Wee1 stabilizers. Nonselective, cytotoxic and promiscuous compounds were rapidly triaged through the use of a similarly formatted counterscreen that measured stabilization of a N-cyclin B-Luciferase fusion protein, as well as execution of viability assessment in the parental HeLa cell line. This screening campaign led to the discovery of four unrelated cell-permeable small molecules that showed selective Wee1-Luciferase stabilization with micromolar potency. One of these compounds, SID4243143, was shown to inhibit cell cycle progression, underscoring the importance of Wee1 degradation to the cell cycle. Our results suggest that this uHTS approach is suitable for identifying selective chemical probes that prevent Wee1 degradation, and generally applicable to discovering inhibitors of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. PMID:20660794

  6. Genetic myostatin decrease in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy model does not significantly affect the ubiquitin proteasome system despite enhancing the severity of disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotten, Steven W; Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Wadosky, Kristine M; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that inhibiting the protein myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, may improve outcomes in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy by enhancing muscle mass. When the dystrophin-deficient golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog was bred with whippets having a heterozygous mutation for the myostatin gene, affected GRMD dogs with decreased myostatin (GRippets) demonstrated an accelerated physical decline compared to related affected GRMD dogs with full myostatin. To examine the role of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems in this accelerated decline, we determined the expression of the muscle ubiquitin ligases MuRF1, Atrogin-1, RNF25, RNF11, and CHIP: the proteasome subunits PSMA6, PSMB4, and PSME1: and calpain 1/2 by real time PCR in the cranial sartorius and vastus lateralis muscles in control, affected GRMD, and GRippet dogs. While individual affected GRMD and GRippet dogs contributed to an increased variability seen in ubiquitin ligase expression, neither group was significantly different from the control group. The affected GRMD dogs demonstrated significant increases in caspase-like and trypsin-like activity in the cranial sartorius; however, all three proteasome activities in the GRippet muscles did not differ from controls. Increased variability in calpain 1 and calpain 2 expression and activity in the affected GRMD and GRippet groups were identified, but no statistical differences from the control group were seen. These studies suggest a role of myostatin in the disease progression of GRMD, which does not significantly involve key components of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems involved in the protein quality control of sarcomere and other structural skeletal muscle proteins. PMID:24349620

  7. Sigma-1 receptor is involved in degradation of intranuclear inclusions in a cellular model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yasuo; Tanji, Kunikazu; Mori, Fumiaki; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2015-02-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (SIGMAR1) is one of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, which participate in the degradation of misfolded proteins via the ER-related degradation machinery linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ER dysfunction in the formation of inclusion bodies in various neurodegenerative diseases has also become evident. Recently, we demonstrated that accumulation of SIGMAR1 was common to neuronal nuclear inclusions in polyglutamine diseases including Huntington's disease. Our study also indicated that SIGMAR1 might shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In the present study, we investigated the role of SIGMAR1 in nuclear inclusion (NI) formation, using HeLa cells transfected with N-terminal mutant huntingtin. Cell harboring the mutant huntingtin produced SIGMAR1-positive NIs. SIGMAR1 siRNA and a specific inhibitor of the proteasome (epoxomicin) caused significant accumulation of aggregates in the cytoplasm and nucleus. A specific inhibitor of exportin 1 (leptomycin B) also caused NIs. Huntingtin became insolubilized in Western blot analysis after treatments with SIGMAR1 siRNA and epoxomicin. Furthermore, proteasome activity increased chronologically along with the accumulation of mutant huntingtin, but was significantly reduced in cells transfected with SIGMAR1 siRNA. By contrast, overexpression of SIGMAR1 reduced the accumulation of NIs containing mutant huntingtin. Although the LC3-I level was decreased in cells treated with both SIGMAR1 siRNA and control siRNA, the levels of LC3-II and p62 were unchanged. SIGMAR1 agonist and antagonist had no effect on cellular viability and proteasome activity. These findings suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is implicated in NI formation, and that SIGMAR1 degrades aberrant proteins in the nucleus via the ER-related degradation machinery. SIGMAR1 might be a promising candidate for therapy of Huntington's disease. PMID:25449906

  8. Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and Implications on the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Zoraima; Machado, Marta; Lindeza, Ana; do Rosrio, Virglio; Gazarini, Marcos L.; Lopes, Dinora

    2013-01-01

    Antimalarial drug resistance remains a major obstacle in malaria control. Evidence from Southeast Asia shows that resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is inevitable. Ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the efficacy of curcumin against Plasmodium spp. Drug interaction assays between curcumin/piperine/chloroquine and curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combinations and the potential of drug treatment to interfere with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) were analyzed. In vivo efficacy of curcumin was studied in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi clones resistant to chloroquine and artemisinin, and drug interactions were analyzed by isobolograms. Subtherapeutic doses of curcumin, chloroquine, and artemisinin were administered to mice, and mRNA was collected following treatment for RT-PCR analysis of genes encoding deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Curcumin was found be nontoxic in BALB/c mice. The combination of curcumin/chloroquine/piperine reduced parasitemia to 37% seven days after treatment versus the control group's 65%, and an additive interaction was revealed. Curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combination did not show a favorable drug interaction in this murine model of malaria. Treatment of mice with subtherapeutic doses of the drugs resulted in a transient increase in genes encoding DUBs indicating UPS interference. If curcumin is to join the arsenal of available antimalarial drugs, future studies exploring suitable drug partners would be of interest. PMID:23691276

  9. Overview of Proteasome Inhibitor-Based Anti-cancer Therapies: Perspective on Bortezomib and Second Generation Proteasome Inhibitors versus Future Generation Inhibitors of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Q. Ping; Zonder, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, proteasome inhibition has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma (MM) and some lymphomas. In 2003, Bortezomib (BTZ) became the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). BTZ-based therapies have become a staple for the treatment of MM at all stages of the disease. The survival rate of MM patients has improved significantly since clinical introduction of BTZ and other immunomodulatory drugs. However, BTZ has several limitations. Not all patients respond to BTZ-based therapies and relapse occurs in many patients who initially responded. Solid tumors, in particular, are often resistant to BTZ. Furthermore, BTZ can induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy (PN). The second generation proteasome inhibitor Carfizomib (CFZ; U.S. FDA approved in August 2012) induces responses in a minority of MM patients relapsed from or refractory to BTZ. There is less PN compared to BTZ. Four other second-generation proteasome inhibitors (Ixazomib, Delanzomib, Oprozomib and Marizomib) with different pharmacologic properties and broader anticancer activities, have also shown some clinical activity in bortezomib-resistant cancers. While the mechanism of resistance to bortezomib in human cancers still remains to be fully understood, targeting the immunoproteasome, ubiquitin E3 ligases, the 19S proteasome and deubiquitinases in pre-clinical studies represents possible directions for future generation inhibitors of ubiquitin-proteasome system in the treatment of MM and other cancers. PMID:25092212

  10. Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and Implications on the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System.

    PubMed

    Neto, Zoraima; Machado, Marta; Lindeza, Ana; do Rosrio, Virglio; Gazarini, Marcos L; Lopes, Dinora

    2013-01-01

    Antimalarial drug resistance remains a major obstacle in malaria control. Evidence from Southeast Asia shows that resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is inevitable. Ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the efficacy of curcumin against Plasmodium spp. Drug interaction assays between curcumin/piperine/chloroquine and curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combinations and the potential of drug treatment to interfere with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) were analyzed. In vivo efficacy of curcumin was studied in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi clones resistant to chloroquine and artemisinin, and drug interactions were analyzed by isobolograms. Subtherapeutic doses of curcumin, chloroquine, and artemisinin were administered to mice, and mRNA was collected following treatment for RT-PCR analysis of genes encoding deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Curcumin was found be nontoxic in BALB/c mice. The combination of curcumin/chloroquine/piperine reduced parasitemia to 37% seven days after treatment versus the control group's 65%, and an additive interaction was revealed. Curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combination did not show a favorable drug interaction in this murine model of malaria. Treatment of mice with subtherapeutic doses of the drugs resulted in a transient increase in genes encoding DUBs indicating UPS interference. If curcumin is to join the arsenal of available antimalarial drugs, future studies exploring suitable drug partners would be of interest. PMID:23691276

  11. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet. PMID:24826789

  12. Archaeal Tuc1/Ncs6 Homolog Required for Wobble Uridine tRNA Thiolation Is Associated with Ubiquitin-Proteasome, Translation, and RNA Processing System Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria, Nikita E.; Hwang, Sungmin; Cao, Shiyun; Fu, Xian; Holman, Mary; Elbanna, Dina; Rodriguez, Suzanne; Arrington, Deanna; Englert, Markus; Uthandi, Sivakumar; Söll, Dieter; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    While cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1 (Tuc1/Ncs6) and ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (Urm1) are important in the 2-thiolation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) at wobble uridines of tRNAs in eukaryotes, the biocatalytic roles and properties of Ncs6/Tuc1 and its homologs are poorly understood. Here we present the first report of an Ncs6 homolog of archaea (NcsA of Haloferax volcanii) that is essential for maintaining cellular pools of thiolated tRNALysUUU and for growth at high temperature. When purified from Hfx. volcanii, NcsA was found to be modified at Lys204 by isopeptide linkage to polymeric chains of the ubiquitin-fold protein SAMP2. The ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme homolog of archaea (UbaA) was required for this covalent modification. Non-covalent protein partners that specifically associated with NcsA were also identified including UbaA, SAMP2, proteasome activating nucleotidase (PAN)-A/1, translation elongation factor aEF-1α and a β-CASP ribonuclease homolog of the archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 family (aCPSF1). Together, our study reveals that NcsA is essential for growth at high temperature, required for formation of thiolated tRNALysUUU and intimately linked to homologs of ubiquitin-proteasome, translation and RNA processing systems. PMID:24906001

  13. Overview of proteasome inhibitor-based anti-cancer therapies: perspective on bortezomib and second generation proteasome inhibitors versus future generation inhibitors of ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Dou, Q Ping; Zonder, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, proteasome inhibition has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma (MM) and some lymphomas. In 2003, Bortezomib (BTZ) became the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). BTZ-based therapies have become a staple for the treatment of MM at all stages of the disease. The survival rate of MM patients has improved significantly since clinical introduction of BTZ and other immunomodulatory drugs. However, BTZ has several limitations. Not all patients respond to BTZ based therapies and relapse occurs in many patients who initially responded. Solid tumors, in particular, are often resistant to BTZ. Furthermore, BTZ can induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy (PN). The second generation proteasome inhibitor Carfizomib (CFZ; U.S. FDA approved in August 2012) induces responses in a minority of MM patients relapsed from or refractory to BTZ. There is less PN compared to BTZ. Four other second-generation proteasome inhibitors (Ixazomib, Delanzomib, Oprozomib and Marizomib) with different pharmacologic properties and broader anticancer activities, have also shown some clinical activity in bortezomib-resistant cancers. While the mechanism of resistance to bortezomib in human cancers still remains to be fully understood, targeting the immunoproteasome, ubiquitin E3 ligases, the 19S proteasome and deubiquitinases in pre-clinical studies represents possible directions for future generation inhibitors of ubiquitin-proteasome system in the treatment of MM and other cancers. PMID:25092212

  14. cAMP signaling increases histone deacetylase 8 expression by inhibiting JNK-dependent degradation via autophagy and the proteasome system in H1299 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the roles of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the degradation of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) and to clarify the mechanism by which cAMP signaling regulates this degradation. cAMP signaling was activated by treating H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells with isoproterenol or forskolin/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and HDAC8 expression was assessed by western blot analysis. The inhibition of autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation increased HDAC8 expression. cAMP signaling inhibited JNK activation, which decreased the phosphorylation of Bcl-2, thereby reducing autophagy, and the phosphorylation of Itch, thereby reducing ubiquitination. These results suggest that the HDAC8 protein is degraded via autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system and that cAMP signaling increases HDAC8 protein levels by reducing JNK-mediated autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation of the HDAC8 protein in H1299 lung cancer cells. PMID:26792731

  15. Ubiquitin-mediated pathways in C. elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Kipreos, Edward T

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitin is a highly conserved 76 amino acid polypeptide, which is covalently attached to target proteins to signal their degradation by the 26S proteasome or to modify their function or localization. Regulated protein degradation, which is associated with many dynamic cellular processes, occurs predominantly via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Ubiquitin is conjugated to target proteins through the sequential actions of a ubiquitin-activating enzyme, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and ubiquitin-protein ligases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has one ubiquitin-activating enzyme, twenty putative ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and potentially hundreds of ubiquitin-protein ligases. Research in C. elegans has focused on the cellular functions of ubiquitin pathway components in the context of organismal development. A combination of forward genetics, reverse genetics, and genome-wide RNAi screens has provided information on the loss-of-function phenotypes for the majority of C. elegans ubiquitin pathway components. Additionally, detailed analysis of several classes of ubiquitin-protein ligases has led to the identification of their substrates and the molecular pathways that they regulate. This review presents a comprehensive overview of ubiquitin-mediated pathways in C. elegans with a description of the known components and their identified molecular, cellular, and developmental functions. PMID:18050424

  16. Quercetin improves the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasomal system in 150Q mutated huntingtin-expressing cells but exerts detrimental effects on neuronal survivability.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, J; Rajamma, U; Jana, N; Mohanakumar, K P

    2015-10-01

    Quercetin, a strong free radical scavenger, is investigated for neuroprotective effects in a Neuro 2a cell line conditionally transfected with 16Q huntingtin (Htt) and 150Q Htt, which express the protein upon stimulation. Cells were protected from death by a 20-µM dose of quercetin on the second day of Htt induction, but 30-100-µM doses of the drug caused further toxicity in both 16Q and 150Q cells, as indicated by MTT assay and by significant reductions in the number of cells bearing neurites on the second day. A significant decrease in the number of cells containing aggregate was seen in induced 150Q cells treated with 20 µM but not for those treated with 40 or 50 µM quercetin up to 4 days of induction. Mutated Htt (mHtt)-induced reduction in proteasomal activity of the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS) was significantly attenuated by 20 µM quercetin. However, neither mitochondrial membrane potential loss nor colocalization of 20S proteasome with mHtt aggregate was corrected by quercetin treatment. Our results imply that the neuroprotective effect of quercetin arises out of the upregulation of UPS activity, which causes a decrease in the number of mHtt aggregate-harboring cells. The increased neurotoxicity could result from the continued association of mHtt with 20S proteasome and the failure of quercetin to correct mitochondrial membrane potential loss. These results suggest that, although quercetin at a low dose protects against mHtt-mediated cell death, higher doses are toxic to the cells, clearly demarcating a narrow therapeutic window for this dietary flavonoid. PMID:26153070

  17. Protection from Endotoxic Uveitis by Intravitreal Resolvin D1: Involvement of Lymphocytes, miRNAs, Ubiquitin-Proteasome, and M1/M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, S.; Di Filippo, C.; Gesualdo, C.; Potenza, N.; Russo, A.; Trotta, M. C.; Zippo, M. V.; Maisto, R.; Ferraraccio, F.; Simonelli, F.; D'Amico, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of intravitreal Resolvin D1 (RvD1) against LPS-induced rat endotoxic uveitis (EIU). RvD1 was administered into the right eye at a single injection of 5 μL volume containing 10–100–1000 ng/kg RvD1 1 h post-LPS injection (200 μg, Salmonella minnesota) into thefootpad of Sprague-Dawley rats. 24 h later, the eye was enucleated and examined for clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical evaluations. RvD1 significantly and dose-dependently decreased the clinical score attributed to EIU, starting from the dose of 10 ng/kg and further decreased by 100 and 1000 ng/kg. These effects were accompanied by changes in four important determinants of the immune-inflammatory response within the eye: (i) the B and T lymphocytes, (ii) the miRNAs pattern, (iii) the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and (iv) the M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. LPS+RvD1 treated rats showed reduced presence of B and T lymphocytes and upregulation of miR-200c-3p, miR 203a-3p, miR 29b-3p, and miR 21-5p into the eye compared to the LPS alone. This was paralleled by decreases of the ubiquitin, 20S and 26S proteasome subunits, reduced presence of macrophage M1, and increased presence of macrophage M2 in the ocular tissues. Accordingly, the levels of the cytokine TNF-α, the chemokines MIP1-α and NF-κB were reduced. PMID:25684860

  18. Prion-promoted phosphorylation of heterologous amyloid is coupled with ubiquitin-proteasome system inhibition and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi; Stone, David E; Liebman, Susan W

    2014-09-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with conversion of a soluble protein into amyloid deposits, but how this is connected to toxicity remains largely unknown. Here, we explore mechanisms of amyloid associated toxicity using yeast. [PIN(+)], the prion form of the Q/N-rich Rnq1 protein, was known to enhance aggregation of heterologous proteins, including the overexpressed Q/N-rich amyloid forming domain of Pin4 (Pin4C), and Pin4C aggregates were known to attract chaperones, including Sis1. Here we show that in [PIN(+)] but not [pin(-)] cells, overexpression of Pin4C is deadly and linked to hyperphosphorylation of aggregated Pin4C. Furthermore, Pin4C aggregation, hyperphosphorylation and toxicity are simultaneously reversed by Sis1 overexpression. Toxicity may result from proteasome overload because hyperphosphorylated Pin4C aggregation is associated with reduced degradation of a ubiquitin-protein degradation reporter. Finally, hyperphosphorylation of endogenous full-length Pin4 was also facilitated by [PIN(+)], revealing that a prion can regulate post-translational modification of another protein. PMID:25039275

  19. Prion degradation pathways: Potential for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Goold, Rob; McKinnon, Chris; Tabrizi, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Pathology is closely linked to the misfolding of native cellular PrPC into the disease-associated form PrPSc that accumulates in the brain as disease progresses. Although treatments have yet to be developed, strategies aimed at stimulating the degradation of PrPSc have shown efficacy in experimental models of prion disease. Here, we describe the cellular pathways that mediate PrPSc degradation and review possible targets for therapeutic intervention. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neuronal Protein’. PMID:25584786

  20. Dual mode of degradation of Cdc25A phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Donzelli, Maddalena; Squatrito, Massimo; Ganoth, Dvora; Hershko, Avram; Pagano, Michele; Draetta, Giulio F.

    2002-01-01

    The Cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatases control progression through the eukaryotic cell division cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. Cdc25A regulates entry into S-phase by dephosphorylating Cdk2, it cooperates with activated oncogenes in inducing transformation and is overexpressed in several human tumors. DNA damage or DNA replication blocks induce phosphorylation of Cdc25A and its subsequent degradation via the ubiquitinproteasome pathway. Here we have investigated the regulation of Cdc25A in the cell cycle. We found that Cdc25A degradation during mitotic exit and in early G1 is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C)Cdh1 ligase, and that a KEN-box motif in the N-terminus of the protein is required for its targeted degradation. Interestingly, the KEN-box mutated protein remains unstable in interphase and upon ionizing radiation exposure. Moreover, SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box) inactivation using an interfering Cul1 mutant accumulates and stabilizes Cdc25A. The presence of Cul1 and Skp1 in Cdc25A immunocomplexes suggests a direct involvement of SCF in Cdc25A degradation during interphase. We propose that a dual mechanism of regulated degradation allows for fine tuning of Cdc25A abundance in response to cell environment. PMID:12234927

  1. Lysosome: regulator of lipid degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that has a fundamental role in the adaptation to fasting and primarily relies on the activity of the endolysosomal system, to which the autophagosome targets substrates for degradation. Recent studies have revealed that the lysosomal-autophagic pathway plays an important part in the early steps of lipid degradation. In this review, we discuss the transcriptional mechanisms underlying co-regulation between lysosome, autophagy, and other steps of lipid catabolism, including the activity of nutrient-sensitive transcription factors (TFs) and of members of the nuclear receptor family. In addition, we discuss how the lysosome acts as a metabolic sensor and orchestrates the transcriptional response to fasting. PMID:25061009

  2. Bacterial Effectors and Their Functions in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Insight from the Modes of Substrate Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsoo; Otsubo, Ryota; Morikawa, Hanako; Nishide, Akira; Takagi, Kenji; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Mizushima, Tsunehiro

    2014-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination plays indispensable roles in the regulation of cell homeostasis and pathogenesis of neoplastic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given the importance of this modification, it is to be expected that several pathogenic bacteria have developed the ability to utilize the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit. Modulation of the host ubiquitin system by bacterial effector proteins inhibits innate immune responses and hijacks central signaling pathways. Bacterial effectors mimic enzymes of the host ubiquitin system, but may or may not be structurally similar to the mammalian enzymes. Other effectors bind and modify components of the host ubiquitin system, and some are themselves subject to ubiquitination. This review will describe recent findings, based on structural analyses, regarding how pathogens use post-translational modifications of proteins to establish an infection. PMID:25257025

  3. Celastrol induces proteasomal degradation of FANCD2 to sensitize lung cancer cells to DNA crosslinking agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Zhen; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Cheng, Xin; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway plays a key role in interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair and maintenance of the genomic stability, while inhibition of this pathway may sensitize cancer cells to DNA ICL agents and ionizing radiation (IR). The active FA core complex acts as an E3 ligase to monoubiquitinate FANCD2, which is a functional readout of an activated FA pathway. In the present study, we aimed to identify FANCD2-targeting agents, and found that the natural compound celastrol induced degradation of FANCD2 through the ubiquitinproteasome pathway. We demonstrated that celastrol downregulated the basal and DNA damaging agent-induced monoubiquitination of FANCD2, followed by proteolytic degradation of the substrate. Furthermore, celastrol treatment abrogated the G2 checkpoint induced by IR, and enhanced the ICL agent-induced DNA damage and inhibitory effects on lung cancer cells through depletion of FANCD2. These results indicate that celastrol is a FANCD2 inhibitor that could interfere with the monoubiquitination and protein stability of FANCD2, providing a novel opportunity to develop FA pathway inhibitor and combinational therapy for malignant neoplasms. PMID:25891850

  4. Redox control of protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, Marta; Jiménez-Moreno, Natalia; Dias, Irundika H.K.; Debelec, Bilge; Vucetic, Milica; Fladmark, Kari E.; Basaga, Huveyda; Ribaric, Samo; Milisav, Irina; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular proteolysis is critical to maintain timely degradation of altered proteins including oxidized proteins. This review attempts to summarize the most relevant findings about oxidant protein modification, as well as the impact of reactive oxygen species on the proteolytic systems that regulate cell response to an oxidant environment: the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR). In the presence of an oxidant environment, these systems are critical to ensure proteostasis and cell survival. An example of altered degradation of oxidized proteins in pathology is provided for neurodegenerative diseases. Future work will determine if protein oxidation is a valid target to combat proteinopathies. PMID:26381917

  5. Natural small molecule FMHM inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by promoting TRAF6 degradation via K48-linked polyubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Liao, Li-Xi; Lv, Hai-Ning; Song, Fang-Jiao; Yu, Qian; Dong, Xin; Li, Jun; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key hub protein involved in Toll-like receptor-dependent inflammatory signaling pathway, and it recruits additional proteins to form multiprotein complexes capable of activating downstream NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in various protein degradations, such as TRAF6, leading to inhibitory effects on inflammatory response and immunologic function. However, whether ubiquitination-dependent TRAF6 degradation can be used as a novel anti-inflammatory drug target still remains to be explored. FMHM, a bioactive natural small molecule compound extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Radix Polygalae, suppressed acute inflammatory response by targeting ubiquitin protein and inducing UPS-dependent TRAF6 degradation mechanism. It was found that FMHM targeted ubiquitin protein via Lys48 site directly induced Lys48 residue-linked polyubiquitination. This promoted Lys48 residue-linked polyubiquitin chain formation on TRAF6, resulting in increased TRAF6 degradation via UPS and inactivation of downstream NF-κB inflammatory pathway. Consequently, FMHM down-regulated inflammatory mediator levels in circulation, protected multiple organs against inflammatory injury in vivo, and prolong the survival of endotoxemia mouse models. Therefore, FMHM can serve as a novel lead compound for the development of TRAF6 scavenging agent via ubiquitination-dependent mode, which represents a promising strategy for treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:26423026

  6. Ubiquitin-protein ligases in muscle wasting: multiple parallel pathways?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecker, Stewart H.; Goldberg, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in a wide variety of animal models of muscle wasting have led to the concept that increased protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for the loss of muscle mass seen as muscle atrophy. The complexity of the ubiquitination apparatus has hampered our understanding of how this pathway is activated in atrophying muscles and which ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in muscle are responsible. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments have shown that two newly identified ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), atrogin-1/MAFbx and MURF-1, are critical in the development of muscle atrophy. Other in-vitro studies also implicated E2(14k) and E3alpha, of the N-end rule pathway, as playing an important role in the process. SUMMARY: It seems likely that multiple pathways of ubiquitin conjugation are activated in parallel in atrophying muscle, perhaps to target for degradation specific classes of muscle proteins. The emerging challenge will be to define the protein targets for, as well as inhibitors of, these E3s.

  7. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOS1 Regulates Arabidopsis Flowering by Mediating CONSTANS Degradation Under Cold Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-01-01

    The timing of flowering is coordinated by a web of gene regulatory networks that integrates developmental and environmental cues in plants. Light and temperature are two major environmental determinants that regulate flowering time. Although prolonged treatment with low nonfreezing temperatures accelerates flowering by stable repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), repeated brief cold treatments delay flowering. Here, we report that intermittent cold treatments trigger the degradation of CONSTANS (CO), a central activator of photoperiodic flowering; daily treatments caused suppression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and delayed flowering. Cold-induced CO degradation is mediated via a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway that involves the E3 ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE 1 (HOS1). HOS1-mediated CO degradation occurs independently of the well established cold response pathways. It is also independent of the light signaling repressor CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) E3 ligase and light wavelengths. CO has been shown to play a key role in photoperiodic flowering. Here, we demonstrated that CO served as a molecular hub, integrating photoperiodic and cold stress signals into the flowering genetic pathways. We propose that the HOS1-CO module contributes to the fine-tuning of photoperiodic flowering under short term temperature fluctuations, which often occur during local weather disturbances. PMID:23135282

  8. Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Fouzia; Crompton, Leslie A; Scaife, Jes R; Lomax, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin) and essential amino acids (EAA) would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of synergistic effects between glucose + EAA infusion on muscle protein degradation or expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. PMID:18269762

  9. Regulation of protein degradation pathways by amino acids and insulin in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid gain in lean mass in neonates requires greater rates of protein synthesis than degradation. We previously delineated the molecular mechanisms by which insulin and amino acids, especially leucine, modulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis and how this changes with development. In the current study, we identified mechanisms involved in protein degradation regulation. In experiment 1, 6- and 26-d-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic, 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hyperaminoacidemic, and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps for 2 h. In experiment 2, 5-d-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic-euleucinemic, 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hypoaminoacidemic-hyperleucinemic, and 3) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic-hyperleucinemic clamps for 24 h. We determined in muscle indices of ubiquitin-proteasome, i.e., atrogin-1 (MAFbx) and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1) and autophagy-lysosome systems, i.e., unc51-like kinase 1 (UKL1), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp-2). For comparison, we measured ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) activation, components of translation initiation. Results Abundance of atrogin-1, but not MuRF1, was greater in 26- than 6-d-old pigs and was not affected by insulin, amino acids, or leucine. Abundance of ULK1 and LC3 was higher in younger pigs and not affected by treatment. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was reduced and ULK1 phosphorylation increased by insulin, amino acids, and leucine. These responses were more profound in younger pigs. Abundance of Lamp-2 was not affected by treatment or development. Abundance of eIF4E, but not rpS6, was higher in 6- than 26-d-old-pigs but unaffected by treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E was not affected by treatment, however, insulin, amino acids, and leucine stimulated rpS6 phosphorylation, and the responses decreased with development. Conclusions The rapid growth of neonatal muscle is in part due to the positive balance between the activation of protein synthesis and degradation signaling. Insulin, amino acids, and, particularly, leucine, act as signals to modulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation in neonates. PMID:24438646

  10. Molecular Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of SNIPER(ER) That Induces Proteasomal Degradation of ER?.

    PubMed

    Okuhira, Keiichiro; Demizu, Yosuke; Hattori, Takayuki; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Shibata, Norihito; Kurihara, Masaaki; Naito, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of protein stability using small molecules has a great potential for both basic research and clinical therapy. Based on our protein knockdown technology, we recently developed a novel small molecule SNIPER(ER) that targets the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This chapter describes the design and synthesis of SNIPER(ER) compounds, and methods for the evaluation of their activity in cellular system. PMID:26585163

  11. RNF185 Is a Novel E3 Ligase of Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation (ERAD) That Targets Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)*

    PubMed Central

    El Khouri, Elma; Le Pavec, Gwenalle; Toledano, Michel B.; Delaunay-Moisan, Agns

    2013-01-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), misfolded or improperly assembled proteins are exported to the cytoplasm and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through a process called ER-associated degradation (ERAD). ER-associated E3 ligases, which coordinate substrate recognition, export, and proteasome targeting, are key components of ERAD. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is one ERAD substrate targeted to co-translational degradation by the E3 ligase RNF5/RMA1. RNF185 is a RING domain-containing polypeptide homologous to RNF5. We show that RNF185 controls the stability of CFTR and of the CFTR?F508 mutant in a RING- and proteasome-dependent manner but does not control that of other classical ERAD model substrates. Reciprocally, its silencing stabilizes CFTR proteins. Turnover analyses indicate that, as RNF5, RNF185 targets CFTR to co-translational degradation. Importantly, however, simultaneous depletion of RNF5 and RNF185 profoundly blocks CFTR?F508 degradation not only during translation but also after synthesis is complete. Our data thus identify RNF185 and RNF5 as a novel E3 ligase module that is central to the control of CFTR degradation. PMID:24019521

  12. Roles for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in protein quality control and signaling in the retina: implications in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of damaged or postsynthetically modified proteins and dysregulation of inflammatory responses and angiogenesis in the retina/RPE are thought be etiologically related to formation of drusen and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). T...

  13. Perilipin2 plays a positive role in adipocytes during lipolysis by escaping proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Shinoda, Akihiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Perilipin2 (Plin2), also known as adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), or adipophilin, is a member of the PAT family involved in lipid droplet (LD) formation in the liver and peripheral tissues. Although Plin2 was originally identified as a highly expressed gene in adipocytes, its physiological role in mature adipocytes is largely unknown. In this report, we investigated the regulation of Plin2 expression and its function in differentiated adipocytes of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Plin2 mRNA levels increased during adipocyte differentiation whereas protein levels did not. Plin2 was degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway but was inhibited by lipolytic inducers. Furthermore, lentiviral-mediated Plin2 knockdown attenuated lipolysis in differentiated MEFs in a time-dependent manner. Oleic acid-induced LD formation enhanced Plin2 protein stability when it was localized to LDs. Furthermore, a mutational analysis revealed that the ubiquitination and degradation of Plin2 required both the second and third alanine in the N-terminal region. These results suggest that Plin2 is degraded in the cytosol in its N-terminal amino acid sequence-dependent manner and instead becomes stable when localized on LDs. Our findings highlight the relationship between protein stability and a previously unnoticed function of Plin2 during lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:26876687

  14. Perilipin2 plays a positive role in adipocytes during lipolysis by escaping proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yu; Shinoda, Akihiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Perilipin2 (Plin2), also known as adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), or adipophilin, is a member of the PAT family involved in lipid droplet (LD) formation in the liver and peripheral tissues. Although Plin2 was originally identified as a highly expressed gene in adipocytes, its physiological role in mature adipocytes is largely unknown. In this report, we investigated the regulation of Plin2 expression and its function in differentiated adipocytes of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Plin2 mRNA levels increased during adipocyte differentiation whereas protein levels did not. Plin2 was degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway but was inhibited by lipolytic inducers. Furthermore, lentiviral-mediated Plin2 knockdown attenuated lipolysis in differentiated MEFs in a time-dependent manner. Oleic acid-induced LD formation enhanced Plin2 protein stability when it was localized to LDs. Furthermore, a mutational analysis revealed that the ubiquitination and degradation of Plin2 required both the second and third alanine in the N-terminal region. These results suggest that Plin2 is degraded in the cytosol in its N-terminal amino acid sequence-dependent manner and instead becomes stable when localized on LDs. Our findings highlight the relationship between protein stability and a previously unnoticed function of Plin2 during lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:26876687

  15. Aberrant C-terminal domain of polymerase ? targets the functional enzyme to the proteosomal degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahmed-Seghir, Sana; Pouvelle, Caroline; Despras, Emmanuelle; Cordonnier, Agns; Sarasin, Alain; Kannouche, Patricia L

    2015-05-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) is a rare genetic disease, characterized by sunlight sensitivity and predisposition to cutaneous malignancies. XP-V is caused by a deficiency in DNA polymerase eta (Pol?) that plays a pivotal role in translesion synthesis by bypassing UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. Previously we identified a new Pol? variant containing two missense mutations, one mutation within the bipartite NLS (T692A) and a second mutation on the stop codon (X714W) leading to a longer protein with an extra 8 amino acids (721 instead of 713 AA). First biochemical analysis revealed that this Pol? missense variant was barely detectable by western blot. As this mutant is extremely unstable and is nearly undetectable, a definitive measure of its functional deficit in cells has not been explored. Here we report the molecular and cellular characterization of this missense variant. In cell free extracts, the extra 8 amino acids in the C-terminal of Pol?(721) only slightly reduce the bypass efficiency through CPD lesions. In vivo, Pol?(721) accumulates in replication factories and interacts with mUb-PCNA albeit at lower level than Pol?(wt). XP-V cells overexpressing Pol?(721) were only slightly UV-sensitive. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that Pol?(721) is functional and that the patient displays a XP-V phenotype because the mutant protein is excessively unstable. We then investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in this excessive proteolysis. We showed that Pol?(721) is degraded by the proteasome in an ubiquitin-dependent manner and that this proteolysis is independent of the E3 ligases, CRL4(cdt2) and Pirh2, reported to promote Pol? degradation. We then demonstrated that the extra 8 amino acids of Pol?(721) do not act as a degron but rather induce a conformational change of the Pol? C-terminus exposing its bipartite NLS as well as a sequence close to its UBZ to the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Interestingly we showed that the clinically approved proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib restores the levels of Pol?(721) suggesting that this might be a therapeutic approach to preventing tumor development in certain XP-V patients harboring missense mutations. PMID:25766642

  16. cAMP-induced phosphorylation of 26S proteasomes on Rpn6/PSMD11 enhances their activity and the degradation of misfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Kukushkin, Nikolay Vadimovich; Goldberg, Alfred Lewis

    2015-12-29

    Although rates of protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPS) are determined by their rates of ubiquitination, we show here that the proteasome's capacity to degrade ubiquitinated proteins is also tightly regulated. We studied the effects of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on proteolysis by the UPS in several mammalian cell lines. Various agents that raise intracellular cAMP and activate PKA (activators of adenylate cyclase or inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4) promoted degradation of short-lived (but not long-lived) cell proteins generally, model UPS substrates having different degrons, and aggregation-prone proteins associated with major neurodegenerative diseases, including mutant FUS (Fused in sarcoma), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1), TDP43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43), and tau. 26S proteasomes purified from these treated cells or from control cells and treated with PKA degraded ubiquitinated proteins, small peptides, and ATP more rapidly than controls, but not when treated with protein phosphatase. Raising cAMP levels also increased amounts of doubly capped 26S proteasomes. Activated PKA phosphorylates the 19S subunit, Rpn6/PSMD11 (regulatory particle non-ATPase 6/proteasome subunit D11) at Ser14. Overexpression of a phosphomimetic Rpn6 mutant activated proteasomes similarly, whereas a nonphosphorylatable mutant decreased activity. Thus, proteasome function and protein degradation are regulated by cAMP through PKA and Rpn6, and activation of proteasomes by this mechanism may be useful in treating proteotoxic diseases. PMID:26669444

  17. PolyQ proteins interfere with nuclear degradation of cytosolic proteins by sequestering the Sis1p chaperone.

    PubMed

    Park, Sae-Hun; Kukushkin, Yury; Gupta, Rajat; Chen, Taotao; Konagai, Ayano; Hipp, Mark S; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit; Hartl, F Ulrich

    2013-07-01

    Dysfunction of protein quality control contributes to the cellular pathology of polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion diseases and other neurodegenerative disorders associated with aggregate deposition. Here we analyzed how polyQ aggregation interferes with the clearance of misfolded proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). We show in a yeast model that polyQ-expanded proteins inhibit the UPS-mediated degradation of misfolded cytosolic carboxypeptidase Y(∗) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (CG(∗)) without blocking ubiquitylation or proteasome function. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that the polyQ aggregates sequester the low-abundant and essential Hsp40 chaperone Sis1p. Overexpression of Sis1p restores CG(∗) degradation. Surprisingly, we find that Sis1p, and its homolog DnaJB1 in mammalian cells, mediates the delivery of misfolded proteins into the nucleus for proteasomal degradation. Sis1p shuttles between cytosol and nucleus, and its cellular level limits the capacity of this quality control pathway. Upon depletion of Sis1p by polyQ aggregation, misfolded proteins are barred from entering the nucleus and form cytoplasmic inclusions. PMID:23791384

  18. Geldanamycin-induced degradation of Chk1 is mediated by proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, M.; E-mail: nomura413jp@yahoo.co.jp; Nomura, N.; Yamashita, J.

    2005-09-30

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a cell cycle regulator and a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) client. It is essential for cell proliferation and survival. In this report, we analyzed the mechanisms of Chk1 regulation in U87MG glioblastoma cells using Geldanamycin (GA), which interferes with the function of Hsp90. GA reduced Chk1 protein level but not its mRNA level in glioblastoma cells. Co-treatment with GA and cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, induced a decrease of half-life of the Chk1 protein to 3 h and resulted in Chk1 down-regulation. CHX alone induced only 32% reduction of Chk1 protein even after 24 h. These findings indicated that reduction of Chk1 by GA was due to destabilization and degradation of the protein. In addition, GA-induced down-regulation of Chk1 was reversed by MG132, a specific proteasome inhibitor. And it was revealed that Chk1 was ubiquitinated by GA. These results have indicated that degradation of Chk1 by GA was mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in U87MG glioblastoma cells.

  19. Ubiquitin-mediated NF?B degradation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huimin; You, Mengli; Shi, Haifeng; Hou, Yongzhong

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) transcription factor plays critical roles in inflammation and immunity. The dysregulation of NF?B is associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer. NF?B activation is negatively regulated by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation pathway. In the present review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how ubiquitin ligases regulate the NF?B degradation pathway. PMID:25345807

  20. Regulating the 20S proteasome ubiquitin-independent degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nissan, Gili; Sharon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the ubiquitin-26S proteasome degradation pathway was considered the primary route for proteasomal degradation. However, it is now becoming clear that proteins can also be targeted for degradation by the core 20S proteasome itself. Degradation by the 20S proteasome does not require ubiquitin tagging or the presence of the 19S regulatory particle; rather, it relies on the inherent structural disorder of the protein being degraded. Thus, proteins that contain unstructured regions due to oxidation, mutation, or aging, as well as naturally, intrinsically unfolded proteins, are susceptible to 20S degradation. Unlike the extensive knowledge acquired over the years concerning degradation by the 26S proteasome, relatively little is known about the means by which 20S-mediated proteolysis is controlled. Here, we describe our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate 20S proteasome-mediated degradation, and highlight the gaps in knowledge that remain to be bridged. PMID:25250704

  1. Regulating the 20S Proteasome Ubiquitin-Independent Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Nissan, Gili; Sharon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the ubiquitin-26S proteasome degradation pathway was considered the primary route for proteasomal degradation. However, it is now becoming clear that proteins can also be targeted for degradation by the core 20S proteasome itself. Degradation by the 20S proteasome does not require ubiquitin tagging or the presence of the 19S regulatory particle; rather, it relies on the inherent structural disorder of the protein being degraded. Thus, proteins that contain unstructured regions due to oxidation, mutation, or aging, as well as naturally, intrinsically unfolded proteins, are susceptible to 20S degradation. Unlike the extensive knowledge acquired over the years concerning degradation by the 26S proteasome, relatively little is known about the means by which 20S-mediated proteolysis is controlled. Here, we describe our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate 20S proteasome-mediated degradation, and highlight the gaps in knowledge that remain to be bridged. PMID:25250704

  2. A high-coverage shRNA screen identifies TMEM129 as an E3 ligase involved in ER-associated protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    van de Weijer, Michael L.; Bassik, Michael C.; Luteijn, Rutger D.; Voorburg, Cornelia M.; Lohuis, Mirjam A.M.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hoeben, Rob C.; LeProust, Emily M.; Chen, Siyuan; Hoelen, Hanneke; Ressing, Maaike E.; Patena, Weronika; Weissman, Jonathan S.; McManus, Michael T.; Wiertz, Emmanuel J.H.J.; Lebbink, Robert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Misfolded ER proteins are retrotranslocated into the cytosol for degradation via the ubiquitinproteasome system. The human cytomegalovirus protein US11 exploits this ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway to downregulate HLA class I molecules in virus-infected cells, thereby evading elimination by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. US11-mediated degradation of HLA class I has been instrumental in the identification of key components of mammalian ERAD, including Derlin-1, p97, VIMP and SEL1L. Despite this, the process governing retrotranslocation of the substrate is still poorly understood. Here using a high-coverage genome-wide shRNA library, we identify the uncharacterized protein TMEM129 and the ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzyme UBE2J2 to be essential for US11-mediated HLA class I downregulation. TMEM129 is an unconventional C4C4-type RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that resides within a complex containing various other ERAD components, including Derlin-1, Derlin-2, VIMP and p97, indicating that TMEM129 is an integral part of the ER-resident dislocation complex mediating US11-induced HLA class I degradation. PMID:24807418

  3. Activation of AHR mediates the ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of c-Fos through the induction of Ubcm4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Meja-Garca, A; Gonzlez-Barbosa, E; Martnez-Guzmn, C; Torres-Ramos, M A; Rodrguez, M S; Guzmn-Len, S; Elizondo, G

    2015-11-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a specific, non-lysosomal pathway responsible for the controlled degradation of abnormal and short-half-life proteins. Despite its relevance in cell homeostasis, information regarding control of the UPS component gene expression is lacking. Data from a recent study suggest that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, might control the expression of several genes encoding for UPS proteins. Here, we showed that activation of AHR by TCDD and ?-naphthoflavone (?-NF) results in Ubcm4 gene induction accompanied by an increase in protein levels. UbcM4 is an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme or E2 protein that in association with ubiquitin ligase enzymes or E3 ligases promotes the ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of different proteins, including p53, c-Myc, and c-Fos. We also present data demonstrating increased c-Fos ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation through the AHR-mediated induction of UbcM4 expression. The present study shows that AHR modulates the degradation of proteins involved in cell cycle control, consistent with previous reports demonstrating an essential role of the AHR in cell cycle regulation. PMID:26318284

  4. Understanding Degradation Pathways in Organic Photovoltaics (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, M. T.; Olson, D. C.; Garcia, A.; Kauvar, I.; Kopidakis, N.; Reese, M. O.; Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.

    2011-02-01

    Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs) recently attained power conversion efficiencies that are of interest for commercial production. Consequently, one of the most important unsolved issues facing a new industry is understanding what governs lifetime in organic devices and discovering solutions to mitigate degradation mechanisms. Historically, the active organic components are considered vulnerable to photo-oxidation and represent the primary degradation channel. However, we present several (shelf life and light soaking) studies pointing the relative stability of the active layers and instabilities in commonly used electrode materials. We show that engineering of the hole/electron layer at the electrode can lead to environmentally stable devices even without encapsulation.

  5. Binding-induced Folding of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein on the Mycobacterium Proteasomal ATPase Targets Substrates for Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    T Wang; K Heran Darwin; H Li

    2011-12-31

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analog of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein that bears little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus, it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled coils that recognize Pup. Mpa bound unstructured Pup through hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an {alpha}-helix in Pup. Our work describes a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This key difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment for tuberculosis.

  6. Binding-induced folding of prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein on the mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase targets substrates for degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Li, H.; Darwin, K. H.

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analog of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein that bears little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus, it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled coils that recognize Pup. Mpa bound unstructured Pup through hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an {alpha}-helix in Pup. Our work describes a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This key difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment for tuberculosis.

  7. Validation of microarray data in human lymphoblasts shows a role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and NF-kB in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Down syndrome (DS) is a complex disorder caused by the trisomy of either the entire, or a critical region of chromosome 21 (21q22.1-22.3). Despite representing the most common cause of mental retardation, the molecular bases of the syndrome are still largely unknown. Methods To better understand the pathogenesis of DS, we analyzed the genome-wide transcription profiles of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from six DS and six euploid individuals and investigated differential gene expression and pathway deregulation associated with trisomy 21. Connectivity map and PASS-assisted exploration were used to identify compounds whose molecular signatures counteracted those of DS lymphoblasts and to predict their therapeutic potential. An experimental validation in DS LCLs and fetal fibroblasts was performed for the most deregulated GO categories, i.e. the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and the NF-kB cascade. Results We show, for the first time, that the level of protein ubiquitination is reduced in human DS cell lines and that proteasome activity is increased in both basal conditions and oxidative microenvironment. We also provide the first evidence that NF-kB transcription levels, a paradigm of gene expression control by ubiquitin-mediated degradation, is impaired in DS due to reduced IkB-alfa ubiquitination, increased NF-kB inhibitor (IkB-alfa) and reduced p65 nuclear fraction. Finally, the DSCR1/DYRK1A/NFAT genes were analysed. In human DS LCLs, we confirmed the presence of increased protein levels of DSCR1 and DYRK1A, and showed that the levels of the transcription factor NFATc2 were decreased in DS along with a reduction of its nuclear translocation upon induction of calcium fluxes. Conclusions The present work offers new perspectives to better understand the pathogenesis of DS and suggests a rationale for innovative approaches to treat some pathological conditions associated to DS. PMID:23830204

  8. Npas4 Transcription Factor Expression Is Regulated by Calcium Signaling Pathways and Prevents Tacrolimus-induced Cytotoxicity in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Speckmann, Thilo; Sabatini, Paul V; Nian, Cuilan; Smith, Riley G; Lynn, Francis C

    2016-02-01

    Cytosolic calcium influx activates signaling pathways known to support pancreatic beta cell function and survival by modulating gene expression. Impaired calcium signaling leads to decreased beta cell mass and diabetes. To appreciate the causes of these cytotoxic perturbations, a more detailed understanding of the relevant signaling pathways and their respective gene targets is required. In this study, we examined the calcium-induced expression of the cytoprotective beta cell transcription factor Npas4. Pharmacological inhibition implicated the calcineurin, Akt/protein kinase B, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase signaling pathways in the regulation of Npas4 transcription and translation. Both Npas4 mRNA and protein had high turnover rates, and, at the protein level, degradation was mediated via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Finally, beta cell cytotoxicity of the calcineurin inhibitor and immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK-506) was prevented by Npas4 overexpression. These results delineate the pathways regulating Npas4 expression and stability and demonstrate its importance in clinical settings such as islet transplantation. PMID:26663079

  9. Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A is targeted by natural compound celastrol for degradation in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi; Ma, Liang; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Hu, Zheng; Wu, Fu-Qun; Li, Wei; Liu, Jinsong; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2014-01-01

    Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is an oncoprotein overexpressed and inversely associated with prognosis in lung and many other human cancers. It modulates phospho-Akt and stabilizes c-Myc, and is required for cell proliferation and malignant transformation, indicating that CIP2A may play an important role in carcinogenesis. We reported here that a small compound celastrol could induce a rapid degradation of CIP2A, through the ubiquitinproteasome pathway with the carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) as the E3 ligase. Celastrol directly bound CIP2A protein and promoted CIP2ACHIP interaction, leading to subsequent degradation of CIP2A in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Furthermore, celastrol effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer cells, whereas CIP2A silencing enhanced these effects. Celastrol also suppressed tumor growth in xenograft murine models. In addition, celastrol potentiated the inhibitory effect of cytotoxic agent cisplatin on lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo via inhibition of CIP2AAkt pathway. These data indicate that celastrol is a CIP2A-targeting agent that may have therapeutic potentials in lung cancer. PMID:24293411

  10. Ubiquitination and degradation of the ORF34 gene product of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) at late times of infection.

    PubMed

    Said, Abdelrahman; Damiani, Armando; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-07-01

    The equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) open reading frame 34 (ORF34) is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 161 amino acids. We show that an ORF34 deletion mutant exhibited a significant growth defect in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken directly ex vivo during early but not late times of infection. ORF34 protein (pORF34)-specific antibodies specifically reacted with a 28-kDa early polypeptide present in the cytosol of infected cells. From 10h post infection, multiple smaller pORF34-specific protein moieties were detected indicating that expression of a late viral gene product(s) caused pORF34 degradation. Proteasome inhibitors blocked pORF34 degradation as did treatment of infected cells with a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) inhibitor. Finally, kinetic studies showed that pORF34 is modified by addition of multiple copies of ubiquitin. Taken together, our findings suggest that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway is required for pORF34 degradation that may modulate protein activity in the course of infection. PMID:25010266

  11. Ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C promotes glioma progression by mediating the ubiquitination and degrading of Annexin A7.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Jian; Zhan, Shi-Kun; Ji, Wei-Zhong; Pan, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Li, Dian-You; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Cao, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Jing; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C (UBE3C) belongs to the E3 ligase enzyme family and implicates in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus regulates physiological and cancer-related processes. Here, we investigated the expression and roles of UBE3C in glioma. We demonstrated that UBE3C was overexpressed in glioma tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of UBE3C expression in glioma cells significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro. Mechanistically, we disclosed that UBE3C physically interacted with and ubiquitinated tumor suppressor gene annexin A7 (ANXA7), resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of ANXA7. Our results also revealed that increased UBE3C expression was accompanied by a reduction in ANXA7 protein expression in glioma tissues, but not ANXA7 mRNA. Importantly, the inhibition of ANXA7 expression in gliomas cells with UBE3C interference could rescue the cell invasion. Clinically, UBE3C overexpression significantly correlated with high-grade tumors (p?degradation of ANXA7, and thus presents a novel and promising target for glioma therapy. PMID:26067607

  12. Curcumin Suppresses Proliferation and Migration of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells through Autophagy-Dependent Akt Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yemin; Zhou, Yu; Li, Mingxin; Wang, Changhua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have evidenced that the anticancer potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a main yellow bioactive compound from plant turmeric was mediated by interfering with PI3K/Akt signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. This study experimentally revealed that curcumin treatment reduced Akt protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, along with an activation of autophagy and suppression of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) function. The curcumin-reduced Akt expression, cell proliferation, and migration were prevented by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy but not by UPS inhibition. Additionally, inactivation of AMPK by its specific inhibitor compound C or by target shRNA-mediated silencing attenuated curcumin-activated autophagy. Thus, these results indicate that curcumin-stimulated AMPK activity induces activation of the autophagy-lysosomal protein degradation pathway leading to Akt degradation and the subsequent suppression of proliferation and migration in breast cancer cell. PMID:26752181

  13. Ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C promotes glioma progression by mediating the ubiquitination and degrading of Annexin A7

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Jian; Zhan, Shi-Kun; Ji, Wei-Zhong; Pan, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Li, Dian-You; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Cao, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Jing; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C (UBE3C) belongs to the E3 ligase enzyme family and implicates in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus regulates physiological and cancer-related processes. Here, we investigated the expression and roles of UBE3C in glioma. We demonstrated that UBE3C was overexpressed in glioma tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of UBE3C expression in glioma cells significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro. Mechanistically, we disclosed that UBE3C physically interacted with and ubiquitinated tumor suppressor gene annexin A7 (ANXA7), resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of ANXA7. Our results also revealed that increased UBE3C expression was accompanied by a reduction in ANXA7 protein expression in glioma tissues, but not ANXA7 mRNA. Importantly, the inhibition of ANXA7 expression in gliomas cells with UBE3C interference could rescue the cell invasion. Clinically, UBE3C overexpression significantly correlated with high-grade tumors (p < 0.05), poor overall survival, and early tumor recurrence. Thus, our data reveal that high UBE3C expression contributes to glioma progression by ubiquitination and degradation of ANXA7, and thus presents a novel and promising target for glioma therapy. PMID:26067607

  14. Proteasomal degradation of preemptive quality control (pQC) substrates is mediated by an AIRAPL–p97 complex

    PubMed Central

    Braunstein, Ilana; Zach, Lolita; Allan, Susanne; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Stanhill, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The initial folding of secreted proteins occurs in the ER lumen, which contains specific chaperones and where posttranslational modifications may occur. Therefore lack of translocation, regardless of entry route or protein identity, is a highly toxic event, as the newly synthesized polypeptide is misfolded and can promiscuously interact with cytosolic factors. Mislocalized proteins bearing a signal sequence that did not successfully translocate through the translocon complex are subjected to a preemptive quality control (pQC) pathway and are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In contrast to UPS-mediated, ER-associated degradation, few components involved in pQC have been identified. Here we demonstrate that on specific translocation inhibition, a p97–AIRAPL complex directly binds and regulates the efficient processing of polyubiquitinated pQC substrates by the UPS. We also demonstrate p97’s role in pQC processing of preproinsulin in cases of naturally occurring mutations within the signal sequence of insulin. PMID:26337389

  15. Curcumin Suppresses Proliferation and Migration of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells through Autophagy-Dependent Akt Degradation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Feng; Ding, Youming; Zhang, Yemin; Zhou, Yu; Li, Mingxin; Wang, Changhua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have evidenced that the anticancer potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a main yellow bioactive compound from plant turmeric was mediated by interfering with PI3K/Akt signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. This study experimentally revealed that curcumin treatment reduced Akt protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, along with an activation of autophagy and suppression of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) function. The curcumin-reduced Akt expression, cell proliferation, and migration were prevented by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy but not by UPS inhibition. Additionally, inactivation of AMPK by its specific inhibitor compound C or by target shRNA-mediated silencing attenuated curcumin-activated autophagy. Thus, these results indicate that curcumin-stimulated AMPK activity induces activation of the autophagy-lysosomal protein degradation pathway leading to Akt degradation and the subsequent suppression of proliferation and migration in breast cancer cell. PMID:26752181

  16. Negative regulation of NEDD8 conjugation pathway by novel molecules and agents for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomoaki; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Kamitani, Tetsu

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cells frequently promote the dysregulation of the cell cycle and escape from apoptotic cell death triggered by a number of cellular stresses. Programmed proteolytic degradation of regulatory proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is crucial for homeostasis of numerous biological processes. Disruption of this system is one of the factors that promote aberrant cell-proliferation. The small ubiquitin-like protein, NEDD8, has been identified as a fundamental regulator of the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligases called the SCF complex (consisting of Skp-1, cullin, and F-box protein) or CRL (cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase) which control a final step in ubiquitination of diverse substrates associated with cancer biology. The ubiquitin ligase activity of the SCF complex requires NEDD8 to covalently bind to cullins. To a large extent, exploring the negative regulation system of the NEDD8 pathway is expected to lead to the development of novel anticancer targets. This review focuses on the NEDD8 negative regulation system including chemical compounds such as MLN4924 and protein molecules (e.g. COP9 signalosome, CAND1, inactive mutant of Ubc12 and NUB1/NUB1L) and clarifies possible strategies for targeting the NEDD8 cascade in cancer cells. PMID:23181574

  17. Transforming growth factor-β3 regulates cell junction restructuring via MAPK-mediated mRNA destabilization and Smad-dependent protein degradation of junctional adhesion molecule B (JAM-B).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2015-06-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-B (JAM-B) is found between Sertoli cells at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) as well as between Sertoli and germ cells at the apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) in the testis. The expression of JAM-B is tightly regulated to modulate the passage of spermatocytes across the BTB as well as the release of mature spermatozoa from the seminiferous epithelium. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family is implicated in the regulation of testicular cell junction dynamics during spermatogenesis. This study aims to investigate the effects of TGF-β3 on the expression of JAM-B as well as the underlying mechanisms on how TGF-β3 regulates JAM-B expression to facilitate the disassembly of the BTB and apical ES. Our results revealed that TGF-β3 suppresses JAM-B at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Inhibitor, siRNA knockdown and co-immunoprecipitation have shown that TGF-β3 induces JAM-B protein degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Immunofluorescence staining further confirmed that blockage of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway could abrogate TGF-β3-induced loss of JAM-B at the cell-cell interface. siRNA knockdown and immunofluorescence staining also demonstrated that activation of Smad signaling is required for TGF-β3-induced JAM-B protein degradation. In addition, TGF-β3 reduces JAM-B mRNA levels, at least in part, via post-transcriptional regulation. mRNA stability assay has confirmed that TGF-β3 promotes the degradation of JAM-B transcript and TGF-β3-mediated mRNA destabilization requires the activation of ERK1/2 and p54 JNK signal cascades. Taken together, TGF-β3 significantly downregulates JAM-B expression via post-transcriptional and post-translational modulation and results in the disruption of BTB and apical ES. PMID:25817991

  18. Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F. ); Masse, R. )

    1990-11-01

    In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2,5 (or 3,6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation.

  19. Anthracyclines disrupt telomere maintenance by telomerase through inducing PinX1 ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Qian, D; Ma, H-H; Jin, R; Yang, P-X; Cai, M-Y; Liu, Y-H; Liao, Y-J; Deng, H-X; Mai, S-J; Zhang, H; Zeng, Y-X; Lin, M C; Kung, H-F; Xie, D; Huang, J-J

    2012-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is essential for cancer growth. Induction of telomere dysfunction, for example, by inhibition of telomeric proteins or telomerase, has been shown to strongly enhance cancer cells' sensitivity to chemotherapies. However, it is not clear whether modulations of telomere maintenance constitute cancer cellular responses to chemotherapies. Furthermore, the manner in which anti-cancer drugs affect telomere function remains unknown. In this study, we show that anthracyclines, a class of anti-cancer drugs widely used in clinical cancer treatments, have an active role in triggering telomere dysfunction specifically in telomerase-positive cancer cells. Anthracyclines interrupt telomere maintenance by telomerase through the downregulation of PinX1, a protein factor responsible for targeting telomerase onto telomeres, thereby inhibiting telomerase association with telomeres. We further demonstrate that anthracyclines downregulate PinX1 by inducing this protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway. Our data not only reveal a novel action for anthracyclines as telomerase functional inhibitors but also provide a clue for the development of novel anti-cancer drugs based on telomerase/telomere targeting, which is actively investigated by many current studies. PMID:21643006

  20. Bacterial pathways for degradation of nitroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Symons, Zoe C; Bruce, Neil C

    2006-12-01

    The last one hundred years have seen a massive expansion in the chemicals industry; however, with this progress came the concomitant pollution of the environment with a significant range of xenobiotics.Nitroaromatic compounds form one such category of novel environmental contaminants and are produced through a large number of industrial processes, most notably the pesticides, dyes and explosives industries. Whilst singly nitrated aromatic compounds are usually mineralised in the environment, multiply nitrated aromatics, such as the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), are recalcitrant and highly toxic. The predominant route of biological transformation of aromatic compounds is oxidation; however, the presence of three electron-withdrawing nitro-groups around the ring prevents oxidation, rendering such compounds resistant to biodegradation. The subsequent accumulation of these contaminants has stimulated much research leading to the isolation of bacteria that possess, to varying extents, the ability to remediate explosives and other nitroaromatic pollutants.The extreme environments created by these toxic substances accelerate the evolutionary process and examples of bacteria that have conscripted metabolic enzymes for novel remediatory pathways are included. This Highlight ends with a discussion of the future of nitroaromatic bioremediation including engineering plants to express bacterial enzymes for use in bioremediation programs. PMID:17119634

  1. Cathodic degradation of antibiotics: characterization and pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deyong; Liang, Bin; Yun, Hui; Cheng, Haoyi; Ma, Jincai; Cui, Minhua; Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics in wastewaters must be degraded to eliminate their antibacterial activity before discharging into the environment. A cathode can provide continuous electrons for the degradation of refractory pollutants, however the cathodic degradation feasibility, efficiency and pathway for different kinds of antibiotics is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the degradation of four antibiotics, namely nitrofurazone (NFZ), metronidazole (MNZ), chloramphenicol (CAP), and florfenicol (FLO) by a poised cathode in a dual chamber electrochemical reactor. The cyclic voltammetry preliminarily proved the feasibility of the cathodic degradation of these antibiotics. The cathodic reducibility of these antibiotics followed the order of NFZ>MNZ>CAP>FLO. A decreased phosphate buffered solution (PBS) concentration as low as 2mM or utilization of NaCl buffer solution as catholyte had significant influence on antibiotics degradation rate and efficiency for CAP and FLO but not for NFZ and MNZ. PBS could be replaced by Na2CO3-NaHCO3 buffer solution as catholyte for the degradation of these antibiotics. Reductive dechlorination of CAP proceeded only after the reduction of the nitro group to aromatic amine. The composition of the degradation products depended on the cathode potential except for MNZ. The cathodic degradation process could eliminate the antibacterial activity of these antibiotics. The current study suggests that the electrochemical reduction could serve as a potential pretreatment or advanced treatment unit for the treatment of antibiotics containing wastewaters. PMID:25660806

  2. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Free chlorine has been found to react with organophosphate (OP) pesticides resulting in the more toxic oxon products. We will discuss OP pesticide degradation pathways and modeling in the presence of chlorine and chloramines, as well as present a relationship between structure a...

  3. Epoxy Coenzyme A Thioester Pathways for Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gescher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic compounds (biogenic and anthropogenic) are abundant in the biosphere. Some of them are well-known environmental pollutants. Although the aromatic nucleus is relatively recalcitrant, microorganisms have developed various catabolic routes that enable complete biodegradation of aromatic compounds. The adopted degradation pathways depend on the availability of oxygen. Under oxic conditions, microorganisms utilize oxygen as a cosubstrate to activate and cleave the aromatic ring. In contrast, under anoxic conditions, the aromatic compounds are transformed to coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters followed by energy-consuming reduction of the ring. Eventually, the dearomatized ring is opened via a hydrolytic mechanism. Recently, novel catabolic pathways for the aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds were elucidated that differ significantly from the established catabolic routes. The new pathways were investigated in detail for the aerobic bacterial degradation of benzoate and phenylacetate. In both cases, the pathway is initiated by transforming the substrate to a CoA thioester and all the intermediates are bound by CoA. The subsequent reactions involve epoxidation of the aromatic ring followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage. Here we discuss the novel pathways, with a particular focus on their unique features and occurrence as well as ecological significance. PMID:22582071

  4. Current Understanding on the Role of Standard and Immunoproteasomes in Inflammatory/Immunological Pathways of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bellavista, Elena; Santoro, Aurelia; Galimberti, Daniela; Comi, Cristoforo; Luciani, Fabio; Mishto, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Both ex vivo analyses and animal models suggest that activity and composition of ubiquitin-proteasome system are altered in MS. Proteasome isoforms endowed of immunosubunits may affect the functionality of different cell types such as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells as well as neurons during MS development. Furthermore, the study of proteasome-related biomarkers, such as proteasome antibodies and circulating proteasomes, may represent a field of interest in MS. Proteasome inhibitors are already used as treatment for cancer and the recent development of inhibitors selective for immunoproteasome subunits may soon represent novel therapeutic approaches to the different forms of MS. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the potential role of proteasomes in MS and discuss the pro et contra of possible therapies for MS targeting proteasome isoforms. PMID:24523959

  5. Fenretinide induces ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, William; Kutty, R. Krishnan; Duncan, Todd; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Kuo, Bryan C.; Chapa, Krysten M.; Redmond, T. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, SCD1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein and a rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, regulates cellular functions by controlling the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids. Increase in SCD expression is strongly implicated in the proliferation and survival of cancer cells, whereas its decrease is known to impair proliferation, induce apoptosis, and restore insulin sensitivity. We examined whether fenretinide, (N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide, 4HPR), which induces apoptosis in cancer cells and recently shown to improve insulin sensitivity, can modulate the expression of SCD. We observed that fenretinide decreased SCD protein and enzymatic activity in the ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cell line. Increased expression of BiP/GRP78, ATF4 and GADD153 implicated ER stress. Tunicamycin and thapsigargin, compounds known to induce ER stress, also decreased the SCD protein. This decrease was completely blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, PYR41, an inhibitor of ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, blocked the fenretinide-mediated decrease in SCD. Immunoprecipitation analysis using anti-ubiquitin and anti-SCD antibodies and the blocking of SCD loss by PYR41 inhibition of ubiquitination further corroborate that fenretinide mediates the degradation of SCD in human RPE cells via the ubiquitin-proteasome dependent pathway. Therefore, the effect of fenretinide on SCD should be considered in its potential therapeutic role against cancer, type-2 diabetes, and retinal diseases. PMID:24357007

  6. Zinc Protoporphyrin Suppresses ?-Catenin Protein Expression in Human Cancer Cells: The Potential Involvement of Lysosome-Mediated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Lind, Stuart E.; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) has been found to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently demonstrated that ZnPP diminishes ?-catenin protein expression in cancer cells. The present study examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate ZnPPs suppression of ?-catenin expression. We demonstrate that ZnPP induces a rapid degradation of the ?-catenin protein in cancer cells, which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting that proteasome degradation does not directly account for the suppression. The possibility that ZnPP induces ?-catenin exportation was rejected by the observation that there was no detectable ?-catenin protein in the conditioned medium after ZnPP treatment of cancer cells. Further experimentation demonstrated that ZnPP induces lysosome membrane permeabilization, which was reversed by pretreatment with a protein transportation inhibitor cocktail containing Brefeldin A (BFA) and Monensin. More significantly, pretreatment of cancer cells with BFA and Monensin attenuated the ZnPP-induced suppression of ?-catenin expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, indicating that the lysosome protein degradation pathway is likely involved in the ZnPP-induced suppression of ?-catenin expression. Whether there is cross-talk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the lysosome pathway that may account for ZnPP-induced ?-catenin protein degradation is currently unknown. These findings provide a novel mechanism of ZnPPs anticancer action and reveal a potential new strategy for targeting the ?-catenin Wnt signaling pathway for cancer therapy. PMID:26000787

  7. Aerobic degradation of dinitrotoluenes and pathway for bacterial degradation of 2,6-dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, S.F.; Paoli, G.C.; Spain, J.C.

    2000-05-01

    An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkholderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. The authors report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize 2,4-DNT by the same pathway and the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that mineralize 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkholderia cepacia strain JS850 and Hydrogenophaga palleronii strain JS863 grew on 2,6-DNT as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The initial steps in the pathway for degradation of 2,6-DNT were determined by simultaneous induction, enzyme assays, and identification of metabolites through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. 2,6-DNT was converted to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol by a dioxygenation reaction accompanied by the release of nitrite. 3-Methyl-4-nitrocatechol was the substrate for extradiol ring cleavage yielding 2-hydroxy-5-nitro-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoic acid. 2,4-DNT-degrading strains also converted 2,6-DNT to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol but did not metabolize the 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol. Although 2,6-DNT prevented the degradation of 2,4-DNT by 2,4-DNT-degrading strains, the effect was not the result of inhibition of 2,4-DNT dioxygenase by 2,6-DNT or of 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol monooxygenase by 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol.

  8. Effectiveness and pathways of electrochemical degradation of pretilachlor herbicides.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinzhi; Feng, Yujie; Sun, Xiaojun; Liu, Junfeng; Zhu, Limin

    2011-05-15

    Pretilachlor used as one kind of acetanilide herbicides is potentially dangerous and biorefractory. In this work, electrochemical degradation of lab-synthetic pretilachlor wastewater was carried out with Sb doped Ti/SnO(2) electrode as anode and stainless steel as cathode. The effect of current density on pretilachlor degradation was investigated, and the degradation pathway of pretilachlor was inferred by analyzing its main degradation intermediates. The results showed that the removal of pretilachlor and TOC in treatment time of 60 min were 98.8% and 43.1% under the conditions of current density of 20 mA cm(-2), initial concentration of pretilachlor of 60 mg L(-1), Na(2)SO(4) dosage of 0.1 mol L(-1), pH of 7.2, respectively, while the energy consumption was 15.8 kWhm(-3). The main reactions for electrochemical degradation of pretilachlor included hydroxylation, oxidation, dechlorination, C-O bond and C-N bond cleavage, resulting in the formation of nine main intermediates. PMID:21382661

  9. Non-native Conformers of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator NBD1 Are Recognized by Hsp27 and Conjugated to SUMO-2 for Degradation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaoyan; Ahner, Annette; Roldan, Ariel; Lukacs, Gergely L; Thibodeau, Patrick H; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2016-01-22

    A newly identified pathway for selective degradation of the common mutant of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), F508del, is initiated by binding of the small heat shock protein, Hsp27. Hsp27 collaborates with Ubc9, the E2 enzyme for protein SUMOylation, to selectively degrade F508del CFTR via the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) (1). Here, we ask what properties of CFTR are sensed by the Hsp27-Ubc9 pathway by examining the ability of NBD1 (locus of the F508del mutation) to mimic the disposal of full-length (FL) CFTR. Similar to FL CFTR, F508del NBD1 expression was reduced 50-60% by Hsp27; it interacted preferentially with the mutant and was modified primarily by SUMO-2. Mutation of the consensus SUMOylation site, Lys(447), obviated Hsp27-mediated F508del NBD1 SUMOylation and degradation. As for FL CFTR and NBD1 in vivo, SUMO modification using purified components in vitro was greater for F508del NBD1 versus WT and for the SUMO-2 paralog. Several findings indicated that Hsp27-Ubc9 targets the SUMOylation of a transitional, non-native conformation of F508del NBD1: (a) its modification decreased as [ATP] increased, reflecting stabilization of the nucleotide-binding domain by ligand binding; (b) a temperature-induced increase in intrinsic fluorescence, which reflects formation of a transitional NBD1 conformation, was followed by its SUMO modification; and (c) introduction of solubilizing or revertant mutations to stabilize F508del NBD1 reduced its SUMO modification. These findings indicate that the Hsp27-Ubc9 pathway recognizes a non-native conformation of mutant NBD1, which leads to its SUMO-2 conjugation and degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:26627832

  10. Microbial degradation of organophosphorus xenobiotics: metabolic pathways and molecular basis.

    PubMed

    Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Singh, Brajesh K

    2006-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) xenobiotics are used worldwide as pesticides and petroleum additives. OP compounds share the major portion of the pesticide market globally. Owing to large-scale use of OP compounds, contaminations of soil and water systems have been reported from all parts of the world. OP compounds possess very high mammalian toxicity and therefore early detection and subsequent decontamination and detoxification of the polluted environment is essential. Additionally, about 200,000 tons of extremely toxic OP chemical warfare agents are required to be destroyed by 2007 under Chemical Warfare Convention (1993). Chemical and physical methods of decontamination are not only expensive and time-consuming, but also in most cases they do not provide a complete solution. These approaches convert compounds from toxic into less toxic states, which in some cases can accumulate in the environment and still be toxic to a range of organisms. Bioremediation provides a suitable way to remove contaminants from the environment as, in most of the cases, OP compounds are totally mineralized by the microorganisms. Most OP compounds are degraded by microorganisms in the environment as a source of phosphorus or carbon or both. Several soil bacteria have been isolated and characterized, which can degrade OP compounds in laboratory cultures and in the field. The biochemical and genetic basis of microbial degradation has received considerable attention. Several genes/enzymes, which provide microorganisms with the ability to degrade OP compounds, have been identified and characterized. Some of these genes and enzymes have been engineered for better efficacy. Bacteria capable of complete mineralization are constructed by transferring the complete degradation pathway for specific compounds to one bacterium. In the present article, we review microbial degradation and metabolic pathways for some OP compounds. The biochemical and molecular basis of OP degradation by microbes and the evolution and distribution of genes/enzymes are also reviewed. This article also examines applications and future use of OP-degrading microbes and enzymes for bioremediation, treatment of OP poisoning, and as biosensors. PMID:17091564

  11. Pathways for degradation of lignin in bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Bugg, Timothy D H; Ahmad, Mark; Hardiman, Elizabeth M; Rahmanpour, Rahman

    2011-11-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic polymer found as 10-35% of lignocellulose, found in plant cell walls. The bio-conversion of plant lignocellulose to glucose is an important part of second generation biofuel production, but the resistance of lignin to breakdown is a major obstacle in this process, hence there is considerable interest in the microbial breakdown of lignin. White-rot fungi are known to break down lignin with the aid of extracellular peroxidase and laccase enzymes. There are also reports of bacteria that can degrade lignin, and recent work indicates that bacterial lignin breakdown may be more significant than previously thought. The review will discuss the enzymes for lignin breakdown in fungi and bacteria, and the catabolic pathways for breakdown of the ?-aryl ether, biphenyl and other components of lignin in bacteria and fungi. The review will also discuss small molecule phenolic breakdown products from lignin that have been identified from lignin-degrading microbes, and includes a bioinformatic analysis of the occurrence of known lignin-degradation pathways in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21918777

  12. Varicella-Zoster Virus Immediate-Early Protein ORF61 Abrogates the IRF3-Mediated Innate Immune Response through Degradation of Activated IRF3 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huifang; Zheng, Chunfu; Xing, Junji; Wang, Shuai; Li, Shuping; Lin, Rongtuan; Mossman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of differentiated cells within the host and establishment of latency likely requires evasion of innate immunity and limits secretion of antiviral cytokines. Here we report that its immediate-early protein ORF61 antagonizes the beta interferon (IFN-β) pathway. VZV infection down-modulated the Sendai virus (SeV)-activated IFN-β pathway, including mRNA of IFN-β and its downstream interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), ISG54 and ISG56. Through a primary screening of VZV genes, we found that ORF61 inhibited SeV-mediated activation of IFN-β and ISRE (IFN-stimulated response element) promoter activities but only slightly affected NF-κB promoter activity, implying that the IFN-β pathway may be blocked in the IRF3 branch. An indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that ectopic expression of ORF61 abrogated the detection of IRF3 in SeV-infected cells; however, it did not affect endogenous dormant IRF3 in noninfected cells. Additionally, ORF61 was shown to be partially colocalized with activated IRF3 in the nucleus upon treatment with MG132, an inhibitor of proteasomes, and the direct interaction between ORF61 and activated IRF3 was confirmed by a coimmunoprecipitation assay. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated that activated IRF3 was ubiquitinated in the presence of ORF61, suggesting that ORF61 degraded phosphorylated IRF3 via a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the level of ISG54 and ISG56 mRNAs was also downregulated by ORF61. Taken together, our results convincingly demonstrate that ORF61 down-modulates the IRF3-mediated IFN-β pathway by degradation of activated IRF3 via direct interaction, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of VZV infection. PMID:21835786

  13. Degradation of ciprofloxacin in water by advanced oxidation process: kinetics study, influencing parameters and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Murtaza; Ismail, M; Khan, Sanaullah; Tabassum, Safia; Khan, Hasan M

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-radiation-induced degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) in aqueous solution and the factors affecting the degradation process have been investigated. The results showed that CIP (4.6 mg/L) was almost completely degraded at an absorbed dose of 870 Gy. The kinetic studies of aqueous solutions containing 4.6, 10, 15 and 17.9 mg/L indicated that the decomposition of CIP by gamma irradiation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and the decay constant (k) decreased from 5.9  ×  10(-3) to 1.6  ×  10(-3) Gy(-1) with an increase in CIP initial concentration from 4.6 to 17.9 mg/L. The effect of saturation of CIP solution with N2, N2O or air on radiation-induced degradation of CIP was also investigated. The effects of radical scavengers, such as t-BuOH and i-PrOH, showed the role of reactive radicals towards degradation of CIP in the order of [Formula: see text]. The apparent second-order rate constant of [Formula: see text] with CIP was calculated to be 2.64 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The effects of solution pH as well as natural water contaminants, such as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], on CIP degradation by gamma-irradiation were also investigated. Major degradation products, including organic acids, were identified using UPLC-MS/MS and IC, and degradation pathways have been proposed. PMID:26208491

  14. RIG-G as a key mediator of the antiproliferative activity of interferon-related pathways through enhancing p21 and p27 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shu; Li, Dong; Zhu, Hai-Qing; Song, Man-Gen; Pan, Xiao-Rong; Jia, Pei-Min; Peng, Lin-Ling; Dou, Ai-Xia; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu; Tong, Jian-Hua

    2006-01-01

    The RIG-G gene, originally isolated from an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4, codes for a 60-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment along with the induction of morphological differentiation of NB4 cells. Here, we provide evidence that ectopic expression of Rig-G in U937 cells can lead to a significant accumulation of cells at G1/S transition. Growth arrest seems to occur by modulating several major cell cycle regulatory players. Interestingly, Rig-G alters JAB1 cellular distribution through interacting with this protein and increases the intracellular level of p27 by preventing it from the JAB-1-dependent and ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrate a role of Rig-G for c-myc down-regulation that results in an up-regulation of p21, tightly associated with cell cycle arrest. In addition, our studies reveal that Rig-G is a direct target of STAT1, a key transcription factor in regulating IFN responses, and may be one of the first experimentally proven molecular mediators for the antiproliferative effect of IFN-?. Considering that IFN-? and ATRA synergistically inhibit growth along the intracellular pathways triggered by the two compounds in many cell types, we suggest that Rig-G may also represent one of the key molecular nodes of signaling cross-talk between ATRA and IFN-?. PMID:17050680

  15. Metabolic Pathways for Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ladino-Orjuela, Guillermo; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto; Salt, Christopher; Parsons, John R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this revision was to build an updated collection of information focused on the mechanisms and elements involved in metabolic pathways of aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria. Enzymes as an expression of the genetic load and the type of electron acceptor available, as an environmental factor, were highlighted. In general, the review showed that both aerobic routes and anaerobic routes for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons are divided into two pathways. The first, named the upper pathways, from the original compound to central intermediate compounds still containing the aromatic ring but with the benzene nucleus chemically destabilized. The second, named the lower pathway, begins with ring de-aromatização and subsequent cleavage, resulting in metabolites that can be used by bacteria in the production of biomass. Under anaerobic conditions the five mechanisms of activation of the benzene ring described show the diversity of chemical reactions that take place. Obtaining carbon and energy from an aromatic hydrocarbon molecule is a process that exhibits the high complexity level of the metabolic apparatus of anaerobic microorganisms. The ability of these bacteria to express enzymes that catalyze reactions, known only in non-biological conditions, using final electron acceptors with a low redox potential, is a most interesting topic. The discovery of phylogenetic and functional characteristics of cultivable and non-cultivable hydrocarbon degrading bacteria has been made possible by improvements in molecular research techniques such as SIP (stable isotope probing) making trace of (13)C, (15)N and (18)O into nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:26613990

  16. Emerging Mechanistic Insights into AAA Complexes Regulating Proteasomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Schuller, Jan M.; Unverdorben, Pia; Aufderheide, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is an integral element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and, as such, responsible for regulated degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It consists of the core particle, which catalyzes the proteolysis of substrates into small peptides, and the regulatory particle, which ensures specificity for a broad range of substrates. The heart of the regulatory particle is an AAA-ATPase unfoldase, which is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits enabling substrate recognition and processing. Cryo-EM-based studies revealed the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome and its conformational rearrangements, providing insights into substrate recognition, commitment, deubiquitylation and unfolding. The cytosol proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitylated substrates is tuned by various associating cofactors, including deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitin ligases, shuttling ubiquitin receptors and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48/p97. Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors function upstream of the 26S proteasome, and their modular organization exhibits some striking analogies to the regulatory particle. In archaea PAN, the closest regulatory particle homolog and Cdc48 even have overlapping functions, underscoring their intricate relationship. Here, we review recent insights into the structure and dynamics of the 26S proteasome and its associated machinery, as well as our current structural knowledge on the Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors that function in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:25102382

  17. Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2011-11-12

    The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

  18. Multiple degradation pathways of phenanthrene by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia C6

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shumei; Seo, Jong-Su; Wang, Jun; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Jianqiang; Li, Qing X.

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C6, capable of utilizing phenanthrene as a sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from creosote-contaminated sites at Hilo, Hawaii. Twenty-two metabolites of phenanthrene, covering from dihydrodiol to protocatechuic acid, were isolated and characterized. Phenanthrene was degraded via an initial dioxygenation on 1,2-, 3,4-, and 9,10-C, where the 3,4-dioxygenation and subsequent metabolisms were most dominant. The metabolic pathways were further branched by ortho- and meta-cleavage of phenanthrenediols to produce 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid, and naphthalene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid. These intermediates were then transformed to naphthalene-1,2-diol. 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid was also degraded via a direct ring cleavage. Naphthalene-1,2-diol underwent primarily ortho-cleavage to produce trans-2-carboxycinnamic acid and then to form phthalic acid, 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid and protocatechuic acid. Accumulation of salicylic acid in prolonged incubation indicated that a limited extent of meta-cleavage of naphthalene-1, 2-diol also occurred. This is the first study of detailed phenanthrene metabolic pathways by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. PMID:23539472

  19. New Insights into the Alternative d-Glucarate Degradation Pathway*S?

    PubMed Central

    Aghaie, Asadollah; Lechaplais, Christophe; Sirven, Peggy; Tricot, Sabine; Besnard-Gonnet, Marielle; Muselet, Delphine; de Berardinis, Vronique; Kreimeyer, Annett; Gyapay, Gabor; Salanoubat, Marcel; Perret, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Although the d-glucarate degradation pathway is well characterized in Escherichia coli, genetic and biochemical information concerning the alternative pathway proposed in Pseudomonas species and Bacillus subtilis remains incomplete. Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is a Gram-negative soil bacterium possessing the alternative pathway and able to grow using d-glucarate as the only carbon source. Based on the annotation of its sequenced genome (1), we have constructed a complete collection of singlegene deletion mutants (2). High throughput profiling for growth on a minimal medium containing d-glucarate as the only carbon source for ?2450 mutants led to the identification of the genes involved in d-glucarate degradation. Protein purification after recombinant production in E. coli allowed us to reconstitute the enzymatic pathway in vitro. We describe here the kinetic characterization of d-glucarate dehydratase, d-5-keto-4-deoxyglucarate dehydratase, and of cooperative ?-ketoglutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Transcription and expression analyses of the genes involved in d-glucarate metabolism within a single organism made it possible to access information regarding the regulation of this pathway for the first time. PMID:18364348

  20. Novel mannosidase inhibitors probe glycoprotein degradation pathways in cells.

    PubMed

    Butters, Terry D; Alonzi, Dominic S; Kukushkin, Nikolay V; Ren, Yuan; Blériot, Yves

    2009-12-01

    Multiple isoforms of mammalian alpha-mannosidases are active in the pathways of N-linked glycoprotein synthesis and catabolism. They differ in specificity, function and location within the cell and can be selectively inhibited by imino sugar monosaccharide mimics. Previously, a series of structurally related novel 7-membered iminocyclitols were synthesised and found to be inhibitors of alpha-mannosidase using in vitro assays. The present study aimed to delineate alpha-mannosidases hydrolytic pathways in azepane inhibitor treated cells by the analysis of free oligosaccharides (FOS) as markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, lysosomal and cytosolic alpha-mannosidase activities. Two compounds were identified as potent and selective cytosolic alpha-mannosidase inhibitors. Two related compounds were shown to be potent inhibitors of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase with different potencies towards alpha1,6 mannosidase. The specificities of these novel 7-membered imino sugars are related to differences in their structure and D: -mannose-like stereochemistry. Specific ER-mannosidase inhibition by kifunensine also reveals significant non-proteasomal degradation following FOS analysis and appears to be cell line dependent. The availability of more selective inhibitors allows the pathways of N-linked oligosaccharide metabolism to be dissected. PMID:19234785

  1. Cadmium-induced Activation of Stress Signaling Pathways, Disruption of Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Degradation and Apoptosis in Primary Rat Sertoli Cell-Gonocyte Cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhong; Hong, Sungwoo; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that has been associated with male reproductive toxicity in both humans and animal models. The underlying mechanism of this response, however, is still uncharacterized. To address this issue, we employed a recently developed and optimized three-dimensional primary Sertoli cell-gonocyte coculture system and examined the time- and dose-dependent effects of Cd on morphological alterations, cell viability, activation of stress signaling pathway proteins, and the disruption of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Our results demonstrated that Cd exposure lead to time- and dose-dependent morphological changes that are associated with the induction of apoptosis. In response to Cd, we also saw a disruption of the UPS as evaluated through the accumulation of high–molecular weight polyubiquitinated proteins (HMW-polyUb) as well as alterations in proteasome activity. Robust activation of cellular stress response, measured through the increased phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38, paralleled the accumulation of HMW-polyUb. In addition, p53, a key regulatory protein, was upregulated and underwent increased ubiquitination in response to Cd. To further characterize the role of the UPS in Cd cellular response, we compared the above changes with two classic proteasomal inhibitors, lactacystin, and MG132. The stress response and the accumulation of HWM-polyUb induced by Cd were consistent with the response seen with MG132 but not with lactacystin. In addition, Cd treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent effect on proteasome activity, but the overall Cd-induced proteasomal inhibition was unique as compared to MG132 and lactacystin. Taken together, our studies further characterize Cd-induced in vitro testicular toxicity and highlight the potential role of the UPS in this response. PMID:18463101

  2. Iodinated contrast media electro-degradation: process performance and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Del Moro, Guido; Pastore, Carlo; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-15

    The electrochemical degradation of six of the most widely used iodinated contrast media was investigated. Batch experiments were performed under constant current conditions using two DSA electrodes (titanium coated with a proprietary and patented mixed metal oxide solution of precious metals such as iridium, ruthenium, platinum, rhodium and tantalum). The degradation removal never fell below 85% (at a current density of 64 mA/cm(2) with a reaction time of 150 min) when perchlorate was used as the supporting electrolyte; however, when sulphate was used, the degradation performance was above 80% (at a current density of 64 mA/cm(2) with a reaction time of 150 min) for all of the compounds studied. Three main degradation pathways were identified, namely, the reductive de-iodination of the aromatic ring, the reduction of alkyl aromatic amides to simple amides and the de-acylation of N-aromatic amides to produce aromatic amines. However, as amidotrizoate is an aromatic carboxylate, this is added via the decarboxylation reaction. The investigation did not reveal toxicity except for the lower current density used, which has shown a modest toxicity, most likely for some reaction intermediates that are not further degraded. In order to obtain total removal of the contrast media, it was necessary to employ a current intensity between 118 and 182 mA/cm(2) with energy consumption higher than 370 kWh/m(3). Overall, the electrochemical degradation was revealed to be a reliable process for the treatment of iodinated contrast media that can be found in contaminated waters such as hospital wastewater or pharmaceutical waste-contaminated streams. PMID:25433384

  3. Hydrolytic and oxidative degradation of electrospun supramolecular biomaterials: In vitro degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Brugmans, M C P; S?ntjens, S H M; Cox, M A J; Nandakumar, A; Bosman, A W; Mes, T; Janssen, H M; Bouten, C V C; Baaijens, F P T; Driessen-Mol, A

    2015-11-01

    The emerging field of in situ tissue engineering (TE) of load bearing tissues places high demands on the implanted scaffolds, as these scaffolds should provide mechanical stability immediately upon implantation. The new class of synthetic supramolecular biomaterial polymers, which contain non-covalent interactions between the polymer chains, thereby forming complex 3D structures by self assembly. Here, we have aimed to map the degradation characteristics of promising (supramolecular) materials, by using a combination of in vitro tests. The selected biomaterials were all polycaprolactones (PCLs), either conventional and unmodified PCL, or PCL with supramolecular hydrogen bonding moieties (either 2-ureido-[1H]-pyrimidin-4-one or bis-urea units) incorporated into the backbone. As these materials are elastomeric, they are suitable candidates for cardiovascular TE applications. Electrospun scaffold strips of these materials were incubated with solutions containing enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis, or solutions containing oxidative species. At several time points, chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties were investigated. It was demonstrated that conventional and supramolecular PCL-based polymers respond differently to enzyme-accelerated hydrolytic or oxidative degradation, depending on the morphological and chemical composition of the material. Conventional PCL is more prone to hydrolytic enzymatic degradation as compared to the investigated supramolecular materials, while, in contrast, the latter materials are more susceptible to oxidative degradation. Given the observed degradation pathways of the examined materials, we are able to tailor degradation characteristics by combining selected PCL backbones with additional supramolecular moieties. The presented combination of in vitro test methods can be employed to screen, limit, and select biomaterials for pre-clinical in vivo studies targeted to different clinical applications. PMID:26316031

  4. NP1EC Degradation Pathways Under Oxic and Microxic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery-Brown, John; Li, Yongmei; Ding, Wang-Hsien; Mong, Gary M.; Campbell, James A.; Reinhard, Martin

    2008-03-22

    The degradation pathway of nonylphenol ethoxyacetic acid (NP1EC) and the conditions favoring CAP1EC formation were studied in aerobic microcosms constructed with soil from the Mesa soil aquifer treatment (SAT) facility (Arizona, USA) and pristine sediments from Coyote Creek (California, USA). In the Mesa microcosms, para-NP1EC was transformed to para-NP, before being rapidly transformed to nonyl alcohols via ipso-hydroxylation. While the formation of NP from APEMs has been observed by several researchers under anaerobic conditions, this is the first time the transient formation of NP from APEMs has been observed under aerobic conditions. Unlike the Mesa microcosms, large quantities of CAP1ECs were observed in the Coyote Creek microcosms. Initially, CA8P1ECs were the dominant metabolites, but as biodegradation continued, CA6P1ECs became the dominant metabolites. Compared to the CA8P1ECs, the number of CA6P1ECs peaks observed was small (<6) even though their concentrations were high. This suggests that several CA8P1ECs are degraded to only a few CA6P1EC isomers (i.e., the degradation pathway converges) or that some CA6P1EC metabolites are significantly more recalcitrant than others. The different biodegradation pathways observed in the Mesa and Coyote Creek microcosms result from the limited availability of dissolved oxygen in the Coyote Creek microcosms. In both sets of microcosms, the ortho isomers were transformed more slowly than the para isomers and in the Coyote Creek microcosms several ortho-CAP1ECs were observed. In addition, several unknown metabolites were observed in the Coyote Creek microcosms that were not seen in the abiotic or Mesa microcosms; these metabolites appear to be CAP1EC metabolites, have a -CH2-C6H4- fragment, and contain one carboxylic acid. Nitro-nonylphenol was observed in the Mesa microcosms, however, further experimentation illustrated that it was the product of an abiotic reaction between nitrite and nonylphenol under acidic conditions.

  5. Parkin Promotes Degradation of the Mitochondrial Pro-Apoptotic ARTS Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Stav; Dery, Dikla; Loboda, Yelena; Rovner, Marshall; Lev, Tali; Zuri, Dotan; Finberg, John P. M.; Larisch, Sarit

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with excessive cell death causing selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. Dysfunction of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is associated with the pathophysiology of PD. Mutations in Parkin which impair its E3-ligase activity play a major role in the pathogenesis of inherited PD. ARTS (Sept4_i2) is a mitochondrial protein, which initiates caspase activation upstream of cytochrome c release in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Here we show that Parkin serves as an E3-ubiquitin ligase to restrict the levels of ARTS through UPS-mediated degradation. Though Parkin binds equally to ARTS and Sept4_i1 (H5/PNUTL2), the non-apoptotic splice variant of Sept4, Parkin ubiquitinates and degrades only ARTS. Thus, the effect of Parkin on ARTS is specific and probably related to its pro-apoptotic function. High levels of ARTS are sufficient to promote apoptosis in cultured neuronal cells, and rat brains treated with 6-OHDA reveal high levels of ARTS. However, over-expression of Parkin can protect cells from ARTS-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Parkin loss-of-function experiments reveal that reduction of Parkin causes increased levels of ARTS and apoptosis. We propose that in brain cells in which the E3-ligase activity of Parkin is compromised, ARTS levels increase and facilitate apoptosis. Thus, ARTS is a novel substrate of Parkin. These observations link Parkin directly to a pro-apoptotic protein and reveal a novel connection between Parkin, apoptosis, and PD. PMID:22792159

  6. Proteolysis in illness-associated skeletal muscle atrophy: from pathways to networks.

    PubMed

    Wing, Simon S; Lecker, Stewart H; Jagoe, R Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in health in the past decades have resulted in increased numbers of the elderly in both developed and developing regions of the world. Advances in therapy have also increased the prevalence of patients with chronic and degenerative diseases. Muscle wasting, a feature of most chronic diseases, is prominent in the elderly and contributes to both morbidity and mortality. A major research goal has been to identify the proteolytic system(s) that is responsible for the degradation of proteins that occurs in muscle atrophy. Findings over the past 20 years have clearly confirmed an important role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in mediating muscle proteolysis, particularly that of myofibrillar proteins. However, recent observations have provided evidence that autophagy, calpains and caspases also contribute to the turnover of muscle proteins in catabolic states, and furthermore, that these diverse proteolytic systems interact with each other at various levels. Importantly, a number of intracellular signaling pathways such as the IGF1/AKT, myostatin/Smad, PGC1, cytokine/NF?B, and AMPK pathways are now known to interact and can regulate some of these proteolytic systems in a coordinated manner. A number of loss of function studies have identified promising therapeutic approaches to the prevention and treatment of wasting. However, additional biomarkers and other approaches to improve early identification of patients who would benefit from such treatment need to be developed. The current data suggests a network of interacting proteolytic and signaling pathways in muscle. Future studies are needed to improve understanding of the nature and control of these interactions and how they work to preserve muscle function under various states of growth and atrophy. PMID:21699435

  7. Degradation of diclofenac by ultrasonic irradiation: kinetic studies and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Nie, Er; Yang, Mo; Wang, Dong; Yang, Xiaoying; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug found in various water bodies, posing threats to human health. In this research, the effects of ultrasonic irradiation at 585kHz on the degradation of DCF were studied under the air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen saturated conditions. First, the dechlorination efficiencies under the air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen saturated conditions were calculated to be 67%, 60%, 53% and 59%. Second, there was full mineralization of nitrogen during DCF degradation under the air, oxygen, and argon saturated conditions, but no mineralization of nitrogen under the nitrogen-saturated condition. Different from nitrogen, only partial mineralization of carbon occurred under the four gas-saturated conditions. Third, OH scavengers were added to derive the rate constants in the three reaction zones: cavitation bubble, supercritical interface, and bulk solution. Comparison of the constants indicated that DCF degradation was not limited to the bulk solution as conventionally assumed. Oxidation in the supercritical interface played a dominant role under the air and oxygen saturated conditions, while OH reactions in the cavitation bubble and/or bulk solution were dominant under the nitrogen and argon saturated conditions. After the addition of H2O2, reactions in the cavitation bubble and bulk solution kept their dominant roles under the nitrogen and argon saturated conditions, while reaction in the supercritical interface decreased under the air and oxygen saturated conditions. Finally, LC-MS analysis was used to derive the by-products and propose the main pathways of DCF degradation by ultrasonic irradiation. PMID:25065805

  8. Hepatitis C virus activates the mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway in inhibiting IRS-1 function for insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sandip K; Shrivastava, Shubham; Meyer, Keith; Ray, Ratna B; Ray, Ranjit

    2012-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection significantly increases the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) plays a key role in insulin signaling, thus enabling metabolic regulation in mammalian cells. We have previously shown that HCV infection modulates phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream target of IRS-1. In this study, we further examined the status of total IRS-1 and the downstream regulation of the Akt pathway in understanding mTOR/S6K1 signaling using HCV genotype 2a (clone JFH1)-infected hepatocytes. Inhibition of IRS-1 expression was observed in HCV-infected hepatocytes compared to that in a mock-infected control. The status of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-1/TSC-2) was significantly decreased after HCV infection of human hepatocytes, showing a modulation of the downstream Akt pathway. Subsequent study indicated an increased level of Rheb and mTOR expression in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Interestingly, the phosphoS6K1 level was higher in HCV-infected hepatocytes, suggesting a novel mechanism for IRS-1 inhibition. Ectopic expression of TSC-1/TSC-2 significantly recovered the IRS-1 protein expression level in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Further analyses indicated that HCV core protein plays a significant role in modulating the mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway. Proteasome inhibitor MG 132 recovered IRS-1 and TSC1/2 expression, suggesting that degradation occurred via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. A functional consequence of IRS-1 inhibition was reflected in a decrease in GLUT4 protein expression and upregulation of the gluconeogenic enzyme PCK2 in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Together, these observations suggested that HCV infection activates the mTOR/S6K1 pathway in inhibiting IRS-1 function and perturbs glucose metabolism via downregulation of GLUT4 and upregulation of PCK2 for insulin resistance. PMID:22457523

  9. Graded Proteasome Dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans Activates an Adaptive Response Involving the Conserved SKN-1 and ELT-2 Transcription Factors and the Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Keith, Scott A; Maddux, Sarah K; Zhong, Yayu; Chinchankar, Meghna N; Ferguson, Annabel A; Ghazi, Arjumand; Fisher, Alfred L

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of cellular proteins in a biologically active and structurally stable state is a vital endeavor involving multiple cellular pathways. One such pathway is the ubiquitin-proteasome system that represents a major route for protein degradation, and reductions in this pathway usually have adverse effects on the health of cells and tissues. Here, we demonstrate that loss-of-function mutants of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteasome subunit, RPN-10, exhibit moderate proteasome dysfunction and unexpectedly develop both increased longevity and enhanced resistance to multiple threats to the proteome, including heat, oxidative stress, and the presence of aggregation prone proteins. The rpn-10 mutant animals survive through the activation of compensatory mechanisms regulated by the conserved SKN-1/Nrf2 and ELT-2/GATA transcription factors that mediate the increased expression of genes encoding proteasome subunits as well as those mediating oxidative- and heat-stress responses. Additionally, we find that the rpn-10 mutant also shows enhanced activity of the autophagy-lysosome pathway as evidenced by increased expression of the multiple autophagy genes including atg-16.2, lgg-1, and bec-1, and also by an increase in GFP::LGG-1 puncta. Consistent with a critical role for this pathway, the enhanced resistance of the rpn-10 mutant to aggregation prone proteins depends on autophagy genes atg-13, atg-16.2, and prmt-1. Furthermore, the rpn-10 mutant is particularly sensitive to the inhibition of lysosome activity via either RNAi or chemical means. We also find that the rpn-10 mutant shows a reduction in the numbers of intestinal lysosomes, and that the elt-2 gene also plays a novel and vital role in controlling the production of functional lysosomes by the intestine. Overall, these experiments suggest that moderate proteasome dysfunction could be leveraged to improve protein homeostasis and organismal health and longevity, and that the rpn-10 mutant provides a unique platform to explore these possibilities. PMID:26828939

  10. Ubiquitin conjugation by the N-end rule pathway and mRNAs for its components increase in muscles of diabetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecker, S. H.; Solomon, V.; Price, S. R.; Kwon, Y. T.; Mitch, W. E.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Insulin deficiency (e.g., in acute diabetes or fasting) is associated with enhanced protein breakdown in skeletal muscle leading to muscle wasting. Because recent studies have suggested that this increased proteolysis is due to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome (Ub-proteasome) pathway, we investigated whether diabetes is associated with an increased rate of Ub conjugation to muscle protein. Muscle extracts from streptozotocin-induced insulin-deficient rats contained greater amounts of Ub-conjugated proteins than extracts from control animals and also 40-50% greater rates of conjugation of (125)I-Ub to endogenous muscle proteins. This enhanced Ub-conjugation occurred mainly through the N-end rule pathway that involves E2(14k) and E3alpha. A specific substrate of this pathway, alpha-lactalbumin, was ubiquitinated faster in the diabetic extracts, and a dominant negative form of E2(14k) inhibited this increase in ubiquitination rates. Both E2(14k) and E3alpha were shown to be rate-limiting for Ub conjugation because adding small amounts of either to extracts stimulated Ub conjugation. Furthermore, mRNA for E2(14k) and E3alpha (but not E1) were elevated 2-fold in muscles from diabetic rats, although no significant increase in E2(14k) and E3alpha content could be detected by immunoblot or activity assays. The simplest interpretation of these results is that small increases in both E2(14k) and E3alpha in muscles of insulin-deficient animals together accelerate Ub conjugation and protein degradation by the N-end rule pathway, the same pathway activated in cancer cachexia, sepsis, and hyperthyroidism.

  11. Graded Proteasome Dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans Activates an Adaptive Response Involving the Conserved SKN-1 and ELT-2 Transcription Factors and the Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chinchankar, Meghna N.; Ferguson, Annabel A.; Ghazi, Arjumand; Fisher, Alfred L.

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cellular proteins in a biologically active and structurally stable state is a vital endeavor involving multiple cellular pathways. One such pathway is the ubiquitin-proteasome system that represents a major route for protein degradation, and reductions in this pathway usually have adverse effects on the health of cells and tissues. Here, we demonstrate that loss-of-function mutants of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteasome subunit, RPN-10, exhibit moderate proteasome dysfunction and unexpectedly develop both increased longevity and enhanced resistance to multiple threats to the proteome, including heat, oxidative stress, and the presence of aggregation prone proteins. The rpn-10 mutant animals survive through the activation of compensatory mechanisms regulated by the conserved SKN-1/Nrf2 and ELT-2/GATA transcription factors that mediate the increased expression of genes encoding proteasome subunits as well as those mediating oxidative- and heat-stress responses. Additionally, we find that the rpn-10 mutant also shows enhanced activity of the autophagy-lysosome pathway as evidenced by increased expression of the multiple autophagy genes including atg-16.2, lgg-1, and bec-1, and also by an increase in GFP::LGG-1 puncta. Consistent with a critical role for this pathway, the enhanced resistance of the rpn-10 mutant to aggregation prone proteins depends on autophagy genes atg-13, atg-16.2, and prmt-1. Furthermore, the rpn-10 mutant is particularly sensitive to the inhibition of lysosome activity via either RNAi or chemical means. We also find that the rpn-10 mutant shows a reduction in the numbers of intestinal lysosomes, and that the elt-2 gene also plays a novel and vital role in controlling the production of functional lysosomes by the intestine. Overall, these experiments suggest that moderate proteasome dysfunction could be leveraged to improve protein homeostasis and organismal health and longevity, and that the rpn-10 mutant provides a unique platform to explore these possibilities. PMID:26828939

  12. Concomitant increase of histone acetyltransferase activity and degradation of p300 during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 cells.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, Franck; Cremisi, Chantal E

    2003-10-10

    The p300 and closely related CBP histone acetyltransferases (HAT) function as global transcriptional co-activators that play roles in many cell differentiation and signal transduction pathways. Despite their similarities, p300 and CBP have distinct functions during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. F9 cells constitute a well established model system for investigating the first steps of early development and retinoic acid signaling ex vivo. p300, but not CBP, was shown to be essential for F9 differentiation. In this study we have investigated the regulation of p300 during F9 differentiation. We report a dramatic decrease of p300, but not CBP protein levels, after 48 h of retinoic acid treatment. p300 is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Although the large majority of p300 is degraded, its global HAT activity stays constant during F9 differentiation, which means that its specific HAT activity increases considerably. p300 is strongly phosphorylated in both undifferentiated and differentiated F9 cells; its HAT activity, however, is independent of phosphorylation before differentiation and becomes dependent on phosphorylation during differentiation. Furthermore, we show that protein kinase A affects p300 HAT activity both in vivo and in vitro as well as p300 phosphorylation in differentiated cells. Thus, we show that p300 is differentially phosphorylated in undifferentiated versus differentiated cells and that the changes in phosphorylation affect its HAT activity. Moreover, our study suggests an explanation for the functional switch of p300-mediated repression versus activation during F9 differentiation. PMID:12888559

  13. Fenton degradation of Cartap hydrochloride: identification of the main intermediates and the degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kaixun; Ming, Cuixiang; Dai, Youzhi; Honore Ake, Kouassi Marius

    2015-01-01

    The advanced oxidation of Cartap hydrochloride (Cartap) promoted by the Fenton system in an aqueous medium was investigated. Based on total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and high-performance liquid chromatography, the oxidation of Cartap is quite efficient by the Fenton system. Its long chain is easily destroyed, but the reaction does not proceed to complete mineralization. Ion chromatography detection indicated the formation of acetic acid, propionic acid, formic acid, nitrous acid and sulfuric acid in the reaction mixtures. Further evidence of nitrogen monoxide and sulfur dioxide formation was obtained by using a flue gas analyzer. Monitoring by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer demonstrated the formation of oxalic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and L-alanine ethylamide. Based on these experimental results, plausible degradation pathways for Cartap mineralization in an aqueous medium by the Fenton system are proposed. PMID:26398036

  14. Genome-scale analyses of butanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal an essential role of protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background n-Butanol and isobutanol produced from biomass-derived sugars are promising renewable transport fuels and solvents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for butanol production, but its high butanol sensitivity poses an upper limit to product titers that can be reached by further pathway engineering. A better understanding of the molecular basis of butanol stress and tolerance of S. cerevisiae is important for achieving improved tolerance. Results By combining a screening of the haploid S. cerevisiae knock-out library, gene overexpression, and genome analysis of evolutionary engineered n-butanol-tolerant strains, we established that protein degradation plays an essential role in tolerance. Strains deleted in genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and in vacuolar degradation of damaged proteins showed hypersensitivity to n-butanol. Overexpression of YLR224W, encoding the subunit responsible for the recognition of damaged proteins of an ubiquitin ligase complex, resulted in a strain with a higher n-butanol tolerance. Two independently evolved n-butanol-tolerant strains carried different mutations in both RPN4 and RTG1, which encode transcription factors involved in the expression of proteasome and peroxisomal genes, respectively. Introduction of these mutated alleles in the reference strain increased butanol tolerance, confirming their relevance in the higher tolerance phenotype. The evolved strains, in addition to n-butanol, were also more tolerant to 2-butanol, isobutanol and 1-propanol, indicating a common molecular basis for sensitivity and tolerance to C3 and C4 alcohols. Conclusions This study shows that maintenance of protein integrity plays an essential role in butanol tolerance and demonstrates new promising targets to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved tolerance. PMID:23552365

  15. Rates of ubiquitin conjugation increase when muscles atrophy, largely through activation of the N-end rule pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, V.; Baracos, V.; Sarraf, P.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The rapid loss of muscle mass that accompanies many disease states, such as cancer or sepsis, is primarily a result of increased protein breakdown in muscle, and several observations have suggested an activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Accordingly, in extracts of atrophying muscles from tumor-bearing or septic rats, rates of 125I-ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins were found to be higher than in control extracts. On the other hand, in extracts of muscles from hypothyroid rats, where overall proteolysis is reduced below normal, the conjugation of 125I-ubiquitin to soluble proteins decreased by 50%, and treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) restored ubiquitination to control levels. Surprisingly, the N-end rule pathway, which selectively degrades proteins with basic or large hydrophobic N-terminal residues, was found to be responsible for most of these changes in ubiquitin conjugation. Competitive inhibitors of this pathway that specifically block the ubiquitin ligase, E3alpha, suppressed most of the increased ubiquitin conjugation in the muscle extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats. These inhibitors also suppressed ubiquitination in normal extracts toward levels in hypothyroid extracts, which showed little E3alpha-dependent ubiquitination. Thus, the inhibitors eliminated most of the differences in ubiquitination under these different pathological conditions. Moreover, 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, was ubiquitinated more rapidly in extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats, and more slowly in those from hypothyroid rats, than in controls. Thus, the rate of ubiquitin conjugation increases in atrophying muscles, and these hormone- and cytokine-dependent responses are in large part due to activation of the N-end rule pathway.

  16. Pathogenic Hijacking of ER-Associated Degradation: Is ERAD Flexible?

    PubMed

    Morito, Daisuke; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is a protein clearance mechanism by which misfolded, misassembled, or metabolically regulated proteins are specifically dislocated from the ER into the cytosol and degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system. ERAD very likely evolved to maintain proteostasis and sterol homeostasis in the ER. However, the ironic truth is that membrane-penetrating transportation and protein degradation machineries in ERAD are preferably hijacked by exogenous pathogens such as viruses and toxins for their invasion and evasion from immunological surveillance. In this Review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the pathogenic hijacking of the host cell ERAD, in which pathogens exploit the complex ERAD machinery in a variety of manners for their own use, suggesting flexibility and plasticity of the molecular machinery of ERAD. PMID:26253026

  17. Three degradation pathways of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium cation by activated sludge from wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Woong; Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kim, Sok; Song, Myung-Hee; Chung, Yun-Jo; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-03-01

    The biodegradability and degradation pathways of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium cation [OMIM](+) by microbial community of wastewater treatment plant in Jeonju city, Korea were investigated. It was found that [OMIM](+) could be easily degraded by the microbial community. New degradation products and pathways of [OMIM](+) were identified, which are partially different from previous results (Green Chem. 2008, 10, 214-224). For the analysis of the degradation pathways and intermediates, the mass peaks observed in the range m/z of 50-300 were screened by using a tandem mass spectrometer (MS), and their fragmentation patterns were investigated by MS/MS. Surprisingly, we found three different degradation pathways of [OMIM](+), which were separated according to the initially oxidized position i.e. middle of the long alkyl chain, end of the long alkyl chain, and end of the short alkyl chain. The degradation pathways showed that the long and short alkyl chains of [OMIM](+) gradually degraded by repeating oxidation and carbon release. The results presented here shows that [OMIM](+) can be easily biodegraded through three different degradation pathways in wastewater treatment plants. PMID:26748207

  18. The F-box protein FBX4 targets PIN2/TRF1 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation and regulates telomere maintenance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Ho; Perrem, Kilian; Harper, J Wade; Lu, Kun Ping; Zhou, Xiao Zhen

    2006-01-13

    Pin2/TRF1 was identified previously as both a protein (TRF1) that binds to telomeric DNA repeats and as a protein (Pin2) that associates with the kinase NIMA and suppresses its mitosis inducing activity. Pin2/TRF1 negatively regulates telomere length and also plays a critical role in cell cycle checkpoint control. Pin2/TRF1 is down-regulated in many human cancers and may be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, but components of the pathway involved in Pin2/TRF1 turnover have not been elucidated. By using the two-hybrid system, we recently identified Pin2/TRF1-interacting proteins, PinX1-4, and we demonstrated that PinX1 is a conserved telomerase inhibitor and a putative tumor suppressor. Here we report the characterization of PinX3. PinX3 was later found to be identical to Fbx4, a member of the F-box family of proteins, which function as substrate-specific adaptors of Cul1-based ubiquitin ligases. Fbx4 interacts with both Pin2 and TRF1 isoforms and promotes their ubiquitination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, overexpression of Fbx4 reduces endogenous Pin2/TRF1 protein levels and causes progressive telomere elongation in human cells. In contrast, inhibition of Fbx4 by RNA interference stabilizes Pin2/TRF1 and promotes telomere shortening, thereby impairing cell growth. These results demonstrate that Fbx4 is a central regulator of Pin2/TRF1 protein abundance and that alterations in the stability of Pin2/TRF1 can have a dramatic impact on telomere length. Thus, Fbx4 may play a critical role in telomere maintenance. PMID:16275645

  19. Pin1 down-regulates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling by inducing degradation of Smad proteins.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ayako; Koinuma, Daizo; Miyazawa, Keiji; Uchida, Takafumi; Saitoh, Masao; Kawabata, Masahiro; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Akiyama, Hirotada; Abe, Masahiro; Miyazono, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toshio; Imamura, Takeshi

    2009-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is crucial in numerous cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. TGF-beta signaling is transduced by intracellular Smad proteins that are regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) prevents TGF-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling by interacting with Smads and inducing their ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Here we identified Pin1, a peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase, as a novel protein binding Smads. Pin1 interacted with Smad2 and Smad3 but not Smad4; this interaction was enhanced by the phosphorylation of (S/T)P motifs in the Smad linker region. (S/T)P motif phosphorylation also enhanced the interaction of Smad2/3 with Smurf2. Pin1 reduced Smad2/3 protein levels in a manner dependent on its peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Knockdown of Pin1 increased the protein levels of endogenous Smad2/3. In addition, Pin1 both enhanced the interaction of Smurf2 with Smads and enhanced Smad ubiquitination. Pin1 inhibited TGF-beta-induced transcription and gene expression, suggesting that Pin1 negatively regulates TGF-beta signaling by down-regulating Smad2/3 protein levels via induction of Smurf2-mediated ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. PMID:19122240

  20. Hydroxide Degradation Pathways for Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: A DFT Study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Long, Hai; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2014-11-01

    The stability of cations used in the alkaline exchange membranes has been a major challenge. In this paper, degradation energy barriers were investigated by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations. Findings show that electron-donating substituent groups at meta-position(s) of the benzyl ring could result in increased degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations, the largest improvement in degradation barrier found was only 6.7 kJ/mol. This suggests a modest (8×) improvement in stability for this type of approach may be possible, but for anything greater other approaches will need to be pursued.

  1. Complementary Roles of Intracellular and Pericellular Collagen Degradation Pathways In Vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar-Miller, Rebecca A.; Engelholm, Lars H.; Gavard, Julie; Yamada, Susan S.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Behrendt, Niels; Bugge, Thomas H.; Holmbeck, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    Collagen degradation is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Two key turnover pathways have been described for collagen: intracellular cathepsin-mediated degradation and pericellular collagenase-mediated degradation. However, the functional relationship between these two pathways is unclear and even controversial. Here we show that intracellular and pericellular collagen turnover pathways have complementary roles in vivo. Individual deficits in intracellular collagen degradation (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/Endo180 ablation) or pericellular collagen degradation (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase ablation) were compatible with development and survival. Their combined deficits, however, synergized to cause postnatal death by severely impairing bone formation. Interestingly, this was mechanistically linked to the proliferative failure and poor survival of cartilage- and bone-forming cells within their collagen-rich microenvironment. These findings have important implications for the use of pharmacological inhibitors of collagenase activity to prevent connective tissue destruction in a variety of diseases. PMID:17620416

  2. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  3. Molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of angiotensin II-induced muscle wasting: potential therapeutic targets for cardiac cachexia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tabony, A Michael; Galvez, Sarah; Mitch, William E; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    Cachexia is a serious complication of many chronic diseases, such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many factors are involved in the development of cachexia, and there is increasing evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in this process. Patients with advanced CHF or CKD often have increased Ang II levels and cachexia, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment improves weight loss. In rodent models, an increase in systemic Ang II leads to weight loss through increased protein breakdown, reduced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and decreased appetite. Ang II activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system via generation of reactive oxygen species and via inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Ang II inhibits 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and disrupts normal energy balance. Ang II also increases cytokines and circulating hormones such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, serum amyloid-A, glucocorticoids and myostatin, which regulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ang II acts on hypothalamic neurons to regulate orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide-Y, orexin and corticotropin-releasing hormone, leading to reduced appetite. Also, Ang II may regulate skeletal muscle regenerative processes. Several clinical studies have indicated that blockade of Ang II signaling via ACE inhibitors or Ang II type 1 receptor blockers prevents weight loss and improves muscle strength. Thus the RAS is a promising target for the treatment of muscle atrophy in patients with CHF and CKD. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting. PMID:23769949

  4. Molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of angiotensin II-induced muscle wasting: potential therapeutic targets for cardiac cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tabony, A. Michael; Galvez, Sarah; Mitch, William E.; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Cachexia is a serious complication of many chronic diseases, such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many factors are involved in the development of cachexia, and there is increasing evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in this process. Patients with advanced CHF or CKD often have increased Ang II levels and cachexia, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment improves weight loss. In rodent models, an increase in systemic Ang II leads to weight loss through increased protein breakdown, reduced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and decreased appetite. Ang II activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system via generation of reactive oxygen species and via inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Ang II inhibits 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and disrupts normal energy balance. Ang II also increases cytokines and circulating hormones such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, serum amyloid-A, glucocorticoids and myostatin, which regulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ang II acts on hypothalamic neurons to regulate orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide-Y, orexin and corticotropin-releasing hormone, leading to reduced appetite. Also, Ang II may regulate skeletal muscle regenerative processes. Several clinical studies have indicated that blockade of Ang II signaling via ACE inhibitors or Ang II type 1 receptor blockers prevents weight loss and improves muscle strength. Thus the RAS is a promising target for the treatment of muscle atrophy in patients with CHF and CKD. PMID:23769949

  5. On to the road to degradation: atherosclerosis and the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Joerg; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Protein metabolism is a central element of every living cell. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an integral part of the protein metabolism machinery mediating post-transcriptional processing and degradation of the majority of intracellular proteins. Over the past few years, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of the role of the UPS in vascular biology and pathobiology, particularly atherosclerosis. This review reflects on the recent developments from the effects on endothelial cells and the initial stage of atherosclerosis to the effects on vascular smooth muscle and the progression stage of atherosclerosis and finally to the effects on cell viability and the complication stage of atherosclerosis. It will conclude with the integration of the available information in a synoptic view of the involvement of the UPS in atherosclerosis. PMID:19815565

  6. D-xylose degradation pathway in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Ulrike; Dambeck, Michael; Zaiss, Henning; Fuhrer, Tobias; Soppa, Jrg; Sauer, Uwe; Schnheit, Peter

    2009-10-01

    The pathway of D-xylose degradation in archaea is unknown. In a previous study we identified in Haloarcula marismortui the first enzyme of xylose degradation, an inducible xylose dehydrogenase (Johnsen, U., and Schnheit, P. (2004) J. Bacteriol. 186, 6198-6207). Here we report a comprehensive study of the complete D-xylose degradation pathway in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. The analyses include the following: (i) identification of the degradation pathway in vivo following (13)C-labeling patterns of proteinogenic amino acids after growth on [(13)C]xylose; (ii) identification of xylose-induced genes by DNA microarray experiments; (iii) characterization of enzymes; and (iv) construction of in-frame deletion mutants and their functional analyses in growth experiments. Together, the data indicate that D-xylose is oxidized exclusively to the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate alpha-ketoglutarate, involving D-xylose dehydrogenase (HVO_B0028), a novel xylonate dehydratase (HVO_B0038A), 2-keto-3-deoxyxylonate dehydratase (HVO_B0027), and alpha-ketoglutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (HVO_B0039). The functional involvement of these enzymes in xylose degradation was proven by growth studies of the corresponding in-frame deletion mutants, which all lost the ability to grow on d-xylose, but growth on glucose was not significantly affected. This is the first report of an archaeal D-xylose degradation pathway that differs from the classical D-xylose pathway in most bacteria involving the formation of xylulose 5-phosphate as an intermediate. However, the pathway shows similarities to proposed oxidative pentose degradation pathways to alpha-ketoglutarate in few bacteria, e.g. Azospirillum brasilense and Caulobacter crescentus, and in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. PMID:19584053

  7. PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

  8. AEROBIC DEGRADATION OF DINITROTOLUENES AND PATHWAY FOR BACTERIAL DEGRADATION OF 2,6-DINITROTOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkhoderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. We report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkhoderia ...

  9. Characterization of a novel ?-cypermethrin-degrading Aspergillus niger YAT strain and the biochemical degradation pathway of ?-cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weiqin; Lin, Derong; Yao, Kai; Yuan, Huaiyu; Wang, Zhilong; Li, Jianlong; Zou, Likou; Han, Xinfeng; Zhou, Kang; He, Li; Hu, Xinjie; Liu, Shuliang

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus niger YAT strain was obtained from Chinese brick tea (Collection number: CGMCC 10,568) and identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence. The strain could degrade 54.83 % of ?-cypermethrin (?-CY; 50 mg L(-1)) in 7 days and 100 % of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; 100 mg L(-1)) in 22 h. The half-lives of ?-CY and 3-PBA range from 3.573 to 11.748 days and from 5.635 to 12.160 h, respectively. The degradation of ?-CY and 3-PBA was further described using first-order kinetic models. The pathway and mechanism of ?-CY degraded by YAT were investigated by analyzing the degraded metabolites through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Relevant enzymatic activities and substrate utilization were also investigated. ?-CY degradation products were analyzed. Results indicated that YAT strain transformed ?-CY into 3-PBA. 3-PBA was then gradually transformed into permethric acid, protocatechuic acid, 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy benzoic acid, gallic acid, and phenol gradually. The YAT strain can also effectively degrade these metabolites. The results indicated that YAT strain has potential applications in bioremediation of pyrethroid insecticide (PI)-contaminated environments and fermented food. PMID:26022858

  10. Pathways for degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Gewert, Berit; Plassmann, Merle M; MacLeod, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Each year vast amounts of plastic are produced worldwide. When released to the environment, plastics accumulate, and plastic debris in the world's oceans is of particular environmental concern. More than 60% of all floating debris in the oceans is plastic and amounts are increasing each year. Plastic polymers in the marine environment are exposed to sunlight, oxidants and physical stress, and over time they weather and degrade. The degradation processes and products must be understood to detect and evaluate potential environmental hazards. Some attention has been drawn to additives and persistent organic pollutants that sorb to the plastic surface, but so far the chemicals generated by degradation of the plastic polymers themselves have not been well studied from an environmental perspective. In this paper we review available information about the degradation pathways and chemicals that are formed by degradation of the six plastic types that are most widely used in Europe. We extrapolate that information to likely pathways and possible degradation products under environmental conditions found on the oceans' surface. The potential degradation pathways and products depend on the polymer type. UV-radiation and oxygen are the most important factors that initiate degradation of polymers with a carbon-carbon backbone, leading to chain scission. Smaller polymer fragments formed by chain scission are more susceptible to biodegradation and therefore abiotic degradation is expected to precede biodegradation. When heteroatoms are present in the main chain of a polymer, degradation proceeds by photo-oxidation, hydrolysis, and biodegradation. Degradation of plastic polymers can lead to low molecular weight polymer fragments, like monomers and oligomers, and formation of new end groups, especially carboxylic acids. PMID:26216708

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with a nanocomposite system: synthesis, photocatalysis and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shengjie; Zhang, Lianyang; Pan, Guoxiang; Qian, Pingping; Ni, Zheming

    2015-02-21

    Three different composites, including a calcined FeOOH supported ZnAl layered double hydroxide (FeOOH-LDO), a calcined ZnAl layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDO) and a calcined ZnFeAl layered double hydroxide (ZnFeAl-LDO), were synthesized via a sol-gel method, and their activity for the visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was studied. The composites were characterized by PXRD, SEM, and BET techniques, confirming the formation of highly crystalline structures. The activity performance of MB degradation was in the following order: FeOOH-LDO (?95%) > ZnFeAl-LDO (?60%) > ZnAl-LDO (?23%). In addition, a possible photocatalytic degradation reaction mechanism for MB was also proposed. Moreover, the frontier electron densities on the atoms of MB were calculated, which were in satisfactory agreement with the postulated mechanism. PMID:25611297

  12. Degradation of sulfonamide antibiotics by Microbacterium sp. strain BR1 - elucidating the downstream pathway.

    PubMed

    Ricken, Benjamin; Fellmann, Oliver; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Schffer, Andreas; Corvini, Philippe Franois-Xavier; Kolvenbach, Boris Alexander

    2015-12-25

    Microbacterium sp. strain BR1 is among the first bacterial isolates which were proven to degrade sulfonamide antibiotics. The degradation is initiated by an ipso-substitution, initiating the decay of the molecule into sulfur dioxide, the substrate specific heterocyclic moiety as a stable metabolite and benzoquinone imine. The latter appears to be instantaneously reduced to p-aminophenol, as that in turn was detected as the first stable intermediate. This study investigated the downstream pathway of sulfonamide antibiotics by testing the strain's ability to degrade suspected intermediates of this pathway. While p-aminophenol was degraded, degradation products could not be identified. Benzoquinone was shown to be degraded to hydroquinone and hydroquinone in turn was shown to be degraded to 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. The latter is assumed to be the potential substrate for aromatic ring cleavage. However, no products from the degradation of 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene could be identified. There are no signs of accumulation of intermediates causing oxidative stress, which makes Microbacterium sp. strain BR1 an interesting candidate for industrial waste water treatment. PMID:25796473

  13. Scavenger receptor CD36 mediates inhibition of cholesterol synthesis via activation of the PPAR?/PGC-1? pathway and Insig1/2 expression in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue-Way, Amlie; Caron, Vronique; Bilodeau, Stphanie; Keil, Sarah; Hassan, Meryl; Lvy, Emile; Mitchell, Grant A; Tremblay, Andr

    2014-04-01

    The scavenger receptor CD36 plays a central role in lipid metabolism by promoting macrophage cholesterol efflux with the potential to reduce atherosclerotic lesions. However, the effect of CD36 on de novo cholesterol synthesis is not known. Here, we describe the cellular mechanism by which CD36 activation induces cholesterol depletion in HepG2 cells. Using the CD36 ligand hexarelin, we found a rapid phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase Ser-872 in treated cells, resulting in inactivation of the rate-limiting enzyme in sterol synthesis. Degradation of HMG-CoA reductase by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was also enhanced by hexarelin, through an increased recruitment of the anchor proteins insulin-induced gene (Insig)-1 and Insig-2. Genes encoding key enzymes involved in cholesterol synthesis and under the control of transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 remained unresponsive to sterol depletion, due to retention of the SREBP-2 escort protein Scap by Insig-1/2. Insig1 and Insig2 gene expression was also increased through activation of nuclear receptor peroxisome-proliferator activating receptor ? (PPAR?) by CD36, which lifted the inhibitory effect of PPAR?1 Ser-84 phosphorylation. Recruitment of coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (PGC1?) to activated AMPK? was also promoted, resulting in PGC-1? transcriptional activation through Sirt1-mediated deacetylation, increased recruitment of PPAR?, and up-regulation of Insig-1/2, revealing a regulatory role of CD36 on PGC-1? signaling. Our data identify CD36 as a novel regulator of HMG-CoA reductase function and Insig-1/2 expression, 2 critical steps regulating cholesterol synthesis in hepatocytes. PMID:24371122

  14. Characterization of the novel dimethyl sulfide-degrading bacterium Alcaligenes sp. SY1 and its biochemical degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yiming; Qiu, Jiguo; Chen, Dongzhi; Ye, Jiexu; Chen, Jianmeng

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) has become a burgeoning field, with a growing focus on the reduction of VOSCs. The reduction of VOSCs encompasses both organic emission control and odor control. Herein, Alcaligenes sp. SY1 was isolated from active sludge and found to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a growth substrate in a mineral salt medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was applied to optimize the incubation conditions. The following conditions for optimal degradation were identified: temperature 27.03°C; pH 7.80; inoculum salinity 0.84%; and initial DMS concentration 1585.39μM. Under these conditions, approximately 99% of the DMS was degraded within 30h of incubation. Two metabolic compounds were detected and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). The DMS degradation kinetics for different concentrations were evaluated using the Haldane-Andrews model and the pseudo first-order model. The maximum specific growth rate and degradation rate of Alcaligenes sp. SY1 were 0.17h(-1) and 0.63gsgx(-1)h(-1). A possible degradation pathway is proposed, and the results suggest that Alcaligenes sp. SY1 has the potential to control odor emissions under aerobic conditions. PMID:26623933

  15. Unveiling New Degradation Intermediates/Pathways from the Photocatalytic Degradation of Microcystin-LR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study focuses on the identification of reaction intermediates formed during the photocatalytic degradation of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR with immobilized TiO2 Tphotocatalysts at neutral pH. To differentiate between impurities already existing in the MC-LR stand...

  16. Regulation of Ubiquitination-Mediated Protein Degradation by Survival Kinases in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitinproteasome system is essential for multiple physiological processes via selective degradation of target proteins and has been shown to plays a critical role in human cancer. Activation of oncogenic factors and inhibition of tumor suppressors have been shown to be essential for cancer development, and protein ubiquitination has been linked to the regulation of oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors. Three kinases, AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and I?B kinase, we refer to as oncokinases, are activated in multiple human cancers. We and others have identified several key downstream targets that are commonly regulated by these oncokinases, some of which are regulated directly or indirectly via ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation, including FOXO3, ?-catenin, myeloid cell leukemia-1, and Snail. In this review, we summarize these findings from our and other groups and discuss potential future studies and applications in the clinic. PMID:22649777

  17. High Affinity Heme Binding to a Heme Regulatory Motif on the Nuclear Receptor Rev-erb? Leads to Its Degradation and Indirectly Regulates Its Interaction with Nuclear Receptor Corepressor.

    PubMed

    Carter, Eric L; Gupta, Nirupama; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2016-01-29

    Rev-erb? and Rev-erb? are heme-binding nuclear receptors (NR) that repress the transcription of genes involved in regulating metabolism, inflammation, and the circadian clock. Previous gene expression and co-immunoprecipitation studies led to a model in which heme binding to Rev-erb? recruits nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) into an active repressor complex. However, in contradiction, biochemical and crystallographic studies have shown that heme decreases the affinity of the ligand-binding domain of Rev-erb NRs for NCoR1 peptides. One explanation for this discrepancy is that the ligand-binding domain and NCoR1 peptides used for in vitro studies cannot replicate the key features of the full-length proteins used in cellular studies. However, the combined in vitro and cellular results described here demonstrate that heme does not directly promote interactions between full-length Rev-erb? (FLRev-erb?) and an NCoR1 construct encompassing all three NR interaction domains. NCoR1 tightly binds both apo- and heme-replete FLRev-erb?DNA complexes; furthermore, heme, at high concentrations, destabilizes the FLRev-erb?NCoR1 complex. The interaction between FLRev-erb? and NCoR1 as well as Rev-erb? repression at the Bmal1 promoter appear to be modulated by another cellular factor(s), at least one of which is related to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our studies suggest that heme is involved in regulating the degradation of Rev-erb? in a manner consistent with its role in circadian rhythm maintenance. Finally, the very slow rate constant (10(-6) s(-1)) of heme dissociation from Rev-erb? rules out a prior proposal that Rev-erb? acts as an intracellular heme sensor. PMID:26670607

  18. Robust Ordering of Anaphase Events by Adaptive Thresholds and Competing Degradation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kamenz, Julia; Mihaljev, Tamara; Kubis, Armin; Legewie, Stefan; Hauf, Silke

    2015-11-01

    The splitting of chromosomes in anaphase and their delivery into the daughter cells needs to be accurately executed to maintain genome stability. Chromosome splitting requires the degradation of securin, whereas the distribution of the chromosomes into the daughter cells requires the degradation of cyclin B. We show that cells encounter and tolerate variations in the abundance of securin or cyclin B. This makes the concurrent onset of securin and cyclin B degradation insufficient to guarantee that early anaphase events occur in the correct order. We uncover that the timing of chromosome splitting is not determined by reaching a fixed securin level, but that this level adapts to the securin degradation kinetics. In conjunction with securin and cyclin B competing for degradation during anaphase, this provides robustness to the temporal order of anaphase events. Our work reveals how parallel cell-cycle pathways can be temporally coordinated despite variability in protein concentrations. PMID:26527280

  19. Protein/Protein Interactions in the Mammalian Heme Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Andrea L. M.; Bagai, Ireena; Becker, Donald F.; Zuiderweg, Erik R. P.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the O2-dependent degradation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and iron with electrons delivered from NADPH via cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). Biliverdin reductase (BVR) then catalyzes conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin. We describe mutagenesis combined with kinetic, spectroscopic (fluorescence and NMR), surface plasmon resonance, cross-linking, gel filtration, and analytical ultracentrifugation studies aimed at evaluating interactions of HO-2 with CPR and BVR. Based on these results, we propose a model in which HO-2 and CPR form a dynamic ensemble of complex(es) that precede formation of the productive electron transfer complex. The 1H-15N TROSY NMR spectrum of HO-2 reveals specific residues, including Leu-201, near the heme face of HO-2 that are affected by the addition of CPR, implicating these residues at the HO/CPR interface. Alanine substitutions at HO-2 residues Leu-201 and Lys-169 cause a respective 3- and 22-fold increase in Km values for CPR, consistent with a role for these residues in CPR binding. Sedimentation velocity experiments confirm the transient nature of the HO-2·CPR complex (Kd = 15.1 μm). Our results also indicate that HO-2 and BVR form a very weak complex that is only captured by cross-linking. For example, under conditions where CPR affects the 1H-15N TROSY NMR spectrum of HO-2, BVR has no effect. Fluorescence quenching experiments also suggest that BVR binds HO-2 weakly, if at all, and that the previously reported high affinity of BVR for HO is artifactual, resulting from the effects of free heme (dissociated from HO) on BVR fluorescence. PMID:25196843

  20. Mechanochemical degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A: performance, products and pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kunlun; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Wang; Yu, Yunfei; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2012-12-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant (BFR), which has received more and more concerns due to its high lipophilicity, persistency and endocrine disrupting property in the environment. Considering the possible need for the safe disposal of TBBPA containing wastes in the future, the potential of mechanochemical (MC) destruction as a promising non-combustion technology was investigated in this study. TBBPA was co-ground with calcium oxide (CaO) or the mixture of iron powder and quartz sand (Fe+SiO(2)) in a planetary ball mill at room temperature. The method of Fe+SiO(2) destructed over 98% of initial TBBPA after 3h and acquired 95% debromination rate after 5h, which showed a better performance than the CaO method. Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated the generation of inorganic carbon with the disappearance of benzene ring and CBr bond, indicating the carbonization and debromination process during mechanochemical reaction. LC-MS-MS screening showed that the intermediates of the treatment with Fe+SiO(2) were tri-, bi-, mono-brominated BPA, BPA and other fragments. Finally all the intermediates were also destroyed after 5h grinding. The bromine balance was calculated and a possible reaction pathway was proposed. PMID:23158692

  1. Terrestrial and marine perspectives on modeling organic matter degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Burd, Adrian B; Frey, Serita; Cabre, Anna; Ito, Takamitsu; Levine, Naomi M; Lønborg, Christian; Long, Matthew; Mauritz, Marguerite; Thomas, R Quinn; Stephens, Brandon M; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Zeng, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a major role in both terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The amount of carbon stored in these systems is far greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere, and annual fluxes of CO2 from these pools to the atmosphere exceed those from fossil fuel combustion. Understanding the processes that determine the fate of detrital material is important for predicting the effects that climate change will have on feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. However, Earth System Models (ESMs) typically utilize very simple formulations of processes affecting the mineralization and storage of detrital OM. Recent changes in our view of the nature of this material and the factors controlling its transformation have yet to find their way into models. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the role and cycling of detrital OM in terrestrial and marine systems and examine how this pool of material is represented in ESMs. We include a discussion of the different mineralization pathways available as organic matter moves from soils, through inland waters to coastal systems and ultimately into open ocean environments. We argue that there is strong commonality between aspects of OM transformation in both terrestrial and marine systems and that our respective scientific communities would benefit from closer collaboration. PMID:26015089

  2. Complete and Integrated Pyrene Degradation Pathway in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 Based on Systems Biology?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Jones, Richard C.; Freeman, James P.; Edmondson, Ricky D.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 was the first bacterium isolated by virtue of its ability to metabolize the high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene. We used metabolic, genomic, and proteomic approaches in this investigation to construct a complete and integrated pyrene degradation pathway for M. vanbaalenii PYR-1. Genome sequence analyses identified genes involved in the pyrene degradation pathway that we have proposed for this bacterium. To identify proteins involved in the degradation, we conducted a proteome analysis of cells exposed to pyrene using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Database searching performed with the M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 genome resulted in identification of 1,028 proteins with a protein false discovery rate of <1%. Based on both genomic and proteomic data, we identified 27 enzymes necessary for constructing a complete pathway for pyrene degradation. Our analyses indicate that this bacterium degrades pyrene to central intermediates through o-phthalate and the ?-ketoadipate pathway. Proteomic analysis also revealed that 18 enzymes in the pathway were upregulated more than twofold, as indicated by peptide counting when the organism was grown with pyrene; three copies of the terminal subunits of ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (NidAB2, MvanDraft_0817/0818, and PhtAaAb), dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (MvanDraft_0815), and ring cleavage dioxygenase (MvanDraft_3242) were detected only in pyrene-grown cells. The results presented here provide a comprehensive picture of pyrene metabolism in M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 and a useful framework for understanding cellular processes involved in PAH degradation. PMID:17085566

  3. Proteasome Inhibition Enhances the Induction and Impairs the Maintenance of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Chenghai; Upadhya, Sudarshan C.; Ding, Lan; Smith, Thuy K.; Hegde, Ashok N.

    2008-01-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays important roles in synaptic plasticity, but the molecular mechanisms by which proteolysis regulates synaptic strength are not well understood. We investigated the role of the proteasome in hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP), a model for enduring synaptic plasticity.

  4. Ubiquitin control of S phase: a new role for the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, UbcH7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Events within and transitions between the phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle are tightly controlled by transcriptional and post-translational processes. Prominent among them is a profound role for the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. The timely degradation of proteins balances the increase...

  5. Proteasome Inhibition Enhances the Induction and Impairs the Maintenance of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Chenghai; Upadhya, Sudarshan C.; Ding, Lan; Smith, Thuy K.; Hegde, Ashok N.

    2008-01-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays important roles in synaptic plasticity, but the molecular mechanisms by which proteolysis regulates synaptic strength are not well understood. We investigated the role of the proteasome in hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP), a model for enduring synaptic plasticity.…

  6. Degradation pathway of malachite green in a novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor.

    PubMed

    Diao, Zenghui; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Fanyin; Song, Lin; Qiu, Rongliang

    2013-09-15

    A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed to investigate the degradation pathway of malachite green. A thermally formed TiO?/Ti thin film electrode was used as photoanode, graphite was used as cathode, and a saturated calomel electrode was employed as the reference electrode in the reactor. In the reactor, the anode and cathode tanks were connected by a cation exchange membrane. Results showed that the decolorization ratio of malachite green in the anode and cathode was 98.5 and 96.5% after 120 min, respectively. Malachite green in the two anode and cathode tanks was oxidized, achieving the bipolar double effect. Malachite green in both the anode and cathode tanks exhibited similar catalytic degradation pathways. The double bond of the malachite green molecule was attacked by strong oxidative hydroxyl radicals, after which the organic compound was degraded by the two pathways into 4,4-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) phenol, and other intermediate products. Eventually, malachite green was degraded into oxalic acid as a small molecular organic acid, which was degraded by processes such as demethylation, deamination, nitration, substitution, addition, and other reactions. PMID:23811633

  7. Degradation of oxcarbazepine by UV-activated persulfate oxidation: kinetics, mechanisms, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingjun; Zhou, Shiqing; Shi, Zhou; Deng, Lin; Li, Guangchao; Yi, Qihang; Gao, Naiyun

    2016-02-01

    The degradation kinetics and mechanism of the antiepileptic drug oxcarbazepine (OXC) by UV-activated persulfate oxidation were investigated in this study. Results showed that UV/persulfate (UV/PS) process appeared to be more effective in degrading OXC than UV or PS alone. The OXC degradation exhibited a pseudo-first order kinetics pattern and the degradation rate constants (k obs) were affected by initial OXC concentration, PS dosage, initial pH, and humic acid concentration to different degrees. It was found that low initial OXC concentration, high persulfate dosage, and initial pH enhanced the OXC degradation. Additionally, the presence of humic acid in the solution could greatly inhibit the degradation of OXC. Moreover, hydroxyl radical (OH•) and sulfate radical (SO4 (-)••) were identified to be responsible for OXC degradation and SO4 (-)• made the predominant contribution in this study. Finally, major intermediate products were identified and a preliminary degradation pathway was proposed. Results demonstrated that UV/PS system is a potential technology to control the water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OXC. PMID:26452660

  8. Modelling Pathways to Rubisco Degradation: A Structural Equation Network Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ttard-Jones, Catherine; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Cooper, Julia; Leifert, Carlo; Rushton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Omics analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics) quantifies changes in gene/protein expression, providing a snapshot of changes in biochemical pathways over time. Although tools such as modelling that are needed to investigate the relationships between genes/proteins already exist, they are rarely utilised. We consider the potential for using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate protein-protein interactions in a proposed Rubisco protein degradation pathway using previously published data from 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry proteome analysis. These informed the development of a prior model that hypothesised a pathway of Rubisco Large Subunit and Small Subunit degradation, producing both primary and secondary degradation products. While some of the putative pathways were confirmed by the modelling approach, the model also demonstrated features that had not been originally hypothesised. We used Bayesian analysis based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation to generate output statistics suggesting that the model had replicated the variation in the observed data due to protein-protein interactions. This study represents an early step in the development of approaches that seek to enable the full utilisation of information regarding the dynamics of biochemical pathways contained within proteomics data. As these approaches gain attention, they will guide the design and conduct of experiments that enable Omics modelling to become a common place practice within molecular biology. PMID:24498339

  9. New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  10. New hydrocarbon degradation pathways in the microbial metagenome from Brazilian petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Garca, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  11. A novel pathway for nicotine degradation by Aspergillus oryzae 112822 isolated from tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang Jing; Lu, Li Li; Gu, Guo Feng; Xiao, Min

    2010-09-01

    An efficient nicotine-degrading fungus was isolated from tobacco leaves and identified as Aspergillus oryzae 112822 based on morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of 18S rDNA, 5.8S rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer (5.8S-ITS region). When the strain was cultured in a medium with tobacco leaf extract for 40 h, the maximum amount of cell growth was 3.6 g l(-1) and nicotine degradation was 2.19 g l(-1). The intermediates of nicotine degradation by resting cells were isolated by preparative TLC or semi-preparative HPLC, and identified by TLC, MS, NMR, Fourier-transform (FT)-IR and GC-MS analysis. The pathway for nicotine degradation in A. oryzae 112822 was proposed to be from nicotine to 2,3-dihydroxypyridine through the intermediates nornicotine, myosmine, N-methylnicotinamide and 2-hydroxy-N-methylnicotinamide. The ring of 2,3-dihydroxypyridine was opened between the 2- and 3-hydroxy positions to yield succinic acid. N-methylnicotinamide and 2,3-dihydroxypyridine were satisfactorily verified as metabolites of nicotine degradation. This is the first elucidation of a pathway for nicotine degradation in fungi. PMID:20600861

  12. Regulated degradation of FANCM in the Fanconi anemia pathway during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Younghoon; Kim, Jung Min; D'Andrea, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The 13 Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins cooperate in a common DNA repair pathway. Eight of these proteins are assembled into a multisubunit E3 ligase called the FA core complex. During S phase, the FA core complex is loaded by the FANCM protein into chromatin where it monoubiquitinates its substrates. In mitosis, the FA core complex is released from FANCM by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that FANCM is hyperphosphorylated and degraded during mitosis. ?-TRCP and Plk1 are the key regulators of FANCM degradation. Nondegradable mutant forms of FANCM retain the FA core complex in the chromatin and disrupt the FA pathway. Our data provide a novel mechanism for the cell cycle-dependent regulation of the FA pathway. PMID:19270156

  13. Impact of degrading permafrost on subsurface solute transport pathways and travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-09-01

    Subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in the subsurface water and inert solute pathways and travel times are analyzed for different modeled geological configurations. For all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase nonlinearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The timing of the start of increase in travel time depends on heterogeneity structure, combined with the rate of permafrost degradation that also depends on material thermal and hydrogeological properties. The travel time changes depend on combined warming effects of: i) increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, ii) reduced transport velocities due to a shift from horizontal saturated groundwater flow near the surface to vertical water percolation deeper into the subsurface, and iii) pathway length increase and temporary immobilization caused by cryosuction-induced seasonal freeze cycles.

  14. A Non-canonical RNA Silencing Pathway Promotes mRNA Degradation in Basal Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Nicolás, Francisco E.; Vila, Ana; Moxon, Simon; Dalmay, Tamas; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Garre, Victoriano; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing knowledge on the functional relevance of endogenous small RNAs (esRNAs) as riboregulators has stimulated the identification and characterization of these molecules in numerous eukaryotes. In the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides, an emerging opportunistic human pathogen, esRNAs that regulate the expression of many protein coding genes have been described. These esRNAs share common machinery for their biogenesis consisting of an RNase III endonuclease Dicer, a single Argonaute protein and two RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. We show in this study that, besides participating in this canonical dicer-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, the rdrp genes are involved in a novel dicer-independent degradation process of endogenous mRNAs. The analysis of esRNAs accumulated in wild type and silencing mutants demonstrates that this new rdrp-dependent dicer-independent regulatory pathway, which does not produce sRNA molecules of discrete sizes, controls the expression of target genes promoting the specific degradation of mRNAs by a previously unknown RNase. This pathway mainly regulates conserved genes involved in metabolism and cellular processes and signaling, such as those required for heme biosynthesis, and controls responses to specific environmental signals. Searching the Mucor genome for candidate RNases to participate in this pathway, and functional analysis of the corresponding knockout mutants, identified a new protein, R3B2. This RNase III-like protein presents unique domain architecture, it is specifically found in basal fungi and, besides its relevant role in the rdrp-dependent dicer-independent pathway, it is also involved in the canonical dicer-dependent RNAi pathway, highlighting its crucial role in the biogenesis and function of regulatory esRNAs. The involvement of RdRPs in RNA degradation could represent the first evolutionary step towards the development of an RNAi mechanism and constitutes a genetic link between mRNA degradation and post-transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:25875805

  15. Bacterial community structure and predicted alginate metabolic pathway in an alginate-degrading bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Kita, Akihisa; Miura, Toyokazu; Kawata, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Methane fermentation is one of the effective approaches for utilization of brown algae; however, this process is limited by the microbial capability to degrade alginate, a main polysaccharide found in these algae. Despite its potential, little is known about anaerobic microbial degradation of alginate. Here we constructed a bacterial consortium able to anaerobically degrade alginate. Taxonomic classification of 16S rRNA gene, based on high-throughput sequencing data, revealed that this consortium included two dominant strains, designated HUA-1 and HUA-2; these strains were related to Clostridiaceae bacterium SK082 (99%) and Dysgonomonas capnocytophagoides (95%), respectively. Alginate lyase activity and metagenomic analyses, based on high-throughput sequencing data, revealed that this bacterial consortium possessed putative genes related to a predicted alginate metabolic pathway. However, HUA-1 and 2 did not grow on agar medium with alginate by using roll-tube method, suggesting the existence of bacterial interactions like symbiosis for anaerobic alginate degradation. PMID:26199224

  16. Degradation kinetics and pathway of phenol by Pseudomonas and Bacillus species

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Syed Adnan; Jabeen, Suraiya

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates that strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IES-Ps-1) is a versatile toxic organic compound degrader. With the degradation of malathion and cypermethrin (studied by other researchers previously), this strain was able to degrade phenol. Two other indigenous soil flora (i.e., Pseudomonas sp. (IES-S) and Bacillus subtilis (IES-B)) were also found to be potential phenol degraders. Phenol was degraded with Monod kinetics during growth in nutrient broth and mineral salts medium. Before entering into the growth inhibition phase, strains IES-Ps-1, IES-S and IES-B could tolerate up to 400, 700 and 500 mg/L phenol, respectively, when contained in nutrient broth. However, according to the Luong–Levenspiel model, the growth of strains IES-Ps-1, IES-S and IES-B would cease at 2000, 2174 and 2190 mg/L phenol, respectively. Strain IES-Ps-1 degraded 700, 900 and 1050 mg/L phenol contained in mineral salts medium with the specific rates of 0.034, 0.075 and 0.021 h−1, respectively. All these strains grew by making clusters when exposed to phenol in order to prevent damages due to high substrate concentration. These strains transformed phenol into catechol, which was then degraded via ortho-cleavage pathway. PMID:26740787

  17. Genomic and metabolic analysis of fluoranthene degradation pathway in Celeribacter indicus P73T

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Junwei; Lai, Qiliang; Yuan, Jun; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    Celeribacter indicus P73T, isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Indian Ocean, is capable of degrading a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is the first fluoranthene-degrading bacterium within the family Rhodobacteraceae. Here, the complete genome sequence of strain P73T is presented and analyzed. Besides a 4.5-Mb circular chromosome, strain P73T carries five plasmids, and encodes 4827 predicted protein-coding sequences. One hundred and thirty-eight genes, including 14 dioxygenase genes, were predicted to be involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds, and most of these genes are clustered in four regions. P73_0346 is the first fluoranthene 7,8-dioxygenase to be discovered and the first fluoranthene dioxygenase within the toluene/biphenyl family. The degradative genes in regions B and D in P73T are absent in Celeribacter baekdonensis B30, which cannot degrade PAHs. Four intermediate metabolites [acenaphthylene-1(2H)-one, acenaphthenequinone, 1,2-dihydroxyacenaphthylene, and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride] of fluoranthene degradation by strain P73T were detected as the main intermediates, indicating that the degradation of fluoranthene in P73T was initiated by dioxygenation at the C-7,8 positions. Based on the genomic and metabolitic results, we propose a C-7,8 dioxygenation pathway in which fluoranthene is mineralized to TCA cycle intermediates. PMID:25582347

  18. Combination of degradation pathways for naphthalene utilization in Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB.

    PubMed

    Toms-Gallardo, Laura; Gmez-lvarez, Helena; Santero, Eduardo; Floriano, Beln

    2014-03-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB is a metabolic versatile bacterium able to grow on naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source. Applying proteomic, genetic and biochemical approaches, we propose in this paper that, at least, three coordinated but independently regulated set of genes are combined to degrade naphthalene in TFB. First, proteins involved in tetralin degradation are also induced by naphthalene and may carry out its conversion to salicylaldehyde. This is the only part of the naphthalene degradation pathway showing glucose catabolite repression. Second, a salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that converts salicylaldehyde to salicylate is detected in naphthalene-grown cells but not in tetralin- or salicylate-grown cells. Finally, we describe the chromosomally located nag genes, encoding the gentisate pathway for salicylate conversion into fumarate and pyruvate, which are only induced by salicylate and not by naphthalene. This work shows how biodegradation pathways in Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB could be assembled using elements from different pathways mainly because of the laxity of the regulatory systems and the broad specificity of the catabolic enzymes. PMID:24325207

  19. Selective Targeting of Proteins within Secretory Pathway for Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vecchi, Lara; Petris, Gianluca; Bestagno, Marco; Burrone, Oscar R.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a cellular quality control mechanism to dispose of misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway via proteasomal degradation. SEL1L is an ER-resident protein that participates in identification of misfolded molecules as ERAD substrates, therefore inducing their ER-to-cytosol retrotranslocation and degradation. We have developed a novel class of fusion proteins, termed degradins, composed of a fragment of SEL1L fused to a target-specific binding moiety located on the luminal side of the ER. The target-binding moiety can be a ligand of the target or derived from specific mAbs. Here, we describe the ability of degradins with two different recognition moieties to promote degradation of a model target. Degradins recognize the target protein within the ER both in secretory and membrane-bound forms, inducing their degradation following retrotranslocation to the cytosol. Thus, degradins represent an effective technique to knock-out proteins within the secretory pathway with high specificity. PMID:22523070

  20. Catalytic thermolysis in treating Cibacron Blue in aqueous solution: Kinetics and degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Claire Xin-Hui; Teng, Tjoon-Tow; Wong, Yee-Shian; Morad, Norhashimah; Rafatullah, Mohd

    2016-03-01

    A thermal degradation pathway of the decolourisation of Reactive Cibacron Blue F3GA (RCB) in aqueous solution through catalytic thermolysis is established. Catalytic thermolysis is suitable for the removal of dyes from wastewater as it breaks down the complex dye molecules instead of only transferring them into another phase. RCB is a reactive dye that consists of three main groups, namely anthraquinone, benzene and triazine groups. Through catalytic thermolysis, the bonds that hold the three groups together were effectively broken and at the same time, the complex molecules degraded to form simple molecules of lower molecular weight. The degradation pathway and products were characterized and determined through UV-Vis, FT-IR and GCMS analysis. RCB dye molecule was successfully broken down into simpler molecules, namely, benzene derivatives, amines and triazine. The addition of copper sulphate, CuSO4, as a catalyst, hastens the thermal degradation of RCB by aiding in the breakdown of large, complex molecules. At pH 2 and catalyst mass loading of 5g/L, an optimum colour removal of 66.14% was observed. The degradation rate of RCB is well explained by first order kinetics model. PMID:26741557

  1. Degradation of ibuprofen by hydrodynamic cavitation: Reaction pathways and effect of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Musmarra, Dino; Prisciandaro, Marina; Capocelli, Mauro; Karatza, Despina; Iovino, Pasquale; Canzano, Silvana; Lancia, Amedeo

    2016-03-01

    Ibuprofen (IBP) is an anti-inflammatory drug whose residues can be found worldwide in natural water bodies resulting in harmful effects to aquatic species even at low concentrations. This paper deals with the degradation of IBP in water by hydrodynamic cavitation in a convergent-divergent nozzle. Over 60% of ibuprofen was degraded in 60 min with an electrical energy per order (EEO) of 10.77 kWh m(-3) at an initial concentration of 200 μg L(-1) and a relative inlet pressure pin=0.35 MPa. Five intermediates generated from different hydroxylation reactions were identified; the potential mechanisms of degradation were sketched and discussed. The reaction pathways recognized are in line with the relevant literature, both experimental and theoretical. By varying the pressure upstream the constriction, different degradation rates were observed. This effect was discussed according to a numerical simulation of the hydroxyl radical production identifying a clear correspondence between the maximum kinetic constant kOH and the maximum calculated OH production. Furthermore, in the investigated experimental conditions, the pH parameter was found not to affect the extent of degradation; this peculiar feature agrees with a recently published kinetic insight and has been explained in the light of the intermediates of the different reaction pathways. PMID:26584987

  2. Degradation kinetics and pathways of three calcium channel blockers under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zonja, Bozo; Gonzalez, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damia; Esplugas, Santiago; Xu, Ke; Qiang, Zhimin

    2015-12-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a group of pharmaceuticals widely prescribed to lower blood pressure and treat heart diseases. They have been frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream river waters, thus inducing a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. However, little is known about the behavior and fate of CCBs under UV irradiation, which has been adopted as a primary disinfection method for WWTP effluents. This study investigated the degradation kinetics and pathways of three commonly-used CCBs, including amlodipine (AML), diltiazem (DIL), and verapamil (VER), under UV (254 nm) irradiation. The chemical structures of transformation byproducts (TBPs) were first identified to assess the potential ecological hazards. On that basis, a generic solid-phase extraction method, which simultaneously used four different cartridges, was adopted to extract and enrich the TBPs. Thereafter, the photo-degradation of target CCBs was performed under UV fluences typical for WWTP effluent disinfection. The degradation of all three CCBs conformed to the pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constants of 0.031, 0.044 and 0.011 min(-1) for AML, DIL and VER, respectively. By comparing the MS(2) fragments and the evolution (i.e., formation or decay) trends of identified TBPs, the degradation pathways were proposed. In the WWTP effluent, although the target CCBs could be degraded, several TBPs still contained the functional pharmacophores and reached peak concentrations under UV fluences of 40-100 mJ cm(-2). PMID:26003333

  3. A functional 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathway in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris is required for full pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Bo; Sun, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ming; Tang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Ji-Liang; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Plants contain significant levels of natural phenolic compounds essential for reproduction and growth, as well as defense mechanisms against pathogens. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of crucifers black rot. Here we showed that genes required for the synthesis, utilization, transportation, and degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) are present in Xcc. Xcc rapidly degrades 4-HBA, but has no effect on 2-hydroxybenzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate when grown in XOLN medium. The genes for 4-HBA degradation are organized in a superoperonic cluster. Bioinformatics, biochemical, and genetic data showed that 4-HBA is hydroxylated by 4-HBA 3-hydroxylase (PobA), which is encoded by Xcc0356, to yield PCA. The resulting PCA is further metabolized via the PCA branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway, including Xcc0364, Xcc0365, and PcaFHGBDCR. Xcc0364 and Xcc0365 encode a new form of β-ketoadipate succinyl-coenzyme A transferase that is required for 4-HBA degradation. pobA expression was induced by 4-HBA via the transcriptional activator, PobR. Radish and cabbage hydrolysates contain 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, and other phenolic compounds. Addition of radish and cabbage hydrolysates to Xcc culture significantly induced the expression of pobA via PobR. The 4-HBA degradation pathway is required for full pathogenicity of Xcc in radish. PMID:26672484

  4. A functional 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathway in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris is required for full pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Bo; Sun, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ming; Tang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Ji-Liang; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Plants contain significant levels of natural phenolic compounds essential for reproduction and growth, as well as defense mechanisms against pathogens. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of crucifers black rot. Here we showed that genes required for the synthesis, utilization, transportation, and degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) are present in Xcc. Xcc rapidly degrades 4-HBA, but has no effect on 2-hydroxybenzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate when grown in XOLN medium. The genes for 4-HBA degradation are organized in a superoperonic cluster. Bioinformatics, biochemical, and genetic data showed that 4-HBA is hydroxylated by 4-HBA 3-hydroxylase (PobA), which is encoded by Xcc0356, to yield PCA. The resulting PCA is further metabolized via the PCA branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway, including Xcc0364, Xcc0365, and PcaFHGBDCR. Xcc0364 and Xcc0365 encode a new form of β-ketoadipate succinyl-coenzyme A transferase that is required for 4-HBA degradation. pobA expression was induced by 4-HBA via the transcriptional activator, PobR. Radish and cabbage hydrolysates contain 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, and other phenolic compounds. Addition of radish and cabbage hydrolysates to Xcc culture significantly induced the expression of pobA via PobR. The 4-HBA degradation pathway is required for full pathogenicity of Xcc in radish. PMID:26672484

  5. Metagenomic identification of bacterioplankton taxa and pathways involved in microcystin degradation in lake erie.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiaozhen; Lu, Xinxin; Jacob, Jisha; Sun, Shulei; Heath, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera) and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax) of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr) were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems. PMID:23637924

  6. Metagenomic Identification of Bacterioplankton Taxa and Pathways Involved in Microcystin Degradation in Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Xiaozhen; Lu, Xinxin; Jacob, Jisha; Sun, Shulei; Heath, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera) and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax) of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr) were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems. PMID:23637924

  7. New metabolic pathway for degradation of 2-nitrobenzoate by Arthrobacter sp. SPG.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj K; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. SPG utilized 2-nitrobenzoate as its sole source of carbon and energy and degraded it with accumulation of stoichiometric amounts of nitrite ions. Salicylate and catechol were detected as metabolites of the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Enzyme activities for 2-nitrobenzoate-2-monooxygenase, salicylate hydroxylase, and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase were detected in the crude extracts of the 2-nitrobenzoate-induced cells of strain SPG. The 2-nitrobenzoate-monooxygenase activity resulted in formation of salicylate and nitrite from 2-nitrobenzoate, whereas salicylate hydroxylase catalyzed the conversion of salicylate to catechol. The ring-cleaving enzyme, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase cleaved catechol to cis,cis-muconic acid. Cells of strain SPG were able to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in sterile as well as non-sterile soil microcosms. The results of microcosm studies showed that strain SPG degraded more than 90% of 2-nitrobenzoate within 10-12 days. This study clearly shows that Arthrobacter sp. SPG degraded 2-nitrobenzoate via a new pathway with formation of salicylate and catechol as metabolites. Arthrobacter sp. SPG may be used for bioremediation of 2-nitrobenzoate-contaminated sites due to its ability to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in soil. PMID:26082768

  8. Sodium persulfate-assisted mechanochemical degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A: Efficacy, products and pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xitao; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Kunlun; Qi, Chengdu

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, activated persulfate (PS) oxidation has been developed as a new advanced oxidation process for the degradation of organic pollutants. On the other hand, the mechanochemical method has exhibited a unique advantage in dealing with chemical wastes. The degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a widely used brominated flame retardant (BFR), in wastes has attracted considerable attention. In this study, the efficacy of a CaO-mechanochemical (CaO-MC) treatment system assisted by the addition of PS for the degradation of TBBPA was investigated. Under the optimum reaction conditions with a mole ratio of PS:CaO = 1:4 and less than 12.5% of TBBPA by mass, the degradation and debromination of TBBPA were completed within 2 h, while the mineralization was completed within 4 h. Characterization of the milled sample by XRD revealed that CaSO4 crystallization occurred. The TG results illustrate that there was little organic matter left after 4 h of milling. Raman and FT-IR spectra exhibited the TBBPA destruction process and disappearance of the organic groups. Through analysis by LC/MS/MS, seventeen intermediates were identified. The mechanism of TBBPA degradation by the PS-assisted CaO-MC treatment system was explained from two aspects, the course of crystallization and the degradation of TBBPA by activated PS, and two parallel initiation pathways were proposed. PMID:26359264

  9. New metabolic pathway for degradation of 2-nitrobenzoate by Arthrobacter sp. SPG

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj K.; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. SPG utilized 2-nitrobenzoate as its sole source of carbon and energy and degraded it with accumulation of stoichiometric amounts of nitrite ions. Salicylate and catechol were detected as metabolites of the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Enzyme activities for 2-nitrobenzoate-2-monooxygenase, salicylate hydroxylase, and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase were detected in the crude extracts of the 2-nitrobenzoate-induced cells of strain SPG. The 2-nitrobenzoate-monooxygenase activity resulted in formation of salicylate and nitrite from 2-nitrobenzoate, whereas salicylate hydroxylase catalyzed the conversion of salicylate to catechol. The ring-cleaving enzyme, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase cleaved catechol to cis,cis-muconic acid. Cells of strain SPG were able to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in sterile as well as non-sterile soil microcosms. The results of microcosm studies showed that strain SPG degraded more than 90% of 2-nitrobenzoate within 10–12 days. This study clearly shows that Arthrobacter sp. SPG degraded 2-nitrobenzoate via a new pathway with formation of salicylate and catechol as metabolites. Arthrobacter sp. SPG may be used for bioremediation of 2-nitrobenzoate-contaminated sites due to its ability to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in soil. PMID:26082768

  10. Degradation of 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoate by a Novel meta-Cleavage Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Marn, Macarena; Plumeier, Iris

    2012-01-01

    2,3-Dihydroxybenzoate is the precursor in the biosynthesis of several siderophores and an important plant secondary metabolite that, in bacteria, can be degraded via meta-cleavage of the aromatic ring. The dhb cluster of Pseudomonas reinekei MT1 encodes a chimeric meta-cleavage pathway involved in the catabolism of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. While the first two enzymes, DhbA and DhbB, are phylogenetically related to those involved in 2,3-dihydroxy-p-cumate degradation, the subsequent steps are catalyzed by enzymes related to those involved in catechol degradation (DhbCDEFGH). Characterization of kinetic properties of DhbA extradiol dioxygenase identified 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate as the preferred substrate. Deletion of the encoding gene impedes growth of P. reinekei MT1 on 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. DhbA catalyzes 3,4-dioxygenation with 2-hydroxy-3-carboxymuconate as the product, which is then decarboxylated by DhbB to 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. This compound is then subject to dehydrogenation and further degraded to citrate cycle intermediates. Transcriptional analysis revealed genes of the dhB gene cluster to be highly expressed during growth with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, whereas a downstream-localized gene encoding 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase, dispensable for 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate metabolism but crucial for 2,3-dihydroxy-p-cumate degradation, was only marginally expressed. This is the first report describing a gene cluster encoding enzymes for the degradation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. PMID:22609919

  11. A critical role for protein degradation in the nucleus accumbens core in cocaine reward memory.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Meng-Meng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Xue, Li-Fen; Zhai, Suo-Di; Lu, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The intense associative memories that develop between cocaine-paired contexts and rewarding stimuli contribute to cocaine seeking and relapse. Previous studies have shown impairment in cocaine reward memories by manipulating a labile state induced by memory retrieval, but the mechanisms that underlie the destabilization of cocaine reward memory are unknown. In this study, using a Pavlovian cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure in rats, we tested the contribution of ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent protein degradation in destabilization of cocaine reward memory. First, we found that polyubiquitinated protein expression levels and polyubiquitinated N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion (NSF) markedly increased 15 min after retrieval while NSF protein levels decreased 1 h after retrieval in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. We then found that infusion of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin into the NAc core prevented the impairment of memory reconsolidation induced by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin and reversed the effects of anisomycin on NSF and glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) protein levels in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the NAc core. We also found that lactacystin infusion into the NAc core but not into the shell immediately after extinction training sessions inhibited CPP extinction and reversed the extinction training-induced decrease in NSF and GluR2 in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the NAc core. Finally, infusions of lactacystin by itself into the NAc core immediately after each training session or before the CPP retrieval test had no effect on the consolidation and retrieval of cocaine reward memory. These findings suggest that ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent protein degradation is critical for retrieval-induced memory destabilization. PMID:23303053

  12. Entner–Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1

    PubMed Central

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-01-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a “sulfoglycolytic” pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden–Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner–Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD+-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)+-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium. PMID:26195800

  13. Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1.

    PubMed

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-08-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a "sulfoglycolytic" pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden-Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD(+)-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)(+)-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium. PMID:26195800

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous 1-propanol using an annular reactor: kinetic modelling and pathways.

    PubMed

    Vincent, G; Marquaire, P M; Zahraa, O

    2009-01-30

    Photocatalytic oxidation of airborne contaminants appears to be a promising process for remediation of air polluted by Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). In the present work, the photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous 1-propanol has been investigated by using an annular photoreactor. The annular photocatalytic reactor was modelled by a cascade of heightened elementary continuously stirred tank reactors. The influence of several kinetic parameters such as pollutant concentration, incident light irradiance, contact time and humidity content has been studied. The photocatalytic degradation by-products of 1-propanol has been identified in the gas-phase by GC/MS. Propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the main gaseous intermediates. Propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde have been taken into account in a "two-site model" to evaluate the possible competition of adsorption between 1-propanol and its by-products of degradation. A mechanistic pathway is then proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of 1-propanol. PMID:18571844

  15. Evidence for the involvement of the anthranilate degradation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Costaglioli, Patricia; Barthe, Christophe; Claverol, Stephane; Brzel, Volker S; Perrot, Michel; Crouzet, Marc; Bonneu, Marc; Garbay, Bertrand; Vilain, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are complex cell communities found attached to surfaces and surrounded by an extracellular matrix composed of exopolysaccharides, DNA, and proteins. We investigated the whole-genome expression profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sessile cells (SCs) present in biofilms developed on a glass wool substratum. The transcriptome and proteome of SCs were compared with those of planktonic cell cultures. Principal component analysis revealed a biofilm-specific gene expression profile. Our study highlighted the overexpression of genes controlling the anthranilate degradation pathway in the SCs grown on glass wool for 24 h. In this condition, the metabolic pathway that uses anthranilate for Pseudomonas quinolone signal production was not activated, which suggested that anthranilate was primarily being consumed for energy metabolism. Transposon mutants defective for anthranilate degradation were analyzed in a simple assay of biofilm formation. The phenotypic analyses confirmed that P. aeruginosa biofilm formation partially depended on the activity of the anthranilate degradation pathway. This work points to a new feature concerning anthranilate metabolism in P. aeruginosa SCs. PMID:23170231

  16. Thermally induced degradation pathways of three different antibody-based drug development candidates.

    PubMed

    Fincke, Anja; Winter, Jonas; Bunte, Thomas; Olbrich, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Protein-based medicinal products are prone to undergo a variety of chemical and physical degradation pathways. One of the most important exogenous stress condition to consider during manufacturing, transport and storage processes is temperature, because antibody-based therapeutics are only stable in a limited temperature range. In this study, three different formats of antibody-based molecules (IgG1, a bispecific scFv and a fab fragment) were exposed to thermal stress conditions occurring during transport and storage. For evaluation, an analytical platform was developed for the detection and characterization of relevant degradation pathways of different antibody-based therapeutics. The effect of thermal stress conditions on the stability of the three antibody-based formats was therefore investigated using visual inspection, different spectroscopic measurements, dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrophoresis, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and surface plasmon resonance technology (SPR). In summary, thermal stress led to heterogeneous chemical and physical degradation pathways of all three antibody-based formats used. In addition, identical exogenous stress conditions resulted in different kinds and levels of aggregates and fragmentation products. This knowledge is fundamental for a systematic and successful stabilization of protein-based therapeutics by the use of formulation additives. PMID:24878389

  17. Degradation of methiocarb by monochloramine in water treatment: kinetics and pathways.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhimin; Tian, Fang; Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    The micropollution of drinking water sources with pesticides has become a global concern. This work investigated the degradation of methiocarb (MC), a most commonly-used carbamate pesticide, by monochloramine (NH2Cl) under simulated water treatment conditions. Results indicate that the reaction was of first-order in MC and varied orders in NH2Cl depending on water pH. The observed rate constant of MC degradation decreased quickly with either a decrease in the molar ratio of chlorine to ammonia (Cl2:N) or an increase in water pH. The apparent activation energy of the reaction was determined to be 34kJmol(-1). The MC degradation pathways also exhibited a strong pH dependence: at pH 6.5, MC was first oxidized by NH2Cl to methiocarb sulfoxide (MCX), and then hydrolyzed to methiocarb sulfoxide phenol (MCXP); while at pH 8.5, MCX, MCXP and methiocarb sulfone phenol (MCNP) were formed successively through either oxidation or hydrolysis reactions. Based on the identified byproducts and their concentrations evolution, the proposed pathways of MC degradation in the presence of NH2Cl were further validated through kinetic model simulations. PMID:24380738

  18. Enhanced degradation in soil of the herbicide EPTC and determination of its degradative pathway by an isolated soil microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Ankumah, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to examine the ability of Ohio soils to develop enhanced degradation of the herbicide EPTC (s-ethyl N,N-dipropyl carbamothiaote) and to determine its metabolism by an isolated soil microorganism. Three soils selected to obtain an range in pH, texture, and organic carbon were treated with EPTC for 4 consecutive applications (6 weeks between applications). EPTC concentrations as measured by gas chromatography, decreased 80% or more one week after the second application in all three soils. Metabolism of unlabelled and labelled EPTC by an isolated soil microbe was followed by GC/MS and TLC/LSC analysis, respectively. Rapid decrease in 14-C activity in the organic fraction corresponded with rapid {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution and transient increase in 14-C activity in the aqueous fraction. Four metabolites were observed in the TLC analysis. Two were identified as EPTC-sulfoxide and N-depropyl EPTC with N-depropyl EPTC being confirmed by GC/MS analysis. The availability of different pathways for EPTC metabolism by soil microbes after repeated applications to the soil results in its very rapid degradation and loss of efficacy.

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of nine Sphingobium strains: Insights into their evolution and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) degradation pathways

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Verma, Helianthous; Kumar, Roshan; Oldach, Phoebe; Sangwan, Naseer; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Lal, Rup

    2014-11-23

    Background: Sphingobium spp. are efficient degraders of a wide range of chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. In particular, strains which harbour the lin pathway genes mediating the degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers are of interest due to the widespread persistence of this contaminant. Here, we examined the evolution and diversification of the lin pathway under the selective pressure of HCH, by comparing the draft genomes of six newly-sequenced Sphingobium spp. (strains LL03, DS20, IP26, HDIPO4, P25 and RL3) isolated from HCH dumpsites, with three existing genomes (S. indicum B90A, S. japonicum UT26S and Sphingobium sp. SYK6). Results: Efficient HCH degraders phylogeneticallymore » clustered in a closely related group comprising of UT26S, B90A, HDIPO4 and IP26, where HDIPO4 and IP26 were classified as subspecies with ANI value >98%. Less than 10% of the total gene content was shared among all nine strains, but among the eight HCH-associated strains, that is all except SYK6, the shared gene content jumped to nearly 25%. Genes associated with nitrogen stress response and two-component systems were found to be enriched. The strains also housed many xenobiotic degradation pathways other than HCH, despite the absence of these xenobiotics from isolation sources. In addition, these strains, although non-motile, but posses flagellar assembly genes. While strains HDIPO4 and IP26 contained the complete set of lin genes, DS20 was entirely devoid of lin genes (except linKLMN) whereas, LL03, P25 and RL3 were identified as lin deficient strains, as they housed incomplete lin pathways. Further, in HDIPO4, linA was found as a hybrid of two natural variants i.e., linA1 and linA2 known for their different enantioselectivity. In conclusion, the bacteria isolated from HCH dumpsites provide a natural testing ground to study variations in the lin system and their effects on degradation efficacy. Further, the diversity in the lin gene sequences and copy number, their arrangement with respect to IS6100 and evidence for potential plasmid content elucidate possible evolutionary acquisition mechanisms for this pathway. This study further opens the horizon for selection of bacterial strains for inclusion in an HCH bioremediation consortium and suggests that HDIPO4, IP26 and B90A would be appropriate candidates for inclusion.« less

  20. Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 Contains a Novel Degradation Pathway for Limonene

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Mariët J.; Swarts, Henk J.; de Bont, Jan A. M.

    1999-01-01

    Strain DCL14, which is able to grow on limonene as a sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from a freshwater sediment sample. This organism was identified as a strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis by chemotaxonomic and genetic studies. R. erythropolis DCL14 also assimilated the terpenes limonene-1,2-epoxide, limonene-1,2-diol, carveol, carvone, and (−)-menthol, while perillyl alcohol was not utilized as a carbon and energy source. Induction tests with cells grown on limonene revealed that the oxygen consumption rates with limonene-1,2-epoxide, limonene-1,2-diol, 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and carveol were high. Limonene-induced cells of R. erythropolis DCL14 contained the following four novel enzymatic activities involved in the limonene degradation pathway of this microorganism: a flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADH-dependent limonene 1,2-monooxygenase activity, a cofactor-independent limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase activity, a dichlorophenolindophenol-dependent limonene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity, and an NADPH-dependent 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene 1,2-monooxygenase activity. Product accumulation studies showed that (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, (1S,4R)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and (3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate were intermediates in the (4R)-limonene degradation pathway. The opposite enantiomers [(1R,2R,4S)-limonene-1,2-diol, (1R,4S)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and (3S)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate] were found in the (4S)-limonene degradation pathway, while accumulation of (1R,2S,4S)-limonene-1,2-diol from (4S)-limonene was also observed. These results show that R. erythropolis DCL14 metabolizes both enantiomers of limonene via a novel degradation pathway that starts with epoxidation at the 1,2 double bond forming limonene-1,2-epoxide. This epoxide is subsequently converted to limonene-1,2-diol, 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and 7-hydroxy-4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone. This lactone spontaneously rearranges to form 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate. In the presence of coenzyme A and ATP this acid is converted further, and this finding, together with the high levels of isocitrate lyase activity in extracts of limonene-grown cells, suggests that further degradation takes place via the β-oxidation pathway. PMID:10224006

  1. Initial Steps in the Pathway for Bacterial Degradation of Two Tetrameric Lignin Model Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Jouni; Pellinen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the metabolic route by which a lignin tetramer-degrading mixed bacterial culture degraded two tetrameric lignin model compounds containing ?O4 and 55 biphenyl structures. The ?-hydroxyl groups in the propane chain of both phenolic and nonphenolic tetramers were first oxidized symmetrically in two successive steps to give monoketones and diketones. These ketone metabolites were decomposed through C?(=O)C? cleavage, forming trimeric carboxyl acids which were further metabolized through another C?(=O)C? cleavage. Dehydrodiveratric acid, which resulted from the cleavage of the carbon bonds of the nonphenol tetramer, was demethylated twice. Four metabolites of the phenolic tetramer were purified and identified. All of these were stable compounds in sterile mineral medium, but were readily degraded by lignin tetramer-degrading bacteria along the same pathway as the phenol tetramer. No monoaromatic metabolites accumulated. All metabolites were identified by mass and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry. The metabolic route by which the mixed bacterial culture degraded tetrameric lignin model compounds was different from the route of the main ligninase-catalyzed C?C? cleavage by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. PMID:16347484

  2. Carbon Nanotube Degradation in Macrophages: Live Nanoscale Monitoring and Understanding of Biological Pathway.

    PubMed

    Elgrabli, Dan; Dachraoui, Walid; Mnard-Moyon, Ccilia; Liu, Xiao Jie; Bgin, Dominique; Bgin-Colin, Sylvie; Bianco, Alberto; Gazeau, Florence; Alloyeau, Damien

    2015-10-27

    Despite numerous applications, the cellular-clearance mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has not been clearly established yet. Previous in vitro studies showed the ability of oxidative enzymes to induce nanotube degradation. Interestingly, these enzymes have the common capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we combined material and life science approaches for revealing an intracellular way taken by macrophages to degrade carbon nanotubes. We report the in situ monitoring of ROS-mediated MWCNT degradation by liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy. Two degradation mechanisms induced by hydroxyl radicals were extracted from these unseen dynamic nanoscale investigations: a non-site-specific thinning process of the walls and a site-specific transversal drilling process on pre-existing defects of nanotubes. Remarkably, similar ROS-induced structural injuries were observed on MWCNTs after aging into macrophages from 1 to 7 days. Beside unraveling oxidative transformations of MWCNT structure, we elucidated an important, albeit not exclusive, biological pathway for MWCNT degradation in macrophages, involving NOX2 complex activation, superoxide production, and hydroxyl radical attack, which highlights the critical role of oxidative stress in cellular processing of MWCNTs. PMID:26331631

  3. Oxidative degradation of N-Nitrosopyrrolidine by the ozone/UV process: Kinetics and pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Fang, Jingyun; Fan, Chihhao; Shang, Chii

    2016-05-01

    N-Nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) is an emerging contaminant in drinking water and wastewater. The degradation kinetics and mechanisms of NPYR degradation by the O3/UV process were investigated and compared with those of UV direct photolysis and ozonation. A synergistic effect of ozone and UV was observed in the degradation of NPYR due to the accelerated production of OH• by ozone photolysis. This effect was more pronounced at higher ozone dosages. The second-order rate constants of NPYR reacting with OH• and ozone was determined to be 1.38 (± 0.05) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) and 0.31 (± 0.02) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The quantum yield by direct UV photolysis was 0.3 (± 0.01). An empirical model using Rct (the ratio of the exposure of OH• to that of ozone) was established for NPYR degradation in treated drinking water and showed that the contributions of direct UV photolysis and OH• oxidation on NPYR degradation were both significant. As the reaction proceeded, the contribution by OH• became less important due to the exhausting of ozone. Nitrate was the major product in the O3/UV process by two possible pathways. One is through the cleavage of nitroso group to form NO• followed by hydrolysis, and the other is the oxidation of the intermediates of amines by ozonation. PMID:26733013

  4. Effects of reforesting degraded grassland on hydrological flow pathways on Leyte, the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meerveld, Ilja; Zhang, Jun; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno

    2014-05-01

    Reforestation of degraded land in the tropics is promoted for a wide range of expected benefits, including carbon sequestration and streamflow regulation. However, how reforestation of degraded land affects runoff generation mechanisms and catchment water yield is still poorly understood as most experimental work pertains to non-degraded terrain. We set out to study the differences in hydrological functioning of a small degraded grassland catchment and a similar catchment that was reforested 15 years ago. Both catchments are located near Tacloban, Leyte, the Philippines. Stream stage, EC and temperature are measured continuously since June 2013. Precipitation, soil moisture content, and groundwater levels are monitored as well. Samples are taken from streamflow, precipitation, groundwater, and soil water prior to and during rainfall events for geochemical and stable isotope analysis to elucidate source contributions to storm runoff. Streamflow and event water contributions increase rapidly during almost every rainfall event in the grassland. In the reforested catchment, event water contributions to streamflow are much smaller and only increase during large events. These tracer results suggest that overland flow occurs much less frequently and is much less widespread in the reforested catchment compared to the grassland catchment. Our results thus indicate that the dominant flow pathways have changed as a result of reforestation and suggest that reforestation can largely restore the hydrological functioning of degraded sites if the forest is allowed to develop over a sufficiently long period without subsequent disturbance.

  5. Targeting proteasomal pathways by dietary curcumin for cancer prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasima, Noor; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a major component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been linked with the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of cancers through modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Since the first report from our laboratory in 1995 that curcumin can inhibit activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB by inhibiting the 26S proteasomal degradation of IκBα, an inhibitor of NF-κB, this yellow pigment has been shown to inhibit the protease activities of the proteasome. The carbonyl carbons of the curcumin molecule directly interact with the hydroxyl group of the amino-terminal threonine residue of the proteasomal CT-L subunit of 20S proteasome and cellular 26S proteasome. Curcumin is also a potent inhibitor of COP9 signalosome and associated kinases, casein kinase 2 and protein kinase D, all linked to the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS). Curcumin can also directly inhibit ubiquitin isopeptidases, a family of deubiquitinases (DUBs) that salvage ubiquitin for reuse by the 26S proteasome system. The inhibition of this enzyme by curcumin is mediated through α,β-unsaturated ketone and two sterically accessible β-carbons. Regulation of the UPS pathway by curcumin has been linked to regulation of cancer-linked inflammatory proteins (such as COX-2 and iNOS), transcription factors (NF-κB, STAT3, Sp, AP-1, GADD153/CHOP, HIF-1α), growth factors (VEGF, HER2), apoptotic proteins (p53, Bcl-2, survivin, DNA topoisomerase II, HDAC2, p300, hTERT) and cell cycle proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin B, p21, p27) associated with the prevention and therapy of cancer. Interestingly, the effect of curcumin on 26S proteasome appears to be dose-dependent, as low doses (≥1 µM) increase proteasome activity whereas high doses (≤10 µM) inhibit the proteasome activity. In this review, we discuss in detail how modulation of these targets by curcumin is linked to prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:23834173

  6. A Co-Translational Ubiquitination Pathway For Quality Control of Misfolded Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Durfee, Larissa A.; Huibregtse, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that 630% of all newly synthesized proteins are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, however the relationship of ubiquitination to translation for these proteins has been unclear. We report that co-translational ubiquitination (CTU) is a robust process, with ~1215% of nascent polypeptides being ubiquitinated in human cells. CTU products contained primarily K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, consistent with a proteasomal targeting function. While nascent chains have been shown previously to be ubiquitinated within stalled complexes (CTUS), the majority of nascent chain ubiquitination occurred within active translation complexes (CTUA). CTUA was increased in response to agents that induce protein misfolding, while CTUS was increased in response to agents that lead to translational errors or stalling. These results indicate that ubiquitination of nascent polypeptides occurs in two contexts, and define CTUA as a component of a quality control system that marks proteins for destruction while they are being synthesized. PMID:23583076

  7. Involvement of Two Latex-Clearing Proteins during Rubber Degradation and Insights into the Subsequent Degradation Pathway Revealed by the Genome Sequence of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans Strain VH2

    PubMed Central

    Hiessl, Sebastian; Schuldes, Jrg; Thrmer, Andrea; Halbsguth, Tobias; Brker, Daniel; Angelov, Angel; Liebl, Wolfgang; Daniel, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The increasing production of synthetic and natural poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber leads to huge challenges in waste management. Only a few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, and little is known about the mechanism of microbial rubber degradation. The genome of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, which is one of the most effective rubber-degrading bacteria, was sequenced and annotated to elucidate the degradation pathway and other features of this actinomycete. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 5,669,805 bp and a circular plasmid of 174,494 bp with average GC contents of 67.0% and 65.7%, respectively. It contains 5,110 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes responsible for rubber degradation and other biotechnically relevant pathways. Furthermore, we detected two homologues of a latex-clearing protein, which is supposed to be a key enzyme in rubber degradation. The deletion of these two genes for the first time revealed clear evidence that latex-clearing protein is essential for the microbial utilization of rubber. Based on the genome sequence, we predict a pathway for the microbial degradation of rubber which is supported by previous and current data on transposon mutagenesis, deletion mutants, applied comparative genomics, and literature search. PMID:22327575

  8. Involvement of two latex-clearing proteins during rubber degradation and insights into the subsequent degradation pathway revealed by the genome sequence of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2.

    PubMed

    Hiessl, Sebastian; Schuldes, Jrg; Thrmer, Andrea; Halbsguth, Tobias; Brker, Daniel; Angelov, Angel; Liebl, Wolfgang; Daniel, Rolf; Steinbchel, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    The increasing production of synthetic and natural poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber leads to huge challenges in waste management. Only a few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, and little is known about the mechanism of microbial rubber degradation. The genome of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, which is one of the most effective rubber-degrading bacteria, was sequenced and annotated to elucidate the degradation pathway and other features of this actinomycete. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 5,669,805 bp and a circular plasmid of 174,494 bp with average GC contents of 67.0% and 65.7%, respectively. It contains 5,110 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes responsible for rubber degradation and other biotechnically relevant pathways. Furthermore, we detected two homologues of a latex-clearing protein, which is supposed to be a key enzyme in rubber degradation. The deletion of these two genes for the first time revealed clear evidence that latex-clearing protein is essential for the microbial utilization of rubber. Based on the genome sequence, we predict a pathway for the microbial degradation of rubber which is supported by previous and current data on transposon mutagenesis, deletion mutants, applied comparative genomics, and literature search. PMID:22327575

  9. Virulence Factor NSs of Rift Valley Fever Virus Recruits the F-Box Protein FBXO3 To Degrade Subunit p62 of General Transcription Factor TFIIH

    PubMed Central

    Kainulainen, Markus; Habjan, Matthias; Hubel, Philipp; Busch, Laura; Lau, Simone; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pichlmair, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nonstructural protein NSs is the main virulence factor of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), a serious pathogen of livestock and humans in Africa. RVFV NSs blocks transcriptional upregulation of antiviral type I interferons (IFN) and destroys the general transcription factor TFIIH subunit p62 via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Here, we identified a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligases, F-box protein FBXO3, as a host cell interactor of NSs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of FBXO3 rescued p62 protein levels in RVFV-infected cells and elevated IFN transcription by 1 order of magnitude. NSs interacts with the full-length FBXO3 protein as well as with a truncated isoform that lacks the C-terminal acidic and poly(R)-rich domains. These isoforms are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NSs exclusively removes the nuclear pool of full-length FBXO3, likely due to consumption during the degradation process. F-box proteins form the variable substrate recognition subunit of the so-called SCF ubiquitin ligases, which also contain the constant components Skp1, cullin 1 (or cullin 7), and Rbx1. siRNA knockdown of Skp1 also protected p62 from degradation, suggesting involvement in NSs action. However, knockdown of cullin 1, cullin 7, or Rbx1 could not rescue p62 degradation by NSs. Our data show that the enzymatic removal of p62 via the host cell factor FBXO3 is a major mechanism of IFN suppression by RVFV. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever virus is a serious emerging pathogen of animals and humans. Its main virulence factor, NSs, enables unhindered virus replication by suppressing the antiviral innate immune system. We identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO3 as a novel host cell interactor of NSs. NSs recruits FBXO3 to destroy the general host cell transcription factor TFIIH-p62, resulting in suppression of the transcriptional upregulation of innate immunity. PMID:24403578

  10. Arginine deiminase pathway genes and arginine degradation variability in Oenococcus oeni strains.

    PubMed

    Araque, Isabel; Gil, Joana; Carret, Ramon; Constant, Magda; Bordons, Albert; Reguant, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Trace amounts of the carcinogenic ethyl carbamate can appear in wine as a result of a reaction between ethanol and citrulline, which is produced from arginine degradation by some bacteria used in winemaking. In this study, arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway genes were evaluated in 44 Oenococcus oeni strains from wines originating from several locations in order to establish the relationship between the ability of a strain to degrade arginine and the presence of related genes. To detect the presence of arc genes of the ADI pathway in O. oeni, pairs of primers were designed to amplify arcA, arcB, arcC and arcD1 sequences. All strains contained these four genes. The same primers were used to confirm the organization of these genes in an arcABCD1 operon. Nevertheless, considerable variability in the ability to degrade arginine among these O. oeni strains was observed. Therefore, despite the presence of the arc genes in all strains, the expression patterns of individual genes must be strain dependent and influenced by the different wine conditions. Additionally, the presence of arc genes was also determined in the 57 sequenced strains of O. oeni available in GenBank, and the complete operon was found in 83% of strains derived from wine. The other strains were found to lack the arcB, arcC and arcD genes, but all contained sequences homologous to arcA, and some of them had also ADI activity. PMID:26873388

  11. Unraveling the Specific Regulation of the Central Pathway for Anaerobic Degradation of 3-Methylbenzoate*

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Javier F.; Liu, Huixiang; Zamarro, María T.; McMahon, Stephen; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H.; Eberlein, Christian; Boll, Matthias; Carmona, Manuel; Díaz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The mbd cluster encodes the anaerobic degradation of 3-methylbenzoate in the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp. CIB. The specific transcriptional regulation circuit that controls the expression of the mbd genes was investigated. The PO, PB1, and P3R promoters responsible for the expression of the mbd genes, their cognate MbdR transcriptional repressor, as well as the MbdR operator regions (ATACN10GTAT) have been characterized. The three-dimensional structure of MbdR has been solved revealing a conformation similar to that of other TetR family transcriptional regulators. The first intermediate of the catabolic pathway, i.e. 3-methylbenzoyl-CoA, was shown to act as the inducer molecule. An additional MbdR-dependent promoter, PA, which contributes to the expression of the CoA ligase that activates 3-methylbenzoate to 3-methylbenzoyl-CoA, was shown to be necessary for an efficient induction of the mbd genes. Our results suggest that the mbd cluster recruited a regulatory system based on the MbdR regulator and its target promoters to evolve a distinct central catabolic pathway that is only expressed for the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds that generate 3-methylbenzoyl-CoA as the central metabolite. All these results highlight the importance of the regulatory systems in the evolution and adaptation of bacteria to the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. PMID:25795774

  12. Breakdown products on metabolic pathway of degradation of benz[a]anthracene by a ligninolytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Cajthaml, Toms; Erbanov, Pavla; Sasek, Vclav; Moeder, Monika

    2006-07-01

    Cultures of the ligninolytic fungus Irpex lacteus incubated in a nutrient liquid medium degraded more than 70% of the initially applied benz[a]anthracene within 14 days. At the first step of metabolization, benz[a]anthracene was transformed via a typical pathway of ligninolytic fungi to benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione (BaAQ). The product was further transformed by at least two ways, whereas one is complied with the anthracene metabolic pathway of I. lacteus. Benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione was degraded to 1,2-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid and phthalic acid that was followed with production of 2-hydroxymethyl benzoic acid or monomethyl and dimethylesters of phthalic acid. Another degradation product of BaAQ was identified as 1-tetralone. Its transformation via 1,4-naphthalenedione, 1,4-naphthalenediol and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-hydroxynaphthalene resulted again in phthalic acid. None of the intermediates were identified as dead-end metabolites. Metabolites produced by ring cleavage of benz[a]anthracene using the ligninolytic fungus are firstly presented in this work. PMID:16403417

  13. Blue Light Induces a Distinct Starch Degradation Pathway in Guard Cells for Stomatal Opening.

    PubMed

    Horrer, Daniel; Fltsch, Sabrina; Pazmino, Diana; Matthews, Jack S A; Thalmann, Matthias; Nigro, Arianna; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Lawson, Tracy; Santelia, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Stomatal pores form a crucial interface between the leaf mesophyll and the atmosphere, controlling water and carbon balance in plants [1]. Major advances have been made in understanding the regulatory networks and ion fluxes in the guard cells surrounding the stomatal pore [2]. However, our knowledge on the role of carbon metabolism in these cells is still fragmentary [3-5]. In particular, the contribution of starch in stomatal opening remains elusive [6]. Here, we used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant to provide the first quantitative analysis of starch turnover in guard cells of intact leaves during the diurnal cycle. Starch is present in guard cells at the end of night, unlike in the rest of the leaf, but is rapidly degraded within 30min of light. This process is critical for the rapidity of stomatal opening and biomass production. We exploited Arabidopsis molecular genetics to define the mechanism and regulation ofguard cell starch metabolism, showing it to be mediated by a previously uncharacterized pathway. This involves the synergistic action of ?-amylase 1 (BAM1) and ?-amylase 3 (AMY3)-enzymes that are normally not required for nighttime starch degradation in other leaf tissues. This pathway is under the control of the phototropin-dependent blue-light signaling cascade and correlated with the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Our results show that guard cell starch degradation has an important role in plant growth by driving stomatal responses to light. PMID:26774787

  14. Uridine-Ribohydrolase Is a Key Regulator in the Uridine Degradation Pathway of Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Benjamin; Flrchinger, Martin; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Traub, Michaela; Wartenberg, Ruth; Jeblick, Wolfgang; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Mhlmann, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside degradation and salvage are important metabolic pathways but hardly understood in plants. Recent work on human pathogenic protozoans like Leishmania and Trypanosoma substantiates an essential function of nucleosidase activity. Plant nucleosidases are related to those from protozoans and connect the pathways of nucleoside degradation and salvage. Here, we describe the cloning of such an enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, Uridine-Ribohydrolase 1 (URH1) and the characterization by complementation of a yeast mutant. Furthermore, URH1 was synthesized as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. The pure recombinant protein exhibited highest hydrolase activity for uridine, followed by inosine and adenosine, the corresponding Km values were 0.8, 1.4, and 0.7 mM, respectively. In addition, URH1 was able to cleave the cytokinin derivative isopentenyladenine-riboside. Promoter ?-glucuronidase fusion studies revealed that URH1 is mainly transcribed in the vascular cells of roots and in root tips, guard cells, and pollen. Mutants expressing the Arabidopsis enzyme or the homolog from rice (Oryza sativa) exhibit resistance toward toxic fluorouridine, fluorouracil, and fluoroorotic acid, providing clear evidence for a pivotal function of URH1 as regulative in pyrimidine degradation. Moreover, mutants with increased and decreased nucleosidase activity are delayed in germination, indicating that this enzyme activity must be well balanced in the early phase of plant development. PMID:19293370

  15. Def defines a conserved nucleolar pathway that leads p53 to proteasome-independent degradation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ting; Shi, Hui; Guan, Yihong; Huang, Delai; Chen, Ye; Lane, David P; Chen, Jun; Peng, Jinrong

    2013-01-01

    p53 protein turnover through the ubiquitination pathway is a vital mechanism in the regulation of its transcriptional activity; however, little is known about p53 turnover through proteasome-independent pathway(s). The digestive organ expansion factor (Def) protein is essential for the development of digestive organs. In zebrafish, loss of function of def selectively upregulates the expression of p53 response genes, which raises a question as to what is the relationship between Def and p53. We report here that Def is a nucleolar protein and that loss of function of def leads to the upregulation of p53 protein, which surprisingly accumulates in the nucleoli. Our extensive studies have demonstrated that Def can mediate the degradation of p53 protein and that this process is independent of the proteasome pathway, but dependent on the activity of Calpain3, a cysteine protease. Our findings define a novel nucleolar pathway that regulates the turnover function of p53, which will advance our understanding of p53's role in organogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:23357851

  16. (Tri)butyltin biotic degradation rates and pathways in different compartments of a freshwater model ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Emmanuel; Amouroux, David; Morin, Anne; Christian, Lehnhoff; Thybaud, Eric; Vindimian, Eric; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-12-15

    Experiments were conducted in controlled temperate freshwater ecosystems (microcosms) to determine the persistence and biogeochemical dynamic of tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products. TBT and its derivatives were monitored simultaneously for 23 days (552 h) in sediment-water systems, with or without macroorganisms (macrophytes: Elodea canadensis and gastropods: Lymnaea stagnalis). Biphasic TBT removal from the water column was significantly enhanced by the presence of biota. The persistence of TBT in biota was assessed by a kinetic approach of the different bioaccumulation pathways and associated metabolisms adopted by the snails and the macrophytes in response to the TBT contamination. Furthermore, sediment acted for the final sink for butyltins in both types of microcosms, with more than 70% of TBT and its metabolites recovered in this compartment after two weeks of exposure. Degradation pathways in sediments of both biotic and abiotic microcosms appeared to represent a key process in TBT cycle and were characterized by half-lives in the range of one month. Specific transformation and transfer pathways of TBT as reactional mechanisms are discussed and modelled assessing in detail the role of each compartment with regards to the fate of TBT in the model aquatic ecosystems. PMID:17905414

  17. Sequestration of a highly reactive intermediate in an evolving pathway for degradation of pentachlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Yadid, Itamar; Rudolph, Johannes; Hlouchova, Klara; Copley, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes in contaminated environments often evolve new metabolic pathways for detoxification or degradation of pollutants. In some cases, intermediates in newly evolved pathways are more toxic than the initial compound. The initial step in the degradation of pentachlorophenol by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum generates a particularly reactive intermediate; tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ) is a potent alkylating agent that reacts with cellular thiols at a diffusion-controlled rate. TCBQ reductase (PcpD), an FMN- and NADH-dependent reductase, catalyzes the reduction of TCBQ to tetrachlorohydroquinone. In the presence of PcpD, TCBQ formed by pentachlorophenol hydroxylase (PcpB) is sequestered until it is reduced to the less toxic tetrachlorohydroquinone, protecting the bacterium from the toxic effects of TCBQ and maintaining flux through the pathway. The toxicity of TCBQ may have exerted selective pressure to maintain slow turnover of PcpB (0.02 s?1) so that a transient interaction between PcpB and PcpD can occur before TCBQ is released from the active site of PcpB. PMID:23676275

  18. Metabolic pathways utilized by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for degradation of the cyclodiene pesticide endosulfan.

    PubMed Central

    Kullman, S W; Matsumura, F

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cultures of white rot fungi not favoring the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases are effective in degrading certain xenobiotics. In this study we have used endosulfan as a model xenobiotic to assess the enzymatic mechanisms of pesticide metabolism under ligninolytic (nutrient-deficient) and nonligninolytic (nutrient-rich) culture conditions. Rapid metabolism of this chlorinated pesticide occurred under each nutrient condition tested. However, the extent of degradation and the nature of the metabolic products differed for nutrient-deficient and nutrient-rich media. The pathways for endosulfan metabolism were characterized by analysis of the fungal metabolites produced. The major endosulfan metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as endosulfan sulfate, endosulfan diol, endosulfan hydroxyether, and a unknown metabolite tentatively identified as endosulfan dialdehyde. The nature of the metabolites formed indicates that this organism utilizes both oxidative and hydrolytic pathways for metabolism of this pesticide. Piperonyl butoxide, a known cytochrome P-450 inhibitor, significantly inhibited the oxidation of endosulfan to endosulfan sulfate and enhanced hydrolysis of endosulfan to endosulfan diol. We suggest that the metabolism of endosulfan is mediated by two divergent pathways, one hydrolytic and the other oxidative. Judging by the inactivity of extracellular fluid and partially purified lignin peroxidase in metabolizing endosulfan, we conclude that metabolism of this compound does not involve the action of extracellular peroxidases. PMID:8593059

  19. Genetic immunization based on the ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway against Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Bin; Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 ; Hiromatsu, Kenji; Hisaeda, Hajime; Duan, Xuefeng; Imai, Takashi; Murata, Shigeo; Tanaka, Keiji; Himeno, Kunisuke

    2010-02-12

    Cytotoxic CD8{sup +} T cells are particularly important to the development of protective immunity against the intracellular protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We have developed a new effective strategy of genetic immunization by activating CD8{sup +} T cells through the ubiquitin-fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. We constructed expression plasmids encoding the amastigote surface protein-2 (ASP-2) of T. cruzi. To induce the UFD pathway, a chimeric gene encoding ubiquitin fused to ASP-2 (pUB-ASP-2) was constructed. Mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 presented lower parasitemia and longer survival period, compared with mice immunized with pASP-2 alone. Depletion of CD8{sup +} T cells abolished protection against T. cruzi in mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 while depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells did not influence the effective immunity. Mice deficient in LMP2 or LMP7, subunits of immunoproteasomes, were not able to develop protective immunity induced. These results suggest that ubiquitin-fused antigens expressed in antigen-presenting cells were effectively degraded via the UFD pathway, and subsequently activated CD8{sup +} T cells. Consequently, immunization with pUB-ASP-2 was able to induce potent protective immunity against infection of T. cruzi.

  20. Deubiquitination of Tip60 by USP7 determines the activity of the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Dar, Ashraf; Shibata, Etsuko; Dutta, Anindya

    2013-08-01

    Tip60 is an essential acetyltransferase required for acetylation of nucleosomal histones and other nonhistone proteins. Tip60 acetylates the p53 tumor suppressor at lysine 120 (K120), a modification essential for p53-dependent induction of PUMA and apoptosis. It is known that Tip60 is turned over in cells by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the deubiquitinase activity for stabilizing Tip60 is unknown. Here we show that USP7 interacts with and deubiquitinates Tip60 both in vitro and in vivo. USP7 deubiquitinase activity is required for the stabilization of Tip60 in order to operate an effective p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in response to genotoxic stress. Inhibiting USP7 with the small-molecule inhibitor P22077 attenuates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway by destabilizing Tip60. P22077, however, is still cytotoxic, and this is partly due to destabilization of Tip60. PMID:23775119

  1. Degradation pathway of CopA, the antisense RNA that controls replication of plasmid R1.

    PubMed

    Sderbom, F; Wagner, E G

    1998-07-01

    RNA decay in bacteria is carried out by a number of enzymes that participate in the coordinated degradation of their substrates. Endo- and exonucleolytic cleavages as well as polyadenylation are generally involved in determining the half-life of RNAs. Small, untranslated antisense RNAs are suitable model systems to study decay. A study of the pathway of degradation of CopA, the copy number regulator RNA of plasmid R1, is reported here. Strains carrying mutations in the genes encoding RNase E, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), RNase II and poly(A) polymerase I (PcnB/PAP I)--alone or in combination--were used to investigate degradation patterns and relative half-lives of CopA. The results obtained suggest that RNase E initiates CopA decay. Both PNPase and RNase II can degrade the major 3'-cleavage product generated by RNase E. This exonucleolytic degradation is aided by PcnB, which may imply a requirement for A-tailing. RNase II can partially protect CopA's 3'-end from PNPase-dependent degradation. Other RNases are probably involved in decay, since in rnb/pnp double mutants, decay still occurs, albeit at a reduced rate. Experiments using purified RNase E identified cleavage sites in CopA in the vicinity of, but not identical to, those mapped in vivo, suggesting that the cleavage site specificity of this RNase is modulated by additional proteins in the cell. A model of CopA decay is presented and discussed. PMID:9695924

  2. The exoribonuclease Dis3L2 defines a novel eukaryotic RNA degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Malecki, Michal; Viegas, Sandra C; Carneiro, Tiago; Golik, Pawel; Dressaire, Clmentine; Ferreira, Miguel G; Arraiano, Ceclia M

    2013-07-01

    The final step of cytoplasmic mRNA degradation proceeds in either a 5'-3' direction catalysed by Xrn1 or in a 3'-5' direction catalysed by the exosome. Dis3/Rrp44, an RNase II family protein, is the catalytic subunit of the exosome. In humans, there are three paralogues of this enzyme: DIS3, DIS3L, and DIS3L2. In this work, we identified a novel Schizosaccharomyces pombe exonuclease belonging to the conserved family of human DIS3L2 and plant SOV. Dis3L2 does not interact with the exosome components and localizes in the cytoplasm and in cytoplasmic foci, which are docked to P-bodies. Deletion of dis3l2(+) is synthetically lethal with xrn1?, while deletion of dis3l2(+) in an lsm1? background results in the accumulation of transcripts and slower mRNA degradation rates. Accumulated transcripts show enhanced uridylation and in vitro Dis3L2 displays a preference for uridylated substrates. Altogether, our results suggest that in S. pombe, and possibly in most other eukaryotes, Dis3L2 is an important factor in mRNA degradation. Therefore, this novel 3'-5' RNA decay pathway represents an alternative to degradation by Xrn1 and the exosome. PMID:23503588

  3. Parenteral formulation and thermal degradation pathways of a potent rebeccamycin based indolocarbazole topoisomerase I inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Breslin, David; Kitada, Hideyuki; Minagawa, Wataru; Nomoto, Takashi; Qin, Xue-Zhi; Karki, Shyam B

    2010-05-10

    The development of a practical and pharmaceutically acceptable parenteral dosage form of 1 is described. A cosolvent formulation strategy was selected to achieve the necessary human dose of 1 for administration via intravenous infusion. The final market formulation of 1 chosen for commercial development and Phase II clinical supplies was the topoisomerase inhibitor dissolved in a 50% aqueous propylene glycol solution vehicle with 50mM citrate buffered to pH 4. The thermal degradation pathways of 1 in this aqueous propylene glycol vehicle in the pH range of 3-5 were determined by relative kinetics and degradation product identification using LC/MS, LC/MS/MS, and NMR analysis. The primary mode of degradation of 1 in this aqueous cosolvent formulation is hydrolysis affording the anhydride 2 (in equilibrium with the dicarboxylic acid 3) and release of the hydrazine diol side chain 11. Subsequent oxidative degradation of 11 occurs in several chemical steps which yield a complicated mixture of secondary reaction products that have been structurally identified. PMID:20074629

  4. The cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting Epac1-mediated proteasomal degradation of XRCC1 protein in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Eun-Ah; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits DNA damage repair by decreasing XRCC1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system decreases XRCC1 expression by promoting its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The promotion of XRCC1 degradation by cAMP signaling system is mediated by Epac1. -- Abstract: Cyclic AMP is involved in the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cellular growth and proliferation. Recently, the cAMP signaling system was found to modulate DNA-damaging agent-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and inhibitors of apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the cAMP signaling may modulate DNA repair activity, and we investigated the effects of the cAMP signaling system on {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage repair in lung cancer cells. Transient expression of a constitutively active mutant of stimulatory G protein (G{alpha}sQL) or treatment with forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, augmented radiation-induced DNA damage and inhibited repair of the damage in H1299 lung cancer cells. Expression of G{alpha}sQL or treatment with forskolin or isoproterenol inhibited the radiation-induced expression of the XRCC1 protein, and exogenous expression of XRCC1 abolished the DNA repair-inhibiting effect of forskolin. Forskolin treatment promoted the ubiquitin and proteasome-dependent degradation of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in a significant decrease in the half-life of the protein after {gamma}-ray irradiation. The effect of forskolin on XRCC1 expression was not inhibited by PKA inhibitor, but 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analog, increased ubiquitination of XRCC1 protein and decreased XRCC1 expression. Knockdown of Epac1 abolished the effect of 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP and restored XRCC1 protein level following {gamma}-ray irradiation. From these results, we conclude that the cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting the ubiquitin-proteasome dependent degradation of XRCC1 in an Epac-dependent pathway in lung cancer cells.

  5. Benzene degradation pathways investigated by a human-tissue-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, Luigi; Ercole, Patrizia; Grossi, Rosella; Russo, Mario V.; Visco, Giovanni

    2004-03-01

    Benzene is determined by a biosensor based on human kidney tissue as biological component. Dioxygenase catalyse substrate oxidation. The useful analytical range results to be complementary to that of one or more traditional models based on Pseudomonas. The biosensors has got an other aim as its functioning is able to clear up the degradation pathways of benzene. The behavior of a biosensor based on cancerous human kidney tissue compared to healthy one let to hypothize a poor activity of dioxygenase in cancerous kidney, possibly to be tested with prevention strategy.

  6. Lysine degradation through the saccharopine pathway in mammals: involvement of both bifunctional and monofunctional lysine-degrading enzymes in mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Papes, F; Kemper, E L; Cord-Neto, G; Langone, F; Arruda, P

    1999-01-01

    Lysine-oxoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase are enzymic activities that catalyse the first two steps of lysine degradation through the saccharopine pathway in upper eukaryotes. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a bifunctional enzyme bearing domains corresponding to these two enzymic activities. We partly purified those activities from mouse liver and showed for the first time that both a bifunctional lysine-oxoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase and a monofunctional saccharopine dehydrogenase are likely to be present in this organ. Northern analyses indicate the existence of two mRNA species in liver and kidney. The longest molecule, 3.4 kb in size, corresponds to the isolated cDNA and encodes the bifunctional enzyme. The 2.4 kb short transcript probably codes for the monofunctional dehydrogenase. Sequence analyses show that the bifunctional enzyme is likely to be a mitochondrial protein. Furthermore, enzymic and expression analyses suggest that lysine-oxoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase levels increase in livers of mice under starvation. Lysine-injected mice also show an increase in lysine-oxoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase levels. PMID:10567240

  7. Elimination of paternal mitochondria through the lysosomal degradation pathway in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Xue, Ding

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondrion and its DNA (mtDNA) is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional mitochondria into the oocyte during fertilization. The mechanisms responsible for the elimination of the paternal mitochondria remain largely unknown. We report here that this paternal mitochondrial elimination process is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the lysosomal pathway actively participates in this process. Molecular and cell biological analyses indicate that in wild-type animals paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are destroyed within two hours after fertilization. In animals with compromised lysosomes, paternal mitochondria persist until late embryonic stages. Therefore, the lysosomal pathway plays an important role in degrading paternal mitochondria introduced into the oocyte during fertilization. Our study indicates that C. elegans is an excellent animal model for understanding and dissecting this conserved biological process critical for animal development and reproduction. PMID:22105480

  8. Methyl-mercury degradation pathways: A comparison among three mercury impacted ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Agee, J.; Mcgowan, C.; Oremland, R.S.; Thomas, M.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Gilmour, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    We examined microbial methylmercury (MeHg) degradation in sediment of the Florida Everglades, Carson River (NV), and San Carlos Creek (CA), three freshwater environments that differ in the extent and type of mercury contamination and sediment biogeochemistry. Degradation rate constant (k(deg)) values increased with total mercury (Hg(t)) contamination both among and within ecosystems. The highest k(deg)'s (2.8-5.8 d-1) were observed in San Carlos Creek, at acid mine drainage impacted sites immediately downstream of the former New Idria mercury mine, where Hg(t) ranged from 4.5 to 21.3 ppm (dry wt). A reductive degradation pathway (presumably mer-detoxification) dominated degradation at these sites, as indicated by the nearly exclusive production of 14CH4 from 14C-MeHg, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At the upstream control site, and in the less contaminated ecosystems (e.g. the Everglades), k(deg)'s were low (???0.2 d-1) and oxidative demethylation (OD) dominated degradation, as evident from 14CO2 production. k(deg) increased with microbial CH4 production, organic content, and reduced sulfur in the Carson River system and increased with decreasing pH in San Carlos Creek. OD associated CO2 production increased with pore-water SO42- in Everglades samples but was not attributable to anaerobic methane oxidation, as has been previously proposed. This ecosystem comparison indicates that severely contaminated sediments tend to have microbial populations that actively degrade MeHg via mer-detoxification, whereas OD occurs in heavily contaminated sediments as well but dominates in those less contaminated.We examined microbial methylmercury (MeHg) degradation in sediment of the Florida Everglades, Carson River (NV), and San Carlos Creek (CA), three freshwater environments that differ in the extent and type of mercury contamination and sediment biogeochemistry. Degradation rate constant (kdeg) values increased with total mercury (Hgt) contamination both among and within ecosystems. The highest kdeg???s (2.8-5.8 d-1) were observed in San Carlos Creek, at acid mine drainage impacted sites immediately downstream of the former New Idria mercury mine, where Hgt ranged from 4.5 to 21.3 ppm (dry wt). A reductive degradation pathway (presumably mer-detoxification) dominated degradation at these sites, as indicated by the nearly exclusive production of 14CH4 from 14C-MeHg, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At the upstream control site, and in the less contaminated ecosystems (e.g. the Everglades), kdeg???s were low (???0.2 d-1) and oxidative demethylation (OD) dominated degradation, as evident from 14CO2 production. kdeg in increased with microbial CH4 production, organic content, and reduced sulfur in the Carson River system and increased with decreasing pH in San Carlos Creek. OD associated CO2 production increased with pore-water SO42- in Everglades samples but was not attributable to anaerobic methane oxidation, as has been previously proposed. This ecosystem comparison indicates that severely contaminated sediments tend to have microbial populations that actively degrade MeHg via mer-detoxification, whereas OD occurs in heavily contaminated sediments as well but dominates in those less contaminated.Methylmercury degradation dynamics, in terms of methane and carbon dioxide end-products, were investigated in three Hg-contaminated ecosystems: the Florida everglades, San Carlos Creek, CA, and Carson River, NV. The everglades represented a moderately contaminated ecosystem, while the other two exhibited significantly higher Hg levels. Sediment samples were collected from each study site and analyzed. Results showed that the degradation rate constants increased with total Hg contamination both among and within the ecosystems, with highest rates observed in San Carlos Creek. The degradation dynamics were dominated by a reductive degradation pathway at San Carlos Creek, while in the everglades, oxidative demethylation was imp

  9. Molecular characterization of the Akt-TOR signaling pathway in rainbow trout: potential role in muscle growth/degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Akt-TOR signaling pathway plays a key role in cellular metabolism and muscle growth. Hormone, nutrition and stress factors affect the Akt-TOR pathway by regulating gene transcription, protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, we previously showed that energetic demands elevate during vit...

  10. A Polyomic Approach To Elucidate the Fluoranthene-Degradative Pathway in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1?

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Jones, Richard C.; Freeman, James P.; Adjei, Michael D.; Edmondson, Ricky D.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 is capable of degrading a wide range of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including fluoranthene. We used a combination of metabolomic, genomic, and proteomic technologies to investigate fluoranthene degradation in this strain. Thirty-seven fluoranthene metabolites including potential isomers were isolated from the culture medium and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and UV-visible absorption. Total proteins were separated by one-dimensional gel and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in conjunction with the M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 genome sequence (http://jgi.doe.gov), which resulted in the identification of 1,122 proteins. Among them, 53 enzymes were determined to be likely involved in fluoranthene degradation. We integrated the metabolic information with the genomic and proteomic results and proposed pathways for the degradation of fluoranthene. According to our hypothesis, the oxidation of fluoranthene is initiated by dioxygenation at the C-1,2, C-2,3, and C-7,8 positions. The C-1,2 and C-2,3 dioxygenation routes degrade fluoranthene via fluorene-type metabolites, whereas the C-7,8 routes oxidize fluoranthene via acenaphthylene-type metabolites. The major site of dioxygenation is the C-2,3 dioxygenation route, which consists of 18 enzymatic steps via 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic acid and phthalate with the initial ring-hydroxylating oxygenase, NidA3B3, oxidizing fluoranthene to fluoranthene cis-2,3-dihydrodiol. Nonspecific monooxygenation of fluoranthene with subsequent O methylation of dihydroxyfluoranthene also occurs as a detoxification reaction. PMID:17449607

  11. Trafficking-Deficient G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG Activate Stress and Clearance Pathways in Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianqing; Yang, Xi; Li, Di; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Huan Huan; Liu, Ningsheng; Lian, Jiangfang

    2012-01-01

    Background Long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is the second most common type of all long QT syndromes. It is well-known that trafficking deficient mutant human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) proteins are often involved in LQT2. Cells respond to misfolded and trafficking-deficient proteins by eliciting the unfolded protein response (UPR) and Activating Transcription Factor (ATF6) has been identified as a key regulator of the mammalian UPR. In this study, we investigated the role of ER chaperone proteins (Calnexin and Calreticulin) in the processing of G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG mutant proteins. Methods pcDNA3-WT-hERG, pcDNA3-G572R-hERG and pcDNA3-E637K-hERG plasmids were transfected into U2OS and HEK293 cells. Confocal microscopy and western blotting were used to analyze subcellular localization and protein expression. Interaction between WT or mutant hERGs and Calnexin/Calreticulin was tested by coimmunoprecipitation. To assess the role of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in the degradation of mutant hERG proteins, transfected HEK293 cells were treated with proteasome inhibitors and their effects on the steady state protein levels of WT and mutant hERGs were examined. Conclusion Our results showed that levels of core-glycosylated immature forms of G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG in association with Calnexin and Calreticulin were higher than that in WT-hERG. Both mutant hERG proteins could activate the UPR by upregulating levels of active ATF6. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition increased the levels of core-glycosylated immature forms of WT and mutant hERGs. In addition, interaction between mutant hERGs and Calnexin/Calreticulin was stronger after proteasome inhibition, compared to WT-hERG. These results suggest that trafficking-deficient G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG mutant proteins can activate ER stress pathways and are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. Calnexin and Calreticulin play important roles in these processes. PMID:22242185

  12. ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) Is Required for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Degradation via Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Frabutt, Dylan A; Moremen, Kelley W; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we reported that the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) induces HIV-1 envelope (Env) degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, but the mechanism was not clear. Here we investigated how the four ER-associated glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) α-mannosidases, ERManI, and ER-degradation enhancing α-mannosidase-like (EDEM) proteins 1, 2, and 3, are involved in the Env degradation process. Ectopic expression of these four α-mannosidases uncovers that only ERManI inhibits HIV-1 Env expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, genetic knock-out of the ERManI gene MAN1B1 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology disrupts the TSPO-mediated Env degradation. Biochemical studies show that HIV-1 Env interacts with ERManI, and between the ERManI cytoplasmic, transmembrane, lumenal stem, and lumenal catalytic domains, the catalytic domain plays a critical role in the Env-ERManI interaction. In addition, functional studies show that inactivation of the catalytic sites by site-directed mutagenesis disrupts the ERManI activity. These studies identify ERManI as a critical GH47 α-mannosidase in the ER-associated protein degradation pathway that initiates the Env degradation and suggests that its catalytic domain and enzymatic activity play an important role in this process. PMID:26205822

  13. Polyubiquitination of Prolactin Receptor Stimulates Its Internalization, Postinternalization Sorting, and Degradation via the Lysosomal Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Bentley; Barriere, Herve; Carbone, Christopher J.; Banerjee, Anamika; Swaminathan, Gayathri; Plotnikov, Alexander; Xu, Ping; Peng, Junmin; Goffin, Vincent; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Fuchs, Serge Y.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitination of the receptor that mediates signaling induced by the polypeptide pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) has been shown to lead to the degradation of this receptor and to the ensuing negative regulation of cellular responses to PRL. However, the mechanisms of PRL receptor (PRLr) proteolysis remain largely to be determined. Here we provide evidence that PRLr is internalized and primarily degraded via the lysosomal pathway. Ubiquitination of PRLr is essential for the rapid internalization of PRLr, which proceeds through a pathway dependent on clathrin and the assembly polypeptide 2 (AP2) adaptor complexes. Recruitment of AP2 to PRLr is stimulated by PRLr ubiquitination, which also is required for the targeting of already internalized PRLr to the lysosomal compartment. While mass spectrometry analysis revealed that both monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination (via both K48- and K63-linked chains) occur on PRLr, the results of experiments using forced expression of ubiquitin mutants indicate that PRLr polyubiquitination via K63-linked chains is important for efficient interaction of PRLr with AP2 as well as for efficient internalization, postinternalization sorting, and proteolytic turnover of PRLr. We discuss how specific ubiquitination may regulate early and late stages of endocytosis of PRLr and of related receptors to contribute to the negative regulation of the magnitude and duration of downstream signaling. PMID:18573876

  14. Dexamethasone-induced selenoprotein S degradation is required for adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Kee-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Although adipogenesis is associated with induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the role of selenoprotein S (SEPS1), an ER resident selenoprotein known to regulate ER stress and ER-associated protein degradation, is unknown. We found an inverse relationship between SEPS1 level in adipose tissue and adiposity in mice. While SEPS1 expression was increased during adipogenesis, a markedly reduced SEPS1 protein level was found in the early phase of adipogenesis due to dexamethasone (DEX)-induced proteosomal degradation of SEPS1. Overexpression of SEPS1 in the early phase of cell differentiation resulted in impairment of adipogenesis with reduced levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α and other adipocyte marker genes during the course of adipogenesis. Conversely, knockdown of SEPS1 resulted in the promotion of adipogenesis. Additionally, altered SEPS1 expression was associated with changes in expression of ER stress marker genes in the early phase of adipogenesis, and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-related ubiquitination and proteasome function. Our study reveals that SEPS1 is a novel anti-adipogenic selenoprotein that modulates ER stress- and UPS-dependent adipogenesis. Our results also identifies a novel function of DEX in the regulation of adipogenesis through induction of SEPS1 degradation. Taken together, DEX-dependent degradation of SEPS1 in the early phase of adipogenesis is necessary for initiating ER stress- and UPS-dependent maturation of adipocytes. PMID:23687306

  15. Kinetics and pathways of ibuprofen degradation by the UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yingying; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii

    2016-03-01

    The UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP), which forms reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals (HO) and reactive chlorine species (RCS) such as chlorine atoms (Cl) and Cl2(-), is being considered as an alternative to the UV/H2O2 AOP for the degradation of emerging contaminants. This study investigated the kinetics and pathways of the degradation of a recalcitrant pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP)-ibuprofen (IBP)-by the UV/chlorine AOP. The degradation of IBP followed the pseudo first-order kinetics. The first-order rate constant was 3.3 times higher in the UV/chlorine AOP than in the UV/H2O2 AOP for a given chemical molar dosage at pH 6. The first-order rate constant decreased from 3.1 × 10(-3) s(-1) to 5.5 × 10(-4) s(-1) with increasing pH from 6 to 9. Both HO and RCS contributed to the degradation, and the contribution of RCS increased from 22% to 30% with increasing pH from 6 to 9. The degradation was initiated by HO-induced hydroxylation and Cl-induced chlorine substitution, and sustained through decarboxylation, demethylation, chlorination and ring cleavage to form more stable products. Significant amounts of chlorinated intermediates/byproducts were formed from the UV/chlorine AOP, and four chlorinated products were newly identified. The yield of total organic chlorine (TOCl) was 31.6 μM after 90% degradation of 50 μM IBP under the experimental conditions. The known disinfection by-products (DBPs) comprised 17.4% of the TOCl. The effects of water matrix in filtered drinking water on the degradation were not significant, demonstrating the practicality of the UV/chlorine AOP for the control of some refractory PPCPs. However, the toxicity of the chlorinated products should be further assessed. PMID:26748208

  16. Amyloid-beta protein clearance and degradation (ABCD) pathways and their role in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baranello, Robert J; Bharani, Krishna L; Padmaraju, Vasudevaraju; Chopra, Nipun; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Greig, Nigel H; Pappolla, Miguel A; Sambamurti, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid-β proteins (Aβ) of 42 (Aβ42) and 40 aa (Aβ40) accumulate as senile plaques (SP) and cerebrovascular amyloid protein deposits that are defining diagnostic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of rare mutations linked to familial AD (FAD) on the Aβ precursor protein (APP), Presenilin-1 (PS1), Presenilin- 2 (PS2), Adamalysin10, and other genetic risk factors for sporadic AD such as the ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE-ε4) foster the accumulation of Aβ and also induce the entire spectrum of pathology associated with the disease. Aβ accumulation is therefore a key pathological event and a prime target for the prevention and treatment of AD. APP is sequentially processed by β-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) and γ-secretase, a multisubunit PS1/PS2-containing integral membrane protease, to generate Aβ. Although Aβ accumulates in all forms of AD, the only pathways known to be affected in FAD increase Aβ production by APP gene duplication or via base substitutions on APP and γ-secretase subunits PS1 and PS2 that either specifically increase the yield of the longer Aβ42 or both Aβ40 and Aβ42. However, the vast majority of AD patients accumulate Aβ without these known mutations. This led to proposals that impairment of Aβ degradation or clearance may play a key role in AD pathogenesis. Several candidate enzymes, including Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), Neprilysin (NEP), Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Plasmin, and Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified and some have even been successfully evaluated in animal models. Several studies also have demonstrated the capacity of γ-secretase inhibitors to paradoxically increase the yield of Aβ and we have recently established that the mechanism is by skirting Aβ degradation. This review outlines major cellular pathways of Aβ degradation to provide a basis for future efforts to fully characterize the panel of pathways responsible for Aβ turnover. PMID:25523424

  17. Degradation and Pathway of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Solution by Potassium Ferrate

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the context of water treatment, the ferrate ([FeO4]2?) ion has long been known for its strong oxidizing power and for producing a coagulant from its reduced form [i.e., Fe(III)]. However, it has not been widely applied in water treatment, because of preparation difficulties and high cost. This article describes a low-cost procedure for producing solid potassium ferrate. In this synthetic procedure, NaClO was used in place of chlorine generation; and 10?M KOH was used in place of saturated KOH in the previous procedures. In addition, this study investigated the reactions of potassium ferrate with tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) at different pH and molar ratios. Results showed that the optimal pH range for TC degradation was pH 910, and TC could be mostly removed by Fe(VI) in 60?s. However, results showed >70% of TC degraded and <15% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction at molar ratio of 1:20. The main degradation pathway of TC is proposed based on the experimental data. PMID:22566741

  18. Alteration of dynein function affects α-synuclein degradation via the autophagosome-lysosome pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Da; Shi, Ji-Jun; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Sha; Wang, Jian-Da; Chen, Jing; Wang, Fen; Yang, Ya-Ping; Hu, Wei-Dong; Hu, Li-Fang; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that dynein dysfunction may be implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. It plays a central role in aggresome formation, the delivery of autophagosome to lysosome for fusion and degradation, which is a pro-survival mechanism essential for the bulk degradation of misfolded proteins and damaged organells. Previous studies reported that dynein dysfuntion was associated with aberrant aggregation of α-synuclein, which is a major component of inclusion bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remains unclear what roles dynein plays in α-synuclein degradation. Our study demonstrated a decrease of dynein expression in neurotoxin-induced PD models in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by an increase of α-synuclein protein level. Dynein down-regulation induced by siRNA resulted in a prolonged half-life of α-synuclein and its over-accumulation in A53T overexpressing PC12 cells. Dynein knockdown also prompted the increase of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II) and sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) expression, and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, dynein suppression impaired the autophagosome fusion with lysosome. In summary, our findings indicate that dynein is critical for the clearance of aberrant α-synuclein via autophagosome-lysosome pathway. PMID:24351814

  19. WNK4 Enhances the Degradation of NCC through a Sortilin-Mediated Lysosomal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Zhuang, Jieqiu; Wang, Hua; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Guggino, William B.

    2010-01-01

    WNK kinase is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in electrolyte homeostasis. WNK4 significantly inhibits the surface expression of the sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC) by enhancing the degradation of NCC through a lysosomal pathway, but the mechanisms underlying this trafficking are unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of the lysosomal targeting receptor sortilin on NCC expression and degradation. In Cos-7 cells, we observed that the presence of WNK4 reduced the steady-state amount of NCC by approximately half. Co-transfection with truncated sortilin (a dominant negative mutant) prevented this WNK4-induced reduction in NCC. NCC immunoprecipitated with both wild-type sortilin and, to a lesser extent, truncated sortilin. Immunostaining revealed that WNK4 increased the co-localization of NCC with the lysosomal marker cathepsin D, and NCC co-localized with wild-type sortilin, truncated sortilin, and WNK4 in the perinuclear region. These findings suggest that WNK4 promotes NCC targeting to the lysosome for degradation via a mechanism involving sortilin. PMID:19875813

  20. Degradation Pathway and Generation of Monohydroxamic Acids from the Trihydroxamate Siderophore Deferrioxamine B

    PubMed Central

    Pierwola, Agnes; Krupinski, Tomasz; Zalupski, Peter; Chiarelli, Michael; Castignetti, Domenic

    2004-01-01

    Siderophores are avid ferric ion-chelating molecules that sequester the metal for microbes. Microbes elicit siderophores in numerous and different environments, but the means by which these molecules reenter the carbon and nitrogen cycles is poorly understood. The metabolism of the trihydroxamic acid siderophore deferrioxamine B by a Mesorhizobium loti isolated from soil was investigated. Specifically, the pathway by which the compound is cleaved into its constituent monohydroxamates was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass-spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that M. loti enzyme preparations degraded deferrioxamine B, yielding a mass-to-charge (m/z) 361 dihydroxamic acid intermediate and an m/z 219 monohydroxamate. The dihydroxamic acid was further degraded to yield a second molecule of the m/z 219 monohydroxamate as well as an m/z 161 monohydroxamate. These studies indicate that the dissimilation of deferrioxamine B by M. loti proceeds by a specific, achiral degradation and likely represents the reversal by which hydroxamate siderophores are thought to be synthesized. PMID:14766561

  1. Paeoniflorin inhibits human glioma cells via STAT3 degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao-hu; Ou-yang, Jia; Xing, Ying; Li, Dan-yan; Dong, Xing-yu; Liu, Ru-en; Xu, Ru-xiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the underlying mechanism for the potent proapoptotic effect of paeoniflorin (PF) on human glioma cells in vitro, focusing on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Significant time- and dose-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation were observed in PF-treated U87 and U251 glioma cells. Expression of STAT3, its active form phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), and several downstream molecules, including HIAP, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and Survivin, were significantly downregulated upon PF treatment. Overexpression of STAT3 induced resistance to PF, suggesting that STAT3 was a critical target of PF. Interestingly, rapid downregulation of STAT3 was consistent with its accelerated degradation, but not with its dephosphorylation or transcriptional modulation. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the prodegradation effect of PF on STAT3 was mainly through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway rather than via lysosomal degradation. These findings indicated that PF-induced growth suppression and apoptosis in human glioma cells through the proteasome-dependent degradation of STAT3. PMID:26508835

  2. The degradative pathway of the s-triazine melamine. The steps to ring cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Jutzi, K; Cook, A M; Htter, R

    1982-01-01

    1. The degradative pathway of melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) was examined in Pseudomonas sp. strain A. 2. The bacterium grew with melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid or NH+4 as sole source of nitrogen, and each substrate was entirely metabolized. Utilization of ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid or NH+4 was concomitant with growth. But with melamine as substrate, a transient intermediate was detected, which was identified as ammeline by three methods. 3. Enzymes from strain A were separated by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and four activities were examined. 4. Melamine was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of ammeline and NH+4. 5. Ammeline was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of ammelide and NH+4; ammelide was identified by four methods. 6. Ammelide was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of cyanuric acid and NH+4; cyanuric acid was identified by four methods. 7. Cyanuric acid was converted by an enzyme preparation into an unidentified product with negligible release of NH+4. 8. The specific activities of the degradative enzymes (greater than or equal to 0.3 mkat/kg of protein) were high enough to explain the growth rate of the organism. 9. The bacterium converted 0.4 mM-melamine anaerobically into 2.3 mM-NH+4. 10. Two other pseudomonads and two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were also examined, with similar results. 11. The degradative pathway of melamine appears to be hydrolytic, and proceeds by three successive deaminations to cyanuric acid, which is further metabolized. PMID:6762212

  3. The degradative pathway of the s-triazine melamine. The steps to ring cleavage.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, K; Cook, A M; Htter, R

    1982-12-15

    1. The degradative pathway of melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) was examined in Pseudomonas sp. strain A. 2. The bacterium grew with melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid or NH+4 as sole source of nitrogen, and each substrate was entirely metabolized. Utilization of ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid or NH+4 was concomitant with growth. But with melamine as substrate, a transient intermediate was detected, which was identified as ammeline by three methods. 3. Enzymes from strain A were separated by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and four activities were examined. 4. Melamine was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of ammeline and NH+4. 5. Ammeline was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of ammelide and NH+4; ammelide was identified by four methods. 6. Ammelide was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of cyanuric acid and NH+4; cyanuric acid was identified by four methods. 7. Cyanuric acid was converted by an enzyme preparation into an unidentified product with negligible release of NH+4. 8. The specific activities of the degradative enzymes (greater than or equal to 0.3 mkat/kg of protein) were high enough to explain the growth rate of the organism. 9. The bacterium converted 0.4 mM-melamine anaerobically into 2.3 mM-NH+4. 10. Two other pseudomonads and two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were also examined, with similar results. 11. The degradative pathway of melamine appears to be hydrolytic, and proceeds by three successive deaminations to cyanuric acid, which is further metabolized. PMID:6762212

  4. Identification of Genes and Pathways Related to Phenol Degradation in Metagenomic Libraries from Petroleum Refinery Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cynthia C.; Hayden, Helen; Sawbridge, Tim; Mele, Pauline; De Paula, Sérgio O.; Silva, Lívia C. F.; Vidigal, Pedro M. P.; Vicentini, Renato; Sousa, Maíra P.; Torres, Ana Paula R.; Santiago, Vânia M. J.; Oliveira, Valéria M.

    2013-01-01

    Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system. PMID:23637911

  5. Identification of genes and pathways related to phenol degradation in metagenomic libraries from petroleum refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cynthia C; Hayden, Helen; Sawbridge, Tim; Mele, Pauline; De Paula, Srgio O; Silva, Lvia C F; Vidigal, Pedro M P; Vicentini, Renato; Sousa, Mara P; Torres, Ana Paula R; Santiago, Vnia M J; Oliveira, Valria M

    2013-01-01

    Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system. PMID:23637911

  6. Bacterial degradation of benzoate: cross-regulation between aerobic and anaerobic pathways.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, J Andrs; Durante-Rodrguez, Gonzalo; Blzquez, Blas; Garca, Jos Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Daz, Eduardo

    2012-03-23

    We have studied for the first time the transcriptional regulatory circuit that controls the expression of the box genes encoding the aerobic hybrid pathway used to assimilate benzoate via coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives in bacteria. The promoters responsible for the expression of the box cluster in the ?-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp., their cognate transcriptional repressor, the BoxR protein, and the inducer molecule (benzoyl-CoA) have been characterized. The BoxR protein shows a significant sequence identity to the BzdR transcriptional repressor that controls the bzd genes involved in the anaerobic degradation of benzoate. Because the boxR gene is present in all box clusters so far identified in bacteria, the BoxR/benzoyl-CoA regulatory system appears to be a widespread strategy to control this aerobic hybrid pathway. Interestingly, the paralogous BoxR and BzdR regulators act synergistically to control the expression of the box and bzd genes. This cross-regulation between anaerobic and aerobic pathways for the catabolism of aromatic compounds has never been shown before, and it may reflect a biological strategy to increase the cell fitness in organisms that survive in environments subject to changing oxygen concentrations. PMID:22303008

  7. Further characterization of o-nitrobenzaldehyde degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ONBA-17 and deduction on its metabolic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang-Bo; Li, Xiao-Dan; Ali, Shinawar Waseem; Shan, Sheng-Dao; Luo, Lin-Ping; Guan, Li-Bo

    2014-01-01

    A previously reported o-nitrobenzaldehyde (ONBA) degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ONBA-17 was further identified and characterized. Based on results of DNA base composition and DNA-DNA hybridization, the strain was identified as P. putida. Its degradation effect enhanced with increase of inoculum amount and no lag phase was observed. Higher removal rate was achieved under shaking conditions. All tested ONBA with different initial concentrations could be completely degraded within 5 d. In addition, degradative enzyme(s) involved was confirmed as intra-cellular distributed and constitutively expressed. Effects of different compounds on relative activity of degradative enzyme(s) within cell-free extract were also evaluated. Finally, 2-nitrobenzoic acid and 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected as metabolites of ONBA degradation by P. putida ONBA-17, and relevant metabolic pathway was preliminary proposed. This study might help with future research in better understanding of nitroaromatics biodegradation. PMID:25763034

  8. Studies of Phosphoproteomic Changes Induced by Nucleophosmin-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Highlight Deregulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)/Fas/TNF-related Apoptosis-induced Ligand Signaling Pathway in ALK-positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fang; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jingdong; Young, Leah C.; Lai, Raymond; Li, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic fusion protein nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), found exclusively in a subset of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, promotes tumorigenesis by exerting its constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity. Thus, characterization of the NPM-ALK-induced changes in the phosphoproteome will likely provide insights into the biology of this oncoprotein. To achieve this goal, we used a strategy of combining sequential affinity purification of phosphopeptides and LC/MS. GP293 cells transfected with either NPM-ALK or an NPM-ALK mutant with decreased tyrosine kinase activity (negative control) were used. We identified 506 phosphoproteins detectable in NPM-ALK-expressing cells but not in the negative control. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these phosphoproteins carry a wide diversity of biological functions, some of which have not been described in association with NPM-ALK, such as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/Fas/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) signaling pathway and the ubiquitin proteasome degradation pathway. In particular, modulations of the TNF/Fas/TRAIL pathway by NPM-ALK were supported by our antibody microarray data. Further validation of the TNF/Fas/TRAIL pathway was performed in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines with knockdown of NPM-ALK using short interference RNA, resulting in the loss of the tyrosine phosphorylation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) and receptor-interacting protein 1, two crucial TNF signaling molecules. Functional analyses revealed that knockdown of TRAP1 facilitated cell death induced by TRAIL or doxorubicin in ALK+ ALCL cells. This suggests that down-regulation of TRAP1 in combination with TRAIL or doxorubicin might be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for ALK+ ALCL. These findings demonstrated that our strategy allowed the identification of novel proteins downstream of NPM-ALK that contribute to the maintenance of neoplastic phenotype and holds great potential for future studies of cellular tyrosine kinases in normal states and diseases. PMID:20393185

  9. Degradation of the synthetic dye amaranth by the fungus Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1: inference of the degradation pathway from an analysis of decolorized products.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Nichina; Yoshida, Shuji; Matsumoto, Kazutsugu; Okudomi, Masayuki; Konno, Hiroki; Hisabori, Toru; Sugano, Yasushi

    2011-11-01

    We examined the degradation of amaranth, a representative azo dye, by Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1. The degradation products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), visible absorbance, and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (ESI-TOF-MS). At the primary culture stage (3days), the probable reaction intermediates were 1-aminonaphthalene-2,3,6-triol, 4-(hydroxyamino) naphthalene-1-ol, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-sulfophenyl) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonic acid. After 10days, the reaction products detected were 4-nitrophenol, phenol, 2-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid, 4-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid, and 3,4'-disulfonyl azo benzene, suggesting that no aromatic amines were created. Manganese-dependent peroxidase activity increased sharply after 3days culture. Based on these results, we herein propose, for the first time, a degradation pathway for amaranth. Our results suggest that Dec 1 degrades amaranth via the combined activities of peroxidase and hydrolase and reductase action. PMID:21526388

  10. Carbon and chlorine isotope analysis to identify abiotic degradation pathways of 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Palau, Jordi; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2014-12-16

    This study investigates dual C-Cl isotope fractionation during 1,1,1-TCA transformation by heat-activated persulfate (PS), hydrolysis/dehydrohalogenation (HY/DH) and Fe(0). Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis of 1,1,1-TCA was performed for the first time, and transformation-associated isotope fractionation ? bulk C and ? bulk Cl values were -4.0 0.2 and no chlorine isotope fractionation with PS, -1.6 0.2 and -4.7 0.1 for HY/DH, -7.8 0.4 and -5.2 0.2 with Fe(0). Distinctly different dual isotope slopes (??13C/??37Cl): ? with PS, 0.33 0.04 for HY/DH and 1.5 0.1 with Fe(0) highlight the potential of this approach to identify abiotic degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA in the field. The trend observed with PS agreed with a C-H bond oxidation mechanism in the first reaction step. For HY/DH and Fe(0) pathways, different slopes were obtained although both pathways involve cleavage of a C-Cl bond in their initial reaction step. In contrast to the expected larger primary carbon isotope effects relative to chlorine for C-Cl bond cleavage, ? bulk C < ? bulk Cl was observed for HY/DH and in a similar range for reduction by Fe(0), suggesting the contribution of secondary chlorine isotope effects. Therefore, different magnitude of secondary chlorine isotope effects could at least be partly responsible for the distinct slopes between HY/DH and Fe(0) pathways. Following this dual isotope approach, abiotic transformation processes can unambiguously be identified and quantified. PMID:25379605

  11. Autophagic degradation contributes to muscle wasting in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Penna, Fabio; Costamagna, Domiziana; Pin, Fabrizio; Camperi, Andrea; Fanzani, Alessandro; Chiarpotto, Elena M; Cavallini, Gabriella; Bonelli, Gabriella; Baccino, Francesco M; Costelli, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Muscle protein wasting in cancer cachexia is a critical problem. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, although the ubiquitin-proteasome system has been involved in the degradation of bulk myofibrillar proteins. The present work has been aimed to investigate whether autophagic degradation also plays a role in the onset of muscle depletion in cancer-bearing animals and in glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and sarcopenia of aging. The results show that autophagy is induced in muscle in three different models of cancer cachexia and in glucocorticoid-treated mice. In contrast, autophagic degradation in the muscle of sarcopenic animals is impaired but can be reactivated by calorie restriction. These results further demonstrate that different mechanisms are involved in pathologic muscle wasting and that autophagy, either excessive or defective, contributes to the complicated network that leads to muscle atrophy. In this regard, particularly intriguing is the observation that in cancer hosts and tumor necrosis factor ?-treated C2C12 myotubes, insulin can only partially blunt autophagy induction. This finding suggests that autophagy is triggered through mechanisms that cannot be circumvented by using classic upstream modulators, prompting us to identify more effective approaches to target this proteolytic system. PMID:23395093

  12. gp78: a multifaceted ubiquitin ligase that integrates a unique protein degradation pathway from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiliang; Du, Shaojun; Fang, Shengyun

    2012-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site for maturation of proteins destined for the secretory pathway. Failure in maturation leads to production of misfolded proteins that are eliminated through the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. ERAD is a complex process that includes misfolded protein recognition, retrotranslocation to the cytosol, ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. gp78 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that integrates these ERAD steps by nucleating a unique degradation machine, which uses the p97/VCP-Npl4 complex for retrotranslocation instead of the wellknown p97/VCP-Ufd1-Npl4 complex. A growing list of substrates have been identified for gp78, which highlights the importance of gp78-mediated ERAD in essential physiological pathways and pathological processes. PMID:22812524

  13. Degradation pathways of lamotrigine under advanced treatment by direct UV photolysis, hydroxyl radicals, and ozone.

    PubMed

    Keen, Olya S; Ferrer, Imma; Michael Thurman, E; Linden, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Lamotrigine is recently recognized as a persistent pharmaceutical in the water environment and wastewater effluents. Its degradation was studied under UV and ozone advanced oxidation treatments with reaction kinetics of lamotrigine with ozone (?4 M(-1)s(-1)), hydroxyl radical [(2.1 0.3) 10(9)M(-1)s(-1)] and by UV photolysis with low and medium pressure mercury vapor lamps [quantum yields ?0 and (2.7 0.4) 10(-4) respectively] determined. All constants were measured at pH 6 and at temperature ?20C. The results indicate that lamotrigine is slow to respond to direct photolysis or oxidation by ozone and no attenuation of the contaminant is expected in UV or ozone disinfection applications. The compound reacts rapidly with hydroxyl radicals indicating that advanced oxidation processes would be effective for its treatment. Degradation products were identified under each treatment process using accurate mass time-of-flight spectrometry and pathways of decay were proposed. The main transformation pathways in each process were: dechlorination of the benzene ring during direct photolysis; hydroxyl group addition to the benzene ring during the reaction with hydroxyl radicals; and triazine ring opening after reaction with ozone. Different products that form in each process may be to a varying degree less environmentally stable than the parent lamotrigine. In addition, a novel method of ozone quenching without addition of salts is presented. The new quenching method would allow subsequent mass spectrometry analysis without a solid phase extraction clean-up step. The method involves raising the pH of the sample to approximately 10 for a few seconds and lowering it back and is therefore limited to applications for which temporary pH change is not expected to affect the outcome of the analysis. PMID:25150682

  14. Oxidative stress status accompanying diabetic bladder cystopathy results in the activation of protein degradation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kanika, Nirmala; Chang, Jinsook; Tong, Yuehong; Tiplitsky, Scott; Lin, Juan; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Tar, Moses; Chance, Mark; Christ, George J.; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role that oxidative stress plays in the development of diabetic cystopathy. Materials and methods Comparative gene expression in the bladder of non-diabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced 2-month-old diabetic rats was carried out using microarray analysis. Evidence of oxidative stress was investigated in the bladder by analyzing glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation, and carbonylation and nitrosylation of proteins. The activity of protein degradation pathways was assessed using western blot analysis. Results Analysis of global gene expression showed that detrusor smooth muscle tissue of STZ-induced diabetes undergoes significant enrichment in targets involved in the production or regulation of reactive oxygen species (P = 1.27 10?10). The microarray analysis was confirmed by showing that markers of oxidative stress were all significantly increased in the diabetic bladder. It was hypothesized that the sequelae to oxidative stress would be increased protein damage and apoptosis. This was confirmed by showing that two key proteins involved in protein degradation (Nedd4 and LC3B) were greatly up-regulated in diabetic bladders compared to controls by 12.2 0.76 and 4.4 1.0-fold, respectively, and the apoptosis inducing protein, BAX, was up-regulated by 6.76 0.76-fold. Conclusions Overall, the findings obtained in the present study add to the growing body of evidence showing that diabetic cystopathy is associated with oxidative damage of smooth muscle cells, and results in protein damage and activation of apoptotic pathways that may contribute to a deterioration in bladder function. PMID:21518418

  15. Characterization of an aldolase-dehydrogenase complex from the cholesterol degradation pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Carere, Jason; McKenna, Sarah E; Kimber, Matthew S; Seah, Stephen Y K

    2013-05-21

    HsaF and HsaG are an aldolase and dehydrogenase from the cholesterol degradation pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HsaF could be heterologously expressed and purified as a soluble dimer, but the enzyme was inactive in the absence of HsaG. HsaF catalyzes the aldol cleavage of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoacids to produce pyruvate and an aldehyde. The enzyme requires divalent metals for activity, with a preference for Mn(2+). The Km values for 4-hydroxy-2-oxoacids were about 20-fold lower than observed for the aldolase homologue, BphI from the polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway. Acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were channeled directly to the dehydrogenase, HsaG, without export to the bulk solvent where they were transformed to acyl-CoA in an NAD(+) and coenzyme A dependent reaction. HsaG is able to utilize aldehydes up to five carbons in length as substrates, with similar catalytic efficiencies. The HsaF-HsaG complex was crystallized and its structure was determined to a resolution of 1.93 Å. Substitution of serine 41 in HsaG with isoleucine or aspartate resulted in about 35-fold increase in Km for CoA but only 4-fold increase in Km dephospho-CoA, suggesting that this residue interacts with the 3'-ribose phosphate of CoA. A second protein annotated as a 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoic acid aldolase in M. tuberculosis (MhpE, Rv3469c) was expressed and purified, but was found to lack aldolase activity. Instead this enzyme was found to possess oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity, consistent with the conservation (with the 4-hydroxy-2-oxoacid aldolases) of residues involved in pyruvate enolate stabilization. PMID:23614353

  16. Revealing the fate of cell surface human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1): The lysosomal degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Kapoor, Khyati; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Patel, Atish; Swaim, William; Ambudkar, Indu S; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Although mechanisms of P-gp drug transport are widely studied, the pathways involving its internalization are poorly understood. The present study is aimed at elucidating the pathways involved in degradation of cell surface P-gp. The fate of P-gp at the cell surface was determined by biotinylating cell surface proteins followed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Our data shows that the half-life of endogenously expressed P-gp is 26.7±1.1 h in human colorectal cancer HCT-15 cells. Treatment of cells with Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) a vacuolar H+ ATPase inhibitor increased the half-life of P-gp at the cell surface to 36.1±0.5 h. Interestingly, treatment with the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, MG115 or lactacystin alone did not alter the half-life of the protein. When cells were treated with both lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors (BafA1 and MG132), the half-life was further prolonged to 39-50 h. Functional assays done with rhodamine 123 or calcein-AM, fluorescent substrates of P-gp, indicated that the transport function of P-gp was not affected by either biotinylation or treatment with BafA1 or proteasomal inhibitors. Immunofluorescence studies done with the antibody against lysosomal marker LAMP1 and the P-gp-specific antibody UIC2 in permeabilized cells indicated that intracellular P-gp is primarily localized in the lysosomal compartment. Our results suggest that the lysosomal degradation system could be targeted to increase the sensitivity of P-gp- expressing cancer cells towards chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26057472

  17. Oxidative degradation of food dye E133 Brilliant Blue FCF Liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry identification of the degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Gosetti, F; Gianotti, V; Angioi, S; Polati, S; Marengo, E; Gennaro, M C

    2004-10-29

    This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the degradation pathway of the E133 Brilliant Blue FCF (C.I. 42090) that is largely used in the food industry. The degradation is studied in oxidation conditions obtained by addition of potassium persulfate at different persulfate to dye molar ratios under natural sunlight irradiation. The degradation pathway of the dye passes through a species coloured in dark blue and then gives rise to uncoloured species. Due to the low volatility and the poor thermal stability of the dye, reversed-phase liquid chromatography associated to mass spectrometry and tandom mass spectrometry was employed to follow the kinetics of degradation and identify some intermediates. The identification of organic species still present in the decoloured dye and the value of COD obtained in these conditions show evidence that complete decolorization does not correspond to complete mineralisation. No direct information of toxicity is available for the uncoloured degradation products but the further formation of aromatic amines can not be excluded. PMID:15553166

  18. B-domain deleted factor VIII is aggregated and degraded through proteasomal and lysosomal pathways.

    PubMed

    Plantier, Jean-Luc; Guillet, Benoit; Ducasse, Ccile; Enjolras, Nathalie; Rodriguez, Marie-Hlne; Rolli, Vronique; Ngrier, Claude

    2005-05-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) processing within mammalian cells is demonstrated to be much less efficient than proteins of similar size. The deletion of the B-domain from FVIII improves the level of production, due partly to the increase in mRNA synthesis. We aimed to characterise the cellular fate and the intracellular processing of the FVIII molecule devoid of B-domain. A B-domain deleted factor VIII (BDD-FVIII) possessing a furin consensus cleavage site in the connecting segment between the heavy and the light chain, was produced in CHO cell line. In such cells, FVIII was retained as two single chain products from which a majority was aggregated. The two species were located in Triton X-100 soluble (for 60-80%) and insoluble fractions (for 20-40%). The incubation of the expressing cells with tunicamycin (5 mug/ml) and the treatment of the intracellular species with a mixture of Neuraminidase and N-glycosidase-F revealed that both intracellular species were N-glycosylated. Furin over-expression neither diminished the intracellular FVIII contents nor improved its extracellular production. Intracellular FVIII was degraded through both lysosomal and proteasomal pathways as evidenced by inhibitor treatments (e.g. NH(4)Cl, leupeptin, clasto-Lactacystin beta-lactone and MG-132), pulse-chase analysis and confocal observations. This study demonstrates that a BDD-FVIII expressed in CHO cells is inefficiently processed consecutively to intracellular aggregation, proteasomal degradation, and routage to lysosomes. PMID:15886795

  19. Multiple pathways are involved in DNA degradation during keratinocyte terminal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Tanaka, M; Makino, T; Motoyama, A; Miyai, M; Tsuboi, R; Hibino, T

    2014-01-01

    Loss of the nucleus is a critical step in keratinocyte terminal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we focused on two characteristic events: nuclear translocation of N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin and caspase-14-dependent degradation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). First, we demonstrated that epidermal mesotrypsin liberated a 55-kDa N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin (FLG-N) and FLG-N was translocated into the nucleus. Interestingly, these cells became TUNEL positive. Mutation in the mesotrypsin-susceptible Arg-rich region between FLG-N and the first filaggrin domain abolished these changes. Furthermore, caspase-14 caused limited proteolysis of ICAD, followed by accumulation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in TUNEL-positive nuclei. Knockdown of both proteases resulted in a significant increase of remnant nuclei in a skin equivalent model. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both caspase-14 and mesotrypsin were markedly downregulated in parakeratotic areas of lesional skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Collectively, our results indicate that at least two pathways are involved in the DNA degradation process during keratinocyte terminal differentiation. PMID:24743736

  20. Genetic investigation of the catabolic pathway for degradation of abietane diterpenoids by Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9.

    PubMed

    Martin, V J; Mohn, W W

    2000-07-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the dit gene cluster encoding enzymes of the catabolic pathway for abietane diterpenoid degradation by Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9. The dit gene cluster is located on a 16.7-kb DNA fragment containing 13 complete open reading frames (ORFs) and 1 partial ORF. The genes ditA1A2A3 encode the alpha and beta subunits and the ferredoxin of the dioxygenase which hydroxylates 7-oxodehydroabietic acid to 7-oxo-11,12-dihydroxy-8, 13-abietadien acid. The dioxygenase mutant strain BKME-941 (ditA1::Tn5) did not grow on nonaromatic abietanes, and transformed palustric and abietic acids to 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in cell suspension assays. Thus, nonaromatic abietanes are aromatized prior to further degradation. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity of xylE transcriptional fusion strains showed induction of ditA1 and ditA3 by abietic, dehydroabietic, and 7-oxodehydroabietic acids, which support the growth of strain BKME-9, as well as by isopimaric and 12, 14-dichlorodehydroabietic acids, which are diterpenoids that do not support the growth of strain BKME-9. In addition to the aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes, the dit cluster includes ditC, encoding an extradiol ring cleavage dioxygenase, and ditR, encoding an IclR-type transcriptional regulator. Although ditR is not strictly required for the growth of strain BKME-9 on abietanes, a ditR::Km(r) mutation in a ditA3::xylE reporter strain demonstrated that it encodes an inducer-dependent transcriptional activator of ditA3. An ORF with sequence similarity to genes encoding permeases (ditE) is linked with genes involved in abietane degradation. PMID:10850995

  1. Genetic Investigation of the Catabolic Pathway for Degradation of Abietane Diterpenoids by Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Vincent J. J.; Mohn, William W.

    2000-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the dit gene cluster encoding enzymes of the catabolic pathway for abietane diterpenoid degradation by Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9. The dit gene cluster is located on a 16.7-kb DNA fragment containing 13 complete open reading frames (ORFs) and 1 partial ORF. The genes ditA1A2A3 encode the ? and ? subunits and the ferredoxin of the dioxygenase which hydroxylates 7-oxodehydroabietic acid to 7-oxo-11,12-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadien acid. The dioxygenase mutant strain BKME-941 (ditA1::Tn5) did not grow on nonaromatic abietanes, and transformed palustric and abietic acids to 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in cell suspension assays. Thus, nonaromatic abietanes are aromatized prior to further degradation. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity of xylE transcriptional fusion strains showed induction of ditA1 and ditA3 by abietic, dehydroabietic, and 7-oxodehydroabietic acids, which support the growth of strain BKME-9, as well as by isopimaric and 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acids, which are diterpenoids that do not support the growth of strain BKME-9. In addition to the aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes, the dit cluster includes ditC, encoding an extradiol ring cleavage dioxygenase, and ditR, encoding an IclR-type transcriptional regulator. Although ditR is not strictly required for the growth of strain BKME-9 on abietanes, a ditR::Kmr mutation in a ditA3::xylE reporter strain demonstrated that it encodes an inducer-dependent transcriptional activator of ditA3. An ORF with sequence similarity to genes encoding permeases (ditE) is linked with genes involved in abietane degradation. PMID:10850995

  2. Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwefel, David; Groom, Harriet C. T.; Boucherit, Virginie C.; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Walker, Philip A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.; Bishop, Kate N.; Taylor, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Lentiviruses contain accessory genes that have evolved to counteract the effects of host cellular defence proteins that inhibit productive infection. One such restriction factor, SAMHD1, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of myeloid-lineage cells as well as resting CD4+ T cells by reducing the cellular deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate (dNTP) concentration to a level at which the viral reverse transcriptase cannot function. In other lentiviruses, including HIV-2 and related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), SAMHD1 restriction is overcome by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx) or the related viral protein r (Vpr) that target and recruit SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation. The molecular mechanism by which these viral proteins are able to usurp the host cell's ubiquitination machinery to destroy the cell's protection against these viruses has not been defined. Here we present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Vpx with the human E3 ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 and the carboxy-terminal region of human SAMHD1. Vpx is made up of a three-helical bundle stabilized by a zinc finger motif, and wraps tightly around the disc-shaped DCAF1 molecule to present a new molecular surface. This adapted surface is then able to recruit SAMHD1 via its C terminus, making it a competent substrate for the E3 ligase to mark for proteasomal degradation. The structure reported here provides a molecular description of how a lentiviral accessory protein is able to subvert the cell's normal protein degradation pathway to inactivate the cellular viral defence system.

  3. Proteins of the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation pathway: domain detection and function prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Ponting, C P

    2000-01-01

    Sequence database searches, using iterative-profile and Hidden-Markov-model approaches, were used to detect hitherto-undetected homologues of proteins that regulate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway. The translocon-associated subunit Sec63p (Sec=secretory) was shown to contain a domain of unknown function found twice in several Brr2p-like RNA helicases (Brr2=bad response to refrigeration 2). Additionally, Cue1p (Cue=coupling of ubiquitin conjugation to ER degradation), a yeast protein that recruits the ubiquitin-conjugating (UBC) enzyme Ubc7p to an ER-associated complex, was found to be one of a large family of putative scaffolding-domain-containing proteins that include the autocrine motility factor receptor and fungal Vps9p (Vps=vacuolar protein sorting). Two other yeast translocon-associated molecules, Sec72p and Hrd3p (Hrd=3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase degradation), were shown to contain multiple tetratricopeptide-repeat-like sequences. From this observation it is suggested that Sec72p associates with a heat-shock protein, Hsp70, in a manner analogous to that known for Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein). Finally, the luminal portion of Ire1p (Ire=high inositol-requiring), thought to convey the sensing function of this transmembrane kinase and endoribonuclease, was shown to contain repeats similar to those in beta-propeller proteins. This finding hints at the mechanism by which Ire1p may sense extended unfolded proteins at the expense of compact folded molecules. PMID:11023840

  4. NEGATIVE REGULATION OF HIF-1α BY AN FBW7-MEDIATED DEGRADATION PATHWAY DURING HYPOXIA

    PubMed Central

    Cassavaugh, Jessica M.; Hale, Sarah A.; Wellman, Theresa L.; Howe, Alan K.; Wong, Cheung; Lounsbury, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stimulates expression of genes associated with angiogenesis and is associated with poor outcomes in ovarian and other cancers. In normoxia, HIF-1α is ubiquitinated and degraded through the E3 ubiquitin ligase, von Hippel-Lindau; however, little is known about the regulation of HIF-1α in hypoxic conditions. FBW7 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that recognizes proteins phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and targets them for destruction. This study used an ovarian cancer cell model to test the hypothesis that HIF-1α phosphorylation by GSK3β in hypoxia leads to interaction with FBW7 and ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Expression of constitutively active GSK3β reduced HIF-1α protein and transcriptional activity and increased ubiquitination of HIF-1α in hypoxia, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3 or expression of siGSK3β promoted HIF-1α stabilization and activity. A mechanism through FBW7 was supported by the observed decrease in HIF-1α stabilization when FBW7 was overexpressed and both the elevation of HIF-1α levels and decrease in ubiquitinated HIF-1α when FBW7 was suppressed. Furthermore, HIF-1α associated with FBW7γ by co-immunoprecipitation, and the interaction was weakened by inhibition of GSK3 or mutation of GSK3β phosphorylation sites. The relevance of this pathway to angiogenic signaling was supported by the finding that endothelial cell tube maturation was increased by conditioned media from hypoxic SK-OV-3 cell lines expressing suppressed GSK3β or FBW7. These data introduce a new mechanism for regulation of HIF-1α during hypoxia that utilizes phosphorylation to target HIF-1α for ubiquitin-dependent degradation through FBW7 and may identify new targets in the regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:21964756

  5. Involvement of the Nrf2-proteasome pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in pancreatic β-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sanghwan; Hur, Eu-gene; Ryoo, In-geun; Jung, Kyeong-Ah; Kwak, Jiyeon; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2012-11-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a central role in protein quality control through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of unfolded and misfolded proteins. NF-E2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of an array of phase II detoxification and antioxidant genes. Nrf2 signaling has additionally been shown to upregulate the expression of the proteasome catalytic subunits in several cell types. Here, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in tunicamycin-induced ER stress using a murine insulinoma β-cell line, βTC-6. shRNA-mediated silencing of Nrf2 expression in βTC-6 cells significantly increased tunicamycin-induced cytotoxicity, elevated the expression of the pro-apoptotic ER stress marker Chop10, and inhibited tunicamycin-inducible expression of the proteasomal catalytic subunits Psmb5 and Psmb6. The effects of 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), a small molecule Nrf2 activator, on ER stress were also examined in βTC-6 cells. D3T pretreatment reduced tunicamycin cytotoxicity and attenuated the tunicamycin-inducible Chop10 and protein kinase RNA-activated‐like ER kinase (Perk). The protective effect of D3T was shown to be associated with increased ERAD. D3T increased the expression of Psmb5 and Psmb6 and elevated chymotrypsin-like peptidase activity; proteasome inhibitor treatment blocked D3T effects on tunicamycin cytotoxicity and ER stress marker changes. Similarly, silencing of Nrf2 abolished the protective effect of D3T against ER stress. These results indicate that the Nrf2 pathway contributes to the ER stress response in pancreatic β-cells by enhancing proteasome-mediated ERAD. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 silencing in pancreatic β-cells enhanced tunicamycin-mediated ER stress. ► Expression of the proteasome was inducible by Nrf2 signaling. ► Nrf2 activator D3T protected β-cells from tunicamycin-mediated ER stress. ► Protective effect of D3T was associated with Nrf2-dependent proteasome induction.

  6. The histamine degradative uptake pathway in human vascular endothelial cells and skin fibroblasts is dependent on extracellular Na+ and Cl-

    SciTech Connect

    Haddock, R.C.; Mack, P.; Leal, S.; Baenziger, N.L. )

    1990-08-25

    We have previously reported that human vascular endothelial cells and skin fibroblasts carry out degradation of (3H)histamine by a mechanism involving two successive enzymatic steps: imidazole ring tele-methylation by the cells' endogenous methyltransferase and subsequent amine oxidation by an exogenous diamine oxidase. Both histamine and the exogenous second enzyme in the pathway associate with the cells via separate binding sites or receptors. The enzymatic degradation process results in cellular accumulation of the proximal and distal metabolites tele-methylhistamine and 1-methyl-4-imidazoleacetic acid (MIAA). We have now demonstrated that this two-stage histamine degradative pathway is dependent on Na+ and Cl- in the extracellular environment. Accumulation of (3H) histamine-derived products is partially inhibited under conditions of Na+ deprivation and more substantially when Cl- is also withdrawn. The individual tele-methylation and amine oxidation enzymatic reactions themselves are unaffected or actually facilitated under these conditions. This indicates that it is the cellular mechanism for uptake coupled to the degradative pathway which reflects the cation and anion dependency. Restoration of degradative uptake displays a biphasic Na+ concentration curve, suggesting that the uptake process may be driven by multiple components. These findings indicate a role for both inward Na+ and Cl- ion movement in this cellular degradative uptake mechanism.

  7. Morpholine Degradation Pathway of Mycobacterium aurum MO1: Direct Evidence of Intermediates by In Situ 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Combourieu, B.; Besse, P.; Sancelme, M.; Veschambre, H.; Delort, A. M.; Poupin, P.; Truffaut, N.

    1998-01-01

    Resting Mycobacterium aurum MO1 cells were incubated with morpholine, a waste from the chemical industry. The kinetics of biodegradation was monitored by using in situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The incubation medium was directly analyzed by 1H NMR. This technique allowed the unambiguous identification of two intermediates of the metabolic pathway involved in the biodegradation process, glycolate and 2-(2-aminoethoxy)acetate. The latter compound, which was not commercially available, was synthesized, in three steps, from 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol. Quantitative analysis of the kinetics of degradation of morpholine was performed by integrating the signals of the different metabolites in 1H-NMR spectra. Morpholine was degraded within 10 h. The intermediates increased during the first 10 h and finally disappeared after 20 h incubation. Assays of degradation were also carried out with glycolate and ethanolamine, hypothetical intermediates of the morpholine degradation pathway. They were degraded within 4 and 8 h, respectively. Until now, no tool for direct detection of intermediates or even morpholine has been available, consequently, only hypothetical pathways have been proposed. The approach described here gives both qualitative and quantitative information about the metabolic routes used in morpholine degradation by M. aurum MO1. It could be used to investigate many biodegradative processes. PMID:9435073

  8. Toxoplasma gondii infection of activated J774-A1 macrophages causes inducible nitric oxide synthase degradation by the proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Padro, Juliana da Cruz; Cabral, Gabriel Rabello de Abreu; da Silva, Maria de Ftima Sarro; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Classically activated macrophages produce nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent microbicidal agent. NO production is catalyzed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which uses arginine as substrate producing NO and citruline. However, it has been demonstrated that NO production is inhibited after macrophage infection of Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, due to iNOS degradation. Three possible iNOS degradation pathways have been described in activated macrophages: proteasome, calpain and lysosomal. To identify the iNOS degradation pathway after T. gondii infection, J774-A1 macrophage cell line was activated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma for 24 h, treated with the following inhibitors, lactacystin (proteasome), calpeptin (calpain), or concanamycin A (lysosomal), and infected with the parasite. NO production and iNOS expression were evaluated after 2 and 6 h of infection. iNOS was degraded in J774-A1 macrophages infected with T. gondii. However, treatment with lactacystin maintained iNOS expression in J774-A1 macrophages infected for 2 h by T. gondii, and after 6 h iNOS was localized in aggresomes. iNOS was degraded after parasite infection of J774-A1 macrophages treated with calpeptin or concanamycin A. NO production confirmed iNOS expression profiles. These results indicate that T. gondii infection of J774-A1 macrophages caused iNOS degradation by the proteasome pathway. PMID:24845536

  9. Megaplasmid and Chromosomal Loci for the Phb Degradation Pathway in Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) Meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Charles, T. C.; Cai, C.; Aneja, P.

    1997-01-01

    Chromosomal and megaplasmid loci that affect the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation pathway in Rhizobium meliloti were identified. A clone that restores the ability of certain R. meliloti mutants with defined deletions in megaplasmid pRmeSU47b to use 3-hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetate as the sole carbon source was isolated from a cosmid library of R. meliloti genomic DNA. Tn5 insertion mutagenesis, followed by merodiploid complementation analysis, demonstrated that the locus consists of at least four transcriptional units, bhbA-D. We also identified loci involved in 3-hydroxybutyrate and/or acetoacetate utilization by screening for mutants that had lost the ability to use 3-hydroxybutyrate as the sole carbon source while retaining the ability to use acetate (thus ensuring an intact glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenic pathway). These mutants fell into four classes, as determined by replicon mobilization experiments and genetic linkage in phage transduction; one class corresponded to the bhb locus on pRmeSU47b, two classes mapped to different regions on the chromosome and the fourth, bdhA, represented by a single mutant, mapped to another pRmeSU47b locus, near bacA. The bdhA mutant is deficient in 3-hydroxybutrate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:9258668

  10. SCFSlmb E3 ligase-mediated degradation of Expanded is inhibited by the Hippo pathway in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Changqing; Chen, Hanqing; Wei, Chuanxian; Dai, Fei; Wu, Honggang; Dui, Wen; Deng, Wu-Min; Jiao, Renjie

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway has been implicated in abnormal development of animals and in several types of cancer. One mechanism of Hippo pathway regulation is achieved by controlling the stability of its regulatory components. However, the executive E3 ligases that are involved in this process, and how the process is regulated, remain poorly defined. In this study, we identify, through a genetic candidate screen, the SCFSlmb E3 ligase as a novel negative regulator of the Hippo pathway in Drosophila imaginal tissues via mediation of the degradation of Expanded (Ex). Mechanistic study shows that Slmb-mediated degradation of Ex is inhibited by the Hippo signaling. Considering the fact that Hippo signaling suppresses the transcription of ex, we propose that the Hippo pathway employs a double security mechanism to ensure fine-tuned homeostasis during development. PMID:25522691

  11. Protacs for Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Protein degradation is the cell’s mechanism of eliminating misfolded or unwanted proteins. The pathway by which proteins are degraded occurs through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Ubiquitin is a small 9-kilodalton (kDa) protein that is attached to proteins. A minimum of four ubiquitins is required for proteins to be recognized by the degradation machinery, known as the 26S proteasome. Defects in ubiquitination have been identified in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. We sought to exploit the delicate balance between protein synthesis and degradation to treat cancer by designing a chimeric molecule, known as Protac (Proteolysis Targeting Chimeric molecule). Protacs are heterobifunctional nanomolecules that are approximately 10 nanometers (nm) in size and can recruit proteins that cause cancer to the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery for degradation. In this review, we discuss the development of this novel technology for the treatment of cancer. PMID:20075761

  12. The Homogentisate and Homoprotocatechuate Central Pathways Are Involved in 3- and 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate Degradation by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Mndez, Valentina; Agull, Loreine; Gonzlez, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome characterization of the model PCB-degrading bacterium Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 revealed the presence of eleven central pathways for aromatic compounds degradation, among them, the homogentisate and the homoprotocatechuate pathways. However, the functionality of these central pathways in strain LB400 has not been assessed and related peripheral pathways has not been described. Methodology/Principal Findings The aims of this study were to determine the functionality of the homogentisate and homoprotocatechuate central pathways in B. xenovorans LB400 and to establish their role in 3-hydroxyphenylacetate (3-HPA) and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (4-HPA) catabolism. Strain LB400 was able to grow using 3-HPA and 4-HPA as sole carbon source. A genomic search in LB400 suggested the presence of mhaAB and hpaBC genes clusters encoding proteins of the 3-hydroxyphenylacetate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate peripheral pathways. LB400 cells grown with 3-HPA and 4-HPA degraded homogentisate and homoprotocatechuate and showed homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase and homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase activities. Transcriptional analyses by RT-PCR showed the expression of two chromosomally-encoded homogentisate dioxygenases (BxeA2725 and BxeA3900) and the hpaD gene encoding the homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase during 3-HPA and 4-HPA degradation. The proteome analyses by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of B. xenovorans LB400 grown in 3-HPA and 4-HPA showed the induction of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase HmgB (BxeA3899). Conclusions/Significance This study revealed that strain LB400 used both homogentisate and homoprotocatechuate ring-cleavage pathways for 3- hydroxyphenylacetate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate catabolism and that these four catabolic routes are functional, confirming the metabolic versatility of B. xenovorans LB400. PMID:21423751

  13. Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pre-treatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Shihui; Hunsinger, Glendon B.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Johnson, David K.

    2014-01-01

    To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity. PMID:24904560

  14. Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pre-treatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Shihui; Hunsinger, Glendon B; Pienkos, Philip T; Johnson, David K

    2014-01-01

    To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity. PMID:24904560

  15. Oxidative degradation pathways of cellular DNA: product formation and mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean

    2014-10-01

    More than 100 oxidized purine and pyrimidine nucleosides including hydroperoxides and diastereomers have been characterized so far in extensive model studies. However, much less information is currently available on the oxidatively generated base damage to cellular DNA at the exception however of the overwhelming modifications produced by singlet oxygen ((1)O2). This is mostly due to analytical difficulties that are now, at least, partly overcome with the advent of the accurate and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Hydroxyl radical (()OH) and one-electron oxidants that may be either endogenously formed through oxidative metabolism, phagocytosis, inflammation and other pathological conditions are predominantly at the origin of oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA. It is worth mentioning that exposure of cells to exogenous physical agents (UVA light, high intensity UV laser, ionizing radiation) and chemicals such as bromate may also induce oxidatively generated damage to DNA. Emphasis is placed in this presentation on the critical survey of the main recently available information concerning the formation of (1)O2, ()OH and one-electron oxidant-mediated single and more complex DNA damage (tandem lesions, intra- and interstrand cross-links, DNA-protein cross-links) arising from one radical hit. Evidence was provided that ()OH and one-electron oxidants, through the generation of neutral radicals and radical cations respectively from nucleobases, are able to induce partly common degradation pathways. In addition selective oxidative reactions giving rise to specific degradation products of ()OH and one-electron oxidation reactions that can be used as representative biomarkers of these oxidants have been identified. Emphasis was recently placed on the detection of oxidatively generated damage to cytosine and 5-methylcytosine in human cells. PMID:26461303

  16. The Whole Genome Sequence of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum L-1: Insights into the Evolution of the Pentachlorophenol Degradation Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Copley, Shelley D.; Rokicki, Joseph; Turner, Pernilla; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L

    2012-01-01

    Sphingobium chlorophenolicum Strain L-1 can mineralize the toxic pesticide pentachlorophenol (PCP). We have sequenced the genome of S. chlorophenolicum Strain L-1. The genome consists of a primary chromosome that encodes most of the genes for core processes, a secondary chromosome that encodes primarily genes that appear to be involved in environmental adaptation, and a small plasmid. The genes responsible for degradation of PCP are found on chromosome 2. We have compared the genomes of S. chlorophenolicum Strain L-1 and Sphingobium japonicum, a closely related Sphingomonad that degrades lindane. Our analysis suggests that the genes encoding the first three enzymes in the PCP degradation pathway were acquired via two different horizontal gene transfer events, and the genes encoding the final two enzymes in the pathway were acquired from the most recent common ancestor of these two bacteria.

  17. Comparative Proteomics Analysis Reveals L-Arginine Activates Ethanol Degradation Pathways in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Guokai; Lestari, Retno; Long, Baisheng; Fan, Qiwen; Wang, Zhichang; Guo, Xiaozhen; Yu, Jie; Hu, Jun; Yang, Xingya; Chen, Changqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Xiuzhi; Purnomoadi, Agung; Achmadi, Joelal; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    L-Arginine (Arg) is a versatile amino acid that plays crucial roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. In this study, to investigate the alteration induced by Arg supplementation in proteome scale, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach was employed to comparatively characterize the differentially expressed proteins between Arg deprivation (Ctrl) and Arg supplementation (+Arg) treated human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. A total of 21 proteins were identified as differentially expressed proteins and these 21 proteins were all up-regulated by Arg supplementation. Six amino acid metabolism-related proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, showed differential expressions. Intriguingly, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) based pathway analysis suggested that the three ethanol degradation pathways were significantly altered between Ctrl and +Arg. Western blotting and enzymatic activity assays validated that the key enzymes ADH1C, ALDH1A1, and ALDH2, which are mainly involved in ethanol degradation pathways, were highly differentially expressed, and activated between Ctrl and +Arg in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, 10 mM Arg significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by 100 mM ethanol treatment (P < 0.0001). This study is the first time to reveal that Arg activates ethanol degradation pathways in HepG2 cells. PMID:26983598

  18. Comparative Proteomics Analysis Reveals L-Arginine Activates Ethanol Degradation Pathways in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guokai; Lestari, Retno; Long, Baisheng; Fan, Qiwen; Wang, Zhichang; Guo, Xiaozhen; Yu, Jie; Hu, Jun; Yang, Xingya; Chen, Changqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Xiuzhi; Purnomoadi, Agung; Achmadi, Joelal; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    L-Arginine (Arg) is a versatile amino acid that plays crucial roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. In this study, to investigate the alteration induced by Arg supplementation in proteome scale, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach was employed to comparatively characterize the differentially expressed proteins between Arg deprivation (Ctrl) and Arg supplementation (+Arg) treated human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. A total of 21 proteins were identified as differentially expressed proteins and these 21 proteins were all up-regulated by Arg supplementation. Six amino acid metabolism-related proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, showed differential expressions. Intriguingly, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) based pathway analysis suggested that the three ethanol degradation pathways were significantly altered between Ctrl and +Arg. Western blotting and enzymatic activity assays validated that the key enzymes ADH1C, ALDH1A1, and ALDH2, which are mainly involved in ethanol degradation pathways, were highly differentially expressed, and activated between Ctrl and +Arg in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, 10 mM Arg significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by 100 mM ethanol treatment (P < 0.0001). This study is the first time to reveal that Arg activates ethanol degradation pathways in HepG2 cells. PMID:26983598

  19. Reaction pathway of the degradation of the p-hydroxybenzoic acid by sulfate radical generated by ionizing radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criquet, Justine; Leitner, Nathalie Karpel Vel

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) in aqueous solutions by ionizing radiation was studied. The phenolic pollutant was easily removed by the electron beam irradiation, as more than 80% of the initial 100 ?M introduced was degraded for a dose of 600 Gy. It was shown that the addition of persulfate, producing the sulfate radical as additional reactive species, induced a change in the reaction pathway. LC-MS analyses were performed in order to identify the different by-products formed. In the absence of persulfate, the main by-product formed was 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, while in presence of persulfate, 1,4-benzoquinone was detected and the hydroxylated by-products were not present. A reaction pathway of HBA degradation by hydroxyl and sulfate radicals was proposed from the identification of the chemical structure of the different by-products detected. The influences of pH and dissolved oxygen were also studied. A high decline of HBA degradation was observed at pH 11 compared to pH 4.5, this decrease was minimized in the presence of persulfate. The dissolved oxygen concentration was found to be a limiting parameter of HBA degradation, however an excess of dissolved oxygen in solution did not improve the degradation to a large extent.

  20. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Result in Constitutive p53 Protein Degradation through Impairment of the AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hermkens, Dorien; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes can result in the loss of erythrocyte progenitor cells and cause severe anemia. This is seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow failure syndrome that is almost exclusively linked to RP gene haploinsufficiency. While the mechanisms underlying the cytopenia phenotype of patients with these mutations are not completely understood, it is believed that stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor protein may induce apoptosis in the progenitor cells. In stark contrast, tumor cells from zebrafish with RP gene haploinsufficiency are unable to stabilize p53 even when exposed to acute DNA damage despite transcribing wild type p53 normally. In this work we demonstrate that p53 has a limited role in eliciting the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA. In fact, we find that RP-deficient embryos exhibit the same normal p53 transcription, absence of p53 protein, and impaired p53 response to DNA damage as RP haploinsufficient tumor cells. Recently we reported that RP mutations suppress activity of the AKT pathway, and we show here that this suppression results in proteasomal degradation of p53. By re-activating the AKT pathway or by inhibiting GSK-3, a downstream modifier that normally represses AKT signaling, we are able to restore the stabilization of p53. Our work indicates that the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA is dependent on factors other than p53, and may hold clinical significance for both DBA and the increasing number of cancers revealing spontaneous mutations in RP genes. PMID:26132763

  1. CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation is mediated by cullin ring ligase activity and the neddylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoya; Sakakibara, Keiichi; Sato, Takuji; Friedman, Jonathan M; Kufe, Donald W; VonHoff, Daniel D; Kawabe, Takumi

    2014-12-01

    Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) mediates the nuclear export of proteins and mRNAs, and is overexpressed in various cancers. Recent studies have also reported that CRM1 protein expression is a negative prognostic factor in patients with cancer. Therefore, CRM1 is considered a potential target for anticancer therapy. Our previous study demonstrated that CBS9106, a synthetic small-molecular inhibitor of CRM1, decreases CRM1 protein through proteasomal degradation without affecting CRM1 mRNA levels. However, the mechanism by which CRM1 is degraded is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate a novel signaling pathway that plays an important role in CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation. We found that MLN4924, a selective inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE), effectively inhibits cullin neddylation and attenuates CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. MLN4924 also attenuated CBS9106-induced nuclear accumulation of Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1), cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of neddylation pathway proteins (NEDD8 and UBA3) or cullin ring ligase (CRL) component protein (Rbx1) attenuated CRM1 protein degradation and G1 phase cell-cycle arrest by CBS9106. Knockdown of CSN5 or CAND1 also partially inhibited CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation. These findings demonstrate that CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation is conferred by CRL activity involving the neddylation pathway, and that this response to CBS9106 leads to cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. PMID:25253782

  2. Phototransformation of mefenamic acid induced by nitrite ions in water: mechanism, toxicity, and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Lv, Wenying; Chen, Zhiming; Ma, Jingshuai; Li, Ruobai; Yao, Kun; Liu, Guoguang; Li, Fuhua

    2015-08-01

    Here, we evidenced the photo-induced degradation of mefenamic acid, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, through the 254-nm light excitation of nitrite. The results demonstrated that the photodegradation of mefenamic acid was enhanced, and the mefenamic acid photodegradation rate significantly increased, from 0.00627 to 0.0350 min(-1) as the nitrite was increased from 0 to 0.5 mmol L(-1). The photodegradation rate increased from 0.0287 to 0.0512 min(-1) as the pH was elevated, from 5.0 to 10.0. The actual second-order rate constant for the reaction of mefenamic acid with OH was investigated to 1.079??10(10) M(-1) s(-1) according to steady-state OH concentration of 3.5??10(-14) mmol L(-1) and the contribution to the rate of OH of 67.1%. The photoproducts were identified using HPLC/MS/MS, and possible nitrite-induced photodegradation pathways were proposed by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, hydration, nitrosylation, and ketonized reactions. The toxicity of the phototransformation products was evaluated using the Microtox test, which revealed that the photoproducts were more toxic than mefenamic acid for the generation of nitrosation aromatic compounds. PMID:25907630

  3. The molecular components of the extracellular protein-degradation pathways of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Firoz; Rineau, Francois; Canbäck, Björn; Johansson, Tomas; Tunlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Proteins contribute to a major part of the organic nitrogen (N) in forest soils. This N is mobilized and becomes available to trees as a result of the depolymerizing activities of symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms by which these fungi depolymerize proteins and assimilate the released N are poorly characterized. Biochemical analysis and transcriptome profiling were performed to examine the proteolytic machinery and the uptake system of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Paxillus involutus during the assimilation of organic N from various protein sources and extracts of organic matter. All substrates induced secretion of peptidase activity with an acidic pH optimum, mostly contributed by aspartic peptidases. The peptidase activity was transiently repressed by ammonium. Transcriptional analysis revealed a large number of extracellular endo- and exopeptidases. The expression levels of these peptidases were regulated in parallel with transporters and enzymes involved in the assimilation and metabolism of the released peptides and amino acids. For the first time the molecular components of the protein degradation pathways of an ectomycorrhizal fungus are described. The data suggest that the transcripts encoding these components are regulated in response to the chemical properties and the availability of the protein substrates. PMID:23902518

  4. Ozonation of ofloxacin in water: by-products, degradation pathway and ecotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Tay, Kheng Soo; Madehi, Norfazrina

    2015-07-01

    Application of ozonation in water treatment involves complex oxidation pathways that could lead to the formation of various by-products, some of which may be harmful to living organisms. In this work, ozonation by-products of ofloxacin (OFX), a frequently detected pharmaceutical pollutant in the environment, were identified and their ecotoxicity was estimated using the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) computer program. In order to examine the role of ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radicals (?OH) in the degradation of ofloxacin, ozonation was performed at pH2, 7 and 12. In this study, 12 new structures have been proposed for the ozonation by-products detected during the ozonation of ofloxacin. According to the identified ozonation by-products, O3 and ?OH were found to react with ofloxacin during ozonation. The reaction between ofloxacin and O3 proceeded via hydroxylation and breakdown of heterocyclic ring with unsaturated double-bond. The reaction between ofloxacin and OH generated various by-products derived from the breakdown of heterocyclic ring. Ecotoxicity assessment indicated that ozonation of OFX could yield by-products of greater toxicity compared with parent compounds. PMID:25791053

  5. REGγ regulates ERα degradation via ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Bi, Jiong; Chen, Li; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Youhong; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • High expression of REGγ is correlated with ERα status and poor clinical features. • Cell growth, mobility and invasion are significantly impaired by REGγ knockdown. • REGγ indirectly regulates ERα protein expression. - Abstract: REGγ is a proteasome coactivator which regulates proteolytic activity in eukaryotic cells. Abundant lines of evidence have showed that REGγ is over expressed in a number of human carcinomas. However, its precise role in the pathogenesis of cancer is still unclear. In this study, by examining 200 human breast cancer specimens, we demonstrated that REGγ was highly expressed in breast cancers, and the expression of REGγ was positively correlated with breast cancer patient estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) status. Moreover, the expression of REGγ was found positively associated with poor clinical features and low survival rates in ERα positive breast cancer patients. Further cell culture studies using MCF7 and BT474 breast cancer cell lines showed that cell proliferation, motility, and invasion capacities were decreased significantly by REGγ knockdown. Lastly, we demonstrated that REGγ indirectly regulates the degradation of ERα protein via ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. In conclusion, our findings provide the evidence that REGγ expression was positively correlated with ERα status and poor clinical prognosis in ERα positive breast cancer patients. As well, we disclose a new connection between the two molecules that are both highly expressed in most breast cancer cases.

  6. The molecular components of the extracellular protein-degradation pathways of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    PubMed

    Shah, Firoz; Rineau, Francois; Canbck, Bjrn; Johansson, Tomas; Tunlid, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Proteins contribute to a major part of the organic nitrogen (N) in forest soils. This N is mobilized and becomes available to trees as a result of the depolymerizing activities of symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms by which these fungi depolymerize proteins and assimilate the released N are poorly characterized. Biochemical analysis and transcriptome profiling were performed to examine the proteolytic machinery and the uptake system of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Paxillus involutus during the assimilation of organic N from various protein sources and extracts of organic matter. All substrates induced secretion of peptidase activity with an acidic pH optimum, mostly contributed by aspartic peptidases. The peptidase activity was transiently repressed by ammonium. Transcriptional analysis revealed a large number of extracellular endo- and exopeptidases. The expression levels of these peptidases were regulated in parallel with transporters and enzymes involved in the assimilation and metabolism of the released peptides and amino acids. For the first time the molecular components of the protein degradation pathways of an ectomycorrhizal fungus are described. The data suggest that the transcripts encoding these components are regulated in response to the chemical properties and the availability of the protein substrates. PMID:23902518

  7. The Mitochondrial Translocator Protein, TSPO, Inhibits HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Biosynthesis via the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Dang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is necessary for viral entry and replication. Currently, it is still unclear how this process is regulated. The glycoprotein folding in the ER is controlled by the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, which specifically targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Previously, we reported that HIV-1 replication is restricted in the human CD4+ T cell line CEM.NKR (NKR). To understand this mechanism, we first analyzed cellular protein expression in NKR cells and discovered that levels of the mitochondrial translocator protein TSPO were upregulated by ?64-fold. Notably, when NKR cells were treated with TSPO antagonist PK-11195, Ro5-4864, or diazepam, HIV restriction was completely disrupted, and TSPO knockdown by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) achieved a similar effect. We next analyzed viral protein expression, and, interestingly, we discovered that Env expression was specifically inhibited. Both TSPO knockdown and treatment with TSPO antagonist could restore Env expression in NKR cells. We further discovered that Env proteins were rapidly degraded and that kifunensine, an ERAD pathway inhibitor, could restore Env expression and viral replication, indicating that Env proteins were misfolded and degraded through the ERAD pathway in NKR cells. We also knocked out the TSPO gene in 293T cells using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]/CRISPR-associated-9) technology and found that TSPO could similarly inhibit Env expression in these cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TSPO inhibits Env protein expression through the ERAD pathway and suggest that mitochondria play an important role in regulating the Env folding process. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is absolutely required for viral infection, and an understanding of its expression pathway in infected cells will identify new targets for antiretroviral therapies. Env proteins are folded in the ER and secreted through the classical secretory pathway. The Env folding process involves extensive cross-linking of 10 Cys residues by disulfide bond formation and heavy N-glycosylation on ?30 Asn residues. Currently, it is still unclear how this process is regulated. Here, we studied this mechanism in the HIV nonpermissive human CD4+ T cell line CEM.NKR. We found that Env proteins were rapidly degraded through a cellular pathway that specifically targets misfolded proteins, resulting in inhibition of Env expression. Importantly, we have identified a mitochondrial translocator protein, TSPO, which could trigger this degradation by interfering with the Env folding process. Further characterization of TSPO antiviral activity will reveal a novel antiretroviral mechanism that targets the Env protein. PMID:24403586

  8. Molybdenum-Containing Nicotine Hydroxylase Genes in a Nicotine Degradation Pathway That Is a Variant of the Pyridine and Pyrrolidine Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Tang, Hongzhi; Li, Yangyang; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-15

    Ochrobactrum sp. strain SJY1 utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway). Several strains and genes involved in the VPP pathway have recently been reported; however, the first catalyzing step for enzymatic turnover of nicotine is still unclear. In this study, a nicotine hydroxylase for the initial hydroxylation step of nicotine degradation was identified and characterized. The nicotine hydroxylase (VppA), which converts nicotine to 6-hydroxynicotine in the strain SJY1, is encoded by two open reading frames (vppAS and vppAL [subunits S and L, respectively]). The vppA genes were heterologously expressed in the non-nicotine-degrading strains Escherichia coli DH5? and Pseudomonas putida KT2440; only the Pseudomonas strain acquired the ability to degrade nicotine. The small subunit of VppA contained a [2Fe-2S] cluster-binding domain, and the large subunit of VppA contained a molybdenum cofactor-binding domain; however, an FAD-binding domain was not found in VppA. Resting cells cultivated in a molybdenum-deficient medium had low nicotine transformation activity, and excess molybdenum was detected in the purified VppA by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis. Thus, it is demonstrated that VppA is a two-component molybdenum-containing hydroxylase. PMID:26407884

  9. Chemotaxis and degradation of organophosphate compound by a novel moderately thermo-halo tolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain BUR11: evidence for possible existence of two pathways for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Pailan, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    An organophosphate (OP) degrading chemotactic bacterial strain BUR11 isolated from an agricultural field was identified as a member of Pseudomonas genus on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain could utilize parathion, chlorpyrifos and their major hydrolytic intermediates as sole source of carbon for its growth and exhibited positive chemotactic response towards most of them. Optimum concentration of parathion for its growth was recorded to be 200 ppm and 62% of which was degraded within 96 h at 37 °C. Growth studies indicated the strain to be moderately thermo-halo tolerant in nature. Investigation based on identification of intermediates of parathion degradation by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provided evidence for possible existence of two pathways. The first pathway proceeds via 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) while the second proceeds through formation of 4-aminoparathion (4-APar), 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and parabenzoquinone (PBQ). This is the first report of chemotaxis towards organophosphate compound by a thermo-halo tolerant bacterium. PMID:26587344

  10. Endocytosis and ligand dissociation and degradation mediated by the hepatic galactosyl receptor occur via two different pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, P.H.; Clarke, B.L.; Oka, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes express two distinct populations of surface Galactosyl receptor activity, measured by the binding of /sup 125/I-asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), which they designate State 1 and State 2. Freshly isolated cells express only state 1 receptors. Cells equilibrated at 37/sup 0/C also express State 2 receptors, which represent 50-80% of the total surface activity. In the absence of ligand, State 2 receptor activity is reversibly decreased by metabolic energy poisons, low temperature and microtubule drugs, whereas State 1 receptor activity is unaffected. Endocytosis of /sup 125/I-ASOR by State 1 receptors is followed by a slow dissociation of /sup 125/I-ASOR from receptor but the immediate release of acid soluble degradation products. In contrast, State 2 receptors mediate endocytosis which involves a rapid dissociation step but a 20 min lag, prior to the release of degradation products. Both pathways follow first order kinetics and are functional under steady state conditions indicating coordinated receptor recycling. Degradation mediated by both pathways is inhibited by leupeptin and chloroquine. The State 1 and 2 pathways can be further differentiated by the greater sensitivity of the latter to microtubule drugs. These results suggest that there are either structurally different native receptors or that identical receptors are directed into two different functional pathways, for example by interaction with different types of coated pits.

  11. Degradative intracellular transport of antisecretory component in cultured hepatocytes. An alternate pathway for the immunoglobulin A receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.; Hradek, G.T.; Jones, A.L.

    1985-06-01

    The liver efficiently transports dimeric immunoglobulin A (dIgA) from blood to bile in a direct, nonlysosomal pathway involving smooth-surfaced vesicles. Secretory component (SC), the plasma membrane receptor for dIgA, is released into bile still bound to its ligand by disulfide bridges. Rabbit IgG antirat SC binds specifically to plasma membrane SC, yet the biliary secretion of anti-SC is markedly lower than that of dIgA, suggesting that the IgG antibodies utilize an alternate transhepatocellular pathway. Uptake of commercially available antihuman SC conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was examined by quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemistry using primary rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures. Coincubation with human polymeric IgA, rabbit antiserum to rat SC, free human SC, human secretory IgA, and rat bile, all significantly suppressed uptake of anti-SC-horseradish peroxidase, thus demonstrating the specificity of the labeled antibody. Coated vesicles accounted for greater than 70% of the total uptake of either the anti-SC-horseradish peroxidase preparation or colloidal gold-labeled IgG antirat SC. Both compounds could also be observed in other structures associated with the degradative pathway, i.e., multivesicular bodies and lysosomes. Moreover, the extent to which /sup 125/I-anti-SC was degraded was significantly greater than that of /sup 125/I-dIgA. These data demonstrate that dIgA and anti-SC utilize different intracellular pathways, with anti-SC undergoing lysosomal degradation.

  12. Functional compartments of sulphatide metabolism in cultured living cells: evidence for the involvement of a novel sulphatide-degrading pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Tempesta, M C; Salvayre, R; Levade, T

    1994-01-01

    The modes of uptake and degradation of radiolabelled cerebroside sulphate (CS or sulphatide) were investigated in cultured living skin fibroblasts and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines established from control individuals and patients affected with metachromatic leucodystrophy (cerebroside sulphatase deficiency), multiple sulphatase deficiency and low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-negative familial hypercholesterolaemia. In both cell types, CS was taken up through a non-receptor-mediated process. In fibroblasts, CS degradation occurred intralysosomally as was evident from the findings that fibroblasts from metachromatic leucodystrophic patients accumulated the sulphatide and that chloroquine inhibited its degradation by normal cells. In contrast, under similar conditions of CS availability, lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with metachromatic leucodystrophy could degrade the incorporated sulphatide exactly as their normal counterparts. This metabolic pathway was also fully active in lymphoblastoid cells from patients with multiple sulphatase deficiency and was not inhibited by chloroquine treatment. These data are consistent with a non-lysosomal type of hydrolysis. In addition to the lysosomal and non-lysosomal compartments, a third compartment was identified in the two cell types which is probably formed by the pool of the sulphatide molecules incorporated into the plasma membrane. This is the first report on the existence of a CS-degrading pathway in intact cells with deficient lysosomal cerebroside sulphatase activity. PMID:7906514

  13. Anaerobic Degradation Pathway of the Novel Chiral Insecticide Paichongding and Its Impact on Bacterial Communities in Soils.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jiangtao; Zhu, Xiaolin; Cai, Jinyan; Yang, Guanghua

    2015-08-19

    To comprehensively understand anaerobic degradation of the novel cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide Paichongding (IPP) and its impacts on microbial communities in anaerobic soils, we investigated IPP degradation characteristics, kinetics, and pathway in four different soils. The bacterial community in response to the application of IPP using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was also studied. The removal ratio of IPP stereoisomers (RR-IPP, SS-IPP, RS-IPP, and SR-IPP) reached >90% at 60 days after IPP treatment (DAT) in yellow loam soil (F) and paddy field on desalting muddy polder (C), whereas the degradation ratios of RR-IPP and SS-IPP were <30% at 60 DAT in Huangshi soil (J) and yellow paddy soil (H). The results showed that the anaerobic degradation rate of IPP and its stereoisomers was strongly affected by soil physical-chemical characteristics. Furthermore, on the basis of the six metabolites (M1-M6) identified by LC-MS/MS and their behavior, the anaerobic degradation pathway of IPP in soils was proposed. Biodegradation of IPP involved continuous biocatalytic reactions such as nitro reduction and elimination, hydrolysis, demethyl, and ether cleavage reactions. A higher richness of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found in soils without IPP application than in soils with IPP application. Both the rarefaction curves and Shannon-Wiener diversity index in anaerobic soils had significant difference after IPP application, and the community composition also differed at both the phyla and genus levels. PMID:26216485

  14. Modulation of the intracellular stability and toxicity of diphtheria toxin through degradation by the N-end rule pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Falnes, P O; Olsnes, S

    1998-01-01

    The enzymatically active A-fragment of diphtheria toxin enters the cytosol of sensitive cells where it inhibits protein synthesis by inactivating elongation factor 2 (EF-2). We have constructed a number of diphtheria toxin mutants that are degraded by the N-end rule pathway in Vero cells, and that display a wide range of intracellular stabilities. The degradation could be inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, indicating that the proteasome is responsible for N-end rule-mediated degradation in mammalian cells. Previously, the N-end rule has been investigated by studying the co-translational degradation of intracellularly expressed beta-galactosidase. Our work shows that a mature protein entering the cytosol from the exterior can also be degraded by the N-end rule pathway with a similar, but not identical specificity to that previously found. We found a correlation between the intracellular stability of the mutants and their toxic effect on cells, thus demonstrating a novel manner of modulating the toxicity of a protein toxin. The data also indicate that the inactivation of EF-2 is the rate-limiting step in the intoxication process. PMID:9430652

  15. ClpS is the recognition component for Escherichia coli substrates of the N-end rule degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ronny; Zahn, Regina; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel

    2009-04-01

    The N-end rule degradation pathway states that the half-life of a protein is determined by the nature of its N-terminal residue. In Escherichia coli the adaptor protein ClpS directly interacts with destabilizing N-terminal residues and transfers them to the ClpA/ClpP proteolytic complex for degradation. The crucial role of ClpS in N-end rule degradation is currently under debate, since ClpA/ClpP was shown to process selected N-terminal degrons harbouring destabilizing residues in the absence of ClpS. Here, we investigated the contribution of ClpS to N-end rule degradation by two approaches. First, we performed a systematic mutagenesis of selected N-degron model substrates, demonstrating that ClpS but not ClpA specifically senses the nature of N-terminal residues. Second, we identified two natural N-end rule substrates of E. coli: Dps and PATase (YgjG). The in vivo degradation of both proteins strictly relied on ClpS, thereby establishing the function of ClpS as the essential discriminator of the E. coli N-end rule pathway. PMID:19317833

  16. Heterogeneous electro-Fenton using modified iron-carbon as catalyst for 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation: influence factors, mechanism and degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Minghua; Ren, Gengbo; Yu, Xinmin; Ma, Liang; Yang, Jie; Yu, Fangke

    2015-03-01

    Modified iron-carbon with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was firstly investigated as heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) catalyst for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in near neutral pH condition. The catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the effects of some important operating parameters such as current intensity and pH on the 2,4-DCP degradation were investigated. After the catalyst modification with 20% PTFE, the degradation performance maintained well with much lower iron leaching, and at current intensity 100 mA, initial pH 6.7, catalyst loading 6 g/L, the degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP could exceed 95% within 120 min treatment. Two-stage pseudo first-order kinetics of 2,4-DCP degradation was observed, including a slow anodic oxidation stage (first-stage) and much faster heterogeneous EF oxidation (second-stage), in which the automatic drop of pH in the first-stage initiated the Fe(2+) release from micro-electrolysis and thus benefited to the subsequent EF reaction. Aromatic intermediates such as 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,6-dichlororesorcinol and 2-chlorohydroquinone were detected by GC-MS. Oxalic acid, acetic acid, formic acid and Cl(-) were quantified by ion chromatograph. Based on these analysis as well as the detection of H₂O₂ and OH, a possible mechanism and degradation pathway for 2,4-DCP were proposed. This work demonstrated that such a heterogeneous EF using cheap modified Fe-C catalyst was promising for organic wastewater treatment in initial neutral pH condition. PMID:25559487

  17. Histone Deacetylase 2 Is Phosphorylated, Ubiquitinated, and Degraded by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Adenuga, David; Yao, Hongwei; March, Thomas H.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Rahman, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS)induced lung inflammation involves the reduction of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) abundance, which is associated with steroid resistance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in individuals with severe asthma who smoke cigarettes. However, the molecular mechanism of CS-mediated reduction of HDAC2 is not clearly known. We hypothesized that HDAC2 is phosphorylated and subsequently degraded by the proteasome in vitro in macrophages (MonoMac6), human bronchial and primary small airway epithelial cells, and in vivo in mouse lungs in response to chronic CS exposure. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure in MonoMac6 and in bronchial and airway epithelial cells led to phosphorylation of HDAC2 on serine/threonine residues by a protein kinase CK2-mediated mechanism, decreased HDAC2 activity, and increased ubiquitin-proteasomedependent HDAC2 degradation. CK2 and proteasome inhibitors reversed CSE-mediated HDAC2 degradation, whereas serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid, caused phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination of HDAC2. CS-induced HDAC2 phosphorylation was detected in mouse lungs from 2 weeks to 4 months of CS exposure, and mice showed significantly lower lung HDAC2 levels. Thus, CS-mediated down-regulation of HDAC2 in human macrophages and lung epithelial cells in vitro and in mouse lung in vivo involves the induction of serine/threonine phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation, which may have implications for steroid resistance and abnormal inflammation caused by cigarette smoke. PMID:18927347

  18. A vacuolar carboxypeptidase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is degraded by the ERAD pathway independently of its N-glycan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Kawanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoko; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi

    2010-03-12

    Misfolded proteins produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by a mechanism, the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report establishment of the experimental system to analyze the ERAD in plant cells. Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is a vacuolar enzyme and its mutant CPY* is degraded by the ERAD in yeast. Since Arabidopsis thaliana has AtCPY, an ortholog of yeast CPY, we constructed and expressed fusion proteins consisting of AtCPY and GFP and of AtCPY*, which carries a mutation homologous to yeast CPY*, and GFP in A. thaliana cells. While AtCPY-GFP was efficiently transported to the vacuole, AtCPY*-GFP was retained in the ER to be degraded in proteasome- and Cdc48-dependent manners. We also found that AtCPY*-GFP was degraded by the ERAD in yeast cells, but that its single N-glycan did not function as a degradation signal in yeast or plant cells. Therefore, AtCPY*-GFP can be used as a marker protein to analyze the ERAD pathway, likely for nonglycosylated substrates, in plant cells.

  19. Xkid is degraded in a D-box, KEN-box, and A-box-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Castro, Anna; Vigneron, Suzanne; Bernis, Cyril; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry

    2003-06-01

    During mitosis, the Xenopus chromokinesin Kid (Xkid) provides the polar ejection forces needed at metaphase for chromosome congression, and its degradation is required at anaphase to induce chromosome segregation. Despite the fact that the degradation of Xkid at anaphase seems to be a key regulatory factor to induce chromosome movement to the poles, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this proteolysis. We investigated here the degradation pathway of Xkid. We demonstrate that Xkid is degraded both in vitro and in vivo by APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. We show that, despite the presence of five putative D-box motifs in its sequence, Xkid is proteolyzed in a D-box-independent manner. We identify a domain within the C terminus of this chromokinesin, with sequence GxEN, whose mutation completely stabilizes this protein by both APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. Moreover, we show that this degradation sequence acts as a transposable motif and induces the proteolysis of a GST-GXEN fusion protein. Finally, we demonstrate that both a D-box and a GXEN-containing peptides completely block APC-dependent degradation of cyclin B and Xkid, indicating that the GXEN domain mi