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1

Exploring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Protein Degradation Pathway in Yeast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory investigating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in yeast. In this exercise, the enzyme beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed in yeast under the control of a stress response promoter. Following exposure to heat stress to induce beta-gal expression, cycloheximide is added to halt…

Will, Tamara J.; McWatters, Melissa K.; McQuade, Kristi L.

2006-01-01

2

THE TRIAGE OF DAMAGED PROTEINS: DEGRADATION BY THE UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME PATHWAY OR REPAIR BY MOLECULAR CHAPERONES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accumulation of damaged proteins is causally related to many age-related diseases. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) plays a role in selective degradation of damaged proteins, whereas molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, are involved in refolding denatured proteins. This work demo...

3

Degradation of gamma secretase activating protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

A major hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of amyloid ? (A?), whose formation is regulated by the ?-secretase complex and its activating protein (also known as ?-secretase activating protein, or GSAP). Because GSAP interacts with the ?-secretase without affecting the cleavage of Notch, it is an ideal target for a viable anti-A? therapy. GSAP derives from a C-terminal fragment of a larger precursor protein of 98 kDa via a caspase 3-mediated cleavage. However, the mechanism(s) involved in its degradation remain unknown. In this study, we show that GSAP has a short half-life of approximately 5 h. Neuronal cells treated with proteasome inhibitors markedly prevented GSAP protein degradation, which was associated with a significant increment in A? levels and ?-secretase cleavage products. In contrast, treatment with calpain blocker and lysosome inhibitors had no effect. In addition, we provide experimental evidence that GSAP is ubiquitinated. Taken together, our findings reveal that GSAP is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Modulation of the GSAP degradation pathway may be implemented as a viable target for a safer anti-A? therapeutic approach in Alzheimer's disease. The GSAP derives from a precursor via a caspase 3-mediated cleavage, is up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease brains and facilitates A? production by interacting directly with the ?-secretase complex. Here, we demonstrate that GSAP is ubiquitinated and then selectively degraded via the proteasome system but not the calpains or lysosome pathways. These findings provide further evidence for the involvement of the proteasome system in the regulation of amyloid beta (A?) precursor protein metabolism and A? formation. AICD, APP intracellular domain; APP, amyloid precursor protein; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; CTF-?, alpha-C-terminal fragment; CTF-?, beta-C-terminal fragment; GSAP, ?-secretase activating protein; Ub, ubiquitin. PMID:25533523

Chu, Jin; Li, Jian-Guo; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Madesh, Muniswamy; Praticò, Domenico

2015-05-01

4

Cancer cell death induced by novel small molecules degrading the TACC3 protein via the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway  

PubMed Central

The selective degradation of target proteins with small molecules is a novel approach to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. We have developed a protein knockdown system with a series of hybrid small compounds that induce the selective degradation of target proteins via the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. In this study, we designed and synthesized novel small molecules called SNIPER(TACC3)s, which target the spindle regulatory protein transforming acidic coiled-coil-3 (TACC3). SNIPER(TACC3)s induce poly-ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of TACC3 and reduce the TACC3 protein level in cells. Mechanistic analysis indicated that the ubiquitin ligase APC/CCDH1 mediates the SNIPER(TACC3)-induced degradation of TACC3. Intriguingly, SNIPER(TACC3) selectively induced cell death in cancer cells expressing a larger amount of TACC3 protein than normal cells. These results suggest that protein knockdown of TACC3 by SNIPER(TACC3) is a potential strategy for treating cancers overexpressing the TACC3 protein. PMID:25375378

Ohoka, N; Nagai, K; Hattori, T; Okuhira, K; Shibata, N; Cho, N; Naito, M

2014-01-01

5

ERK1/2 achieves sustained activation by stimulating MAPK phosphatase-1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

Sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation does not always correlate with its upstream Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MKK1/2) signal cascade in cancer cells, and the mechanism remains elusive. Here we report a novel mechanism by which sustained ERK1/2 activation is established. We demonstrate that Pb(II), a carcinogenic metal, persistently induces ERK1/2 activity in CL3 human lung cancer cells and that Ras-Raf-MKK1/2 signaling cannot fully account for such activation. It is intriguing that Pb(II) treatment reduces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) protein levels in time- and dose-dependent manners, which correlates with sustained ERK1/2 activation, and that Pb(II) also induces mRNA and de novo protein synthesis of MKP-1. In Pb(II)-treated cells, MKP-1 is polyubiquitinated, and proteasome inhibitors markedly alleviate the ubiquitination and degradation of MKP-1. Inhibiting the Pb(II)-induced ERK1/2 activation by PD98059 greatly suppresses MKP-1 ubiquitination and degradation. It is remarkable that constitutive activation of MKK1/2 triggers endogenous MKP-1 ubiquitination and degradation in various mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, expression of functional MKP-1 decreases ERK1/2 activation and the c-Fos protein level and enhances cytotoxicity under Pb(II) exposure. Taken together, these results demonstrate that activated ERK1/2 can trigger MKP-1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus facilitating long-term activation of ERK1/2 against cytotoxicity. PMID:12676937

Lin, Yun-Wei; Chuang, Show-Mei; Yang, Jia-Ling

2003-06-13

6

A nuclear ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway targets inner nuclear membrane protein Asi2 for degradation  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope consists of inner and outer nuclear membranes. While the outer membrane is an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum, the inner nuclear membrane represents a unique membranous environment containing specific proteins. The mechanisms of integral inner nuclear membrane protein degradation are unknown. Here we investigated the turnover of Asi2, an integral INM protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that Asi2 is degraded by the proteasome and independent of the vacuole exhibiting a half-life of ? 45 min. Asi2 exhibits enhanced stability in mutants lacking the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc6 or Ubc7, or the E3 ubiquitin ligase Doa10. Consistently, Asi2 is post-translationally modified by poly-ubiquitylation in a Ubc7- and Doa10-dependent manner. Importantly Asi2 degradation is significantly reduced in a sts1-2 mutant that fails to accumulate proteasomes in the nucleus, indicating that Asi2 is degraded in the nucleus. Our results reveal a molecular pathway that affects the stability of integral proteins of the inner nuclear membrane and indicate that Asi2 is subject to protein quality control in the nucleus. PMID:24928896

Boban, Mirta; Pantazopoulou, Marina; Schick, Anna; Ljungdahl, Per O.; Foisner, Roland

2015-01-01

7

Degradation of subunits of the Sec61p complex, an integral component of the ER membrane, by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the degradation of subunits of the trimeric Sec61p complex, a key component of the protein translocation apparatus of the ER membrane. A mutant form of Sec6lp and one of the two associated proteins (Sss1p) are selectively degraded, while the third constituent of the complex (Sbh1p) is stable. Our results demonstrate that the proteolysis of the multispanning membrane protein Sec61p is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, since it requires polyubiquitination, the presence of a membrane-bound (Ubc6) and a soluble (Ubc7) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and a functional proteasome. The process is proposed to be specific for unassembled Sec61p and Sss1p. Thus, our results suggest that one pathway of ER degradation of abnormal or unassembled membrane proteins is initiated at the cytoplasmic side of the ER. Images PMID:8641272

Biederer, T; Volkwein, C; Sommer, T

1996-01-01

8

Degradation of subunits of the Sec61p complex, an integral component of the ER membrane, by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

We have investigated the degradation of subunits of the trimeric Sec61p complex, a key component of the protein translocation apparatus of the ER membrane. A mutant form of Sec6lp and one of the two associated proteins (Sss1p) are selectively degraded, while the third constituent of the complex (Sbh1p) is stable. Our results demonstrate that the proteolysis of the multispanning membrane protein Sec61p is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, since it requires polyubiquitination, the presence of a membrane-bound (Ubc6) and a soluble (Ubc7) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and a functional proteasome. The process is proposed to be specific for unassembled Sec61p and Sss1p. Thus, our results suggest that one pathway of ER degradation of abnormal or unassembled membrane proteins is initiated at the cytoplasmic side of the ER. PMID:8641272

Biederer, T; Volkwein, C; Sommer, T

1996-05-01

9

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Synaptic Plasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) has emerged as a new molecular mechanism that controls wide-ranging functions in the nervous system, including fine-tuning of synaptic connections during development and synaptic plasticity in the adult organism. In the UPP, attachment of a small protein, ubiquitin, tags the substrates for…

Hegde, Ashok N.

2010-01-01

10

Degradation signal diversity in the ubiquitin-proteasome system  

PubMed Central

Preface The ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades an enormous variety of proteins, which are targeted by specific degradation signals (degrons). Besides the degradation of regulatory proteins, virtually every protein suffers from sporadic biosynthetic errors or misfolding, and cells can recognize such aberrant proteins and rapidly degrade them. Structural and functional data on a handful of degrons allows some generalizations about their mechanism of action. We focus on different strategies of degron recognition by the ubiquitin system, and contrast regulatory degrons subject to signalling-dependent modification and those controlled by protein folding or assembly, as frequently occurs during protein quality control. PMID:18698327

Ravid, Tommer; Hochstrasser, Mark

2008-01-01

11

Fucoidan inhibition of lung cancer in vivo and in vitro : role of the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin proteasome pathway in TGF? receptor degradation.  

PubMed

Fucoidan, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, reduces tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that fucoidan reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, we found that LLC1-bearing mice continuously fed fucoidan showed greater antitumor activity than mice with discontinuous feeding. Fucoidan inhibited the in vitro growth of lung cancer cells. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) receptors (TGFRs) play important roles in the regulation of proliferation and progression, and high TGFRI expression in lung cancer specimens is associated with a worse prognosis. Herein, using lung cancer cells, we found that fucoidan effectively reduces TGFRI and TGFRII protein levels in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, fucoidan reduces TGFR downstream signaling events, including those in Smad2/3 and non-Smad pathways: Akt, Erk1/2, and FAK phosphorylation. Furthermore, fucoidan suppresses lung cancer cell mobility upon TGF? stimulation. To elucidate how fucoidan decreases TGFR proteins in lung cancer cells, we found that fucoidan enhances the ubiquitination proteasome pathway (UPP)-mediated degradation of TGFRs in A549 and CL1-5 cells. Mechanistically, fucoidan promotes Smurf2 and Smad7 to conjugate TGFRs, resulting in TGF degradation; however, Smurf2-shRNA abolishes fucoidan-enhanced UPP-mediated TGFR degradation. Our study is the first to identify a novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of fucoidan, namely decreasing tumor growth by modulating the TGFR/Smad7/Smurf2-dependent axis, leading to TGFR protein degradation and inhibition of lung cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Our current findings indicate that fucoidan is a potential therapeutic agent or dietary supplementation for lung cancer, acting via the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin degradation of TGF? receptors. PMID:25149540

Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Tung-Yi; Wu, Yu-Chung; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Hwang, Pai-An; Shih, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Jason

2014-09-15

12

Fucoidan inhibition of lung cancer in vivo and in vitro: role of the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin proteasome pathway in TGF? receptor degradation  

PubMed Central

Fucoidan, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, reduces tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that fucoidan reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, we found that LLC1-bearing mice continuously fed fucoidan showed greater antitumor activity than mice with discontinuous feeding. Fucoidan inhibited the in vitro growth of lung cancer cells. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) receptors (TGFRs) play important roles in the regulation of proliferation and progression, and high TGFRI expression in lung cancer specimens is associated with a worse prognosis. Herein, using lung cancer cells, we found that fucoidan effectively reduces TGFRI and TGFRII protein levels in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, fucoidan reduces TGFR downstream signaling events, including those in Smad2/3 and non-Smad pathways: Akt, Erk1/2, and FAK phosphorylation. Furthermore, fucoidan suppresses lung cancer cell mobility upon TGF? stimulation. To elucidate how fucoidan decreases TGFR proteins in lung cancer cells, we found that fucoidan enhances the ubiquitination proteasome pathway (UPP)-mediated degradation of TGFRs in A549 and CL1-5 cells. Mechanistically, fucoidan promotes Smurf2 and Smad7 to conjugate TGFRs, resulting in TGF degradation; however, Smurf2-shRNA abolishes fucoidan-enhanced UPP-mediated TGFR degradation. Our study is the first to identify a novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of fucoidan, namely decreasing tumor growth by modulating the TGFR/Smad7/Smurf2-dependent axis, leading to TGFR protein degradation and inhibition of lung cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Our current findings indicate that fucoidan is a potential therapeutic agent or dietary supplementation for lung cancer, acting via the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin degradation of TGF? receptors. PMID:25149540

Wu, Yu-Chung; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Hwang, Pai-An; Shih, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Jason

2014-01-01

13

Pristimerin Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells by Down-regulating Bcl-2 through ROS-dependent Ubiquitin-proteasomal Degradation Pathway  

PubMed Central

Pristimerin is a quinonemethide triterpenoid with the potential of a promising anticancer agent. Pristimerin (PM) has shown anticancer activity against a range of cancer cell lines, but its activity for prostate cancer has not been adequately investigated. In the present study we have examined the underlying mechanisms of the apoptotic response of the hormone-sensitive (LNCaP) and hormone-refractory (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines to PM. Treatment with PM induced apoptosis in both cell lines as characterized by increased annexin V-binding and cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases-3 and -9. It also induced mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Response to PM is regulated by Bcl-2 since it down-regulated Bcl-2 expression and overexpression of Bcl-2 rendered prostate cancer cells resistant to PM. ROS plays a role in down-regulation of Bcl-2, since treatment with PM in the presence of various ROS modulators, e.g., n-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general purpose antioxidant; diphenylene iodonium (DPI), a NADPH inhibitor; rotenone (ROT), a mitochondrial electron transport chain interrupter rotenone or MnTBAP, a O2 scavenger, attenuated the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Furthermore, ROS is also involved in the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Bcl-2 as both of these events were blocked by O 2? scavenger MnTBAP. Thus, pristimerin induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells predominately through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by inhibiting antiapoptic Bcl-2 through a ROS-dependent ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation pathway. PMID:24877026

Liu, Yong Bo; Gao, Xiaohua; Deeb, Dorrah; Arbab, Ali S; Gautam, Subhash C

2014-01-01

14

Inhibition of PCSK9 transcription by berberine involves down-regulation of hepatic HNF1? protein expression through the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Our previous in vitro studies have identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1? (HNF1?) as an obligated trans-activator for PCSK9 gene expression and demonstrated its functional involvement in the suppression of PCSK9 expression by berberine (BBR), a natural cholesterol-lowering compound. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of BBR on HNF1?-mediated PCSK9 transcription. Administration of BBR to hyperlipidemic mice and hamsters lowered circulating PCSK9 concentrations and hepatic PCSK9 mRNA levels without affecting the gene expression of HNF1?. However, hepatic HNF1? protein levels were markedly reduced in BBR-treated animals as compared with the control. Using HepG2 cells as a model system, we obtained evidence that BBR treatment let to accelerated degradation of HNF1? protein. By applying inhibitors to selectively block the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy-lysosomal pathway, we show that HNF1? protein content in HepG2 cells was not affected by bafilomycin A1 treatment, but it was dose-dependently increased by UPS inhibitors bortezomib and MG132. Bortezomib treatment elevated HNF1? and PCSK9 cellular levels with concomitant reductions of LDL receptor protein. Moreover, HNF1? protein displayed a multiubiquitination ladder pattern in cells treated with BBR or overexpressing ubiquitin. By expressing GFP-HNF1? fusion protein in cells, we observed that blocking UPS resulted in accumulation of GFP-HNF1? in cytoplasm. Importantly, we show that the BBR reducing effects on HNF1? protein and PCSK9 gene transcription can be eradicated by proteasome inhibitors. Altogether, our studies using BBR as a probe uncovered a new aspect of PCSK9 regulation by ubiquitin-induced proteasomal degradation of HNF1?. PMID:25540198

Dong, Bin; Li, Hai; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Cao, Aiqin; Liu, Jingwen

2015-02-13

15

Control of mRNA decay by heat shock-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

Cytokine and proto-oncogene messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are rapidly degraded through AU-rich elements in the 3' untranslated region. Rapid decay involves AU-rich binding protein AUF1, which complexes with heat shock proteins hsc70-hsp70, translation initiation factor eIF4G, and poly(A) binding protein. AU-rich mRNA decay is associated with displacement of eIF4G from AUF1, ubiquitination of AUF1, and degradation of AUF1 by proteasomes. Induction of hsp70 by heat shock, down-regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome network, or inactivation of ubiquitinating enzyme E1 all result in hsp70 sequestration of AUF1 in the perinucleus-nucleus, and all three processes block decay of AU-rich mRNAs and AUF1 protein. These results link the rapid degradation of cytokine mRNAs to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:10205060

Laroia, G; Cuesta, R; Brewer, G; Schneider, R J

1999-04-16

16

Regulating the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway via cAMP-signaling: neuroprotective potential  

PubMed Central

The cAMP-signaling pathway has been under intensive investigation for decades. It is a wonder that such a small simple molecule like cAMP can modulate a vast number of diverse processes in different types of cells. The ubiquitous involvement of cAMP-signaling in a variety of cellular events requires tight spatial and temporal control of its generation, propagation, compartmentalization, and elimination. Among the various steps of the cAMP-signaling pathway, G-protein coupled receptors, adenylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, the two major cAMP targets, i.e. protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cAMP, as well as the A-kinase anchoring proteins, are potential targets for drug development. Herein we review the recent progress on the regulation and manipulation of different steps of the cAMP-signaling pathway. We end by focusing on the emerging role of cAMP-signaling in modulating protein degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. New discoveries on the regulation of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway by cAMP-signaling support the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevent proteotoxicity in chronic neurodegenerative disorders and other human disease conditions associated with impaired protein turnover by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and the accumulation of ubiquitin-protein aggregates. PMID:23686612

Huang, He; Wang, Hu; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.

2013-01-01

17

What do we really know about the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of many different rodent models of muscle wasting have indicated that accelerated proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the principal cause of muscle atrophy induced by fasting, cancer cachexia, metabolic acidosis, denervation, disuse, diabetes, sepsis, burns, hyperthyroidism and excess glucocorticoids. However, our understanding about how muscle proteins are degraded, and how the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is activated in muscle under these conditions, is still very limited. The identities of the important ubiquitin-protein ligases in skeletal muscle, and the ways in which they recognize substrates are still largely unknown. Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that one set of ubquitination enzymes, E2(14K) and E3(alpha), which are responsible for the 'N-end rule' system of ubiquitination, plays an important role in muscle, especially in catabolic states. However, their functional significance in degrading different muscle proteins is still unclear. This review focuses on the many gaps in our understanding of the functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy, and highlights the strengths and limitations of the different experimental approaches used in such studies.

Jagoe, R. T.; Goldberg, A. L.

2001-01-01

18

The AAA-ATPase p97 facilitates degradation of apolipoprotein B by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

The ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA-ATPase) p97 (p97) has been implicated in the retrotranslocation of target proteins for delivery to the cytosolic proteasome during endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is an ERAD substrate in liver cells, including the human hepatoma, HepG2. We studied the potential role of p97 in the ERAD of apoB-100 in HepG2 cells using cell permeabilization, coimmunoprecipitation, and gene silencing. Degradation was abolished when HepG2 cytosol was removed by digitonin permeabilization, and treatment of intact cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused accumulation of ubiquitinated apoB protein in the cytosol. Cross-linking of intact cells with the thiol-cleavable agent dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate) (DSP), as well as nondenaturing immunoprecipitation, demonstrated an interaction between p97 and intracellular apoB. Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-mediated reduction of p97 protein increased the intracellular levels of newly synthesized apoB-100, predominantly because of a decrease in the turnover of newly synthesized apoB-100 protein. However, although the posttranslational degradation of newly synthesized apoB-100 was delayed by p97 knockdown, secretion of apoB-100 was not affected. Knockdown of p97 also impaired the release of apoB-100 and polyubiquitinated apoB into the cytosol. In summary, our results suggest that retrotranslocation and proteasomal degradation of apoB-100 can be dissociated in HepG2 cells, and that the AAA-ATPase p97 is involved in the removal of full-length apoB from the biosynthetic pathway to the cytosolic proteasome. PMID:18550891

Fisher, Eric A; Lapierre, Louis R; Junkins, Robert D; McLeod, Roger S

2008-10-01

19

Morphine induces ubiquitin-proteasome activity and glutamate transporter degradation.  

PubMed

Glutamate transporters play a crucial role in physiological glutamate homeostasis, neurotoxicity, and glutamatergic regulation of opioid tolerance. However, how the glutamate transporter turnover is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we show that chronic morphine exposure induced posttranscriptional down-regulation of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 in C6 glioma cells with a concurrent decrease in glutamate uptake and increase in proteasome activity, which were blocked by the selective proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or lactacystin but not the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquin. At the cellular level, chronic morphine induced the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten)-mediated up-regulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4 via cAMP/protein kinase A signaling, leading to EAAC1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Either Nedd4 or PTEN knockdown with small interfering RNA prevented the morphine-induced EAAC1 degradation and decreased glutamate uptake. These data indicate that cAMP/protein kinase A signaling serves as an intracellular regulator upstream to the activation of the PTEN/Nedd4-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome system activity that is critical for glutamate transporter turnover. Under an in vivo condition, chronic morphine exposure also induced posttranscriptional down-regulation of the glutamate transporter EAAC1, which was prevented by MG-132, and transcriptional up-regulation of PTEN and Nedd4 within the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated glutamate transporter degradation may be an important mechanism for preventing glutamate overexcitation and may offer a new strategy for treating certain neurological disorders and improving opioid therapy in chronic pain management. PMID:18539596

Yang, Liling; Wang, Shuxing; Sung, Backil; Lim, Grewo; Mao, Jianren

2008-08-01

20

Conditional transgenic system for mouse aurora a kinase: degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway controls the level of the transgenic protein.  

PubMed

Aurora A is a mitotic kinase that localizes to centrosomes. Expression of this protein is normally limited to the mitotic stage (G(2)-M) of the cell cycle, whereas human cancer cells frequently exhibit overexpression of Aurora A protein regardless of the cell cycle stage. In the present study, Aurora A transgenic mouse lines were generated with a new conditional expression system (cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer-chicken beta-actin hybrid promoter-Z-enhanced green fluorescent protein) in order to analyze the function of this protein. Although transcripts for Aurora A were elevated in multiple organs of the transgenic mice, the corresponding protein was not detected in extracts analyzed by immunoblotting. The treatment of transgenic-derived embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) with proteasome inhibitors markedly increased the protein level of transgenic Aurora A, indicating that the transgenic Aurora A protein is readily degraded in normal mouse tissues. Under the exponential growth conditions of MEF cells, transgenic Aurora A was detected within the mitotic stage of the cell cycle and localized to centrosomes. In contrast, the marker of the transgenic promoter (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was continuously expressed throughout the cell cycle, indicating the constitutive transcription of transgenic mRNA. These results indicate that transgenic Aurora A is protected from degradation within G(2)-M but is immediately degraded after translation in the G(1)-S stage of the cell cycle. The findings obtained with this transgenic model and derived cells support that the transition from protection to degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system at the end of mitosis is an important step in controlling the level of Aurora A protein during the cell cycle. PMID:15923640

Fukuda, Tomokazu; Mishina, Yuji; Walker, Michael P; DiAugustine, Richard P

2005-06-01

21

Role of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Regulating Abundance of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p27 mammalian cell cycle protein is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Both in vivo and in vitro, p27 was found to be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc2 and Ubc3 were specifically involved in the ubiquitination of p27. Compared with proliferating cells, quiescent cells exhibited a smaller amount of p27 ubiquitinating activity, which accounted for

Michele Pagano; Sun W. Tam; Anne M. Theodoras; Peggy Beer-Romero; Giannino del Sal; Vincent Chau; P. Renee Yew; Giulio F. Draetta; Mark Rolfe

1995-01-01

22

Protein Degradation by Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Formation and Labilization of Contextual Conditioning Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this…

Fustiñana, María Sol; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

2014-01-01

23

DUAL FUNCTIONS OF UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME PATHWAY IN LENS PROTEIN QUALITY CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accumulation of damaged or denatured proteins is associated with cataract. The purpose of this study is to determine roles of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) in removal and repair of damaged proteins. Cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) were exposed to physiologically relevant level of H2...

24

PTEN increases autophagy and inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in glioma cells independently of its lipid phosphatase activity.  

PubMed

Two major mechanisms of intracellular protein degradation, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, operate in mammalian cells. PTEN, which is frequently mutated in glioblastomas, is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I/AKT/mTOR pathway, which is a key regulator of autophagy. Here, we investigated in U87MG human glioma cells the role of PTEN in the regulation of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, because both are functionally linked and are relevant in cancer progression. Since U87MG glioma cells lack a functional PTEN, we used stable clones that express, under the control of a tetracycline-inducible system (Tet-on), wild-type PTEN and two of its mutants, G129E-PTEN and C124S-PTEN, which, respectively, lack the lipid phosphatase activity only and both the lipid and the protein phosphatase activities of this protein. Expression of PTEN in U87MG glioma cells decreased proteasome activity and also reduced protein ubiquitination. On the contrary, expression of PTEN increased the autophagic flux and the lysosomal mass. Interestingly, and although PTEN negatively regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by its lipid phosphatase activity, both effects in U87MG cells were independent of this activity. These results suggest a new mTOR-independent signaling pathway by which PTEN can regulate in opposite directions the main mechanisms of intracellular protein degradation. PMID:24349488

Errafiy, Rajaa; Aguado, Carmen; Ghislat, Ghita; Esteve, Juan M; Gil, Anabel; Loutfi, Mohammed; Knecht, Erwin

2013-01-01

25

Depolarization regulates cyclin D1 degradation and neuronal apoptosis: a hypothesis about the role of the ubiquitin/proteasome signalling pathway.  

PubMed

Depolarization and subsequent calcium entry exert essential neuroprotective effects but the ultimate effector by which calcium blocks apoptosis is not known. Here we show that inhibition of calcium entry into cerebellar neurons by switching from high to low extracellular K+ concentrations (30-5 mM) induces apoptosis, that correlates with a rapid accumulation of cyclin D1 (CD1), an early marker of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. These effects on apoptosis and cyclin D1 are mimicked either by blocking calcium entry into neurons (LaCl3, 100 microM or nifedipine, 10(-6) M) or by inhibiting the calcium/calmodulin pathway (calmidazolium, 10(-7) M). The increased CD1 protein levels do not result from a transcriptional upregulation of the CD1 gene by the Ca2+/calmodulin pathway but rather reflect an accumulation due to the lack of degradation by the proteasome-dependent pathway. Specific proteasome antagonists: carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norvalinal-H (MG-115), carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal-H (MG-132) and clastolactacystin beta-lactone, induce neuronal apoptosis by themselves. Finally, this pathway is functional only at neuroprotective concentrations of K+ (30 mM), suggesting that calcium/CamK signalling pathway may regulate neuronal death by regulating the proteasome-mediated degradation activity of rapidly turning-over proteins (constitutively expressed genes or pre-existing pools of mRNA). PMID:10051745

Boutillier, A L; Kienlen-Campard, P; Loeffler, J P

1999-02-01

26

Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway alters cellular levels of nitric oxide in tomato seedlings.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in diverse plant growth processes; however, little is known about pathways regulating NO levels in plants. In this study, we isolated a NO-overproducing mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in which hyper-accumulation of NO, associated with increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like activity, caused diminished vegetative growth of plants and showed delayed flowering. The hyper-accumulation of NO caused drastic shortening of primary root (shr) in the seedlings, while the scavenging of NO restored root elongation in shr mutant. Inhibition of NOS-like activity reduced NO levels and stimulated root elongation in the shr mutant seedlings, while inhibition of nitrate reductase (NR) activity could not rescue shr phenotype. The stimulation of NO levels in shr mutant also conferred increased resistance to pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Application of pharmacological inhibitors regulating ubiquitin-proteasome pathway reduced NO levels and NOS-like activity and stimulated shr root elongation. Our data indicate that a signaling pathway involving regulated protein degradation likely regulates NO synthesis in tomato. PMID:20603380

Negi, Sangeeta; Santisree, Parankusam; Kharshiing, Eros Vasil; Sharma, Rameshwar

2010-09-01

27

An optimal ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the nervous system: the role of deubiquitinating enzymes  

PubMed Central

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway (UPP), which is critical for normal function in the nervous system and is implicated in various neurological diseases, requires the small modifier protein ubiquitin to accomplish its duty of selectively degrading short-lived, abnormal or misfolded proteins. Over the past decade, a large class of proteases collectively known as deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) has increasingly gained attention in all manners related to ubiquitin. By cleaving ubiquitin from another protein, DUBs ensure that the UPP functions properly. DUBs accomplish this task by processing newly translated ubiquitin so that it can be used for conjugation to substrate proteins, by regulating the “where, when, and why” of UPP substrate ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, and by recycling ubiquitin for re-use by the UPP. Because of the reliance of the UPP on DUB activities, it is not surprising that these proteases play important roles in the normal activities of the nervous system and in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the functions of DUBs in the nervous system. We focus on their role in the UPP, and make the argument that understanding the UPP from the perspective of DUBs can yield new insight into diseases that result from anomalous intra-cellular processes or inter-cellular networks. Lastly, we discuss the relevance of DUBs as therapeutic options for disorders of the nervous system. PMID:25191222

Ristic, Gorica; Tsou, Wei-Ling; Todi, Sokol V.

2014-01-01

28

Ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation of antiapoptotic survivin facilitates induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pristimerin  

PubMed Central

Pristimerin (PM), a quinonemethide triterpenoid, is a promising anticancer agent with potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against cancer cell lines. However, the anticancer activity and mechanisms of PM in prostate cancer cells have not been adequately investigated. Here we report that the degradation of survivin plays an important role in the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of PM in carcinoma of the prostate (CaP) cell lines. Treatment with PM inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3 cells as characterized by the loss of cell viability and an increase in Annexin V-binding and cleavage of PARP-1, respectively. The antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of PM were associated with the inhibition of cell cycle regulatory proteins, antiapoptotic survivin and members of the Bcl-2 family. Data showed that response to PM is regulated by survivin since overexpression of survivin rendered CaP cells resistant to PM. Furthermore, downregulation of survivin by PM was mediated through the ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Together, these data demonstrate that pristimerin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in CaP cells by abolishing survivin through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:25175770

LIU, YONG BO; GAO, XIAOHUA; DEEB, DORAH; BRIGOLIN, CHRIS; ZHANG, YIGUAN; SHAW, JIAJIU; PINDOLIA, KIRIT; GAUTAM, SUBHASH C.

2014-01-01

29

Malformed selenoproteins are removed by the ubiquitin--proteasome pathway in Stanleya pinnata.  

PubMed

Despite the widely accepted belief that selenium toxicity in plants is manifested by the misincorporation of selenocysteine into selenoproteins, there is a lack of data suggesting that selenoproteins are malformed or misfolded. Plant mechanisms to prevent the formation of selenoproteins are associated with increased selenium tolerance, yet there is no evidence to suggest that selenoproteins are malformed or potentially misfolded. We reasoned that if selenoproteins are malformed, then they might be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The data demonstrate that selenate treatment induced the accumulation of both oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins, thus implicating both the 20S and 26S proteasome of Stanleya pinnata, a selenium-hyperaccumulating plant, in a selenate response. Inhibition of the proteasome increases the amount of selenium incorporated into protein, but not other elements. Furthermore, a higher percentage of selenium was found in a ubiquitinated protein fraction compared with other elements, suggesting that malformed selenoproteins are preferentially ubiquitinated and removed by the proteasome. Additionally, levels of the 20S and 26S proteasome and two heat shock proteins increase upon selenate treatment. Arabidopsis mutants with defects in the 26S proteasome have decreased selenium tolerance, which further supports the hypothesis that the 26S proteasome probably prevents selenium toxicity by removing selenoproteins. PMID:22323770

Sabbagh, Melissa; Van Hoewyk, Doug

2012-03-01

30

Regulation of ubiquitin proteasome pathway molecular markers in response to endurance and resistance exercise and training.  

PubMed

Knowledge on the effects of divergent exercise on ostensibly protein degradation pathways may be valuable for counteracting muscle wasting and for understanding muscle remodelling. This study examined mRNA and/or protein levels of molecular markers of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP), including FBXO32 (atrogin-1), MURF-1, FBXO40, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Protein substrates of atrogin-1-including EIF3F, MYOG and MYOD1-and of MURF-1-including PKM and MHC-were also measured. Subjects completed 10 weeks of endurance training (ET) or resistance training (RT) followed by a single-bout of endurance exercise (EE) or resistance exercise (RE). Following training, atrogin-1, FBXO40, FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA increased independently of exercise mode, whereas MURF-1 mRNA and FOXO3 protein increased following ET only. No change in other target proteins occurred post-training. In the trained state, single-bout EE, but not RE, increased atrogin-1, MURF-1, FBXO40, FOXO1, FOXO3 mRNA and FOXO3 protein. In contrast to EE, FBXO40 mRNA and protein decreased following single-bout RE. MURF-1 and FOXO1 protein levels as well as the protein substrates of atrogin-1 and MURF-1 were unchanged following training and single-bout exercise. This study demonstrates that the intracellular signals elicited by ET and RT result in an upregulation of UPP molecular markers, with a greater increase following ET. However, in the trained state, the expression levels of UPP molecular markers are increased following single-bout EE, but are less responsive to single-bout RE. This suggests that adaptations following endurance exercise training are more reliant on protein UPP degradation processes than adaptations following resistance exercise training. PMID:25104573

Stefanetti, Renae J; Lamon, Séverine; Wallace, Marita; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

2014-08-01

31

Limiting the power of p53 through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is critical in restraining the activities of the p53 tumor suppressor. Numerous E3 and E4 ligases regulate p53 levels. Additionally, deubquitinating enzymes that modify p53 directly or indirectly also impact p53 function. When alterations of these proteins result in increased p53 activity, cells arrest in the cell cycle, senesce, or apoptose. On the other hand, alterations that result in decreased p53 levels yield tumor-prone phenotypes. This review focuses on the physiological relevance of these important regulators of p53 and their therapeutic implications. PMID:25128494

Pant, Vinod

2014-01-01

32

Epidermal Growth Factor Cytoplasmic Domain Affects ErbB Protein Degradation by the Lysosomal and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Human Cancer Cells12  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic domains of EGF-like ligands, including EGF cytoplasmic domain (EGFcyt), have important biological functions. Using specific constructs and peptides of human EGF cytoplasmic domain, we demonstrate that EGFcyt facilitates lysosomal and proteasomal protein degradation, and this coincided with growth inhibition of human thyroid and glioma carcinoma cells. EGFcyt and exon 22–23-encoded peptide (EGF22.23) enhanced procathepsin B (procathB) expression and procathB-mediated lysosomal degradation of EGFR/ErbB1 as determined by inhibitors for procathB and the lysosomal ATPase inhibitor BafA1. Presence of mbEGFctF, EGFcyt, EGF22.23, and exon 23-encoded peptides suppressed the expression of the deubiqitinating enzyme ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1). This coincided with hyperubiquitination of total cellular proteins and ErbB1/2 and reduced proteasome activity. Upon small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of endogenously expressed UCH-L1, a similar hyperubiquitinylation phenotype, reduced ErbB1/2 content, and attenuated growth was observed. The exon 23-encoded peptide region of EGFcyt was important for these biologic actions. Structural homology modeling of human EGFcyt showed that this molecular region formed an exposed surface loop. Peptides derived from this EGFcyt loop structure may aid in the design of novel peptide therapeutics aimed at inhibiting growth of cancer cells. PMID:22745586

Glogowska, Aleksandra; Stetefeld, Jörg; Weber, Ekkehard; Ghavami, Saeid; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Klonisch, Thomas

2012-01-01

33

Enzymatic Blockade of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway  

E-print Network

Ubiquitin-dependent processes control much of cellular physiology. We show that expression of a highly active, Epstein-Barr virus-derived deubiquitylating enzyme (EBV-DUB) blocks proteasomal degradation of cytosolic and ...

Ernst, Robert

34

?-catenin is a target for the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-catenin is a central component of the cadherin cell adhesion complex and plays an essential role in the Wingless\\/Wnt signaling pathway. In the current model of this pathway, the amount of ?-catenin (or its invertebrate homolog Armadillo) is tightly regulated and its steady-state level outside the cadherin–catenin complex is low in the absence of Wingless\\/Wnt signal. Here we show that

Hermann Aberle; Andreas Bauer; Jörg Stappert; Andreas Kispert; Rolf Kemler

1997-01-01

35

Involvement of the ubiquitin\\/proteasome pathway in the organisation and polarised growth of kiwifruit pollen tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported the involvement of the ubiquitin pathway in microgametophyte development, and a direct role for the 26S proteasome in regulating pollen tube emergence in kiwifruit. Here we show that the ubiquitin\\/proteasome proteolytic pathway is involved not only in early kiwifruit pollen tube organisation, but also in maintaining polarised growth of tubes. By immunofluorescence analysis we show that ubiquitin

V. Scoccianti; E. Ovidi; A. R. Taddei; A. Tiezzi; R. Crinelli; L. Gentilini; A. Speranza

2003-01-01

36

Sequestosome 1/p62 Is a Polyubiquitin Chain Binding Protein Involved in Ubiquitin Proteasome Degradation  

PubMed Central

Herein, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain of sequestosome 1/p62 displays a preference for binding K63-polyubiquitinated substrates. Furthermore, the UBA domain of p62 was necessary for aggregate sequestration and cell survival. However, the inhibition of proteasome function compromised survival in cells with aggregates. Mutational analysis of the UBA domain reveals that the conserved hydrophobic patch MGF as well as the conserved leucine in helix 2 are necessary for binding polyubiquitinated proteins and for sequestration-aggregate formation. We report that p62 interacts with the proteasome by pull-down assay, coimmunoprecipitation, and colocalization. Depletion of p62 levels results in an inhibition of ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that p62 may act as a critical ubiquitin chain-targeting factor that shuttles substrates for proteasomal degradation. PMID:15340068

Seibenhener, M. Lamar; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh; Geetha, Thangiah; Wong, Hing C.; Krishna, N. Rama; Wooten, Marie W.

2004-01-01

37

Regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy pathways after acute LPS and epoxomicin administration in mice  

PubMed Central

Background The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is a major protein degradation pathway that is activated during sepsis and has been proposed as a therapeutic target for preventing skeletal muscle loss due to cachexia. Although several studies have investigated the modulation of proteasome activity in response to LPS administration, none have characterized the overall UPP response to LPS administration in the fate of proteasome inhibition. Methods Here, we determined the modulation pattern of the main key components of the UPP in the gastrocnemius (GAS) of mice during the acute phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated endotoxemia (7.5 mg/kg – 8 h) by measuring all three ?1, ?2 and ?5 activites of the 20S and 26S proteasomes, the levels of steady state polyubiquitinated proteins, mRNA levels of muscle ligases, as well as signaling pathways regulating the UPP. Another goal was to assess the effects of administration of a specific proteasome inhibitor (epoxomicin, 0.5 mg/kg) on UPP response to sepsis. Results The acute phase of LPS-induced endotoxemia lowered GAS/body weight ratio and increased MuRF1 and MAFbx mRNA concomitantly to an activation of the pathways known to regulate their expression. Unexpectedly, we observed a decrease in all 20S and 26S proteasome activities measured in GAS, which might be related to oxidative stress, as oxidized proteins (carbonyl levels) increase with LPS. While significantly inhibiting 20S and 26S proteasome ?5 activities in heart and liver, epoxomicin did not lower proteasome activity in GAS. However, the increase in mRNA expression of the muscle ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx were partially rescued without affecting the other investigated signaling pathways. LPS also strongly activated autophagy, which could explain the observed GAS atrophy with LPS-induced reduction of proteasome activity. Conclusions Our results highlight an opposite regulation of UPP in the early hours of LPS-induced muscle atrophy by showing reduced proteasome activities and increased mRNA expression of muscle specific ligases. Furthermore, our data do not support any preventive effect of epoxomicin in muscle atrophy due to acute cachexia since proteasome activities are not further repressed. PMID:24885455

2014-01-01

38

Ubiquitin-proteasome dependent degradation of GABAA?1 in autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Although the neurobiological basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood, recent studies have indicated the potential role of GABAA receptors in the pathophysiology of ASD. GABAA receptors play a crucial role in various neurodevelopmental processes and adult neuroplasticity. However, the mechanism(s) of regulation of GABAA receptors in ASD remains poorly understood. Methods Postmortem middle frontal gyrus tissues (13 ASD and 13 control subjects) were used. In vitro studies were performed in primary cortical neurons at days in vitro (DIV) 14. The protein levels were examined by western blotting. Immunofluorescence studies were employed for cellular localization. The gene expression was determined by RT-PCR array and qRT-PCR. Results A significant decrease in GABAA?1 protein, but not mRNA levels was found in the middle frontal gyrus of ASD subjects indicating a post-translational regulation of GABAA receptors in ASD. At the cellular level, treatment with proteasomal inhibitor, MG132, or lactacystin significantly increased GABAA?1 protein levels and Lys48-linked polyubiquitination of GABAA?1, but reduced proteasome activity in mouse primary cortical neurons (DIV 14 from E16 embryos). Moreover, treatment with betulinic acid, a proteasome activator significantly decreased GABAA?1 protein levels in cortical neurons indicating the role of polyubiquitination of GABAA?1 proteins with their subsequent proteasomal degradation in cortical neurons. Ubiquitination specific RT-PCR array followed by western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in SYVN1, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) E3 ubiquitin ligase in the middle frontal gyrus of ASD subjects. In addition, the inhibition of proteasomal activity by MG132 increased the expression of GABAA?1 in the ER. The siRNA knockdown of SYVN1 significantly increased GABAA?1 protein levels in cortical neurons. Moreover, reduced association between SYVN1 and GABAA?1 was found in the middle frontal gyrus of ASD subjects. Conclusions SYVN1 plays a critical role as an E3 ligase in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS)-mediated GABAA?1 degradation. Thus, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated GABAA?1 degradation may be an important mechanism for preventing GABAA?1 turnover to maintain GABAA?1 levels and GABA signaling in ASD. PMID:25392730

2014-01-01

39

Involvement of Protein Degradation by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Opiate Addictive Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Plastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a structure occupying a key position in the neural circuitry related to motivation, are among the critical cellular processes responsible for drug addiction. During the last decade, it has been shown that memory formation and related neuronal plasticity may rely not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). In this study, we assess the role of protein degradation in the NAcc in opiate-related behaviors. For this purpose, we coupled behavioral experiments to intra-accumbens injections of lactacystin, an inhibitor of the UPS. We show that protein degradation in the NAcc is mandatory for a full range of animal models of opiate addiction including morphine locomotor sensitization, morphine conditioned place preference, intra-ventral tegmental area morphine self-administration and intra-venous heroin self-administration but not for discrimination learning rewarded by highly palatable food. This study provides the first evidence of a specific role of protein degradation by the UPS in addiction. PMID:23169349

Massaly, Nicolas; Dahan, Lionel; Baudonnat, Mathieu; Hovnanian, Caroline; Rekik, Khaoula; Solinas, Marcello; David, Vincent; Pech, Stéphane; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Roullet, Pascal; Mouledous, Lionel; Frances, Bernard

2013-01-01

40

Degradation of mutant huntingtin via the ubiquitin/proteasome system is modulated by FE65.  

PubMed

An unstable expansion of the polyglutamine repeat within exon 1 of the protein Htt (huntingtin) causes HD (Huntington's disease). Mounting evidence shows that accumulation of N-terminal mutant Htt fragments is the source of disruption of normal cellular processes which ultimately leads to neuronal cell death. Understanding the degradation mechanism of mutant Htt and improving its clearance has emerged as a new direction in developing therapeutic approaches to treat HD. In the present study we show that the brain-enriched adaptor protein FE65 is a novel interacting partner of Htt. The binding is mediated through WW-polyproline interaction and is dependent on the length of the polyglutamine tract. Interestingly, a reduction in mutant Htt protein level was observed in FE65-knockdown cells, and the process requires the UPS (ubiquitin/proteasome system). Moreover, the ubiquitination level of mutant Htt was found to be enhanced when FE65 is knocked down. Immunofluroescence staining revealed that FE65 associates with mutant Htt aggregates. Additionally, we demonstrated that overexpression of FE65 increases mutant Htt-induced cell death both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that FE65 facilitates the accumulation of mutant Htt in cells by preventing its degradation via the UPS, and thereby enhances the toxicity of mutant Htt. PMID:22352297

Chow, Wan Ning Vanessa; Luk, Hon Wing; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Lau, Kwok-Fai

2012-05-01

41

c-Abl Regulates Proteasome Abundance by Controlling the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Degradation of PSMA7 Subunit.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a vital proteolytic pathway required for cell homeostasis. However, the turnover mechanism of the proteasome subunit itself is still not understood. Here, we show that the 20S proteasome subunit PSMA7 is subjected to ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, which was suppressed by PSMA7 phosphorylation at Y106 mediated by the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases c-Abl/Arg. BRCA1 specifically functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of PSMA7 ubiquitination. c-Abl/Arg regulates cellular proteasome abundance by controlling the PSMA7 subunit supply. Downregulated PSMA7 level results in decreased proteasome abundance in c-Abl/Arg RNAi-knockdown or c-abl/arg-deficient cells, which demonstrated an increased sensitivity to proteasome inhibition. In response to oxidative stress, the c-Abl-mediated upregulation of proteasome level compensates for the proteasomal activity impairment induced by reactive oxygen species. Abl-kinases-regulated biogenesis and homeostasis of proteasome complexes may be important for understanding related diseases and pathological states. PMID:25620702

Li, Dapei; Dong, Qincai; Tao, Qingping; Gu, Jing; Cui, Yan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Yuan, Jing; Li, Weihua; Xu, Rao; Jin, Yanwen; Li, Ping; Weaver, David T; Ma, Qingjun; Liu, Xuan; Cao, Cheng

2015-02-01

42

Activation of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway by silk fibroin modified chitosan nanoparticles in hepatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin (SF) is a protein with bulky hydrophobic domains and can be easily purified as sericin-free silk-based biomaterial. Silk fibroin modified chitosan nanoparticle (SF-CSNP), a biocompatible material, has been widely used as a potential drug delivery system. Our current investigation studied the bio-effects of the SF-CSNP uptake by liver cells. In this experiment, the characterizations of SF-CSNPs were measured by particle size analysis and protein assay. The average size of the SF-CSNP was 311.9 ± 10.7 nm, and the average zeta potential was +13.33 ± 0.3 mV. The SF coating on the SF-CSNP was 6.27 ± 0.17 ?g/mL. Moreover, using proteomic approaches, several proteins involved in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were identified by analysis of differential protein expressions of HepG2 cell uptake the SF-CSNP. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the SF-CSNP may be involved in liver cancer cell survival and proliferation. PMID:25588218

Yang, Ming-Hui; Chung, Tze-Wen; Lu, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Jong, Shiang-Bin; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Liao, Pao-Chi; Lin, Po-Chiao; Tyan, Yu-Chang

2015-01-01

43

Activation of the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway by Silk Fibroin Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles in Hepatic Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Silk fibroin (SF) is a protein with bulky hydrophobic domains and can be easily purified as sericin-free silk-based biomaterial. Silk fibroin modified chitosan nanoparticle (SF-CSNP), a biocompatible material, has been widely used as a potential drug delivery system. Our current investigation studied the bio-effects of the SF-CSNP uptake by liver cells. In this experiment, the characterizations of SF-CSNPs were measured by particle size analysis and protein assay. The average size of the SF-CSNP was 311.9 ± 10.7 nm, and the average zeta potential was +13.33 ± 0.3 mV. The SF coating on the SF-CSNP was 6.27 ± 0.17 ?g/mL. Moreover, using proteomic approaches, several proteins involved in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were identified by analysis of differential protein expressions of HepG2 cell uptake the SF-CSNP. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the SF-CSNP may be involved in liver cancer cell survival and proliferation. PMID:25588218

Yang, Ming-Hui; Chung, Tze-Wen; Lu, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Jong, Shiang-Bin; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Liao, Pao-Chi; Lin, Po-Chiao; Tyan, Yu-Chang

2015-01-01

44

Protein degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

Sol Fustiñana, María; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

2014-09-01

45

The ubiquitin-proteasome system: A novel target for anticancer and anti-inflammatory drug research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for the degradation of most intracellular proteins, including those that control\\u000a cell cycle progression, apoptosis, signal transduction and the NF-?B transcriptional pathway. Aberrations in the ubiquitin-proteasome\\u000a system underlie the pathogenesis of many human diseases, so both the ubiquitin-conjugating system and the 20S proteasome are\\u000a important targets for drug discovery. This article presents a few of

Halina Ostrowska

2008-01-01

46

Down-regulation of types I, II and III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors is mediated by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway.  

PubMed Central

Activation of certain phosphoinositidase-C-linked cell-surface receptors is known to cause an acceleration of the proteolysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors and, thus, lead to Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor down-regulation. In the current study we have sought to determine whether the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway is involved in this adaptive response. The data presented show (i) that activation of phosphoinositidase-C-linked receptors causes Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor ubiquitination in a range of cell types (AR4-2J cells, INS-1 cells and rat cerebellar granule cells), (ii) that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor down-regulation induced by activation of these receptors is blocked by proteasome inhibitors, (iii) that all known Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors (types I, II and III) are substrates for ubiquitination, (iv) that ubiquitination occurs while Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors are membrane-bound, (v) that Ins(1,4, 5)P3-receptor ubiquitination and down-regulation are stimulated only by those agonists that elevate Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration persistently, and (vi) that a portion of cellular Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors (those that are not type-I-receptor-associated) can be resistant to ubiquitination and degradation. In total these data indicate that the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediates Ins(1,4, 5)P3-receptor down-regulation and suggest that ubiquitination is stimulated by the binding of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to its receptor. PMID:10191279

Oberdorf, J; Webster, J M; Zhu, C C; Luo, S G; Wojcikiewicz, R J

1999-01-01

47

Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome activity prevents glutamate transporter degradation and morphine tolerance.  

PubMed

Glutamate transporters play a crucial role in physiological glutamate homeostasis and neurotoxicity. Recently, we have shown that downregulation of glutamate transporters after chronic morphine exposure contributed to the development of morphine tolerance. In the present study, we examined whether regulation of the glutamate transporter expression with the proposed proteasome inhibitor MG-132 would contribute to the development of tolerance to repeated intrathecal (twice daily x 7 days) morphine administration in rats. The results showed that MG-132 (5 nmol) given intrathecally blocked morphine-induced glutamate transporter downregulation and the decrease in glutamate uptake activity within the spinal cord dorsal horn. Co-administration of morphine (15 nmol) with MG-132 (vehicle=1<2.5<5=10 nmol) also dose-dependently prevented the development of morphine tolerance in rats. These findings suggest that prevention of spinal glutamate transporter downregulation may regulate the glutamatergic function that has been implicated in the development of morphine tolerance. The possible relationship between MG-132-mediated regulation of glutamate transporters, ubiquitin-proteasome system, and the cellular mechanisms of morphine tolerance is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:18986766

Yang, Liling; Wang, Shuxing; Lim, Grewo; Sung, Backil; Zeng, Qing; Mao, Jianren

2008-12-01

48

Modulation of p53 degradation via MDM2-mediated ubiquitylation and the ubiquitin–proteasome system during reperfusion after stroke: role of oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor suppressor gene p53 plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis through transcriptional activation of cell cycle control. Degradation of p53 hinders its role in apoptosis regulation. Recent studies have shown that MDM2-mediated ubiquitylation and the ubiquitin–proteasome system are critical regulating systems of p53 ubiquitylation. However, the mechanism regulating p53-mediated neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia remains unknown.

Atsushi Saito; Takeshi Hayashi; Shuzo Okuno; Tatsuro Nishi; Pak H Chan

2005-01-01

49

Docosahexaenoic acid induces the degradation of HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins by activating the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

The oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 proteins are essential for the onset and maintenance of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, we report that activation of the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), leads to proteasome-mediated degradation of E6/E7 viral proteins and the induction of apoptosis in HPV-infected cancer cells. The increases in UPS activity and degradation of E6/E7 oncoproteins were associated with DHA-induced overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous oxidative stress and pharmacological induction of mitochondrial ROS showed effects similar to those of DHA, and inhibition of ROS production abolished UPS activation, E6/E7 viral protein destabilization, and apoptosis. These findings identify a novel role for DHA in the regulation of UPS and viral proteins, and provide evidence for the use of DHA as a mechanistically unique anticancer agent for the chemoprevention and treatment of HPV-associated tumors. PMID:25393480

Jing, K; Shin, S; Jeong, S; Kim, S; Song, K-S; Park, J-H; Heo, J-Y; Seo, K-S; Park, S-K; Kweon, G-R; Wu, T; Park, J-I; Lim, K

2014-01-01

50

Docosahexaenoic acid induces the degradation of HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins by activating the ubiquitin–proteasome system  

PubMed Central

The oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 proteins are essential for the onset and maintenance of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, we report that activation of the cellular ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), leads to proteasome-mediated degradation of E6/E7 viral proteins and the induction of apoptosis in HPV-infected cancer cells. The increases in UPS activity and degradation of E6/E7 oncoproteins were associated with DHA-induced overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous oxidative stress and pharmacological induction of mitochondrial ROS showed effects similar to those of DHA, and inhibition of ROS production abolished UPS activation, E6/E7 viral protein destabilization, and apoptosis. These findings identify a novel role for DHA in the regulation of UPS and viral proteins, and provide evidence for the use of DHA as a mechanistically unique anticancer agent for the chemoprevention and treatment of HPV-associated tumors. PMID:25393480

Jing, K; Shin, S; Jeong, S; Kim, S; Song, K-S; Park, J-H; Heo, J-Y; Seo, K-S; Park, S-K; Kweon, G-R; Wu, T; Park, J-I; Lim, K

2014-01-01

51

The role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the formation of mallory bodies.  

PubMed

The dynamics of Mallory body (MB) formation are difficult to follow in vivo. Because of the lack of an in vitro mouse hepatocyte culture model, a cellular extract approach was developed. In this model an immunoprecipitate was obtained using an antibody to cytokeratin-8 (CK-8). The isolate contained a large number of compounds: CK-8, ubiquitin, a frameshift mutation of ubiquitin (UBB(+1)), proteasomal subunits beta5 (a catalytic subunit of the 20S proteasome) and Tbp7 (an ATPase subunit of the 26S proteasome), transglutaminase, tubulin, heat shock proteins 90 and 70, and MBs. In Western blots, CK-8 immunoprecipitates showed colocalization of these components in a complex of proteins colocalized in a high-molecular-weight smear. When the CK-8 immunoprecipitate was incubated with the isolate of proteasomes and an energy generating source (ATP), the components of the ubiquitinated protein smear increased. These observations taken together with the in vivo observation that these proteins colocalized at the edge of the MB shown in the present study suggest that these proteins form aggregates through covalent binding of CK-8, ubiquitin, and the proteasomes. Covalent aggregation is suggested by the fact that the protein complex found in the high-molecular-weight smear that forms in vitro fails to dissociate in SDS. This protein complex is present in the CK-8 immunoprecipitates of livers forming MBs but not in control livers. In conclusion, the results support the concept that Mallory bodies are aggresomes which form as the result of the failure of the ubiquitin-proteasome complex to adequately eliminate cytokeratins destined for proteolysis. PMID:12231209

Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; van Leeuwen, Frederik Willen; Nguyen, Victoria; French, Barbara Alan; Li, Jun; Riley, Nora; McPhaul, Laron Wilson; Lue, Yan He; French, Samuel William

2002-10-01

52

Synergistical effect of 20-HETE and high salt on NKCC2 protein and blood pressure via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

We previously generated a cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) transgenic mouse model and demonstrated that overexpressed CYP4F2 and overproduced 20-HETE in the kidneys contribute to the increase of blood pressure in the CYP4F2 transgenic mice with normal salt intake. We currently expect to elucidate a potential mechanism of salt-related hypertension whereby diverse levels of 20-HETE interact with dietary salt on Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter, isoform 2 (NKCC2) in the kidneys of the transgenic and wild-type mice with high salt intake. High salt intake reduced about 85 % abundance of renal NKCC2 protein in the transgenic mice and about 24 % in the wild-type mice by Western blot. Furthermore, we first found that NKCC2 was ubiquitinated and interacted with Nedd4-2 by immunoprecipitation in the transgenic mice with high salt intake. In addition, inhibition of 20-HETE synthesis or proteasome activity reversed the reduction of NKCC2 expression induced by 20-HETE and high salt intake. These results suggest that 20-HETE and high salt intake synergistically decrease the expression of NKCC2 protein via Nedd4-2-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and thereby modulate natriuresis and blood pressure. We propose that diverse levels of 20-HETE have diverse effects on blood pressure in different salt concentrations. PMID:23104236

Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Xiaoliang; Lai, Guangrui; Yang, Xianghong; Wang, Luzeng; Zhao, Yanyan

2013-02-01

53

Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of S-RNase in a solanaceous cross-compatibility reaction.  

PubMed

Many plants have a self-incompatibility (SI) system in which the rejection of self-pollen is determined by multiple haplotypes at a single locus, termed S. In the Solanaceae, each haplotype encodes a single ribonuclease (S-RNase) and multiple S-locus F-box proteins (SLFs), which function as the pistil and pollen SI determinants, respectively. S-RNase is cytotoxic to self-pollen, whereas SLFs are thought to collaboratively recognize non-self S-RNases in cross-pollen and detoxify them via the ubiquitination pathway. However, the actual mechanism of detoxification remains unknown. Here we isolate the components of a SCF(SLF) (SCF = SKP1-CUL1-F-box-RBX1) from Petunia pollen. The SCF(SLF) polyubiquitinates a subset of non-self S-RNases in vitro. The polyubiquitinated S-RNases are degraded in the pollen extract, which is attenuated by a proteasome inhibitor. Our findings suggest that multiple SCF(SLF) complexes in cross-pollen polyubiquitinate non-self S-RNases, resulting in their degradation by the proteasome. PMID:24689760

Entani, Tetsuyuki; Kubo, Ken-ichi; Isogai, Shin; Fukao, Yoichiro; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Isogai, Akira; Takayama, Seiji

2014-06-01

54

Neuroinflammation and J2 prostaglandins: linking impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondria to neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

The immune response of the CNS is a defense mechanism activated upon injury to initiate repair mechanisms while chronic over-activation of the CNS immune system (termed neuroinflammation) may exacerbate injury. The latter is implicated in a variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, HIV dementia, and prion diseases. Cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), which are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into bioactive prostanoids, play a central role in the inflammatory cascade. J2 prostaglandins are endogenous toxic products of cyclooxygenases, and because their levels are significantly increased upon brain injury, they are actively involved in neuronal dysfunction induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which J2 prostaglandins (1) exert their actions, (2) potentially contribute to the transition from acute to chronic inflammation and to the spreading of neuropathology, (3) disturb the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondrial function, and (4) contribute to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and demyelination in Krabbe disease. We conclude by discussing the therapeutic potential of targeting the J2 prostaglandin pathway to prevent/delay neurodegeneration associated with neuroinflammation. In this context, we suggest a shift from the traditional view that cyclooxygenases are the most appropriate targets to treat neuroinflammation, to the notion that J2 prostaglandin pathways and other neurotoxic prostaglandins downstream from cyclooxygenases, would offer significant benefits as more effective therapeutic targets to treat chronic neurodegenerative diseases, while minimizing adverse side effects. PMID:25628533

Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.; Rockwell, Patricia; Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Thomas; Serrano, Peter

2015-01-01

55

Blocking Plasmodium falciparum development via dual inhibition of hemoglobin degradation and the ubiquitin proteasome system by MG132.  

PubMed

Among key potential drug target proteolytic systems in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are falcipains, a family of hemoglobin-degrading cysteine proteases, and the ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS), which has fundamental importance in cellular protein turnover. Inhibition of falcipains blocks parasite development, primarily due to inhibition of hemoglobin degradation that serves as a source of amino acids for parasite growth. Falcipains prefer P2 leucine in substrates and peptides, and their peptidyl inhibitors with leucine at the P2 position show potent antimalarial activity. The peptidyl inhibitor MG132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-CHO) is a widely used proteasome inhibitor, which also has P2 leucine, and has also been shown to inhibit parasite development. However, the antimalarial targets of MG132 are unclear. We investigated whether MG132 blocks malaria parasite development by inhibiting hemoglobin degradation and/or by targeting the UPS. P. falciparum was cultured with inhibitors of the UPS (MG132, epoxomicin, and lactacystin) or falcipains (E64), and parasites were assessed for morphologies, extent of hemoglobin degradation, and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. MG132, like E64 and unlike epoxomicin or lactacystin, blocked parasite development, with enlargement of the food vacuole and accumulation of undegraded hemoglobin, indicating inhibition of hemoglobin degradation by MG132, most likely due to inhibition of hemoglobin-degrading falcipain cysteine proteases. Parasites cultured with epoxomicin or MG132 accumulated ubiquitinated proteins to a significantly greater extent than untreated or E64-treated parasites, indicating that MG132 inhibits the parasite UPS as well. Consistent with these findings, MG132 inhibited both cysteine protease and UPS activities present in soluble parasite extracts, and it strongly inhibited recombinant falcipains. MG132 was highly selective for inhibition of P. falciparum (IC50 0.0476 µM) compared to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (IC50 10.8 µM). Thus, MG132 inhibits two distinct proteolytic systems in P. falciparum, and it may serve as a lead molecule for development of dual-target inhibitors of malaria parasites. PMID:24023882

Prasad, Rajesh; Atul; Kolla, Venkata Karunakar; Legac, Jennifer; Singhal, Neha; Navale, Rahul; Rosenthal, Philip J; Sijwali, Puran Singh

2013-01-01

56

Regulation of HTLV-1 Tax Stability, Cellular Trafficking and NF-?B Activation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in 3%–5% of infected individuals after a long latent period. HTLV-1 Tax is a trans-activating protein that regulates viral gene expression and also modulates cellular signaling pathways to enhance T-cell proliferation and cell survival. The Tax oncoprotein promotes T-cell transformation, in part via constitutive activation of the NF-?B transcription factor; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Ubiquitination is a type of post-translational modification that occurs in a three-step enzymatic cascade mediated by E1, E2 and E3 enzymes and regulates protein stability as well as signal transduction, protein trafficking and the DNA damage response. Emerging studies indicate that Tax hijacks the ubiquitin machinery to activate ubiquitin-dependent kinases and downstream NF-?B signaling. Tax interacts with the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and is conjugated on C-terminal lysine residues with lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Tax K63-linked polyubiquitination may serve as a platform for signaling complexes since this modification is critical for interactions with NEMO and IKK. In addition to NF-?B signaling, mono- and polyubiquitination of Tax also regulate its subcellular trafficking and stability. Here, we review recent advances in the diverse roles of ubiquitin in Tax function and how Tax usurps the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to promote oncogenesis. PMID:25341660

Lavorgna, Alfonso; Harhaj, Edward William

2014-01-01

57

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed Central

Our studies of the yeast ubiquitin-proteasome pathway have uncovered a number of general principles that govern substrate selectivity and proteolysis in this complex system. Much of the work has focused on the destruction of a yeast transcription factor, MAT alpha 2. The alpha 2 protein is polyubiquitinated and rapidly degraded in alpha-haploid cells. One pathway of proteolytic targeting, which depends on two distinct endoplasmic reticulum-localized ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, recognizes the hydrophobic face of an amphipathic helix in alpha 2. Interestingly, degradation of alpha 2 is blocked in a/alpha-diploid cells by heterodimer formation between the alpha 2 and a1 homeodomain proteins. The data suggest that degradation signals may overlap protein-protein interaction surfaces, allowing a straightforward steric mechanism for regulated degradation. Analysis of alpha 2 degradation led to the identification of both 20S and 26S proteasome subunits, and several key features of proteasome assembly and active-site formation were subsequently uncovered. Finally, it has become clear that protein (poly) ubiquitination is highly dynamic in vivo, and our studies of yeast de-ubiquitinating enzymes illustrate how such enzymes can facilitate the proteolysis of diverse substrates. PMID:10582237

Hochstrasser, M; Johnson, P R; Arendt, C S; Amerik AYu; Swaminathan, S; Swanson, R; Li, S J; Laney, J; Pals-Rylaarsdam, R; Nowak, J; Connerly, P L

1999-01-01

58

Toll-like receptor 4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways  

PubMed Central

Cachectic muscle wasting is a frequent complication of many inflammatory conditions, due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. However, the pathogenesis and intervention strategies against it remain to be established. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a master regulator of inflammatory muscle catabolism. We demonstrate that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces C2C12 myotube atrophy via up-regulating autophagosome formation and the expression of ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1. TLR4-mediated activation of p38 MAPK is necessary and sufficient for the up-regulation of atrogin1/MAFbx and autophagosomes, resulting in myotube atrophy. Similarly, LPS up-regulates muscle autophagosome formation and ubiquitin ligase expression in mice. Importantly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine completely abolishes LPS-induced muscle proteolysis, while proteasome inhibitor lactacystin partially blocks it. Furthermore, TLR4 knockout or p38 MAPK inhibition abolishes LPS-induced muscle proteolysis. Thus, TLR4 mediates LPS-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosomal pathways.—Doyle, A., Zhang, G., Abdel Fattah, E. A., Eissa, N. T., Li, Y.-P. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways. PMID:20826541

Doyle, Alexander; Zhang, Guohua; Abdel Fattah, Elmoataz A.; Eissa, N. Tony; Li, Yi-Ping

2011-01-01

59

Role of ubiquitin-proteasome in protein quality control and signaling: implication in the pathogenesis of eye diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ubiquitin–proteasome pathway (UPP) plays important roles in many cellular functions, such as protein quality control, cell cycle control, and signal transduction. The selective degradation of aberrant proteins by the UPP is essential for the timely removal of potential cytotoxic damaged or other...

60

Identification of Caspase-6-Mediated Processing of the Valosin Containing Protein (p97) in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Novel Link to Dysfunction in Ubiquitin Proteasome System-Mediated Protein Degradation  

PubMed Central

The valosin-containing protein (p97) is a ubiquitin-dependent ATPase that plays central roles in ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS)-mediated protein degradation pathways. p97 has been recently identified as a putative substrate of active Caspase-6 (Casp6) in primary human neurons. Since Casp6 is activated in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ brains, the targeting of p97 by Casp6 may represent an important step that leads to UPS impairment in AD. Here, we show that p97 is a Casp6 substrate in vitro and in vivo. Casp6 cleavage of recombinant p97 generated two N-terminal fragments of 28 and 20 kDa, which were not generated by the other two effector caspases, Caspase-3 and Caspase-7. ATP binding to the D1 ATPase ring of p97 reduced the susceptibility of the N-domain to caspase-mediated proteolysis. Mass spectrometric analysis identified VAPD179 as a Casp6 cleavage site within p97’s N-domain. An anti-neoepitope serum immunohistochemically detected p97 cleaved at VAPD179 in the cytoplasm of the cell soma and neurites of hippocampal neurons in MCI and AD. Overexpression of p97 (1-179) fragment, representing p97 cleaved at D179, impaired the degradation of model substrates in the ubiquitin-fusion degradation and the N-end rule pathways, and destabilized endogenous p97. Collectively, these results show that p97 is cleaved by Casp6 in AD and suggest p97 cleavage as an important mechanism for UPS impairment. PMID:20427671

Halawani, Dalia; Tessier, Sylvain; Anzellotti, Dominique; Bennett, David A.; Latterich, Martin; LeBlanc, Andréa C.

2011-01-01

61

A conserved protein with AN1 zinc finger and ubiquitin-like domains modulates Cdc48 (p97) function in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

Regulated protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is critical to eukaryotic protein homeostasis. Often vital to degradation of protein substrates is their disassembly, unfolding, or extraction from membranes. These processes are catalyzed by the conserved AAA-ATPase Cdc48 (also known as p97). Here we characterize the Cuz1 protein (Cdc48-associated UBL/zinc finger protein-1), encoded by a previously uncharacterized arsenite-inducible gene in budding yeast. Cuz1, like its human ortholog ZFAND1, has both an AN1-type zinc finger (Zf_AN1) and a divergent ubiquitin-like domain (UBL). We show that Cuz1 modulates Cdc48 function in the UPS. The two proteins directly interact, and the Cuz1 UBL, but not Zf_AN1, is necessary for binding to the Cdc48 N-terminal domain. Cuz1 also associates, albeit more weakly, with the proteasome, and the UBL is dispensable for this interaction. Cuz1-proteasome interaction is strongly enhanced by exposure of cells to the environmental toxin arsenite, and in a proteasome mutant, loss of Cuz1 enhances arsenite sensitivity. Whereas loss of Cuz1 alone causes only minor UPS degradation defects, its combination with mutations in the Cdc48(Npl4-Ufd1) complex leads to much greater impairment. Cuz1 helps limit the accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates on both the proteasome and Cdc48, suggesting a possible role in the transfer of ubiquitylated substrates from Cdc48 to the proteasome or in their release from these complexes. PMID:24121501

Sá-Moura, Bebiana; Funakoshi, Minoru; Tomko, Robert J; Dohmen, R Jürgen; Wu, Zhiping; Peng, Junmin; Hochstrasser, Mark

2013-11-22

62

Ubiquitin-proteasome system in spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

Spermatogenesis represents a complex succession of cell division and differentiation events resulting in the continuous formation of spermatozoa. Such a complex program requires precise expression of enzymes and structural proteins which is effected not only by regulation of gene transcription and translation, but also by targeted protein degradation. In this chapter, we review current knowledge about the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in spermatogenesis, describing both proteolytic and non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitination. Ubiquitination plays essential roles in the establishment of both spermatogonial stem cells and differentiating spermatogonia from gonocytes. It also plays critical roles in several key processes during meiosis such as genetic recombination and sex chromosome silencing. Finally, in spermiogenesis, we summarize current knowledge of the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in nucleosome removal and establishment of key structures in the mature spermatid. Many mechanisms remain to be precisely defined, but present knowledge indicates that research in this area has significant potential to translate into benefits that will address problems in both human and animal reproduction. PMID:25030765

Bose, Rohini; Manku, Gurpreet; Culty, Martine; Wing, Simon S

2014-01-01

63

Activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of cachectic rats bearing a hepatoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats implanted with Yoshida ascites hepatoma (YAH) show a rapid and selective loss of muscle protein due mainly to a marked increase (63-95%) in the rate of protein degradation (compared with rates in muscles of pair-fed controls). To define which proteolytic pathways contribute to this increase, epitrochlearis muscles from YAH-bearing and control rats were incubated under conditions that modify different proteolytic systems. Overall proteolysis in either group of rats was not affected by removal of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Inhibition of lysosomal function with methylamine reduced proteolysis (-12%) in muscles from YAH-bearing rats, but not in muscles of pair-fed rats. When ATP production was also inhibited, the remaining accelerated proteolysis in muscles of tumor-bearing rats fell to control levels. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and a 27-kDa proteasome subunit in Western blot analysis. Levels of mRNA encoding components of proteolytic systems were quantitated using Northern hybridization analysis. Although their total RNA content decreased 20-38%, pale muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin mRNA (590-880%) and mRNA for multiple subunits of the proteasome (100-215%). Liver, kidney, heart, and brain showed no weight loss and no change in these mRNA species. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats also showed small increases (30-40%) in mRNA for cathepsins B and D, but not for calpain I or heat shock protein 70. Our findings suggest that accelerated muscle proteolysis and muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats result primarily from activation of the ATP-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and the proteasome.

Baracos, V. E.; DeVivo, C.; Hoyle, D. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

1995-01-01

64

Differential ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy signaling following rotator cuff tears and suprascapular nerve injury  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have evaluated role of Akt/mTOR signaling in rotator cuff muscle atrophy and determined that there was differential in signaling following tendon transection (TT) and suprascapular nerve (SSN) denervation (DN), suggesting that atrophy following TT and DN was modulated by different protein degradation pathways. In this study, two muscle proteolytic systems that have been shown to be potent regulators of muscle atrophy in other injury models, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy, were evaluated following TT and DN. In addition to examining protein degradation, this study assessed protein synthesis rate following these two surgical models to understand how the balance between protein degradation and synthesis results in atrophy following rotator cuff injury. In contrast to the traditional theory that protein synthesis is decreased during muscle atrophy, this study suggests that protein synthesis is up-regulated in rotator cuff muscle atrophy following both surgical models. While the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was a major contributor to the atrophy seen following DN, autophagy was a major contributor following TT. The findings of this study suggest that protein degradation is the primary factor contributing to atrophy following rotator cuff injury. However, different proteolytic pathways are activated if SSN injury is involved. PMID:24018537

Joshi, Sunil K.; Kim, Hubert T.; Feeley, Brian T.; Liu, Xuhui

2013-01-01

65

SCFFbxw15 Mediates Histone Acetyltransferase Binding to Origin Recognition Complex (HBO1) Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Degradation to Regulate Cell Proliferation*  

PubMed Central

Histone acetyltransferase binding to origin recognition complex (HBO1) plays a crucial role in DNA replication licensing and cell proliferation, yet its molecular regulation in cells is relatively unknown. Here an uncharacterized protein, Fbxw15, directly interacts with HBO1, a labile protein (t½ = ?3 h), to mediate its ubiquitination (Lys338) and degradation in the cytoplasm. Fbxw15-mediated HBO1 depletion required mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (Mek1), which was sufficient to trigger HBO1 phosphorylation and degradation in cells. Mek1 ability to produce HBO1 degradation was blocked by Fbxw15 silencing. Lipopolysaccharide induced HBO1 degradation, an effect abrogated by Fbxw15 or Mek1 cellular depletion. Modulation of Fbxw15 levels was able to differentially regulate histone H3K14 acetylation and cellular proliferation by altering HBO1 levels. These studies authenticate Fbxw15 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit that mediates endotoxin-induced HBO1 depletion in cells, thereby controlling cell replicative capacity. PMID:23319590

Zou, Chunbin; Chen, Yan; Smith, Rebecca M.; Snavely, Courtney; Li, Jin; Coon, Tiffany A.; Chen, Bill B.; Zhao, Yutong; Mallampalli, Rama K.

2013-01-01

66

Substrate recognition in selective autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

Dynamic protein turnover through regulated protein synthesis and degradation ensures cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation and adaptation. Eukaryotic cells utilize two mechanistically distinct but largely complementary systems - the 26S proteasome and the lysosome (or vacuole in yeast and plants) - to effectively target a wide range of proteins for degradation. The concerted action of the ubiquitination machinery and the 26S proteasome ensures the targeted and tightly regulated degradation of a subset of commonly short-lived cellular proteins. Autophagy is a distinct degradation pathway, which transports a highly heterogeneous set of cargos in dedicated vesicles, called autophagosomes, to the lysosome. There the cargo becomes degraded and its molecular building blocks are recycled. While general autophagy randomly engulfs portions of the cytosol, selective autophagy employs dedicated cargo adaptors to specifically enrich the forming autophagosomes for a certain type of cargo as a response to various intra- or extracellular signals. Selective autophagy targets a wide range of cargos including long-lived proteins and protein complexes, organelles, protein aggregates and even intracellular microbes. In this review we summarize available data on cargo recognition mechanisms operating in selective autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and emphasize their differences and common themes. Moreover, we derive general regulatory principles underlying cargo recognition in selective autophagy, and describe the system-wide crosstalk between these two cellular protein degradation systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin-Proteasome System. Guest Editors: Thomas Sommer and Dieter H. Wolf. PMID:23545414

Schreiber, Anne; Peter, Matthias

2014-01-01

67

Autophagy and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Cardiac Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy are two major intracellular protein degradation pathways. The UPS mediates the removal of soluble abnormal proteins as well as the targeted degradation of most normal proteins that are no longer needed. Autophagy is generally responsible for bulky removal of defective organelles and for sequestering portions of cytoplasm for lysosomal degradation during starvation. Impaired or inadequate protein degradation in the heart is associated with and may be a major pathogenic factor for a wide variety of cardiac dysfunctions, while enhanced protein degradation is also implicated in the development of cardiac pathology. It was generally assumed that the UPS and autophagy serve distinct functions. Therefore, the functional roles of the UPS and autophagy in the hearts have been largely investigated separately. However, recent advances in understanding the shared mechanisms contributing to UPS alteration and the induction of autophagy have helped reveal the link and interplay between the two proteolytic systems in the heart. These links are exemplified by scenarios in which inadequate UPS proteolytic function leads to activation of autophagy, helping alleviate proteotoxic stress. It is becoming increasingly clear that a coordinated and complementary relationship between the two systems is critical to protect cells against stress. Several proteins including p62, NBR1, HDAC6, and co-chaperones appear to play an important role in harmonizing and mobilizing the consortium formed by the UPS and autophagy. PMID:20228723

Zheng, Qingwen; Wang, Xuejun

2010-01-01

68

The ubiquitin proteasome system in Caenorhabditis elegans and its regulation?  

PubMed Central

Protein degradation constitutes a major cellular function that is responsible for maintenance of the normal cellular physiology either through the degradation of normal proteins or through the elimination of damaged proteins. The Ubiquitin–Proteasome System (UPS)1 is one of the main proteolytic systems that orchestrate protein degradation. Given that up- and down- regulation of the UPS system has been shown to occur in various normal (such as ageing) and pathological (such as neurodegenerative diseases) processes, the exogenous modulation of the UPS function and activity holds promise of (a) developing new therapeutic interventions against various diseases and (b) establishing strategies to maintain cellular homeostasis. Since the proteasome genes are evolutionarily conserved, their role can be dissected in simple model organisms, such as the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we survey findings on the redox regulation of the UPS in C. elegans showing that the nematode is an instrumental tool in the identification of major players in the UPS pathway. Moreover, we specifically discuss UPS-related genes that have been modulated in the nematode and in human cells and have resulted in similar effects thus further exhibiting the value of this model in the study of the UPS. PMID:24563851

Papaevgeniou, Nikoletta; Chondrogianni, Niki

2014-01-01

69

Lack of muscle recovery after immobilization in old rats does not result from a defect in normalization of the ubiquitin–proteasome and the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways  

PubMed Central

Immobilization periods increase with age because of decreased mobility and/or increased pathological episodes that require bed-rest. Sarcopaenia might be partially explained by an impaired recovery of skeletal muscle mass after a catabolic state due to an imbalance of muscle protein metabolism, apoptosis and cellular regeneration. Mechanisms involved in muscle recovery have been poorly investigated, and remain almost unknown in the elderly. This study aimed at studying the regulation of the capsase-dependent apoptotic and the ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent proteolytic pathways during immobilization and subsequent recovery during ageing. Old rats (22–24-months old) were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I8) and allowed to recover for 10 to 40 days (R10 to R40). Immobilized gastrocnemius muscles atrophied by 21%, and did not recover even at R40. Apoptotic index, amount of polyubiquitinated conjugates, proteasome chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like, apoptosome-linked caspase-9, -3, and -8 activities increased at I8. Conversely, the amount of the myogenic factor myf-5 decreased at I8. These changes paralleled the increase of intramuscular inflammation and oxidative stress. All these parameters normalized as soon as R10. The XIAP/Smac-DIABLO protein ratio decreased by half in immobilized muscles and remained low during recovery. Surprisingly, the non-immobilized leg also atrophied from R20, concomitantly with a decreased XIAP/Smac-DIABLO protein ratio. Altogether, this suggests that the impaired recovery following immobilization in ageing does not result from a lack of normalization of the caspase-dependent apoptotic and the ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent pathways, and also that immobilization could induce a general muscle loss and then contribute to the development of sarcopaenia in elderly. PMID:21115641

Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Vazeille, Emilie; Claustre, Agnès; Attaix, Didier; Anne, Listrat; Véronique, Santé-Lhoutellier; Philippe, Gatellier; Dardevet, Dominique; Combaret, Lydie

2011-01-01

70

Local ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis and long-term synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) of protein degradation has many roles in synaptic plasticity that underlies memory. Work on both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems has shown that the UPP regulates numerous substrates critical for synaptic plasticity. Initial research took a global view of ubiquitin-protein degradation in neurons. Subsequently, the idea of local protein degradation was proposed a decade ago. In this review, we focus on the functions of the UPP in long-term synaptic plasticity and discuss the accumulated evidence in support of the idea that the components of the UPP often have disparate local roles in different neuronal compartments rather than a single cell-wide function. PMID:25520617

Hegde, Ashok N.; Haynes, Kathryn A.; Bach, Svitlana V.

2014-01-01

71

The ubiquitin proteasome system in neurodegenerative diseases: culprit, accomplice or victim?  

PubMed

A shared hallmark for many neurodegenerative disorders is the accumulation of toxic protein species which is assumed to be the cause for these diseases. Since the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the most important pathway for selective protein degradation it is likely that it is involved in the aetiology neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, impairment of the UPS has been reported to occur during neurodegeneration. Although accumulation of toxic protein species (amyloid ?) are in turn known to impair the UPS the relationship is not necessarily causal. We provide an overview of the most recent insights in the roles the UPS plays in protein degradation and other processes. Additionally, we discuss the role of the UPS in clearance of the toxic proteins known to accumulate in the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. The present paper will focus on critically reviewing the involvement of the UPS in specific neurodegenerative diseases and will discuss if UPS impairment is a cause, a consequence or both of the disease. PMID:22270043

Dennissen, F J A; Kholod, N; van Leeuwen, F W

2012-02-01

72

The ubiquitin-proteasome system and microvascular complications of diabetes.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the mainstay of protein quality control which regulates cell cycle, differentiation and various signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. The timely and selective degradation of surplus and/or aberrant proteins by the UPS is essential for normal cellular physiology. Any disturbance, delay or exaggeration in the process of selection, sequestration, labeling for degradation and degradation of target proteins by the UPS will compromise cellular and tissue homeostasis. High blood glucose or hyperglycemia caused by diabetes disrupts normal vascular function in several target organs including the retina and kidney resulting in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). We and others have shown that hyperglycemia and oxidative stress modulate UPS activity in the retina and kidney. The majority of studies have focused on the kidney and provided insights into the contribution of dysregulated UPS to microvascular damage in DN. The eye is a unique organ in which a semi-fluid medium, the vitreous humor, separates the neural retina and its anastomosed blood vessels from the semi-solid lens tissue. The complexity of the cellular and molecular components of the eye may require a normal functioning and well tuned UPS for healthy vision. Altered UPS activity may contribute to the development of retinal microvascular complications of diabetes. A better understanding of the molecular nature of the ocular UPS function under normal and diabetic conditions is essential for development of novel strategies targeting its activity. This review will discuss the association of retinal vascular cell UPS activity with microvascular damage in DR with emphasis on alterations of the PA28 subunits of the UPS. PMID:24349668

Aghdam, Saeed Yadranji; Sheibani, Nader

2013-07-01

73

The role of allostery in the ubiquitin-proteasome system  

PubMed Central

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System is involved in many cellular processes including protein degradation. Degradation of a protein via this system involves two successive steps: ubiquitination and degradation. Ubiquitination tags the target protein with ubiquitin-like proteins, such as ubiquitin, SUMO and NEDD8, via a cascade involving three enzymes: activating enzyme E1, conjugating enzyme E2, and E3 ubiquitin ligases. The proteasomes recognize the ubiquitin-like protein tagged substrate proteins and degrade them. Accumulating evidence indicates that allostery is a central player in the regulation of ubiquitination, as well as deubiquitination and degradation. Here, we provide an overview of the key mechanistic roles played by allostery in all steps of these processes, and highlight allosteric drugs targeting them. Throughout the review, we emphasize the crucial mechanistic role played by linkers in allosterically controlling the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System action by biasing the sampling of the conformational space, which facilitate the catalytic reactions of the ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we propose that allostery may similarly play key roles in the regulation of molecular machines in the cell, and as such allosteric drugs can be expected to be increasingly exploited in therapeutic regimes. PMID:23234564

Liu, Jin; Nussinov, Ruth

2012-01-01

74

Ubiquitin-proteasome system and mitochondria - reciprocity.  

PubMed

Recently, sporadic links have been published between mitochondria - membrane-confined organelles - and the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for removal of cellular proteins. For example, Fzo1, a mitochondrial outer membrane mitofusin was shown to be ubiquitinated by a ubiquitin ligase, Cdc53(MDM30), and degraded by the proteasome. Two additional ubiquitin ligases, MITOL/MARCH-V and MULAN, as well as a deubiquitinating enzyme, Ubp16/USP30, are embedded in mitochondrial outer membranes and participate in mitochondrial dynamics. Defects in mitochondrial morphology or respiration capacity are also reported for mutations in other UPS components such as the Ub ligases Parkin and Rsp5 as well as in proteasome subunits. These examples are likely to reflect a pervasive involvement of UPS in recycling of mitochondria-associated proteins. The flux of imported proteins and the proximity to oxidative phosphorylation results in abundant damaged or misfolded proteins that generate the need for a responsive quality control system. Within the mitochondrial matrix there is a self-contained ATP-dependent system for protein turnover. However at the outer membrane, the UPS may play a corresponding role in recycling either membrane-embedded or imported proteins. In a parallel process, ubiquitination also partakes in selection of damaged mitochondria to the lysozome/vacuole via autophagy. In the reverse direction, components of the UPS are sensitive to cellular REDOX potential, and as such are affected by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration. This review will try to address the regulation of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function by UPS, as well as the reciprocal relationship between aberrant ROS produced by mitochondria and ubiquitination or proteasome activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The 26S Proteasome: When degradation is just not enough! PMID:20674813

Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; Glickman, Michael H

2011-02-01

75

Ubiquitin-like protein conjugation and the ubiquitin–proteasome system as drug targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) and ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) conjugation pathways are integral to cellular protein homeostasis. The growing recognition of the fundamental importance of these pathways to normal cell function and in disease has prompted an in-depth search for small-molecule inhibitors that selectively block the function of these pathways. However, our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms and biological consequences

Lynn Bedford; James Lowe; Lawrence R. Dick; R. John Mayer; James E. Brownell

2010-01-01

76

Failure of ubiquitin proteasome system: risk for neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the primary proteolytic quality control system in cells and has an essential function in the nervous system. UPS dysfunction has been linked to neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. The pathology of neurodegenerative diseases is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates or inclusion bodies within neurons. The failure or dysregulation of the UPS prevents the degradation of misfolded/aberrant proteins, leading to deficient synaptic function that eventually affects the nervous system. In this review, we discuss the UPS and its physiological roles in the nervous system, its influence on neuronal function, and how UPS dysfunction contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25413678

Zheng, Chen; Geetha, Thangiah; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh

2014-01-01

77

Regulation of Akt-mTOR, ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways in response to formoterol administration in rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Administration of ?2-agonists triggers skeletal muscle anabolism and hypertrophy. We investigated the time course of the molecular events responsible for rat skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to 1, 3 and 10 days of formoterol administration (i.p. 2000?g/kg/day). A marked hypertrophy of rat tibialis anterior muscle culminated at day 10. Phosphorylation of Akt, ribosomal protein S6, 4E-BP1 and ERK1/2 was increased at day 3, but returned to control level at day 10. This could lead to a transient increase in protein translation and could explain previous studies that reported increase in protein synthesis following ?2-agonist administration. Formoterol administration was also associated with a significant reduction in MAFbx/atrogin-1 mRNA level (day 3), suggesting that formoterol can also affect protein degradation of MAFbx/atrogin1 targeted substrates, including MyoD and eukaryotic initiation factor-3f (eIF3-f). Surprisingly, mRNA level of autophagy-related genes, light chain 3 beta (LC3b) and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 1 (Gabarapl1), as well as lysosomal hydrolases, cathepsin B and cathepsin L, was significantly and transiently increased after 1 and/or 3 days, suggesting that autophagosome formation would be increased in response to formoterol administration. However, this has to be relativized since the mRNA level of Unc-51-like kinase1 (Ulk1), BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein3 (Bnip3), and transcription factor EB (TFEB), as well as the protein content of Ulk1, Atg13, Atg5-Atg12 complex and p62/Sqstm1 remained unchanged or was even decreased in response to formoterol administration. These results demonstrate that the effects of formoterol are mediated, in part, through the activation of Akt-mTOR pathway and that other signaling pathways become more important in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass with chronic administration of ?2-agonists. PMID:23916784

Joassard, Olivier Roger; Amirouche, Adel; Gallot, Yann Simon; Desgeorges, Marine Maud; Castells, Josiane; Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Berthon, Phanélie; Freyssenet, Damien Gilles

2013-11-01

78

Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Stress Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer to Proteasome Inhibitor-Induced Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) mediates targeted protein degradation. Notably, the UPS determines levels of key checkpoint proteins controlling apoptosis and proliferation by controlling protein half-life. Herein, we show that ovarian carcinoma manifests an overstressed UPS by comparison with normal tissues by accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins despite elevated proteasome levels. Elevated levels of total ubiquitinated proteins and 19S and 20S proteasome

Martina Bazzaro; Michael K. Lee; Alessia Zoso; Antonio Santillan; Ie-Ming Shih; Richard B. S. Roden

2006-01-01

79

The role of allostery in the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in many cellular processes including protein degradation. Degradation of a protein via this system involves two successive steps: ubiquitination and degradation. Ubiquitination tags the target protein with ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs), such as ubiquitin, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and NEDD8, via a cascade involving three enzymes: activating enzyme E1, conjugating enzyme E2 and E3 ubiquitin ligases. The proteasomes recognize the UBL-tagged substrate proteins and degrade them. Accumulating evidence indicates that allostery is a central player in the regulation of ubiquitination, as well as deubiquitination and degradation. Here, we provide an overview of the key mechanistic roles played by allostery in all steps of these processes, and highlight allosteric drugs targeting them. Throughout the review, we emphasize the crucial mechanistic role played by linkers in allosterically controlling the UPS action by biasing the sampling of the conformational space, which facilitate the catalytic reactions of the ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we propose that allostery may similarly play key roles in the regulation of molecular machines in the cell, and as such allosteric drugs can be expected to be increasingly exploited in therapeutic regimes. PMID:23234564

Liu, Jin; Nussinov, Ruth

2013-01-01

80

Differential roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy in the clearance of soluble and aggregated TDP-43 species  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43, also known as TARDBP) is the major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Large TDP-43 aggregates that are decorated with degradation adaptor proteins are seen in the cytoplasm of remaining neurons in ALS and FTD patients post mortem. TDP-43 accumulation and ALS-linked mutations within degradation pathways implicate failed TDP-43 clearance as a primary disease mechanism. Here, we report the differing roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy in the clearance of TDP-43. We have investigated the effects of inhibitors of the UPS and autophagy on the degradation, localisation and mobility of soluble and insoluble TDP-43. We find that soluble TDP-43 is degraded primarily by the UPS, whereas the clearance of aggregated TDP-43 requires autophagy. Cellular macroaggregates, which recapitulate many of the pathological features of the aggregates in patients, are reversible when both the UPS and autophagy are functional. Their clearance involves the autophagic removal of oligomeric TDP-43. We speculate that, in addition to an age-related decline in pathway activity, a second hit in either the UPS or the autophagy pathway drives the accumulation of TDP-43 in ALS and FTD. Therapies for clearing excess TDP-43 should therefore target a combination of these pathways. PMID:24424030

Scotter, Emma L.; Vance, Caroline; Nishimura, Agnes L.; Lee, Youn-Bok; Chen, Han-Jou; Urwin, Hazel; Sardone, Valentina; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Rogelj, Boris; Rubinsztein, David C.; Shaw, Christopher E.

2014-01-01

81

Differential roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy in the clearance of soluble and aggregated TDP-43 species.  

PubMed

TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43, also known as TARDBP) is the major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Large TDP-43 aggregates that are decorated with degradation adaptor proteins are seen in the cytoplasm of remaining neurons in ALS and FTD patients post mortem. TDP-43 accumulation and ALS-linked mutations within degradation pathways implicate failed TDP-43 clearance as a primary disease mechanism. Here, we report the differing roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy in the clearance of TDP-43. We have investigated the effects of inhibitors of the UPS and autophagy on the degradation, localisation and mobility of soluble and insoluble TDP-43. We find that soluble TDP-43 is degraded primarily by the UPS, whereas the clearance of aggregated TDP-43 requires autophagy. Cellular macroaggregates, which recapitulate many of the pathological features of the aggregates in patients, are reversible when both the UPS and autophagy are functional. Their clearance involves the autophagic removal of oligomeric TDP-43. We speculate that, in addition to an age-related decline in pathway activity, a second hit in either the UPS or the autophagy pathway drives the accumulation of TDP-43 in ALS and FTD. Therapies for clearing excess TDP-43 should therefore target a combination of these pathways. PMID:24424030

Scotter, Emma L; Vance, Caroline; Nishimura, Agnes L; Lee, Youn-Bok; Chen, Han-Jou; Urwin, Hazel; Sardone, Valentina; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Rogelj, Boris; Rubinsztein, David C; Shaw, Christopher E

2014-03-15

82

Skeletal Muscle Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system  

E-print Network

Skeletal Muscle Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant molecular pathology in OPMD animal models and patients Anvar et al. Anvar et al. Skeletal Muscle 2011, 1:15 http-onset progressive muscle disorder caused by a poly-alanine expansion mutation in the Poly(A) Binding Protein Nuclear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Regulation of Mitochondrial Genome Inheritance by Autophagy and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Implications for Health, Fitness, and Fertility  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease. PMID:25028670

Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo

2014-01-01

84

Regulation of mitochondrial genome inheritance by autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system: implications for health, fitness, and fertility.  

PubMed

Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease. PMID:25028670

Song, Won-Hee; Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Peter

2014-01-01

85

Roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the effects of drugs of abuse  

PubMed Central

Because of its ability to regulate the abundance of selected proteins the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in neuronal and synaptic plasticity. As a result various stages of learning and memory depend on UPS activity. Drug addiction, another phenomenon that relies on neuroplasticity, shares molecular substrates with memory processes. However, the necessity of proteasome-dependent protein degradation for the development of addiction has been poorly studied. Here we first review evidences from the literature that drugs of abuse regulate the expression and activity of the UPS system in the brain. We then provide a list of proteins which have been shown to be targeted to the proteasome following drug treatment and could thus be involved in neuronal adaptations underlying behaviors associated with drug use and abuse. Finally we describe the few studies that addressed the need for UPS-dependent protein degradation in animal models of addiction-related behaviors. PMID:25610367

Massaly, Nicolas; Francès, Bernard; Moulédous, Lionel

2015-01-01

86

The Emerging Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome in Pulmonary Biology and Disease  

PubMed Central

Derangements in normal cellular homeostasis at the protein level can cause or be the consequence of initiation and progression of pulmonary diseases related to genotype, infection, injury, smoking, toxin exposure, or neoplasm. We discuss one of the fundamental mechanisms of protein homeostasis, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), as it relates to lung disease. The UPS effects selective degradation of ubiquitinated target proteins via ubiquitin ligase activity. Important pathobiological mechanisms relating to the UPS and lung disease have been the focus of research, with inappropriate cellular proteolysis now a validated therapeutic target. We review the contributions of this system in various lung diseases, and discuss the exciting area of UPS-targeting drug development for pulmonary disease. PMID:23713962

Weathington, Nathaniel M.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

2013-01-01

87

Autophagic-Lysosomal Inhibition Compromises Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Performance in a p62 Dependent Manner in Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

Intracellular protein degradation is primarily performed by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP). The interplay between these two pathways has been rarely examined in intact animals and the mechanism underlying the interplay remains unclear. Hence, we sought to test in vivo and in vitro the impact of inhibition of the ALP on UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes and to explore the underlying mechanism. Transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing a surrogate UPS substrate (GFPdgn) were treated with bafilomycin-A1 (BFA) to inhibit the ALP. Myocardial and renal GFPdgn protein levels but not mRNA levels were increased at 24 hours but not 3 hours after the first injection of BFA. Myocardial protein abundance of key proteasome subunits and the activities of proteasomal peptidases were not discernibly altered by the treatment. In cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), the surrogate UPS substrate GFPu and a control red fluorescence protein (RFP) were co-expressed to probe UPS performance. At 12 hours or 24 hours after ALP inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or BFA, GFPu/RFP protein ratios and the protein half-life of GFPu were significantly increased, which is accompanied by increases in p62 proteins. Similar findings were obtained when ALP was inhibited genetically via silencing Atg7 or Rab7. ALP inhibition-induced increases in GFPu and p62 are co-localized in NRVMs. siRNA-mediated p62 knockdown prevented ALP inhibition from inducing GFPu accumulation in NRVMs. We conclude that in a p62-dependent fashion, ALP inhibition impairs cardiac UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24959866

Tian, Zongwen; Wang, Changhua; Hu, Chengjun; Tian, Yihao; Liu, Jinbao; Wang, Xuejun

2014-01-01

88

Plant Development: Regulation by Protein Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many aspects of eukaryotic development depend on regulated protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. This highly conserved pathway promotes covalent attachment of ubiquitin to protein substrates through the sequential action of three enzymes called a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3). Most ubiquitinated proteins are then targeted for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Recent studies have also shown that the ubiquitin-related protein RUB/Nedd8 and the proteasome-related COP9 signalosome complex cooperate with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to promote protein degradation. Most of these components are conserved in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. However, the known targets of the pathway in plants, and the developmental processes they regulate, are specific to the plant kingdom.

Hanjo Hellmann (University of Texas; Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology)

2002-08-02

89

Coordinated Regulation of Nuclear Receptor CAR by CCRP/DNAJC7, HSP70 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

The constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role as a coordinate transcription factor in the regulation of various hepatic metabolic pathways for chemicals such as drugs, glucose, fatty acids, bilirubin, and bile acids. Currently, it is known that in its inactive state, CAR is retained in the cytoplasm in a protein complex with HSP90 and the tetratricopeptide repeat protein cytosoplasmic CAR retention protein (CCRP). Upon activation by phenobarbital (PB) or the PB-like inducer 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]-benzene (TCPOBOP), CAR translocates into the nucleus. We have identified two new components to the cytoplasmic regulation of CAR: ubiquitin-dependent degradation of CCRP and protein-protein interaction with HSP70. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (5 µM) causes CAR to accumulate in the cytoplasm of transfected HepG2 cells. In the presence of MG132, TCPOBOP increases CCRP ubiquitination in HepG2 cells co-expressing CAR, while CAR ubiquitination was not detected. MG132 treatment of HepG2 also attenuated of TCPOBOP-induced CAR transcriptional activation on reporter constructs which contain CAR-binding DNA elements derived from the human CYP2B6 gene. The elevation of cytoplasmic CAR protein with MG132 correlated with an increase of HSP70, and to a lesser extent HSP60. Both CCRP and CAR were found to interact with endogenous HSP70 in HepG2 cells by immunoprecipitation analysis. Induction of HSP70 levels by heat shock also increased cytoplasmic CAR levels, similar to the effect of MG132. Lastly, heat shock attenuated TCPOBOP-induced CAR transcriptional activation, also similar to the effect of MG132. Collectively, these data suggest that ubiquitin-proteasomal regulation of CCRP and HSP70 are important contributors to the regulation of cytoplasmic CAR levels, and hence the ability of CAR to respond to PB or PB-like inducers. PMID:24789201

Timsit, Yoav E.; Negishi, Masahiko

2014-01-01

90

Coordinated regulation of nuclear receptor CAR by CCRP/DNAJC7, HSP70 and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

The constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role as a coordinate transcription factor in the regulation of various hepatic metabolic pathways for chemicals such as drugs, glucose, fatty acids, bilirubin, and bile acids. Currently, it is known that in its inactive state, CAR is retained in the cytoplasm in a protein complex with HSP90 and the tetratricopeptide repeat protein cytosoplasmic CAR retention protein (CCRP). Upon activation by phenobarbital (PB) or the PB-like inducer 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]-benzene (TCPOBOP), CAR translocates into the nucleus. We have identified two new components to the cytoplasmic regulation of CAR: ubiquitin-dependent degradation of CCRP and protein-protein interaction with HSP70. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (5 µM) causes CAR to accumulate in the cytoplasm of transfected HepG2 cells. In the presence of MG132, TCPOBOP increases CCRP ubiquitination in HepG2 cells co-expressing CAR, while CAR ubiquitination was not detected. MG132 treatment of HepG2 also attenuated of TCPOBOP-induced CAR transcriptional activation on reporter constructs which contain CAR-binding DNA elements derived from the human CYP2B6 gene. The elevation of cytoplasmic CAR protein with MG132 correlated with an increase of HSP70, and to a lesser extent HSP60. Both CCRP and CAR were found to interact with endogenous HSP70 in HepG2 cells by immunoprecipitation analysis. Induction of HSP70 levels by heat shock also increased cytoplasmic CAR levels, similar to the effect of MG132. Lastly, heat shock attenuated TCPOBOP-induced CAR transcriptional activation, also similar to the effect of MG132. Collectively, these data suggest that ubiquitin-proteasomal regulation of CCRP and HSP70 are important contributors to the regulation of cytoplasmic CAR levels, and hence the ability of CAR to respond to PB or PB-like inducers. PMID:24789201

Timsit, Yoav E; Negishi, Masahiko

2014-01-01

91

Ageing has no effect on the regulation of the ubiquitin proteasome-related genes and proteins following resistance exercise  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a critical component of the ageing process. Age-related muscle wasting is due to disrupted muscle protein turnover, a process mediated in part by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). Additionally, older subjects have been observed to have an attenuated anabolic response, at both the molecular and physiological levels, following a single-bout of resistance exercise (RE). We investigated the expression levels of the UPP-related genes and proteins involved in muscle protein degradation in 10 older (60–75 years) vs. 10 younger (18–30 years) healthy male subjects at basal as well as 2 h after a single-bout of RE. MURF1, atrogin-1 and FBXO40, their substrate targets PKM2, myogenin, MYOD, MHC and EIF3F as well as MURF1 and atrogin-1 transcriptional regulators FOXO1 and FOXO3 gene and/or protein expression levels were measured via real time PCR and western blotting, respectively. At basal, no age-related difference was observed in the gene/protein levels of atrogin-1, MURF1, myogenin, MYOD and FOXO1/3. However, a decrease in FBXO40 mRNA and protein levels was observed in older subjects, while PKM2 protein was increased. In response to RE, MURF1, atrogin-1 and FBXO40 mRNA were upregulated in both the younger and older subjects, with changes observed in protein levels. In conclusion, UPP-related gene/protein expression is comparably regulated in healthy young and old male subjects at basal and following RE. These findings suggest that UPP signaling plays a limited role in the process of age-related muscle wasting. Future studies are required to investigate additional proteolytic mechanisms in conjunction with skeletal muscle protein breakdown (MPB) measurements following RE in older vs. younger subjects. PMID:24550841

Stefanetti, Renae J.; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Della Gatta, Paul; Garnham, Andrew; Russell, Aaron P.; Lamon, Séverine

2014-01-01

92

The amazing ubiquitin-proteasome system: structural components and implication in aging.  

PubMed

Proteome quality control (PQC) is critical for the maintenance of cellular functionality and it is assured by the curating activity of the proteostasis network (PN). PN is constituted of several complex protein machines that under conditions of proteome instability aim to, firstly identify, and then, either rescue or degrade nonnative polypeptides. Central to the PN functionality is the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) which is composed from the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and the proteasome; the latter is a sophisticated multi-subunit molecular machine that functions in a bimodal way as it degrades both short-lived ubiquitinated normal proteins and nonfunctional polypeptides. UPS is also involved in PQC of the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria and it also interacts with the other main cellular degradation axis, namely the autophagy-lysosome system. UPS functionality is optimum in the young organism but it is gradually compromised during aging resulting in increasing proteotoxic stress; these effects correlate not only with aging but also with most age-related diseases. Herein, we present a synopsis of the UPS components and of their functional alterations during cellular senescence or in vivo aging. We propose that mild UPS activation in the young organism will, likely, promote antiaging effects and/or suppress age-related diseases. PMID:25619718

Tsakiri, Eleni N; Trougakos, Ioannis P

2015-01-01

93

Appraising the Roles of CBLL1 and the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System for Flavivirus Entry and Replication?  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin ligase CBLL1 (also known as HAKAI) has been proposed to be a critical cellular factor exploited by West Nile virus (WNV) for productive infection. CBLL1 has emerged as a major hit in a recent RNA interference screen designed to identify cellular factors required for the early stages of the WNV life cycle. Follow-up experiments showed that HeLa cells knocked down for CBLL1 by a small interfering RNA (siRNA) failed to internalize WNV particles and resisted infection. Furthermore, depletion of a free-ubiquitin pool by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 abolished WNV endocytosis, suggesting that CBLL1 acts in concert with the ubiquitin proteasome system to mediate virus internalization. Here, we examined the effect of CBLL1 knockdown and proteasome inhibitors on infection by WNV and other flaviviruses. We identified new siRNAs that repress the CBLL1 protein and strongly inhibit the endocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterial pathogen known to require CBLL1 to invade host cells. Strikingly, however, we detected efficient WNV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus infection of human cells, despite potent downregulation of CBLL1 by RNA interference. In addition, we found that the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin did not affect WNV internalization but strongly repressed flavivirus RNA translation and replication. Together, these data do not support a requirement for CBLL1 during flavivirus entry and rather suggest an essential role of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway for flavivirus genome amplification. PMID:21191016

Fernandez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Meertens, Laurent; Bonazzi, Matteo; Cossart, Pascale; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Amara, Ali

2011-01-01

94

Integrated Analysis of Microarray Data of Atherosclerotic Plaques: Modulation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is a typical complex multi-factorial disease and many molecules at different levels and pathways were involved in its development. Some studies have investigated the dysregulation in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA or DNA methylation level, respectively. However, to our knowledge, the studies that integrated these data and revealed the abnormal networks of atherosclerosis have not been reported. Using microarray technology, we analyzed the omics data in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation levels. Our results demonstrated that the global DNA methylation and expression of miRNA/mRNA were significantly decreased in atherosclerotic plaque than in normal vascular tissue. The interaction network constructed using the integrative data revealed many genes, cellular processes and signaling pathways which were widely considered to play crucial roles in atherosclerosis and also revealed some genes, miRNAs or signaling pathways which have not been investigated in atherosclerosis until now (e.g. miR-519d and SNTB2). Moreover, the overall protein ubiquitination in atherosclerotic plaque was significantly increased. The proteasome activity was increased early but decreased in advanced atherosclerosis. Our study revealed many classic and novel genes and miRNAs involved in atherosclerosis and indicated the effects of ubiquitin-proteasome system on atherosclerosis might be closely related to the course of atherosclerosis. However, the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of atherosclerosis still needs more research. PMID:25333956

Wang, Jian; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Qunye

2014-01-01

95

Alterations in the ubiquitin proteasome system in persistent but not reversible proteinuric diseases.  

PubMed

Podocytes are the key cells affected in nephrotic glomerular kidney diseases, and they respond uniformly to injury with cytoskeletal rearrangement. In nephrotic diseases, such as membranous nephropathy and FSGS, persistent injury often leads to irreversible structural damage, whereas in minimal change disease, structural alterations are mostly transient. The factors leading to persistent podocyte injury are currently unknown. Proteolysis is an irreversible process and could trigger persistent podocyte injury through degradation of podocyte-specific proteins. We, therefore, analyzed the expression and functional consequence of the two most prominent proteolytic systems, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagosomal/lysosomal system, in persistent and transient podocyte injuries. We show that differential upregulation of both proteolytic systems occurs in persistent human and rodent podocyte injury. The expression of specific UPS proteins in podocytes differentiated children with minimal change disease from children with FSGS and correlated with poor clinical outcome. Degradation of the podocyte-specific protein ?-actinin-4 by the UPS depended on oxidative modification in membranous nephropathy. Notably, the UPS was overwhelmed in podocytes during experimental glomerular disease, resulting in abnormal protein accumulation and compensatory upregulation of the autophagosomal/lysosomal system. Accordingly, inhibition of both proteolytic systems enhanced proteinuria in persistent nephrotic disease. This study identifies altered proteolysis as a feature of persistent podocyte injury. In the future, specific UPS proteins may serve as new biomarkers or therapeutic targets in persistent nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24722446

Beeken, Maire; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Blattner, Simone M; Radón, Victoria; Oh, Jun; Meyer, Tobias N; Hildebrand, Diana; Schlüter, Hartmut; Reinicke, Anna T; Knop, Jan-Hendrik; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Münster, Silvia; Sachs, Marlies; Wiech, Thorsten; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Cohen, Clemens D; Kretzler, Matthias; Stahl, Rolf A K; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine

2014-11-01

96

The ubiquitin proteasome system in glia and its role in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is crucial for intracellular protein homeostasis and for degradation of aberrant and damaged proteins. The accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease, leading to the hypothesis that proteasomal impairment is contributing to these diseases. So far, most research related to the UPS in neurodegenerative diseases has been focused on neurons, while glial cells have been largely disregarded in this respect. However, glial cells are essential for proper neuronal function and adopt a reactive phenotype in neurodegenerative diseases, thereby contributing to an inflammatory response. This process is called reactive gliosis, which in turn affects UPS function in glial cells. In many neurodegenerative diseases, mostly neurons show accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins, suggesting that glial cells may be better equipped to maintain proper protein homeostasis. During an inflammatory reaction, the immunoproteasome is induced in glia, which may contribute to a more efficient degradation of disease-related proteins. Here we review the role of the UPS in glial cells in various neurodegenerative diseases, and we discuss how studying glial cell function might provide essential information in unraveling mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25152710

Jansen, Anne H. P.; Reits, Eric A. J.; Hol, Elly M.

2014-01-01

97

Regulation of the Nrf2–Keap1 Antioxidant Response by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System: An Insight into Cullin-Ring Ubiquitin Ligases  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nrf2 is a transcription factor that has emerged as the cell's main defense mechanism against many harmful environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Nrf2 is negatively regulated by Keap1, a substrate adaptor protein for the Cullin3 (Cul3)-containing E3-ligase complex, which targets Nrf2 for ubiquitination and degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Recent evidence suggests that constitutive activation of Nrf2, due to mutations in Keap1 or Nrf2, is prominent in many cancer types and contributes to chemoresistance. Regulation of Nrf2 by the Cul3–Keap1-E3 ligase provides strong evidence that tight regulation of Cullin-ring ligases (CRLs) is imperative to maintain cellular homeostasis. There are seven known Cullin proteins that form various CRL complexes. They are regulated by neddylation/deneddylation, ubiquitination/deubiquitination, CAND1-assisted complex assembly/disassembly, and subunit dimerization. In this review, we will discuss the regulation of each CRL using the Cul3–Keap1-E3 ligase complex as the primary focus. The substrates of CRLs are involved in many signaling pathways. Therefore, deregulation of CRLs affects several cellular processes, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, cell proliferation, senescence, and death, which may lead to many human diseases, including cancer. This makes CRLs a promising target for novel cancer drug therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1699–1712. PMID:20486766

Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lau, Alexandria

2010-01-01

98

Hepatitis B Virus HBx Protein Interactions with the Ubiquitin Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis, and the latter is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV encodes a 17-kDa regulatory protein, HBx, which is required for virus replication. Although the precise contribution(s) of HBx to virus replication is unknown, many viruses target cellular pathways to create an environment favorable for virus replication. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a major conserved cellular pathway that controls several critical processes in the cell by regulating the levels of proteins involved in cell cycle, DNA repair, innate immunity, and other processes. We summarize here the interactions of HBx with components of the UPS, including the CUL4 adaptor DDB1, the cullin regulatory complex CSN, and the 26S proteasome. Understanding how these protein interactions benefit virus replication remains a challenge due to limited models in which to study HBV replication. However, studies from other viral systems that similarly target the UPS provide insight into possible strategies used by HBV. PMID:25421893

Minor, Marissa M.; Slagle, Betty L.

2014-01-01

99

Modulation of adipocyte differentiation by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system  

PubMed Central

We have evaluated the effects of three different omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) – docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) on fat accumulation and expression of adipogenic and inflammatory markers using both 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicate that ?-3 PUFAs induce the degradation of fatty acid synthase through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is likely to have beneficial metabolic effect on adipose cells. Omega-3 PUFAs also increase overall levels of polyubiquitinated proteins, at least in part through decreasing the expression of proteasome subunits. Moreover, adipocytes are resistant to proteasome inhibition, which induces adipophilin while decreasing perilipin expression. On the other hand, ?-3 PUFAs decrease expression of SREBP1 while inducing expression of adipophilin and GLUT4. Moreover, all three ?-3 PUFAs appear to induce tumour necrosis factor-? without affecting NF?B levels. All three ?-3 PUFAs appear to have overall similar effects. Further research is needed to elucidate their mechanism of action. PMID:24834523

Wójcik, Cezary; Lohe, Kimberly; Kuang, Chenzhong; Xiao, Yan; Jouni, Zeida; Poels, Eduard

2014-01-01

100

The ubiquitin proteasome system – Implications for cell cycle control and the targeted treatment of cancer  

PubMed Central

Two families of E3 ubiquitin ligases are prominent in cell cycle regulation and mediate the timely and precise ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation of key cell cycle proteins: the SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) complex and the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome). While certain SCF ligases drive cell cycle progression throughout the cell cycle, APC/C (in complex with either of two substrate recruiting proteins: Cdc20 and Cdh1) orchestrates exit from mitosis (APC/CCdc20) and establishes a stable G1 phase (APC/CCdh1). Upon DNA damage or perturbation of the normal cell cycle, both ligases are involved in checkpoint activation. Mechanistic insight into these processes has significantly improved over the last ten years, largely due to a better understanding of APC/C and the functional characterization of multiple F-box proteins, the variable substrate recruiting components of SCF ligases. Here, we review the role of SCF- and APC/C-mediated ubiquitylation in the normal and perturbed cell cycle and discuss potential clinical implications of SCF and APC/C functions. PMID:23466868

Bassermann, Florian; Eichner, Ruth; Pagano, Michele

2013-01-01

101

The ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurodegenerative diseases: precipitating factor, yet part of the solution  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases based on the presence of deposits consisting of ubiquitylated proteins in affected neurons. It has been postulated that aggregation-prone proteins associated with these disorders, such as ?-synuclein, ?-amyloid peptide, and polyglutamine proteins, compromise UPS function, and delay the degradation of other proteasome substrates. Many of these substrates play important regulatory roles in signaling, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis, and their inadvertent stabilization due to an overloaded and improperly functioning UPS may thus be responsible for cellular demise in neurodegeneration. Over the past decade, numerous studies have addressed the UPS dysfunction hypothesis using various model systems and techniques that differ in their readout and sensitivity. While an inhibitory effect of some disease proteins on the UPS has been demonstrated, increasing evidence attests that the UPS remains operative in many disease models, which opens new possibilities for treatment. In this review, we will discuss the paradigm shift that repositioned the UPS from being a prime suspect in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration to an attractive therapeutic target that can be harnessed to accelerate the clearance of disease-linked proteins. PMID:25132814

Dantuma, Nico P.; Bott, Laura C.

2014-01-01

102

Coupling histone homeostasis to centromere integrity via the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

In many eukaryotes, histone gene expression is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with a spike pattern at S phase. In fission yeast the GATA-type transcription factor Ams2 is required for transcriptional activation of all the core histone genes during S phase and Ams2 protein levels per se show concomitant periodic patterns. We have recently unveiled the molecular mechanisms underlying Ams2 fluctuation during the cell cycle. We have found that Ams2 stability varies during the cell cycle, and that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for Ams2 instability. Intriguingly, Ams2 proteolysis requires Hsk1-a Cdc7 homologue in fission yeast generally called Dbf4-dependent protein kinase (DDK)-and the SCF ubiquitin ligase containing the substrate receptor Pof3 F-box protein. Here, we discuss why histone synthesis has to occur only during S phase. Our results indicate that excess synthesis of core histones outside S phase results in deleterious effects on cell survival. In particular, functions of the centromere, in which the centromere-specific H3 variant CENP-A usually form centromeric nucleosomes, are greatly compromised. This defect is, at least in part, ascribable to abnormal incorporation of canonical histone H3 into these nucleosomes. Finally, we address the significance and potential implications of our work from an evolutionary point of view. PMID:20604974

Takayama, Yuko; Toda, Takashi

2010-01-01

103

Atrophy, hypertrophy, and hypoxemia induce transcriptional regulators of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the rat heart  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In skeletal muscle, transcript levels of proteins regulating the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) increase with atrophy and decrease with hypertrophy. Whether the same is true for heart muscle is not known. We set out to characterize the transcriptional profile of regulators of the UPS during atrop...

104

Pesticides that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome system: effect measure modification by genetic variation in SKP1 in Parkinson?s disease.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology, may protect against cytotoxic proteins. Since the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) degrades cytotoxic proteins, dysfunction in the UPS may contribute to PD etiology. Our goal in this study was to screen pesticides for proteasome inhibition and investigate (i) whether ambient exposures to pesticides that inhibit the UPS increase PD risk and (ii) whether genetic variation in candidate genes of the UPS pathway modify those increased risks. We assessed 26S UPS activity in SK-N-MC(u) cells by fluorescence. We recruited idiopathic PD cases (n=360) and population-based controls (n=816) from three counties in California with considerable commercial agriculture. We determined ambient pesticide exposure by our validated GIS-based model utilizing residential and workplace address histories. We limited effect measure modification assessment to Caucasians (287 cases, 453 controls). Eleven of 28 pesticides we screened inhibited 26S UPS activity at 10 µM. Benomyl, cyanazine, dieldrin, endosulfan, metam, propargite, triflumizole, and ziram were associated with increased PD risk. We estimated an odds ratio of 2.14 (95% CI: 1.42, 3.22) for subjects with ambient exposure to any UPS-inhibiting pesticide at both residential and workplace addresses; this association was modified by genetic variation in the s-phase kinase-associated protein 1 gene (SKP1; interaction p-value=0.005). Our results provide evidence that UPS-inhibiting pesticides play a role in the etiology of PD and suggest that genetic variation in candidate genes involved in the UPS pathway might exacerbate the toxic effects of pesticide exposures. PMID:23988235

Rhodes, Shannon L; Fitzmaurice, Arthur G; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Ritz, Beate

2013-10-01

105

Pesticides that Inhibit the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Effect Measure Modification by Genetic Variation in SKP1 in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies, a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathology, may protect against cytotoxic proteins. Since the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) degrades cytotoxic proteins, dysfunction in the UPS may contribute to PD etiology. Our goal in this study was to screen pesticides for proteasome inhibition and investigate (i) whether ambient exposures to pesticides that inhibit the UPS increase PD risk and (ii) whether genetic variation in candidate genes of the UPS pathway modify those increased risks. We assessed 26S UPS activity in SK-N-MCu cells by fluorescence. We recruited idiopathic PD cases (n=360) and population-based controls (n=816) from three counties in California with considerable commercial agriculture. We determined ambient pesticide exposure by our validated GIS-based model utilizing residential and workplace address histories. We limited effect measure modification assessment to Caucasians (287 cases, 453 controls). 11 of 28 pesticides we screened inhibited 26S UPS activity at 10?M. Benomyl, cyanazine, dieldrin, endosulfan, metam, propargite, triflumizole, and ziram were associated with increased PD risk. We estimated an odds ratio of 2.14 (95%CI: 1.42,3.22) for subjects with ambient exposure to any UPS-inhibiting pesticide at both residential and workplace addresses; this association was modified by genetic variation in the s-phase kinase-associated protein 1 gene (SKP1; interaction p-value=0.005). Our results provide evidence that UPS-inhibiting pesticides play a role in the etiology of PD and suggest that genetic variation in candidate genes involved in the UPS pathway might exacerbate the toxic effects of pesticide exposures. PMID:23988235

Rhodes, Shannon L.; Fitzmaurice, Arthur G.; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Ritz, Beate

2013-01-01

106

ATF4 Degradation Relies on a Phosphorylation-Dependent Interaction with the SCF TrCP Ubiquitin Ligase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates gene expression through protein degradation. Here we show that the F-box protein bTrCP, the receptor component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for IkBa and b-catenin degradation, is colocalized in the nucleus with ATF4, a member of the ATF-CREB bZIP family of transcription factors, and controls its stability. Association between the two proteins depends on

IRINA LASSOT; EMMANUEL SEGERAL; CLARISSE BERLIOZ-TORRENT; HERVE DURAND; LIONEL GROUSSIN; TSONWIN HAI; RICHARD BENAROUS; FLORENCE MARGOTTIN-GOGUET

2001-01-01

107

Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by cIAP2 Involves Accelerating the Ubiquitin-Proteasome-Mediated Destruction of Polymerase?†  

PubMed Central

Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) is a potent suppressor of apoptotic cell death. We have shown previously that cIAP2 is involved in the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) response; however, the mechanism for this antiviral effect remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that cIAP2 can significantly reduce the levels of HBV DNA replication intermediates but not the total viral RNA or core protein levels. Domain-mapping analysis revealed that the carboxy-terminal domains of cIAP2 were indispensable for this anti-HBV ability and that an E3 ligase-deficient mutant of cIAP2 (termed cIAP2*) completely lost its antiviral activity. We further identified HBV polymerase as the target of cIAP2. Overexpression of cIAP2 but not cIAP2* reduced polymerase protein levels, while cIAP2 knockdown increased polymerase expression. In addition, we observed that cIAP2 promoted the degradation of the viral polymerase through a proteasome-dependent pathway. Further experiments demonstrated that cIAP2 can bind to polymerase and promote its polyubiquitylation. Finally, we found that cIAP2 downregulated the encapsidation of HBV pregenomic RNA. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism for the inhibition of HBV replication by cIAP2 via acceleration of the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated decay of polymerase and reduction of the encapsidation of HBV pregenomic RNA, making this mechanism a novel strategy for HBV therapy. PMID:21865390

Wang, Zekun; Ni, Jinjing; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Bisheng; Xu, Yang; Yuan, Zhenghong

2011-01-01

108

Degradation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating-type regulator alpha1: genetic dissection of cis-determinants and trans-acting pathways.  

PubMed

Mating phenotype in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a dynamic trait, and efficient transitions between alternate haploid cell types allow the organism to access the advantageous diploid form. Mating identity is determined by cell type-specific transcriptional regulators, but these factors must be rapidly removed upon mating-type switching to allow the master regulators of the alternate state to establish a new gene expression program. Targeted proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is a commonly employed strategy to quickly disassemble regulatory networks, and yeast use this approach to evoke efficient switching from the alpha to the a phenotype by ensuring the rapid removal of the alpha2 transcriptional repressor. Transition to the a cell phenotype, however, also requires the inactivation of the alpha1 transcriptional activator, but the mechanism by which this occurs is currently unknown. Here, we report a central role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system in alpha1 inactivation. The alpha1 protein is constitutively short lived and targeted for rapid turnover by multiple ubiquitin-conjugation pathways. Intriguingly, the alpha-domain, a conserved region of unknown function, acts as a degradation signal for a pathway defined by the SUMO-targeted ligase Slx5-Slx8, which has also been implicated in the rapid destruction of alpha2. Our observations suggest coordinate regulation in the turnover of two master regulatory transcription factors ensures a rapid mating-type switch. PMID:20351217

Nixon, Christina E; Wilcox, Alexander J; Laney, Jeffrey D

2010-06-01

109

One step at a time: endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation  

PubMed Central

Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is monitored by ER quality control (ERQC) mechanisms. Proteins that pass ERQC criteria traffic to their final destinations through the secretory pathway, whereas non-native and unassembled subunits of multimeric proteins are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. During ERAD, molecular chaperones and associated factors recognize and target substrates for retrotranslocation to the cytoplasm, where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome machinery. The discovery of diseases that are associated with ERAD substrates highlights the importance of this pathway. Here, we summarize our current understanding of each step during ERAD, with emphasis on the factors that catalyse distinct activities. PMID:19002207

Vembar, Shruthi S.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

110

Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant molecular pathology in OPMD animal models and patients.  

PubMed

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset progressive muscle disorder caused by a poly-alanine expansion mutation in the Poly(A) Binding Protein Nuclear 1 (PABPN1). The molecular mechanisms that regulate disease onset and progression are largely unknown. In order to identify molecular pathways that are consistently associated with OPMD, we performed an integrated high-throughput transcriptome study in affected muscles of OPMD animal models and patients. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was found to be the most consistently and significantly OPMD-deregulated pathway across species. We could correlate the association of the UPS OPMD-deregulated genes with stages of disease progression. The expression trend of a subset of these genes is age-associated and therefore, marks the late onset of the disease, and a second group with expression trends relating to disease-progression. We demonstrate a correlation between expression trends and entrapment into PABPN1 insoluble aggregates of OPMD-deregulated E3 ligases. We also show that manipulations of proteasome and immunoproteasome activity specifically affect the accumulation and aggregation of mutant PABPN1. We suggest that the natural decrease in proteasome expression and its activity during muscle aging contributes to the onset of the disease. PMID:21798095

Anvar, Seyed Yahya; 't Hoen, Peter Ac; Venema, Andrea; van der Sluijs, Barbara; van Engelen, Baziel; Snoeck, Marc; Vissing, John; Trollet, Capucine; Dickson, George; Chartier, Aymeric; Simonelig, Martine; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; van der Maarel, Silvere M; Raz, Vered

2011-01-01

111

Degradation of a Short-lived Glycoprotein from the Lumen of the Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Role of N-linked Glycans and the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are studying endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) with the use of a truncated variant of the type I ER transmembrane glycoprotein ribophorin I (RI). The mutant protein, RI332, containing only the N-terminal 332 amino acids of the luminal domain of RI, has been shown to interact with calnexin and to be a substrate for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. When RI332 was

Maddalena de Virgilio; Claudia Kitzmuller; Eva Schwaiger

1999-01-01

112

Protective Role of Cell Division Cycle 48 (CDC48) Protein against Neurodegeneration via Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Dysfunction during Zebrafish Development*  

PubMed Central

Cell division cycle 48 (CDC48), a ubiquitin-dependent molecular chaperone, is thought to mediate a variety of degradative and regulatory processes and maintain cellular homoeostasis. To investigate the protective function of CDC48 against accumulated ubiquitinated proteins during neurodevelopment, we developed an in vivo bioassay technique that detects expression and accumulation of fluorescent proteins with a polyubiquitination signal at the N terminus. When we introduced CDC48 antisense morpholino oligonucleotides into zebrafish embryos, the morphant embryos were lethal and showed defects in neuronal outgrowth and neurodegeneration, and polyubiquitinated fluorescent proteins accumulated in the inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers, as well as the diencephalon and mesencephalon, indicating that the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system was blocked. These abnormal phenotypes in the morphant were rescued by CDC48 or human valosin-containing protein overexpression. Therefore, the protective function of CDC48 is essential for neurodevelopment. PMID:22549779

Imamura, Shintaro; Yabu, Takeshi; Yamashita, Michiaki

2012-01-01

113

BRK Targets Dok1 for Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Degradation to Promote Cell Proliferation and Migration  

PubMed Central

Breast tumor kinase (BRK), also known as protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6), is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in more that 60% of human breast carcinomas. The overexpression of BRK has been shown to sensitize mammary epithelial cells to mitogenic signaling and to promote cell proliferation and tumor formation. The molecular mechanisms of BRK have been unveiled by the identification and characterization of BRK target proteins. Downstream of tyrosine kinases 1 or Dok1 is a scaffolding protein and a substrate of several tyrosine kinases. Herein we show that BRK interacts with and phosphorylates Dok1 specifically on Y362. We demonstrate that this phosphorylation by BRK significantly downregulates Dok1 in a ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated mechanism. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of action of BRK in the promotion of tumor formation, which involves the targeting of tumor suppressor Dok1 for degradation through the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway. PMID:24523872

Miah, Sayem; Goel, Raghuveera Kumar; Dai, Chenlu; Kalra, Natasha; Beaton-Brown, Erika; Bagu, Edward T.; Bonham, Keith; Lukong, Kiven E.

2014-01-01

114

Regulation of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system by the FoxO transcriptional network during muscle atrophy.  

PubMed

Stresses like low nutrients, systemic inflammation, cancer or infections provoke a catabolic state characterized by enhanced muscle proteolysis and amino acid release to sustain liver gluconeogenesis and tissue protein synthesis. These conditions activate the family of Forkhead Box (Fox) O transcription factors. Here we report that muscle-specific deletion of FoxO members protects from muscle loss as a result of the role of FoxOs in the induction of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems. Notably, in the setting of low nutrient signalling, we demonstrate that FoxOs are required for Akt activity but not for mTOR signalling. FoxOs control several stress-response pathways such as the unfolded protein response, ROS detoxification, DNA repair and translation. Finally, we identify FoxO-dependent ubiquitin ligases including MUSA1 and a previously uncharacterised ligase termed SMART (Specific of Muscle Atrophy and Regulated by Transcription). Our findings underscore the central function of FoxOs in coordinating a variety of stress-response genes during catabolic conditions. PMID:25858807

Milan, Giulia; Romanello, Vanina; Pescatore, Francesca; Armani, Andrea; Paik, Ji-Hye; Frasson, Laura; Seydel, Anke; Zhao, Jinghui; Abraham, Reimar; Goldberg, Alfred L; Blaauw, Bert; DePinho, Ronald A; Sandri, Marco

2015-01-01

115

The Ubiquitin–Proteasome System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Protein modifications provide cells with exquisite temporal and spatial control of protein function. Ubiquitin is among the most important modifiers, serving both to target hundreds of proteins for rapid degradation by the proteasome, and as a dynamic signaling agent that regulates the function of covalently bound proteins. The diverse effects of ubiquitylation reflect the assembly of structurally distinct ubiquitin chains on target proteins. The resulting ubiquitin code is interpreted by an extensive family of ubiquitin receptors. Here we review the components of this regulatory network and its effects throughout the cell. PMID:23028185

Finley, Daniel; Ulrich, Helle D.; Sommer, Thomas; Kaiser, Peter

2012-01-01

116

Cadmium interferes with the degradation of ATF5 via a post-ubiquitination step of the proteasome degradation pathway  

SciTech Connect

ATF5 is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. In the current study, using a transient transfection system to express FLAG epitope fusion proteins of ATF5, we have shown that CdCl{sub 2} or NaAsO{sub 3} increases the protein levels of ATF5 in cells, and that cadmium stabilizes the ATF5 protein. Proteasome inhibitors had a similar effect to cadmium on the cellular accumulation of ATF5. Proteasome inhibition led to an increase in ubiquitinated ATF5, while cadmium did not appear to reduce the extent of ATF5 ubiquitination. ATF5 contains a putative nuclear export signal within its N-terminus. We demonstrated that whereas deletion of N-terminal region resulted in a increase of ATF5 levels, this region does not appear to be involved in the ubiquitination of ATF5. These results indicate that ATF5 is targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and that cadmium slows the rate of ATF5 degradation via a post-ubiquitination mechanism.

Uekusa, Hiroyuki; Namimatsu, Mihoko; Hiwatashi, Yusuke; Akimoto, Takuya [Laboratory of Environmental Molecular Physiology, School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Nishida, Tamotsu [Department of Human Functional Genomics, Life Science Research Center, Mie University, 1577 Kurima-machiya, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Takahashi, Shigeru [Laboratory of Environmental Molecular Physiology, School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)], E-mail: shigeru@ls.toyaku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Yuji [Laboratory of Environmental Molecular Physiology, School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

2009-03-13

117

Narrative Review: Protein Degradation and Human Diseases: The Ubiquitin Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology in Medicine review article. When researchers discovered the organelle lysosome, they assumed that cellular proteins were degraded within it. However, several independent lines of evidence strongly suggested that intracellular proteolysis was largely nonlysosomal. It is now recognized that degradation of intracellular proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is involved in the regulation of a broad array of cellular processes,drugs that target the degradation pathways of a single or a few proteins without affecting other proteins. It seems that pharmacologic manipulation of the UPS might alter the outcome of many diseases, especially malignant conditions and possibly neurodegenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases.

MD/PhD Eyal Reinstein (Tel-Aviv University Deparrment of Internal Medicine)

2006-11-07

118

ARABIDOPSIS: A RICH HARVEST 10 YEARS AFTER COMPLETION OF THE GENOME SEQUENCE The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates plant hormone  

E-print Network

). Plants also utilize several peptide hormones to regulate various growth responses (Jun et al., 2008-proteasome system regulates plant hormone signaling Aaron Santner1 and Mark Estelle2,* 1 Molecular Kinetics, Inc are elucidated. Keywords: hormone signaling, ligases, ubiquitin-proteasome system. INTRODUCTION Plants utilize

Estelle, Mark

119

Functional alterations of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in motor neurons of a mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis†  

PubMed Central

In familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in rodent models of the disease, alterations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) may be responsible for the accumulation of potentially harmful ubiquitinated proteins, leading to motor neuron death. In the spinal cord of transgenic mice expressing the familial ALS superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene mutation G93A (SOD1G93A), we found a decrease in constitutive proteasome subunits during disease progression, as assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. In parallel, an increased immunoproteasome expression was observed, which correlated with a local inflammatory response due to glial activation. These findings support the existence of proteasome modifications in ALS vulnerable tissues. To functionally investigate the UPS in ALS motor neurons in vivo, we crossed SOD1G93A mice with transgenic mice that express a fluorescently tagged reporter substrate of the UPS. In double-transgenic UbG76V-GFP /SOD1G93A mice an increase in UbG76V-GFP reporter, indicative of UPS impairment, was detectable in a few spinal motor neurons and not in reactive astrocytes or microglia, at symptomatic stage but not before symptoms onset. The levels of reporter transcript were unaltered, suggesting that the accumulation of UbG76V-GFP was due to deficient reporter degradation. In some motor neurons the increase of UbG76V-GFP was accompanied by the accumulation of ubiquitin and phosphorylated neurofilaments, both markers of ALS pathology. These data suggest that UPS impairment occurs in motor neurons of mutant SOD1-linked ALS mice and may play a role in the disease progression. PMID:18826962

Cheroni, Cristina; Marino, Marianna; Tortarolo, Massimo; Veglianese, Pietro; De Biasi, Silvia; Fontana, Elena; Zuccarello, Laura Vitellaro; Maynard, Christa J.; Dantuma, Nico P.; Bendotti, Caterina

2009-01-01

120

Mature ribosomes are selectively degraded upon starvation by an autophagy pathway requiring the Ubp3p/Bre5p ubiquitin protease.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cells use autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as their major protein degradation pathways. Whereas the UPS is required for the rapid degradation of proteins when fast adaptation is needed, autophagy pathways selectively remove protein aggregates and damaged or excess organelles. However, little is known about the targets and mechanisms that provide specificity to this process. Here we show that mature ribosomes are rapidly degraded by autophagy upon nutrient starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, this degradation not only occurs by a non-selective mechanism, but also involves a novel type of selective autophagy, which we term 'ribophagy'. A genetic screen revealed that selective degradation of ribosomes requires catalytic activity of the Ubp3p/Bre5p ubiquitin protease. Although ubp3Delta and bre5Delta cells strongly accumulate 60S ribosomal particles upon starvation, they are proficient in starvation sensing and in general trafficking and autophagy pathways. Moreover, ubiquitination of several ribosomal subunits and/or ribosome-associated proteins was specifically enriched in ubp3Delta cells, suggesting that the regulation of ribophagy by ubiquitination may be direct. Interestingly, ubp3Delta cells are sensitive to rapamycin and nutrient starvation, implying that selective degradation of ribosomes is functionally important in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest a link between ubiquitination and the regulated degradation of mature ribosomes by autophagy. PMID:18391941

Kraft, Claudine; Deplazes, Anna; Sohrmann, Marc; Peter, Matthias

2008-05-01

121

Temperature-sensitive post-translational regulation of plant omega-3 fatty-acid desaturases is mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Changes in ambient temperature represent a major physiological challenge to membranes of poikilothermic organisms. In plants, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized omega-3 fatty-acid desaturases (Fad3) increase the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids at cooler temperatures, but the FAD3 genes themselves are typically not up-regulated during this adaptive response. Here, we expressed two closely related plant FAD3 genes in yeast cells and found that their enzymes produced significantly different amounts of omega-3 fatty acids and that these differences correlated to differences in rates of protein turnover. Domain-swapping and mutagenesis experiments revealed that each protein contained a degradation signal in its N terminus and that the charge density of a PEST-like sequence within this region was largely responsible for the differences in rates of protein turnover. The half-life of each Fad3 protein was increased at cooler temperatures, and protein degradation required specific components of the ER-associated degradation pathway including the Cdc48 adaptor proteins Doa1, Shp1, and Ufd2. Expression of the Fad3 proteins in tobacco cells incubated with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 further confirmed that they were degraded via the proteasomal pathway in plants. Collectively, these findings indicate that Fad3 protein abundance is regulated by a combination of cis-acting degradation signals and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that modulation of Fad3 protein amounts in response to temperature may represent one mechanism of homeoviscous adaptation in plants. PMID:20452984

O'Quin, Jami B; Bourassa, Linda; Zhang, Daiyuan; Shockey, Jay M; Gidda, Satinder K; Fosnot, Spencer; Chapman, Kent D; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

2010-07-01

122

Contribution of the autophagy-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasomal proteolytic systems to total proteolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is recognized as the major contributor to total proteolysis in mammalian skeletal muscle, responsible for 50% or more of total protein degradation in skeletal muscle, whereas the autophagic-lysosome system (ALS) plays a more minor role. While the relative contribution of these systems to muscle loss is well documented in mammals, little is known in fish species. The current study uses myotubes derived from rainbow trout myogenic precursor cells as an in vitro model of white muscle tissue. Cells were incubated in complete or serum-deprived media or media supplemented with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and exposed to selective proteolytic inhibitors to determine the relative contribution of the ALS and UPS to total protein degradation in myotubes in different culture conditions. Results indicate that the ALS is responsible for 30-34% and 50% of total protein degradation in myotubes in complete and serum-deprived media, respectively. The UPS appears to contribute much less to total protein degradation at almost 4% in cells in complete media to nearly 17% in serum-deprived cells. IGF-1 decreases activity of both systems, as it inhibited the upregulation of both proteolytic systems induced by serum deprivation. The combined inhibition of both the ALS and UPS reduced degradation by a maximum of 55% in serum-deprived cells, suggesting an important contribution of other proteolytic systems to total protein degradation. Collectively, these data identify the ALS as a potential target for strategies aimed at improving muscle protein retention and fillet yield through reductions in protein degradation. PMID:25274907

Seiliez, Iban; Dias, Karine; Cleveland, Beth M

2014-12-01

123

The N-end rule pathway catalyzes a major fraction of the protein degradation in skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In skeletal muscle, overall protein degradation involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system. One property of a protein that leads to rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation is the presence of a basic, acidic, or bulky hydrophobic residue at its N terminus. However, in normal cells, substrates for this N-end rule pathway, which involves ubiquitin carrier protein (E2) E214k and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) E3alpha, have remained unclear. Surprisingly, in soluble extracts of rabbit muscle, we found that competitive inhibitors of E3alpha markedly inhibited the 125I-ubiquitin conjugation and ATP-dependent degradation of endogenous proteins. These inhibitors appear to selectively inhibit E3alpha, since they blocked degradation of 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, but did not affect the degradation of proteins whose ubiquitination involved other E3s. The addition of several E2s or E3alpha to the muscle extracts stimulated overall proteolysis and ubiquitination, but only the stimulation by E3alpha or E214k was sensitive to these inhibitors. A similar general inhibition of ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins was observed with a dominant negative inhibitor of E214k. Certain substrates of the N-end rule pathway are degraded after their tRNA-dependent arginylation. We found that adding RNase A to muscle extracts reduced the ATP-dependent proteolysis of endogenous proteins, and supplying tRNA partially restored this process. Finally, although in muscle extracts the N-end rule pathway catalyzes most ubiquitin conjugation, it makes only a minor contribution to overall protein ubiquitination in HeLa cell extracts.

Solomon, V.; Lecker, S. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

1998-01-01

124

Altered ubiquitin-proteasome signaling in right ventricular hypertrophy and failure  

PubMed Central

Alterations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have been described in left ventricular hypertrophy and failure, although results have been inconsistent. The role of the UPS in right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVH) and RV failure (RVF) is unknown. Given the greater percent increase in RV mass associated with RV afterload stress, as present in many congenital heart lesions, we hypothesized that alterations in the UPS could play an important role in RVH/RVF. UPS expression and activity were measured in the RV from mice with RVH/RVF secondary to pulmonary artery constriction (PAC). Epoxomicin and MG132 were used to inhibit the proteasome, and overexpression of the 11S PA28? subunit was used to activate the proteasome. PAC mice developed RVH (109.3% increase in RV weight to body weight), RV dilation with septal shift, RV dysfunction, and clinical RVF. Proteasomal function (26S ?5 chymotrypsin-like activity) was decreased 26% (P < 0.05). Protein expression of 19S subunit Rpt5 (P < 0.05), UCHL1 deubiquitinase (P < 0.0001), and Smurf1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (P < 0.01) were increased, as were polyubiquitinated proteins (P < 0.05) and free-ubiquitins (P = 0.05). Pro-apoptotic Bax was increased (P < 0.0001), whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 decreased (P < 0.05), resulting in a sixfold increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Proteasomal inhibition did not accelerate RVF. However, proteasome enhancement by cardiac-specific proteasome overexpression partially improved survival. Proteasome activity is decreased in RVH/RVF, associated with upregulation of key UPS regulators and pro-apoptotic signaling. Enhancement of proteasome function partially attenuates RVF, suggesting that UPS dysfunction contributes to RVF. PMID:23729213

Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Zhao, Mingming; Reddy, Sushma; Fajardo, Giovanni; Wang, Xuejun; Dewey, Shannamar; Gomes, Aldrin V.

2013-01-01

125

Degradation of Postsynaptic Scaffold GKAP and Regulation of Dendritic Spine Morphology by the TRIM[subscript 3] Ubiquitin Ligase in Rat Hippocampal Neurons  

E-print Network

Changes in neuronal activity modify the structure of dendritic spines and alter the function and protein composition of synapses. Regulated degradation of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome ...

Sheng, Morgan Hwa-Tze

126

Pupylation as a signal for proteasomal degradation in bacteria.  

PubMed

Posttranslational modifications in the form of covalently attached proteins like ubiquitin (Ub), were long considered an exclusive feature of eukaryotic organisms. The discovery of pupylation, the modification of lysine residues with a prokaryotic, ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), demonstrated that certain bacteria use a tagging pathway functionally related to ubiquitination in order to target proteins for proteasomal degradation. However, functional analogies do not translate into structural or mechanistic relatedness. Bacterial Pup, unlike eukaryotic Ub, does not adopt a ?-grasp fold, but is intrinsically disordered. Furthermore, isopeptide bond formation in the pupylation process is carried out by enzymes evolutionary descendent from glutamine synthetases. While in eukaryotes, the proteasome is the main energy-dependent protein degradation machine, bacterial proteasomes exist in addition to other architecturally related degradation complexes, and their specific role along with the role of pupylation is still poorly understood. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the Pup-proteasome system contributes to pathogenicity by supporting the bacterium's persistence within host macrophages. Here, we describe the mechanism and structural framework of pupylation and the targeting of pupylated proteins to the proteasome complex. Particular attention is given to the comparison of the bacterial Pup-proteasome system and the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system. Furthermore, the involvement of pupylation and proteasomal degradation in Mtb pathogenesis is discussed together with efforts to establish the Pup-proteasome system as a drug target. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin-Proteasome System. Guest Editors: Thomas Sommer and Dieter H. Wolf. PMID:23557784

Striebel, Frank; Imkamp, Frank; Özcelik, Dennis; Weber-Ban, Eilika

2014-01-01

127

Selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition imparts beneficial effects in Huntington's disease mice: implications for the ubiquitin–proteasomal and autophagy systems  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, 4b, which preferentially targets HDAC1 and HDAC3, ameliorates Huntington's disease (HD)-related phenotypes in different HD model systems. In the current study, we investigated extensive behavioral and biological effects of 4b in N171-82Q transgenic mice and further explored potential molecular mechanisms of 4b action. We found that 4b significantly prevented body weight loss, improved several parameters of motor function and ameliorated Huntingtin (Htt)-elicited cognitive decline in N171-82Q transgenic mice. Pathways analysis of microarray data from the mouse brain revealed gene networks involving post-translational modification, including protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination pathways, associated with 4b drug treatment. Using real-time qPCR analysis, we validated differential regulation of several genes in these pathways by 4b, including Ube2K, Ubqln, Ube2e3, Usp28 and Sumo2, as well as several other related genes. Additionally, 4b elicited increases in the expression of genes encoding components of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex. IKK activation has been linked to phosphorylation, acetylation and clearance of the Htt protein by the proteasome and the lysosome, and accordingly, we found elevated levels of phosphorylated endogenous wild-type (wt) Htt protein at serine 16 and threonine 3, and increased AcK9/pS13/pS16 immunoreactivity in cortical samples from 4b-treated mice. We further show that HDAC inhibitors prevent the formation of nuclear Htt aggregates in the brains of N171-82Q mice. Our findings suggest that one mechanism of 4b action is associated with the modulation of the ubiquitin–proteasomal and autophagy pathways, which could affect accumulation, stability and/or clearance of important disease-related proteins, such as Htt. PMID:22965876

Jia, Haiqun; Kast, Ryan J.; Steffan, Joan S.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

128

Activation of Wnt signaling pathway by human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

We sought to determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, a hallmark of activated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We used HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cell lines 147T and 090, HPV-negative cell line 040T, and cervical cell lines SiHa (bearing integrated HPV16) and HeLa (bearing integrated HPV18) to measure the cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin levels and the beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity before and after E6/E7 gene silencing. Repression of HPV E6 and E7 genes induced a substantial reduction in nuclear beta-catenin levels. Luciferase assay showed that transcriptional activation of Tcf promoter by beta-catenin was lower after silencing. The protein levels of beta-catenin are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We therefore performed expression analysis of regulators of beta-catenin degradation and nuclear transport and showed that seven in absentia homologue (Siah-1) mRNA and protein levels were substantially upregulated after E6/E7 repression. Siah-1 protein promotes the degradation of beta-catenin through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. To determine whether Siah-1 is important for the proteasomal degradation of beta-catenin in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells, we introduced a Siah-1 expression vector into 147T and 090 cells and found substantial reduction of endogenous beta-catenin in these cells. Thus, E6 and E7 are involved in beta-catenin nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt signaling in HPV-induced cancers. In addition, we show the significance of the endogenous Siah-1-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway for beta-catenin degradation and its regulation by E6/E7 viral oncoproteins in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells. PMID:20215420

Rampias, Theodore; Boutati, Eleni; Pectasides, Eirini; Sasaki, Clarence; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Weinberger, Paul; Psyrri, Amanda

2010-03-01

129

The contribution of the autophagy-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasomal proteolytic systems to total proteolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two major proteolytic systems are thought to (co-) operate in the skeletal muscle of vertebrates, the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS) and the autophagic/lysosomal system (ALS). While their relative contribution to muscle loss has been already well documented in mammals, little is known in fish sp...

130

The X-Linked Tumor Suppressor TSPX Interacts and Promotes Degradation of the Hepatitis B Viral Protein HBx via the Proteasome Pathway  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it is a serious global health problem with two billion people exposed to it worldwide. HBx, an essential factor for viral replication and a putative oncoprotein encoded by the HBV genome, has been shown to promote oncogenic properties at multiple sites in HBV-infected liver cells. The expression level of HBx closely associates with the development and progression of HCC, therefore the mechanism(s) regulating the stability of HBx is important in oncogenesis of HBV-infected cells. We demonstrate that the X-linked tumor suppressor TSPX enhances the degradation of HBx through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. TSPX interacts with both HBx and a proteasome 19S lid subunit RPN3 via its C-terminal acidic tail. Most importantly, over-expression of RPN3 protects HBx from, and hence acts as a negative regulator for, proteasome-dependent degradation. TSPX abrogates the RPN3-depedent stabilization of HBx, suggesting that TSPX and RPN3 act competitively in regulation of HBx stability. Since mutation and/or epigenetic repression of X-located tumor suppressor gene(s) could significantly predispose males to human cancers, our data suggest that TSPX-induced HBx degradation could play key role(s) in hepatocarcinogenesis among HBV-infected HCC patients. PMID:21829568

Kido, Tatsuo; Ou, Jing-Hsiung James; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris

2011-01-01

131

The Role of the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway in the Formation of Mallory Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of Mallory body (MB) formation are difficult to follow in vivo. Because of the lack of an in vitro mouse hepatocyte culture model, a cellular extract approach was developed. In this model an immunoprecipitate was obtained using an antibody to cytokeratin-8 (CK-8). The isolate contained a large number of compounds: CK-8, ubiquitin, a frameshift mutation of ubiquitin (UBB+1),

Fawzia Bardag-Gorce; Frederik Willen van Leeuwen; Victoria Nguyen; Barbara Alan French; Jun Li; Nora Riley; Laron Wilson McPhaul; Yan He Lue; Samuel William French

2002-01-01

132

Phosphorylation of Kif26b Promotes Its Polyubiquitination and Subsequent Proteasomal Degradation during Kidney Development  

PubMed Central

Kif26b, a member of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), is essential for kidney development. Kif26b expression is restricted to the metanephric mesenchyme, and its transcription is regulated by a zinc finger transcriptional regulator Sall1. However, the mechanism(s) by which Kif26b protein is regulated remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate phosphorylation and subsequent polyubiquitination of Kif26b in the developing kidney. We find that Kif26b interacts with an E3 ubiquitin ligase, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (Nedd4) in developing kidney. Phosphorylation of Kif26b at Thr-1859 and Ser-1962 by the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) enhances the interaction of Kif26b with Nedd4. Nedd4 polyubiquitinates Kif26b and thereby promotes degradation of Kif26b via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, Kif26b lacks ATPase activity but does associate with microtubules. Nocodazole treatment not only disrupts the localization of Kif26b to microtubules but also promotes phosphorylation and polyubiquitination of Kif26b. These results suggest that the function of Kif26b is microtubule-based and that Kif26b degradation in the metanephric mesenchyme via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may be important for proper kidney development. PMID:22768111

Terabayashi, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Masaji; Shinmyozu, Kaori; Ohshima, Toshio; Johjima, Ai; Ogura, Teru; Miki, Hiroaki; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

2012-01-01

133

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Degradation by Proteasome Controls a Developmental Switch in Neurotrophin Dependence*  

PubMed Central

Neonatal brains develop through a program that eliminates about half of the neurons. During this period, neurons depend on neurotrophins for their survival. Recently, we reported that, at the conclusion of the naturally occurring death period, neurons become neurotrophin-independent and, further, that this developmental switch is achieved by the emergence of a second survival pathway mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Here I show that calcineurin plays a key role in controlling the developmental switch in mouse hippocampal neurons. Calcineurin promotes the degradation of STAT3 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Inhibition of calcineurin acutely increases total levels of STAT3 as well as its activated forms, resulting in decreased levels of the tumor suppressor p53 and its proapoptotic target, Bax. In vivo and in vitro, calcineurin regulates levels of STAT3 and neurotrophin dependence. TMF/ARA 160 (TATA element modulatory factor/androgen receptor co-activator 160), the key mediator of STAT3 ubiquitination, is required for calcineurin-dependent STAT3 degradation. Thus, these results show that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway controls the critical developmental switch of neurotrophin dependence in the newborn hippocampus. PMID:23733189

Murase, Sachiko

2013-01-01

134

Fluorene Degradation Pathway Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM/BBD) contains "microbial biocatalytic reactions and biodegradation pathways primarily for xenobiotic, chemical compounds." A new microbial enzyme-catalyzed reactions has been posted for Flourene. Flourene is commonly found in vehicle exhaust emissions, motor oils, crude oils, coal and oil combustion products, industrial effluents, and waste incineration, and is a major component of "fossil fuels and their derivatives." The Fluorene pathway map includes organisms which initiate the pathway, as well as organisms that carry out later steps. The pathway map provides detailed information on each hyperlinked step, including graphics, product/substrate reactions, and external links to further information.

Feng, Jingfeng.

135

NIK is required for NF-?B-mediated induction of BAG3 upon inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways  

PubMed Central

Recently, we reported that induction of the co-chaperone Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is critical for recovery of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells after proteotoxic stress upon inhibition of the two constitutive protein degradation pathways, that is, the ubiquitin-proteasome system by Bortezomib and the aggresome-autophagy system by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor ST80. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating BAG3 induction under these conditions. Here, we identify nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)-inducing kinase (NIK) as a key mediator of ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated NF-?B activation and transcriptional upregulation of BAG3. ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment upregulates mRNA and protein expression of NIK, which is accompanied by an initial increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, NIK silencing by siRNA abolishes NF-?B activation and BAG3 induction by ST80/Bortezomib. Furthermore, ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment stimulates NF-?B transcriptional activity and upregulates NF-?B target genes. Genetic inhibition of NF-?B by overexpression of dominant-negative I?B? superrepressor (I?B?-SR) or by knockdown of p65 blocks the ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated upregulation of BAG3 mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal activity by Bafilomycin A1 inhibits ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated I?B? degradation, NF-?B activation and BAG3 upregulation, indicating that I?B? is degraded via the lysosome in the presence of Bortezomib. Thus, by demonstrating a critical role of NIK in mediating NF-?B activation and BAG3 induction upon ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment, our study provides novel insights into mechanisms of resistance to proteotoxic stress in RMS. PMID:25766331

Rapino, F; Abhari, B A; Jung, M; Fulda, S

2015-01-01

136

NIK is required for NF-?B-mediated induction of BAG3 upon inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported that induction of the co-chaperone Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is critical for recovery of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells after proteotoxic stress upon inhibition of the two constitutive protein degradation pathways, that is, the ubiquitin-proteasome system by Bortezomib and the aggresome-autophagy system by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor ST80. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating BAG3 induction under these conditions. Here, we identify nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)-inducing kinase (NIK) as a key mediator of ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated NF-?B activation and transcriptional upregulation of BAG3. ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment upregulates mRNA and protein expression of NIK, which is accompanied by an initial increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, NIK silencing by siRNA abolishes NF-?B activation and BAG3 induction by ST80/Bortezomib. Furthermore, ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment stimulates NF-?B transcriptional activity and upregulates NF-?B target genes. Genetic inhibition of NF-?B by overexpression of dominant-negative I?B? superrepressor (I?B?-SR) or by knockdown of p65 blocks the ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated upregulation of BAG3 mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal activity by Bafilomycin A1 inhibits ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated I?B? degradation, NF-?B activation and BAG3 upregulation, indicating that I?B? is degraded via the lysosome in the presence of Bortezomib. Thus, by demonstrating a critical role of NIK in mediating NF-?B activation and BAG3 induction upon ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment, our study provides novel insights into mechanisms of resistance to proteotoxic stress in RMS. PMID:25766331

Rapino, F; Abhari, B A; Jung, M; Fulda, S

2015-01-01

137

The Proteasome Inhibitor, MG132, Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting SnoN Degradation In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has been shown to be involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The SnoN protein can regulate TGF-? signaling through interaction with Smad proteins. Recent studies have shown that SnoN is mainly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the role of SnoN in the regulation of TGF-?/Smad signaling in DN is still unclear. In this study, diabetic rats were randomly divided into a diabetic control group (DC group) and a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) diabetes therapy group (DT group). Kidney damage parameters and the expression of SnoN, Smurf2, and TGF-? were observed. Simultaneously, we cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) stimulated with high glucose, and SnoN and Arkadia expression were measured. Results demonstrated that 24-hour urine protein, ACR, BUN, and the expression of Smurf2 and TGF-? were significantly increased (P < 0.05), whereas SnoN was significantly decreased in the DC group (P < 0.05). However, these changes diminished after treatment with MG132. SnoN expression in GMCs decreased significantly (P < 0.05), but Arkadia expression gradually increased due to high glucose stimulation (P < 0.05), which could be almost completely reversed by MG132 (P < 0.05). The present results support the hypothesis that MG132 may alleviate kidney damage by inhibiting SnoN degradation and TGF-? activation, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may become a new therapeutic target for DN. PMID:25003128

Huang, Wei; Yang, Chen; Nan, Qinling; Gao, Chenlin; Feng, Hong; Gou, Fang; Chen, Guo; Zhang, Zhihong; Yan, Pijun; Peng, Juan

2014-01-01

138

Cbl-b and c-Cbl negatively regulate osteoblast differentiation by enhancing ubiquitination and degradation of Osterix.  

PubMed

E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b and c-Cbl play important roles in bone formation and maintenance. Cbl-b and c-Cbl regulate the activity of various receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular protein tyrosine kinases mainly by regulating the degradation of target proteins. However, the precise mechanisms of how Cbl-b and c-Cbl regulate osteoblast differentiation are not well known. In this study, we investigated potential targets of Cbl-b and c-Cbl. We found that Cbl-b and c-Cbl inhibit BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal cells. Among various osteogenic transcription factors, we identified that Cbl-b and c-Cbl suppress the protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. Our results suggest that Cbl-b and c-Cbl inhibit the function of Osterix by enhancing the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of Osterix. Taken together, we propose novel regulatory roles of Cbl-b and c-Cbl during osteoblast differentiation in which Cbl-b and c-Cbl regulate the degradation of Osterix through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:25744063

Choi, You Hee; Han, Younho; Lee, Sung Ho; Jin, Yun-Hye; Bahn, Minjin; Hur, Kyu Chung; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Youl

2015-06-01

139

Melatonin-Induced Temporal Up-Regulation of Gene Expression Related to Ubiquitin/Proteasome System (UPS) in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing understanding that melatonin and the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) interact to regulate multiple cellular functions. Post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination are important modulators of signaling processes, cell cycle and many other cellular functions. Previously, we reported a melatonin-induced upregulation of gene expression related to ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in Plasmodium falciparum, the human malaria parasite, and that P. falciparum protein kinase 7 influences this process. This implies a role of melatonin, an indolamine, in modulating intraerythrocytic development of the parasite. In this report we demonstrate by qPCR analysis, that melatonin induces gene upregulation in nine out of fourteen genes of the UPS, consisting of the same set of genes previously reported, between 4 to 5 h after melatonin treatment. We demonstrate that melatonin causes a temporally controlled gene expression of UPS members. PMID:25479077

Koyama, Fernanda C.; Azevedo, Mauro F.; Budu, Alexandre; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Garcia, Célia R. S.

2014-01-01

140

Ubiquitin-proteasome genes as targets for modulation of cisplatin sensitivity in fission yeast  

PubMed Central

Background The ubiquitin(Ub)-proteasome pathway is implicated in the regulation of a variety of cellular functions and plays a major role in stress response in eukaryotic cells, by targeting misfolded and damaged proteins for degradation. In addition, in the presence of DNA damage, the Ub-proteasome system regulates proteins involved in sensing, repairing, and/or tolerating the damage. Antitumor agents such as cisplatin can activate the pathway, but the role of specific pathway components in cell sensitivity/response to the drug is not known. Since platinum compounds represent clinically relevant antitumor agents and a major limitation to their use is the development of drug resistance, there is an urgent need for identifying targets for improving their efficacy. Results In the present study, we performed a genome-wide screening for sensitivity to cisplatin using non-essential haploid deletion mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, belonging to a collection of haploid strains constructed through homologous recombination. Using this approach, we identified three Ub-proteasome mutants exhibiting hypersensitivity to cisplatin (ubp16, ubc13 and pmt3) and ten mutants (including ufd2, beta7 20S, rpt6/let1) resistant to the drug. In addition, the importance of lub1 gene emerged from the comparison between the present screening and gene expression profile data previously obtained in fission yeast. Conclusions The factors identified in the present study allowed us to highlight most finely the close relationship between the Ub-proteasome system and DNA damage response mechanisms, thus establishing a comprehensive framework of regulators likely relevant also in higher eukaryotes. Our results provide the proof of principle of the involvement of specific genes modulated by cisplatin treatment in cell response to the drug, suggesting their potential role as targets for modulating cisplatin sensitivity. In this regard, the prospective identification of novel targets for modulation of cisplatin sensitivity in an eukaryotic model organism appears particularly intriguing towards the discovery of strategies to overcome cisplatin resistance in human tumors. PMID:21247416

2011-01-01

141

An Essential Postsynaptic Role for the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Slow Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Chronic increases or decreases in neuronal activity initiate compensatory changes in synaptic strength that emerge slowly over a 12–24 hr period, but the mechanisms underlying this slow homeostatic response remain poorly understood. Here, we show an essential role for the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in slow homeostatic plasticity induced by chronic changes in network activity. In cultured hippocampal neurons, UPS inhibitors drive a slow increase in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude and synaptic AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 and GluA2 expression that both mirrors and occludes the changes produced by chronic suppression of network activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX). These non-additive effects were similarly observed under conditions of chronic hyperactivation of network activity with bicuculline – the increase in mEPSC amplitude and GluA1/2 expression with chronic UPS inhibition persists during network hyperactivation, which scales synaptic strength and AMPA receptor expression in the opposite direction when UPS activity is intact. Finally, cell-autonomous UPS inhibition (via expression of the ubiquitin chain elongation mutant, UbK48R) enhances mEPSC amplitude in a manner that mimics and occludes changes in network activity, demonstrating a postsynaptic role for the UPS in slow homeostatic plasticity. Taken together, our results suggest that the UPS acts as an integration point for translating sustained changes in network activity into appropriate incremental compensatory changes at synapses. PMID:20888892

Jakawich, Sonya K.; Neely, Ryan M.; Djakovic, Stevan N.; Patrick, Gentry N.; Sutton, Michael A.

2010-01-01

142

Role of the ubiquitin–proteasome system in cardiac dysfunction of adipose triglyceride lipase-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Systemic deletion of the gene encoding for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in mice leads to severe cardiac dysfunction due to massive accumulation of neutral lipids in cardiomyocytes. Recently, impaired peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) signaling has been described to substantially contribute to the observed cardiac phenotype. Disturbances of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) have been implicated in numerous cardiac diseases including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential role of UPS in cardiac ATGL deficiency. Our results demonstrate prominent accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in hearts of ATGL-deficient mice, an effect that was abolished upon cardiomyocyte-directed overexpression of ATGL. In parallel, cardiac protein expression of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1a, which catalyzes the first step of the ubiquitination cascade, was significantly upregulated in ATGL-deficient hearts. Dysfunction of the UPS was accompanied by activation of NF-?B signaling. Moreover, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperon protein disulfide isomerase was significantly upregulated in ATGL-deficient hearts. Chronic treatment of ATGL-deficient mice with the PPAR? agonist Wy14,643 improved proteasomal function, prevented NF-?B activation and decreased oxidative stress. In summary, our data point to a hitherto unrecognized link between proteasomal function, PPAR? signaling and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25285770

Mussbacher, Marion; Stessel, Heike; Wölkart, Gerald; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd; Schrammel, Astrid

2014-01-01

143

Casein kinase 1?-dependent Wee1 protein degradation.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic mitotic entry is controlled by Cdk1, which is activated by the Cdc25 phosphatase and inhibited by Wee1 tyrosine kinase, a target of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Here we use a reporter of Wee1 degradation, K328M-Wee1-luciferase, to screen a kinase-directed chemical library. Hit profiling identified CK1?-dependent Wee1 degradation. Small-molecule CK1? inhibitors specifically disrupted Wee1 destruction and arrested HeLa cell proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition, siRNA knockdown, or conditional deletion of CK1? also reduced Wee1 turnover. Thus, these studies define a previously unappreciated role for CK1? in controlling the cell cycle. PMID:24817118

Penas, Clara; Ramachandran, Vimal; Simanski, Scott; Lee, Choogon; Madoux, Franck; Rahaim, Ronald J; Chauhan, Ruchi; Barnaby, Omar; Schurer, Stephan; Hodder, Peter; Steen, Judith; Roush, William R; Ayad, Nagi G

2014-07-01

144

Role of Cue1p in ubiquitination and degradation at the ER surface.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) degradation of aberrant proteins is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, a membrane-bound component of the ubiquitin system, Cue1p, was identified. It was shown to recruit the soluble ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc7p to the ER membrane. In the absence of Cue1p, unassembled and thus cytosolically mislocalized Ubc7p was unable to participate in ER degradation or in the turnover of soluble non-ER proteins. Moreover, ubiquitination by Cue1p-assembled Ubc7p and Ubc6p was a prerequisite for retrograde transport of lumenal substrates out of the ER, which suggests that ubiquitination is mechanistically integrated into the ER degradation process. PMID:9388185

Biederer, T; Volkwein, C; Sommer, T

1997-12-01

145

Heat shock transcription factor ?(32) is targeted for degradation via an ubiquitin-like protein ThiS in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The posttranslational modification of proteins with ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) plays an important role in eukaryote biology, through which substrate proteins are targeted for degradation by the proteasome. Prokaryotes have been thought to degrade proteins by an ubiquitin independent pathway. Here, we show that ThiS, an ubiquitin-like protein, is covalently attached to ?(32) and at least 27 other proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation by proteases, in a similar manner to the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in eukaryotes. Molecular biology and biochemical studies confirm that specific lysine sites in ?(32) can be modified by ThiS. The results presented here establish a new model for ?(32) degradation and show that Escherichia coli uses a small-protein modifier to control protein stability. PMID:25721662

Xu, Xibing; Niu, Yulong; Liang, Ke; Wang, Jianmei; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi

2015-04-01

146

Aggresome-like structure induced by isothiocyanates is novel proteasome-dependent degradation machinery  

SciTech Connect

Unwanted or misfolded proteins are either refolded by chaperones or degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When UPS is impaired, misfolded proteins form aggregates, which are transported along microtubules by motor protein dynein towards the juxta-nuclear microtubule-organizing center to form aggresome, a single cellular garbage disposal complex. Because aggresome formation results from proteasome failure, aggresome components are degraded through the autophagy/lysosome pathway. Here we report that small molecule isothiocyanates (ITCs) can induce formation of aggresome-like structure (ALS) through covalent modification of cytoplasmic {alpha}- and {beta}-tubulin. The formation of ALS is related to neither proteasome inhibition nor oxidative stress. ITC-induced ALS is a proteasome-dependent assembly for emergent removal of misfolded proteins, suggesting that the cell may have a previously unknown strategy to cope with misfolded proteins.

Mi, Lixin, E-mail: lm293@georgetown.edu [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Gan, Nanqin; Chung, Fung-Lung [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

2009-10-16

147

Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of  

E-print Network

Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of Cations in Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells Cation degradation insights obtained by computational modeling could result in better performance are effective in increasing cation stability. With the help of computational modeling, more cations are being

148

E3 ubiquitin ligase Fbw7 negatively regulates granulocytic differentiation by targeting G-CSFR for degradation.  

PubMed

Tight control between activation and attenuation of granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) signaling is essential to regulate survival, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells. Previous studies demonstrated negative regulation of G-CSFR through endosomal-lysosomal routing and ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation. However, very few E3 ubiquitin ligases are known to target G-CSFR for ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here we identified F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (Fbw7), a substrate recognizing component of Skp-Cullin-F box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin Ligase physically associates with G-CSFR and promotes its ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. Our data shows that Fbw7 also interacts with and degrades G-CSFR-T718 (a truncated mutant of G-CSFR found in severe congenital neutropenia/acute myeloid leukemia (SCN/AML patients)) though at a quite slower rate compared to G-CSFR. We further show that glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?), like Fbw7 also targets G-CSFR and G-CSFR-T718 for degradation; however, Fbw7 and GSK3? are interdependent in targeting G-CSFR/G-CSFR-T718 for degradation because they are unable to degrade G-CSFR individually when either of them is knocked down. We further show that Fbw7 mediated downregulation of G-CSFR inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation which is required for G-CSF dependent granulocytic differentiation. In addition, our data also shows that inhibition of Fbw7 restores G-CSFR signaling leading to enhanced STAT3 activity resulting in massive granulocytic differentiation. These data indicate that Fbw7 together with GSK3? negatively regulates G-CSFR expression and its downstream signaling. PMID:23820376

Lochab, Savita; Pal, Pooja; Kapoor, Isha; Kanaujiya, Jitendra Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Behre, Gerhard; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

2013-12-01

149

CD4 Glycoprotein Degradation Induced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vpu Protein Requires the Function of Proteasomes and the Ubiquitin-Conjugating Pathway  

PubMed Central

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpu gene encodes a type I anchored integral membrane phosphoprotein with two independent functions. First, it regulates virus release from a post-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartment by an ion channel activity mediated by its transmembrane anchor. Second, it induces the selective down regulation of host cell receptor proteins (CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules) in a process involving its phosphorylated cytoplasmic tail. In the present work, we show that the Vpu-induced proteolysis of nascent CD4 can be completely blocked by peptide aldehydes that act as competitive inhibitors of proteasome function and also by lactacystin, which blocks proteasome activity by covalently binding to the catalytic ? subunits of proteasomes. The sensitivity of Vpu-induced CD4 degradation to proteasome inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of proteasome degradation of a model ubiquitinated substrate. Characterization of CD4-associated oligosaccharides indicated that CD4 rescued from Vpu-induced degradation by proteasome inhibitors is exported from the ER to the Golgi complex. This finding suggests that retranslocation of CD4 from the ER to the cytosol may be coupled to its proteasomal degradation. CD4 degradation mediated by Vpu does not require the ER chaperone calnexin and is dependent on an intact ubiquitin-conjugating system. This was demonstrated by inhibition of CD4 degradation (i) in cells expressing a thermally inactivated form of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 or (ii) following expression of a mutant form of ubiquitin (Lys48 mutated to Arg48) known to compromise ubiquitin targeting by interfering with the formation of polyubiquitin complexes. CD4 degradation was also prevented by altering the four Lys residues in its cytosolic domain to Arg, suggesting a role for ubiquitination of one or more of these residues in the process of degradation. The results clearly demonstrate a role for the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the process of Vpu-induced CD4 degradation. In contrast to other viral proteins (human cytomegalovirus US2 and US11), however, whose translocation of host ER molecules into the cytosol occurs in the presence of proteasome inhibitors, Vpu-targeted CD4 remains in the ER in a transport-competent form when proteasome activity is blocked. PMID:9499087

Schubert, Ulrich; Antón, Luis C.; Ba?ík, Igor; Cox, Josephine H.; Bour, Stéphane; Bennink, Jack R.; Orlowski, Marian; Strebel, Klaus; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

1998-01-01

150

L166P MUTANT DJ-1, CAUSATIVE FOR RECESSIVE PARKINSON'S DISEASE IS DEGRADED THROUGH THE UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Mutations in a gene on chromosome 1, DJ-1, have been reported recently to be associated with recessive, early-onset Parkinson's disease. Whilst one mutation is a large deletion that is predicted to produce an effective knockout of the gene, the second is a point ...

151

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Short-Term Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in PC12 Cells and Hypothalamic and Brainstem Neurons from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Possible Implications in Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Aberrations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamines biosynthesis, is involved in hypertension development. In this study we investigated whether UPS regulated TH turnover in PC12 cells and hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and whether this system was impaired in hypertension. PC12 cells were exposed to proteasome or lysosome inhibitors and TH protein level evaluated by Western blot. Lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, induced an increase of 86±15% in TH levels after 30 min of incubation, then it started to decrease up to 6 h to reach control levels and finally it rose up to 35.2±8.5% after 24 h. Bafilomycin, a lysosome inhibitor, did not alter TH protein levels during short times, but it increased TH by 92±22% above basal after 6 h treatment. Before degradation proteasome substrates are labeled by conjugation with ubiquitin. Efficacy of proteasome inhibition on TH turnover was evidenced by accumulation of ubiquitinylated TH after 30 min. Further, the inhibition of proteasome increased the quantity of TH phosphorylated at Ser40, which is essential for TH activity, by 2.7±0.3 fold above basal. TH protein level was upregulated in neurons from hypothalami and brainstem of SHR when the proteasome was inhibited during 30 min, supporting that neuronal TH is also short-term regulated by the proteasome. Since the increased TH levels reported in hypertension may result from proteasome dysfunction, we evaluate proteasme activity. Proteasome activity was significantly reduced by 67±4% in hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from SHR while its protein levels did not change. Present findings show that TH is regulated by the UPS. The impairment in proteasome activity observed in SHR neurons may be one of the causes of the increased TH protein levels reported in hypertension. PMID:25710381

Carbajosa, Nadia A. Longo; Corradi, Gerardo; Verrilli, María A. Lopez; Guil, María J.; Vatta, Marcelo S.; Gironacci, Mariela M.

2015-01-01

152

Tyrosine hydroxylase is short-term regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in PC12 cells and hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rats: possible implications in hypertension.  

PubMed

Aberrations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamines biosynthesis, is involved in hypertension development. In this study we investigated whether UPS regulated TH turnover in PC12 cells and hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and whether this system was impaired in hypertension. PC12 cells were exposed to proteasome or lysosome inhibitors and TH protein level evaluated by Western blot. Lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, induced an increase of 86±15% in TH levels after 30 min of incubation, then it started to decrease up to 6 h to reach control levels and finally it rose up to 35.2±8.5% after 24 h. Bafilomycin, a lysosome inhibitor, did not alter TH protein levels during short times, but it increased TH by 92±22% above basal after 6 h treatment. Before degradation proteasome substrates are labeled by conjugation with ubiquitin. Efficacy of proteasome inhibition on TH turnover was evidenced by accumulation of ubiquitinylated TH after 30 min. Further, the inhibition of proteasome increased the quantity of TH phosphorylated at Ser40, which is essential for TH activity, by 2.7±0.3 fold above basal. TH protein level was upregulated in neurons from hypothalami and brainstem of SHR when the proteasome was inhibited during 30 min, supporting that neuronal TH is also short-term regulated by the proteasome. Since the increased TH levels reported in hypertension may result from proteasome dysfunction, we evaluate proteasme activity. Proteasome activity was significantly reduced by 67±4% in hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from SHR while its protein levels did not change. Present findings show that TH is regulated by the UPS. The impairment in proteasome activity observed in SHR neurons may be one of the causes of the increased TH protein levels reported in hypertension. PMID:25710381

Carbajosa, Nadia A Longo; Corradi, Gerardo; Verrilli, María A Lopez; Guil, María J; Vatta, Marcelo S; Gironacci, Mariela M

2015-01-01

153

Disulfiram, and disulfiram derivatives as novel potential anticancer drugs targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system in both preclinical and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Disulfiram is a FDA approved drug for the treatment of alcoholism and available for clinical use since over 5 decades. Despite data from the 1970s and 80s that showed that disulfiram and analogs are able to enhance the activity of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and might be useful chemopreventative agents, the underlying molecular mechanisms remained unknown until recently. Large scale screening efforts for agents that can inhibit the proteasome and be used as novel anticancer drugs, revealed that disulfiram has proteasome inhibitory activity. Moreover, disulfiram was also found to have specific activity against zinc fingers and RING-finger ubiquitin E3 ligases that play an important role in cancer development. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical studies exploring disulfiram as an anticancer agent as well as research programs that focus on the development of disulfiram derivatives as inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:21247383

Kona, F R; Buac, D; M Burger, A

2011-03-01

154

Genetic myostatin decrease in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy model does not significantly affect the ubiquitin proteasome system despite enhancing the severity of disease  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that inhibiting the protein myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, may improve outcomes in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy by enhancing muscle mass. When the dystrophin-deficient golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog was bred with whippets having a heterozygous mutation for the myostatin gene, affected GRMD dogs with decreased myostatin (GRippets) demonstrated an accelerated physical decline compared to related affected GRMD dogs with full myostatin. To examine the role of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems in this accelerated decline, we determined the expression of the muscle ubiquitin ligases MuRF1, Atrogin-1, RNF25, RNF11, and CHIP: the proteasome subunits PSMA6, PSMB4, and PSME1: and calpain 1/2 by real time PCR in the cranial sartorius and vastus lateralis muscles in control, affected GRMD, and GRippet dogs. While individual affected GRMD and GRippet dogs contributed to an increased variability seen in ubiquitin ligase expression, neither group was significantly different from the control group. The affected GRMD dogs demonstrated significant increases in caspase-like and trypsin-like activity in the cranial sartorius; however, all three proteasome activities in the GRippet muscles did not differ from controls. Increased variability in calpain 1 and calpain 2 expression and activity in the affected GRMD and GRippet groups were identified, but no statistical differences from the control group were seen. These studies suggest a role of myostatin in the disease progression of GRMD, which does not significantly involve key components of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems involved in the protein quality control of sarcomere and other structural skeletal muscle proteins. PMID:24349620

Cotten, Steven W; Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Wadosky, Kristine M; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

2014-01-01

155

Distinct effects of methamphetamine on autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems in HL-1 cultured mouse atrial cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanism underling the cardiotoxicity of methamphetamine, a psychostimulant drug that is currently abused in the world. A mouse atrial cardiac cell line, HL-1, which retains phenotypes of cardiac cells and serves as a useful model for examining cardiac pathophysiology, was used for this purpose. During treatment with 1mM methamphetamine (MAP) for 3-48h, massive but transient cytoplasmic vacuolization (3-12h) followed by an intracellular accumulation of granules (24-48h) was observed under light microscopy. The vacuoles were surrounded by the lysosome membrane marker LAMP1, while the granules colocalized with the autophagy markers LC3 and p62 as well as ubiquitinated proteins. Western blot analysis showed that LC3 was activated during MAP administration, although p62 was not degraded but rather accumulated. Concordant with p62 accumulation, the nuclear translocation of an anti-oxidative transcription factor, Nrf2, and the subsequent induction of its target gene, HO-1, was observed, suggesting an impairment of autophagic protein degradation and the subsequent activation of the p62/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. In addition, proteomic analysis revealed a reduction in myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein levels during MAP administration. The ubiquitination of MHC and the induction of the muscle sarcomere protein-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and atrogin-1 were proved by immunoprecipitation and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Taken together, the vacuolization of lysosomes and the subsequent accumulation of autophagosomes indicate an impairment of autophagic protein degradation during MAP administration; on the other hand, the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of MHC indicate the proper progression of proteasomal degradation. PMID:23933405

Funakoshi-Hirose, Izumi; Aki, Toshihiko; Unuma, Kana; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Noritake, Kanako; Uemura, Koichi

2013-10-01

156

Interactions of Xanthomonas type-III effector proteins with the plant ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like pathways  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, regulated protein turnover is required during many cellular processes, including defense against pathogens. Ubiquitination and degradation of ubiquitinated proteins via the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is the main pathway for the turnover of intracellular proteins in eukaryotes. The extensive utilization of the UPS in host cells makes it an ideal pivot for the manipulation of cellular processes by pathogens. Like many other Gram-negative bacteria, Xanthomonas species secrete a suite of type-III effector proteins (T3Es) into their host cells to promote virulence. Some of these T3Es exploit the plant UPS to interfere with immunity. This review summarizes T3E examples from the genus Xanthomonas with a proven or suggested interaction with the host UPS or UPS-like systems and also discusses the apparent paradox that arises from the presence of T3Es that inhibit the UPS in general while others rely on its activity for their function. PMID:25566304

Üstün, Suayib; Börnke, Frederik

2014-01-01

157

Protein recycling pathways in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Many progressive neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal lobe dementia, are associated with the formation of insoluble intracellular proteinaceous inclusions. It is therefore imperative to understand the factors that regulate normal, as well as abnormal, protein recycling in neurons. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome or autophagy pathways might contribute to the pathology of various neurodegenerative diseases. Induction of these pathways may offer a rational therapeutic strategy for a number of these diseases. PMID:25031631

2014-01-01

158

Induction of Caspase-3-like activity in Rice following release of cytochrome-f from the chloroplast and subsequent interaction with the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

It has been known that the process of leaf senescence is accompanied by programmed cell death (PCD), and the previous study indicated that dark-induced senescence in detached leaves from rice led to the release of cytochrome f (Cyt f) from chloroplast into the cytoplasm. In this study, the effects of Cyt f on PCD were studied both in vitro and in vivo. In a cell-free system, purified Cyt f activated caspase-3-like protease and endonuclease OsNuc37, and induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, Cyt f-induced caspase-3-like activity could be inhibited by MG132, which suggests that the activity was attributed to the 26S proteasome. Conditional expression of Cyt f in the cytoplasm could also activate caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation. Fluorescein diacetate staining and annexin V-FITC/PI double staining demonstrated that Cyt f expression in cytoplasm significantly increased the percentage of PCD protoplasts. Yeast two-hybrid screening showed that Cyt f might interact with E3-ubiquitin ligase and RPN9b, the subunits of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), and other PCD-related proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that the released Cyt f from the chloroplast into the cytoplasm might activate or rescue caspase-3-like activity by interacting with the UPS, ultimately leading to the induction of PCD. PMID:25103621

Wang, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xiaonan; Li, Huan; Cui, Jing; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

159

Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and Implications on the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

Antimalarial drug resistance remains a major obstacle in malaria control. Evidence from Southeast Asia shows that resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is inevitable. Ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the efficacy of curcumin against Plasmodium spp. Drug interaction assays between curcumin/piperine/chloroquine and curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combinations and the potential of drug treatment to interfere with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) were analyzed. In vivo efficacy of curcumin was studied in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi clones resistant to chloroquine and artemisinin, and drug interactions were analyzed by isobolograms. Subtherapeutic doses of curcumin, chloroquine, and artemisinin were administered to mice, and mRNA was collected following treatment for RT-PCR analysis of genes encoding deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Curcumin was found be nontoxic in BALB/c mice. The combination of curcumin/chloroquine/piperine reduced parasitemia to 37% seven days after treatment versus the control group's 65%, and an additive interaction was revealed. Curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combination did not show a favorable drug interaction in this murine model of malaria. Treatment of mice with subtherapeutic doses of the drugs resulted in a transient increase in genes encoding DUBs indicating UPS interference. If curcumin is to join the arsenal of available antimalarial drugs, future studies exploring suitable drug partners would be of interest. PMID:23691276

Neto, Zoraima; Machado, Marta; Lindeza, Ana; do Rosário, Virgílio; Gazarini, Marcos L.; Lopes, Dinora

2013-01-01

160

Overview of Proteasome Inhibitor-Based Anti-cancer Therapies: Perspective on Bortezomib and Second Generation Proteasome Inhibitors versus Future Generation Inhibitors of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

Over the past ten years, proteasome inhibition has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma (MM) and some lymphomas. In 2003, Bortezomib (BTZ) became the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). BTZ-based therapies have become a staple for the treatment of MM at all stages of the disease. The survival rate of MM patients has improved significantly since clinical introduction of BTZ and other immunomodulatory drugs. However, BTZ has several limitations. Not all patients respond to BTZ-based therapies and relapse occurs in many patients who initially responded. Solid tumors, in particular, are often resistant to BTZ. Furthermore, BTZ can induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy (PN). The second generation proteasome inhibitor Carfizomib (CFZ; U.S. FDA approved in August 2012) induces responses in a minority of MM patients relapsed from or refractory to BTZ. There is less PN compared to BTZ. Four other second-generation proteasome inhibitors (Ixazomib, Delanzomib, Oprozomib and Marizomib) with different pharmacologic properties and broader anticancer activities, have also shown some clinical activity in bortezomib-resistant cancers. While the mechanism of resistance to bortezomib in human cancers still remains to be fully understood, targeting the immunoproteasome, ubiquitin E3 ligases, the 19S proteasome and deubiquitinases in pre-clinical studies represents possible directions for future generation inhibitors of ubiquitin-proteasome system in the treatment of MM and other cancers. PMID:25092212

Dou, Q. Ping; Zonder, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

161

Archaeal Tuc1/Ncs6 Homolog Required for Wobble Uridine tRNA Thiolation Is Associated with Ubiquitin-Proteasome, Translation, and RNA Processing System Homologs  

PubMed Central

While cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1 (Tuc1/Ncs6) and ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (Urm1) are important in the 2-thiolation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) at wobble uridines of tRNAs in eukaryotes, the biocatalytic roles and properties of Ncs6/Tuc1 and its homologs are poorly understood. Here we present the first report of an Ncs6 homolog of archaea (NcsA of Haloferax volcanii) that is essential for maintaining cellular pools of thiolated tRNALysUUU and for growth at high temperature. When purified from Hfx. volcanii, NcsA was found to be modified at Lys204 by isopeptide linkage to polymeric chains of the ubiquitin-fold protein SAMP2. The ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme homolog of archaea (UbaA) was required for this covalent modification. Non-covalent protein partners that specifically associated with NcsA were also identified including UbaA, SAMP2, proteasome activating nucleotidase (PAN)-A/1, translation elongation factor aEF-1? and a ?-CASP ribonuclease homolog of the archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 family (aCPSF1). Together, our study reveals that NcsA is essential for growth at high temperature, required for formation of thiolated tRNALysUUU and intimately linked to homologs of ubiquitin-proteasome, translation and RNA processing systems. PMID:24906001

Chavarria, Nikita E.; Hwang, Sungmin; Cao, Shiyun; Fu, Xian; Holman, Mary; Elbanna, Dina; Rodriguez, Suzanne; Arrington, Deanna; Englert, Markus; Uthandi, Sivakumar; Söll, Dieter; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

2014-01-01

162

Photovoltaic lifetime and degradation science statistical pathway development: acrylic degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scienti c and mechanistic statistical analytics must be performed on a large sample of materials, components and systems. Statistically signi - cant relationships were investigated between di erent mechanistically based variables to develop a statistical pathway diagram for the degradation of acrylic that is important in concentrating photovoltaics. The statisti- cally signi cant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation science using a domain knowledge semi-supervised generalized structural equation modeling (semi-gSEM. Predictive analytics and prognostics are informed from the statistical pathway diagram in order to predictively understand the lifetime of PV modules in di erent stress conditions and help with these critical lifetime technologies.

Bruckman, Laura S.; Wheeler, Nicholas R.; Kidd, Ian V.; Sun, Jiayang; French, Roger H.

2013-09-01

163

Lysosome: regulator of lipid degradation pathways  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that has a fundamental role in the adaptation to fasting and primarily relies on the activity of the endolysosomal system, to which the autophagosome targets substrates for degradation. Recent studies have revealed that the lysosomal–autophagic pathway plays an important part in the early steps of lipid degradation. In this review, we discuss the transcriptional mechanisms underlying co-regulation between lysosome, autophagy, and other steps of lipid catabolism, including the activity of nutrient-sensitive transcription factors (TFs) and of members of the nuclear receptor family. In addition, we discuss how the lysosome acts as a metabolic sensor and orchestrates the transcriptional response to fasting. PMID:25061009

Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

2014-01-01

164

Protein dislocation from the ER requires polyubiquitination and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome system requires the dislocation of substrates from the ER into the cytosol. It has been speculated that a functional ubiquitin proteasome pathway is not only essential for proteolysis, but also for the preceding export step. Here, we show that short ubiquitin chains synthesized on proteolytic substrates are not sufficient to complete dislocation;

Ernst Jarosch; Christof Taxis; Corinna Volkwein; Javier Bordallo; Daniel Finley; Dieter H. Wolf; Thomas Sommer

2002-01-01

165

Protection from endotoxic uveitis by intravitreal Resolvin D1: involvement of lymphocytes, miRNAs, ubiquitin-proteasome, and M1/M2 macrophages.  

PubMed

This study investigated the protective effects of intravitreal Resolvin D1 (RvD1) against LPS-induced rat endotoxic uveitis (EIU). RvD1 was administered into the right eye at a single injection of 5??L volume containing 10-100-1000?ng/kg RvD1 1?h post-LPS injection (200??g, Salmonella minnesota) into thefootpad of Sprague-Dawley rats. 24?h later, the eye was enucleated and examined for clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical evaluations. RvD1 significantly and dose-dependently decreased the clinical score attributed to EIU, starting from the dose of 10?ng/kg and further decreased by 100 and 1000?ng/kg. These effects were accompanied by changes in four important determinants of the immune-inflammatory response within the eye: (i) the B and T lymphocytes, (ii) the miRNAs pattern, (iii) the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and (iv) the M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. LPS+RvD1 treated rats showed reduced presence of B and T lymphocytes and upregulation of miR-200c-3p, miR 203a-3p, miR 29b-3p, and miR 21-5p into the eye compared to the LPS alone. This was paralleled by decreases of the ubiquitin, 20S and 26S proteasome subunits, reduced presence of macrophage M1, and increased presence of macrophage M2 in the ocular tissues. Accordingly, the levels of the cytokine TNF-?, the chemokines MIP1-? and NF-?B were reduced. PMID:25684860

Rossi, S; Di Filippo, C; Gesualdo, C; Potenza, N; Russo, A; Trotta, M C; Zippo, M V; Maisto, R; Ferraraccio, F; Simonelli, F; D'Amico, M

2015-01-01

166

Protection from Endotoxic Uveitis by Intravitreal Resolvin D1: Involvement of Lymphocytes, miRNAs, Ubiquitin-Proteasome, and M1/M2 Macrophages  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the protective effects of intravitreal Resolvin D1 (RvD1) against LPS-induced rat endotoxic uveitis (EIU). RvD1 was administered into the right eye at a single injection of 5??L volume containing 10–100–1000?ng/kg RvD1 1?h post-LPS injection (200??g, Salmonella minnesota) into thefootpad of Sprague-Dawley rats. 24?h later, the eye was enucleated and examined for clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical evaluations. RvD1 significantly and dose-dependently decreased the clinical score attributed to EIU, starting from the dose of 10?ng/kg and further decreased by 100 and 1000?ng/kg. These effects were accompanied by changes in four important determinants of the immune-inflammatory response within the eye: (i) the B and T lymphocytes, (ii) the miRNAs pattern, (iii) the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and (iv) the M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. LPS+RvD1 treated rats showed reduced presence of B and T lymphocytes and upregulation of miR-200c-3p, miR 203a-3p, miR 29b-3p, and miR 21-5p into the eye compared to the LPS alone. This was paralleled by decreases of the ubiquitin, 20S and 26S proteasome subunits, reduced presence of macrophage M1, and increased presence of macrophage M2 in the ocular tissues. Accordingly, the levels of the cytokine TNF-?, the chemokines MIP1-? and NF-?B were reduced. PMID:25684860

Rossi, S.; Di Filippo, C.; Gesualdo, C.; Potenza, N.; Russo, A.; Trotta, M. C.; Zippo, M. V.; Maisto, R.; Ferraraccio, F.; Simonelli, F.; D'Amico, M.

2015-01-01

167

Ubx4 Modulates Cdc48 Activity and Influences Degradation of Misfolded Proteins of the Endoplasmic Reticulum*  

PubMed Central

Misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway are recognized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), retrotranslocated into the cytoplasm, and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Right after retrotranslocation and polyubiquitination, they are extracted from the cytosolic side of the ER membrane through a complex consisting of the AAA ATPase Cdc48 (p97 in mammals), Ufd1, and Npl4. This complex delivers misfolded proteins to the proteasome for final degradation. Extraction, delivery, and processing of ERAD (ER-associated degradation) substrates to the proteasome requires additional cofactors of Cdc48. Here we characterize the UBX domain containing protein Ubx4 (Cui1) as a crucial factor for the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins via ERAD. Ubx4 modulates the Cdc48-Ufd1-Npl4 complex to guarantee its correct function. Mutant variants of Ubx4 lead to defective degradation of misfolded proteins and accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins bound to Cdc48. We show the requirement of the UBX domain of Ubx4 for its function in ERAD. The observation that Ubx2 and Ubx4 are not found together in one complex with Cdc48 suggests several distinct steps in modulating the activity and localization of Cdc48 in ERAD. PMID:19359248

Alberts, Sven M.; Sonntag, Caroline; Schäfer, Antje; Wolf, Dieter H.

2009-01-01

168

Ubiquitin-protein ligases in muscle wasting: multiple parallel pathways?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in a wide variety of animal models of muscle wasting have led to the concept that increased protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for the loss of muscle mass seen as muscle atrophy. The complexity of the ubiquitination apparatus has hampered our understanding of how this pathway is activated in atrophying muscles and which ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in muscle are responsible. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments have shown that two newly identified ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), atrogin-1/MAFbx and MURF-1, are critical in the development of muscle atrophy. Other in-vitro studies also implicated E2(14k) and E3alpha, of the N-end rule pathway, as playing an important role in the process. SUMMARY: It seems likely that multiple pathways of ubiquitin conjugation are activated in parallel in atrophying muscle, perhaps to target for degradation specific classes of muscle proteins. The emerging challenge will be to define the protein targets for, as well as inhibitors of, these E3s.

Lecker, Stewart H.; Goldberg, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

169

Bacterial Effectors and Their Functions in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Insight from the Modes of Substrate Recognition  

PubMed Central

Protein ubiquitination plays indispensable roles in the regulation of cell homeostasis and pathogenesis of neoplastic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given the importance of this modification, it is to be expected that several pathogenic bacteria have developed the ability to utilize the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit. Modulation of the host ubiquitin system by bacterial effector proteins inhibits innate immune responses and hijacks central signaling pathways. Bacterial effectors mimic enzymes of the host ubiquitin system, but may or may not be structurally similar to the mammalian enzymes. Other effectors bind and modify components of the host ubiquitin system, and some are themselves subject to ubiquitination. This review will describe recent findings, based on structural analyses, regarding how pathogens use post-translational modifications of proteins to establish an infection. PMID:25257025

Kim, Minsoo; Otsubo, Ryota; Morikawa, Hanako; Nishide, Akira; Takagi, Kenji; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Mizushima, Tsunehiro

2014-01-01

170

Gene expression: degrade to derepress.  

PubMed

Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) provides a static snap-shot of DNA-associated proteins which fails to reflect the dynamics of the DNA-bound proteome. Now, Catic and co-workers combine ubiquitin ChIP-seq and proteasome inhibitors to map sites of DNA-associated protein degradation on a genome-wide scale. They identify an ubiquitin ligase which targets a transcriptional repressor for destruction by the proteasome, thus activating transcription of specific genes. These findings reveal that the ubiquitin proteasome system actively regulates transcription. PMID:24473147

McShane, Erik; Selbach, Matthias

2014-03-01

171

The Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Oncoprotein Tax Controls Forkhead Box O4 Activity through Degradation by the Proteasome?  

PubMed Central

Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway by the viral Tax oncoprotein plays a pivotal role in clonal expansion of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells. As the Forkhead box O (FoxO) tumor suppressors act as downstream effectors of PI3K/Akt, they represent good candidate targets whose dysregulation by Tax might be involved in HTLV-1-mediated activation and transformation of infected cells. In this report, we provide evidence showing that Tax induces a dose-dependent degradation of FoxO4 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Consistent with that, we demonstrate that Tax expression increases the interaction between FoxO4 and Mdm2 E3 ligase, leading to a strong FoxO4 polyubiquitination. These processes require the phosphorylation of FoxO4 by Akt, since a mutant of FoxO4 with mutations on its three Akt phosphorylation sites appears to be resistant to Tax-mediated degradation and ubiquitination. In addition, we show that Tax expression is associated with degradation and phosphorylation of endogenous FoxO4 in Jurkat T cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Tax represses FoxO4 transcriptional activity. Our study demonstrates that Tax can control FoxO4 protein stability and transcriptional activity and provides new insight into the subversion of cell signaling pathways during HTLV-1 infection. PMID:21525355

Oteiza, Alexandra; Mechti, Nadir

2011-01-01

172

Preventing p38 MAPK-Mediated MafA Degradation Ameliorates ?-Cell Dysfunction under Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The reduction in the expression of glucose-responsive insulin gene transcription factor MafA accompanies the development of ?-cell dysfunction under oxidative stress/diabetic milieu. Humans with type 2 diabetes have reduced MafA expression, and thus preventing this reduction could overcome ?-cell dysfunction and diabetes. We previously showed that p38 MAPK, but not glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), is a major regulator of MafA degradation under oxidative stress. Here, we examined the mechanisms of this degradation and whether preventing MafA degradation under oxidative stress will overcome ?-cell dysfunction. We show that under oxidative and nonoxidative conditions p38 MAPK directly binds to MafA and triggers MafA degradation via ubiquitin proteasomal pathway. However, unlike nonoxidative conditions, MafA degradation under oxidative stress depended on p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation at threonine (T) 134, and not T57. Furthermore the expression of alanine (A) 134-MafA, but not A57-MafA, reduced the oxidative stress-mediated loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which was independent of p38 MAPK action on protein kinase D, a regulator of insulin secretion. Interestingly, the expression of proteasomal activator PA28? that degrades GSK3-phosphorylated (including T57) MafA was reduced under oxidative stress, explaining the dominance of p38 MAPK over the GSK3 pathway in regulating MafA stability under oxidative stress. These results identify two distinct pathways mediating p38 MAPK-dependent MafA degradation under oxidative and nonoxidative conditions and show that inhibiting MafA degradation under oxidative stress ameliorates ?-cell dysfunction and could lead to novel therapies for diabetes. PMID:23660596

El Khattabi, Ilham

2013-01-01

173

Post-translational modification of CASK leads to its proteasome-dependent degradation.  

PubMed

CASK is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family. In mammals it is an essential protein, as CASK knockout mice die after birth and its deletion in humans has developmental consequences. CASK plays a role in the transcription of genes required for forebrain development, and in the nervous systems of Drosophila and C. elegans, it participates in receptor localization at the plasma membrane. This role in organizing supramolecular protein complexes to appropriate subcellular regions is shared in mammals and is regulated by phosphorylation. CASK is a kinase and regulator of cell proliferation and adhesion, which adds to an expanding list of roles. In this study we report for the first time that CASK is degraded in a characteristic fashion in mammalian cells. We found that CASK is a long-lived protein despite the fact that it contains three putative PEST sequences. Finally, we provide detailed evidence that CASK degradation is mediated through a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and this is phosphorylation-dependent. Together, these results provide evidence that post-translational modifications to CASK are major regulatory steps leading to its proteasomal degradation. This regulation not only has important implications on how CASK participates in its many disparate roles, but highlights how altering this regulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of human disease. PMID:19781660

Sun, Qizhi; Kelly, Gregory M

2010-01-01

174

Stress-Induced Phosphorylation and Proteasomal Degradation of Mitofusin 2 Facilitates Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mitochondria play central roles in integrating pro- and anti-apoptotic stimuli and JNK is well-known to have roles in activating apoptotic pathways. We establish a critical link between stress-induced JNK activation, mitofusin 2, which is an essential component of the mitochondrial outer membrane fusion apparatus, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). JNK phosphorylation of mitofusin 2 in response to cellular stress leads to recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase (E3) Huwe1/Mule/ARF-BP1/HectH9/E3Histone/Lasu1 to mitofusin 2, with the BH3 domain of Huwe1 implicated in this interaction. This results in ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of mitofusin 2, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation and enhanced apoptotic cell death. The stability of a non-phosphorylatable mitofusin 2 mutant is unaffected by stress and protective against apoptosis. Conversely, a mitofusin 2 phosphomimic is more rapidly degraded without cellular stress. These findings demonstrate how proximal signaling events can influence both mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis through phosphorylation-stimulated degradation of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. PMID:22748923

Leboucher, Guillaume P.; Tsai, Yien Che; Yang, Mei; Shaw, Kristin C.; Zhou, Ming; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Glickman, Michael H.; Weissman, Allan M.

2012-01-01

175

The proteasome activity reporter GFP-Cl1 is degraded by autophagy in the aging model Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

The degradation of damaged proteins is an important vital function especially during aging and stress. The ubiquitin proteasome system is one of the major cellular machineries for protein degradation. Health and longevity are associated with high proteasome activity. To demonstrate such a role in aging of Podospora anserina, we first analyzed the transcript and protein abundance of selected proteasome components in wild-type cultures of different age. No significant differences were observed. Next, in order to increase the overall proteasome abundance we generated strains overexpressing the catalytic proteasome subunits PaPRE2 and PaPRE3. Although transcript levels were strongly increased, no substantial effect on the abundance of the corresponding proteins was observed. Finally, the analysis of the P. anserina strains expressing the sequence coding for the CL1 degron fused to the Gfp gene revealed no evidence for degradation of the GFP-CL1 fusion protein by the proteasome. Instead, our results demonstrate the degradation of the CL1-degron sequence via autophagy, indicating that basal autophagy appears to be a very effective protein quality control pathway in P. anserina. PMID:25520781

Wiemer, Matthias; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

2014-01-01

176

Negative regulation of DAB2IP by Akt and SCFFbw7 pathways  

PubMed Central

Deletion of ovarian carcinoma 2/disabled homolog 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) interacting protein (DAB2IP), is a tumor suppressor that serves as a scaffold protein involved in coordinately regulating cell proliferation, survival and apoptotic pathways. DAB2IP is epigenetically down-regulated in a variety of tumors through the action of the histone methyltransferase EZH2. Although DAB2IP is transcriptionally down-regulated in a variety of tumors, it remains unclear if other mechanisms contribute to functional inactivation of DAB2IP. Here we demonstrate that DAB2IP can be functionally down-regulated by two independent mechanisms. First, we identified that Akt1 can phosphorylate DAB2IP on S847, which regulates the interaction between DAB2IP and its effector molecules H-Ras and TRAF2. Second, we demonstrated that DAB2IP can be degraded in part through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by SCFFbw7. DAB2IP harbors two Fbw7 phosho-degron motifs, which can be regulated by the kinase, CK1?. Our data hence indicate that in addition to epigenetic down-regulation, two additional pathways can functional inactivate DAB2IP. Given that DAB2IP has previously been identified to possess direct causal role in tumorigenesis and metastasis, our data indicate that a variety of pathways may pass through DAB2IP to govern cancer development, and therefore highlight DAB2IP agonists as potential therapeutic approaches for future anti-cancer drug development. PMID:24912918

Inuzuka, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

177

The N-end rule pathway: emerging functions and molecular principles of substrate recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N-end rule defines the protein-destabilizing activity of a given amino-terminal residue and its post-translational modification. Since its discovery 25 years ago, the pathway involved in the N-end rule has been thought to target only a limited set of specific substrates of the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Recent studies have provided insights into the components, substrates, functions and structural basis of substrate

Shashikanth M. Sriram; Bo Yeon Kim; Yong Tae Kwon

2011-01-01

178

The C-terminus of MIP-T3 protein is required for ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation in human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex is essential for the formation and functional maintenance of eukaryotic cilia which play a vital role in development and tissue homeostasis. However, the biochemical characteristics and precise functions of IFT proteins remain unknown. Here, we report that MIP-T3, a human microtubule-interacting protein recently identified as a novel conserved component of the IFT complex, is an

Chao-Wan Guo; Ge Liu; Sheng Xiong; Feng Ge; Takayuki Fuse; Yi-Fei Wang; Kaio Kitazato

2011-01-01

179

Geldanamycin-induced degradation of Chk1 is mediated by proteasome  

SciTech Connect

Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a cell cycle regulator and a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) client. It is essential for cell proliferation and survival. In this report, we analyzed the mechanisms of Chk1 regulation in U87MG glioblastoma cells using Geldanamycin (GA), which interferes with the function of Hsp90. GA reduced Chk1 protein level but not its mRNA level in glioblastoma cells. Co-treatment with GA and cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, induced a decrease of half-life of the Chk1 protein to 3 h and resulted in Chk1 down-regulation. CHX alone induced only 32% reduction of Chk1 protein even after 24 h. These findings indicated that reduction of Chk1 by GA was due to destabilization and degradation of the protein. In addition, GA-induced down-regulation of Chk1 was reversed by MG132, a specific proteasome inhibitor. And it was revealed that Chk1 was ubiquitinated by GA. These results have indicated that degradation of Chk1 by GA was mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in U87MG glioblastoma cells.

Nomura, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama Sakae Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); E-mail: nomura413jp@yahoo.co.jp; Nomura, N. [Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Social Insurance Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamashita, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan)

2005-09-30

180

Regulating the 20S Proteasome Ubiquitin-Independent Degradation Pathway  

PubMed Central

For many years, the ubiquitin-26S proteasome degradation pathway was considered the primary route for proteasomal degradation. However, it is now becoming clear that proteins can also be targeted for degradation by the core 20S proteasome itself. Degradation by the 20S proteasome does not require ubiquitin tagging or the presence of the 19S regulatory particle; rather, it relies on the inherent structural disorder of the protein being degraded. Thus, proteins that contain unstructured regions due to oxidation, mutation, or aging, as well as naturally, intrinsically unfolded proteins, are susceptible to 20S degradation. Unlike the extensive knowledge acquired over the years concerning degradation by the 26S proteasome, relatively little is known about the means by which 20S-mediated proteolysis is controlled. Here, we describe our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate 20S proteasome-mediated degradation, and highlight the gaps in knowledge that remain to be bridged. PMID:25250704

Ben-Nissan, Gili; Sharon, Michal

2014-01-01

181

ATR checkpoint kinase and CRL1?TRCP collaborate to degrade ASF1a and thus repress genes overlapping with clusters of stalled replication forks  

PubMed Central

Many agents used for chemotherapy, such as doxorubicin, interfere with DNA replication, but the effect of this interference on transcription is largely unknown. Here we show that doxorubicin induces the firing of dense clusters of neoreplication origins that lead to clusters of stalled replication forks in gene-rich parts of the genome, particularly on expressed genes. Genes that overlap with these clusters of stalled forks are actively dechromatinized, unwound, and repressed by an ATR-dependent checkpoint pathway. The ATR checkpoint pathway causes a histone chaperone normally associated with the replication fork, ASF1a, to degrade through a CRL1?TRCP-dependent ubiquitination/proteasome pathway, leading to the localized dechromatinization and gene repression. Therefore, a globally active checkpoint pathway interacts with local clusters of stalled forks to specifically repress genes in the vicinity of the stalled forks, providing a new mechanism of action of chemotherapy drugs like doxorubicin. Finally, ASF1a-depleted cancer cells are more sensitive to doxorubicin, suggesting that the 7%–10% of prostate adenocarcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas reported to have homozygous deletion or significant underexpression of ASF1a should be tested for high sensitivity to doxorubicin. PMID:24700029

Im, Jun-Sub; Keaton, Mignon; Lee, Kyung Yong; Kumar, Pankaj; Park, Jonghoon; Dutta, Anindya

2014-01-01

182

REVIEW ARTICLE The role of autophagy-lysosome pathway in neurodegeneration associated with Parkinson’s disease  

E-print Network

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) are the two most important mechanisms that normally repair or remove abnormal proteins. Alterations in the function of these systems to degrade misfolded and aggregated proteins are being increasingly recognized as playing a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Dysfunction of the UPS has been already strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease and, more recently, growing interest has been shown in identifying the role of ALP in neurodegeneration. Mutations of a-synuclein and the increase of intracellular concentrations of non-mutant a-synuclein have been associated with Parkinson’s disease phenotype. The demonstration that a-synuclein is degraded by both proteasome and autophagy indicates a possible linkagebetweenthedysfunctionoftheUPSorALPandtheoccurrenceofthisdisorder.Thefactthatmutant a-synucleins inhibit ALP functioning by tightly binding to the receptor on the lysosomal membrane for autophagy pathway further supports the assumption that impairment of the ALP may be related to the development of Parkinson’s disease. In this review, we summarize the recent findings related to this topic and discuss the unique role of the ALP in this neurogenerative disorder and the putative therapeutic potential through ALP enhancement.

Tianhong Pan; Seiji Kondo; Weidong Le

183

Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the inner ear : identification of an E3 ubiquitin ligase for Atoh1  

E-print Network

Atoh1, the proneural basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is critical for the differentiation of inner ear hair cells. Hair cells do not develop in mice that lack Atoh1, and overexpression of the transcription ...

Cheng, Yen-Fu

2014-01-01

184

Roles for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in protein quality control and signaling in the retina: implications in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accumulation of damaged or postsynthetically modified proteins and dysregulation of inflammatory responses and angiogenesis in the retina/RPE are thought be etiologically related to formation of drusen and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). T...

185

Genomic and functional profiling of duplicated chromosome 15 cell lines reveal regulatory alterations in UBE3A-associated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder having both genetic and epigenetic etiological elements. Isodicentric chromosome 15 (Idic15), characterized by duplications of the multi-disorder critical region of 15q11-q14, is a relatively common cytogenetic event. When the duplication involves maternally derived con- tent, this abnormality is strongly correlated with autism disorder. However, the mechanistic links between Idic15 and autism are ill-defined. To

Colin A. Baron; Clifford G. Tepper; Stephenie Y. Liu; Ryan R. Davis; Nicholas J. Wang; N. Carolyn Schanen; Jeffrey P. Gregg

2006-01-01

186

Increased expression of the ubiquitinproteasome pathway in murine myotubes by proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF) is associated with activation of the transcription factor NF-?B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), isolated from a cachexia-inducing murine tumour, has been shown to stimulate protein breakdown in C2C12 myotubes. The effect was attenuated by the specific proteasome inhibitor lactacystin and there was an elevation of proteasome ‘chymotrypsin-like’ enzyme activity and expression of 20S proteasome ?-subunits at concentrations of PIF between 2 and 16 nM. Higher concentrations of PIF had no

A S Whitehouse; M J Tisdale

2003-01-01

187

The cellular level of TRIM31, an RBCC protein overexpressed in gastric cancer, is regulated by multiple mechanisms including the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

TRIM (tripartite motif) family proteins, comprising RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domains, are involved in various cellular processes including tumour development and antiviral response. One of the family proteins, TRIM31, was originally identified as a gene induced by growth-suppressive retinoid. Our previous study showed that TRIM31 is up-regulated in stomach cancer and that TRIM31 protein possesses the common features of the TRIM protein family, for example, ubiquitin ligase activity and homo-oligomerization tendency. Interestingly, TRIM31 negatively regulates growth of certain cell types despite its overexpression in gastric cancer tissues. We herein demonstrated that upon exogenous expression in 293 cells, TRIM31 is polyubiquitylated, which promotes its degradation in the proteasome pathway. The proteasome-mediated degradation of endogenous TRIM31 was further confirmed in AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, this posttranslational modification governs the intracellular abundance of TRIM31, which is also dependent on inducible transcription as well as alternative splicing. The complicated control of the intracellular TRIM31 protein level may relate to its seemingly contradictory behaviours in the cancer pathology or the urgent response to viral infection. PMID:21231912

Sugiura, Takeyuki

2011-07-01

188

Binding-induced folding of prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein on the mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase targets substrates for degradation  

SciTech Connect

Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analog of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein that bears little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus, it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled coils that recognize Pup. Mpa bound unstructured Pup through hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an {alpha}-helix in Pup. Our work describes a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This key difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment for tuberculosis.

Wang, T.; Li, H.; Darwin, K. H.

2010-11-01

189

Binding-induced Folding of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein on the Mycobacterium Proteasomal ATPase Targets Substrates for Degradation  

SciTech Connect

Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analog of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein that bears little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus, it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled coils that recognize Pup. Mpa bound unstructured Pup through hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an {alpha}-helix in Pup. Our work describes a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This key difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment for tuberculosis.

T Wang; K Heran Darwin; H Li

2011-12-31

190

Degradation pathways of salmon calcitonin in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Salmon calcitonin (sCT), a 32-amino-acid peptide, is the active component in many pharmaceuticals used for the management of bone diseases. The degradation pathways of sCT were determined, and the structures of the major degradation products were identified. Aqueous solutions of sCT at pH values of 3, 4, 5, and 6 were degraded, and the major degradation products were detected using reversed phase and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The degradation rate and pathways of sCT are strongly dependent on pH in the pH range between 3 and 6. The major degradation products were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified using a variety of spectroscopic and bioanalytical techniques. The results show that sCT can undergo hydrolyses resulting in cleavage of the 1-2 amide bond and deamidation of the Gln14 and Gln20 residues, sulfide exchange that leads to an unusual trisulfide derivative, and dimerization to reducible and nonreducible dimers. The mechanisms for the pathways can be rationalized from known degradation pathways of peptide and proteins. PMID:9050806

Windisch, V; DeLuccia, F; Duhau, L; Herman, F; Mencel, J J; Tang, S Y; Vuilhorgne, M

1997-03-01

191

Vitamin C Degradation Products and Pathways in the Human Lens*  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C and its degradation products participate in chemical modifications of proteins in vivo through non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction) and formation of different products called advanced glycation end products. Vitamin C levels are particularly high in selected tissues, such as lens, brain and adrenal gland, and its degradation products can inflict substantial protein damage via formation of advanced glycation end products. However, the pathways of in vivo vitamin C degradation are poorly understood. Here we have determined the levels of vitamin C oxidation and degradation products dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, 3-deoxythreosone, xylosone, and threosone in the human lens using o-phenylenediamine to trap both free and protein-bound adducts. In the protein-free fraction and water-soluble proteins (WSP), all five listed degradation products were identified. Dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, and 3-deoxythreosone were the major products in the protein-free fraction, whereas in the WSP, 3-deoxythreosone was the most abundant measured dicarbonyl. In addition, 3-deoxythreosone in WSP showed positive linear correlation with age (p < 0.05). In water-insoluble proteins, only 3-deoxythreosone and threosone were detected, whereby the level of 3-deoxythreosone was ?20 times higher than the level of threosone. The identification of 3-deoxythreosone as the major degradation product bound to human lens proteins provides in vivo evidence for the non-oxidative pathway of dehydroascorbate degradation into erythrulose as a major pathway for vitamin C degradation in vivo. PMID:21885436

Nemet, Ina; Monnier, Vincent M.

2011-01-01

192

Understanding Degradation Pathways in Organic Photovoltaics (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs) recently attained power conversion efficiencies that are of interest for commercial production. Consequently, one of the most important unsolved issues facing a new industry is understanding what governs lifetime in organic devices and discovering solutions to mitigate degradation mechanisms. Historically, the active organic components are considered vulnerable to photo-oxidation and represent the primary degradation channel. However, we present several (shelf life and light soaking) studies pointing the relative stability of the active layers and instabilities in commonly used electrode materials. We show that engineering of the hole/electron layer at the electrode can lead to environmentally stable devices even without encapsulation.

Lloyd, M. T.; Olson, D. C.; Garcia, A.; Kauvar, I.; Kopidakis, N.; Reese, M. O.; Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.

2011-02-01

193

Participation of proteasome-ubiquitin protein degradation in autophagy and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.  

PubMed

Although activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as of ubiquitin/proteasome degradative pathways play an essential role in the preservation of metabolic homeostasis, little is known concerning interactions between protein turnover and AMPK activity. In the present studies, we found that inhibition of the 26S proteasome resulted in rapid activation of AMPK in macrophages, epithelial and endothelial cells. This was associated with increased levels of non-degraded Ub-protein conjugates, in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions. Selective inhibitors of ubiquitination or siRNA-dependent knockdown of Ub-ligase E1 diminished AMPK activation in cells treated with MG132, a 26S proteasome inhibitor. In addition to inhibition of AMPK activation by Ub-ligase E1 inhibitors, deficiency in Park2 mitochondria-associated Ub-ligase E3 also reduced AMPK activation upon dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Accumulation of Ub-proteins was correlated with decreases in cellular bioenergetics, including mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation, and an increase in ROS formation. Antioxidants, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine or mitochondria-targeted MitoTEMPO, effectively diminished MG132-induced AMPK activation. Glucose-dependent regulation of AMPK or AMPK-mediated autophagy was modulated by alterations in intracellular levels of Ub-protein conjugates. Our results indicate that accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins alter cellular bioenergetics and redox status, leading to AMPK activation. PMID:25728513

Jiang, Shaoning; Park, Dae Won; Gao, Yong; Ravi, Saranya; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

2015-06-01

194

A pentose bisphosphate pathway for nucleoside degradation in Archaea.  

PubMed

Owing to the absence of the pentose phosphate pathway, the degradation pathway for the ribose moieties of nucleosides is unknown in Archaea. Here, in the archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis, we identified a metabolic network that links the pentose moieties of nucleosides or nucleotides to central carbon metabolism. The network consists of three nucleoside phosphorylases, an ADP-dependent ribose-1-phosphate kinase and two enzymes of a previously identified NMP degradation pathway, ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerase and type III ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Ribose 1,5-bisphosphate and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate are intermediates of this pathway, which is thus designated the pentose bisphosphate pathway. PMID:25822915

Aono, Riku; Sato, Takaaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

2015-05-01

195

Profiling of Ubiquitination Pathway Genes in Peripheral Cells from Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia due to C9ORF72 and GRN Mutations  

PubMed Central

We analysed the expression levels of 84 key genes involved in the regulated degradation of cellular protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in peripheral cells from patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) due to C9ORF72 and GRN mutations, as compared with sporadic FTD and age-matched controls. A SABiosciences PCR array was used to investigate the transcription profile in a discovery population consisting of six patients each in C9ORF72, GRN, sporadic FTD and age-matched control groups. A generalized down-regulation of gene expression compared with controls was observed in C9ORF72 expansion carriers and sporadic FTD patients. In particular, in both groups, four genes, UBE2I, UBE2Q1, UBE2E1 and UBE2N, were down-regulated at a statistically significant (p < 0.05) level. All of them encode for members of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. In GRN mutation carriers, no statistically significant deregulation of ubiquitination pathway genes was observed, except for the UBE2Z gene, which displays E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity, and was found to be statistically significant up-regulated (p = 0.006). These preliminary results suggest that the proteasomal degradation pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of FTD associated with TDP-43 pathology, although different proteins are altered in carriers of GRN mutations as compared with carriers of the C9ORF72 expansion. PMID:25580532

Serpente, Maria; Fenoglio, Chiara; Cioffi, Sara M. G.; Bonsi, Rossana; Arighi, Andrea; Fumagalli, Giorgio G.; Ghezzi, Laura; Scarpini, Elio; Galimberti, Daniela

2015-01-01

196

Trichloroethylene degradation by two independent aromatic-degrading pathways in alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134  

SciTech Connect

The bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4) degrades trichloroethylene (TCE) by a chromosomal phenol-dependent pathway and by the plasmid-encoded 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid pathway. The two pathways were independent and exhibited different rates of removal and capacities for quantity of TCE removed. The phenol-dependent pathway was more rapid (0.2 versus 0.06 nmol of TCE removed per min per mg of protein) and consumed all detectable TCE. The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-dependent pathway removed 40 to 60% of detectable TCE.

Harker, A.R.; Kim, Y. (Oklahoma State Univ. Stillwater (USA))

1990-04-01

197

Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2,5 (or 3,6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation.

Lepine, F. (Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada)); Masse, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Pointe-Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1990-11-01

198

Validation of microarray data in human lymphoblasts shows a role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and NF-kB in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Down syndrome (DS) is a complex disorder caused by the trisomy of either the entire, or a critical region of chromosome 21 (21q22.1-22.3). Despite representing the most common cause of mental retardation, the molecular bases of the syndrome are still largely unknown. Methods To better understand the pathogenesis of DS, we analyzed the genome-wide transcription profiles of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from six DS and six euploid individuals and investigated differential gene expression and pathway deregulation associated with trisomy 21. Connectivity map and PASS-assisted exploration were used to identify compounds whose molecular signatures counteracted those of DS lymphoblasts and to predict their therapeutic potential. An experimental validation in DS LCLs and fetal fibroblasts was performed for the most deregulated GO categories, i.e. the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and the NF-kB cascade. Results We show, for the first time, that the level of protein ubiquitination is reduced in human DS cell lines and that proteasome activity is increased in both basal conditions and oxidative microenvironment. We also provide the first evidence that NF-kB transcription levels, a paradigm of gene expression control by ubiquitin-mediated degradation, is impaired in DS due to reduced IkB-alfa ubiquitination, increased NF-kB inhibitor (IkB-alfa) and reduced p65 nuclear fraction. Finally, the DSCR1/DYRK1A/NFAT genes were analysed. In human DS LCLs, we confirmed the presence of increased protein levels of DSCR1 and DYRK1A, and showed that the levels of the transcription factor NFATc2 were decreased in DS along with a reduction of its nuclear translocation upon induction of calcium fluxes. Conclusions The present work offers new perspectives to better understand the pathogenesis of DS and suggests a rationale for innovative approaches to treat some pathological conditions associated to DS. PMID:23830204

2013-01-01

199

Regulation of Toll-like Receptor-Mediated Sestrin2 Induction by AP-1, Nrf2, and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Macrophages.  

PubMed

The Sestrin2 (Sesn2) is an evolutionary conserved enzyme that scavenges reactive oxygen species and regulates autophagy through the AMPK-mTOR pathway. The present study was aimed at determining whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling regulates Sesn2 expression and identifying the underlying molecular mechanism. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a representative TLR4 ligand, significantly increased the levels of Sesn2 protein in macrophages. LPS also increased Sesn2 mRNA levels and luciferase reporter activity; however, the mRNA levels of Sesn1 were not affected by LPS. Moreover, treatment of macrophages with other TLR ligands (eg, polyI:C or peptidoglycan) also induced Sesn2 expression. We found that LPS-mediated Sesn2 induction was transcriptionally regulated by AP-1 and Nrf2, and that overexpression of c-Jun or Nrf2 increased Sesn2 protein levels and Sesn2 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity. Moreover, deletion of the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the Sesn2 promoter or Nrf2 knockout abolished LPS-mediated induction of Sesn2. LPS induced Sesn2 gene expression through p38 and PI3K activation. Surprisingly, treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, but not the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine, caused Sesn2 to accumulate in the cells. In the presence of MG132, we observed that Sesn2 was ubiquitinated. However, LPS treatment attenuated Sesn2 ubiquitination induced by MG132, which resulted in Sesn2 accumulation. Mice treated with d-galactosamine (Gal)/LPS exhibited enhanced Sesn2 expression in the liver. Moreover, infection with a recombinant adenovirus encoding Sens2 markedly reduced the number of Gal/LPS-induced TUNEL-positive cells. Our results suggest that TLR-mediated Sesn2 induction is dependent on AP-1, Nrf2, and the inhibition of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Sesn2 and might protect cells against endotoxin toxicity. PMID:25637945

Kim, Mi Gwang; Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Kyu Min; Jang, Chang Ho; Jung, Ji Yun; Cho, Il Je; Shin, Sang Mi; Ki, Sung Hwan

2015-04-01

200

Epoxy Coenzyme A Thioester pathways for degradation of aromatic compounds.  

PubMed

Aromatic compounds (biogenic and anthropogenic) are abundant in the biosphere. Some of them are well-known environmental pollutants. Although the aromatic nucleus is relatively recalcitrant, microorganisms have developed various catabolic routes that enable complete biodegradation of aromatic compounds. The adopted degradation pathways depend on the availability of oxygen. Under oxic conditions, microorganisms utilize oxygen as a cosubstrate to activate and cleave the aromatic ring. In contrast, under anoxic conditions, the aromatic compounds are transformed to coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters followed by energy-consuming reduction of the ring. Eventually, the dearomatized ring is opened via a hydrolytic mechanism. Recently, novel catabolic pathways for the aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds were elucidated that differ significantly from the established catabolic routes. The new pathways were investigated in detail for the aerobic bacterial degradation of benzoate and phenylacetate. In both cases, the pathway is initiated by transforming the substrate to a CoA thioester and all the intermediates are bound by CoA. The subsequent reactions involve epoxidation of the aromatic ring followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage. Here we discuss the novel pathways, with a particular focus on their unique features and occurrence as well as ecological significance. PMID:22582071

Ismail, Wael; Gescher, Johannes

2012-08-01

201

Fenretinide induces ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, SCD1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein and a rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, regulates cellular functions by controlling the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids. Increase in SCD expression is strongly implicated in the proliferation and survival of cancer cells, whereas its decrease is known to impair proliferation, induce apoptosis, and restore insulin sensitivity. We examined whether fenretinide, (N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide, 4HPR), which induces apoptosis in cancer cells and recently shown to improve insulin sensitivity, can modulate the expression of SCD. We observed that fenretinide decreased SCD protein and enzymatic activity in the ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cell line. Increased expression of BiP/GRP78, ATF4, and GADD153 implicated ER stress. Tunicamycin and thapsigargin, compounds known to induce ER stress, also decreased the SCD protein. This decrease was completely blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, PYR41, an inhibitor of ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, blocked the fenretinide-mediated decrease in SCD. Immunoprecipitation analysis using anti-ubiquitin and anti-SCD antibodies and the blocking of SCD loss by PYR41 inhibition of ubiquitination further corroborate that fenretinide mediates the degradation of SCD in human RPE cells via the ubiquitin-proteasome dependent pathway. Therefore, the effect of fenretinide on SCD should be considered in its potential therapeutic role against cancer, type-2 diabetes, and retinal diseases. PMID:24357007

Samuel, William; Kutty, R Krishnan; Duncan, Todd; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Kuo, Bryan C; Chapa, Krysten M; Redmond, T Michael

2014-08-01

202

Tamoxifen Inhibits ER-negative Breast Cancer Cell Invasion and Metastasis by Accelerating Twist1 Degradation  

PubMed Central

Twist1 is a transcription factor driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Mice with germ-line Twist1 knockout are embryonic lethal, while adult mice with inducible Twist1 knockout have no obvious health problems, suggesting that Twist1 is a viable therapeutic target for the inhibition of invasion and metastasis of breast cancer in adult patients. In this study, we expressed a luciferase protein or a Twist1-luciferase fusion protein in HeLa cells as part of a high throughput system to screen 1280 compounds in the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) from Sigma-Aldrich for their effects on Twist1 protein expression. One of the most interesting compounds identified is tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator used to treat ER-positive breast cancer. Tamoxifen treatment significantly accelerated Twist1 degradation in multiple cell lines including HEK293 human kidney cells, 4T1 and 168FARN mouse mammary tumor cells with either ectopically or endogenously expressed Twist1. Tamoxifen-induced Twist1 degradation could be blocked by the MG132 proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that tamoxifen induces Twist1 degradation through the ubiquitination-proteasome pathway. However, tamoxifen-induced Twist1 degradation was independent of Twist1 mRNA expression, estrogen signaling and MAPK-mediated Twist1 phosphorylation in these cells. Importantly, tamoxifen also significantly inhibited invasive behavior in Matrigel and lung metastasis in SCID-bg mice of ER-negative 4T1 mammary tumor cells, which depend on endogenous Twist1 to invade and metastasize. These results indicate that tamoxifen can significantly accelerate Twist1 degradation to suppress cancer cell invasion and metastasis, suggesting that tamoxifen can be used not only to treat ER-positive breast cancers but also to reduce Twist1-mediated invasion and metastasis in ER-negative breast cancers.

Ma, Gang; He, Jianjun; Yu, Yang; Xu, Yixiang; Yu, Xiaobin; Martinez, Jarrod; Lonard, David M.; Xu, Jianming

2015-01-01

203

Characterization of MRFAP1 Turnover and Interactions Downstream of the NEDD8 Pathway*  

PubMed Central

The NEDD8-Cullin E3 ligase pathway plays an important role in protein homeostasis, in particular the degradation of cell cycle regulators and transcriptional control networks. To characterize NEDD8-cullin target proteins, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of cells treated with MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of the NEDD8 conjugation pathway. MRFAP1 and its interaction partner, MORF4L1, were among the most up-regulated proteins after NEDD8 inhibition in multiple human cell lines. We show that MRFAP1 has a fast turnover rate in the absence of MLN4924 and is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The increased abundance of MRFAP1 after MLN4924 treatment results from a decreased rate of degradation. Characterization of the binding partners of both MRFAP1 and MORF4L1 revealed a complex protein-protein interaction network. MRFAP1 bound to a number of E3 ubiquitin ligases, including CUL4B, but not to components of the NuA4 complex, including MRGBP, which bound to MORF4L1. These data indicate that MRFAP1 may regulate the ability of MORF4L1 to interact with chromatin-modifying enzymes by binding to MORF4L1 in a mutually exclusive manner with MRGBP. Analysis of MRFAP1 expression in human tissues by immunostaining with a MRFAP1-specific antibody revealed that it was detectable in only a small number of tissues, in particular testis and brain. Strikingly, analysis of the seminiferous tubules of the testis showed the highest nuclear staining in the spermatogonia and much weaker staining in the spermatocytes and spermatids. MRGBP was inversely correlated with MRFAP1 expression in these cell types, consistent with an exchange of MORF4L1 interaction partners as cells progress through meiosis in the testis. These data highlight an important new arm of the NEDD8-cullin pathway. PMID:22038470

Larance, Mark; Kirkwood, Kathryn J.; Xirodimas, Dimitris P.; Lundberg, Emma; Uhlen, Mathias; Lamond, Angus I.

2012-01-01

204

Identification of the major degradation pathways of ticagrelor.  

PubMed

Ticagrelor is a direct-acting and reversible P2Y12-adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor blocker used as antiplatelet drug. Forced degradation under various stress conditions was carried out. The degradation products have been detected and identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) along with high-resolution mass spectrometry. C18 XTerra MS column combined with a linear gradient mobile phase composed of a mixture of 10 mM acetate ammonium/acetonitrile was shown suitable for drug and impurity determinations and validated as a stability indicating method. Structural elucidation of the degradation products relied on MS(n) studies and accurate mass measurements giving access to elemental compositions. Up to nine degradation products resulting from oxidation/auto-oxidation, S-dealkylation and N-dealkylation have been identified, covering a range of possible degradation pathways for derivatives with such functional groups. Kinetics was also studied in order to assess the molecule's shelf-life and to identify the most important degradation factors. PMID:25543285

Hassane, Sadou Yaye; Secrétan, Philippe-Henri; Henriet, Théo; Bernard, Mélisande; Amrani, Fatma; Akrout, Wiem; Tilleul, Patrick; Yagoubi, Najet; Do, Bernard

2015-02-01

205

Engineering pathways for malate degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Deacidification of grape musts is crucial for the production of well-balanced wines, especially in colder regions of the world. The major acids in wine are tartaric and malic acid. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot degrade malic acid efficiently due to the lack of a malate transporter and the low substrate affinity of its malic enzyme. We have introduced efficient pathways for malate degradation in S. cerevisiae by cloning and expressing the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate permease (mae1) gene with either the S. pombe malic enzyme (mae2) or Lactococcus lactis malolactic (mleS) gene in this yeast. Under aerobic conditions, the recombinant strain expressing the mae1 and mae2 genes efficiently degraded 8 g/L of malate in a glycerol-ethanol medium within 7 days. The recombinant malolactic strain of S. cerevisiae (mae1 and mleS genes) fermented 4.5 g/L of malate in a synthetic grape must within 4 days. PMID:9062925

Volschenk, H; Viljoen, M; Grobler, J; Petzold, B; Bauer, F; Subden, R E; Young, R A; Lonvaud, A; Denayrolles, M; van Vuuren, H J

1997-03-01

206

Processing of N-linked glycans during endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation of a short-lived variant of ribophorin I.  

PubMed Central

Recently, the role of N-linked glycans in the process of ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation) of proteins has been widely recognized. In the present study, we attempted to delineate further the sequence of events leading from a fully glycosylated soluble protein to its deglycosylated form. Degradation intermediates of a truncated form of ribophorin I, namely RI(332), which contains a single N-linked oligosaccharide and is a substrate for the ERAD/ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, were characterized in HeLa cells under conditions blocking proteasomal degradation. The action of a deoxymannojirimycin- and kifunensine-sensitive alpha1,2-mannosidase was shown here to be required for both further glycan processing and progression of RI(332) in the ERAD pathway. In a first step, the Man(8) isomer B, generated by ER mannosidase I, appears to be the major oligomannoside structure associated with RI(332) intermediates. Some other trimmed N-glycan species, in particular Glc(1)Man(7)GlcNAc(2), were also found on the protein, indicating that several mannosidases might be implicated in the initial trimming of the oligomannoside. Secondly, another intermediate of degradation of RI(332) accumulated after proteasome inhibition. We demonstrated that this completely deglycosylated form arose from the action of an N-glycanase closely linked to the ER membrane. Indeed, the deglycosylated form of the protein remained membrane-associated, while being accessible from the cytoplasm to ubiquitinating enzymes and to added protease. Our results indicate that deglycosylation of a soluble ERAD substrate glycoprotein occurs in at least two distinct steps and is coupled with the retro-translocation of the protein preceding its proteasomal degradation. PMID:12952521

Kitzmüller, Claudia; Caprini, Andrea; Moore, Stuart E H; Frénoy, Jean-Pierre; Schwaiger, Eva; Kellermann, Odile; Ivessa, N Erwin; Ermonval, Myriam

2003-01-01

207

Degradation of toluene-2,4-diamine by persulphate: kinetics, intermediates and degradation pathway.  

PubMed

In this study, the degradation of toluene-2,4-diamine (TDA) by persulphate (PS) in an aqueous solution at near-neutral pH was examined. The result showed that the degradation rate of TDA increased with increasing PS concentrations. The optimal dosage of PS in the reaction system was determined by efficiency indicator (I) coupling in the consumption of PS and decay half-life of TDA. Calculation showed that 0.74?mM of PS was the most effective dosage for TDA degradation, at that level the maximum I of 24.51 was obtained. PS can oxidize TDA for an extended reaction time period. Under neutral condition without activation, four degradation intermediates, 2,4-diamino-3-hydroxy-5-sulfonicacidtoluene, 2,4-diaminobenzaldehyde, 2,4-bis(vinylamino)benzaldehyde and 3,5-diamino-4-hydroxy-2-pentene, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The tentative degradation pathway of TDA was proposed as well. It was found that hydroxyl radical played an important role in degradation of TDA with the activation of Fe(2+), whereas PS anion and sulphate radicals were responsible for the degradation without activation of Fe(2+). PMID:25442404

Jiang, Yong-Hai; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Xi, Bei-Dou; An, Da; Yang, Yu; Li, Ming-Xiao

2015-06-01

208

Degradation of phenazone in aqueous solution with ozone: influencing factors and degradation pathways.  

PubMed

Oxidation kinetics and degradation pathways of phenazone (an analgesic and antipyretic drug) upon reaction with O3 were investigated. Kinetic studies on degradation of phenazone were carried out under different operating conditions such as temperature, pH, anions and H2O2 addition. Results showed that the degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The reaction rate constant (kobs) of phenazone reached the maximum at 20 °C (9.653×10(-3) s(-1)). The presence of NO3(-) could enhance the degradation rate, while the addition of HCO3(-), SO4(2)(-), Cl(-) and the rise of pH showed negative effects on the ozonation of phenazone. H2O2 addition increased the phenazone degradation efficiency by 45.9% with the optimal concentration of 0.135 mM. Reaction by-products were evaluated by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, which allowed the identification of a total of 10 by-products. The transformation pathways of phenazone ozonation consisted mainly of electrophilic addition and substitution, pyrazole ring opening, hydroxylation, dephenylization and coupling. The toxicity of these intermediate products showed that they are expected not to be more toxic than phenazone, with the exception of P7 (aniline) and P10 (1,5-dimethyl-4-((1-methyl-2-phenylhydrazinyl)methoxy)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one). PMID:25038548

Miao, Heng-Feng; Cao, Meng; Xu, Dan-Yao; Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Ming-Xing; Huang, Zhen-Xing; Ruan, Wen-Quan

2015-01-01

209

Sulindac metabolites induce proteosomal and lysosomal degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.  

PubMed

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In response to ligand, EGFR is internalized and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome/lysosome pathway. We previously reported that metabolites of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac downregulate the expression of EGFR and inhibit basal and EGF-induced EGFR signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. We now have evaluated the mechanisms of sulindac metabolite-induced downregulation of EGFR. EGF-induced downregulation of EGFR occurs within 10 minutes and lasts for 24 hours. By contrast, downregulation of EGFR by sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone was first evident at 4 and 24 hours, respectively, with maximal downregulation at 72 hours. Pretreatment with either the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine or the proteosomal inhibitor MG132 blocked sulindac metabolite-induced downregulation of EGFR. Sulindac metabolites also increased the ubiquitination of EGFR. Whereas sulindac metabolites inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR pY1068, they increased phosphorylation of EGFR pY1045, the docking site where c-Cbl binds, thereby enabling receptor ubiquitination and degradation. Immunofluorescence analysis of EGF and EGFR distribution confirmed the biochemical observations that sulindac metabolites alter EGFR localization and EGFR internalization in a manner similar to that seen with EGF treatment. Expression of ErbB family members HER2 and HER3 was also downregulated by sulindac metabolites. We conclude that downregulation of EGFR expression by sulindac metabolites is mediated via lysosomal and proteosomal degradation that may be due to drug-induced phosphorylation at pY1045 with resultant ubiquitination of EGFR. Thus, sulindac metabolite-induced downregulation of EGFR seems to be mediated through mechanism(s) similar, at least in part, to those involved in EGF-induced downregulation of EGFR. PMID:20332299

Pangburn, Heather A; Ahnen, Dennis J; Rice, Pamela L

2010-04-01

210

Autophagy as a Regulated Pathway of Cellular Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Macroautophagy is a dynamic process involving the rearrangement of subcellular membranes to sequester cytoplasm and organelles for delivery to the lysosome or vacuole where the sequestered cargo is degraded and recycled. This process takes place in all eukaryotic cells. It is highly regulated through the action of various kinases, phosphatases, and guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). The core protein machinery that is necessary to drive formation and consumption of intermediates in the macroautophagy pathway includes a ubiquitin-like protein conjugation system and a protein complex that directs membrane docking and fusion at the lysosome or vacuole. Macroautophagy plays an important role in developmental processes, human disease, and cellular response to nutrient deprivation.

Daniel Klionsky (University of Michigan; Department of Biology)

2000-12-01

211

Multiple degradation pathways of phenanthrene by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia C6  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C6, capable of utilizing phenanthrene as a sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from creosote-contaminated sites at Hilo, Hawaii. Twenty-two metabolites of phenanthrene, covering from dihydrodiol to protocatechuic acid, were isolated and characterized. Phenanthrene was degraded via an initial dioxygenation on 1,2-, 3,4-, and 9,10-C, where the 3,4-dioxygenation and subsequent metabolisms were most dominant. The metabolic pathways were further branched by ortho- and meta-cleavage of phenanthrenediols to produce 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid, and naphthalene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid. These intermediates were then transformed to naphthalene-1,2-diol. 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid was also degraded via a direct ring cleavage. Naphthalene-1,2-diol underwent primarily ortho-cleavage to produce trans-2-carboxycinnamic acid and then to form phthalic acid, 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid and protocatechuic acid. Accumulation of salicylic acid in prolonged incubation indicated that a limited extent of meta-cleavage of naphthalene-1, 2-diol also occurred. This is the first study of detailed phenanthrene metabolic pathways by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. PMID:23539472

Gao, Shumei; Seo, Jong-Su; Wang, Jun; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Jianqiang; Li, Qing X.

2013-01-01

212

Necdin promotes ubiquitin-dependent degradation of PIAS1 SUMO E3 ligase.  

PubMed

Necdin, a pleiotropic protein that promotes differentiation and survival of mammalian neurons, is a member of MAGE (melanoma antigen) family proteins that share a highly conserved MAGE homology domain. Several MAGE proteins interact with ubiquitin E3 ligases and modulate their activities. However, it remains unknown whether MAGE family proteins interact with SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) E3 ligases such as PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family, Nsmce2/Mms21 and Cbx4/Pc2. In the present study, we examined whether necdin interacts with these SUMO E3 ligases. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that necdin, MAGED1, MAGEF1 and MAGEL2 bound to PIAS1 but not to Nsmce2 or Cbx4. These SUMO E3 ligases bound to MAGEA1 but failed to interact with necdin-like 2/MAGEG1. Necdin bound to PIAS1 central domains that are highly conserved among PIAS family proteins and suppressed PIAS1-dependent sumoylation of the substrates STAT1 and PML (promyelocytic leukemia protein). Remarkably, necdin promoted degradation of PIAS1 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In transfected HEK293A cells, amino- and carboxyl-terminally truncated mutants of PIAS1 bound to necdin but failed to undergo necdin-dependent ubiquitination. Both PIAS1 and necdin were associated with the nuclear matrix, where the PIAS1 terminal deletion mutants failed to localize, implying that the nuclear matrix is indispensable for necdin-dependent ubiquitination of PIAS1. Our data suggest that necdin suppresses PIAS1 both by inhibiting SUMO E3 ligase activity and by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation. PMID:24911587

Gur, Ibrahim; Fujiwara, Kazushiro; Hasegawa, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki

2014-01-01

213

Necdin Promotes Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation of PIAS1 SUMO E3 Ligase  

PubMed Central

Necdin, a pleiotropic protein that promotes differentiation and survival of mammalian neurons, is a member of MAGE (melanoma antigen) family proteins that share a highly conserved MAGE homology domain. Several MAGE proteins interact with ubiquitin E3 ligases and modulate their activities. However, it remains unknown whether MAGE family proteins interact with SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) E3 ligases such as PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family, Nsmce2/Mms21 and Cbx4/Pc2. In the present study, we examined whether necdin interacts with these SUMO E3 ligases. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that necdin, MAGED1, MAGEF1 and MAGEL2 bound to PIAS1 but not to Nsmce2 or Cbx4. These SUMO E3 ligases bound to MAGEA1 but failed to interact with necdin-like 2/MAGEG1. Necdin bound to PIAS1 central domains that are highly conserved among PIAS family proteins and suppressed PIAS1-dependent sumoylation of the substrates STAT1 and PML (promyelocytic leukemia protein). Remarkably, necdin promoted degradation of PIAS1 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In transfected HEK293A cells, amino- and carboxyl-terminally truncated mutants of PIAS1 bound to necdin but failed to undergo necdin-dependent ubiquitination. Both PIAS1 and necdin were associated with the nuclear matrix, where the PIAS1 terminal deletion mutants failed to localize, implying that the nuclear matrix is indispensable for necdin-dependent ubiquitination of PIAS1. Our data suggest that necdin suppresses PIAS1 both by inhibiting SUMO E3 ligase activity and by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation. PMID:24911587

Gur, Ibrahim; Fujiwara, Kazushiro; Hasegawa, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki

2014-01-01

214

Phosphorylation regulates proteasomal-mediated degradation and solubility of TAR DNA binding protein-43 C-terminal fragments  

PubMed Central

Background Inclusions of TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) are the defining histopathological feature of several neurodegenerative diseases collectively referred to as TDP-43 proteinopathies. These diseases are characterized by the presence of cellular aggregates composed of abnormally phosphorylated, N-terminally truncated and ubiquitinated TDP-43 in the spinal cord and/or brain. Recent studies indicate that C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 are aggregation-prone and induce cytotoxicity. However, little is known regarding the pathways responsible for the degradation of these fragments and how their phosphorylation contributes to the pathogenesis of disease. Results Herein, we established a human neuroblastoma cell line (M17D3) that conditionally expresses an enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged caspase-cleaved C-terminal TDP-43 fragment (GFP-TDP220-414). We report that expression of this fragment within cells leads to a time-dependent formation of inclusions that are immunoreactive for both ubiquitin and phosphorylated TDP-43, thus recapitulating pathological hallmarks of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Phosphorylation of GFP-TDP220-414 renders it resistant to degradation and enhances its accumulation into insoluble aggregates. Nonetheless, GFP-TDP220-414 inclusions are reversible and can be cleared through the ubiquitin proteasome system. Moreover, both Hsp70 and Hsp90 bind to GFP-TDP220-414 and regulate its degradation. Conclusions Our data indicates that inclusions formed from TDP-43 C-terminal fragments are reversible. Given that TDP-43 inclusions have been shown to confer toxicity, our findings have important therapeutic implications and suggest that modulating the phosphorylation state of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments may be a promising therapeutic strategy to clear TDP-43 inclusions. PMID:20804554

2010-01-01

215

Iodinated contrast media electro-degradation: process performance and degradation pathways.  

PubMed

The electrochemical degradation of six of the most widely used iodinated contrast media was investigated. Batch experiments were performed under constant current conditions using two DSA® electrodes (titanium coated with a proprietary and patented mixed metal oxide solution of precious metals such as iridium, ruthenium, platinum, rhodium and tantalum). The degradation removal never fell below 85% (at a current density of 64 mA/cm(2) with a reaction time of 150 min) when perchlorate was used as the supporting electrolyte; however, when sulphate was used, the degradation performance was above 80% (at a current density of 64 mA/cm(2) with a reaction time of 150 min) for all of the compounds studied. Three main degradation pathways were identified, namely, the reductive de-iodination of the aromatic ring, the reduction of alkyl aromatic amides to simple amides and the de-acylation of N-aromatic amides to produce aromatic amines. However, as amidotrizoate is an aromatic carboxylate, this is added via the decarboxylation reaction. The investigation did not reveal toxicity except for the lower current density used, which has shown a modest toxicity, most likely for some reaction intermediates that are not further degraded. In order to obtain total removal of the contrast media, it was necessary to employ a current intensity between 118 and 182 mA/cm(2) with energy consumption higher than 370 kWh/m(3). Overall, the electrochemical degradation was revealed to be a reliable process for the treatment of iodinated contrast media that can be found in contaminated waters such as hospital wastewater or pharmaceutical waste-contaminated streams. PMID:25433384

Del Moro, Guido; Pastore, Carlo; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Mascolo, Giuseppe

2015-02-15

216

Multiple degradation pathways regulate versatile CIP/KIP CDK inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The mammalian CIP/KIP family of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) comprises three proteins – p21Cip1/WAF1, p27Kip1, and p57Kip2 – that bind and inhibit cyclin–CDK complexes, which are key regulators of the cell cycle. CIP/KIP CKIs have additional independent functions in regulating transcription, apoptosis and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. These divergent functions are performed in distinct cellular compartments and contribute to the seemingly contradictory observation that the CKIs can both suppress and promote cancer. Multiple ubiquitin ligases (E3s) direct the proteasome-mediated degradation of p21, p27 and p57. This review analyzes recent data highlighting our current understanding of how distinct E3 pathways regulate subpopulations of the CKIs to control their diverse functions. PMID:22154077

Starostina, Natalia G.; Kipreos, Edward T.

2011-01-01

217

Ubiquitin conjugation by the N-end rule pathway and mRNAs for its components increase in muscles of diabetic rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insulin deficiency (e.g., in acute diabetes or fasting) is associated with enhanced protein breakdown in skeletal muscle leading to muscle wasting. Because recent studies have suggested that this increased proteolysis is due to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome (Ub-proteasome) pathway, we investigated whether diabetes is associated with an increased rate of Ub conjugation to muscle protein. Muscle extracts from streptozotocin-induced insulin-deficient rats contained greater amounts of Ub-conjugated proteins than extracts from control animals and also 40-50% greater rates of conjugation of (125)I-Ub to endogenous muscle proteins. This enhanced Ub-conjugation occurred mainly through the N-end rule pathway that involves E2(14k) and E3alpha. A specific substrate of this pathway, alpha-lactalbumin, was ubiquitinated faster in the diabetic extracts, and a dominant negative form of E2(14k) inhibited this increase in ubiquitination rates. Both E2(14k) and E3alpha were shown to be rate-limiting for Ub conjugation because adding small amounts of either to extracts stimulated Ub conjugation. Furthermore, mRNA for E2(14k) and E3alpha (but not E1) were elevated 2-fold in muscles from diabetic rats, although no significant increase in E2(14k) and E3alpha content could be detected by immunoblot or activity assays. The simplest interpretation of these results is that small increases in both E2(14k) and E3alpha in muscles of insulin-deficient animals together accelerate Ub conjugation and protein degradation by the N-end rule pathway, the same pathway activated in cancer cachexia, sepsis, and hyperthyroidism.

Lecker, S. H.; Solomon, V.; Price, S. R.; Kwon, Y. T.; Mitch, W. E.; Goldberg, A. L.

1999-01-01

218

Integrated control of protein degradation in C. elegans muscle  

PubMed Central

Protein degradation is a fundamental cellular process, the genomic control of which is incompletely understood. The advent of transgene-coded reporter proteins has enabled the development of C. elegans into a model for studying this problem. The regulation of muscle protein degradation is surprisingly complex, integrating multiple signals from hypodermis, intestine, neurons and muscle itself. Within the muscle, degradation is executed by separately regulated autophagy-lysosomal, ubiquitin-proteasome and calpain-mediated systems. The signal-transduction mechanisms, in some instances, involve modules previously identified for their roles in developmental processes, repurposed in terminally differentiated muscle to regulate the activities of pre-formed proteins. Here we review the genes, and mechanisms, which appear to coordinately control protein degradation within C. elegans muscle. We also consider these mechanisms in the context of development, physiology, pathophysiology and disease models. PMID:23457662

Lehmann, Susann; Shephard, Freya; Jacobson, Lewis A.; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

2012-01-01

219

Rates of ubiquitin conjugation increase when muscles atrophy, largely through activation of the N-end rule pathway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid loss of muscle mass that accompanies many disease states, such as cancer or sepsis, is primarily a result of increased protein breakdown in muscle, and several observations have suggested an activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Accordingly, in extracts of atrophying muscles from tumor-bearing or septic rats, rates of 125I-ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins were found to be higher than in control extracts. On the other hand, in extracts of muscles from hypothyroid rats, where overall proteolysis is reduced below normal, the conjugation of 125I-ubiquitin to soluble proteins decreased by 50%, and treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) restored ubiquitination to control levels. Surprisingly, the N-end rule pathway, which selectively degrades proteins with basic or large hydrophobic N-terminal residues, was found to be responsible for most of these changes in ubiquitin conjugation. Competitive inhibitors of this pathway that specifically block the ubiquitin ligase, E3alpha, suppressed most of the increased ubiquitin conjugation in the muscle extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats. These inhibitors also suppressed ubiquitination in normal extracts toward levels in hypothyroid extracts, which showed little E3alpha-dependent ubiquitination. Thus, the inhibitors eliminated most of the differences in ubiquitination under these different pathological conditions. Moreover, 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, was ubiquitinated more rapidly in extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats, and more slowly in those from hypothyroid rats, than in controls. Thus, the rate of ubiquitin conjugation increases in atrophying muscles, and these hormone- and cytokine-dependent responses are in large part due to activation of the N-end rule pathway.

Solomon, V.; Baracos, V.; Sarraf, P.; Goldberg, A. L.

1998-01-01

220

Genome-scale analyses of butanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal an essential role of protein degradation  

PubMed Central

Background n-Butanol and isobutanol produced from biomass-derived sugars are promising renewable transport fuels and solvents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for butanol production, but its high butanol sensitivity poses an upper limit to product titers that can be reached by further pathway engineering. A better understanding of the molecular basis of butanol stress and tolerance of S. cerevisiae is important for achieving improved tolerance. Results By combining a screening of the haploid S. cerevisiae knock-out library, gene overexpression, and genome analysis of evolutionary engineered n-butanol-tolerant strains, we established that protein degradation plays an essential role in tolerance. Strains deleted in genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and in vacuolar degradation of damaged proteins showed hypersensitivity to n-butanol. Overexpression of YLR224W, encoding the subunit responsible for the recognition of damaged proteins of an ubiquitin ligase complex, resulted in a strain with a higher n-butanol tolerance. Two independently evolved n-butanol-tolerant strains carried different mutations in both RPN4 and RTG1, which encode transcription factors involved in the expression of proteasome and peroxisomal genes, respectively. Introduction of these mutated alleles in the reference strain increased butanol tolerance, confirming their relevance in the higher tolerance phenotype. The evolved strains, in addition to n-butanol, were also more tolerant to 2-butanol, isobutanol and 1-propanol, indicating a common molecular basis for sensitivity and tolerance to C3 and C4 alcohols. Conclusions This study shows that maintenance of protein integrity plays an essential role in butanol tolerance and demonstrates new promising targets to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved tolerance. PMID:23552365

2013-01-01

221

Muscle-specific RING finger (MuRF) cDNAs in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and their role as regulators of muscle protein degradation.  

PubMed

The selection of proteins destined for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is coordinated by E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3Ub). One group of E3Ubs is described as muscle-specific RING finger (MuRF) molecules. In mammals, these proteins are believed to be central to targetting of muscle proteins for degradation during physiological perturbations such as starvation and inflammatory responses. In fish, the diversity of MuRF sequences is unexplored as is the expression of their mRNAs. In this study, three MuRF1 cDNAs, denoted as MuRF1a, MuRF1b, and MuRF1c, and a single MuRF2 were identified and characterized in Atlantic salmon. The MuRF1 sequences are highly conserved and encode predicted proteins of 349, 350, and 353 amino acids, whereas MuRF2 encodes a longer protein of 462 amino acids. The evolutionary relationship of these sequences with other fish and mammalian molecules shows that MuRF1a and 1b may have arisen from a recent salmonid duplication. The mRNA of MuRFs was expressed in multiple tissues, with highest abundance in white muscle tissue followed by the heart. The expression of MuRFs was modulated after both starvation and immune challenge. Starvation increased expression of all MuRF mRNAs in white muscle, with the greatest increase found in MuRF1a. A proinflammatory stimulation increased expression of MuRF mRNA in muscle and other tissues indicating a role of these proteins in protein degradation during inflammation. PMID:21584661

Tacchi, Luca; Bickerdike, Ralph; Secombes, Christopher J; Martin, Samuel A M

2012-02-01

222

Repression of protein translation and mTOR signaling by proteasome inhibitor in colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein homeostasis relies on a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin–proteasome system is a major catabolic pathway for protein degradation. In this respect, proteasome inhibition has been used therapeutically for the treatment of cancer. Whether inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor can repress protein translation via a negative feedback mechanism, however, is unknown. In this study,

William Ka Kei Wu; Viviana Volta; Chi Hin Cho; Ya Chun Wu; Hai Tao Li; Le Yu; Zhi Jie Li; Joseph Jao Yiu Sung

2009-01-01

223

SIAH-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of acetyl-transferases regulate the p53 response and protein acetylation.  

PubMed

Posttranslational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation regulates many biological processes ranging from signal transduction to chromatin compaction. Here we identify the acetyl-transferases CBP/p300, Tip60 and PCAF as new substrates for the ubiquitin E3 ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2. While CBP/p300 can undergo ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation by SIAH1 and SIAH2, the two other acetyl-transferases are exclusively degraded by SIAH2. Accordingly, SIAH-deficient cells show enhanced protein acetylation, thus revealing SIAH proteins as indirect regulators of the cellular acetylation status. Functional experiments show that Tip60/PCAF-mediated acetylation of the tumor suppressor p53 is antagonized by the p53 target gene SIAH2 which mediates ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation of both acetyl-transferases and consequently diminishes p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. The p53 kinase HIPK2 mediates hierarchical phosphorylation of SIAH2 at 5 sites, which further boosts its activity as a ubiquitin E3 ligase for several substrates and therefore dampens the late p53 response. PMID:23044042

Grishina, Inna; Debus, Katherina; García-Limones, Carmen; Schneider, Constanze; Shresta, Amit; García, Carlos; Calzado, Marco A; Schmitz, M Lienhard

2012-12-01

224

Combined treatment with SAHA, bortezomib, and clarithromycin for concomitant targeting of aggresome formation and intracellular proteolytic pathways enhances ER stress-mediated cell death in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the autophagy-lysosome pathway are two major intracellular protein degradation systems. We previously reported that clarithromycin (CAM) blocks autophagy flux, and that combined treatment with CAM and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ) enhances ER-stress-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells, whereas treatment with CAM alone results in almost no cytotoxicity. Since HDAC6 is involved in aggresome formation, which is recognized as a cytoprotective response serving to sequester misfolded proteins and facilitate their clearance by autophagy, we further investigated the combined effect of vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)), which has a potent inhibitory effect for HDAC6, with CAM and BZ in breast cancer cell lines. SAHA exhibited some cytotoxicity along with an increased acetylation level of ?-tubulin, a substrate of HDAC6. Combined treatment of SAHA, CAM, and BZ potently enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect compared with treatment using each reagent alone or a combination of two of the three. Expression levels of ER-stress-related genes, including the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP (GADD153), were maximally induced by the simultaneous combination of three reagents. Like breast cancer cell lines, a wild-type murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity and maximally up-regulated Chop after combined treatment with SAHA, CAM, and BZ; however, a Chop knockout MEF cell line almost completely canceled this enhanced effect. The specific HDAC6 inhibitor tubacin also exhibited a pronounced cytocidal effect with a combination of CAM plus BZ. These data suggest that simultaneous targeting of intracellular proteolytic pathways and HDAC6 enhances ER-stress-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells. PMID:23792097

Komatsu, Seiichiro; Moriya, Shota; Che, Xiao-Fang; Yokoyama, Tomohisa; Kohno, Norio; Miyazawa, Keisuke

2013-07-19

225

Enzymes Involved in a Novel Anaerobic Cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid Degradation Pathway  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHC) has so far been studied only in Rhodopseudomonas palustris, in which CHC is activated to cyclohexanoyl coenzyme A (cyclohexanoyl-CoA [CHCoA]) and then dehydrogenated to cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (CHeneCoA). This intermediate is further degraded by reactions of the R. palustris-specific benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway of aromatic compounds. However, CHeneCoA is not an intermediate in the degradation of aromatic compounds in all other known anaerobic bacteria; consequently, degradation of CHC was mostly unknown in anaerobic bacteria. We identified a previously unknown CHC degradation pathway in the Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter metallireducens by determining the following CHC-induced in vitro activities: (i) the activation of CHC to CHCoA by a succinyl-CoA:CHC CoA transferase, (ii) the 1,2-dehydrogenation of CHCoA to CHeneCoA by CHCoA dehydrogenase, and (iii) the unusual 1,4-dehydrogenation of CHeneCoA to cyclohex-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA. This last represents a previously unknown joint intermediate of the CHC and aromatic compound degradation pathway in bacteria other than R. palustris. The enzymes catalyzing the three reactions were purified and characterized as specific enzymes after heterologous expression of the encoding genes. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that expression of these genes was highly induced during growth with CHC but not with benzoate. The newly identified CHC degradation pathway is suggested to be present in nearly all CHC-degrading anaerobic bacteria, including denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermenting bacteria. Remarkably, all three CHC degradation pathways always link CHC catabolism to the catabolic pathways of aromatic compounds. We propose that the capacity to use CHC as a carbon source evolved from already-existing aromatic compound degradation pathways. PMID:25112478

Kung, Johannes W.; Meier, Anne-Katrin; Mergelsberg, Mario

2014-01-01

226

Enzymes involved in a novel anaerobic cyclohexane carboxylic acid degradation pathway.  

PubMed

The anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHC) has so far been studied only in Rhodopseudomonas palustris, in which CHC is activated to cyclohexanoyl coenzyme A (cyclohexanoyl-CoA [CHCoA]) and then dehydrogenated to cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (CHeneCoA). This intermediate is further degraded by reactions of the R. palustris-specific benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway of aromatic compounds. However, CHeneCoA is not an intermediate in the degradation of aromatic compounds in all other known anaerobic bacteria; consequently, degradation of CHC was mostly unknown in anaerobic bacteria. We identified a previously unknown CHC degradation pathway in the Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter metallireducens by determining the following CHC-induced in vitro activities: (i) the activation of CHC to CHCoA by a succinyl-CoA:CHC CoA transferase, (ii) the 1,2-dehydrogenation of CHCoA to CHeneCoA by CHCoA dehydrogenase, and (iii) the unusual 1,4-dehydrogenation of CHeneCoA to cyclohex-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA. This last represents a previously unknown joint intermediate of the CHC and aromatic compound degradation pathway in bacteria other than R. palustris. The enzymes catalyzing the three reactions were purified and characterized as specific enzymes after heterologous expression of the encoding genes. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that expression of these genes was highly induced during growth with CHC but not with benzoate. The newly identified CHC degradation pathway is suggested to be present in nearly all CHC-degrading anaerobic bacteria, including denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermenting bacteria. Remarkably, all three CHC degradation pathways always link CHC catabolism to the catabolic pathways of aromatic compounds. We propose that the capacity to use CHC as a carbon source evolved from already-existing aromatic compound degradation pathways. PMID:25112478

Kung, Johannes W; Meier, Anne-Katrin; Mergelsberg, Mario; Boll, Matthias

2014-10-01

227

Chromium–Insulin Reduces Insulin Clearance and Enhances Insulin Signaling by Suppressing Hepatic Insulin-Degrading Enzyme and Proteasome Protein Expression in KKAy Mice  

PubMed Central

JDS–chromium–insulin (CRI)-003 is a novel form of insulin that has been directly conjugated with chromium (Cr) instead of zinc. Our hypothesis was that CRI enhances insulin’s effects by altering insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and proteasome enzymes. To test this hypothesis, we measured hepatic IDE content and proteasome parameters in a diabetic animal model. Male KKAy mice were randomly divided into three groups (n?=?8/group); Sham (saline), human regular insulin (Reg-In), and chromium conjugated human insulin (CRI), respectively. Interventions were initiated at doses of 2?U insulin/kg body weight daily for 8-weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Hepatic IDE, proteasome, and insulin signaling proteins were determined by western blotting. Insulin tolerance tests at week 7 showed that both insulin treatments significantly reduced glucose concentrations and increased insulin levels compared with the Sham group, CRI significantly reduced glucose at 4 and 6?h relative to Reg-In (P?degradation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 by suppressing ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in diabetic mice. PMID:25071716

Wang, Zhong Q.; Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H.; Komorowski, James

2014-01-01

228

Disease-associated mutations of TDP-43 promote turnover of the protein through the proteasomal pathway.  

PubMed

TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of most ubiquitin-positive neuronal and glial inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). A number of missense mutations in the TARDBP gene have been identified in patients with familial and sporadic ALS, as well as familial FTLD with ALS. In the diseased states, TDP-43 proteins exhibit characteristic alterations, including truncation, abnormal phosphorylation, and altered subcellular distribution. However, the mechanisms by which TDP-43 mutations induce neurodegeneration remain unclear at present. In the current study, we analyzed protein turnover and subcellular distribution of wild-type TDP-43 and two disease-associated mutants (G298S and A382T) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing TDP-43 with a C-terminal tag. Cycloheximide chase experiments revealed more rapid turnover of TDP-43 mutant proteins than their wild-type counterpart. The decrease in the TDP-43 level after cycloheximide treatment was partially recovered upon co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, epoxomicin, but not the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, suggesting involvement of the proteasomal pathway in TDP-43 degradation. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of TDP-43 revealed predominant localization in the nuclear fraction, whereas the relative level in the cytoplasm remained unaltered in cells expressing either mutant protein, compared with wild-type protein. Our results suggest that higher turnover of disease-associated mutant TDP-43 proteins through the ubiquitin proteasome system is pathogenetically relevant and highlight the significance of proteolysis in the pathogenetic mechanism of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:24477737

Araki, Wataru; Minegishi, Seiji; Motoki, Kazumi; Kume, Hideaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Araki, Yumiko M; Tamaoka, Akira

2014-12-01

229

Insulin-degrading enzyme is exported via an unconventional protein secretion pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitously expressed zinc-metalloprotease that degrades several pathophysiologically significant extracellular substrates, including insulin and the amyloid ?-protein (A?), and accumulating evidence suggests that IDE dysfunction may be operative in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD). Although IDE is well known to be secreted by a variety of cell types, the underlying trafficking pathway(s)

Ji Zhao; Lilin Li; Malcolm A Leissring

2009-01-01

230

Proteasome Inhibitors Activate Autophagy Involving Inhibition of PI3K-Akt-mTOR Pathway as an Anti-Oxidation Defense in Human RPE Cells  

PubMed Central

The two major intracellular protein degradation systems, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, work collaboratively in many biological processes including development, apoptosis, aging, and countering oxidative injuries. We report here that, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), ARPE-19 cells, proteasome inhibitors, clasto-lactacystin?-lactone (LA) or epoxomicin (Epo), at non-lethal doses, increased the protein levels of autophagy-specific genes Atg5 and Atg7 and enhanced the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3) from LC3-I to its lipidative form, LC3-II, which was enhanced by co-addition of the saturated concentration of Bafilomycin A1 (Baf). Detection of co-localization for LC3 staining and labeled-lysosome further confirmed autophagic flux induced by LA or Epo. LA or Epo reduced the phosphorylation of the protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in ARPE-19 cells; by contrast, the induced changes of autophagy substrate, p62, showed biphasic pattern. The autophagy inhibitor, Baf, attenuated the reduction in oxidative injury conferred by treatment with low doses of LA and Epo in ARPE-19 cells exposed to menadione (VK3) or 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Knockdown of Atg7 with siRNA in ARPE-19 cells reduced the protective effects of LA or Epo against VK3. Overall, our results suggest that treatment with low levels of proteasome inhibitors confers resistance to oxidative injury by a pathway involving inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and activation of autophagy. PMID:25062253

Sun, Lin; Li, Yiping; Qu, Jia; Snider, Barbara Joy; Wu, Shengzhou

2014-01-01

231

Proteasome inhibitors: valuable new tools for cell biologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteasomes are major sites for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The recent identification of selective proteasome inhibitors has allowed a definition of the roles of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in various cellular processes, such as antigen presentation and the degradation of regulatory or membrane proteins. This review describes the actions of these inhibitors, how they can be used to investigate cellular

Do Hee Lee; Alfred L Goldberg

1998-01-01

232

Proteasome Inhibitors: A Novel Class of Potent and Effective Antitumor Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the regulated degradation of proteins involved in cell cycle control and tumor growth. Dysregulating the degradation of such proteins should have profound effects on tumor growth and cause cells to undergo apoptosis. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel series of proteasome inhibitors, exem- plified by PS-341, which we describe here.

Julian Adams; Vito J. Palombella; Edward A. Sausville; Jill Johnson; Antonia Destree; Douglas D. Lazarus; Jochen Maas; Christine S. Pien; Samuel Prakash; Peter J. Elliott

1999-01-01

233

ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

234

In silico prediction of pharmaceutical degradation pathways: a benchmarking study.  

PubMed

Zeneth is a new software application capable of predicting degradation products derived from small molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients. This study was aimed at understanding the current status of Zeneth's predictive capabilities and assessing gaps in predictivity. Using data from 27 small molecule drug substances from five pharmaceutical companies, the evolution of Zeneth predictions through knowledge base development since 2009 was evaluated. The experimentally observed degradation products from forced degradation, accelerated, and long-term stability studies were compared to Zeneth predictions. Steady progress in predictive performance was observed as the knowledge bases grew and were refined. Over the course of the development covered within this evaluation, the ability of Zeneth to predict experimentally observed degradants increased from 31% to 54%. In particular, gaps in predictivity were noted in the areas of epimerizations, N-dealkylation of N-alkylheteroaromatic compounds, photochemical decarboxylations, and electrocyclic reactions. The results of this study show that knowledge base development efforts have increased the ability of Zeneth to predict relevant degradation products and aid pharmaceutical research. This study has also provided valuable information to help guide further improvements to Zeneth and its knowledge base. PMID:25364862

Kleinman, Mark H; Baertschi, Steven W; Alsante, Karen M; Reid, Darren L; Mowery, Mark D; Shimanovich, Roman; Foti, Chris; Smith, William K; Reynolds, Dan W; Nefliu, Marcela; Ott, Martin A

2014-11-01

235

Accumulation of mutant huntingtin fragments in aggresome-like inclusion bodies as a result of insufficient protein degradation.  

PubMed

The huntingtin exon 1 proteins with a polyglutamine repeat in the pathological range (51 or 83 glutamines), but not with a polyglutamine tract in the normal range (20 glutamines), form aggresome-like perinuclear inclusions in human 293 Tet-Off cells. These structures contain aggregated, ubiquitinated huntingtin exon 1 protein with a characteristic fibrillar morphology. Inclusion bodies with truncated huntingtin protein are formed at centrosomes and are surrounded by vimentin filaments. Inhibition of proteasome activity resulted in a twofold increase in the amount of ubiquitinated, SDS-resistant aggregates, indicating that inclusion bodies accumulate when the capacity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to degrade aggregation-prone huntingtin protein is exhausted. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy with immunogold labeling revealed that the 20S, 19S, and 11S subunits of the 26S proteasome, the molecular chaperones BiP/GRP78, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as the RNA-binding protein TIA-1, the potential chaperone 14-3-3, and alpha-synuclein colocalize with the perinuclear inclusions. In 293 Tet-Off cells, inclusion body formation also resulted in cell toxicity and dramatic ultrastructural changes such as indentations and disruption of the nuclear envelope. Concentration of mitochondria around the inclusions and cytoplasmic vacuolation were also observed. Together these findings support the hypothesis that the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system is a potential target for therapeutic interventions in glutamine repeat disorders. PMID:11359930

Waelter, S; Boeddrich, A; Lurz, R; Scherzinger, E; Lueder, G; Lehrach, H; Wanker, E E

2001-05-01

236

Timely Activation of Budding Yeast APCCdh1 Involves Degradation of Its Inhibitor, Acm1, by an Unconventional Proteolytic Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Regulated proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system is a fundamental and essential feature of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. Most proteins with cell cycle-regulated stability are targeted for degradation by one of two related ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1-cullin-F box protein (SCF) complex or the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Here we describe an unconventional cell cycle-regulated proteolytic mechanism that acts on the Acm1 protein, an inhibitor of the APC activator Cdh1 in budding yeast. Although Acm1 can be recognized as a substrate by the Cdc20-activated APC (APCCdc20) in anaphase, APCCdc20 is neither necessary nor sufficient for complete Acm1 degradation at the end of mitosis. An APC-independent, but 26S proteasome-dependent, mechanism is sufficient for complete Acm1 clearance from late mitotic and G1 cells. Surprisingly, this mechanism appears distinct from the canonical ubiquitin targeting pathway, exhibiting several features of ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation. For example, Acm1 degradation in G1 requires neither lysine residues in Acm1 nor assembly of polyubiquitin chains. Acm1 was stabilized though by conditional inactivation of the ubiquitin activating enzyme Uba1, implying some requirement for the ubiquitin pathway, either direct or indirect. We identified an amino terminal predicted disordered region in Acm1 that contributes to its proteolysis in G1. Although ubiquitin-independent proteasome substrates have been described, Acm1 appears unique in that its sensitivity to this mechanism is strictly cell cycle-regulated via cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation. As a result, Acm1 expression is limited to the cell cycle window in which Cdk is active. We provide evidence that failure to eliminate Acm1 impairs activation of APCCdh1 at mitotic exit, justifying its strict regulation by cell cycle-dependent transcription and proteolytic mechanisms. Importantly, our results reveal that strict cell-cycle expression profiles can be established independent of proteolysis mediated by the APC and SCF enzymes. PMID:25072887

Melesse, Michael; Choi, Eunyoung; Hall, Hana; Walsh, Michael J.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hall, Mark C.

2014-01-01

237

A Golgi-based KDELR-dependent signalling pathway controls extracellular matrix degradation.  

PubMed

We recently identified an endomembrane-based signalling cascade that is activated by the KDEL receptor (KDELR) on the Golgi complex. At the Golgi, the KDELR acts as a traffic sensor (presumably via binding to chaperones that leave the ER) and triggers signalling pathways that balance membrane fluxes between ER and Golgi. One such pathway relies on Gq and Src. Here, we examine if KDELR might control other cellular modules through this pathway. Given the central role of Src in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, we investigated the impact of the KDELR-Src pathway on the ability of cancer cells to degrade the ECM. We find that activation of the KDELR controls ECM degradation by increasing the number of the degradative structures known as invadopodia. The KDELR induces Src activation at the invadopodia and leads to phosphorylation of the Src substrates cortactin and ASAP1, which are required for basal and KDELR-stimulated ECM degradation. This study furthers our understanding of the regulatory circuitry underlying invadopodia-dependent ECM degradation, a key phase in metastases formation and invasive growth. PMID:25682866

Ruggiero, Carmen; Fragassi, Giorgia; Grossi, Mauro; Picciani, Benedetta; Di Martino, Rosaria; Capitani, Mirco; Buccione, Roberto; Luini, Alberto; Sallese, Michele

2015-02-20

238

PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

239

AEROBIC DEGRADATION OF DINITROTOLUENES AND PATHWAY FOR BACTERIAL DEGRADATION OF 2,6-DINITROTOLUENE  

EPA Science Inventory

An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkhoderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. We report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkhoderia ...

240

HDAC6 rescues neurodegeneration and provides an essential link between autophagy and the UPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent feature of late-onset neurodegenerative diseases is accumulation of misfolded protein in vulnerable neurons. When levels of misfolded protein overwhelm degradative pathways, the result is cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Cellular mechanisms for degrading misfolded protein include the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the main non-lysosomal degradative pathway for ubiquitinated proteins, and autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradative pathway. The UPS and autophagy have

Udai Bhan Pandey; Zhiping Nie; Yakup Batlevi; Brett A. McCray; Gillian P. Ritson; Natalia B. Nedelsky; Stephanie L. Schwartz; Nicholas A. Diprospero; Melanie A. Knight; Oren Schuldiner; Ranjani Padmanabhan; Marc Hild; Deborah L. Berry; Dan Garza; Charlotte C. Hubbert; Tso-Pang Yao; Eric H. Baehrecke; J. Paul Taylor

2007-01-01

241

Characterization of a novel RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase GhRING2 differentially expressed in cotton fiber  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis pathway is responsible for the degradation of abnormal and short-lived proteins to regulate many important biochemical activities in eukaryotes. By employing affymetrix microarray analysis, we have identified a novel ubiquitin ligase E3 gene GhRING2 that is diffe...

242

EXPRESSION OF K6W-UBIQUITIN IN LENS EPITHELIAL CELLS LEADS TO UP-REGULATION OF A BROAD SPECTRUM OF MOLECULAR CHAPERONES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: Accumulation and precipitation of abnormal proteins are associated with many age-related diseases. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is one of the protein quality control mechanisms that selectively degrade damaged or obsolete proteins. The other arm of the protein quality control me...

243

Proteasome Inhibition Enhances the Induction and Impairs the Maintenance of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays important roles in synaptic plasticity, but the molecular mechanisms by which proteolysis regulates synaptic strength are not well understood. We investigated the role of the proteasome in hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP), a model for enduring synaptic plasticity.…

Dong, Chenghai; Upadhya, Sudarshan C.; Ding, Lan; Smith, Thuy K.; Hegde, Ashok N.

2008-01-01

244

Proteasome inhibition: a new anti-inflammatory strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has a central role in the selective degradation of intracellular proteins. Among the key proteins modulated by the proteasome are those involved in the control of inflammatory processes, cell cycle regulation, and gene expression. Consequently proteasome inhibition is a potential treatment option for cancer and inflammatory conditions. Thus far, proof of principle has been obtained from studies

Peter J. Elliott; Thomas Matthias Zollner; Wolf-Henning Boehncke

2003-01-01

245

Regulation of Ubiquitination-Mediated Protein Degradation by Survival Kinases in Cancer  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin–proteasome system is essential for multiple physiological processes via selective degradation of target proteins and has been shown to plays a critical role in human cancer. Activation of oncogenic factors and inhibition of tumor suppressors have been shown to be essential for cancer development, and protein ubiquitination has been linked to the regulation of oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors. Three kinases, AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and I?B kinase, we refer to as oncokinases, are activated in multiple human cancers. We and others have identified several key downstream targets that are commonly regulated by these oncokinases, some of which are regulated directly or indirectly via ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation, including FOXO3, ?-catenin, myeloid cell leukemia-1, and Snail. In this review, we summarize these findings from our and other groups and discuss potential future studies and applications in the clinic. PMID:22649777

Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Hung, Mien-Chie

2011-01-01

246

Specific Small Molecule Inhibitors of Skp2-Mediated p27 Degradation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In the ubiquitin proteasome system, the E3 ligase SCF-Skp2 and its accessory protein Cks1 promote proliferation largely by inducing the degradation of the CDK inhibitor p27. Overexpression of Skp2 in human cancers correlates with poor prognosis, and deregulation of SCF-Skp2-Cks1 promotes tumorigenesis in animal models. We identified small molecule inhibitors specific to SCF-Skp2 activity using in silico screens targeted to the binding interface for p27. These compounds selectively inhibited Skp2-mediated p27 degradation by reducing p27 binding through key compound-receptor contacts. In cancer cells, the compounds induced p27 accumulation in a Skp2-dependent manner and promoted cell-type specific blocks in the G1 or G2/M phases. Designing SCF-Skp2 specific inhibitors may be a novel strategy to treat cancers dependent on the Skp2-p27 axis. PMID:23261596

Wu, Lily; Grigoryan, Arsen V.; Li, Yunfeng; Hao, Bing; Pagano, Michele; Cardozo, Timothy

2012-01-01

247

Has the Bacterial Biphenyl Catabolic Pathway Evolved Primarily To Degrade Biphenyl? The Diphenylmethane Case  

PubMed Central

In this work, we have compared the ability of Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to metabolize diphenylmethane and benzophenone, two biphenyl analogs in which the phenyl rings are bonded to a single carbon. Both chemicals are of environmental concern. P. pnomenusa B356 grew well on diphenylmethane. On the basis of growth kinetics analyses, diphenylmethane and biphenyl were shown to induce the same catabolic pathway. The profile of metabolites produced during growth of strain B356 on diphenylmethane was the same as the one produced by isolated enzymes of the biphenyl catabolic pathway acting individually or in coupled reactions. The biphenyl dioxygenase oxidizes diphenylmethane to 3-benzylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol very efficiently, and ultimately this metabolite is transformed to phenylacetic acid, which is further metabolized by a lower pathway. Strain B356 was also able to cometabolize benzophenone through its biphenyl pathway, although in this case, this substrate was unable to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway and the degradation was incomplete, with accumulation of 2-hydroxy-6,7-dioxo-7-phenylheptanoic acid. Unlike strain B356, B. xenovorans LB400 did not grow on diphenylmethane. Its biphenyl pathway enzymes metabolized diphenylmethane, but they poorly metabolize benzophenone. The fact that the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain B356 metabolized diphenylmethane and benzophenone more efficiently than that of strain LB400 brings us to postulate that in strain B356, this pathway evolved divergently to serve other functions not related to biphenyl degradation. PMID:23749969

Pham, Thi Thanh My

2013-01-01

248

The E3 ubiquitin ligase mind bomb 1 ubiquitinates and promotes the degradation of survival of motor neuron protein  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy is an inherited motor neuron disease that results from a deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is ubiquitinated and degraded through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). We have previously shown that proteasome inhibition increases SMN protein levels, improves motor function, and reduces spinal cord, muscle, and neuromuscular junction pathology of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) mice. Specific targets in the UPS may be more efficacious and less toxic. In this study, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, mind bomb 1 (Mib1), interacts with and ubiquitinates SMN and facilitates its degradation. Knocking down Mib1 levels increases SMN protein levels in cultured cells. Also, knocking down the Mib1 orthologue improves neuromuscular function in Caenorhabditis elegans deficient in SMN. These findings demonstrate that Mib1 ubiquitinates and catalyzes the degradation of SMN, and thus represents a novel therapeutic target for SMA. PMID:23615451

Kwon, Deborah Y.; Dimitriadi, Maria; Terzic, Barbara; Cable, Casey; Hart, Anne C.; Chitnis, Ajay; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Burnett, Barrington G.

2013-01-01

249

Vocal Pathway Degradation in Gonadectomized Xenopus laevis Adults  

PubMed Central

Reproductive behaviors of many vertebrate species are activated in adult males by elevated androgen levels and abolished by castration. Neural and muscular components controlling these behaviors contain numerous hormone-sensitive sites including motor initiation centers (such as the basal ganglia), central pattern generators (CPGs), and muscles; therefore it is difficult to confirm the role of each hormone-activated target using behavioral assays alone. Our goal was to address this issue by determining the site of androgen-induced vocal activation using male Xenopus laevis, a species in which androgen dependence of vocal activation has been previously determined. We compared in vivo calling patterns and functionality of two in vitro preparations—the isolated larynx and an isolated brain from which fictive courtship vocalizations can be evoked—in castrated and control males. The isolated larynx allowed us to test whether castrated males were capable of transducing male-typical nerve signals into vocalizations and the fictively vocalizing brain preparation allowed us to directly examine vocal CPG function separate from the issue of vocal initiation. The results indicate that all three components—vocal initiation, CPG, and larynx—require intact gonads. Vocal production decreased dramatically in castrates and laryngeal contractile properties of castrated males were demasculinized, whereas no changes were observed in control animals. In addition, fictive calls of castrates were degraded compared with those of controls. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first demonstration of gonad-dependent maintenance of a CPG for courtship behavior in adulthood. Because previous studies showed that androgen-replacement can prevent castration-induced vocal impairments, we conclude that degradation of vocal initiation centers, larynx, and CPG function are most likely due to steroid hormone deprivation. PMID:21148092

Yamaguchi, Ayako

2011-01-01

250

Role of the Aggresome Pathway in Cancer: Targeting Histone Deacetylase 6Dependent Protein Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misfolded or aggregated proteins have two fates: they are either refolded with the help of chaperones or degraded by the proteasome. Cells also have an alternative pathway that involves intracellular ''storage bins'' for misfolded intracellu- lar proteins known as aggresomes. Aggresomes recruit motor proteins that transport misfolded or aggregated proteins to chaperones and proteasomes for subsequent destruction. There is emerging

Agustin Rodriguez-Gonzalez; Alan K. Ikeda; Tiffany Simms-Waldrip; Cecilia Fu; Kathleen M. Sakamoto

2008-01-01

251

Degradation pathway of malachite green in a novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor.  

PubMed

A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed to investigate the degradation pathway of malachite green. A thermally formed TiO?/Ti thin film electrode was used as photoanode, graphite was used as cathode, and a saturated calomel electrode was employed as the reference electrode in the reactor. In the reactor, the anode and cathode tanks were connected by a cation exchange membrane. Results showed that the decolorization ratio of malachite green in the anode and cathode was 98.5 and 96.5% after 120 min, respectively. Malachite green in the two anode and cathode tanks was oxidized, achieving the bipolar double effect. Malachite green in both the anode and cathode tanks exhibited similar catalytic degradation pathways. The double bond of the malachite green molecule was attacked by strong oxidative hydroxyl radicals, after which the organic compound was degraded by the two pathways into 4,4-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) phenol, and other intermediate products. Eventually, malachite green was degraded into oxalic acid as a small molecular organic acid, which was degraded by processes such as demethylation, deamination, nitration, substitution, addition, and other reactions. PMID:23811633

Diao, Zenghui; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Fanyin; Song, Lin; Qiu, Rongliang

2013-09-15

252

New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

2014-01-01

253

Modelling Pathways to Rubisco Degradation: A Structural Equation Network Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

‘Omics analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics) quantifies changes in gene/protein expression, providing a snapshot of changes in biochemical pathways over time. Although tools such as modelling that are needed to investigate the relationships between genes/proteins already exist, they are rarely utilised. We consider the potential for using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate protein-protein interactions in a proposed Rubisco protein degradation pathway using previously published data from 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry proteome analysis. These informed the development of a prior model that hypothesised a pathway of Rubisco Large Subunit and Small Subunit degradation, producing both primary and secondary degradation products. While some of the putative pathways were confirmed by the modelling approach, the model also demonstrated features that had not been originally hypothesised. We used Bayesian analysis based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation to generate output statistics suggesting that the model had replicated the variation in the observed data due to protein-protein interactions. This study represents an early step in the development of approaches that seek to enable the full utilisation of information regarding the dynamics of biochemical pathways contained within proteomics data. As these approaches gain attention, they will guide the design and conduct of experiments that enable ‘Omics modelling to become a common place practice within molecular biology. PMID:24498339

Tétard-Jones, Catherine; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Cooper, Julia; Leifert, Carlo; Rushton, Steven

2014-01-01

254

New hydrocarbon degradation pathways in the microbial metagenome from Brazilian petroleum reservoirs.  

PubMed

Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

2014-01-01

255

A Non-canonical RNA Silencing Pathway Promotes mRNA Degradation in Basal Fungi  

PubMed Central

The increasing knowledge on the functional relevance of endogenous small RNAs (esRNAs) as riboregulators has stimulated the identification and characterization of these molecules in numerous eukaryotes. In the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides, an emerging opportunistic human pathogen, esRNAs that regulate the expression of many protein coding genes have been described. These esRNAs share common machinery for their biogenesis consisting of an RNase III endonuclease Dicer, a single Argonaute protein and two RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. We show in this study that, besides participating in this canonical dicer-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, the rdrp genes are involved in a novel dicer-independent degradation process of endogenous mRNAs. The analysis of esRNAs accumulated in wild type and silencing mutants demonstrates that this new rdrp-dependent dicer-independent regulatory pathway, which does not produce sRNA molecules of discrete sizes, controls the expression of target genes promoting the specific degradation of mRNAs by a previously unknown RNase. This pathway mainly regulates conserved genes involved in metabolism and cellular processes and signaling, such as those required for heme biosynthesis, and controls responses to specific environmental signals. Searching the Mucor genome for candidate RNases to participate in this pathway, and functional analysis of the corresponding knockout mutants, identified a new protein, R3B2. This RNase III-like protein presents unique domain architecture, it is specifically found in basal fungi and, besides its relevant role in the rdrp-dependent dicer-independent pathway, it is also involved in the canonical dicer-dependent RNAi pathway, highlighting its crucial role in the biogenesis and function of regulatory esRNAs. The involvement of RdRPs in RNA degradation could represent the first evolutionary step towards the development of an RNAi mechanism and constitutes a genetic link between mRNA degradation and post-transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:25875805

Nicolás, Francisco E.; Vila, Ana; Moxon, Simon; Dalmay, Tamas; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Garre, Victoriano; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M.

2015-01-01

256

Genomic and metabolic analysis of fluoranthene degradation pathway in Celeribacter indicus P73T.  

PubMed

Celeribacter indicus P73(T), isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Indian Ocean, is capable of degrading a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is the first fluoranthene-degrading bacterium within the family Rhodobacteraceae. Here, the complete genome sequence of strain P73(T) is presented and analyzed. Besides a 4.5-Mb circular chromosome, strain P73(T) carries five plasmids, and encodes 4827 predicted protein-coding sequences. One hundred and thirty-eight genes, including 14 dioxygenase genes, were predicted to be involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds, and most of these genes are clustered in four regions. P73_0346 is the first fluoranthene 7,8-dioxygenase to be discovered and the first fluoranthene dioxygenase within the toluene/biphenyl family. The degradative genes in regions B and D in P73(T) are absent in Celeribacter baekdonensis B30, which cannot degrade PAHs. Four intermediate metabolites [acenaphthylene-1(2H)-one, acenaphthenequinone, 1,2-dihydroxyacenaphthylene, and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride] of fluoranthene degradation by strain P73(T) were detected as the main intermediates, indicating that the degradation of fluoranthene in P73(T) was initiated by dioxygenation at the C-7,8 positions. Based on the genomic and metabolitic results, we propose a C-7,8 dioxygenation pathway in which fluoranthene is mineralized to TCA cycle intermediates. PMID:25582347

Cao, Junwei; Lai, Qiliang; Yuan, Jun; Shao, Zongze

2015-01-01

257

Genomic and metabolic analysis of fluoranthene degradation pathway in Celeribacter indicus P73T  

PubMed Central

Celeribacter indicus P73T, isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Indian Ocean, is capable of degrading a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is the first fluoranthene-degrading bacterium within the family Rhodobacteraceae. Here, the complete genome sequence of strain P73T is presented and analyzed. Besides a 4.5-Mb circular chromosome, strain P73T carries five plasmids, and encodes 4827 predicted protein-coding sequences. One hundred and thirty-eight genes, including 14 dioxygenase genes, were predicted to be involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds, and most of these genes are clustered in four regions. P73_0346 is the first fluoranthene 7,8-dioxygenase to be discovered and the first fluoranthene dioxygenase within the toluene/biphenyl family. The degradative genes in regions B and D in P73T are absent in Celeribacter baekdonensis B30, which cannot degrade PAHs. Four intermediate metabolites [acenaphthylene-1(2H)-one, acenaphthenequinone, 1,2-dihydroxyacenaphthylene, and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride] of fluoranthene degradation by strain P73T were detected as the main intermediates, indicating that the degradation of fluoranthene in P73T was initiated by dioxygenation at the C-7,8 positions. Based on the genomic and metabolitic results, we propose a C-7,8 dioxygenation pathway in which fluoranthene is mineralized to TCA cycle intermediates. PMID:25582347

Cao, Junwei; Lai, Qiliang; Yuan, Jun; Shao, Zongze

2015-01-01

258

Combination of degradation pathways for naphthalene utilization in Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB  

PubMed Central

Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB is a metabolic versatile bacterium able to grow on naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source. Applying proteomic, genetic and biochemical approaches, we propose in this paper that, at least, three coordinated but independently regulated set of genes are combined to degrade naphthalene in TFB. First, proteins involved in tetralin degradation are also induced by naphthalene and may carry out its conversion to salicylaldehyde. This is the only part of the naphthalene degradation pathway showing glucose catabolite repression. Second, a salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that converts salicylaldehyde to salicylate is detected in naphthalene-grown cells but not in tetralin-or salicylate-grown cells. Finally, we describe the chromosomally located nag genes, encoding the gentisate pathway for salicylate conversion into fumarate and pyruvate, which are only induced by salicylate and not by naphthalene. This work shows how biodegradation pathways in Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB could be assembled using elements from different pathways mainly because of the laxity of the regulatory systems and the broad specificity of the catabolic enzymes. PMID:24325207

Tomás-Gallardo, Laura; Gómez-Álvarez, Helena; Santero, Eduardo; Floriano, Belén

2014-01-01

259

Metagenomic Identification of Bacterioplankton Taxa and Pathways Involved in Microcystin Degradation in Lake Erie  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera) and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax) of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr) were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems. PMID:23637924

Mou, Xiaozhen; Lu, Xinxin; Jacob, Jisha; Sun, Shulei; Heath, Robert

2013-01-01

260

NOVEL ORGANIZATION OF CATECHOL META PATHWAY GENES IN THE NITROBENZENE DEGRADER COMAMONAS SP. JS765 AND ITS EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The catechol meta cleavage pathway is one of the central metabolic pathways for the degradation of aromatic compounds. A novel organization of the pathway genes, different from that of classical soil microorganisms, has been observed in Sphingomonas sp HV3 and Pseudomonas sp. DJ77. In a Comamonas ...

261

Involvement of ubiquilin-1 transcript variants in protein degradation and accumulation.  

PubMed

Controlled management of protein levels and quality is essential for normal cellular function. Specific molecular chaperones and foldases monitor the levels and assist correct folding of proteins. The ubiquitin-proteasome system recognizes and degrades misfolded proteins that can otherwise be harmful to cells. However, when misfolded or aggregated proteins excessively accumulate, they may be sequestered to the microtubule-organizing center to form aggresomes. These may then be removed from cells by autophagocytosis. Abnormal protein accumulation and aggregation is a common hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. In a recent study, we provide evidence that specific transcript variants (TVs) of ubiquilin-1, which are genetically and functionally associated to Alzheimer's disease (AD), regulate proteasomal and aggresomal targeting of presenilin-1 (PS1), a key player in AD pathogenesis. Our study together with current data provide interesting implications for ubiquilin-1 and its TVs in the pathogenesis of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases involving abnormal protein aggregation. PMID:21966562

Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Viswanathan, Jayashree; Kurkinen, Kaisa Ma; Bertram, Lars; Soininen, Hilkka; Dantuma, Nico P; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Hiltunen, Mikko

2011-07-01

262

Buthionine sulfoximine diverts the melanogenesis pathway toward the production of more soluble and degradable pigments.  

PubMed

Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) is a specific inhibitor of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase, thus blocking the synthesis of glutathione (GSH). It is known that this makes that BSO affects melanin synthesis because of the role of thiols in melanogenesis. However, BSO may also react with the intermediate oxidation products of melanogenesis, a possibility that has not been investigated from the initial steps of the pathway. We created in vitro conditions simulating eumelanogenesis (oxidation of L-DOPA in the absence of GSH) and pheomelanogenesis (oxidation of L-DOPA in the presence of GSH) under presence or absence of BSO. BSO made that eumelanogenesis results in pigments more soluble and less resistant to degradation by hydrogen peroxide than pigments obtained without BSO. A similar but less marked effect was observed for pheomelanogenesis only at subsaturating concentrations of GSH. These results suggest that BSO diverts the melanogenesis pathway toward the production of more soluble and degradable pigments. PMID:24703231

Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Solano, Francisco

2014-05-01

263

Degradation of 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoate by a Novel meta-Cleavage Pathway  

PubMed Central

2,3-Dihydroxybenzoate is the precursor in the biosynthesis of several siderophores and an important plant secondary metabolite that, in bacteria, can be degraded via meta-cleavage of the aromatic ring. The dhb cluster of Pseudomonas reinekei MT1 encodes a chimeric meta-cleavage pathway involved in the catabolism of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. While the first two enzymes, DhbA and DhbB, are phylogenetically related to those involved in 2,3-dihydroxy-p-cumate degradation, the subsequent steps are catalyzed by enzymes related to those involved in catechol degradation (DhbCDEFGH). Characterization of kinetic properties of DhbA extradiol dioxygenase identified 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate as the preferred substrate. Deletion of the encoding gene impedes growth of P. reinekei MT1 on 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. DhbA catalyzes 3,4-dioxygenation with 2-hydroxy-3-carboxymuconate as the product, which is then decarboxylated by DhbB to 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. This compound is then subject to dehydrogenation and further degraded to citrate cycle intermediates. Transcriptional analysis revealed genes of the dhB gene cluster to be highly expressed during growth with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, whereas a downstream-localized gene encoding 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase, dispensable for 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate metabolism but crucial for 2,3-dihydroxy-p-cumate degradation, was only marginally expressed. This is the first report describing a gene cluster encoding enzymes for the degradation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. PMID:22609919

Marín, Macarena; Plumeier, Iris

2012-01-01

264

Organization of metabolic pathways and molecular-genetic mechanisms of xenobiotic degradation in microorganisms: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary data on the mechanism of biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons and biodegradation genes (genomic organization\\u000a and pathways of evolution) in diverse groups of microorganisms have been reviewed. Studies of this problem are topical, in\\u000a view of the need in identification and construction of new strains degrading xenobiotics, particularly those halogenated.\\u000a For this reason, emphasis is placed on specific features of

V. G. Khomenkov; A. B. Shevelev; V. G. Zhukov; N. A. Zagustina; A. M. Bezborodov; V. O. Popov

2008-01-01

265

Thermally induced degradation pathways of three different antibody-based drug development candidates.  

PubMed

Protein-based medicinal products are prone to undergo a variety of chemical and physical degradation pathways. One of the most important exogenous stress condition to consider during manufacturing, transport and storage processes is temperature, because antibody-based therapeutics are only stable in a limited temperature range. In this study, three different formats of antibody-based molecules (IgG1, a bispecific scFv and a fab fragment) were exposed to thermal stress conditions occurring during transport and storage. For evaluation, an analytical platform was developed for the detection and characterization of relevant degradation pathways of different antibody-based therapeutics. The effect of thermal stress conditions on the stability of the three antibody-based formats was therefore investigated using visual inspection, different spectroscopic measurements, dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrophoresis, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and surface plasmon resonance technology (SPR). In summary, thermal stress led to heterogeneous chemical and physical degradation pathways of all three antibody-based formats used. In addition, identical exogenous stress conditions resulted in different kinds and levels of aggregates and fragmentation products. This knowledge is fundamental for a systematic and successful stabilization of protein-based therapeutics by the use of formulation additives. PMID:24878389

Fincke, Anja; Winter, Jonas; Bunte, Thomas; Olbrich, Carsten

2014-10-01

266

A functional autophagy pathway is required for rapamycin-induced degradation of the Sgs1 helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the immunosuppressant rapamycin mimics starvation by inhibiting the kinase Tor1. We recently documented that this treatment triggers a rapid degradation of Sgs1, a helicase involved in several biological processes such as the prevention of genomic instability. Herein, we show that yeast strains deleted for genes ATG2, ATG9, and PEP4, encoding components of the autophagy pathway, prevent rapamycin-induced degradation of Sgs1. We propose that defects in the autophagy pathway prevent degradation of key proteins in the rapamycin response pathway and as a consequence cause resistance to the drug. PMID:23668784

Marrakchi, Rim; Chouchani, Chedly; Poschmann, Jeremie; Andreev, Emil; Cherif, Mohamed; Ramotar, Dindial

2013-06-01

267

Degradation of benzotrifluoride via the dioxygenase pathway in Rhodococcus sp. 065240.  

PubMed

We previously isolated Rhodococcus sp. 065240, which catalyzes the defluorination of benzotrifluoride (BTF). In order to investigate the mechanism of this degradation of BTF, we performed proteomic analysis of cells grown with or without BTF. Three proteins, which resemble dioxygenase pathway enzymes responsible for isopropylbenzene degradation from Rhodococcus erythropolis BD2, were induced by BTF. Genomic PCR and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the Rhodococcus sp. 065240 carries the gene cluster, btf, which is highly homologous to the ipb gene cluster from R. erythropolis BD2. A mutant strain, which could not catalyze BTF defluorination, was isolated from 065240 strain by UV mutagenesis. The mutant strain had one mutation in the btfT gene, which encodes a response regulator of the two component system. The defluorinating ability of the mutant strain was recovered by complementation of btfT. These results suggest that the btf gene cluster is responsible for degradation of BTF. PMID:25412819

Yano, Kenichi; Wachi, Masaaki; Tsuchida, Sakiko; Kitazume, Tomoya; Iwai, Noritaka

2015-03-01

268

Rapid Identification and Quantitative Validation of a Caffeine-Degrading Pathway in Pseudomonas sp. CES.  

PubMed

Understanding the genes and enzymes involved in caffeine metabolism can lead to applications such as production of methylxanthines and environmental waste remediation. Pseudomonas sp. CES may provide insights into these applications, since this bacterium degrades caffeine and thrives in concentrations of caffeine that are three times higher (9.0 g L(-1)) than the maximum tolerable levels of other reported bacteria. We took a novel approach toward identifying the enzymatic pathways in Pseudomonas sp. CES that metabolize caffeine, which largely circumvented the need for exhaustive isolation of enzymes and the stepwise reconstitution of their activities. Here we describe an optimized, rapid alternative strategy based on multiplexed LC-MS/MS assays and show its application by discovering caffeine-degrading enzymes in the CES strain based on quantitative comparison of proteomes from bacteria grown in the absence and presence of caffeine, the latter condition of which was found to have a highly induced capacity for caffeine degradation. Comparisons were made using stable isotope dimethyl labeling, differences in the abundance of particular proteins were substantiated by reciprocal labeling experiments, and the role of the identified proteins in caffeine degradation was independently verified by genetic sequencing. Overall, multiple new components of a N-demethylase system were identified that resulted in rapid pathway validation and gene isolation using this new approach. PMID:25350919

Yu, Chi Li; Summers, Ryan M; Li, Yalan; Mohanty, Sujit Kumar; Subramanian, Mani; Pope, R Marshall

2015-01-01

269

PINK1 is degraded through the N-end rule pathway  

PubMed Central

PINK1, a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, is the product of a gene mutated in an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson disease. PINK1 is constitutively degraded by an unknown mechanism and stabilized selectively on damaged mitochondria where it can recruit the E3 ligase PARK2/PARKIN to induce mitophagy. Here, we show that, under steady-state conditions, endogenous PINK1 is constitutively and rapidly degraded by E3 ubiquitin ligases UBR1, UBR2 and UBR4 through the N-end rule pathway. Following precursor import into mitochondria, PINK1 is cleaved in the transmembrane segment by a mitochondrial intramembrane protease PARL generating an N-terminal destabilizing amino acid and then retrotranslocates from mitochondria to the cytosol for N-end recognition and proteasomal degradation. Thus, sequential actions of mitochondrial import, PARL-processing, retrotranslocation and recognition by N-end rule E3 enzymes for the ubiquitin proteosomal degradation defines the rapid PINK1 turnover. PINK1 steady-state elimination by the N-end rule identifies a novel organelle to cytoplasm turnover pathway that yields a mechanism to flag damaged mitochondria for autophagic elimination. PMID:24121706

Yamano, Koji; Youle, Richard J

2013-01-01

270

Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 Contains a Novel Degradation Pathway for Limonene  

PubMed Central

Strain DCL14, which is able to grow on limonene as a sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from a freshwater sediment sample. This organism was identified as a strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis by chemotaxonomic and genetic studies. R. erythropolis DCL14 also assimilated the terpenes limonene-1,2-epoxide, limonene-1,2-diol, carveol, carvone, and (?)-menthol, while perillyl alcohol was not utilized as a carbon and energy source. Induction tests with cells grown on limonene revealed that the oxygen consumption rates with limonene-1,2-epoxide, limonene-1,2-diol, 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and carveol were high. Limonene-induced cells of R. erythropolis DCL14 contained the following four novel enzymatic activities involved in the limonene degradation pathway of this microorganism: a flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADH-dependent limonene 1,2-monooxygenase activity, a cofactor-independent limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase activity, a dichlorophenolindophenol-dependent limonene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity, and an NADPH-dependent 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene 1,2-monooxygenase activity. Product accumulation studies showed that (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, (1S,4R)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and (3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate were intermediates in the (4R)-limonene degradation pathway. The opposite enantiomers [(1R,2R,4S)-limonene-1,2-diol, (1R,4S)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and (3S)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate] were found in the (4S)-limonene degradation pathway, while accumulation of (1R,2S,4S)-limonene-1,2-diol from (4S)-limonene was also observed. These results show that R. erythropolis DCL14 metabolizes both enantiomers of limonene via a novel degradation pathway that starts with epoxidation at the 1,2 double bond forming limonene-1,2-epoxide. This epoxide is subsequently converted to limonene-1,2-diol, 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and 7-hydroxy-4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone. This lactone spontaneously rearranges to form 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate. In the presence of coenzyme A and ATP this acid is converted further, and this finding, together with the high levels of isocitrate lyase activity in extracts of limonene-grown cells, suggests that further degradation takes place via the ?-oxidation pathway. PMID:10224006

van der Werf, Mariët J.; Swarts, Henk J.; de Bont, Jan A. M.

1999-01-01

271

Effects of reforesting degraded grassland on hydrological flow pathways on Leyte, the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reforestation of degraded land in the tropics is promoted for a wide range of expected benefits, including carbon sequestration and streamflow regulation. However, how reforestation of degraded land affects runoff generation mechanisms and catchment water yield is still poorly understood as most experimental work pertains to non-degraded terrain. We set out to study the differences in hydrological functioning of a small degraded grassland catchment and a similar catchment that was reforested 15 years ago. Both catchments are located near Tacloban, Leyte, the Philippines. Stream stage, EC and temperature are measured continuously since June 2013. Precipitation, soil moisture content, and groundwater levels are monitored as well. Samples are taken from streamflow, precipitation, groundwater, and soil water prior to and during rainfall events for geochemical and stable isotope analysis to elucidate source contributions to storm runoff. Streamflow and event water contributions increase rapidly during almost every rainfall event in the grassland. In the reforested catchment, event water contributions to streamflow are much smaller and only increase during large events. These tracer results suggest that overland flow occurs much less frequently and is much less widespread in the reforested catchment compared to the grassland catchment. Our results thus indicate that the dominant flow pathways have changed as a result of reforestation and suggest that reforestation can largely restore the hydrological functioning of degraded sites if the forest is allowed to develop over a sufficiently long period without subsequent disturbance.

van Meerveld, Ilja; Zhang, Jun; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno

2014-05-01

272

Ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway: A new strategy for inducing CD8 cells specific for mycobacterial HSP65  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an indispensable role in inducing MHC class I-restricted CD8{sup +} T cells. In this study, we exploited UPS to induce CD8{sup +} T cells specific for mycobacterial HSP65 (mHSP65), one of the leading vaccine candidates against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A chimeric DNA termed pU-HSP65 encoding a fusion protein between murine ubiquitin and mHSP65 was constructed, and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were immunized with the DNA using gene gun bombardment. Mice immunized with the chimeric DNA acquired potent resistance against challenge with the syngeneic B16F1 melanoma cells transfected with the mHSP65 gene (HSP65/B16F1), compared with those immunized with DNA encoding only mHSP65. Splenocytes from the former group of mice showed a higher grade of cytotoxic activity against HSP65/B16F1 cells and contained a larger number of granzyme B- or IFN-{gamma}-producing CD8{sup +} T cells compared with those from the latter group of mice.

Shen Jianying; Hisaeda, Hajime; Chou Bin [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yu Qingsheng [Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tu Liping [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Himeno, Kunisuke [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: himeno@parasite.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

2008-01-25

273

Amyloid-beta protein clearance and degradation (ABCD) pathways and their role in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Amyloid-? proteins (A?) of 42 (A?42) and 40 aa (A?40) accumulate as senile plaques (SP) and cerebrovascular amyloid protein deposits that are defining diagnostic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of rare mutations linked to familial AD (FAD) on the A? precursor protein (APP), Presenilin-1 (PS1), Presenilin- 2 (PS2), Adamalysin10, and other genetic risk factors for sporadic AD such as the ?4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE-?4) foster the accumulation of A? and also induce the entire spectrum of pathology associated with the disease. A? accumulation is therefore a key pathological event and a prime target for the prevention and treatment of AD. APP is sequentially processed by ?-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) and ?-secretase, a multisubunit PS1/PS2-containing integral membrane protease, to generate A?. Although A? accumulates in all forms of AD, the only pathways known to be affected in FAD increase A? production by APP gene duplication or via base substitutions on APP and ?-secretase subunits PS1 and PS2 that either specifically increase the yield of the longer A?42 or both A?40 and A?42. However, the vast majority of AD patients accumulate A? without these known mutations. This led to proposals that impairment of A? degradation or clearance may play a key role in AD pathogenesis. Several candidate enzymes, including Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), Neprilysin (NEP), Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Plasmin, and Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified and some have even been successfully evaluated in animal models. Several studies also have demonstrated the capacity of ?-secretase inhibitors to paradoxically increase the yield of A? and we have recently established that the mechanism is by skirting A? degradation. This review outlines major cellular pathways of A? degradation to provide a basis for future efforts to fully characterize the panel of pathways responsible for A? turnover. PMID:25523424

Baranello, Robert J; Bharani, Krishna L; Padmaraju, Vasudevaraju; Chopra, Nipun; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Greig, Nigel H; Pappolla, Miguel A; Sambamurti, Kumar

2015-01-01

274

Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway  

PubMed Central

The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (?500 ?M) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

2014-01-01

275

p27Kip1 accumulation is associated with retinoic-induced neuroblastoma differentiation: evidence of a decreased proteasome-dependent degradation.  

PubMed

Development of human neuroblastoma is due to an arrest in the differentiation program of neural crest sympathoadrenal progenitor cells. However, neuroblastomas, as well as their derived cell lines, maintain the potentiality of terminal differentiation. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which retinoic acid, a molecule introduced in clinical trials for chemotherapy, induces differentiation in neuroblastoma cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that the retinoic acid-dependent growth arrest of LAN-5 neuroblastoma cell line is associated to a very large accumulation (>tenfold) of p27Kip1 protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; the protein binds and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 2, 4 and 6 activities, thus hampering pRb and p107 phosphorylation. p27Kip1 build-up was observable as an early phenomenon (12 - 24 h) after retinoic exposure and resulted in a time-dependent accumulation of high quantities of a free p27Kip1 form. Furthermore, retinoic treatment causes an increase of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 level and activity; however, immunoprecipitation studies proved the absence of interaction with p27kip1. No noticeable variation of other components of G1 phase cell cycle engine was observed. Pulse-chase experiments showed a remarkable elongation of p27Kip1 half-life in retinoic-treated LAN-5, while no enhancement of p27Kip1 gene expression and of the translational efficiency of its messenger RNA were demonstrated. In vivo degradation of p27Kip1 was sensitive to two highly specific proteasome inhibitors, LLnL and lactacystin, while the calpain inhibitor II ALLM and the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 did not modify the level of the protein. LLnL treatment caused a very rapid (2 h) build-up of the Cdk inhibitor content and the accumulation of higher molecular weight anti-p27Kip1 immunoreactive bands, which probably represent ubiquitinated forms of the protein. Finally, in vitro experiments demonstrated that extracts prepared from retinoic-treated LAN-5 cells degraded recombinant p27Kip1 at a rate remarkably slower than the untreated cells. Our results indicate that retinoic acid strongly increases p27Kip1 levels by down-regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome p27Kip1 degrading pathway. PMID:10644979

Borriello, A; Pietra, V D; Criscuolo, M; Oliva, A; Tonini, G P; Iolascon, A; Zappia, V; Ragione, F D

2000-01-01

276

Virulence Factor NSs of Rift Valley Fever Virus Recruits the F-Box Protein FBXO3 To Degrade Subunit p62 of General Transcription Factor TFIIH  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The nonstructural protein NSs is the main virulence factor of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), a serious pathogen of livestock and humans in Africa. RVFV NSs blocks transcriptional upregulation of antiviral type I interferons (IFN) and destroys the general transcription factor TFIIH subunit p62 via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Here, we identified a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligases, F-box protein FBXO3, as a host cell interactor of NSs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of FBXO3 rescued p62 protein levels in RVFV-infected cells and elevated IFN transcription by 1 order of magnitude. NSs interacts with the full-length FBXO3 protein as well as with a truncated isoform that lacks the C-terminal acidic and poly(R)-rich domains. These isoforms are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NSs exclusively removes the nuclear pool of full-length FBXO3, likely due to consumption during the degradation process. F-box proteins form the variable substrate recognition subunit of the so-called SCF ubiquitin ligases, which also contain the constant components Skp1, cullin 1 (or cullin 7), and Rbx1. siRNA knockdown of Skp1 also protected p62 from degradation, suggesting involvement in NSs action. However, knockdown of cullin 1, cullin 7, or Rbx1 could not rescue p62 degradation by NSs. Our data show that the enzymatic removal of p62 via the host cell factor FBXO3 is a major mechanism of IFN suppression by RVFV. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever virus is a serious emerging pathogen of animals and humans. Its main virulence factor, NSs, enables unhindered virus replication by suppressing the antiviral innate immune system. We identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO3 as a novel host cell interactor of NSs. NSs recruits FBXO3 to destroy the general host cell transcription factor TFIIH-p62, resulting in suppression of the transcriptional upregulation of innate immunity. PMID:24403578

Kainulainen, Markus; Habjan, Matthias; Hubel, Philipp; Busch, Laura; Lau, Simone; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pichlmair, Andreas

2014-01-01

277

Deubiquitination of Tip60 by USP7 determines the activity of the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Tip60 is an essential acetyltransferase required for acetylation of nucleosomal histones and other nonhistone proteins. Tip60 acetylates the p53 tumor suppressor at lysine 120 (K120), a modification essential for p53-dependent induction of PUMA and apoptosis. It is known that Tip60 is turned over in cells by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the deubiquitinase activity for stabilizing Tip60 is unknown. Here we show that USP7 interacts with and deubiquitinates Tip60 both in vitro and in vivo. USP7 deubiquitinase activity is required for the stabilization of Tip60 in order to operate an effective p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in response to genotoxic stress. Inhibiting USP7 with the small-molecule inhibitor P22077 attenuates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway by destabilizing Tip60. P22077, however, is still cytotoxic, and this is partly due to destabilization of Tip60. PMID:23775119

Dar, Ashraf; Shibata, Etsuko; Dutta, Anindya

2013-08-01

278

Involvement of Two Latex-Clearing Proteins during Rubber Degradation and Insights into the Subsequent Degradation Pathway Revealed by the Genome Sequence of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans Strain VH2  

PubMed Central

The increasing production of synthetic and natural poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber leads to huge challenges in waste management. Only a few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, and little is known about the mechanism of microbial rubber degradation. The genome of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, which is one of the most effective rubber-degrading bacteria, was sequenced and annotated to elucidate the degradation pathway and other features of this actinomycete. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 5,669,805 bp and a circular plasmid of 174,494 bp with average GC contents of 67.0% and 65.7%, respectively. It contains 5,110 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes responsible for rubber degradation and other biotechnically relevant pathways. Furthermore, we detected two homologues of a latex-clearing protein, which is supposed to be a key enzyme in rubber degradation. The deletion of these two genes for the first time revealed clear evidence that latex-clearing protein is essential for the microbial utilization of rubber. Based on the genome sequence, we predict a pathway for the microbial degradation of rubber which is supported by previous and current data on transposon mutagenesis, deletion mutants, applied comparative genomics, and literature search. PMID:22327575

Hiessl, Sebastian; Schuldes, Jörg; Thürmer, Andrea; Halbsguth, Tobias; Bröker, Daniel; Angelov, Angel; Liebl, Wolfgang; Daniel, Rolf

2012-01-01

279

Def defines a conserved nucleolar pathway that leads p53 to proteasome-independent degradation  

PubMed Central

p53 protein turnover through the ubiquitination pathway is a vital mechanism in the regulation of its transcriptional activity; however, little is known about p53 turnover through proteasome-independent pathway(s). The digestive organ expansion factor (Def) protein is essential for the development of digestive organs. In zebrafish, loss of function of def selectively upregulates the expression of p53 response genes, which raises a question as to what is the relationship between Def and p53. We report here that Def is a nucleolar protein and that loss of function of def leads to the upregulation of p53 protein, which surprisingly accumulates in the nucleoli. Our extensive studies have demonstrated that Def can mediate the degradation of p53 protein and that this process is independent of the proteasome pathway, but dependent on the activity of Calpain3, a cysteine protease. Our findings define a novel nucleolar pathway that regulates the turnover function of p53, which will advance our understanding of p53's role in organogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:23357851

Tao, Ting; Shi, Hui; Guan, Yihong; Huang, Delai; Chen, Ye; Lane, David P; Chen, Jun; Peng, Jinrong

2013-01-01

280

Competition in chemostat culture between Pseudomonas strains that use different pathways for the degradation of toluene.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas putida mt-2, P. cepacia G4, P. mendocina KR1, and P. putida F1 degrade toluene through different pathways. In this study, we compared the competition behaviors of these strains in chemostat culture at a low growth rate (D = 0.05 h-1), with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Either toluene or oxygen was growth limiting. Under toluene-limiting conditions, P. mendocina KR1, in which initial attack is by monooxygenation of the aromatic nucleus at the para position, outcompeted the other three strains. Under oxygen limitation, P. cepacia G4, which hydroxylates toluene in the ortho position, was the most competitive strain. P. putida mt-2, which metabolizes toluene via oxidation of the methyl group, was the least competitive strain under both growth conditions. The apparent superiority of strains carrying toluene degradation pathways that start degradation by hydroxylation of the aromatic nucleus was also found during competition experiments with pairs of strains of P. cepacia, P. fluorescence, and P. putida that were freshly isolated from contaminated soil. PMID:8085826

Duetz, W A; de Jong, C; Williams, P A; van Andel, J G

1994-08-01

281

Systematic Unraveling of the Unsolved Pathway of Nicotine Degradation in Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas putida play important roles in the mineralization of organic wastes and toxic compounds. To comprehensively and accurately elucidate key processes of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas putida, we measured differential protein abundance levels with MS-based spectral counting in P. putida S16 grown on nicotine or glycerol, a non-repressive carbon source. In silico analyses highlighted significant clustering of proteins involved in a functional pathway in nicotine degradation. The transcriptional regulation of differentially expressed genes was analyzed by using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We observed the following key results: (i) The proteomes, containing 1,292 observed proteins, provide a detailed view of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. These proteins could be assigned to the functional groups of transport, detoxification, and amino acid metabolism. There were significant differences in the cytosolic protein patterns of cells growing in a nicotine medium and those in a glycerol medium. (ii) The key step in the conversion of 3-succinoylpyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine was catalyzed by a multi-enzyme reaction consisting of a molybdopeterin binding oxidase (spmA), molybdopterin dehydrogenase (spmB), and a (2Fe-2S)-binding ferredoxin (spmC) with molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide as a cofactor. (iii) The gene of a novel nicotine oxidoreductase (nicA2) was cloned, and the recombinant protein was characterized. The proteins and functional pathway identified in the current study represent attractive targets for degradation of environmental toxic compounds. PMID:24204321

Tang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Kunzhi; Yao, Yuxiang; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

282

Uridine-Ribohydrolase Is a Key Regulator in the Uridine Degradation Pathway of Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Nucleoside degradation and salvage are important metabolic pathways but hardly understood in plants. Recent work on human pathogenic protozoans like Leishmania and Trypanosoma substantiates an essential function of nucleosidase activity. Plant nucleosidases are related to those from protozoans and connect the pathways of nucleoside degradation and salvage. Here, we describe the cloning of such an enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, Uridine-Ribohydrolase 1 (URH1) and the characterization by complementation of a yeast mutant. Furthermore, URH1 was synthesized as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. The pure recombinant protein exhibited highest hydrolase activity for uridine, followed by inosine and adenosine, the corresponding Km values were 0.8, 1.4, and 0.7 mM, respectively. In addition, URH1 was able to cleave the cytokinin derivative isopentenyladenine-riboside. Promoter ?-glucuronidase fusion studies revealed that URH1 is mainly transcribed in the vascular cells of roots and in root tips, guard cells, and pollen. Mutants expressing the Arabidopsis enzyme or the homolog from rice (Oryza sativa) exhibit resistance toward toxic fluorouridine, fluorouracil, and fluoroorotic acid, providing clear evidence for a pivotal function of URH1 as regulative in pyrimidine degradation. Moreover, mutants with increased and decreased nucleosidase activity are delayed in germination, indicating that this enzyme activity must be well balanced in the early phase of plant development. PMID:19293370

Jung, Benjamin; Flörchinger, Martin; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Traub, Michaela; Wartenberg, Ruth; Jeblick, Wolfgang; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Möhlmann, Torsten

2009-01-01

283

Uridine-ribohydrolase is a key regulator in the uridine degradation pathway of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Nucleoside degradation and salvage are important metabolic pathways but hardly understood in plants. Recent work on human pathogenic protozoans like Leishmania and Trypanosoma substantiates an essential function of nucleosidase activity. Plant nucleosidases are related to those from protozoans and connect the pathways of nucleoside degradation and salvage. Here, we describe the cloning of such an enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, Uridine-Ribohydrolase 1 (URH1) and the characterization by complementation of a yeast mutant. Furthermore, URH1 was synthesized as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. The pure recombinant protein exhibited highest hydrolase activity for uridine, followed by inosine and adenosine, the corresponding K(m) values were 0.8, 1.4, and 0.7 mM, respectively. In addition, URH1 was able to cleave the cytokinin derivative isopentenyladenine-riboside. Promoter beta-glucuronidase fusion studies revealed that URH1 is mainly transcribed in the vascular cells of roots and in root tips, guard cells, and pollen. Mutants expressing the Arabidopsis enzyme or the homolog from rice (Oryza sativa) exhibit resistance toward toxic fluorouridine, fluorouracil, and fluoroorotic acid, providing clear evidence for a pivotal function of URH1 as regulative in pyrimidine degradation. Moreover, mutants with increased and decreased nucleosidase activity are delayed in germination, indicating that this enzyme activity must be well balanced in the early phase of plant development. PMID:19293370

Jung, Benjamin; Flörchinger, Martin; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Traub, Michaela; Wartenberg, Ruth; Jeblick, Wolfgang; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Möhlmann, Torsten

2009-03-01

284

Reactions Involved in the Lower Pathway for Degradation of 4Nitrotoluene by Mycobacterium Strain HL 4NT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the variety of initial reactions, the aerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds generally yields dihydroxy intermediates for ring cleavage. Recent investigation of the degradation of nitroaromatic compounds revealed that some nitroaromatic compounds are initially converted to 2-aminophenol rather than dihydroxy intermediates by a number of microorganisms. The complete pathway for the metabolism of 2-aminophenol during the degradation of

ZHONGQI HE; JIM C. SPAIN

2000-01-01

285

Branching of o-nitrobenzoate degradation pathway in Arthrobacter protophormiae RKJ100: identification of new intermediates.  

PubMed

We have earlier reported a novel reductive pathway for o-nitrobenzoate (ONB) degradation (at 0.5 mM) in Arthrobacter protophormiae RKJ100, which proceeds via the formation of o-hydroxylaminobenzoate (HABA) and anthranilate (AA). During growth of this organism at 40 times higher concentration (20 mM) of ONB, 3-hydroxyanthranilate (HAA) was identified as an intermediate by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography studies. Crude cell extracts of ONB-grown cells showed HAA 3,4-dioxygenase activity suggesting HAA as a terminal aromatic intermediate of the catabolic energy-yielding pathway as shown before in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7. HAA is further cleaved to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic-6-semialdehyde by the action of HAA 3,4-dioxygenase. In this report we propose that ONB degradation occurs via the formation of HABA and the pathway branches at this point to form the two different aromatic intermediates AA and HAA by the action of a reductase and a mutase, respectively. PMID:14680704

Pandey, Gunjan; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

2003-12-12

286

Genetic immunization based on the ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway against Trypanosoma cruzi  

SciTech Connect

Cytotoxic CD8{sup +} T cells are particularly important to the development of protective immunity against the intracellular protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We have developed a new effective strategy of genetic immunization by activating CD8{sup +} T cells through the ubiquitin-fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. We constructed expression plasmids encoding the amastigote surface protein-2 (ASP-2) of T. cruzi. To induce the UFD pathway, a chimeric gene encoding ubiquitin fused to ASP-2 (pUB-ASP-2) was constructed. Mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 presented lower parasitemia and longer survival period, compared with mice immunized with pASP-2 alone. Depletion of CD8{sup +} T cells abolished protection against T. cruzi in mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 while depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells did not influence the effective immunity. Mice deficient in LMP2 or LMP7, subunits of immunoproteasomes, were not able to develop protective immunity induced. These results suggest that ubiquitin-fused antigens expressed in antigen-presenting cells were effectively degraded via the UFD pathway, and subsequently activated CD8{sup +} T cells. Consequently, immunization with pUB-ASP-2 was able to induce potent protective immunity against infection of T. cruzi.

Chou, Bin [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan) [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hiromatsu, Kenji, E-mail: khiromatsu@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Hisaeda, Hajime; Duan, Xuefeng; Imai, Takashi [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Murata, Shigeo; Tanaka, Keiji [Department of Molecular Oncology, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113-8613 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Oncology, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113-8613 (Japan); Himeno, Kunisuke [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

2010-02-12

287

(Tri)butyltin biotic degradation rates and pathways in different compartments of a freshwater model ecosystem.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted in controlled temperate freshwater ecosystems (microcosms) to determine the persistence and biogeochemical dynamic of tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products. TBT and its derivatives were monitored simultaneously for 23 days (552 h) in sediment-water systems, with or without macroorganisms (macrophytes: Elodea canadensis and gastropods: Lymnaea stagnalis). Biphasic TBT removal from the water column was significantly enhanced by the presence of biota. The persistence of TBT in biota was assessed by a kinetic approach of the different bioaccumulation pathways and associated metabolisms adopted by the snails and the macrophytes in response to the TBT contamination. Furthermore, sediment acted for the final sink for butyltins in both types of microcosms, with more than 70% of TBT and its metabolites recovered in this compartment after two weeks of exposure. Degradation pathways in sediments of both biotic and abiotic microcosms appeared to represent a key process in TBT cycle and were characterized by half-lives in the range of one month. Specific transformation and transfer pathways of TBT as reactional mechanisms are discussed and modelled assessing in detail the role of each compartment with regards to the fate of TBT in the model aquatic ecosystems. PMID:17905414

Tessier, Emmanuel; Amouroux, David; Morin, Anne; Christian, Lehnhoff; Thybaud, Eric; Vindimian, Eric; Donard, Olivier F X

2007-12-15

288

Sequestration of a highly reactive intermediate in an evolving pathway for degradation of pentachlorophenol  

PubMed Central

Microbes in contaminated environments often evolve new metabolic pathways for detoxification or degradation of pollutants. In some cases, intermediates in newly evolved pathways are more toxic than the initial compound. The initial step in the degradation of pentachlorophenol by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum generates a particularly reactive intermediate; tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ) is a potent alkylating agent that reacts with cellular thiols at a diffusion-controlled rate. TCBQ reductase (PcpD), an FMN- and NADH-dependent reductase, catalyzes the reduction of TCBQ to tetrachlorohydroquinone. In the presence of PcpD, TCBQ formed by pentachlorophenol hydroxylase (PcpB) is sequestered until it is reduced to the less toxic tetrachlorohydroquinone, protecting the bacterium from the toxic effects of TCBQ and maintaining flux through the pathway. The toxicity of TCBQ may have exerted selective pressure to maintain slow turnover of PcpB (0.02 s?1) so that a transient interaction between PcpB and PcpD can occur before TCBQ is released from the active site of PcpB. PMID:23676275

Yadid, Itamar; Rudolph, Johannes; Hlouchova, Klara; Copley, Shelley D.

2013-01-01

289

Formation and Operation of the Histidine-degrading Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Histidine ammonia lyase (histidase), urocanase, and the capacity to degrade formiminoglutamate, which are respectively involved in steps I, II, and IV in the catabolism of histidine, were induced during growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on histidine or urocanate, and were formed gratuitously in the presence of dihydro-urocanate. Urocanase-deficient bacteria formed enzymes I and IV constitutively; presumably they accumulate enough urocanate from the breakdown of endogenous histidine to induce formation of the pathway. Urocanate did not satisfy the histidine requirement of a histidine auxotroph, indicating that it probably acted as an inducer without being converted to histidine. The results imply that urocanate is the physiological inducer of the histidine-degrading enzymes in P. aeruginosa. Enzymes of the pathway were extremely sensitive to catabolite repression; enzymes I and II, but not IV, were coordinately repressed. Our results suggest a specific involvement of nitrogenous metabolites in the repression. Mutant bacteria with altered sensitivity to repression were obtained. The molecular weight of partially purified histidase was estimated at 210,000 by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Its Km for histidine was 2 × 10?3 m in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane chloride buffer. Sigmoid saturation curves were obtained in pyrophosphate buffer, indicating that the enzyme might have multiple binding sites for histidine. Under certain conditions, histidase appeared to be partially inactive in vivo. These findings suggest that some sort of allosteric interaction involving histidase may play a role in governing the operation of the pathway of histidine catabolism. PMID:4290562

Lessie, Thomas G.; Neidhardt, Frederick C.

1967-01-01

290

Dysfunction of two lysosome degradation pathways of ?-synuclein in Parkinson's disease: potential therapeutic targets?  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is pathologically characterized by the presence of ?-synuclein (?-syn)-positive intracytoplasmic inclusions named Lewy bodies in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. A series of morbid consequences are caused by pathologically high amounts or mutant forms of ?-syn, such as defects of membrane trafficking and lipid metabolism. In this review, we consider evidence that both point mutation and overexpression of ?-syn result in aberrant degradation in neurons and microglia, and this is associated with the autophagy-lysosome pathway and endosome-lysosome system, leading directly to pathological intracellular aggregation, abnormal externalization and re-internalization cycling (and, in turn, internalization and re-externalization), and exocytosis. Based on these pathological changes, an increasing number of researchers have focused on these new therapeutic targets, aiming at alleviating the pathological accumulation of ?-syn and re-establishing normal degradation. PMID:22961477

Jiang, Tian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

2012-10-01

291

Ubiquitin initiates sorting of Golgi and plasma membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway  

PubMed Central

Background In yeast and mammals, many plasma membrane (PM) proteins destined for degradation are tagged with ubiquitin. These ubiquitinated proteins are internalized into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to early endosomal compartments. There, ubiquitinated proteins are sorted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery into the intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes. Degradation of these proteins occurs after endosomes fuse with lysosomes/lytic vacuoles to release their content into the lumen. In plants, some PM proteins, which cycle between the PM and endosomal compartments, have been found to be ubiquitinated, but it is unclear whether ubiquitin is sufficient to mediate internalization and thus acts as a primary sorting signal for the endocytic pathway. To test whether plants use ubiquitin as a signal for the degradation of membrane proteins, we have translationally fused ubiquitin to different fluorescent reporters for the plasma membrane and analyzed their transport. Results Ubiquitin-tagged PM reporters localized to endosomes and to the lumen of the lytic vacuole in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and in tobacco epidermal cells. The internalization of these reporters was significantly reduced if clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited by the coexpression of a mutant of the clathrin heavy chain, the clathrin hub.?Surprisingly, a ubiquitin-tagged reporter for the Golgi was also transported into the lumen of the vacuole. Vacuolar delivery of the reporters was abolished upon inhibition of the ESCRT machinery, indicating that the vacuolar delivery of these reporters occurs via the endocytic transport route. Conclusions Ubiquitin acts as a sorting signal at different compartments in the endomembrane system to target membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway: If displayed at the PM, ubiquitin triggers internalization of PM reporters into the endocytic transport route, but it also mediates vacuolar delivery if displayed at the Golgi. In both cases, ubiquitin-tagged proteins travel via early endosomes and multivesicular bodies to the lytic vacuole. This suggests that vacuolar degradation of ubiquitinated proteins is not restricted to PM proteins but might also facilitate the turnover of membrane proteins in the early secretory pathway. PMID:22970698

2012-01-01

292

Elimination of paternal mitochondria through the lysosomal degradation pathway in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondrion and its DNA (mtDNA) is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional mitochondria into the oocyte during fertilization. The mechanisms responsible for the elimination of the paternal mitochondria remain largely unknown. We report here that this paternal mitochondrial elimination process is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the lysosomal pathway actively participates in this process. Molecular and cell biological analyses indicate that in wild-type animals paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are destroyed within two hours after fertilization. In animals with compromised lysosomes, paternal mitochondria persist until late embryonic stages. Therefore, the lysosomal pathway plays an important role in degrading paternal mitochondria introduced into the oocyte during fertilization. Our study indicates that C. elegans is an excellent animal model for understanding and dissecting this conserved biological process critical for animal development and reproduction. PMID:22105480

Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Xue, Ding

2011-01-01

293

Rad25 protein is targeted for degradation by the ubc4-ufd4 pathway.  

PubMed

Proteasome-mediated proteolysis provides dynamic spatial and temporal modulation of protein concentration in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic challenges. To gain a better understanding of the role of the proteasome in DNA repair, we systematically monitored the stability of 26 proteins involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) under normal growth conditions. Among six NER factors found to be regulated by the proteasome, we further delineated the specific pathway involved in the degradation of Rad25, a subunit of TFIIH. We demonstrate that Rad25 turnover requires the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc4 and the ubiquitin ligase Ufd4. Interestingly, the deletion of UFD4 specifically suppresses the rad25 mutant defective in transcription. Our results reveal a novel function of the Ufd4 pathway and another tie between the proteasome and NER regulators. PMID:25670855

Bao, Xin; Johnson, Jill L; Rao, Hai

2015-03-27

294

Involvement of the Nrf2-proteasome pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in pancreatic ?-cells  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a central role in protein quality control through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of unfolded and misfolded proteins. NF-E2?related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of an array of phase II detoxification and antioxidant genes. Nrf2 signaling has additionally been shown to upregulate the expression of the proteasome catalytic subunits in several cell types. Here, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in tunicamycin-induced ER stress using a murine insulinoma ?-cell line, ?TC-6. shRNA-mediated silencing of Nrf2 expression in ?TC-6 cells significantly increased tunicamycin-induced cytotoxicity, elevated the expression of the pro-apoptotic ER stress marker Chop10, and inhibited tunicamycin-inducible expression of the proteasomal catalytic subunits Psmb5 and Psmb6. The effects of 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), a small molecule Nrf2 activator, on ER stress were also examined in ?TC-6 cells. D3T pretreatment reduced tunicamycin cytotoxicity and attenuated the tunicamycin-inducible Chop10 and protein kinase RNA-activated?like ER kinase (Perk). The protective effect of D3T was shown to be associated with increased ERAD. D3T increased the expression of Psmb5 and Psmb6 and elevated chymotrypsin-like peptidase activity; proteasome inhibitor treatment blocked D3T effects on tunicamycin cytotoxicity and ER stress marker changes. Similarly, silencing of Nrf2 abolished the protective effect of D3T against ER stress. These results indicate that the Nrf2 pathway contributes to the ER stress response in pancreatic ?-cells by enhancing proteasome-mediated ERAD. -- Highlights: ? Nrf2 silencing in pancreatic ?-cells enhanced tunicamycin-mediated ER stress. ? Expression of the proteasome was inducible by Nrf2 signaling. ? Nrf2 activator D3T protected ?-cells from tunicamycin-mediated ER stress. ? Protective effect of D3T was associated with Nrf2-dependent proteasome induction.

Lee, Sanghwan; Hur, Eu-gene [Yeungnam University, College of Pharmacy, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712?749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yeungnam University, College of Pharmacy, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712?749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, In-geun; Jung, Kyeong-Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Pharmacy, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420?743 (Korea, Republic of)] [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Pharmacy, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420?743 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jiyeon [Inha University, College of Medicine, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402?751 (Korea, Republic of)] [Inha University, College of Medicine, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402?751 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Mi-Kyoung, E-mail: mkwak@catholic.ac.kr [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Pharmacy, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420?743 (Korea, Republic of)] [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Pharmacy, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420?743 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-01

295

The Branched-Chain Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate Degradation Pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D Involves a Novel Route for Degradation of the Surfactant Lateral Alkyl Chain  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D is able to grow by using branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonates (B-DBS) or the terpenic alcohol citronellol as a sole source of carbon. A mutant derived from this strain (W51M1) is unable to degrade citronellol but still grows on B-DBS, showing that the citronellol degradation route is not the main pathway involved in the degradation of the surfactant alkyl moiety. The structures of the main B-DBS isomers and of some intermediates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, and a possible catabolic route is proposed. PMID:10427075

Campos-García, Jesús; Esteve, Abraham; Vázquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Ramos, Juán Luis; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

1999-01-01

296

Methyl-mercury degradation pathways: A comparison among three mercury impacted ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined microbial methylmercury (MeHg) degradation in sediment of the Florida Everglades, Carson River (NV), and San Carlos Creek (CA), three freshwater environments that differ in the extent and type of mercury contamination and sediment biogeochemistry. Degradation rate constant (k(deg)) values increased with total mercury (Hg(t)) contamination both among and within ecosystems. The highest k(deg)'s (2.8-5.8 d-1) were observed in San Carlos Creek, at acid mine drainage impacted sites immediately downstream of the former New Idria mercury mine, where Hg(t) ranged from 4.5 to 21.3 ppm (dry wt). A reductive degradation pathway (presumably mer-detoxification) dominated degradation at these sites, as indicated by the nearly exclusive production of 14CH4 from 14C-MeHg, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At the upstream control site, and in the less contaminated ecosystems (e.g. the Everglades), k(deg)'s were low (???0.2 d-1) and oxidative demethylation (OD) dominated degradation, as evident from 14CO2 production. k(deg) increased with microbial CH4 production, organic content, and reduced sulfur in the Carson River system and increased with decreasing pH in San Carlos Creek. OD associated CO2 production increased with pore-water SO42- in Everglades samples but was not attributable to anaerobic methane oxidation, as has been previously proposed. This ecosystem comparison indicates that severely contaminated sediments tend to have microbial populations that actively degrade MeHg via mer-detoxification, whereas OD occurs in heavily contaminated sediments as well but dominates in those less contaminated.We examined microbial methylmercury (MeHg) degradation in sediment of the Florida Everglades, Carson River (NV), and San Carlos Creek (CA), three freshwater environments that differ in the extent and type of mercury contamination and sediment biogeochemistry. Degradation rate constant (kdeg) values increased with total mercury (Hgt) contamination both among and within ecosystems. The highest kdeg???s (2.8-5.8 d-1) were observed in San Carlos Creek, at acid mine drainage impacted sites immediately downstream of the former New Idria mercury mine, where Hgt ranged from 4.5 to 21.3 ppm (dry wt). A reductive degradation pathway (presumably mer-detoxification) dominated degradation at these sites, as indicated by the nearly exclusive production of 14CH4 from 14C-MeHg, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At the upstream control site, and in the less contaminated ecosystems (e.g. the Everglades), kdeg???s were low (???0.2 d-1) and oxidative demethylation (OD) dominated degradation, as evident from 14CO2 production. kdeg in increased with microbial CH4 production, organic content, and reduced sulfur in the Carson River system and increased with decreasing pH in San Carlos Creek. OD associated CO2 production increased with pore-water SO42- in Everglades samples but was not attributable to anaerobic methane oxidation, as has been previously proposed. This ecosystem comparison indicates that severely contaminated sediments tend to have microbial populations that actively degrade MeHg via mer-detoxification, whereas OD occurs in heavily contaminated sediments as well but dominates in those less contaminated.Methylmercury degradation dynamics, in terms of methane and carbon dioxide end-products, were investigated in three Hg-contaminated ecosystems: the Florida everglades, San Carlos Creek, CA, and Carson River, NV. The everglades represented a moderately contaminated ecosystem, while the other two exhibited significantly higher Hg levels. Sediment samples were collected from each study site and analyzed. Results showed that the degradation rate constants increased with total Hg contamination both among and within the ecosystems, with highest rates observed in San Carlos Creek. The degradation dynamics were dominated by a reductive degradation pathway at San Carlos Creek, while in the everglades, oxidative demethylation was imp

Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Agee, J.; Mcgowan, C.; Oremland, R.S.; Thomas, M.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Gilmour, C.C.

2000-01-01

297

CHIP: A Co-chaperone for Degradation by the Proteasome.  

PubMed

Protein homeostasis relies on a balance between protein folding and protein degradation. Molecular chaperones like Hsp70 and Hsp90 fulfil well-defined roles in protein folding and conformational stability via ATP dependent reaction cycles. These folding cycles are controlled by associations with a cohort of non-client protein co-chaperones, such as Hop, p23 and Aha1. Pro-folding co-chaperones facilitate the transit of the client protein through the chaperone mediated folding process. However, chaperones are also involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of client proteins. Similar to folding complexes, the ability of chaperones to mediate protein degradation is regulated by co-chaperones, such as the C terminal Hsp70 binding protein (CHIP). CHIP binds to Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones through its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain and functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase using a modified RING finger domain (U-box). This unique combination of domains effectively allows CHIP to network chaperone complexes to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This chapter reviews the current understanding of CHIP as a co-chaperone that switches Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone complexes from protein folding to protein degradation. PMID:25487024

Edkins, Adrienne L

2015-01-01

298

Cellular ubiquitination and proteasomal functions positively modulate mammalian nucleotide excision repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is fundamental to synchronized continuation of many cellular processes, for example, cell-cycle progression, stress response, and cell differentiation. Recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin- proteasome pathway functions in the regulation of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in yeast. In order to investigate the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the NER of mammalian cells, global genomic repair

Qi-En Wang; Manzoor A. Wani; Jianming Chen; Qianzheng Zhu; Gulzar Wani; Mohamed A. El-Mahdy; Altaf A. Wani

2005-01-01

299

Degradation pathway of quinolines in a biofilm system under denitrifying conditions  

SciTech Connect

This article reports for the first time the degradation pathways of quinoline, isoquinoline, and methylquinolines by a mixed culture in a biofilm under nitrate-reducing conditions. A simple reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using ultraviolet detection at 223 nm for determination of seven quinoline analogues and 15 metabolites was developed, and gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography analyses were used for identification. The inhibition of nitrification by the parent compounds and their degradation products was assessed by a nitrification toxicity test called MINNTOX. Quinoline and 3-, 4-, 6-, and 8-methylquinoline were all transformed by hydroxylation into their 2-hydroxyquinoline analogues (2-quinolinones), and isoquinoline was transformed into 1-hydroxyisoquinoline. 2-Methylquinoline was not transformed by this microcosm, likely due to the blockage at position 2 by the methyl group. The hydroxylated metabolites of isoquinoline and quinolines methylated at the heterocyclic ring were not transformed further, whereas metabolites of quinoline and quinolines methylated at the homocyclic ring were hydrogenated at position 3 and 4, and the resulting 3,4-dihydro-2-quinolinone analogues accumulated. Of these metabolites, only 3,4-dihydro-2-quinolinone from the degradation of quinoline was further transformed into unidentified products. All quinolines and their metabolites had inhibiting effects on the nitrifying bacteria at the same level (ppm) in the applied bioassay, indicating that the inhibition of the compounds was not influenced by the initial transformation reactions.

Johansen, S.S.; Arvin, E.; Mosbaek, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Hansen, A.B. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

1997-09-01

300

Degradation and Pathway of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Solution by Potassium Ferrate  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the context of water treatment, the ferrate ([FeO4]2?) ion has long been known for its strong oxidizing power and for producing a coagulant from its reduced form [i.e., Fe(III)]. However, it has not been widely applied in water treatment, because of preparation difficulties and high cost. This article describes a low-cost procedure for producing solid potassium ferrate. In this synthetic procedure, NaClO was used in place of chlorine generation; and 10?M KOH was used in place of saturated KOH in the previous procedures. In addition, this study investigated the reactions of potassium ferrate with tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) at different pH and molar ratios. Results showed that the optimal pH range for TC degradation was pH 9–10, and TC could be mostly removed by Fe(VI) in 60?s. However, results showed >70% of TC degraded and <15% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction at molar ratio of 1:20. The main degradation pathway of TC is proposed based on the experimental data. PMID:22566741

Ma, Yan; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Cong

2012-01-01

301

Substrate range of the (chloro)biphenyl degradation pathway of Alcaligenes sp. JB1  

SciTech Connect

The genes encoding the biphenyl degradation pathway of Alcaligenes sp. strain JB1 were cloned in an R-prime plasmid in Alcaligenes eutrophus strain AE53. Subsequently, recombinant Alcaligenes eutrophus strains containing the bphABC genes of JB1 were selected by the accumulation of a yellow ring-cleaved product from biphenyl and 2,3-dihydroxy-biphenyl. Gluconate-grown cultures of one of these recombinants were tested for their ability to degrade 2,2{prime},3,3{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2-chloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1-chloronaphthalene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p{prime}-DDT), and 2,4{prime}-dichlorodiphenyl ether. Depending on their solubility, the initial concentrations of these compounds were between 10 and 100 {micro}g/L. In all cases more than 65% of these compounds was removed within a 24-h incubation period. These results show that the enzymes responsible for degrading (chloro)biphenyls in strain JB1 are able to attack a wide range of aromatic compounds. This strain, or those containing similar enzymes, may be applicable to the bioremediation of mixtures of contaminants.

Parsons, J.R.; Goorissen, H.; Weiland, A.R.; Bruijne, J.A. de [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry; Springael, D.; Lelie, D. van der; Mergeay, M. [VITO/Flemish Inst. for Technological Research, Mol (Belgium). Lab. of Genetics and Biotechnology

1995-12-31

302

Identification of genes and pathways related to phenol degradation in metagenomic libraries from petroleum refinery wastewater.  

PubMed

Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system. PMID:23637911

Silva, Cynthia C; Hayden, Helen; Sawbridge, Tim; Mele, Pauline; De Paula, Sérgio O; Silva, Lívia C F; Vidigal, Pedro M P; Vicentini, Renato; Sousa, Maíra P; Torres, Ana Paula R; Santiago, Vânia M J; Oliveira, Valéria M

2013-01-01

303

Candida albicans Utilizes a Modified ?-Oxidation Pathway for the Degradation of Toxic Propionyl-CoA*  

PubMed Central

Propionyl-CoA arises as a metabolic intermediate from the degradation of propionate, odd-chain fatty acids, and some amino acids. Thus, pathways for catabolism of this intermediate have evolved in all kingdoms of life, preventing the accumulation of toxic propionyl-CoA concentrations. Previous studies have shown that fungi generally use the methyl citrate cycle for propionyl-CoA degradation. Here, we show that this is not the case for the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans despite its ability to use propionate and valerate as carbon sources. Comparative proteome analyses suggested the presence of a modified ?-oxidation pathway with the key intermediate 3-hydroxypropionate. Gene deletion analyses confirmed that the enoyl-CoA hydratase/dehydrogenase Fox2p, the putative 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA hydrolase Ehd3p, the 3-hydroxypropionate dehydrogenase Hpd1p, and the putative malonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase Ald6p essentially contribute to propionyl-CoA degradation and its conversion to acetyl-CoA. The function of Hpd1p was further supported by the detection of accumulating 3-hydroxypropionate in the hpd1 mutant on propionyl-CoA-generating nutrients. Substrate specificity of Hpd1p was determined from recombinant purified enzyme, which revealed a preference for 3-hydroxypropionate, although serine and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate could also serve as substrates. Finally, virulence studies in a murine sepsis model revealed attenuated virulence of the hpd1 mutant, which indicates generation of propionyl-CoA from host-provided nutrients during infection. PMID:24497638

Otzen, Christian; Bardl, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Nett, Markus; Brock, Matthias

2014-01-01

304

Estimating the Contribution of Individual Degradation Pathways to Overall Biodegradation in Aquifers Based on Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to design optimal remediation strategies at field sites contaminated with organic contaminants, the identification of microbial degradation pathways contributing most to overall biodegradation is highly desirable. This task can be difficult if redox conditions vary along an aquifer, leading to different pathways contributing to degradation at distinct locations along groundwater travel paths. In order to provide an estimate for the contribution of individual degradation pathways to overall biodegradation under such conditions, we evaluate the potential of compound-specific stable isotope analysis, which has been established as a viable tool for detecting in situ biodegradation as well as for the identification of single dominant degradation pathways. Based on the stable isotope signatures of two elements, we mathematically derive an estimate for the local and total share of two pathways on overall biodegradation. For the total share, lower and upper limits are provided by assuming that both pathways are either simultaneously active along the flow path in constant ratio, or that both pathways are active in a strictly consecutive manner. To validate the method and assess its applicability under field conditions, the derived concept is applied to simulated data obtained from reactive transport simulations using GeoSysBRNS in zero, one, and two spatial dimensions. A generic benzene plume/degradation scenario is considered with aerobic and anaerobic degradation as exemplary degradation pathways and implementing the concurrent fractionation with respect to carbon and hydrogen. Estimates are very accurate for the zero- and one-dimensional simulations. In the two-dimensional case, estimates for pathway specific contributions to overall biodegradation are most accurate along the center of the plume, but loose accuracy towards the fringe, where transversal mixing processes are shown not only to affect contaminant concentration but also associated stable isotope signatures. Total estimates can be significantly improved if additional observation points are available along the flow path. The novel method complements current stable isotope based assessment methods to quantify and identify biodegradation by a means to attribute biodegradation to distinct degradation pathways at field sites with varying redox condition.

Centler, Dr.; Thullner, Dr.

2012-04-01

305

Further characterization of o-nitrobenzaldehyde degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ONBA-17 and deduction on its metabolic pathway  

PubMed Central

A previously reported o-nitrobenzaldehyde (ONBA) degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ONBA-17 was further identified and characterized. Based on results of DNA base composition and DNA-DNA hybridization, the strain was identified as P. putida. Its degradation effect enhanced with increase of inoculum amount and no lag phase was observed. Higher removal rate was achieved under shaking conditions. All tested ONBA with different initial concentrations could be completely degraded within 5 d. In addition, degradative enzyme(s) involved was confirmed as intra-cellular distributed and constitutively expressed. Effects of different compounds on relative activity of degradative enzyme(s) within cell-free extract were also evaluated. Finally, 2-nitrobenzoic acid and 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected as metabolites of ONBA degradation by P. putida ONBA-17, and relevant metabolic pathway was preliminary proposed. This study might help with future research in better understanding of nitroaromatics biodegradation. PMID:25763034

Yu, Fang-Bo; Li, Xiao-Dan; Ali, Shinawar Waseem; Shan, Sheng-Dao; Luo, Lin-Ping; Guan, Li-Bo

2014-01-01

306

Physiology of deletion mutants in the anaerobic ?-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans  

PubMed Central

Background Monoterpenes present a large and versatile group of unsaturated hydrocarbons of plant origin with widespread use in the fragrance as well as food industry. The anaerobic ?-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans strain 65Phen differs from well known aerobic, monooxygenase-containing pathways. The initial enzyme linalool dehydratase-isomerase ldi/LDI catalyzes the hydration of ?-myrcene to (S)-(+)-linalool and its isomerization to geraniol. A high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase geoA/GeDH and a geranial dehydrogenase geoB/GaDH contribute to the formation of geranic acid. A genetic system was for the first time applied for the betaproteobacterium to prove in vivo the relevance of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase and the geraniol dehydrogenase. In-frame deletion cassettes were introduced by conjugation and two homologous recombination events. Results Polar effects were absent in the in-frame deletion mutants C. defragrans ?ldi and C. defragrans ?geoA. The physiological characterization of the strains demonstrated a requirement of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase for growth on acyclic monoterpenes, but not on cyclic monoterpenes. The deletion of geoA resulted in a phenotype with hampered growth rate on monoterpenes as sole carbon and energy source as well as reduced biomass yields. Enzyme assays revealed the presence of a second geraniol dehydrogenase. The deletion mutants were in trans complemented with the broad-host range expression vector pBBR1MCS-4ldi and pBBR1MCS-2geoA, restoring in both cases the wild type phenotype. Conclusions In-frame deletion mutants of genes in the anaerobic ?-myrcene degradation revealed novel insights in the in vivo function. The deletion of a high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase hampered, but did not preclude growth on monoterpenes. A second geraniol dehydrogenase activity was present that contributes to the ?-myrcene degradation pathway. Growth on cyclic monoterpenes independent of the initial enzyme LDI suggests the presence of a second enzyme system activating unsaturated hydrocarbons. PMID:22947208

2012-01-01

307

Carbon and chlorine isotope analysis to identify abiotic degradation pathways of 1,1,1-trichloroethane.  

PubMed

This study investigates dual C-Cl isotope fractionation during 1,1,1-TCA transformation by heat-activated persulfate (PS), hydrolysis/dehydrohalogenation (HY/DH) and Fe(0). Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis of 1,1,1-TCA was performed for the first time, and transformation-associated isotope fractionation ? bulk C and ? bulk Cl values were -4.0 ± 0.2‰ and no chlorine isotope fractionation with PS, -1.6 ± 0.2‰ and -4.7 ± 0.1‰ for HY/DH, -7.8 ± 0.4‰ and -5.2 ± 0.2‰ with Fe(0). Distinctly different dual isotope slopes (??13C/??37Cl): ? with PS, 0.33 ± 0.04 for HY/DH and 1.5 ± 0.1 with Fe(0) highlight the potential of this approach to identify abiotic degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA in the field. The trend observed with PS agreed with a C-H bond oxidation mechanism in the first reaction step. For HY/DH and Fe(0) pathways, different slopes were obtained although both pathways involve cleavage of a C-Cl bond in their initial reaction step. In contrast to the expected larger primary carbon isotope effects relative to chlorine for C-Cl bond cleavage, ? bulk C < ? bulk Cl was observed for HY/DH and in a similar range for reduction by Fe(0), suggesting the contribution of secondary chlorine isotope effects. Therefore, different magnitude of secondary chlorine isotope effects could at least be partly responsible for the distinct slopes between HY/DH and Fe(0) pathways. Following this dual isotope approach, abiotic transformation processes can unambiguously be identified and quantified. PMID:25379605

Palau, Jordi; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Hunkeler, Daniel

2014-12-16

308

Bortezomib’s Scientific Origins and Its Tortuous Path to the Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma was made possible by multiple major advances in our understanding\\u000a of intracellular protein breakdown. The primary route for degradation of intracellular proteins is the ubiquitin–proteasome\\u000a pathway, in which protein substrates are linked to ubiquitin chains, which marks them for degradation by the large proteolytic\\u000a complex, the 26S proteasome. It utilizes

Alfred L. Goldberg

309

Novel Pathway of Toluene Catabolism in the Trichloroethylene-Degrading Bacterium G4  

PubMed Central

o-Cresol and 3-methylcatechol were identified as successive transitory intermediates of toluene catabolism by the trichloroethylene-degrading bacterium G4. The absence of a toluene dihydrodiol intermediate or toluene dioxygenase and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities suggested that G4 catabolizes toluene by a unique pathway. Formation of a hybrid species of 18O- and 16O-labeled 3-methylcatechol from toluene in an atmosphere of 18O2 and 16O2 established that G4 catabolizes toluene by successive monooxygenations at the ortho and meta positions. Detection of trace amounts of 4-methylcatechol from toluene catabolism suggested that the initial hydroxylation of toluene was not exclusively at the ortho position. Further catabolism of 3-methylcatechol was found to proceed via catechol-2,3-dioxygenase and hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase activities. PMID:16347956

Shields, Malcolm S.; Montgomery, Stacy O.; Chapman, Peter J.; Cuskey, Stephen M.; Pritchard, P. H.

1989-01-01

310

SCF(Slmb) E3 ligase-mediated degradation of Expanded is inhibited by the Hippo pathway in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Deregulation of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway has been implicated in abnormal development of animals and in several types of cancer. One mechanism of Hippo pathway regulation is achieved by controlling the stability of its regulatory components. However, the executive E3 ligases that are involved in this process, and how the process is regulated, remain poorly defined. In this study, we identify, through a genetic candidate screen, the SCF(Slmb) E3 ligase as a novel negative regulator of the Hippo pathway in Drosophila imaginal tissues via mediation of the degradation of Expanded (Ex). Mechanistic study shows that Slmb-mediated degradation of Ex is inhibited by the Hippo signaling. Considering the fact that Hippo signaling suppresses the transcription of ex, we propose that the Hippo pathway employs a double security mechanism to ensure fine-tuned homeostasis during development. PMID:25522691

Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Changqing; Chen, Hanqing; Wei, Chuanxian; Dai, Fei; Wu, Honggang; Dui, Wen; Deng, Wu-Min; Jiao, Renjie

2015-01-01

311

Toxoplasma gondii infection of activated J774-A1 macrophages causes inducible nitric oxide synthase degradation by the proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

Classically activated macrophages produce nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent microbicidal agent. NO production is catalyzed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which uses arginine as substrate producing NO and citruline. However, it has been demonstrated that NO production is inhibited after macrophage infection of Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, due to iNOS degradation. Three possible iNOS degradation pathways have been described in activated macrophages: proteasome, calpain and lysosomal. To identify the iNOS degradation pathway after T. gondii infection, J774-A1 macrophage cell line was activated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma for 24 h, treated with the following inhibitors, lactacystin (proteasome), calpeptin (calpain), or concanamycin A (lysosomal), and infected with the parasite. NO production and iNOS expression were evaluated after 2 and 6 h of infection. iNOS was degraded in J774-A1 macrophages infected with T. gondii. However, treatment with lactacystin maintained iNOS expression in J774-A1 macrophages infected for 2 h by T. gondii, and after 6 h iNOS was localized in aggresomes. iNOS was degraded after parasite infection of J774-A1 macrophages treated with calpeptin or concanamycin A. NO production confirmed iNOS expression profiles. These results indicate that T. gondii infection of J774-A1 macrophages caused iNOS degradation by the proteasome pathway. PMID:24845536

Padrão, Juliana da Cruz; Cabral, Gabriel Rabello de Abreu; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Sarro; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

2014-10-01

312

Unusual Starch Degradation Pathway via Cyclodextrins in the Hyperthermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus Strain 7324?  

PubMed Central

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324 has been shown to grow on starch and sulfate and thus represents the first sulfate reducer able to degrade polymeric sugars. The enzymes involved in starch degradation to glucose 6-phosphate were studied. In extracts of starch-grown cells the activities of the classical starch degradation enzymes, ?-amylase and amylopullulanase, could not be detected. Instead, evidence is presented here that A. fulgidus utilizes an unusual pathway of starch degradation involving cyclodextrins as intermediates. The pathway comprises the combined action of an extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) converting starch to cyclodextrins and the intracellular conversion of cyclodextrins to glucose 6-phosphate via cyclodextrinase (CDase), maltodextrin phosphorylase (Mal-P), and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). These enzymes, which are all induced after growth on starch, were characterized. CGTase catalyzed the conversion of starch to mainly ?-cyclodextrin. The gene encoding CGTase was cloned and sequenced and showed highest similarity to a glucanotransferase from Thermococcus litoralis. After transport of the cyclodextrins into the cell by a transport system to be defined, these molecules are linearized via a CDase, catalyzing exclusively the ring opening of the cyclodextrins to the respective maltooligodextrins. These are degraded by a Mal-P to glucose 1-phosphate. Finally, PGM catalyzes the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate, which is further degraded to pyruvate via the modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway. PMID:17921308

Labes, Antje; Schönheit, Peter

2007-01-01

313

Degradation pathways of lamotrigine under advanced treatment by direct UV photolysis, hydroxyl radicals, and ozone.  

PubMed

Lamotrigine is recently recognized as a persistent pharmaceutical in the water environment and wastewater effluents. Its degradation was studied under UV and ozone advanced oxidation treatments with reaction kinetics of lamotrigine with ozone (?4 M(-1)s(-1)), hydroxyl radical [(2.1 ± 0.3) × 10(9)M(-1)s(-1)] and by UV photolysis with low and medium pressure mercury vapor lamps [quantum yields ?0 and (2.7 ± 0.4)× 10(-4) respectively] determined. All constants were measured at pH 6 and at temperature ?20°C. The results indicate that lamotrigine is slow to respond to direct photolysis or oxidation by ozone and no attenuation of the contaminant is expected in UV or ozone disinfection applications. The compound reacts rapidly with hydroxyl radicals indicating that advanced oxidation processes would be effective for its treatment. Degradation products were identified under each treatment process using accurate mass time-of-flight spectrometry and pathways of decay were proposed. The main transformation pathways in each process were: dechlorination of the benzene ring during direct photolysis; hydroxyl group addition to the benzene ring during the reaction with hydroxyl radicals; and triazine ring opening after reaction with ozone. Different products that form in each process may be to a varying degree less environmentally stable than the parent lamotrigine. In addition, a novel method of ozone quenching without addition of salts is presented. The new quenching method would allow subsequent mass spectrometry analysis without a solid phase extraction clean-up step. The method involves raising the pH of the sample to approximately 10 for a few seconds and lowering it back and is therefore limited to applications for which temporary pH change is not expected to affect the outcome of the analysis. PMID:25150682

Keen, Olya S; Ferrer, Imma; Michael Thurman, E; Linden, Karl G

2014-12-01

314

Expression of the ubiquitin variant ubR48 decreases proteolytic activity in Arabidopsis and induces cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin–proteasome pathway is the major route for protein degradation in eukaryotes. We show here that this pathway can be inhibited in Arabidopsis thaliana by expression of a ubiquitin variant that contains Arg instead of Lys at position 48 (ubR48). A major consequence of ubR48 expression is the induction of cell death. Cell death induction coincides with the appearance of

Peter Schlögelhofer; Marcus Garzón; Claudia Kerzendorfer; Viktoria Nizhynska; Andreas Bachmair

2006-01-01

315

M2-like macrophages are responsible for collagen degradation through a mannose receptor–mediated pathway  

PubMed Central

Tissue remodeling processes critically depend on the timely removal and remodeling of preexisting collagen scaffolds. Nevertheless, many aspects related to the turnover of this abundant extracellular matrix component in vivo are still incompletely understood. We therefore took advantage of recent advances in optical imaging to develop an assay to visualize collagen turnover in situ and identify cell types and molecules involved in this process. Collagen introduced into the dermis of mice underwent cellular endocytosis in a partially matrix metalloproteinase–dependent manner and was subsequently routed to lysosomes for complete degradation. Collagen uptake was predominantly executed by a quantitatively minor population of M2-like macrophages, whereas more abundant Col1a1-expressing fibroblasts and Cx3cr1-expressing macrophages internalized collagen at lower levels. Genetic ablation of the collagen receptors mannose receptor (Mrc1) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor–associated protein (Endo180 and Mrc2) impaired this intracellular collagen degradation pathway. This study demonstrates the importance of receptor-mediated cellular uptake to collagen turnover in vivo and identifies a key role of M2-like macrophages in this process. PMID:24019537

Madsen, Daniel H.; Leonard, Daniel; Masedunskas, Andrius; Moyer, Amanda; Jürgensen, Henrik Jessen; Peters, Diane E.; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Selvaraj, Arul; Yamada, Susan S.; Brenner, David A.; Burgdorf, Sven; Engelholm, Lars H.; Behrendt, Niels; Holmbeck, Kenn; Weigert, Roberto

2013-01-01

316

Genetic Evidence for a Defective Xylan Degradation Pathway in Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

Genetic and biochemical evidence for a defective xylan degradation pathway was found linked to the xylose operon in three lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis 210, L. lactis IO-1, and L. lactis NRRL B-4449. Immediately downstream of the xylulose kinase gene (xylB) (K. A. Erlandson, J.-H. Park, W. El Khal, H.-H. Kao, P. Basaran, S. Brydges, and C. A. Batt, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:3974–3980, 1999) are two open reading frames encoding a mutarotase (xylM) and a xyloside transporter (xynT) and a partial open reading frame encoding a ?-xylosidase (xynB). These are functions previously unreported for lactococci or lactobacilli. The mutarotase activity of the putative xylM gene product was confirmed by overexpression of the L. lactis enzyme in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant XylM. We hypothesize that the mutarotase links xylan degradation to xylose metabolism due to the anomeric preference of xylose isomerase. In addition, Northern hybridization experiments suggested that the xylM and xynTB genes are cotranscribed with the xylRAB genes, responsible for xylose metabolism. Although none of the three strains appeared to metabolize xylan or xylobiose, they exhibited xylosidase activity, and L. lactis IO-1 and L. lactis NRRL B-4449 had functional mutarotases. PMID:11282589

Erlandson, Karn A.; Delamarre, Soazig C.; Batt, Carl A.

2001-01-01

317

Multiple pathways are involved in DNA degradation during keratinocyte terminal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Loss of the nucleus is a critical step in keratinocyte terminal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we focused on two characteristic events: nuclear translocation of N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin and caspase-14-dependent degradation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). First, we demonstrated that epidermal mesotrypsin liberated a 55-kDa N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin (FLG-N) and FLG-N was translocated into the nucleus. Interestingly, these cells became TUNEL positive. Mutation in the mesotrypsin-susceptible Arg-rich region between FLG-N and the first filaggrin domain abolished these changes. Furthermore, caspase-14 caused limited proteolysis of ICAD, followed by accumulation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in TUNEL-positive nuclei. Knockdown of both proteases resulted in a significant increase of remnant nuclei in a skin equivalent model. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both caspase-14 and mesotrypsin were markedly downregulated in parakeratotic areas of lesional skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Collectively, our results indicate that at least two pathways are involved in the DNA degradation process during keratinocyte terminal differentiation. PMID:24743736

Yamamoto-Tanaka, M; Makino, T; Motoyama, A; Miyai, M; Tsuboi, R; Hibino, T

2014-01-01

318

Photocatalytic degradation of pesticide methomyl: determination of the reaction pathway and identification of intermediate products.  

PubMed

The degradation of pesticide methomyl in aqueous solution by UV-irradiation in the presence of TiO2 "Degussa P-25" has been studied. It was found that mineralisation to carbon dioxide, water, sulfate and ammonia took place during the process. The rate of photodecomposition of methomyl was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while its mineralization was followed using ion chromatography (IC), and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The identification of reaction intermediate products was carried out using coupled techniques HPLC-MS (electrospray ionization in positive mode) and a degradation pathway was proposed. Under our conditions, complete disappearance of 1.23 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) of pure pesticide occurred within 45 min of illumination and 80% TOC removal occurred in less than 4 h. Three main intermediates were identified resulting from (i) the rupture of the ester bond (or the N-O bond), (ii) the hydroxylation of methyl group borne by the nitrogen atom and (iii) the product resulting from the decarboxylation of the oxidized hydroxylated methyl group (photo-Kolbe reaction). In order to be sure that the photocatalytic results were consistent, hydrolysis and photolysis tests were performed. Photocatalysis proved to be an excellent new advanced oxidation technology (AOT) to eliminate methomyl present in water. PMID:16685325

Tamimi, M; Qourzal, S; Assabbane, A; Chovelon, J-M; Ferronato, C; Ait-Ichou, Y

2006-05-01

319

Proteins of the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation pathway: domain detection and function prediction.  

PubMed Central

Sequence database searches, using iterative-profile and Hidden-Markov-model approaches, were used to detect hitherto-undetected homologues of proteins that regulate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway. The translocon-associated subunit Sec63p (Sec=secretory) was shown to contain a domain of unknown function found twice in several Brr2p-like RNA helicases (Brr2=bad response to refrigeration 2). Additionally, Cue1p (Cue=coupling of ubiquitin conjugation to ER degradation), a yeast protein that recruits the ubiquitin-conjugating (UBC) enzyme Ubc7p to an ER-associated complex, was found to be one of a large family of putative scaffolding-domain-containing proteins that include the autocrine motility factor receptor and fungal Vps9p (Vps=vacuolar protein sorting). Two other yeast translocon-associated molecules, Sec72p and Hrd3p (Hrd=3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase degradation), were shown to contain multiple tetratricopeptide-repeat-like sequences. From this observation it is suggested that Sec72p associates with a heat-shock protein, Hsp70, in a manner analogous to that known for Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein). Finally, the luminal portion of Ire1p (Ire=high inositol-requiring), thought to convey the sensing function of this transmembrane kinase and endoribonuclease, was shown to contain repeats similar to those in beta-propeller proteins. This finding hints at the mechanism by which Ire1p may sense extended unfolded proteins at the expense of compact folded molecules. PMID:11023840

Ponting, C P

2000-01-01

320

Characterization of the Complete Uric Acid Degradation Pathway in the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed. PMID:23667704

Lee, I. Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H. N.; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Fraser, James A.

2013-01-01

321

Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway  

PubMed Central

Lentiviruses contain accessory genes that have evolved to counteract the effects of host cellular defence proteins that inhibit productive infection. One such restriction factor, SAMHD1, inhibits HIV-1 infection of myeloid-lineage cells 1,2 as well as resting CD4+ T cells 3,4 by reducing the cellular dNTP concentration to a level where the viral reverse transcriptase cannot function 5,6. In other lentiviruses, including HIV-2 and related SIVs, SAMHD1 restriction is overcome by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx) or the related viral protein r (Vpr) that target and recruit SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation 7,8. The molecular mechanism by which these viral proteins are able to usurp the host cell’s ubiquitination machinery to destroy the cell’s protection against these viruses has not been defined. We present here the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Vpx with the host cell’s E3 ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 and the C-terminal region of SAMHD1. Vpx is made up of a three-helical bundle, stabilised by a zinc finger motif and wraps tightly around the disc-shaped DCAF1 molecule to present a new molecular surface. This adapted surface is then able to recruit SAMHD1 via its C-terminus making it a competent substrate for the E3 ligase to mark for proteasomal degradation. The structure provides the first description of how a lentiviral accessory protein is able to subvert the cell’s normal protein degradation pathway to inactivate the cellular viral defence system. PMID:24336198

Schwefel, David; Groom, Harriet C. T.; Boucherit, Virginie C.; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Walker, Philip A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.; Bishop, Kate N.; Taylor, Ian A.

2013-01-01

322

Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lentiviruses contain accessory genes that have evolved to counteract the effects of host cellular defence proteins that inhibit productive infection. One such restriction factor, SAMHD1, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of myeloid-lineage cells as well as resting CD4+ T cells by reducing the cellular deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate (dNTP) concentration to a level at which the viral reverse transcriptase cannot function. In other lentiviruses, including HIV-2 and related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), SAMHD1 restriction is overcome by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx) or the related viral protein r (Vpr) that target and recruit SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation. The molecular mechanism by which these viral proteins are able to usurp the host cell's ubiquitination machinery to destroy the cell's protection against these viruses has not been defined. Here we present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Vpx with the human E3 ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 and the carboxy-terminal region of human SAMHD1. Vpx is made up of a three-helical bundle stabilized by a zinc finger motif, and wraps tightly around the disc-shaped DCAF1 molecule to present a new molecular surface. This adapted surface is then able to recruit SAMHD1 via its C terminus, making it a competent substrate for the E3 ligase to mark for proteasomal degradation. The structure reported here provides a molecular description of how a lentiviral accessory protein is able to subvert the cell's normal protein degradation pathway to inactivate the cellular viral defence system.

Schwefel, David; Groom, Harriet C. T.; Boucherit, Virginie C.; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Walker, Philip A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.; Bishop, Kate N.; Taylor, Ian A.

2014-01-01

323

Reaction pathway of the degradation of the p-hydroxybenzoic acid by sulfate radical generated by ionizing radiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) in aqueous solutions by ionizing radiation was studied. The phenolic pollutant was easily removed by the electron beam irradiation, as more than 80% of the initial 100 ?M introduced was degraded for a dose of 600 Gy. It was shown that the addition of persulfate, producing the sulfate radical as additional reactive species, induced a change in the reaction pathway. LC-MS analyses were performed in order to identify the different by-products formed. In the absence of persulfate, the main by-product formed was 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, while in presence of persulfate, 1,4-benzoquinone was detected and the hydroxylated by-products were not present. A reaction pathway of HBA degradation by hydroxyl and sulfate radicals was proposed from the identification of the chemical structure of the different by-products detected. The influences of pH and dissolved oxygen were also studied. A high decline of HBA degradation was observed at pH 11 compared to pH 4.5, this decrease was minimized in the presence of persulfate. The dissolved oxygen concentration was found to be a limiting parameter of HBA degradation, however an excess of dissolved oxygen in solution did not improve the degradation to a large extent.

Criquet, Justine; Leitner, Nathalie Karpel Vel

2015-01-01

324

Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pre-treatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator  

PubMed Central

To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity. PMID:24904560

Wang, Wei; Yang, Shihui; Hunsinger, Glendon B.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Johnson, David K.

2014-01-01

325

Cytolethal distending toxins require components of the ER-associated degradation pathway for host cell entry.  

PubMed

Intracellular acting protein exotoxins produced by bacteria and plants are important molecular determinants that drive numerous human diseases. A subset of these toxins, the cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), are encoded by several Gram-negative pathogens and have been proposed to enhance virulence by allowing evasion of the immune system. CDTs are trafficked in a retrograde manner from the cell surface through the Golgi apparatus and into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before ultimately reaching the host cell nucleus. However, the mechanism by which CDTs exit the ER is not known. Here we show that three central components of the host ER associated degradation (ERAD) machinery, Derlin-2 (Derl2), the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Hrd1, and the AAA ATPase p97, are required for intoxication by some CDTs. Complementation of Derl2-deficient cells with Derl2:Derl1 chimeras identified two previously uncharacterized functional domains in Derl2, the N-terminal 88 amino acids and the second ER-luminal loop, as required for intoxication by the CDT encoded by Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd-CDT). In contrast, two motifs required for Derlin-dependent retrotranslocation of ERAD substrates, a conserved WR motif and an SHP box that mediates interaction with the AAA ATPase p97, were found to be dispensable for Hd-CDT intoxication. Interestingly, this previously undescribed mechanism is shared with the plant toxin ricin. These data reveal a requirement for multiple components of the ERAD pathway for CDT intoxication and provide insight into a Derl2-dependent pathway exploited by retrograde trafficking toxins. PMID:25078082

Eshraghi, Aria; Dixon, Shandee D; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Kim, Emily Jin-Kyung; Gargi, Amandeep; Kulik, Julia C; Damoiseaux, Robert; Blanke, Steven R; Bradley, Kenneth A

2014-07-01

326

Cytolethal Distending Toxins Require Components of the ER-Associated Degradation Pathway for Host Cell Entry  

PubMed Central

Intracellular acting protein exotoxins produced by bacteria and plants are important molecular determinants that drive numerous human diseases. A subset of these toxins, the cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), are encoded by several Gram-negative pathogens and have been proposed to enhance virulence by allowing evasion of the immune system. CDTs are trafficked in a retrograde manner from the cell surface through the Golgi apparatus and into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before ultimately reaching the host cell nucleus. However, the mechanism by which CDTs exit the ER is not known. Here we show that three central components of the host ER associated degradation (ERAD) machinery, Derlin-2 (Derl2), the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Hrd1, and the AAA ATPase p97, are required for intoxication by some CDTs. Complementation of Derl2-deficient cells with Derl2:Derl1 chimeras identified two previously uncharacterized functional domains in Derl2, the N-terminal 88 amino acids and the second ER-luminal loop, as required for intoxication by the CDT encoded by Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd-CDT). In contrast, two motifs required for Derlin-dependent retrotranslocation of ERAD substrates, a conserved WR motif and an SHP box that mediates interaction with the AAA ATPase p97, were found to be dispensable for Hd-CDT intoxication. Interestingly, this previously undescribed mechanism is shared with the plant toxin ricin. These data reveal a requirement for multiple components of the ERAD pathway for CDT intoxication and provide insight into a Derl2-dependent pathway exploited by retrograde trafficking toxins. PMID:25078082

Eshraghi, Aria; Dixon, Shandee D.; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Kim, Emily Jin-Kyung; Gargi, Amandeep; Kulik, Julia C.; Damoiseaux, Robert; Blanke, Steven R.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

2014-01-01

327

The Mitochondrial Translocator Protein, TSPO, Inhibits HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Biosynthesis via the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation Pathway  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is necessary for viral entry and replication. Currently, it is still unclear how this process is regulated. The glycoprotein folding in the ER is controlled by the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, which specifically targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Previously, we reported that HIV-1 replication is restricted in the human CD4+ T cell line CEM.NKR (NKR). To understand this mechanism, we first analyzed cellular protein expression in NKR cells and discovered that levels of the mitochondrial translocator protein TSPO were upregulated by ?64-fold. Notably, when NKR cells were treated with TSPO antagonist PK-11195, Ro5-4864, or diazepam, HIV restriction was completely disrupted, and TSPO knockdown by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) achieved a similar effect. We next analyzed viral protein expression, and, interestingly, we discovered that Env expression was specifically inhibited. Both TSPO knockdown and treatment with TSPO antagonist could restore Env expression in NKR cells. We further discovered that Env proteins were rapidly degraded and that kifunensine, an ERAD pathway inhibitor, could restore Env expression and viral replication, indicating that Env proteins were misfolded and degraded through the ERAD pathway in NKR cells. We also knocked out the TSPO gene in 293T cells using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]/CRISPR-associated-9) technology and found that TSPO could similarly inhibit Env expression in these cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TSPO inhibits Env protein expression through the ERAD pathway and suggest that mitochondria play an important role in regulating the Env folding process. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is absolutely required for viral infection, and an understanding of its expression pathway in infected cells will identify new targets for antiretroviral therapies. Env proteins are folded in the ER and secreted through the classical secretory pathway. The Env folding process involves extensive cross-linking of 10 Cys residues by disulfide bond formation and heavy N-glycosylation on ?30 Asn residues. Currently, it is still unclear how this process is regulated. Here, we studied this mechanism in the HIV nonpermissive human CD4+ T cell line CEM.NKR. We found that Env proteins were rapidly degraded through a cellular pathway that specifically targets misfolded proteins, resulting in inhibition of Env expression. Importantly, we have identified a mitochondrial translocator protein, TSPO, which could trigger this degradation by interfering with the Env folding process. Further characterization of TSPO antiviral activity will reveal a novel antiretroviral mechanism that targets the Env protein. PMID:24403586

Zhou, Tao; Dang, Ying

2014-01-01

328

2-Hydroxycyclohexanecarboxyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme Characteristic of the Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation Pathway Used by Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

PubMed Central

A gene, badH, whose predicted product is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of enzymes, was recently discovered during studies of anaerobic benzoate degradation by the photoheterotrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Purified histidine-tagged BadH protein catalyzed the oxidation of 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxyl coenzyme A (2-hydroxychc-CoA) to 2-ketocyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA. These compounds are proposed intermediates of a series of three reactions that are shared by the pathways of cyclohexanecarboxylate and benzoate degradation used by R. palustris. The 2-hydroxychc-CoA dehydrogenase activity encoded by badH was dependent on the presence of NAD+; no activity was detected with NADP+ as a cofactor. The dehydrogenase activity was not sensitive to oxygen. The enzyme has apparent Km values of 10 and 200 ?M for 2-hydroxychc-CoA and NAD+, respectively. Western blot analysis with antisera raised against purified His-BadH identified a 27-kDa protein that was present in benzoate- and cyclohexanecarboxylate-grown but not in succinate-grown R. palustris cell extracts. The active form of the enzyme is a homotetramer. badH was determined to be the first gene in an operon, termed the cyclohexanecarboxylate degradation operon, containing genes required for both benzoate and cyclohexanecarboxylate degradation. A nonpolar R. palustris badH mutant was unable to grow on benzoate or cyclohexanecarboxylate but had wild-type growth rates on succinate. Cells blocked in expression of the entire cyclohexanecarboxylate degradation operon excreted cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate into the growth medium when given benzoate. This confirms that cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA is an intermediate of anaerobic benzoate degradation by R. palustris. This compound had previously been shown not to be formed by Thauera aromatica, a denitrifying bacterium that degrades benzoate by a pathway that is slightly different from the R. palustris pathway. 2-Hydroxychc-CoA dehydrogenase does not participate in anaerobic benzoate degradation by T. aromatica and thus may serve as a useful indicator of an R. palustris-type benzoate degradation pathway. PMID:10781543

Pelletier, Dale A.; Harwood, Caroline S.

2000-01-01

329

Ozonation degradation of microcystin-LR in aqueous solution: intermediates, byproducts and pathways.  

PubMed

The intermediates and byproducts formed during the ozonation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR, m/z = 995.5) and the probable degradation pathway were investigated at different initial molar ratios of ozone to MC-LR ([O3]0/[MC-LR]0). Seven reaction intermediates with m/z ? 795.4 were observed by LC/MS, and four of them (m/z = 815.4, 827.3, 853.3 and 855.3) have not been previously reported. Meanwhile, six aldehyde-based byproducts with molecular weights of 30-160 were detected for the first time. Intermediates structures demonstrated that ozone reacted with two sites of MC-LR: the diene bonds in the Adda side chain and the Mdha amino acid in the cyclic structure. The fragment from the Adda side chain oxidative cleavage could be further oxidized to an aldehyde with a molecular weight of 160 at low [O3]0/[MC-LR]0. Meanwhile, the polypeptide structure of MC-LR was difficult to be further oxidized, unless [O3]0/[MC-LR]0 > 10. After further oxidation of the intermediates, five other aldehyde-based byproducts were detected by GC/MS: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Formaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde and methylglyoxal were the dominant species. The yields of the aldehydes varied greatly, depending on the value of [O3]0/[MC-LR]0. PMID:24981743

Chang, Jing; Chen, Zhong-lin; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Ji-min; Chen, Qian; Kang, Jing; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-wei; Nie, Chang-xin

2014-10-15

330

The molecular components of the extracellular protein-degradation pathways of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus  

PubMed Central

Proteins contribute to a major part of the organic nitrogen (N) in forest soils. This N is mobilized and becomes available to trees as a result of the depolymerizing activities of symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms by which these fungi depolymerize proteins and assimilate the released N are poorly characterized. Biochemical analysis and transcriptome profiling were performed to examine the proteolytic machinery and the uptake system of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Paxillus involutus during the assimilation of organic N from various protein sources and extracts of organic matter. All substrates induced secretion of peptidase activity with an acidic pH optimum, mostly contributed by aspartic peptidases. The peptidase activity was transiently repressed by ammonium. Transcriptional analysis revealed a large number of extracellular endo- and exopeptidases. The expression levels of these peptidases were regulated in parallel with transporters and enzymes involved in the assimilation and metabolism of the released peptides and amino acids. For the first time the molecular components of the protein degradation pathways of an ectomycorrhizal fungus are described. The data suggest that the transcripts encoding these components are regulated in response to the chemical properties and the availability of the protein substrates. PMID:23902518

Shah, Firoz; Rineau, Francois; Canbäck, Björn; Johansson, Tomas; Tunlid, Anders

2013-01-01

331

Analysis of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation in Agrobacterium fabrum Reveals a Coenzyme A-Dependent, Beta-Oxidative Deacetylation Pathway  

PubMed Central

The soil- and rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to have species-specific genes involved in ferulic acid degradation. Here, we characterized, by genetic and analytical means, intermediates of degradation as feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-hydroxypropionyl–CoA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionyl–CoA, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The genes atu1416, atu1417, and atu1420 have been experimentally shown to be necessary for the degradation of ferulic acid. Moreover, the genes atu1415 and atu1421 have been experimentally demonstrated to be essential for this degradation and are proposed to encode a phenylhydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionic acid (HMPKP)–CoA ?-keto-thiolase, respectively. We thus demonstrated that the A. fabrum hydroxycinnamic degradation pathway is an original coenzyme A-dependent ?-oxidative deacetylation that could also transform p-coumaric and caffeic acids. Finally, we showed that this pathway enables the metabolism of toxic compounds from plants and their use for growth, likely providing the species an ecological advantage in hydroxycinnamic-rich environments, such as plant roots or decaying plant materials. PMID:24657856

Campillo, Tony; Renoud, Sébastien; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Gaillard, Vincent; Bellvert, Floriant; Chamignon, Cécile; Comte, Gilles; Lavire, Céline; Hommais, Florence

2014-01-01

332

Cloning and expression analysis of the Mitochondrial Ubiquitin Ligase Activator of NF-?B (MULAN) in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of a large number of genes including many involved in bacterial and viral infections. NF-?B is normally sequestered by inhibitory proteins (I?Bs) in the cytoplasm of non-stimulated cells. The degradation of I?Bs by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway leads to the rapid translocation of NF-?B to the nucleous where it

Luca Tacchi; Elisa Casadei; Ralph Bickerdike; Christopher J. Secombes; Samuel A. M. Martin

333

Inhibiting Proteasomal Proteolysis Sustains Estrogen Receptor  Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen receptor- (ER) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates physiological re- sponses to 17-estradiol (E2). Ligand binding rap- idly down-regulates ER levels through proteaso- mal proteolysis, but the functional impact of receptor degradation on cellular responses to E2 has not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the effect of blocking the ubiquitin- proteasome pathway on ER-mediated transcrip-

MEIYUN FAN; HARIKRISHNA NAKSHATRI; KENNETH P. NEPHEW

2004-01-01

334

Enhancement of radiosensitivity by proteasome inhibition: Implications for a role of NF-?B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: NF-?B is activated by tumor necrosis factor, certain chemotherapeutic agents, and ionizing radiation, leading to inhibition of apoptosis. NF-?B activation is regulated by phosphorylation of I?B inhibitor molecules that are subsequently targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PS-341 is a specific and selective inhibitor of the proteasome that inhibits NF-?B activation and enhances cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy in

Suzanne M Russo; Joel E Tepper; Albert S Baldwin; Rong Liu; Julian Adams; Peter Elliott; James C Cusack

2001-01-01

335

Role of the Proteasome and NF-kappa B in Streptococcal Cell Wall-Induced Polyarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor NF-kappa B activates a number of genes whose protein products are proinflammatory. In quiescent cells, NF-kappa B exists in a latent form and is activated via a signal-dependent proteolytic mechanism in which the inhibitory protein Ikappa B is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Consequently, inhibition of the proteasome suppresses activation of NF-kappa B. This suppression should therefore

Vito J. Palombella; Elaine M. Conner; John W. Fuseler; Antonia Destree; Jonathan M. Davis; F. Stephen Laroux; Robert E. Wolf; Jianqing Huang; Stephen Brand; Peter J. Elliott; Douglas Lazarus; Teresa McCormack; Lana Parent; Ross Stein; Julian Adams; Matthew B. Grisham

1998-01-01

336

The Physical Association of Multiple Molecular Chaperone Proteins with Mutant p53 Is Altered by Geldanamycin, an hsp90Binding Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type p53 is a short-lived protein which turns over very rapidly via selective proteolysis in the ubiquitin- proteasome pathway. Most p53 mutations, however, encode for protein products which display markedly increased intracellular levels and are associated with positive tumor-promoting activity. The mechanism by which mutation leads to impairment of ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation is unknown, but it has been noted

LUKE WHITESELL; PATRICK D. SUTPHIN; ELIZABETH J. PULCINI; JESSE D. MARTINEZ; PAUL H. COOK

1998-01-01

337

A protein–protein interaction map of the Caenorhabditis elegans 26S proteasome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway is pivotal in most biological processes. Despite a great level of information available for the eukaryotic 26S proteasome—the protease responsible for the degradation of ubiquitylated proteins—several structural and functional questions remain unanswered. To gain more insight into the assembly and function of the metazoan 26S proteasome, a two-hybrid-based protein interaction map was generated using 30 Caenorhabditis

Anne Davy; Paul Bello; Nicolas Thierry-Mieg; Philippe Vaglio; Joseph Hitti; Lynn Doucette-Stamm; Danielle Thierry-Mieg; Jérôme Reboul; Simon Boulton; Albertha J. M. Walhout; Olivier Coux; Marc Vidal

2001-01-01

338

An atomic model AAA-ATPase\\/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein–protein interactions we derive

Friedrich Förster; Keren Lasker; Florian Beck; Stephan Nickell; Andrej Sali; Wolfgang Baumeister

2009-01-01

339

Heterogeneous electro-Fenton using modified iron-carbon as catalyst for 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation: Influence factors, mechanism and degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Modified iron-carbon with polytetra?uoroethylene (PTFE) was firstly investigated as heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) catalyst for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in near neutral pH condition. The catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the effects of some important operating parameters such as current intensity and pH on the 2,4-DCP degradation were investigated. After the catalyst modification with 20% PTFE, the degradation performance maintained well with much lower iron leaching, and at current intensity 100 mA, initial pH 6.7, catalyst loading 6 g/L, the degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP could exceed 95% within 120 min treatment. Two-stage pseudo first-order kinetics of 2,4-DCP degradation was observed, including a slow anodic oxidation stage (first-stage) and much faster heterogeneous EF oxidation (second-stage), in which the automatic drop of pH in the first-stage initiated the Fe(2+) release from micro-electrolysis and thus benefited to the subsequent EF reaction. Aromatic intermediates such as 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,6-dichlororesorcinol and 2-chlorohydroquinone were detected by GC-MS. Oxalic acid, acetic acid, formic acid and Cl(-) were quanti?ed by ion chromatograph. Based on these analysis as well as the detection of H2O2 and OH, a possible mechanism and degradation pathway for 2,4-DCP were proposed. This work demonstrated that such a heterogeneous EF using cheap modified Fe-C catalyst was promising for organic wastewater treatment in initial neutral pH condition. PMID:25559487

Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Minghua; Ren, Gengbo; Yu, Xinmin; Ma, Liang; Yang, Jie; Yu, Fangke

2015-03-01

340

Vpu Directs the Degradation of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Restriction Factor BST-2/Tetherin via a ?TrCP-Dependent Mechanism? †  

PubMed Central

The primary roles attributed to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein are the degradation of the viral receptor CD4 and the enhancement of virion release. With regard to CD4 downregulation, Vpu has been shown to act as an adapter linking CD4 with the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery via interaction with the F-box protein ?TrCP. To identify additional cellular ?TrCP-dependent Vpu targets, we performed quantitative proteomics analyses using the plasma membrane fraction of HeLa cells expressing either wild-type Vpu or a Vpu mutant (S52N/S56N) that does not bind ?TrCP. One cellular protein, BST-2 (CD317), was consistently underrepresented in the membrane proteome of cells expressing wild-type Vpu compared to the proteome of cells expressing the Vpu mutant. To verify the biological relevance of this phenotype for HIV pathogenesis, we showed that in T cells infected with HIV-1, BST-2 downregulation occurred in a Vpu-dependent manner. Recently, BST-2 has been identified as the interferon-inducible cellular factor Tetherin, which restricts HIV virion release in the absence of Vpu. We address here the unresolved mechanism of Vpu-mediated BST-2 downregulation. Our data show that the presence of wild-type Vpu reduced cell surface and total steady-state BST-2 levels, whereas that of the mutant Vpu had no effect. In addition, treatment of cells with the lysosome acidification inhibitor concanamycin A, but not treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, reduced BST-2 downregulation by wild-type Vpu, thereby suggesting that the presence of Vpu leads to the degradation of BST-2 via an endosome-lysosome degradation pathway. The importance of ?TrCP in this process was confirmed by demonstrating that in the absence of ?TrCP, BST-2 levels were restored despite the presence of Vpu. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that, in similarity to its role in CD4 degradation, Vpu acts as an adapter molecule linking BST-2 to the cellular ubiquitination machinery via ?TrCP. However, in contrast to the proteasome-dependent degradation of CD4, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum, Vpu appears to interact with BST-2 in the trans-Golgi network or in early endosomes, leading to lysosomal degradation of BST-2. Via this action, Vpu could counter the tethering function of BST-2, resulting in enhanced HIV-1 virion release. Interestingly, although HIV-2 does not express Vpu, an isolate known to exhibit enhanced viral egress can downregulate surface BST-2 by an as-yet-unknown mechanism that does not appear to involve degradation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of both Vpu-dependent and -independent mediated antagonism of BST-2 will be critical for therapeutic strategies that exploit this novel viral function. PMID:19515779

Douglas, Janet L.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; McCarroll, Matthew N.; Gustin, Jean K.; Früh, Klaus; Moses, Ashlee V.

2009-01-01

341

Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-{kappa}B pathway through I{kappa}B degradation  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-{kappa}B in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B activation was characterized by translocation of NF-{kappa}B from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-{kappa}B-regulated gene expression. NF-{kappa}B activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-{kappa}B activation. Degradation of I{kappa}B protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of I{kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}DN) significantly suppressed NF-{kappa}B activation induced by PRRSV. However, I{kappa}B{alpha}DN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-{kappa}B was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-{kappa}B-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-{kappa}B activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV.

Lee, Sang-Myeong [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Kleiboeker, Steven B. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States) and Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]. E-mail: KleiboekerS@Missouri.edu

2005-11-10

342

Electrochemical treatment of iopromide under conditions of reverse osmosis concentrates--elucidation of the degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Application of reverse osmosis for the reuse of treated wastewater on the one hand offers a way to provide high quality effluent waters. On the other hand reverse osmosis concentrates exhibiting highly concentrated contaminants are produced simultaneously. Electrochemical treatment of those concentrates is regarded as one possible answer to the problem of their disposal into surface waters. Nevertheless, due to the diversity of direct and indirect degradation processes during electrolysis, special care has to be taken about the formation of toxic transformation products (TPs). In this study the electrochemical transformation of the X-ray contrast medium iopromide was investigated as a representative of biologically persistent compounds. For this purpose, anodic oxidation at boron doped diamond as well as cathodic reduction using a platinum electrode were considered. Kinetic analyses revealed a transformation of 100 ?M iopromide with first order kinetic constants between 0.6 and 1.6 × 10(-4) s(-1) at the beginning and a subsequent increase of the reaction order due to the influence of secondary oxidants formed during electrolysis. Mineralization up to 96% was achieved after about 7.5 h. At shorter treatment times several oxidatively and reductively formed transformation products were detected, whereas deiodinated iopromide represented the major fraction. Nevertheless, the latter exhibited negligible toxicological relevance according to tests on vibrio fisheri. Additional experiments utilizing a divided cell setup enabled the elucidation of the transformation pathway, whereas emerging TPs could be identified by means of high resolution mass spectrometry and MS(n)-fragmentations. During electrolysis the iodine released from Iopromide was found to 90% as iodide and to 10% as iodate even in the open cell experiments, limiting the potential formation of toxic iodo-disinfection by-products. Chlorinated TPs were not found. PMID:24140349

Lütke Eversloh, C; Henning, N; Schulz, M; Ternes, T A

2014-01-01

343

Protein dislocation from the ER requires polyubiquitination and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system requires the dislocation of substrates from the ER into the cytosol. It has been speculated that a functional ubiquitin proteasome pathway is not only essential for proteolysis, but also for the preceding export step. Here, we show that short ubiquitin chains synthesized on proteolytic substrates are not sufficient to complete dislocation; the size of the chain seems to be a critical determinant. Moreover, our results suggest that the AAA proteins of the 26S proteasome are not directly involved in substrate export. Instead, a related AAA complex Cdc48, is required for ER-associated protein degradation upstream of the proteasome. PMID:11813000

Jarosch, Ernst; Taxis, Christof; Volkwein, Corinna; Bordallo, Javier; Finley, Daniel; Wolf, Dieter H; Sommer, Thomas

2002-02-01

344

The poly(A)-dependent degradation pathway of rpsO mRNA is primarily mediated by RNase R  

PubMed Central

Polyadenylation is an important factor controlling RNA degradation and RNA quality control mechanisms. In this report we demonstrate for the first time that RNase R has in vivo affinity for polyadenylated RNA and can be a key enzyme involved in poly(A) metabolism. RNase II and PNPase, two major RNA exonucleases present in Escherichia coli, could not account for all the poly(A)-dependent degradation of the rpsO mRNA. RNase II can remove the poly(A) tails but fails to degrade the mRNA as it cannot overcome the RNA termination hairpin, while PNPase plays only a modest role in this degradation. We now demonstrate that in the absence of RNase E, RNase R is the relevant factor in the poly(A)-dependent degradation of the rpsO mRNA. Moreover, we have found that the RNase R inactivation counteracts the extended degradation of this transcript observed in RNase II-deficient cells. Elongated rpsO transcripts harboring increasing poly(A) tails are specifically recognized by RNase R and strongly accumulate in the absence of this exonuclease. The 3? oligo(A) extension may stimulate the binding of RNase R, allowing the complete degradation of the mRNA, as RNase R is not susceptible to RNA secondary structures. Moreover, this regulation is shown to occur despite the presence of PNPase. Similar results were observed with the rpsT mRNA. This report shows that polyadenylation favors in vivo the RNase R-mediated pathways of RNA degradation. PMID:19103951

Andrade, José M.; Hajnsdorf, Eliane; Régnier, Philippe; Arraiano, Cecília M.

2009-01-01

345

Coxsackievirus B5 induced apoptosis of HeLa cells: Effects on p53 and SUMO  

SciTech Connect

Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a human enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, is a frequent cause of acute and chronic human diseases. The pathogenesis of enteroviral infections is not completely understood, and the fate of the CVB5-infected cell has a pivotal role in this process. We have investigated the CVB5-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and found that it happens by the intrinsic pathway by a mechanism dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, associated with nuclear aggregation of p53. Striking redistribution of both SUMO and UBC9 was noted at 4 h post-infection, simultaneously with a reduction in the levels of the ubiquitin-ligase HDM2. Taken together, these results suggest that CVB5 infection of HeLa cells elicit the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by MDM2 degradation and p53 activation, destabilizing protein sumoylation, by a mechanism that is dependent on a functional ubiquitin-proteasome system.

Gomes, Rogerio, E-mail: roggomes@usp.b [Department of Cell Biology, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine at Ribeirao Preto, Av. dos Bandeirantes, 3900, 14049-900, SP (Brazil); Guerra-Sa, Renata [Federal University of Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Arruda, Eurico [Department of Cell Biology, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine at Ribeirao Preto, Av. dos Bandeirantes, 3900, 14049-900, SP (Brazil); Virology Research Center, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine at Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

2010-01-20

346

Protein aggregation and degradation mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by selective neuronal vulnerability and neurodegeneration in specific brain regions. The pathogenesis of these disorders centrally involves abnormal accumulation and aggregation of specific proteins, which are deposited in intracellular inclusions or extracellular aggregates that are characteristic for each disease. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic mutations or environmental factors can instigate protein misfolding and aggregation in these diseases. Consequently, neurodegenerative diseases are often considered as conformational diseases. This idea is further supported by studies implicating that impairment of the protein quality control (PQC) and clearance systems, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagosome-lysosome pathway, may lead to the abnormal accumulation of disease-specific proteins. This suggests that similar pathological mechanisms may underlie the pathogenesis of the different neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, several proteins that are known to associate with neurodegenerative diseases have been identified as important regulators of PQC and clearance systems. In this review, we summarize the central features of abnormal protein accumulation in different common neurodegenerative diseases and discuss some aspects of specific disease-associated proteins regulating the PQC and clearance mechanisms, such as ubiquilin-1. PMID:23516262

Takalo, Mari; Salminen, Antero; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko; Haapasalo, Annakaisa

2013-01-01

347

PROTEASOME ACTIVITY DECLINES IN AGED MACROPHAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in regulation of a variety of biologically important processes including antigen presentation by macrophages. Age-related decrease in proteasome activity has been reported in other tissues. However, the effect of aging on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway ...

348

HUWE1 ubiquitinates MyoD and targets it for proteasomal degradation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HUWE1 ubiquitinates MyoD in vitro and in cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ubiquitination by HUWE1 targets MyoD for proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HUWE1 can modify MyoD on its N-terminal residue. -- Abstract: MyoD is a tissue-specific transcriptional activator that acts as a master switch for muscle development. It activates a broad array of muscle-specific genes, which leads to conversion of proliferating myoblasts into mature myotubes. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in controlling MyoD. Both its N-terminal residue and internal lysines can be targeted by ubiquitin, and both modifications appear to direct it for proteasomal degradation. The protein is short-lived and has a half-life of {approx}45 min in different cells. It was reported that MyoD can be ubiquitinated by MAFbx/AT-1, but accumulating lines of experimental evidence showed that other ligase(s) may also participate in its targeting. Here we describe the involvement of HUWE1 in the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of MyoD. Furthermore, we show that the ligase can ubiquitinate the protein in its N-terminal residue.

Noy, Tahel; Suad, Oded [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096 (Israel)] [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096 (Israel); Taglicht, Daniel [Proteologics Ltd., Weizmann Science Park, Rehovot 76704 (Israel)] [Proteologics Ltd., Weizmann Science Park, Rehovot 76704 (Israel); Ciechanover, Aaron, E-mail: c_tzachy@netvision.net.il [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096 (Israel)] [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096 (Israel)

2012-02-10

349

Hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein stimulates MDM2-dependent p53 degradation  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis has been shown to be induced and downregulated by the Hantaan virus (HTNV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. To address these conflicting data, expression of the p53 protein, one of the key molecules involved in apoptosis, was assessed in the presence of the N protein in A549 and HeLa cells. The amount of p53, increased by drug treatment, was reduced when cells were infected with HTNV or transfected with an expression vector of the HTNV N protein. When cells were treated with a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) or an MDM2 antagonist (Nutlin-3), p53 expression was not reduced in N protein-overexpressed cells. We concluded that the HTNV N protein ubiquitinates and degrades p53 MDM2-dependently. Here we report downregulation of p53 expression through a post-translational mechanism: MDM2-dependent ubiquitination and degradation by the HTNV N protein. These results indicate that N protein-dependent p53 degradation through the ubiquitin proteasome system is one of the anti-apoptotic mechanisms employed by HTNV. PMID:23994832

Park, Sun-Whan; Han, Myung-Guk; Park, Chan; Ju, Young Ran; Ahn, Byung-Yoon

2013-01-01

350

Differential ubiquitination and degradation of huntingtin fragments modulated by ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitination of misfolded proteins, a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, is mediated by different lysine (K) residues in ubiquitin and alters the levels of toxic proteins. In Huntington disease, polyglutamine expansion causes N-terminal huntingtin (Htt) to misfold, inducing neurodegeneration. Here we report that shorter N-terminal Htt fragments are more stable than longer fragments and find differential ubiquitination via K63 of ubiquitin. Aging decreases proteasome-mediated Htt degradation, at the same time increasing K63-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent Htt aggregation in HD knock-in mice. The association of Htt with the K48-specific E3 ligase, Ube3a, is decreased in aged mouse brain. Overexpression of Ube3a in HD mouse brain reduces K63-mediated ubiquitination and Htt aggregation, enhancing its degradation via the K48 ubiquitin–proteasome system. Our findings suggest that aging-dependent Ube3a levels result in differential ubiquitination and degradation of Htt fragments, thereby contributing to the age-related neurotoxicity of mutant Htt. PMID:24706802

Bhat, Kavita P.; Yan, Sen; Wang, Chuan-En; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

2014-01-01

351

The poxvirus encoded ubiquitin ligase, p28, is regulated by proteasomal degradation and autoubiquitination.  

PubMed

Virus manipulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system has become increasingly apparent. Ubiquitin is a 76 amino acid protein that is post-translationally conjugated to target proteins, while poly-ubiquitination subsequently leads to degradation via the 26S proteasome. Target specificity is determined by a large family of ubiquitin ligases. Poxviruses encode p28, a highly conserved ubiquitin ligase expressed in a wide range of poxviruses (J. Virol. 79:597). Here we investigate the relationship between p28 and ubiquitination. Confocal microscopy indicated that orthologs of p28 co-localized with ubiquitin at the virus factory. Flow cytometry assays further demonstrated that p28 was regulated by proteasomal degradation. Moreover, when the ubiquitin ligase activity of p28 was disrupted by mutating the RING domain conjugated ubiquitin still localized to the viral factories, indicating that an unknown ubiquitin ligase(s) was responsible for regulating p28. Our observations indicate that p28 is a ubiquitin ligase that is regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. PMID:25240226

Mottet, Kelly; Bareiss, Bettina; Milne, Craig D; Barry, Michele

2014-11-01

352

Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Regulates Cortactin Ubiquitination and Degradation in Lung Epithelial Cells*  

PubMed Central

Cortactin, an actin-binding protein, is essential for cell growth and motility. We have shown that cortactin is regulated by reversible phosphorylation, but little is known regarding cortactin protein stability. Here, we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cortactin degradation is mediated by extracellular regulated signal kinase (ERK). LPS induces cortactin serine phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation in mouse lung epithelia, an effect abrogated by ERK inhibition. Serine phosphorylation sites mutant, cortactinS405A/S418A, enhances its protein stability. Cortactin is polyubiquitinated and degraded within the proteasome, whereas a cortactinK79R mutant exhibited proteolytic stability during cyclohexamide (CHX) or LPS treatment. The E3 ligase subunit ?-Trcp interacts with cortactin, and its overexpression reduced cortactin protein levels, an effect attenuated by ERK inhibition. Overexpression of ?-Trcp was sufficient to reduce the protective effects of exogenous cortactin on epithelial cell barrier integrity, an effect not observed after expression of a cortactinK79R mutant. These results provide evidence that LPS modulation of cortactin stability is coordinately regulated by stress kinases and the ubiquitin-proteasomal network. PMID:22514278

Zhao, Jing; Wei, Jianxin; Mialki, Rachel; Zou, Chunbin; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Zhao, Yutong

2012-01-01

353

Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1  

PubMed Central

2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

2013-01-01

354

Role of the proteasome and NF-?B in streptococcal cell wall-induced polyarthritis  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor NF-?B activates a number of genes whose protein products are proinflammatory. In quiescent cells, NF-?B exists in a latent form and is activated via a signal-dependent proteolytic mechanism in which the inhibitory protein I?B is degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Consequently, inhibition of the proteasome suppresses activation of NF-?B. This suppression should therefore decrease transcription of many genes encoding proinflammatory proteins and should ultimately have an anti-inflammatory effect. To this end, a series of peptide boronic acid inhibitors of the proteasome, exemplified herein by PS-341, were developed. The proteasome is the large multimeric protease that catalyzes the final proteolytic step of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. PS-341, a potent, competitive inhibitor of the proteasome, readily entered cells and inhibited the activation of NF-?B and the subsequent transcription of genes that are regulated by NF-?B. Significantly, PS-341 displayed similar effects in vivo. Oral administration of PS-341 had anti-inflammatory effects in a model of Streptococcal cell wall-induced polyarthritis and liver inflammation in rats. The attenuation of inflammation in this model was associated with an inhibition of I?B? degradation and NF-?B-dependent gene expression. These experiments clearly demonstrate that the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and NF-?B play important roles in regulating chronic inflammation and that, as predicted, proteasome inhibition has an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:9861028

Palombella, Vito J.; Conner, Elaine M.; Fuseler, John W.; Destree, Antonia; Davis, Jonathan M.; Laroux, F. Stephen; Wolf, Robert E.; Huang, Jianqing; Brand, Stephen; Elliott, Peter J.; Lazarus, Douglas; McCormack, Teresa; Parent, Lana; Stein, Ross; Adams, Julian; Grisham, Matthew B.

1998-01-01

355

Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, ...

356

Degradation of ZAP-70 following antigenic stimulation in human T lymphocytes: role of calpain proteolytic pathway.  

PubMed

T cell activation by the specific Ag results in dramatic changes of the T cell phenotype that include a rapid and profound down-regulation and degradation of triggered TCRs. In this work, we investigated the fate of the TCR-associated ZAP-70 kinase in Ag-stimulated T cells. T cells stimulated by peptide-pulsed APCs undergo an Ag dose-dependent decrease of the total cellular content of ZAP-70, as detected by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy on fixed and permeabilized T cell-APC conjugates and by Western blot on total cell lysates. The time course of ZAP-70 consumption overlaps with that of zeta-chain degradation, indicating that ZAP-70 is degraded in parallel with TCR internalization and degradation. Pharmacological activation of protein kinase C (PKC) does not induce ZAP-70 degradation, which, on the contrary, requires activation of protein tyrosine kinases. Two lines of evidence indicate that the Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease calpain plays a major role in initiating ZAP-70 degradation: 1) treatment of T cells with cell-permeating inhibitors of calpain markedly reduces ZAP-70 degradation; 2) ZAP-70 is cleaved in vitro by calpain. Our results show that, in the course of T cell-APC cognate interaction, ZAP-70 is rapidly degraded via a calpain-dependent mechanism. PMID:10384098

Penna, D; Müller, S; Martinon, F; Demotz, S; Iwashima, M; Valitutti, S

1999-07-01

357

Phagocytic Receptor CED1 Initiates a Signaling Pathway for Degrading Engulfed Apoptotic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptotic cells in animals are engulfed by phagocytic cells and subsequently degraded inside phagosomes. To study the mechanisms controlling the degradation of apoptotic cells, we developed time-lapse imaging protocols in developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and established the temporal order of multiple events during engulfment and phagosome maturation. These include sequential enrichment on phagocytic membranes of phagocytic receptor cell death abnormal

Xiaomeng Yu; Nan Lu; Zheng Zhou

2008-01-01

358

H?PW??O??/TiO? catalyst-induced photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA): kinetics, toxicity and degradation pathways.  

PubMed

A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) degradation using H?PW??O??/TiO? (PW??/TiO?) composite catalyst, toxicity of BPA intermediate products and degradation pathways. The results showed that the BPA photodegradation using PW??/TiO? catalyst followed the first-order kinetics, and under the optimal experimental conditions at H?PW??O?? loading amount of 6.3%, BPA initial concentration of 5 mg L(-1), and the solution pH of 8.2, the kinetic constant was 3.7-fold larger than that of pristine TiO?. The hydroxyl radicals derived from the electroreduction of dissolved oxygen with electrons via chain reactions was the main reactive oxygen species. According to the identified intermediates, 4-isopropanolphenol, hydroquinone, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and phenol, the possible BPA photodegradation pathways were proposed. Upon 12h irradiation, 77% BPA (20 mg L(-1)) was mineralized and the toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna) was almost disappeared, implying the strong oxidation ability of PW??/TiO? catalyst. The studies provide important information about the BPA degradation and promote the technical development for BPA removal. PMID:23540812

Lu, Nan; Lu, Ying; Liu, Fangyuan; Zhao, Kun; Yuan, Xing; Zhao, Yahui; Li, Yuan; Qin, Hongwei; Zhu, Jia

2013-05-01

359

Prediction of CL-20 chemical degradation pathways, theoretical and experimental evidence for dependence on competing modes of reaction.  

PubMed

Highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies, formation energies, bond lengths and FTIR spectra all suggest competing CL-20 degradation mechanisms. This second of two studies investigates recalcitrant, toxic, aromatic CL-20 intermediates that absorb from 370 to 430 nm. Our earlier study (Struct. Chem., 15, 2004) revealed that these intermediates were formed at high OH(-) concentrations via the chemically preferred pathway of breaking the C-C bond between the two cyclopentanes, thereby eliminating nitro groups, forming conjugated pi bonds, and resulting in a pyrazine three-ring aromatic intermediate. In attempting to find and make dominant a more benign CL-20 transformation pathway, this current research validates hydroxylation results from both studies and examines CL-20 transformations via photo-induced free radical reactions. This article discusses CL-20 competing modes of degradation revealed through: computational calculation; UV/VIS and SF spectroscopy following alkaline hydrolysis; and photochemical irradiation to degrade CL-20 and its byproducts at their respective wavelengths of maximum absorption. PMID:16272046

Qasim, M; Fredrickson, H; Honea, P; Furey, J; Leszczynski, J; Okovytyy, S; Szecsody, J; Kholod, Y

2005-10-01

360

Degradation pathway and kinetics of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides oxidation in an ultrasonic nanoscale zero-valent iron/hydrogen peroxide system.  

PubMed

Fenton and Fenton-like oxidation has been already demonstrated to be efficient for the degradation of imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), but little is known for their degradation pathway and kinetics in such systems. In this work, degradation pathway and kinetics of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides ([Cnmim]Br, n=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) were investigated in an ultrasound nanoscale zero-valent iron/hydrogen peroxide (US-nZVI/H2O2) system. For this purpose, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br) was used as a representative ionic liquid to optimize pH value, nZVI dose, and H2O2 concentration for the degradation reaction. Then, the degradation kinetics of [Cnmim]Br was investigated under optimal conditions, and their degradation intermediates were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was shown that the degradation of [Cnmim]Br in such a heterogeneous Fenton-like system could be described by a second order kinetic model, and a number of intermediate products were detected. Based on these intermediate products, detailed pathways were proposed for the degradation of [Cnmim]Br in the ultrasound-assisted nZVI/H2O2 system. These findings may be useful for the better understanding of degradation mechanism of the imidazolium ILs in aqueous solutions. PMID:25463239

Zhou, Haimei; Shen, Yuanyuan; Lv, Ping; Wang, Jianji; Li, Pu

2015-03-01

361

Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Represents an Apolipoprotein E-independent Pathway of A? Uptake and Degradation by Astrocytes*  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of the amyloid ? (A?) peptide within the brain is hypothesized to be one of the main causes underlying the pathogenic events that occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). Consequently, identifying pathways by which A? is cleared from the brain is crucial for better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutics. Cellular uptake and degradation by glial cells is one means by which A? may be cleared from the brain. In the current study, we demonstrate that modulating levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a cell surface receptor that regulates the amount of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the brain, altered both the uptake and degradation of A? by astrocytes. Deletion of LDLR caused a decrease in A? uptake, whereas increasing LDLR levels significantly enhanced both the uptake and clearance of A?. Increasing LDLR levels also enhanced the cellular degradation of A? and facilitated the vesicular transport of A? to lysosomes. Despite the fact that LDLR regulated the uptake of apoE by astrocytes, we found that the effect of LDLR on A? uptake and clearance occurred in the absence of apoE. Finally, we provide evidence that A? can directly bind to LDLR, suggesting that an interaction between LDLR and A? could be responsible for LDLR-mediated A? uptake. Therefore, these results identify LDLR as a receptor that mediates A? uptake and clearance by astrocytes, and provide evidence that increasing glial LDLR levels may promote A? degradation within the brain. PMID:22383525

Basak, Jacob M.; Verghese, Philip B.; Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Jungsu; Holtzman, David M.

2012-01-01

362

The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediates the cellular degradation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor.  

PubMed Central

The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor (LRP) is a cell-surface glycoprotein of 4525 amino acids that functions as a hepatic endocytosis receptor for several plasma proteins. These include alpha 2-macroglobulin-protease complexes, free plasminogen activators as well as plasminogen activators complexed with their inhibitors, and beta-migrating very low density lipoproteins complexed with either apolipoprotein E or lipoprotein lipase. In the current study we used human and rat hepatoma cell lines to demonstrate that LRP can mediate the degradation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a Kunitz-type plasma serine protease inhibitor that regulates tissue factor-induced blood coagulation. The cellular degradation of 125I-labeled TFPI (125I-TFPI) was inhibited more than 80% both by antibodies directed against LRP and by the LRP-associated 39-kDa protein, a protein that inhibits the binding and/or cell-mediated degradation of all ligands by LRP. Using rat hepatoma cells, we report that at 4 degrees C, 125I-TFPI binds to approximately 2 x 10(6) sites per cell with an equilibrium dissociation constant of approximately 30 nM. 125I-TFPI binding to the cell surface is not inhibited by the 39-kDa protein. Taken together, our results suggest that TFPI binds to an as-yet-unidentified cell surface molecule. After binding, LRP mediates the cellular degradation of TFPI. Images PMID:7517557

Warshawsky, I; Broze, G J; Schwartz, A L

1994-01-01

363

NOVEL PATHWAY OF TOLUENE CATABOLISM IN THE TRICHLOROETHYLENE DEGRADING BACTERIUM G4  

EPA Science Inventory

o-Cresol and 3-methylcatechol were identified as successive transitory intermediates of toluene catabolism by the trichloroethylene-degrading bacterium G4. he absence of a toluene dihydrodiol intermediate or toluene dioxygenase and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities sug...

364

The regulatory role of reversible phosphorylation in the chlorophyll degradation pathway  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Senescence represents the final stage of plant development and is characterized by several processes including the systematic degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll molecules inside chloroplasts. Normally, chlorophyll is catabolized to colorless compounds through a series of enz...

365

BAG5 Protects against Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage through Regulating PINK1 Degradation  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause PARK6 familial Parkinsonism, and loss of the stability of PINK1 may also contribute to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Degradation of PINK1 occurs predominantly through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), however, to date, few of the proteins have been found to regulate the degradation of PINK1. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and pull-down methods, we identified bcl-2-associated athanogene 5 (BAG5), a BAG family member, directly interacted with PINK1. We showed that BAG5 stabilized PINK1 by decreasing the ubiquitination of PINK1. Interestingly, BAG5 rescued MPP+- and rotenone-induced mitochondria dysfunction by up-regulating PINK1 in vitro. In PINK1-null mice and MPTP-treated mice, BAG5 significantly increased in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) although PINK1 was decreased. Our findings indicated that BAG5, as a key protein to stabilize PINK1, is a promising therapeutic tool for preventing mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress. PMID:24475098

Fei, Erkang; Mu, Yingfeng; He, Shuang; Che, Xiangqian; Tan, Jieqiong; Xia, Kun; Zhang, Zhuohua; Wang, Guanghui; Tang, Beisha

2014-01-01

366

Novel degradative pathway of 4-nitrobenzoate in Comamonas acidovorans NBA10  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Cornamonas acidooovans strain, designated NBA-10, was isolated on 4-nitrobenzoate as sole carbon and energy source. When grown on 4-nitrobenzoate, it was simultaneously adapted to 4-nitrosobenzoate and 4- hydroxylaminobenzoate but not to 4-hydroxybenzoate or 4-aminobenzoate. In cell extracts with NADPH present, 4-nitrobenzoate was degraded to 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. Partial purification of the 4-nitrobenzoate reductase revealed that 4-nitrobenzoate is degraded via

PETER E. J. GROENEWEGEN; PIETER BREEUWER; Helvoort van J. M. L. M; A. A. M. Langenhoff; Vries de F. P; Bont de J. A. M

1992-01-01

367

Novel pathway for the degradation of 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid by Acinetobacter sp. strain RKJ12.  

PubMed

The organism Acinetobacter sp. RKJ12 is capable of utilizing 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (2C4NBA) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In the degradation of 2C4NBA by strain RKJ12, various metabolites were isolated and identified by a combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic, and enzymatic activities, revealing a novel assimilation pathway involving both oxidative and reductive catabolic mechanisms. The metabolism of 2C4NBA was initiated by oxidative ortho dehalogenation, leading to the formation of 2-hydroxy-4-nitrobenzoic acid (2H4NBA), which subsequently was metabolized into 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-DHBA) by a mono-oxygenase with the concomitant release of chloride and nitrite ions. Stoichiometric analysis indicated the consumption of 1 mol O(2) per conversion of 2C4NBA to 2,4-DHBA, ruling out the possibility of two oxidative reactions. Experiments with labeled H(2)(18)O and (18)O(2) indicated the involvement of mono-oxygenase-catalyzed initial hydrolytic dechlorination and oxidative denitration mechanisms. The further degradation of 2,4-DHBA then proceeds via reductive dehydroxylation involving the formation of salicylic acid. In the lower pathway, the organism transformed salicylic acid into catechol, which was mineralized by the ortho ring cleavage catechol-1,2-dioxygenase to cis, cis-muconic acid, ultimately forming tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Furthermore, the studies carried out on a 2C4NBA(-) derivative and a 2C4NBA(+) transconjugant demonstrated that the catabolic genes for the 2C4NBA degradation pathway possibly reside on the ?55-kb transmissible plasmid present in RKJ12. PMID:21803909

Prakash, Dhan; Kumar, Ravi; Jain, R K; Tiwary, B N

2011-09-01

368

Nrdp1-mediated degradation of the gigantic IAP, BRUCE, is a novel pathway for triggering apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Degradation of certain inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) appears to be critical in the initiation of apoptosis, but the factors that regulate their degradation in mammalian cells are unknown. Nrdp1/FLRF is a RING finger-containing ubiquitin ligase that catalyzes degradation of the EGF receptor family member, ErbB3. We show here that Nrdp1 associates with BRUCE/apollon, a 530 kDa membrane-associated IAP, which contains a ubiquitin-carrier protein (E2) domain. In the presence of an exogenous E2, UbcH5c, purified Nrdp1 catalyzes BRUCE ubiquitination. In vivo, overexpression of Nrdp1 promotes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of BRUCE. In many cell types, apoptotic stimuli induce proteasomal degradation of BRUCE (but not of XIAP or c-IAP1), and decreasing Nrdp1 levels by RNA interference reduces this loss of BRUCE. Furthermore, decreasing BRUCE content by RNA interference or overexpression of Nrdp1 promotes apoptosis. Thus, BRUCE normally inhibits apoptosis, and Nrdp1 can be important in the initiation of apoptosis by catalyzing ubiquitination and degradation of BRUCE. PMID:14765125

Qiu, Xiao-Bo; Markant, Shirley L; Yuan, Junying; Goldberg, Alfred L

2004-01-01

369

Isolation of a novel beta-cypermethrin degrading strain Bacillus subtilis BSF01 and its biodegradation pathway.  

PubMed

Continuous use of the pyrethroid insecticide beta-cypermethrin (beta-cp) has resulted in serious environmental contamination problems. We report here that a novel bacterial strain BSF01, which was isolated from activated sludge and identified as Bacillus subtilis (collection number: CCTCC AB 2014103), showed high efficiency in degrading beta-cp. Strain BSF01 was able to utilize beta-cp as the sole carbon source for growth and degraded 89.4 % of 50 mg L(-1) beta-cp within 7 days. The optimal conditions for beta-cp degradation were determined to be 34.5 °C, pH 6.7, and inocula amount 0.11 g dry wt L(-1) using response surface methodology. The kinetic parameters q max, K s, and K i were established to be 2.19 day(-1), 76.37 mg L(-1), and 54.14 mg L(-1), respectively. The critical inhibitor concentration was determined to be 64.30 mg L(-1). Seven metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, a novel biodegradation pathway for beta-cp was proposed on the basis of analysis of the metabolites. This strain was also capable of degrading a wide range of pyrethroid insecticides including cypermethrin, deltamethrin, cyhalothrin, and beta-cyfluthrin, which similar to beta-cp are hazardous chemicals. Taken together, our results depict the biodegradation pathway of beta-cp and highlight the promising potentials of strain BSF01 in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environments. PMID:25398281

Xiao, Ying; Chen, Shaohua; Gao, Yuanqi; Hu, Wei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

2015-03-01

370

Improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through up-regulation of the ethanol degradation pathway and expression of the heterologous phosphoketolase pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have properties similar to current crude diesel and could therefore form an important contribution to the development of sustainable transportation fuels in future. It is important to develop novel cell factories for efficient production of FAEEs and their precursors. Results Here, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory expressing a heterologous wax ester synthase (ws2) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus was used to produce FAEEs from ethanol and acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA). The production of acyl-CoA requires large amounts of NADPH and acetyl-CoA. Therefore, two metabolic engineering strategies for improved provision of NADPH and acetyl-CoA were evaluated. First, the ethanol degradation pathway was employed to re-channel carbon flow towards the synthesis of acetyl-CoA. Therefore, ADH2 and ALD6 encoding, respectively, alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase were overexpressed together with the heterologous gene acsSEL641P encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase. The co-overexpression of ADH2, ALD6 and acsSEL641P with ws2 resulted in 408?±?270 ?g FAEE gCDW?1, a 3-fold improvement. Secondly, for the expression of the PHK pathway two genes, xpkA and ack, both descending from Aspergillus nidulans, were co-expressed together with ws2 to catalyze, respectively, the conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate to acetyl phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and acetyl phosphate to acetate. Alternatively, ack was substituted with pta from Bacillus subtilis, encoding phosphotransacetylase for the conversion of acetyl phosphate to acetyl-CoA. Both PHK pathways were additionally expressed in a strain with multiple chromosomally integrated ws2 gene, which resulted in respectively 5100?±?509 and 4670?±?379 ?g FAEE gCDW?1, an up to 1.7-fold improvement. Conclusion Two different strategies for engineering of the central carbon metabolism for efficient provision of acetyl-CoA and NADPH required for fatty acid biosynthesis and hence FAEE production were evaluated and it was found that both the ethanol degradation pathway as well as the phosphoketolase pathway improve the yield of FAEEs. PMID:24618091

2014-01-01

371

PROTEASOME ACTIVITY DECLINES IN AGED MACROPHAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in regulation of a variety of biologically important processes including antigen presentation by macrophages (Mf). Age-related decrease in proteasome activity has been reported in other tissues. However, the effect of aging on the ubiquitin-proteasome pat...

372

The RNA degradation pathway regulates the function of GAS5 a non-coding RNA in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Studies of various mRNAs have revealed that changes in the abundance of transcripts, through mRNA degradation, act as a critical step in the control of various biological pathways. Similarly, the regulation of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) levels is also considered to be important for their biological functions; however, far less is known about the mechanisms and biological importance of ncRNA turnover for the regulation of ncRNA functions. The growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) ncRNA accumulates during growth arrest induced by serum starvation and its transcript is degraded by the well characterized nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway. Historically, NMD was discovered as a RNA quality control system to eliminate aberrant transcripts; however, accumulating evidence shows that NMD also regulates the abundance of physiological transcripts. Interestingly, the GAS5 transcript has the ability to bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), resulting in the inhibition of its ligand-dependent association with DNA. The GR binds the promoters of various glucocorticoid-responsive genes, including apoptosis-related genes. In this study, we examined whether the RNA degradation pathway can regulate this function of GAS5. We measured the steady-state abundance and the decay rate of GAS5 in UPF1-depleted human cells using the 5'-bromo-uridine immunoprecipitation chase (BRIC) method, an inhibitor-free method for directly measuring RNA stability. We found that levels of the GAS5 transcript were elevated owing to prolonged decay rates in response to UPF1 depletion, and consequently the apoptosis-related genes, cIAP2 and SGK1, were down-regulated. In addition, serum starvation also increased the transcript levels of GAS5 because of prolonged decay rates, and conversely decreased levels of cIAP2 and SGK1 mRNA. Taken together, we found that the RNA degradation pathway can regulate the function of the GAS5 ncRNA in mammalian cells. PMID:23383264

Tani, Hidenori; Torimura, Masaki; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi

2013-01-01

373

Identification and characterization of the furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural degradation pathways of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14  

PubMed Central

The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates pose significant problems for the production of second-generation biofuels and biochemicals. Among these inhibitors, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) and furfural are specifically notorious. In this study, we describe the complete molecular identification and characterization of the pathway by which Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 metabolizes HMF and furfural. The identification of this pathway enabled the construction of an HMF and furfural-metabolizing Pseudomonas putida. The genetic information obtained furthermore enabled us to predict the HMF and furfural degrading capabilities of sequenced bacterial species that had not previously been connected to furanic aldehyde metabolism. These results pave the way for in situ detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, which is a major step toward improved efficiency of utilization of lignocellulosic feedstock. PMID:20194784

Koopman, Frank; Wierckx, Nick; de Winde, Johannes H.; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.

2010-01-01

374

Degradation of aromatic compounds through the ?-ketoadipate pathway is required for pathogenicity of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Plant roots react to pathogen attack by the activation of general and systemic resistance, including the lignification of cell walls and increased release of phenolic compounds in root exudate. Some fungi have the capacity to degrade lignin using ligninolytic extracellular peroxidases and laccases. Aromatic lignin breakdown products are further catabolized via the ?-ketoadipate pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (CMLE), an enzyme of the ?-ketoadipate pathway, in the pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici towards its host, tomato. As expected, the cmle deletion mutant cannot catabolize phenolic compounds known to be degraded via the ?-ketoadipate pathway. In addition, the mutant is impaired in root invasion and is nonpathogenic, even though it shows normal superficial root colonization. We hypothesize that the ?-ketoadipate pathway in plant-pathogenic, soil-borne fungi is necessary to degrade phenolic compounds in root exudate and/or inside roots in order to establish disease. PMID:22827542

Michielse, Caroline B; Reijnen, Linda; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2012-12-01

375

Mutations in NGLY1 Cause an Inherited Disorder of the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation (ERAD) Pathway  

PubMed Central

Purpose The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway is responsible for the translocation of misfolded proteins across the ER membrane into the cytosol for subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In order to understand the spectrum of clinical and molecular findings in a complex neurological syndrome, we studied a series of eight patients with inherited deficiency of N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1), a novel disorder of cytosolic ERAD dysfunction. Methods Whole-genome, whole-exome or standard Sanger sequencing techniques were employed. Retrospective chart reviews were performed in order to obtain clinical data. Results All patients had global developmental delay, a movement disorder, and hypotonia. Other common findings included hypo- or alacrima (7/8), elevated liver transaminases (6/7), microcephaly (6/8), diminished reflexes (6/8), hepatocyte cytoplasmic storage material or vacuolization (5/6), and seizures (4/8). The nonsense mutation c.1201A>T (p.R401X) was the most common deleterious allele. Conclusions NGLY1 deficiency is a novel autosomal recessive disorder of the ERAD pathway associated with neurological dysfunction, abnormal tear production, and liver disease. The majority of patients detected to date carry a specific nonsense mutation that appears to be associated with severe disease. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to enlarge as cases with a more broad range of mutations are detected. PMID:24651605

Enns, Gregory M.; Shashi, Vandana; Bainbridge, Matthew; Gambello, Michael J.; Zahir, Farah R.; Bast, Thomas; Crimian, Rebecca; Schoch, Kelly; Platt, Julia; Cox, Rachel; Bernstein, Jonathan; Scavina, Mena; Walter, Rhonda S.; Bibb, Audrey; Jones, Melanie; Hegde, Madhuri; Graham, Brett H.; Need, Anna C.; Oviedo, Angelica; Schaaf, Christian P.; Boyle, Sean; Butte, Atul J.; Chen, Rong; Clark, Michael J.; Haraksingh, Rajini; Cowan, Tina M.; He, Ping; Langlois, Sylvie; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Snyder, Michael; Gibbs, Richard; Freeze, Hudson H.; Goldstein, David B.

2014-01-01

376

The Copolymerization of CO_(2) and Cyclic Ethers and Their Degradation Pathways  

E-print Network

the degradation of select polycarbonates show the possibility of chemical recycling of plastic waste. For the copolymers made from CO_(2) and oxetane derivatives, this study focuses on the influence of steric hindrance in the 3-position of the monomer oxetane...

Wei, Sheng-Hsuan

2013-07-24

377

Insulin Increases Sestrin 2 Content by Reducing Its Degradation through the PI 3 K/mTOR Signaling Pathway.  

PubMed

Sestrin (SESN) is known as a cysteine sulfinic acid reductase. Recently, nonredox functions of SESN in metabolic regulation and antitumor property have been recognized. While mechanisms underlying the expression of SESN are not fully understood. Here we report that insulin markedly increased SESN2 level in HepG2 cells through mTOR activation. To determine whether insulin affects SESN2 degradation, we assessed SESN2 turnover by applying the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), and found that following insulin treatment SESN2 protein levels were reduced significantly slower than non-insulin-treated cells. Furthermore, the proteasomal inhibitor, MG132, dramatically increased SESN2 protein and its ubiquitination level while in the presence of MG132 insulin did not further increase SESN2 content, suggesting that insulin increases SESN2 content mainly via inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. We then explored the potential feedback role of SESN2 in insulin signaling by SESN2 siRNA knockdown in HepG2 cells. Following SESN2 knockdown insulin-stimulated PKB phosphorylation was enhanced and accompanied by reduced PTEN content. Taken together, our study suggests that insulin upregulates SESN2 content via the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway and this effect is attributed to decreased SESN2 degradation. Furthermore, SESN2 via modulating PTEN plays a negative feedback role in insulin signaling. PMID:25792980

Chai, Dandan; Wang, Guoyu; Zhou, Ziyu; Yang, Hanyan; Yu, Zhiwen

2015-01-01

378

Mutant membrane protein of the budding yeast spindle pole body is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum degradation pathway.  

PubMed Central

Mutation of either the yeast MPS2 or the NDC1 gene leads to identical spindle pole body (SPB) duplication defects: The newly formed SPB is improperly inserted into the nuclear envelope (NE), preventing the cell from forming a bipolar mitotic spindle. We have previously shown that both MPS2 and NDC1 encode integral membrane proteins localized at the SPB. Here we show that CUE1, previously known to have a role in coupling ubiquitin conjugation to ER degradation, is an unusual dosage suppressor of mutations in MPS2 and NDC1. Cue1p has been shown to recruit the soluble ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, Ubc7p, to the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane where it can ubiquitinate its substrates and target them for degradation by the proteasome. Both mps2-1 and ndc1-1 are also suppressed by disruption of UBC7 or its partner, UBC6. The Mps2-1p mutant protein level is markedly reduced compared to wild-type Mps2p, and deletion of CUE1 restores the level of Mps2-1p to nearly wild-type levels. Our data indicate that Mps2p may be targeted for degradation by the ER quality control pathway. PMID:12399372

McBratney, Susan; Winey, Mark

2002-01-01

379

Direct entry by RNase E is a major pathway for the degradation and processing of RNA in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli endoribonuclease E has a major influence on gene expression. It is essential for the maturation of ribosomal and transfer RNA as well as the rapid degradation of messenger RNA. The latter ensures that translation closely follows programming at the level of transcription. Recently, one of the hallmarks of RNase E, i.e. its ability to bind via a 5'-monophosphorylated end, was shown to be unnecessary for the initial cleavage of some polycistronic tRNA precursors. Here we show using RNA-seq analyses of ribonuclease-deficient strains in vivo and a 5'-sensor mutant of RNase E in vitro that, contrary to current models, 5'-monophosphate-independent, 'direct entry' cleavage is a major pathway for degrading and processing RNA. Moreover, we present further evidence that direct entry is facilitated by RNase E binding simultaneously to multiple unpaired regions. These simple requirements may maximize the rate of degradation and processing by permitting multiple sites to be surveyed directly without being constrained by 5'-end tethering. Cleavage was detected at a multitude of sites previously undescribed for RNase E, including ones that regulate the activity and specificity of ribosomes. A potentially broad role for RNase G, an RNase E paralogue, in the trimming of 5'-monophosphorylated ends was also revealed. PMID:25237058

Clarke, Justin E; Kime, Louise; Romero A, David; McDowall, Kenneth J

2014-10-01

380

Insulin Increases Sestrin 2 Content by Reducing Its Degradation through the PI3K/mTOR Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Sestrin (SESN) is known as a cysteine sulfinic acid reductase. Recently, nonredox functions of SESN in metabolic regulation and antitumor property have been recognized. While mechanisms underlying the expression of SESN are not fully understood. Here we report that insulin markedly increased SESN2 level in HepG2 cells through mTOR activation. To determine whether insulin affects SESN2 degradation, we assessed SESN2 turnover by applying the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), and found that following insulin treatment SESN2 protein levels were reduced significantly slower than non-insulin-treated cells. Furthermore, the proteasomal inhibitor, MG132, dramatically increased SESN2 protein and its ubiquitination level while in the presence of MG132 insulin did not further increase SESN2 content, suggesting that insulin increases SESN2 content mainly via inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. We then explored the potential feedback role of SESN2 in insulin signaling by SESN2 siRNA knockdown in HepG2 cells. Following SESN2 knockdown insulin-stimulated PKB phosphorylation was enhanced and accompanied by reduced PTEN content. Taken together, our study suggests that insulin upregulates SESN2 content via the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway and this effect is attributed to decreased SESN2 degradation. Furthermore, SESN2 via modulating PTEN plays a negative feedback role in insulin signaling.

Chai, Dandan; Wang, Guoyu; Zhou, Ziyu; Yang, Hanyan; Yu, Zhiwen

2015-01-01