These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Exploring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Protein Degradation Pathway in Yeast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory investigating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in yeast. In this exercise, the enzyme beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed in yeast under the control of a stress response promoter. Following exposure to heat stress to induce beta-gal expression, cycloheximide is added to halt…

Will, Tamara J.; McWatters, Melissa K.; McQuade, Kristi L.

2006-01-01

2

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates survivin degradation in a cell cycle-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Survivin, a human inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), plays an important role in both cell cycle regulation and inhibition of apoptosis. Survivin is expressed in cells during the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle, followed by rapid decline of both mRNA and protein levels at the G(1) phase. It has been suggested that cell cycle-dependent expression of survivin is regulated at the transcriptional level. In this study we demonstrate involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in post-translational regulation of survivin. Survivin is a short-lived protein with a half-life of about 30 minutes and proteasome inhibitors greatly stabilise survivin in vivo. Expression of the survivin gene under the control of the CMV promoter cannot block cell cycle-dependent degradation of the protein. Proteasome inhibitors can block survivin degradation during the G(1) phase and polyubiquitinated derivatives can be detected in vivo. Mutation of critical amino acid residues within the baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domain or truncation of the N terminus or the C terminus sensitises survivin to proteasome degradation. Together, these results indicate that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates survivin degradation in a cell cycle-dependent manner and structural changes greatly destabilise the survivin protein. PMID:11069780

Zhao, J; Tenev, T; Martins, L M; Downward, J; Lemoine, N R

2000-12-01

3

Livin promotes Smac/DIABLO degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

Livin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, encodes a protein containing a single baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain and a COOH-terminal RING finger domain. It has been reported that Livin directly interacts with caspase-3 and -7 in vitro and caspase-9 in vivo via its BIR domain and is negatively regulated by Smac/DIABLO. Nonetheless, the detailed mechanism underlying its antiapoptotic function has not yet been fully characterized. In this report, we provide, for the first time, the evidence that Livin can act as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for targeting the degradation of Smac/DIABLO. Both BIR domain and RING finger domain of Livin are required for this degradation in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate that Livin is an unstable protein with a half-life of less than 4 h in living cells. The RING domain of Livin promotes its auto-ubiquitination, whereas the BIR domain is likely to display degradation-inhibitory activity. Mutation in the Livin BIR domain greatly enhances its instability and nullifies its binding to Smac/DIABLO, resulting in a reduced antiapoptosis inhibition. Our findings provide a novel function of Livin: it exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity to degrade the pivotal apoptotic regulator Smac/DIABLO through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:16729033

Ma, L; Huang, Y; Song, Z; Feng, S; Tian, X; Du, W; Qiu, X; Heese, K; Wu, M

2006-12-01

4

Lipopolysaccharide Induces Degradation of Connexin43 in Rat Astrocytes via the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Proteolytic Pathway  

PubMed Central

The astrocytic syncytium plays a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis of the brain through the regulation of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Changes to GJIC in response to inflammatory stimuli in astrocytes may have serious effects on the brain. We have previously shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces connexin43 (Cx43) expression and GJIC in cultured rat astrocytes via a toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling pathway. In the present study, treatment of astrocytes with LPS resulted in a significant increase in levels of the phosphorylated forms of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) -1, -2, and -3 for up to 18 h. An increase in nuclear transcription factor NF-?B levels was also observed after 8 h of LPS treatment and was sustained for up to 18 h. The LPS-induced decrease in Cx43 protein levels and inhibition of GJIC were blocked by the SAPK/JNK inhibitor SP600125, but not by the NF-?B inhibitor BAY11-7082. Following blockade of de novo protein synthesis by cycloheximide, LPS accelerated Cx43 degradation. Moreover, the LPS-induced downregulation of Cx43 was blocked following inhibition of 26S proteasome activity using the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 or the irreversible proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. Immunoprecipitation analyses revealed an increased association of Cx43 with both ubiquitin and E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 in astrocytes after LPS stimulation for 6 h and this effect was prevented by SP600125. Taken together, these results suggest that LPS stimulation leads to downregulation of Cx43 expression and GJIC in rat astrocytes by activation of SAPK/JNK and the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. PMID:24236122

Liao, Chih-Kai; Jeng, Chung-Jiuan; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Wang, Shu-Huei; Wu, Jiahn-Chun

2013-01-01

5

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Proteasome Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has emerged as a central player in the regulation of several diverse cellular processes. Here, we describe the important components of this complex biochemical machinery as well as several important cellular substrates targeted by this pathway and examples of human diseases resulting from defects in various components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, this review covers the chemistry of synthetic and natural proteasome inhibitors, emphasizing their mode of actions toward the 20S proteasome. Given the importance of proteasome-mediated protein degradation in various intracellular processes, inhibitors of this pathway will continue to serve as both molecular probes of major cellular networks as well as potential therapeutic agents for various human diseases. PMID:11410931

Myung, Jayhyuk; Kim, Kyung Bo

2008-01-01

6

Inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-mediated I?B? degradation by a naturally occurring antibacterial peptide  

PubMed Central

Induction of NF-?B–dependent gene expression plays an important role in a number of biological processes including inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, few attempts aimed at selective regulation of this transcription factor have been successful. We report here that a naturally occurring antibacterial peptide PR39 reversibly binds to the ?7 subunit of the 26S proteasome and blocks degradation of NF-?B inhibitor I?B? by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway without affecting overall proteasome activity. I?B? phosphorylation and ubiquitination occur normally after PR39 treatment, and binding of valosin-containing proteins is not impaired. The inhibition of I?B? degradation abolishes induction of NF-?B–dependent gene expression in cell culture and in mouse models of acute pancreatitis and myocardial infarction, including upregulation of endothelial adhesion proteins VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. In the latter model, sustained infusion of PR39 peptide resulted in significant reduction of myocardial infarct size. PR39 and related peptides may provide novel means to regulate cellular function and to control of NF-?B–dependent gene expression for therapeutic purposes. PMID:10930447

Gao, Youhe; Lecker, Stewart; Post, Mark J.; Hietaranta, Antti J.; Li, Jian; Volk, Rudiger; Li, Min; Sato, Kaori; Saluja, Ashok K.; Steer, Michael L.; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Simons, Michael

2000-01-01

7

ER Degradation of a Misfolded Luminal Protein by the Cytosolic Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of proteins is initiated by their uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which possesses a proteolytic system able to degrade misfolded and nonassembled proteins. The ER degradation system was studied with yeast mutants defective in the breakdown of a mutated soluble vacuolar protein, carboxypeptidase yscY (CPY*). The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc7p participated in the degradation process, which was mediated by

Mark M. Hiller; Andreas Finger; Markus Schweiger; Dieter H. Wolf

1996-01-01

8

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway as a Therapeutic Target for Muscle Wasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrophy of skeletal muscle is common to a number of condi- tions, including cancer, sepsis, AIDS, renal failure, diabetes, severe trauma, and burns. In all cases, protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is depressed, whereas protein degradation is increased through an increase in activity and expression of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. This pathway is not responsive to simple nutritional intervention. Certain

Michael J. Tisdale

2005-01-01

9

The N-Terminal Region of Nurr1 (a.a 1–31) Is Essential for Its Efficient Degradation by the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway  

PubMed Central

NURR1/NR4A2 is an orphan nuclear receptor that is critical for the development and maintenance of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and regulates transcription of genes involved in the function of dopaminergic neurons directly via specific NGFI-B response elements (NBRE).and substantial data support a possible role of Nurr1 in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we show that Nurr1 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and determined that N-terminal region (a.a 1–31) of Nurr1 is essential for an efficient targeting of Nurr1 to degradation in the cell. Nurr1 ?1–31 has a much longer half-life, and as a consequence its steady-state protein levels were higher, than full-length Nurr1 in the cell. Nurr1 ?1–31 was as potent as Nurr1 full length in transcriptional luciferase reporter assays after normalization with the corresponding steady-state protein expression levels, either in trans-activation of NBRE or trans-repression of iNOS (inducible NO synthase) reporters. These results suggest that Nurr1 ?1–31, because of longer persistence in the cell, can be a good candidate for gene and cell therapies in the treatment of PD. PMID:23409108

Alvarez-Castelao, Beatriz; Losada, Fernando; Ahicart, Patrícia; Castaño, Jose G.

2013-01-01

10

Fucoidan inhibition of lung cancer in vivo and in vitro: role of the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin proteasome pathway in TGF? receptor degradation  

PubMed Central

Fucoidan, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, reduces tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that fucoidan reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, we found that LLC1-bearing mice continuously fed fucoidan showed greater antitumor activity than mice with discontinuous feeding. Fucoidan inhibited the in vitro growth of lung cancer cells. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) receptors (TGFRs) play important roles in the regulation of proliferation and progression, and high TGFRI expression in lung cancer specimens is associated with a worse prognosis. Herein, using lung cancer cells, we found that fucoidan effectively reduces TGFRI and TGFRII protein levels in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, fucoidan reduces TGFR downstream signaling events, including those in Smad2/3 and non-Smad pathways: Akt, Erk1/2, and FAK phosphorylation. Furthermore, fucoidan suppresses lung cancer cell mobility upon TGF? stimulation. To elucidate how fucoidan decreases TGFR proteins in lung cancer cells, we found that fucoidan enhances the ubiquitination proteasome pathway (UPP)-mediated degradation of TGFRs in A549 and CL1-5 cells. Mechanistically, fucoidan promotes Smurf2 and Smad7 to conjugate TGFRs, resulting in TGF degradation; however, Smurf2-shRNA abolishes fucoidan-enhanced UPP-mediated TGFR degradation. Our study is the first to identify a novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of fucoidan, namely decreasing tumor growth by modulating the TGFR/Smad7/Smurf2-dependent axis, leading to TGFR protein degradation and inhibition of lung cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Our current findings indicate that fucoidan is a potential therapeutic agent or dietary supplementation for lung cancer, acting via the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin degradation of TGF? receptors. PMID:25149540

Wu, Yu-Chung; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Hwang, Pai-An; Shih, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Jason

2014-01-01

11

Fucoidan inhibition of lung cancer in vivo and in vitro : role of the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin proteasome pathway in TGF? receptor degradation.  

PubMed

Fucoidan, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, reduces tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that fucoidan reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, we found that LLC1-bearing mice continuously fed fucoidan showed greater antitumor activity than mice with discontinuous feeding. Fucoidan inhibited the in vitro growth of lung cancer cells. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) receptors (TGFRs) play important roles in the regulation of proliferation and progression, and high TGFRI expression in lung cancer specimens is associated with a worse prognosis. Herein, using lung cancer cells, we found that fucoidan effectively reduces TGFRI and TGFRII protein levels in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, fucoidan reduces TGFR downstream signaling events, including those in Smad2/3 and non-Smad pathways: Akt, Erk1/2, and FAK phosphorylation. Furthermore, fucoidan suppresses lung cancer cell mobility upon TGF? stimulation. To elucidate how fucoidan decreases TGFR proteins in lung cancer cells, we found that fucoidan enhances the ubiquitination proteasome pathway (UPP)-mediated degradation of TGFRs in A549 and CL1-5 cells. Mechanistically, fucoidan promotes Smurf2 and Smad7 to conjugate TGFRs, resulting in TGF degradation; however, Smurf2-shRNA abolishes fucoidan-enhanced UPP-mediated TGFR degradation. Our study is the first to identify a novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of fucoidan, namely decreasing tumor growth by modulating the TGFR/Smad7/Smurf2-dependent axis, leading to TGFR protein degradation and inhibition of lung cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Our current findings indicate that fucoidan is a potential therapeutic agent or dietary supplementation for lung cancer, acting via the Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin degradation of TGF? receptors. PMID:25149540

Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Tung-Yi; Wu, Yu-Chung; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Hwang, Pai-An; Shih, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Jason

2014-09-15

12

Regulating the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway via cAMP-signaling: neuroprotective potential  

PubMed Central

The cAMP-signaling pathway has been under intensive investigation for decades. It is a wonder that such a small simple molecule like cAMP can modulate a vast number of diverse processes in different types of cells. The ubiquitous involvement of cAMP-signaling in a variety of cellular events requires tight spatial and temporal control of its generation, propagation, compartmentalization, and elimination. Among the various steps of the cAMP-signaling pathway, G-protein coupled receptors, adenylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, the two major cAMP targets, i.e. protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cAMP, as well as the A-kinase anchoring proteins, are potential targets for drug development. Herein we review the recent progress on the regulation and manipulation of different steps of the cAMP-signaling pathway. We end by focusing on the emerging role of cAMP-signaling in modulating protein degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. New discoveries on the regulation of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway by cAMP-signaling support the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevent proteotoxicity in chronic neurodegenerative disorders and other human disease conditions associated with impaired protein turnover by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and the accumulation of ubiquitin-protein aggregates. PMID:23686612

Huang, He; Wang, Hu; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.

2013-01-01

13

What do we really know about the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of many different rodent models of muscle wasting have indicated that accelerated proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the principal cause of muscle atrophy induced by fasting, cancer cachexia, metabolic acidosis, denervation, disuse, diabetes, sepsis, burns, hyperthyroidism and excess glucocorticoids. However, our understanding about how muscle proteins are degraded, and how the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is activated in muscle under these conditions, is still very limited. The identities of the important ubiquitin-protein ligases in skeletal muscle, and the ways in which they recognize substrates are still largely unknown. Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that one set of ubquitination enzymes, E2(14K) and E3(alpha), which are responsible for the 'N-end rule' system of ubiquitination, plays an important role in muscle, especially in catabolic states. However, their functional significance in degrading different muscle proteins is still unclear. This review focuses on the many gaps in our understanding of the functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy, and highlights the strengths and limitations of the different experimental approaches used in such studies.

Jagoe, R. T.; Goldberg, A. L.

2001-01-01

14

The ubiquitin-proteasome system and signal transduction pathways regulating Epithelial Mesenchymal transition of cancer  

PubMed Central

Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer, a process permitting cancer cells to become mobile and metastatic, has a signaling hardwire forged from development. Multiple signaling pathways that regulate carcinogenesis enabling characteristics in neoplastic cells such as proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and angiogenesis are also the main players in EMT. These pathways, as almost all cellular processes, are in their turn regulated by ubiquitination and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). Ubiquitination is the covalent link of target proteins with the small protein ubiquitin and serves as a signal to target protein degradation by the proteasome or to other outcomes such as endocytosis, degradation by the lysosome or specification of cellular localization. This paper reviews signal transduction pathways regulating EMT and being regulated by ubiquitination. PMID:22827778

2012-01-01

15

Role of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Regulating Abundance of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p27 mammalian cell cycle protein is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Both in vivo and in vitro, p27 was found to be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc2 and Ubc3 were specifically involved in the ubiquitination of p27. Compared with proliferating cells, quiescent cells exhibited a smaller amount of p27 ubiquitinating activity, which accounted for

Michele Pagano; Sun W. Tam; Anne M. Theodoras; Peggy Beer-Romero; Giannino del Sal; Vincent Chau; P. Renee Yew; Giulio F. Draetta; Mark Rolfe

1995-01-01

16

Protein degradation and increased mRNAs encoding proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in BC3H1 myocytes require an interaction between glucocorticoids and acidification.  

PubMed Central

In rats and humans, metabolic acidosis stimulates protein degradation and glucocorticoids have been implicated in this response. To evaluate the importance of glucocorticoids in stimulating proteolysis, we measured protein degradation in BC3H1 myocytes cultured in 12% serum. Acidification accelerated protein degradation but dexamethasone did not augment this response. To reduce the influence of glucocorticoids and other hormones and cytokines in 12% serum that could mediate proteolysis, we studied BC3H1 myocytes maintained in only 1% serum. Acidification of the medium or addition of dexamethasone at pH 7.4 did not significantly increase protein degradation, while acidification plus dexamethasone accelerated proteolysis. The steroid receptor antagonist RU 486 prevented this proteolytic response. Acidification of the medium with 1% serum did increase the mRNAs for ubiquitin and the C2 proteasome subunit, but when dexamethasone was added the mRNAs were increased significantly more. The steroid-receptor antagonist RU 486 suppressed this response to the addition of dexamethasone but the mRNAs remained at the levels measured in cells at pH 7.1 alone. Thus, acidification alone can increase the mRNAs of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, but both acidosis and glucocorticoids are required to stimulate protein degradation. Since these changes occur without adding cytokines or other hormones, we conclude that the proteolytic response to acidification requires glucocorticoids. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8700868

Isozaki, U; Mitch, W E; England, B K; Price, S R

1996-01-01

17

Protein Degradation by Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Formation and Labilization of Contextual Conditioning Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this…

Fustiñana, María Sol; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

2014-01-01

18

PTEN increases autophagy and inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in glioma cells independently of its lipid phosphatase activity.  

PubMed

Two major mechanisms of intracellular protein degradation, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, operate in mammalian cells. PTEN, which is frequently mutated in glioblastomas, is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I/AKT/mTOR pathway, which is a key regulator of autophagy. Here, we investigated in U87MG human glioma cells the role of PTEN in the regulation of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, because both are functionally linked and are relevant in cancer progression. Since U87MG glioma cells lack a functional PTEN, we used stable clones that express, under the control of a tetracycline-inducible system (Tet-on), wild-type PTEN and two of its mutants, G129E-PTEN and C124S-PTEN, which, respectively, lack the lipid phosphatase activity only and both the lipid and the protein phosphatase activities of this protein. Expression of PTEN in U87MG glioma cells decreased proteasome activity and also reduced protein ubiquitination. On the contrary, expression of PTEN increased the autophagic flux and the lysosomal mass. Interestingly, and although PTEN negatively regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by its lipid phosphatase activity, both effects in U87MG cells were independent of this activity. These results suggest a new mTOR-independent signaling pathway by which PTEN can regulate in opposite directions the main mechanisms of intracellular protein degradation. PMID:24349488

Errafiy, Rajaa; Aguado, Carmen; Ghislat, Ghita; Esteve, Juan M; Gil, Anabel; Loutfi, Mohammed; Knecht, Erwin

2013-01-01

19

PTEN Increases Autophagy and Inhibits the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Glioma Cells Independently of its Lipid Phosphatase Activity  

PubMed Central

Two major mechanisms of intracellular protein degradation, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, operate in mammalian cells. PTEN, which is frequently mutated in glioblastomas, is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I/AKT/mTOR pathway, which is a key regulator of autophagy. Here, we investigated in U87MG human glioma cells the role of PTEN in the regulation of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, because both are functionally linked and are relevant in cancer progression. Since U87MG glioma cells lack a functional PTEN, we used stable clones that express, under the control of a tetracycline-inducible system (Tet-on), wild-type PTEN and two of its mutants, G129E-PTEN and C124S-PTEN, which, respectively, lack the lipid phosphatase activity only and both the lipid and the protein phosphatase activities of this protein. Expression of PTEN in U87MG glioma cells decreased proteasome activity and also reduced protein ubiquitination. On the contrary, expression of PTEN increased the autophagic flux and the lysosomal mass. Interestingly, and although PTEN negatively regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by its lipid phosphatase activity, both effects in U87MG cells were independent of this activity. These results suggest a new mTOR-independent signaling pathway by which PTEN can regulate in opposite directions the main mechanisms of intracellular protein degradation. PMID:24349488

Errafiy, Rajaa; Aguado, Carmen; Ghislat, Ghita; Esteve, Juan M.; Gil, Anabel; Loutfi, Mohammed; Knecht, Erwin

2013-01-01

20

Malformed selenoproteins are removed by the ubiquitin--proteasome pathway in Stanleya pinnata.  

PubMed

Despite the widely accepted belief that selenium toxicity in plants is manifested by the misincorporation of selenocysteine into selenoproteins, there is a lack of data suggesting that selenoproteins are malformed or misfolded. Plant mechanisms to prevent the formation of selenoproteins are associated with increased selenium tolerance, yet there is no evidence to suggest that selenoproteins are malformed or potentially misfolded. We reasoned that if selenoproteins are malformed, then they might be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The data demonstrate that selenate treatment induced the accumulation of both oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins, thus implicating both the 20S and 26S proteasome of Stanleya pinnata, a selenium-hyperaccumulating plant, in a selenate response. Inhibition of the proteasome increases the amount of selenium incorporated into protein, but not other elements. Furthermore, a higher percentage of selenium was found in a ubiquitinated protein fraction compared with other elements, suggesting that malformed selenoproteins are preferentially ubiquitinated and removed by the proteasome. Additionally, levels of the 20S and 26S proteasome and two heat shock proteins increase upon selenate treatment. Arabidopsis mutants with defects in the 26S proteasome have decreased selenium tolerance, which further supports the hypothesis that the 26S proteasome probably prevents selenium toxicity by removing selenoproteins. PMID:22323770

Sabbagh, Melissa; Van Hoewyk, Doug

2012-03-01

21

Limiting the power of p53 through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is critical in restraining the activities of the p53 tumor suppressor. Numerous E3 and E4 ligases regulate p53 levels. Additionally, deubquitinating enzymes that modify p53 directly or indirectly also impact p53 function. When alterations of these proteins result in increased p53 activity, cells arrest in the cell cycle, senesce, or apoptose. On the other hand, alterations that result in decreased p53 levels yield tumor-prone phenotypes. This review focuses on the physiological relevance of these important regulators of p53 and their therapeutic implications. PMID:25128494

Pant, Vinod; Lozano, Guillermina

2014-08-15

22

Enzymatic Blockade of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway  

E-print Network

Ubiquitin-dependent processes control much of cellular physiology. We show that expression of a highly active, Epstein-Barr virus-derived deubiquitylating enzyme (EBV-DUB) blocks proteasomal degradation of cytosolic and ...

Ernst, Robert

23

Targeting Tumor Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway with Polyphenols for Chemosensitization  

PubMed Central

The development of tumor drug resistance is one of the biggest obstacles on the way to achieve a favorable outcome of chemotherapy. Among various strategies that have been explored to overcome drug resistance, the combination of current chemotherapy with plant polyphenols as a chemosensitizer has emerged as a promising one. Plant polyphenols are a group of phytochemicals characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. Mechanistic studies suggest that polyphenols have multiple intracellular targets, one of which is the proteasome complex. The proteasome is a proteolytic enzyme complex responsible for intracellular protein degradation and has been shown to play an important role in tumor growth and the development of drug resistance. Therefore, proteasome inhibition by plant polyphenols could be one of the mechanisms contributing to their chemosensitizing effect. Plant polyphenols that have been identified to possess proteasome-inhibitory activity include (?)-epigallocatechins-3-gallate (EGCG), genistein, luteolin, apigenin, chrysin, quercetin, curcumin and tannic acid. These polyphenols have exhibited an appreciable effect on overcoming resistance to various chemotherapeutic drugs as well as multidrug resistance in a broad spectrum of tumors ranging from carcinoma and sarcoma to hematological malignances. The in vitro and in vivo studies on polyphenols with proteasome-inhibitory activity have built a solid foundation to support the idea that they could serve as a chemosensitizer for the treatment of cancer. In-depth mechanistic studies and identification of optimal regimen are needed in order to eventually translate this laboratory concept into clinical trials to actually benefit current chemotherapy. PMID:22292765

Shen, Min; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q. Ping

2012-01-01

24

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Mediates Gelsolin Protein Downregulation in Pancreatic Cancer  

E-print Network

A well-known observation with respect to cancer biology is that transformed cells display a disturbed cytoskeleton. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain only partly understood. In an effort to identify possible mechanisms, we compared the proteome of pancreatic cancer with matched normal pancreas and observed diminished protein levels of gelsolin—an actin filament severing and capping protein of crucial importance for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity—in pancreatic cancer. Additionally, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas displayed substantially decreased levels of gelsolin as judged by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of tissue micoarrays, when compared with cancerous and untransformed tissue from the same patients (P 0.05), suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms mediate low gelsolin protein levels. In apparent agreement, high activity ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in both patient samples and the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cell line was detected, and inhibition of the 26s proteasome system quickly restored gelsolin protein levels in the latter cell line. The status of ubiquitinated gelsolin is related to lymph node metastasis of pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, gelsolin levels are actively downregulated in pancreatic cancer and enhanced targeting of gelsolin to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is an important contributing factor for this effect.

Xiao-guang Ni; Lu Zhou; Gui-qi Wang; Shang-mei Liu; Xiao-feng Bai; Fang Liu; Ping Zhao

25

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway mediates gelsolin protein downregulation in pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

A well-known observation with respect to cancer biology is that transformed cells display a disturbed cytoskeleton. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain only partly understood. In an effort to identify possible mechanisms, we compared the proteome of pancreatic cancer with matched normal pancreas and observed diminished protein levels of gelsolin--an actin filament severing and capping protein of crucial importance for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity--in pancreatic cancer. Additionally, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas displayed substantially decreased levels of gelsolin as judged by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of tissue micoarrays, when compared with cancerous and untransformed tissue from the same patients (P < 0.05). Importantly, no marked downregulation of gelsolin mRNA was observed (P > 0.05), suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms mediate low gelsolin protein levels. In apparent agreement, high activity ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in both patient samples and the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cell line was detected, and inhibition of the 26s proteasome system quickly restored gelsolin protein levels in the latter cell line. The status of ubiquitinated gelsolin is related to lymph node metastasis of pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, gelsolin levels are actively downregulated in pancreatic cancer and enhanced targeting of gelsolin to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is an important contributing factor for this effect. PMID:18584046

Ni, Xiao-Guang; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Gui-Qi; Liu, Shang-Mei; Bai, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Fang; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Zhao, Ping

2008-01-01

26

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Mediates Gelsolin Protein Downregulation in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

A well-known observation with respect to cancer biology is that transformed cells display a disturbed cytoskeleton. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain only partly understood. In an effort to identify possible mechanisms, we compared the proteome of pancreatic cancer with matched normal pancreas and observed diminished protein levels of gelsolin—an actin filament severing and capping protein of crucial importance for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity—in pancreatic cancer. Additionally, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas displayed substantially decreased levels of gelsolin as judged by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of tissue micoarrays, when compared with cancerous and untransformed tissue from the same patients (P < 0.05). Importantly, no marked downregulation of gelsolin mRNA was observed (P > 0.05), suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms mediate low gelsolin protein levels. In apparent agreement, high activity ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in both patient samples and the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cell line was detected, and inhibition of the 26s proteasome system quickly restored gelsolin protein levels in the latter cell line. The status of ubiquitinated gelsolin is related to lymph node metastasis of pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, gelsolin levels are actively downregulated in pancreatic cancer and enhanced targeting of gelsolin to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is an important contributing factor for this effect. PMID:18584046

Ni, Xiao-Guang; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Gui-Qi; Liu, Shang-Mei; Bai, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Fang; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Zhao, Ping

2008-01-01

27

Regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy pathways after acute LPS and epoxomicin administration in mice  

PubMed Central

Background The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is a major protein degradation pathway that is activated during sepsis and has been proposed as a therapeutic target for preventing skeletal muscle loss due to cachexia. Although several studies have investigated the modulation of proteasome activity in response to LPS administration, none have characterized the overall UPP response to LPS administration in the fate of proteasome inhibition. Methods Here, we determined the modulation pattern of the main key components of the UPP in the gastrocnemius (GAS) of mice during the acute phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated endotoxemia (7.5 mg/kg – 8 h) by measuring all three ?1, ?2 and ?5 activites of the 20S and 26S proteasomes, the levels of steady state polyubiquitinated proteins, mRNA levels of muscle ligases, as well as signaling pathways regulating the UPP. Another goal was to assess the effects of administration of a specific proteasome inhibitor (epoxomicin, 0.5 mg/kg) on UPP response to sepsis. Results The acute phase of LPS-induced endotoxemia lowered GAS/body weight ratio and increased MuRF1 and MAFbx mRNA concomitantly to an activation of the pathways known to regulate their expression. Unexpectedly, we observed a decrease in all 20S and 26S proteasome activities measured in GAS, which might be related to oxidative stress, as oxidized proteins (carbonyl levels) increase with LPS. While significantly inhibiting 20S and 26S proteasome ?5 activities in heart and liver, epoxomicin did not lower proteasome activity in GAS. However, the increase in mRNA expression of the muscle ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx were partially rescued without affecting the other investigated signaling pathways. LPS also strongly activated autophagy, which could explain the observed GAS atrophy with LPS-induced reduction of proteasome activity. Conclusions Our results highlight an opposite regulation of UPP in the early hours of LPS-induced muscle atrophy by showing reduced proteasome activities and increased mRNA expression of muscle specific ligases. Furthermore, our data do not support any preventive effect of epoxomicin in muscle atrophy due to acute cachexia since proteasome activities are not further repressed. PMID:24885455

2014-01-01

28

Ubiquitin-proteasome dependent degradation of GABAA?1 in autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Although the neurobiological basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood, recent studies have indicated the potential role of GABAA receptors in the pathophysiology of ASD. GABAA receptors play a crucial role in various neurodevelopmental processes and adult neuroplasticity. However, the mechanism(s) of regulation of GABAA receptors in ASD remains poorly understood. Methods Postmortem middle frontal gyrus tissues (13 ASD and 13 control subjects) were used. In vitro studies were performed in primary cortical neurons at days in vitro (DIV) 14. The protein levels were examined by western blotting. Immunofluorescence studies were employed for cellular localization. The gene expression was determined by RT-PCR array and qRT-PCR. Results A significant decrease in GABAA?1 protein, but not mRNA levels was found in the middle frontal gyrus of ASD subjects indicating a post-translational regulation of GABAA receptors in ASD. At the cellular level, treatment with proteasomal inhibitor, MG132, or lactacystin significantly increased GABAA?1 protein levels and Lys48-linked polyubiquitination of GABAA?1, but reduced proteasome activity in mouse primary cortical neurons (DIV 14 from E16 embryos). Moreover, treatment with betulinic acid, a proteasome activator significantly decreased GABAA?1 protein levels in cortical neurons indicating the role of polyubiquitination of GABAA?1 proteins with their subsequent proteasomal degradation in cortical neurons. Ubiquitination specific RT-PCR array followed by western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in SYVN1, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) E3 ubiquitin ligase in the middle frontal gyrus of ASD subjects. In addition, the inhibition of proteasomal activity by MG132 increased the expression of GABAA?1 in the ER. The siRNA knockdown of SYVN1 significantly increased GABAA?1 protein levels in cortical neurons. Moreover, reduced association between SYVN1 and GABAA?1 was found in the middle frontal gyrus of ASD subjects. Conclusions SYVN1 plays a critical role as an E3 ligase in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS)-mediated GABAA?1 degradation. Thus, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated GABAA?1 degradation may be an important mechanism for preventing GABAA?1 turnover to maintain GABAA?1 levels and GABA signaling in ASD. PMID:25392730

2014-01-01

29

Involvement of Protein Degradation by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Opiate Addictive Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Plastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a structure occupying a key position in the neural circuitry related to motivation, are among the critical cellular processes responsible for drug addiction. During the last decade, it has been shown that memory formation and related neuronal plasticity may rely not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). In this study, we assess the role of protein degradation in the NAcc in opiate-related behaviors. For this purpose, we coupled behavioral experiments to intra-accumbens injections of lactacystin, an inhibitor of the UPS. We show that protein degradation in the NAcc is mandatory for a full range of animal models of opiate addiction including morphine locomotor sensitization, morphine conditioned place preference, intra-ventral tegmental area morphine self-administration and intra-venous heroin self-administration but not for discrimination learning rewarded by highly palatable food. This study provides the first evidence of a specific role of protein degradation by the UPS in addiction. PMID:23169349

Massaly, Nicolas; Dahan, Lionel; Baudonnat, Mathieu; Hovnanian, Caroline; Rekik, Khaoula; Solinas, Marcello; David, Vincent; Pech, Stéphane; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Roullet, Pascal; Mouledous, Lionel; Frances, Bernard

2013-01-01

30

Protein degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

Sol Fustiñana, María; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

2014-09-01

31

The acidosis of chronic renal failure activates muscle proteolysis in rats by augmenting transcription of genes encoding proteins of the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed Central

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with negative nitrogen balance and loss of lean body mass. To identify specific proteolytic pathways activated by CRF, protein degradation was measured in incubated epitrochlearis muscles from CRF and sham-operated, pair-fed rats. CRF stimulated muscle proteolysis, and inhibition of lysosomal and calcium-activated proteases did not eliminate this increase. When ATP production was blocked, proteolysis in CRF muscles fell to the same level as that in control muscles. Increased proteolysis was also prevented by feeding CRF rats sodium bicarbonate, suggesting that activation depends on acidification. Evidence that the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is stimulated by the acidemia of CRF includes the following findings: (a) An inhibitor of the proteasome eliminated the increase in muscle proteolysis; and (b) there was an increase in mRNAs encoding ubiquitin (324%) and proteasome subunits C3 (137%) and C9 (251%) in muscle. This response involved gene activation since transcription of mRNAs for ubiquitin and the C3 subunit were selectively increased in muscle of CRF rats. We conclude that CRF stimulates muscle proteolysis by activating the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway. The mechanism depends on acidification and increased expression of genes encoding components of the system. These responses could contribute to the loss of muscle mass associated with CRF. PMID:8617877

Bailey, J L; Wang, X; England, B K; Price, S R; Ding, X; Mitch, W E

1996-01-01

32

Control of I?B? proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been determined that the proteolytic destruction of I?B (inhibitor of NF-?B) by the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a key role in the immediate elimination of I?B from the I?B-(NF-?B) complex which allows nuclear translocation of free NF-?B, thus leading to activation of a multitude of target genes. The SCFFbw1 (composed of Skp1, Cul-1, Roc1, and Fbw1) complex, identified

Keiji Tanaka; Takayuki Kawakami; Keisuke Tateishi; Hideki Yashiroda; Tomoki Chiba

2001-01-01

33

Dystrophin involved in the susceptibility of slow muscles to hindlimb unloading via concomitant activation of TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation in mice.  

PubMed

While it is well known that the slow-twitch muscles are vulnerable to microgravity conditions, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Dystrophin, which constitutes an important link between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix, is hypothesized to be involved in force generation and mechanical stabilization of the skeletal muscle. Here we have shown that after a 14-day hindlimb unloading (HU) of the C57BL/10 mice, the expression of dystrophin was significantly down-regulated in the fast-twitch myofibers, while in the slow-twitch myofibers, it was up-regulated. In order to investigate the role of dystrophin in HU-induced susceptibility to muscle atrophy, we compared the degradation signaling mechanisms of slow-twitch soleus muscle in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) and the wild-type (WT) mice. We found that mdx mice manifest less reduction of muscle mass and myofiber cross-sectional area than the control animals. Also, the expression of two ubiquitin ligases (MuRF1, Atrogin-1), which plays a crucial role in the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated muscular degradation, was significantly down-regulated in soleus muscle of the hindlimb-unloaded mdx mice. In comparison, in the soleus muscle of unloaded WT mice, these ligases were significantly up-regulated. Whereas the hindlimb unloading reduced the expression of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?1)/Smad3 in mdx mice, in WT mice, the expression of this growth factor was augmented in response to unloading. Correspondingly, as a result of HU of the mdx mice, the expression of four subtypes of the myosin heavy chain and troponin I was reduced or it exhibited a delayed slow-to-fast transition. In summary, our results suggest that dystrophin exerts an intermediary and positive role in the disuse atrophy of the slow-twitch muscles. This effect is mediated through the activation of TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling and downstream ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:24839113

Zhang, Peng; Li, Wenjiong; Liu, Hongju; Li, Jinglong; Wang, Jing; Li, Yanan; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhong; Fan, Ming

2014-11-01

34

CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation  

SciTech Connect

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College and Institutes of Biomedical, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College and Institutes of Biomedical, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin, E-mail: jxgu@shmu.edu.cn [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College and Institutes of Biomedical, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College and Institutes of Biomedical, Shanghai 200032 (China)

2009-08-28

35

Inhibition of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activity Prevents Glutamate Transporter Degradation and Morphine Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Glutamate transporters play a crucial role in physiological glutamate homeostasis and neurotoxicity. Recently, we have shown that downregulation of glutamate transporters after chronic morphine exposure contributed to the development of morphine tolerance. In the present study, we examined whether regulation of the glutamate transporter expression with the proposed proteasome inhibitor MG-132 would contribute to the development of tolerance to repeated intrathecal (twice daily × 7 days) morphine administration in rats. The results showed that MG-132 (5 nmol) given intrathecally blocked morphine-induced glutamate transporter downregulation and the decrease in glutamate uptake activity within the spinal cord dorsal horn. Co-administration of morphine (15 nmol) with MG-132 (vehicle = 1 < 2.5 < 5 = 10 nmol) also dose-dependently prevented the development of morphine tolerance in rats. These findings suggest that prevention of spinal glutamate transporter downregulation may regulate the glutamatergic function that has been implicated in the development of morphine tolerance. The possible relationship between MG-132-mediated regulation of glutamate transporters, ubiquitin-proteasome system, and the cellular mechanisms of morphine tolerance is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:18986766

Yang, Liling; Wang, Shuxing; Lim, Grewo; Sung, Backil; Zeng, Qing; Mao, Jianren

2012-01-01

36

Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome activity prevents glutamate transporter degradation and morphine tolerance.  

PubMed

Glutamate transporters play a crucial role in physiological glutamate homeostasis and neurotoxicity. Recently, we have shown that downregulation of glutamate transporters after chronic morphine exposure contributed to the development of morphine tolerance. In the present study, we examined whether regulation of the glutamate transporter expression with the proposed proteasome inhibitor MG-132 would contribute to the development of tolerance to repeated intrathecal (twice daily x 7 days) morphine administration in rats. The results showed that MG-132 (5 nmol) given intrathecally blocked morphine-induced glutamate transporter downregulation and the decrease in glutamate uptake activity within the spinal cord dorsal horn. Co-administration of morphine (15 nmol) with MG-132 (vehicle=1<2.5<5=10 nmol) also dose-dependently prevented the development of morphine tolerance in rats. These findings suggest that prevention of spinal glutamate transporter downregulation may regulate the glutamatergic function that has been implicated in the development of morphine tolerance. The possible relationship between MG-132-mediated regulation of glutamate transporters, ubiquitin-proteasome system, and the cellular mechanisms of morphine tolerance is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:18986766

Yang, Liling; Wang, Shuxing; Lim, Grewo; Sung, Backil; Zeng, Qing; Mao, Jianren

2008-12-01

37

Docosahexaenoic acid induces the degradation of HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins by activating the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

The oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 proteins are essential for the onset and maintenance of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, we report that activation of the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), leads to proteasome-mediated degradation of E6/E7 viral proteins and the induction of apoptosis in HPV-infected cancer cells. The increases in UPS activity and degradation of E6/E7 oncoproteins were associated with DHA-induced overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous oxidative stress and pharmacological induction of mitochondrial ROS showed effects similar to those of DHA, and inhibition of ROS production abolished UPS activation, E6/E7 viral protein destabilization, and apoptosis. These findings identify a novel role for DHA in the regulation of UPS and viral proteins, and provide evidence for the use of DHA as a mechanistically unique anticancer agent for the chemoprevention and treatment of HPV-associated tumors. PMID:25393480

Jing, K; Shin, S; Jeong, S; Kim, S; Song, K-S; Park, J-H; Heo, J-Y; Seo, K-S; Park, S-K; Kweon, G-R; Wu, T; Park, J-I; Lim, K

2014-01-01

38

Complement modulates the function of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation in glomerular epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In experimental membranous nephropathy, complement C5b-9 induces sublethal glomerular epithelial cell (GEC) injury and proteinuria. C5b-9 also activates mechanisms that restrict injury or facilitate recovery. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) selectively degrades damaged or abnormal proteins, while misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) undergo ER-associated degradation (ERAD). In this study, we investigated the effect of complement on the UPS and ERAD. We monitored UPS function by transfection of rat GECs with a UPS reporter, GFP(u) (CL1 degron fused with green fluorescent protein). By analogy, CD3?-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was employed as a reporter of ERAD. We demonstrated decreased GFP(u) levels in GECs after incubation with antibody and complement, compared with control. Using C8-deficient serum with or without purified C8, cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis), and the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, we confirmed that the decrease of GFP(u) was mediated by C5b-9, and subsequent proteasomal degradation of the reporter. Inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase attenuated the effect of complement on GFP(u) degradation. Complement, however, increased the level of CD3?-YFP in GECs, implying an impairment of ERAD, likely due to an overabundance of misfolded proteins in the ER. The overall ubiquitination of proteins was enhanced in complement-treated GECs and in glomeruli of rats with experimental membranous nephropathy, although ubiquitin mRNA was unchanged in GECs. Proteasome inhibition with MG132 increased the cytotoxic effect of complement in GECs. Complement-stimulated UPS function, by accelerating removal of damaged proteins, may be a novel mechanism to limit complement-induced injury. PMID:22426620

Kitzler, Thomas M; Papillon, Joan; Guillemette, Julie; Wing, Simon S; Cybulsky, Andrey V

2012-05-01

39

Roles for the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Protein Quality Control and Signaling in the Retina: Implications in the Pathogenesis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of damaged or postsynthetically modified proteins and dysregulation of inflammatory responses and angiogenesis in the retina/RPE are thought be etiologically related to formation of drusen and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays crucial roles in protein quality control, cell cycle control and signal transduction. Selective degradation of aberrant proteins by the UPP is essential for timely removal of potentially cytotoxic damaged or otherwise abnormal proteins. Proper function of the UPP is thought to be required for cellular function. In contrast, age- or stress induced- impairment the UPP or insufficient UPP capacity may contribute to the accumulation of abnormal proteins, cytotoxicity in the retina, and AMD. Crucial roles for the UPP in eye development, regulation of signal transduction, and antioxidant responses are also established. Insufficient UPP capacity in retina and RPE can result in dysregulation of signal transduction, abnormal inflammatory responses and CNV. There are also interactions between the UPP and lysosomal proteolytic pathways (LPP). Means that modulate the proteolytic capacity are making their way into new generation of pharmacotherapies for delaying age-related diseases and may augment the benefits of adequate nutrition, with regard to diminishing the burden of AMD. PMID:22521794

Shang, Fu; Taylor, Allen

2012-01-01

40

Blocking Plasmodium falciparum Development via Dual Inhibition of Hemoglobin Degradation and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System by MG132  

PubMed Central

Among key potential drug target proteolytic systems in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are falcipains, a family of hemoglobin-degrading cysteine proteases, and the ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS), which has fundamental importance in cellular protein turnover. Inhibition of falcipains blocks parasite development, primarily due to inhibition of hemoglobin degradation that serves as a source of amino acids for parasite growth. Falcipains prefer P2 leucine in substrates and peptides, and their peptidyl inhibitors with leucine at the P2 position show potent antimalarial activity. The peptidyl inhibitor MG132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-CHO) is a widely used proteasome inhibitor, which also has P2 leucine, and has also been shown to inhibit parasite development. However, the antimalarial targets of MG132 are unclear. We investigated whether MG132 blocks malaria parasite development by inhibiting hemoglobin degradation and/or by targeting the UPS. P. falciparum was cultured with inhibitors of the UPS (MG132, epoxomicin, and lactacystin) or falcipains (E64), and parasites were assessed for morphologies, extent of hemoglobin degradation, and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. MG132, like E64 and unlike epoxomicin or lactacystin, blocked parasite development, with enlargement of the food vacuole and accumulation of undegraded hemoglobin, indicating inhibition of hemoglobin degradation by MG132, most likely due to inhibition of hemoglobin-degrading falcipain cysteine proteases. Parasites cultured with epoxomicin or MG132 accumulated ubiquitinated proteins to a significantly greater extent than untreated or E64-treated parasites, indicating that MG132 inhibits the parasite UPS as well. Consistent with these findings, MG132 inhibited both cysteine protease and UPS activities present in soluble parasite extracts, and it strongly inhibited recombinant falcipains. MG132 was highly selective for inhibition of P. falciparum (IC50 0.0476 µM) compared to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (IC50 10.8 µM). Thus, MG132 inhibits two distinct proteolytic systems in P. falciparum, and it may serve as a lead molecule for development of dual-target inhibitors of malaria parasites. PMID:24023882

Kolla, Venkata Karunakar; Legac, Jennifer; Singhal, Neha; Navale, Rahul; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Sijwali, Puran Singh

2013-01-01

41

Regulation of HTLV-1 Tax Stability, Cellular Trafficking and NF-?B Activation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in 3%–5% of infected individuals after a long latent period. HTLV-1 Tax is a trans-activating protein that regulates viral gene expression and also modulates cellular signaling pathways to enhance T-cell proliferation and cell survival. The Tax oncoprotein promotes T-cell transformation, in part via constitutive activation of the NF-?B transcription factor; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Ubiquitination is a type of post-translational modification that occurs in a three-step enzymatic cascade mediated by E1, E2 and E3 enzymes and regulates protein stability as well as signal transduction, protein trafficking and the DNA damage response. Emerging studies indicate that Tax hijacks the ubiquitin machinery to activate ubiquitin-dependent kinases and downstream NF-?B signaling. Tax interacts with the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and is conjugated on C-terminal lysine residues with lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Tax K63-linked polyubiquitination may serve as a platform for signaling complexes since this modification is critical for interactions with NEMO and IKK. In addition to NF-?B signaling, mono- and polyubiquitination of Tax also regulate its subcellular trafficking and stability. Here, we review recent advances in the diverse roles of ubiquitin in Tax function and how Tax usurps the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to promote oncogenesis. PMID:25341660

Lavorgna, Alfonso; Harhaj, Edward William

2014-01-01

42

Regulation of HTLV-1 tax stability, cellular trafficking and NF-?B activation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in 3%-5% of infected individuals after a long latent period. HTLV-1 Tax is a trans-activating protein that regulates viral gene expression and also modulates cellular signaling pathways to enhance T-cell proliferation and cell survival. The Tax oncoprotein promotes T-cell transformation, in part via constitutive activation of the NF-?B transcription factor; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Ubiquitination is a type of post-translational modification that occurs in a three-step enzymatic cascade mediated by E1, E2 and E3 enzymes and regulates protein stability as well as signal transduction, protein trafficking and the DNA damage response. Emerging studies indicate that Tax hijacks the ubiquitin machinery to activate ubiquitin-dependent kinases and downstream NF-?B signaling. Tax interacts with the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and is conjugated on C-terminal lysine residues with lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Tax K63-linked polyubiquitination may serve as a platform for signaling complexes since this modification is critical for interactions with NEMO and IKK. In addition to NF-?B signaling, mono- and polyubiquitination of Tax also regulate its subcellular trafficking and stability. Here, we review recent advances in the diverse roles of ubiquitin in Tax function and how Tax usurps the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to promote oncogenesis. PMID:25341660

Lavorgna, Alfonso; Harhaj, Edward William

2014-10-01

43

Multiple C-Terminal Lysine Residues Target p53 for Ubiquitin-Proteasome-Mediated Degradation  

PubMed Central

In normal cells, p53 is maintained at a low level by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, but after genotoxic insult this process is inhibited and p53 levels rise dramatically. Ubiquitination of p53 requires the ubiquitin-activating enzyme Ubc5 as a ubiquitin conjugation enzyme and Mdm2, which acts as a ubiquitin protein ligase. In addition to the N-terminal region, which is required for interaction with Mdm2, the C-terminal domain of p53 modulates the susceptibility of p53 to Mdm2-mediated degradation. To analyze the role of the C-terminal domain in p53 ubiquitination, we have generated p53 molecules containing single and multiple lysine-to-arginine changes between residues 370 and 386. Although wild-type (WT) and mutant molecules show similar subcellular distributions, the mutants display a higher transcriptional activity than WT p53. Simultaneous mutation of lysine residues 370, 372, 373, 381, 382, and 386 to arginine residues (6KR p53 mutant) generates a p53 molecule with potent transcriptional activity that is resistant to Mdm2-induced degradation and is refractory to Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination. In contrast to WT p53, transcriptional activity directed by the 6KR p53 mutant fails to be negatively regulated by Mdm2. Those differences are also manifest in HeLa cells which express the human papillomavirus E6 protein, suggesting that p53 C-terminal lysine residues are also implicated in E6-AP-mediated ubiquitination. These data suggest that p53 C-terminal lysine residues are the main sites of ubiquitin ligation, which target p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. PMID:11046142

Rodriguez, Manuel S.; Desterro, Joana M. P.; Lain, Sonia; Lane, David P.; Hay, Ronald T.

2000-01-01

44

Integration of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway with a cytosolic oligopeptidase activity  

E-print Network

-leu-leu-leu-vinylsulfone). Elevated TPPII activity also partially restores peptide loading of MHC molecules. Purified proteasomes from adapted cells lack the chymotryptic-like activity, but still degrade longer peptide substrates via as C-terminally modified peptide derivatives (1, 16), which all bind to the N-terminal threonine

Bogyo, Matthew

45

Calpain 3 participates in sarcomere remodeling by acting upstream of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the non-lysosomal cysteine protease calpain 3 cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A). Our previous studies of the calpain 3 knockout mouse (C3KO) suggested a role for calpain 3 in sarcomere formation and remodeling. Calpain 3 may mediate remodeling by cleavage and release of myofi- brillar proteins, targeting them for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Loss of proper protein

Irina Kramerova; Elena Kudryashova; Gayathri Venkatraman; Melissa J. Spencer

2005-01-01

46

NRAGE promotes cell proliferation by stabilizing PCNA in a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in esophageal carcinomas.  

PubMed

Neurotrophin receptor-interacting melanoma antigen-encoding gene homolog (NRAGE) is generally recognized as a tumor suppressor as it induces cell apoptosis and suppresses cell metastasis. However, it has recently been reported that NRAGE is overexpressed in lung cancer, melanoma and colon cancer, implicating a complicated role of NRAGE as we have expected. In the study, we aim to elucidate the functional roles and molecular mechanisms of NRAGE in esophageal carcinoma. We found that both NRAGE mRNA and protein were significantly overexpressed in esophageal tumor tissues. Consistently, both in vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrated that knockdown of NRAGE apparently inhibited cell growth, and cell cycle analysis further demonstrated that NRAGE knockdown cells were mainly arrested in G2M cell phase, accompanied with an apparent reduction of S phase. In the process of exploring molecular mechanisms, we found that either knockdown in vitro or knockout in vivo of NRAGE reduced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein, expression of which could completely rescue the inhibited proliferation in NRAGE defective cells. Furthermore, NRAGE physically interacted with PCNA in esophageal cancer cells through DNA polymerase III subunit, and knockdown of NRAGE facilitated PCNA K48-linked polyubiquitination, leading PCNA to the proteasome-dependent degradation and a ubiquitin-specific protease USP10 was identified to be a key regulator in the process of K48 polyubiquitination in NRAGE-deleted cells. In conclusion, our study highlights a unique role of NRAGE and implies that NRAGE is likely to be an attractive oncotarget in developing novel genetic anticancer therapeutic strategies for esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:24710624

Yang, Qingyuan; Ou, Chao; Liu, Mei; Xiao, Weifan; Wen, Chuanjun; Sun, Fenyong

2014-07-01

47

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Regulates Mitochondrial Intermembrane Space Proteins  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial precursor proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and subsequently imported into mitochondria. The import of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins is coupled with their oxidative folding and governed by the mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly (MIA) pathway. The cytosolic steps that precede mitochondrial import are not well understood. We identified a role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the biogenesis of intermembrane space proteins. Interestingly, the function of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is not restricted to conditions of mitochondrial protein import failure. The ubiquitin-proteasome system persistently removes a fraction of intermembrane space proteins under physiological conditions, acting as a negative regulator in the biogenesis of this class of proteins. Thus, the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in determining the levels of proteins targeted to the intermembrane space of mitochondria. PMID:23508107

Bragoszewski, Piotr; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Sztolsztener, Malgorzata E.

2013-01-01

48

Ubiquitin-Proteasome System as a Modulator of Cell Fate  

PubMed Central

Summary The ubiquitin/ proteasome system is the major non-lysosymal system for degrading proteins in the cell; the work leading to its discovery was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2004. In addition to small ubiquitin-like modifiers (e.g. Sumo and Nedd8), ubiquitin is involved in the complex regulation of the levels and function of many proteins and signaling pathways involved in determining cell fate. The cell death regulatory proteins, such as Bcl-2 family proteins and caspases are targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). In addition to mediating the degradation of proteins, the UPS regulates function and translocation of proteins, many of which play a role in the determination of cell fate. For example the UPS can regulate the activity of transcription factors, such as P53, NF-?B and HIF-1?, which control the expression of protein mediators of cell death. Aberrant UPS function has been reported in multiple neuropathologies including Parkinson's diseases and ischemia. With the number of ubiquitin conjugating and de-conjugating enzymes reaching close to the levels of protein kinases and phosphatases, it is clear that ubiquitination is an important biological regulatory step for proteins. PMID:17981502

Thompson, Simon; Loftus, Liam; Ashley, Michelle; Meller, Robert

2008-01-01

49

Seek and destroy: The ubiquitin-proteasome system in cardiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a major proteolytic system that regulates the degradation of intracellular proteins\\u000a in the heart. The UPS regulates the turnover of misfolded and damaged proteins, in addition to numerous cellular processes,\\u000a by affecting the stability of short-lived proteins such as transcription factors and cell signaling pathways. The UPS is tightly\\u000a regulated by the specificity of ubiquitin

Jessica E. Rodríoguez; Jonathan C. Schisler; Cam Patterson; Monte S. Willis

2009-01-01

50

Fbp1-Mediated Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Controls Cryptococcus neoformans Virulence by Regulating Fungal Intracellular Growth in Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that often causes lung and brain infections in immunocompromised patients, with a high fatality rate. Our previous results showed that an F-box protein, Fbp1, is essential for Cryptococcus virulence independent of the classical virulence factors, suggesting a novel virulence control mechanism. In this study, we show that Fbp1 is part of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and we further investigated the mechanism of Fbp1 function during infection. Time course studies revealed that the fbp1? mutant causes little damage in the infected lung and that the fungal burden in the lung remains at a low but persistent level throughout infection. The fbp1? mutant cannot disseminate to other organs following pulmonary infection in the murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis but still causes brain infection in a murine intravenous injection model, suggesting that the block of dissemination of the fbp1? mutant is due to its inability to leave the lung. The fbp1? mutant showed a defect in intracellular proliferation after phagocytosis in a Cryptococcus-macrophage interaction assay, which likely contributes to its virulence attenuation. To elucidate the molecular basis of the SCF(Fbp1) E3 ligase function, we analyzed potential Fbp1 substrates based on proteomic approaches combined with phenotypic analysis. One substrate, the inositol phosphosphingolipid-phospholipase C1 (Isc1), is required for fungal survival inside macrophage cells, which is consistent with the role of Fbp1 in regulating Cryptococcus-macrophage interaction and fungal virulence. Our results thus reveal a new determinant of fungal virulence that involves the posttranslational regulation of inositol sphingolipid biosynthesis. PMID:24478071

Liu, Tong-Bao

2014-01-01

51

Pexophagy-linked degradation of the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex3p involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

Peroxisome autophagy, also known as pexophagy, describes the wholesale degradation of peroxisomes via the vacuole, when organelles become damaged or redundant. In the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, pexophagy is stimulated when cells growing on methanol are exposed to excess glucose. Degradation of the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex3p, a process that does not involve the vacuole, was shown to trigger pexophagy. In this contribution, we have characterised pexophagy-associated Pex3p degradation further. We show that Pex3p breakdown depends on ubiquitin and confirm that Pex3p is a target for ubiquitination. Furthermore, we identify a role for the peroxisomal E3 ligases Pex2p and Pex10p in Pex3p degradation, suggesting the existence of a ubiquitin-dependent pathway involved in removing proteins from the peroxisomal membrane. PMID:23899522

Williams, Chris; van der Klei, Ida J

2013-08-23

52

Rapid degradation of cyclooxygenase-1 and hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase through ubiquitin-proteasome system in response to intracellular calcium level  

PubMed Central

Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (H-PGDS) proteins, which are both involved in the arachidonate cascade, were stable in human megakaryocytic MEG-01 cells. In contrast, once the intracellular calcium level was increased by treatment with a calcium ionophore, both protein levels rapidly decreased with a half-life of less than 30 and 120 min for COX-1 and H-PGDS, respectively. In the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, COX-1 and H-PGDS proteins accumulated within 10 and 30 min, respectively, and concurrently appeared as the high-molecular-mass ubiquitinated proteins within 30 and 60 min, respectively, after an increase in the intracellular calcium level. The ubiquitination of these proteins was also observed when ADP, instead of a calcium ionophore, was used as an inducer to elevate the intracellular calcium level. When the entry of calcium ion into the cells was inhibited by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the ubiquitination of COX-1 and H-PGDS was clearly suppressed; and the addition of CaCl2 to the medium cleared the EGTA-mediated suppression of the ubiquitination. These results indicate that COX-1 and H-PGDS were rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded through the ubiquitin–proteasome system in response to the elevation of the intracellular calcium level. PMID:22049022

Yazaki, Misato; Kashiwagi, Kaori; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Fujimori, Ko

2012-01-01

53

A free radical-generating system regulates A?PP metabolism/processing: involvement of the ubiquitin/proteasome and autophagy/lysosome pathways.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported that, in SK-N-MC cells, the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X-XOD) free radical generating system regulates the metabolism/processing of the amyloid-? protein precursor (A?PP). Oxidative stress alters the two main cellular proteolytic machineries, the ubiquitin/proteasome (UPS) and the autophagy/lysosome systems, and recent studies have established connections between the malfunctioning of these and the pathogenesis of AD. The aim of the present work was to examine the involvement of these proteolytic systems in the regulation of A?PP metabolism by X-XOD. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 was found to accelerate the metabolism/processing of A?PP promoted by X-XOD because it significantly enhances the secretion of ?-secretase-cleaved soluble A?PP and also the levels of both carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs) produced by ?- and ?-secretase. Further, MG132 modulated the intracellular accumulation of holo-A?PP and/or A?PP CTFs. This indicates that the X-XOD modulation of A?PP metabolism/processing involves the UPS pathway. With respect to the autophagy/lysosome pathway, the A?PP processing and intracellular location patterns induced by X-XOD treatment closely resembled those produced by the lysosome inhibitor ammonium chloride. The present results suggest that the regulation of A?PP metabolism/processing by mild oxidative stress requires UPS activity with a simultaneous reduction in that of the autophagy/lysosome system. PMID:23254632

Recuero, María; Munive, Victor A; Sastre, Isabel; Aldudo, Jesús; Valdivieso, Fernando; Bullido, María J

2013-01-01

54

Activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of cachectic rats bearing a hepatoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats implanted with Yoshida ascites hepatoma (YAH) show a rapid and selective loss of muscle protein due mainly to a marked increase (63-95%) in the rate of protein degradation (compared with rates in muscles of pair-fed controls). To define which proteolytic pathways contribute to this increase, epitrochlearis muscles from YAH-bearing and control rats were incubated under conditions that modify different proteolytic systems. Overall proteolysis in either group of rats was not affected by removal of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Inhibition of lysosomal function with methylamine reduced proteolysis (-12%) in muscles from YAH-bearing rats, but not in muscles of pair-fed rats. When ATP production was also inhibited, the remaining accelerated proteolysis in muscles of tumor-bearing rats fell to control levels. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and a 27-kDa proteasome subunit in Western blot analysis. Levels of mRNA encoding components of proteolytic systems were quantitated using Northern hybridization analysis. Although their total RNA content decreased 20-38%, pale muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin mRNA (590-880%) and mRNA for multiple subunits of the proteasome (100-215%). Liver, kidney, heart, and brain showed no weight loss and no change in these mRNA species. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats also showed small increases (30-40%) in mRNA for cathepsins B and D, but not for calpain I or heat shock protein 70. Our findings suggest that accelerated muscle proteolysis and muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats result primarily from activation of the ATP-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and the proteasome.

Baracos, V. E.; DeVivo, C.; Hoyle, D. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

1995-01-01

55

From ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation to CDK1 inactivation: requirements for the first polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes.  

PubMed

Completion of the first meiotic division, manifested by extrusion of the first polar body (PBI), depends on proteasomal degradation of cyclin B1 and securin and the subsequent respective CDK1 inactivation and chromosome segregation. We aimed at identifying the polyubiquitin signal that mediates proteasomal action and at a better characterization of the role of CDK1 inactivation at this stage of meiosis. Microinjections of mutated ubiquitin proteins into mouse oocytes revealed that interference with lysine-11 polyubiquitin chains abrogated chromosome segregation and reduced PBI extrusion by 63% as compared to WT ubiquitin-injected controls. Inactivation of CDK1 in oocytes arrested at first metaphase by a proteasome inhibitor fully rescued PBI extrusion. However, removal of CDK1 inhibition failed to allow progression to the second metaphase, rather, inducing PBI reengulfment in 62% of the oocytes. Inhibition of either PLK1 or MEK1/2 during the first anaphase changed spindle dimensions. The PLK1 inhibitor also blocked PBI emission and prevented RhoA translocation. Our results identified lysine-11 rather than the canonic lysine-48 ubiquitin chains as the degradation signal in oocytes resuming meiosis, further disclosing that CDK1 inactivation is necessary and sufficient for PBI emission. This information significantly contributes to our understanding of faulty chromosome segregation that may lead to aneuploidy. PMID:22859367

Pomerantz, Yael; Elbaz, Judith; Ben-Eliezer, Inbal; Reizel, Yitzhak; David, Yael; Galiani, Dalia; Nevo, Nava; Navon, Ami; Dekel, Nava

2012-11-01

56

Dysregulation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Human Carotid Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the principal degradation route of intracellular and oxidized proteins, thus regulating many cellular processes conceivably important for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of ubiquitin-proteasome system in human carotid artery plaques in relation to oxidative stress and clinical manifestation. Methods and Results—In carotid endarterectomy specimens from 83 asymptomatic and 94 symptomatic

Daniele Versari; Joerg Herrmann; Mario Gossl; Dallit Mannheim; Katherine Sattler; Fredric B. Meyer; Lilach O. Lerman; Amir Lerman

2010-01-01

57

Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and some peptidases during seed germination and copper stress in bean cotyledons.  

PubMed

The role of the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway and some endo- and aminopeptidases (EPs and APs, respectively) was studied in cotyledons of germinating bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Ub system appeared to be important both in the early (3 days) and late (9 days) phases of germination. In the presence of copper, an increase in protein carbonylation and a decrease in reduced -SH pool occurred, indicating protein damage. This was associated with an enhancement in accumulation of malondialdehyde, a major product of lipid peroxidation, and an increase in content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), showing oxidative stress generation. Moreover, copper induced inactivation of the Ub-proteasome (EC 3.4.25) pathway and inhibition of leucine and proline aminopeptidase activities (EC 3.4.11.1 and EC 3.4.11.5, respectively), thus limiting their role in modulating essential metabolic processes, such as the removal of regulatory and oxidatively-damaged proteins. By contrast, total trypsin and chymotrypsin-like activities (EC 3.4.21.4 and EC 3.4.21.1, respectively) increased after copper exposure, in parallel with a decrease in their inhibitor capacities (i.e. trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity), suggesting that these endoproteases are part of the protective mechanisms against copper stress. PMID:24486582

Karmous, Inès; Chaoui, Abdelilah; Jaouani, Khadija; Sheehan, David; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Scoccianti, Valeria; Crinelli, Rita

2014-03-01

58

Impairment of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway by Methyl N-(6-Phenylsulfanyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate Leads to a Potent Cytotoxic Effect in Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in proteasome inhibitors as a novel class of anticancer drugs. We report that fenbendazole (FZ) (methyl N-(6-phenylsulfanyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate) exhibits a potent growth-inhibitory activity against cancer cell lines but not normal cells. We show here, using fluorogenic substrates, that FZ treatment leads to the inhibition of proteasomal activity in the cells. Succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-methylcoumarinamide (MCA), benzyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Leu-Glu-7-amido-4-MCA, and t-butoxycarbonyl-Gln-Ala-Arg-7-amido-4-MCA fluorescent derivatives were used to assess chymotrypsin-like, post-glutamyl peptidyl-hydrolyzing, and trypsin-like protease activities, respectively. Non-small cell lung cancer cells transiently transfected with an expression plasmid encoding pd1EGFP and treated with FZ showed an accumulation of the green fluorescent protein in the cells due to an increase in its half-life. A number of apoptosis regulatory proteins that are normally degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway like cyclins, p53, and I?B? were found to be accumulated in FZ-treated cells. In addition, FZ induced distinct ER stress-associated genes like GRP78, GADD153, ATF3, IRE1?, and NOXA in these cells. Thus, treatment of human NSCLC cells with fenbendazole induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, reactive oxygen species production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release that eventually led to cancer cell death. This is the first report to demonstrate the inhibition of proteasome function and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress/reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cell lines by fenbendazole, which may represent a new class of anticancer agents showing selective toxicity against cancer cells. PMID:22745125

Dogra, Nilambra; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas

2012-01-01

59

Potent activity of carfilzomib, a novel, irreversible inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, against preclinical models of multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

The proteasome has emerged as an important target for cancer therapy with the approval of bortezomib, a first-in-class, reversible proteasome inhibitor, for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). However, many patients have disease that does not respond to bortezomib, whereas others develop resistance, suggesting the need for other inhibitors with enhanced activity. We therefore evaluated a novel, irreversible, epoxomicin-related proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib. In models of MM, this agent potently bound and specifically inhibited the chymotrypsin-like proteasome and immunoproteasome activities, resulting in accumulation of ubiquitinated substrates. Carfilzomib induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation, ultimately leading to apoptosis. Programmed cell death was associated with activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, release of cytochrome c, and activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways. This agent also inhibited proliferation and activated apoptosis in patient-derived MM cells and neoplastic cells from patients with other hematologic malignancies. Importantly, carfilzomib showed increased efficacy compared with bortezomib and was active against bortezomib-resistant MM cell lines and samples from patients with clinical bortezomib resistance. Carfilzomib also overcame resistance to other conventional agents and acted synergistically with dexamethasone to enhance cell death. Taken together, these data provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of carfilzomib in MM. PMID:17591945

Kuhn, Deborah J.; Chen, Qing; Voorhees, Peter M.; Strader, John S.; Shenk, Kevin D.; Sun, Congcong M.; Demo, Susan D.; Bennett, Mark K.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.; Chanan-Khan, Asher A.

2007-01-01

60

Sit4 phosphatase is functionally linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed Central

Using a synthetic lethality screen we found that the Sit4 phosphatase is functionally linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Yeast cells harboring sit4 mutations and an impaired proteasome (due to pre1-1 pre4-1 mutations) exhibited defective growth on minimal medium. Nearly identical synthetic effects were found when sit4 mutations were combined with defects of the Rad6/Ubc2- and Cdc34/Ubc3-dependent ubiquitination pathways. Under synthetic lethal conditions, sit4 pre or sit4 ubc mutants formed strongly enlarged unbudded cells with a DNA content of 1N, indicating a defect in the maintenance of cell integrity during starvation-induced G(1) arrest. Sit4-related synthetic effects could be cured by high osmotic pressure or by the addition of certain amino acids to the growth medium. These results suggest a concerted function of the Sit4 phosphatase and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in osmoregulation and in the sensing of nutrients. Further analysis showed that Sit4 is not a target of proteasome-dependent protein degradation. We could also show that Sit4 does not contribute to regulation of proteasome activity. These data suggest that both Sit4 phosphatase and the proteasome act on a common target protein. PMID:12930741

Singer, Thorsten; Haefner, Stefan; Hoffmann, Michael; Fischer, Michael; Ilyina, Julia; Hilt, Wolfgang

2003-01-01

61

The ubiquitin-proteasome system and microvascular complications of diabetes.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the mainstay of protein quality control which regulates cell cycle, differentiation and various signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. The timely and selective degradation of surplus and/or aberrant proteins by the UPS is essential for normal cellular physiology. Any disturbance, delay or exaggeration in the process of selection, sequestration, labeling for degradation and degradation of target proteins by the UPS will compromise cellular and tissue homeostasis. High blood glucose or hyperglycemia caused by diabetes disrupts normal vascular function in several target organs including the retina and kidney resulting in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). We and others have shown that hyperglycemia and oxidative stress modulate UPS activity in the retina and kidney. The majority of studies have focused on the kidney and provided insights into the contribution of dysregulated UPS to microvascular damage in DN. The eye is a unique organ in which a semi-fluid medium, the vitreous humor, separates the neural retina and its anastomosed blood vessels from the semi-solid lens tissue. The complexity of the cellular and molecular components of the eye may require a normal functioning and well tuned UPS for healthy vision. Altered UPS activity may contribute to the development of retinal microvascular complications of diabetes. A better understanding of the molecular nature of the ocular UPS function under normal and diabetic conditions is essential for development of novel strategies targeting its activity. This review will discuss the association of retinal vascular cell UPS activity with microvascular damage in DR with emphasis on alterations of the PA28 subunits of the UPS. PMID:24349668

Aghdam, Saeed Yadranji; Sheibani, Nader

2013-07-01

62

A Conditional Yeast E1 Mutant Blocks the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway and Reveals a Role for Ubiquitin Conjugates in Targeting Rad23 to the Proteasome  

PubMed Central

E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme catalyzes the initial step in all ubiquitin-dependent processes. We report the isolation of uba1-204, a temperature-sensitive allele of the essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae E1 gene, UBA1. Uba1-204 cells exhibit dramatic inhibition of the ubiquitin–proteasome system, resulting in rapid depletion of cellular ubiquitin conjugates and stabilization of multiple substrates. We have employed the tight phenotype of this mutant to investigate the role ubiquitin conjugates play in the dynamic interaction of the UbL/UBA adaptor proteins Rad23 and Dsk2 with the proteasome. Although proteasomes purified from mutant cells are intact and proteolytically active, they are depleted of ubiquitin conjugates, Rad23, and Dsk2. Binding of Rad23 to these proteasomes in vitro is enhanced by addition of either free or substrate-linked ubiquitin chains. Moreover, association of Rad23 with proteasomes in mutant and wild-type cells is improved upon stabilizing ubiquitin conjugates with proteasome inhibitor. We propose that recognition of polyubiquitin chains by Rad23 promotes its shuttling to the proteasome in vivo. PMID:17360968

Ghaboosi, Nazli

2007-01-01

63

The role of allostery in the ubiquitin-proteasome system  

PubMed Central

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System is involved in many cellular processes including protein degradation. Degradation of a protein via this system involves two successive steps: ubiquitination and degradation. Ubiquitination tags the target protein with ubiquitin-like proteins, such as ubiquitin, SUMO and NEDD8, via a cascade involving three enzymes: activating enzyme E1, conjugating enzyme E2, and E3 ubiquitin ligases. The proteasomes recognize the ubiquitin-like protein tagged substrate proteins and degrade them. Accumulating evidence indicates that allostery is a central player in the regulation of ubiquitination, as well as deubiquitination and degradation. Here, we provide an overview of the key mechanistic roles played by allostery in all steps of these processes, and highlight allosteric drugs targeting them. Throughout the review, we emphasize the crucial mechanistic role played by linkers in allosterically controlling the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System action by biasing the sampling of the conformational space, which facilitate the catalytic reactions of the ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we propose that allostery may similarly play key roles in the regulation of molecular machines in the cell, and as such allosteric drugs can be expected to be increasingly exploited in therapeutic regimes. PMID:23234564

Liu, Jin; Nussinov, Ruth

2012-01-01

64

Proteotoxic crisis, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Genomic alterations may make cancer cells more dependent than normal cells on mechanisms of proteostasis, including protein folding and degradation. This proposition is the basis for the clinical use of proteasome inhibitors to treat multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. However, proteasome inhibitors have not proved effective in treating other cancers, and this has called into question the general applicability of this approach. Here, I consider possible explanations for this apparently limited applicability, and discuss whether inhibiting other broadly acting components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system - including ubiquitin-activating enzyme and the AAA-ATPase p97/VCP - might be more generally effective in cancer therapy. PMID:25385277

Deshaies, Raymond J

2014-01-01

65

The LeATL6-associated ubiquitin/proteasome system may contribute to fungal elicitor-activated defense response via the jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathway in tomato.  

PubMed

The expression of LeATL6, an ortholog of Arabidopsis ATL6 that encodes a RING-H2 finger protein, was induced in tomato roots treated with a cell wall protein fraction (CWP) elicitor of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum. The LeATL6 protein was expressed as a fusion protein with a maltose-binding protein (MBP) in Escherichia coli, and it catalyzed the transfer of ubiquitin to the MBP moiety on incubation with ubiquitin, the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2; this indicated that LeATL6 represents ubiquitin ligase E3. LeATL6 expression also was induced by elicitor treatment of jail-1 mutant tomato cells in which the jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling pathway was impaired; however, JA-dependent expression of the basic PR-6 and TPI-1 genes that encode proteinase inhibitor II and I, respectively, was not induced in elicitor-treated jail-1 mutants. Furthermore, transient overexpression of LeATL6 under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter induced the basic PR6 and TPI-1 expression in wild tomato but not in the jail-1 mutant. In contrast, LeATL6 overexpression did not activate salicylic acid-responsive acidic PR-1 and PR-2 promoters in wild tomato. These results indicated that elicitor-responsive LeATL6 probably regulates JA-dependent basic PR6 and TPI-1 gene expression in tomato. The LeATL6-associated ubiquitin/proteasome system may contribute to elicitor-activated defense responses via a JA-dependent signaling pathway in plants. PMID:17249424

Hondo, Daisuke; Hase, Shu; Kanayama, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Takenaka, Shigehito; Takahashi, Hideki

2007-01-01

66

The role of allostery in the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in many cellular processes including protein degradation. Degradation of a protein via this system involves two successive steps: ubiquitination and degradation. Ubiquitination tags the target protein with ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs), such as ubiquitin, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and NEDD8, via a cascade involving three enzymes: activating enzyme E1, conjugating enzyme E2 and E3 ubiquitin ligases. The proteasomes recognize the UBL-tagged substrate proteins and degrade them. Accumulating evidence indicates that allostery is a central player in the regulation of ubiquitination, as well as deubiquitination and degradation. Here, we provide an overview of the key mechanistic roles played by allostery in all steps of these processes, and highlight allosteric drugs targeting them. Throughout the review, we emphasize the crucial mechanistic role played by linkers in allosterically controlling the UPS action by biasing the sampling of the conformational space, which facilitate the catalytic reactions of the ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we propose that allostery may similarly play key roles in the regulation of molecular machines in the cell, and as such allosteric drugs can be expected to be increasingly exploited in therapeutic regimes. PMID:23234564

Liu, Jin; Nussinov, Ruth

2013-01-01

67

The Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Ischemia and Ischemic Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitin modification targets a protein for rapid degradation by the proteasome. However, poly-ubiquitination of proteins can result in multiple functions depending on the topology of the ubiquitin chain. Therefore ubiquitin signaling offers a more complex and versatile biology compared to many other post translational modifications. One area of potential for the application of this knowledge is the field of ischemia-induced brain damage, as occurs following a stroke. The ubiquitin proteasome system may exert a dual role on neuronal outcome following ischemia. Harmful ischemia results in an overload of the ubiquitin proteasome system, and blocking the proteasome reduces brain infarction following ischemia. However, the rapid and selective degradation of proteins following brief ischemia results in endogenous protection against ischemia. Therefore further understanding of the molecular signaling mechanisms which regulate the ubiquitin proteasome system may reveal novel therapeutic targets to reduce brain damage when ischemia is predicted, or to reduce the activation of the cell death mechanisms and the inflammatory response following stroke. The aim of this review is to discuss some of the recent advances in the understanding of protein ubiquitination and its implications for novel stroke therapies. PMID:19181875

Meller, Robert

2010-01-01

68

Measuring activity in the ubiquitin-proteasome system: From large scale discoveries to single cells analysis  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the primary pathway responsible for the recognition and degradation of misfolded, damaged, or tightly regulated proteins in addition to performing essential roles in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, and the immune response. While traditional biochemical techniques have proven useful in the identification of key proteins involved in this pathway, the implementation of novel reporters responsible for measuring enzymatic activity of the UPS have provided valuable insight into the effectiveness of therapeutics and role of the UPS in various human diseases such as multiple myeloma and Huntington’s disease. These reporters, usually consisting of a recognition sequences fused to an analytical handle, are designed to specifically evaluate enzymatic activity of certain members of the UPS including the proteasome, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). This review highlights the more commonly used reporters employed in a variety of scenarios ranging from high-throughput screening of novel inhibitors to single cell microscopy techniques measuring E3 ligase or proteasome activity. Finally, recent work is presented highlighting the development of novel degron-based substrate designed to overcome the limitations of current reporting techniques in measuring E3 ligase and proteasome activity in patient samples. PMID:23686610

Melvin, Adam T.; Woss, Gregery S.; Park, Jessica H.; Waters, Marcey L.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

2013-01-01

69

The ubiquitin-proteasome system in spongiform degenerative disorders.  

PubMed

Spongiform degeneration is characterized by vacuolation in nervous tissue accompanied by neuronal death and gliosis. Although spongiform degeneration is a hallmark of prion diseases, this pathology is also present in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and Canavan's spongiform leukodystrophy. The shared outcome of spongiform degeneration in these diverse diseases suggests that common cellular mechanisms must underlie the processes of spongiform change and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissues reveals increased ubiquitin immunoreactivity in and around areas of spongiform change, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction in the pathogenesis of spongiform neurodegeneration. The link between aberrant ubiquitination and spongiform neurodegeneration has been strengthened by the discovery that a null mutation in the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase mahogunin ring finger-1 (Mgrn1) causes an autosomal recessively inherited form of spongiform neurodegeneration in animals. Recent studies have begun to suggest that abnormal ubiquitination may alter intracellular signaling and cell functions via proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent mechanisms, leading to spongiform degeneration and neuronal cell death. Further elucidation of the pathogenic pathways involved in spongiform neurodegeneration should facilitate the development of novel rational therapies for treating prion diseases, HIV infection, and other spongiform degenerative disorders. PMID:18790052

Whatley, Brandi R; Li, Lian; Chin, Lih-Shen

2008-12-01

70

The ubiquitin-proteasome system in spongiform degenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Spongiform degeneration is characterized by vacuolation in nervous tissue accompanied by neuronal death and gliosis. Although spongiform degeneration is a hallmark of prion diseases, this pathology is also present in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and Canavan's spongiform leukodystrophy. The shared outcome of spongiform degeneration in these diverse diseases suggests that common cellular mechanisms must underlie the processes of spongiform change and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissues reveals increased ubiquitin immunoreactivity in and around areas of spongiform change, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction in the pathogenesis of spongiform neurodegeneration. The link between aberrant ubiquitination and spongiform neurodegeneration has been strengthened by the discovery that a null mutation in the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase mahogunin ring finger-1 (Mgrn1) causes an autosomal recessively inherited form of spongiform neurodegeneration in animals. Recent studies have begun to suggest that abnormal ubiquitination may alter intracellular signaling and cell functions via proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent mechanisms, leading to spongiform degeneration and neuronal cell death. Further elucidation of the pathogenic pathways involved in spongiform neurodegeneration should facilitate the development of novel rational therapies for treating prion diseases, HIV infection, and other spongiform degenerative disorders. PMID:18790052

Whatley, Brandi R.; Li, Lian; Chin, Lih-Shen

2008-01-01

71

Menin Missense Mutants Associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Are Rapidly Degraded via the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEN1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and that encodes a 610-amino-acid protein, called menin. While the majority of germ line mutations identified in MEN1 patients are frameshift and nonsense mutations resulting in truncation of the menin protein, various missense mutations have been identified whose effects on menin activity are unclear.

Hiroko Yaguchi; Naganari Ohkura; Maho Takahashi; Yuko Nagamura; Issay Kitabayashi; Toshihiko Tsukada

2004-01-01

72

Coordination of Cell Growth and Division by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

The coupling of cellular growth and division is crucial for a cell to make an accurate copy of itself. Regulated protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in the coordination of these two processes. Many ubiquitin ligases, in particular the Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) family and Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC), couple growth and division by targeting cell cycle and metabolic regulators for degradation. However, many regulatory proteins are targeted by multiple ubiquitin ligases. As a result, we are only just beginning to understand the complexities of the proteolytic regulatory network that connects cell growth and the cell cycle. PMID:22542766

Benanti, Jennifer A.

2012-01-01

73

Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in brain ischemia: friend or foe?  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a catalytic machinery that targets numerous cellular proteins for degradation, thus being essential to control a wide range of basic cellular processes and cell survival. Degradation of intracellular proteins via the UPS is a tightly regulated process initiated by tagging a target protein with a specific ubiquitin chain. Neurons are particularly vulnerable to any change in protein composition, and therefore the UPS is a key regulator of neuronal physiology. Alterations in UPS activity may induce pathological responses, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Brain ischemia triggers a complex series of biochemical and molecular mechanisms, such as an inflammatory response, an exacerbated production of misfolded and oxidized proteins, due to oxidative stress, and the breakdown of cellular integrity mainly mediated by excitotoxic glutamatergic signaling. Brain ischemia also damages protein degradation pathways which, together with the overproduction of damaged proteins and consequent upregulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, contribute to the accumulation of ubiquitin-containing proteinaceous deposits. Despite recent advances, the factors leading to deposition of such aggregates after cerebral ischemic injury remain poorly understood. This review discusses the current knowledge on the role of the UPS in brain function and the molecular mechanisms contributing to UPS dysfunction in brain ischemia with consequent accumulation of ubiquitin-containing proteins. Chemical inhibitors of the proteasome and small molecule inhibitors of deubiquitinating enzymes, which promote the degradation of proteins by the proteasome, were both shown to provide neuroprotection in brain ischemia, and this apparent contradiction is also discussed in this review. PMID:24157661

Caldeira, Margarida V; Salazar, Ivan L; Curcio, Michele; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Duarte, Carlos B

2014-01-01

74

Human papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

Certain types of human papillomaviruses have been etiologically associated with malignant lesions, most notably with cervical cancer. The major oncoproteins of these cancer-associated viruses are encoded by the viral E6 and E7 genes. Thorough characterization of these oncoproteins and their interaction with cellular proteins has shown that both E6 and E7 exploit the ubiquitin-proteasome system to degrade and, thus, to functionally inactivate negative cell-regulatory proteins including members of the p110(RB) family and p53. This act of piracy is assumed to contribute to both the efficient propagation of HPVs and HPV-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:12507557

Scheffner, Martin; Whitaker, Noel J

2003-02-01

75

Dysregulation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System by Curcumin Suppresses Coxsackievirus B3 Replication?  

PubMed Central

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from the spice turmeric, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties by modulating multiple cellular machineries. It inhibits several intracellular signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), casein kinase II (CKII), and the COP9 signalosome (CSN), in various cell types. It has also been recently demonstrated that exposure to curcumin leads to the dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Coxsackievirus infection is associated with various diseases, including myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. In searching for new antiviral agents against coxsackievirus, we found that treatment with curcumin significantly reduced viral RNA expression, protein synthesis, and virus titer and protected cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis. We further demonstrated that reduction of viral infection by curcumin was unlikely due to inhibition of CVB3 binding to its receptors or CVB3-induced activation of MAPKs. Moreover, gene silencing of CKII and Jab1, a component of CSN, by small interfering RNAs did not inhibit the replication of coxsackievirus, suggesting that the antiviral action of curcumin is independent of these pathways. Finally, we showed that curcumin treatment reduced both the 20S proteasome proteolytic activities and the cellular deubiquitinating activities, leading to increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and decreased protein levels of free ubiquitin. We have recently demonstrated that the UPS-mediated protein degradation and/or modification plays a critical role in the regulation of coxsackievirus replication. Thus, our results suggest an important antiviral effect of curcumin wherein it potently inhibits coxsackievirus replication through dysregulation of the UPS. PMID:17229707

Si, Xiaoning; Wang, Yahong; Wong, Jerry; Zhang, Jingchun; McManus, Bruce M.; Luo, Honglin

2007-01-01

76

Dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by curcumin suppresses coxsackievirus B3 replication.  

PubMed

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from the spice turmeric, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties by modulating multiple cellular machineries. It inhibits several intracellular signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), casein kinase II (CKII), and the COP9 signalosome (CSN), in various cell types. It has also been recently demonstrated that exposure to curcumin leads to the dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Coxsackievirus infection is associated with various diseases, including myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. In searching for new antiviral agents against coxsackievirus, we found that treatment with curcumin significantly reduced viral RNA expression, protein synthesis, and virus titer and protected cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis. We further demonstrated that reduction of viral infection by curcumin was unlikely due to inhibition of CVB3 binding to its receptors or CVB3-induced activation of MAPKs. Moreover, gene silencing of CKII and Jab1, a component of CSN, by small interfering RNAs did not inhibit the replication of coxsackievirus, suggesting that the antiviral action of curcumin is independent of these pathways. Finally, we showed that curcumin treatment reduced both the 20S proteasome proteolytic activities and the cellular deubiquitinating activities, leading to increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and decreased protein levels of free ubiquitin. We have recently demonstrated that the UPS-mediated protein degradation and/or modification plays a critical role in the regulation of coxsackievirus replication. Thus, our results suggest an important antiviral effect of curcumin wherein it potently inhibits coxsackievirus replication through dysregulation of the UPS. PMID:17229707

Si, Xiaoning; Wang, Yahong; Wong, Jerry; Zhang, Jingchun; McManus, Bruce M; Luo, Honglin

2007-04-01

77

The ubiquitin proteasome system in Huntington's disease and the spinocerebellar ataxias  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease and several of the spinocerebellar ataxias are caused by the abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat within the coding region of the disease gene. This results in the production of a mutant protein with an abnormally expanded polyglutamine tract. Although these disorders have a clear monogenic cause, each polyglutamine expansion mutation is likely to cause the dysfunction of many pathways and processes within the cell. It has been proposed that the ubiquitin proteasome system is impaired in polyglutamine expansion disorders and that this contributes to pathology. However, this is controversial with some groups demonstrating decreased proteasome activity in polyglutamine expansion disorders, some showing no change in activity and others demonstrating an increase in proteasome activity. It remains unknown whether the ubiquitin proteasome system is a feasible therapeutic target in these disorders. Here we review the conflicting results obtained from different assays performed in a variety of different systems. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; ). PMID:18047739

Davies, Janet E; Sarkar, Sovan; Rubinsztein, David C

2007-01-01

78

Inhibition of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Prevents Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication and Expression of Intermediate and Late Genes?  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome system has a central role in the degradation of intracellular proteins and regulates a variety of functions. Viruses belonging to several different families utilize or modulate the system for their advantage. Here we showed that the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and epoxomicin blocked a postentry step in vaccinia virus (VACV) replication. When proteasome inhibitors were added after virus attachment, early gene expression was prolonged and the expression of intermediate and late genes was almost undetectable. By varying the time of the removal and addition of MG132, the adverse effect of the proteasome inhibitors was narrowly focused on events occurring 2 to 4 h after infection, the time of the onset of viral DNA synthesis. Further analyses confirmed that genome replication was inhibited by both MG132 and epoxomicin, which would account for the effect on intermediate and late gene expression. The virus-induced replication of a transfected plasmid was also inhibited, indicating that the block was not at the step of viral DNA uncoating. UBEI-41, an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, also prevented late gene expression, supporting the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in VACV replication. Neither the overexpression of ubiquitin nor the addition of an autophagy inhibitor was able to counter the inhibitory effects of MG132. Further studies of the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system for VACV replication may provide new insights into virus-host interactions and suggest potential antipoxviral drugs. PMID:19129442

Satheshkumar, P. S.; Anton, Luis C.; Sanz, Patrick; Moss, Bernard

2009-01-01

79

Regulation of mitochondrial genome inheritance by autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system: implications for health, fitness, and fertility.  

PubMed

Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease. PMID:25028670

Song, Won-Hee; Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Peter

2014-01-01

80

The Emerging Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome in Pulmonary Biology and Disease  

PubMed Central

Derangements in normal cellular homeostasis at the protein level can cause or be the consequence of initiation and progression of pulmonary diseases related to genotype, infection, injury, smoking, toxin exposure, or neoplasm. We discuss one of the fundamental mechanisms of protein homeostasis, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), as it relates to lung disease. The UPS effects selective degradation of ubiquitinated target proteins via ubiquitin ligase activity. Important pathobiological mechanisms relating to the UPS and lung disease have been the focus of research, with inappropriate cellular proteolysis now a validated therapeutic target. We review the contributions of this system in various lung diseases, and discuss the exciting area of UPS-targeting drug development for pulmonary disease. PMID:23713962

Weathington, Nathaniel M.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

2013-01-01

81

The Ubiquitin–Proteasome System and the Autophagic–Lysosomal System in Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

As neurons age, their survival depends on eliminating a growing burden of damaged, potentially toxic proteins and organelles—a capability that declines owing to aging and disease factors. Here, we review the two proteolytic systems principally responsible for protein quality control in neurons and their important contributions to Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. In the first section, the discovery of paired helical filament ubiquitination is described as a backdrop for discussing the importance of the ubiquitin–proteasome system in Alzheimer disease. In the second section, we review the prominent involvement of the lysosomal system beginning with pathological endosomal–lysosomal activation and signaling at the very earliest stages of Alzheimer disease followed by the progressive failure of autophagy. These abnormalities, which result in part from Alzheimer-related genes acting directly on these lysosomal pathways, contribute to the development of each of the Alzheimer neuropathological hallmarks and represent a promising therapeutic target. PMID:22908190

Ihara, Yasuo; Morishima-Kawashima, Maho; Nixon, Ralph

2012-01-01

82

The ubiquitin proteasome system in human cardiomyopathies and heart failure  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of protein quality control is a critical function of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Evidence is rapidly mounting to link proteasome dysfunction with a multitude of cardiac diseases, including ischemia, reperfusion, atherosclerosis, hypertrophy, heart failure, and cardiomyopathies. Recent studies have demonstrated a remarkable level of complexity in the regulation of the UPS in the heart and suggest that our understanding of how UPS dysfunction might contribute to the pathophysiology of such a wide range of cardiac afflictions is still very limited. Whereas experimental systems, including animal models, are invaluable for exploring mechanisms and establishing pathogenicity of UPS dysfunction in cardiac disease, studies using human heart tissue provide a vital adjunct for establishing clinical relevance of experimental findings and promoting new hypotheses. Accordingly, this review will focus on UPS dysfunction in human dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies and highlight areas rich for further study in this expanding field. PMID:23479263

2013-01-01

83

Autophagic-Lysosomal Inhibition Compromises Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Performance in a p62 Dependent Manner in Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

Intracellular protein degradation is primarily performed by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP). The interplay between these two pathways has been rarely examined in intact animals and the mechanism underlying the interplay remains unclear. Hence, we sought to test in vivo and in vitro the impact of inhibition of the ALP on UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes and to explore the underlying mechanism. Transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing a surrogate UPS substrate (GFPdgn) were treated with bafilomycin-A1 (BFA) to inhibit the ALP. Myocardial and renal GFPdgn protein levels but not mRNA levels were increased at 24 hours but not 3 hours after the first injection of BFA. Myocardial protein abundance of key proteasome subunits and the activities of proteasomal peptidases were not discernibly altered by the treatment. In cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), the surrogate UPS substrate GFPu and a control red fluorescence protein (RFP) were co-expressed to probe UPS performance. At 12 hours or 24 hours after ALP inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or BFA, GFPu/RFP protein ratios and the protein half-life of GFPu were significantly increased, which is accompanied by increases in p62 proteins. Similar findings were obtained when ALP was inhibited genetically via silencing Atg7 or Rab7. ALP inhibition-induced increases in GFPu and p62 are co-localized in NRVMs. siRNA-mediated p62 knockdown prevented ALP inhibition from inducing GFPu accumulation in NRVMs. We conclude that in a p62-dependent fashion, ALP inhibition impairs cardiac UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24959866

Tian, Zongwen; Wang, Changhua; Hu, Chengjun; Tian, Yihao; Liu, Jinbao; Wang, Xuejun

2014-01-01

84

Pesticides that Inhibit the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Effect Measure Modification by Genetic Variation in SKP1 in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies, a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathology, may protect against cytotoxic proteins. Since the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) degrades cytotoxic proteins, dysfunction in the UPS may contribute to PD etiology. Our goal in this study was to screen pesticides for proteasome inhibition and investigate (i) whether ambient exposures to pesticides that inhibit the UPS increase PD risk and (ii) whether genetic variation in candidate genes of the UPS pathway modify those increased risks. We assessed 26S UPS activity in SK-N-MCu cells by fluorescence. We recruited idiopathic PD cases (n=360) and population-based controls (n=816) from three counties in California with considerable commercial agriculture. We determined ambient pesticide exposure by our validated GIS-based model utilizing residential and workplace address histories. We limited effect measure modification assessment to Caucasians (287 cases, 453 controls). 11 of 28 pesticides we screened inhibited 26S UPS activity at 10?M. Benomyl, cyanazine, dieldrin, endosulfan, metam, propargite, triflumizole, and ziram were associated with increased PD risk. We estimated an odds ratio of 2.14 (95%CI: 1.42,3.22) for subjects with ambient exposure to any UPS-inhibiting pesticide at both residential and workplace addresses; this association was modified by genetic variation in the s-phase kinase-associated protein 1 gene (SKP1; interaction p-value=0.005). Our results provide evidence that UPS-inhibiting pesticides play a role in the etiology of PD and suggest that genetic variation in candidate genes involved in the UPS pathway might exacerbate the toxic effects of pesticide exposures. PMID:23988235

Rhodes, Shannon L.; Fitzmaurice, Arthur G.; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Ritz, Beate

2013-01-01

85

Catabolite Degradation of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Genome-wide Screen Identifies Eight Novel GID Genes and Indicates the Existence of Two Degradation Pathways  

PubMed Central

Metabolic adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from a nonfermentable carbon source to glucose induces selective, rapid breakdown of the gluconeogenetic key enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), a process called catabolite degradation. Herein, we identify eight novel GID genes required for proteasome-dependent catabolite degradation of FBPase. Four yeast proteins contain the CTLH domain of unknown function. All of them are Gid proteins. The site of catabolite degradation has been controversial until now. Two FBPase degradation pathways have been described, one dependent on the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome machinery, and the other dependent on vacuolar proteolysis. Interestingly, three of the novel Gid proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome–dependent degradation have also been reported by others to affect the vacuolar degradation pathway. As shown herein, additional genes suggested to be essential for vacuolar degradation are unnecessary for proteasome-dependent degradation. These data raise the question as to whether two FBPase degradation pathways exist that share components. Detailed characterization of Gid2p demonstrates that it is part of a soluble, cytosolic protein complex of at least 600 kDa. Gid2p is necessary for FBPase ubiquitination. Our studies have not revealed any involvement of vesicular intermediates in proteasome-dependent FBPase degradation. The influence of Ubp14p, a deubiquitinating enzyme, on proteasome-dependent catabolite degradation was further uncovered. PMID:12686616

Regelmann, Jochen; Schule, Thomas; Josupeit, Frank S.; Horak, Jaroslav; Rose, Matthias; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Thumm, Michael; Wolf, Dieter H.

2003-01-01

86

Coordinated Regulation of Nuclear Receptor CAR by CCRP/DNAJC7, HSP70 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

The constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role as a coordinate transcription factor in the regulation of various hepatic metabolic pathways for chemicals such as drugs, glucose, fatty acids, bilirubin, and bile acids. Currently, it is known that in its inactive state, CAR is retained in the cytoplasm in a protein complex with HSP90 and the tetratricopeptide repeat protein cytosoplasmic CAR retention protein (CCRP). Upon activation by phenobarbital (PB) or the PB-like inducer 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]-benzene (TCPOBOP), CAR translocates into the nucleus. We have identified two new components to the cytoplasmic regulation of CAR: ubiquitin-dependent degradation of CCRP and protein-protein interaction with HSP70. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (5 µM) causes CAR to accumulate in the cytoplasm of transfected HepG2 cells. In the presence of MG132, TCPOBOP increases CCRP ubiquitination in HepG2 cells co-expressing CAR, while CAR ubiquitination was not detected. MG132 treatment of HepG2 also attenuated of TCPOBOP-induced CAR transcriptional activation on reporter constructs which contain CAR-binding DNA elements derived from the human CYP2B6 gene. The elevation of cytoplasmic CAR protein with MG132 correlated with an increase of HSP70, and to a lesser extent HSP60. Both CCRP and CAR were found to interact with endogenous HSP70 in HepG2 cells by immunoprecipitation analysis. Induction of HSP70 levels by heat shock also increased cytoplasmic CAR levels, similar to the effect of MG132. Lastly, heat shock attenuated TCPOBOP-induced CAR transcriptional activation, also similar to the effect of MG132. Collectively, these data suggest that ubiquitin-proteasomal regulation of CCRP and HSP70 are important contributors to the regulation of cytoplasmic CAR levels, and hence the ability of CAR to respond to PB or PB-like inducers. PMID:24789201

Timsit, Yoav E.; Negishi, Masahiko

2014-01-01

87

Ubiquitin-proteasome system components are upregulated during intestinal regeneration.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the main proteolytic system of cells. Recent evidence suggests that the UPS plays a regulatory role in regeneration processes. Here, we explore the possibility that the UPS is involved during intestinal regeneration of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. These organisms can regenerate most of their digestive tract following a process of evisceration. Initially, we identified components of H. glaberrima UPS, including sequences for Rpn10, ?3, and ubiquitin-RPL40. Predicted proteins from the mRNA sequences showed high degree of conservation that ranged from 60% (Rpn10) to 98% (Ub-RPL40). Microarrays and RT-PCR experiments showed that these genes were upregulated during intestinal regeneration. In addition, we demonstrated expression of alpha 20S proteasome subunits and ubiquitinated proteins during intestinal regeneration and detected them in the epithelium and connective tissue of the regenerating intestine. Finally, the intestinal regeneration was altered in animals treated with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. These findings support our contention that proteasomes are playing an important role during intestinal regeneration. PMID:21913312

Pasten, Consuelo; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo A; García-Arrarás, José E

2012-04-01

88

Integrated Analysis of Microarray Data of Atherosclerotic Plaques: Modulation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is a typical complex multi-factorial disease and many molecules at different levels and pathways were involved in its development. Some studies have investigated the dysregulation in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA or DNA methylation level, respectively. However, to our knowledge, the studies that integrated these data and revealed the abnormal networks of atherosclerosis have not been reported. Using microarray technology, we analyzed the omics data in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation levels. Our results demonstrated that the global DNA methylation and expression of miRNA/mRNA were significantly decreased in atherosclerotic plaque than in normal vascular tissue. The interaction network constructed using the integrative data revealed many genes, cellular processes and signaling pathways which were widely considered to play crucial roles in atherosclerosis and also revealed some genes, miRNAs or signaling pathways which have not been investigated in atherosclerosis until now (e.g. miR-519d and SNTB2). Moreover, the overall protein ubiquitination in atherosclerotic plaque was significantly increased. The proteasome activity was increased early but decreased in advanced atherosclerosis. Our study revealed many classic and novel genes and miRNAs involved in atherosclerosis and indicated the effects of ubiquitin-proteasome system on atherosclerosis might be closely related to the course of atherosclerosis. However, the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of atherosclerosis still needs more research. PMID:25333956

Wang, Jian; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Qunye

2014-01-01

89

Integrated analysis of microarray data of atherosclerotic plaques: modulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a typical complex multi-factorial disease and many molecules at different levels and pathways were involved in its development. Some studies have investigated the dysregulation in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA or DNA methylation level, respectively. However, to our knowledge, the studies that integrated these data and revealed the abnormal networks of atherosclerosis have not been reported. Using microarray technology, we analyzed the omics data in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation levels. Our results demonstrated that the global DNA methylation and expression of miRNA/mRNA were significantly decreased in atherosclerotic plaque than in normal vascular tissue. The interaction network constructed using the integrative data revealed many genes, cellular processes and signaling pathways which were widely considered to play crucial roles in atherosclerosis and also revealed some genes, miRNAs or signaling pathways which have not been investigated in atherosclerosis until now (e.g. miR-519d and SNTB2). Moreover, the overall protein ubiquitination in atherosclerotic plaque was significantly increased. The proteasome activity was increased early but decreased in advanced atherosclerosis. Our study revealed many classic and novel genes and miRNAs involved in atherosclerosis and indicated the effects of ubiquitin-proteasome system on atherosclerosis might be closely related to the course of atherosclerosis. However, the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of atherosclerosis still needs more research. PMID:25333956

Wang, Zhe; Guo, Dong; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Qunye

2014-01-01

90

The ubiquitin proteasome system in glia and its role in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is crucial for intracellular protein homeostasis and for degradation of aberrant and damaged proteins. The accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease, leading to the hypothesis that proteasomal impairment is contributing to these diseases. So far, most research related to the UPS in neurodegenerative diseases has been focused on neurons, while glial cells have been largely disregarded in this respect. However, glial cells are essential for proper neuronal function and adopt a reactive phenotype in neurodegenerative diseases, thereby contributing to an inflammatory response. This process is called reactive gliosis, which in turn affects UPS function in glial cells. In many neurodegenerative diseases, mostly neurons show accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins, suggesting that glial cells may be better equipped to maintain proper protein homeostasis. During an inflammatory reaction, the immunoproteasome is induced in glia, which may contribute to a more efficient degradation of disease-related proteins. Here we review the role of the UPS in glial cells in various neurodegenerative diseases, and we discuss how studying glial cell function might provide essential information in unraveling mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25152710

Jansen, Anne H. P.; Reits, Eric A. J.; Hol, Elly M.

2014-01-01

91

Alterations in the ubiquitin proteasome system in persistent but not reversible proteinuric diseases.  

PubMed

Podocytes are the key cells affected in nephrotic glomerular kidney diseases, and they respond uniformly to injury with cytoskeletal rearrangement. In nephrotic diseases, such as membranous nephropathy and FSGS, persistent injury often leads to irreversible structural damage, whereas in minimal change disease, structural alterations are mostly transient. The factors leading to persistent podocyte injury are currently unknown. Proteolysis is an irreversible process and could trigger persistent podocyte injury through degradation of podocyte-specific proteins. We, therefore, analyzed the expression and functional consequence of the two most prominent proteolytic systems, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagosomal/lysosomal system, in persistent and transient podocyte injuries. We show that differential upregulation of both proteolytic systems occurs in persistent human and rodent podocyte injury. The expression of specific UPS proteins in podocytes differentiated children with minimal change disease from children with FSGS and correlated with poor clinical outcome. Degradation of the podocyte-specific protein ?-actinin-4 by the UPS depended on oxidative modification in membranous nephropathy. Notably, the UPS was overwhelmed in podocytes during experimental glomerular disease, resulting in abnormal protein accumulation and compensatory upregulation of the autophagosomal/lysosomal system. Accordingly, inhibition of both proteolytic systems enhanced proteinuria in persistent nephrotic disease. This study identifies altered proteolysis as a feature of persistent podocyte injury. In the future, specific UPS proteins may serve as new biomarkers or therapeutic targets in persistent nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24722446

Beeken, Maire; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Blattner, Simone M; Radón, Victoria; Oh, Jun; Meyer, Tobias N; Hildebrand, Diana; Schlüter, Hartmut; Reinicke, Anna T; Knop, Jan-Hendrik; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Münster, Silvia; Sachs, Marlies; Wiech, Thorsten; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Cohen, Clemens D; Kretzler, Matthias; Stahl, Rolf A K; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine

2014-11-01

92

Hepatitis B Virus HBx Protein Interactions with the Ubiquitin Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis, and the latter is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV encodes a 17-kDa regulatory protein, HBx, which is required for virus replication. Although the precise contribution(s) of HBx to virus replication is unknown, many viruses target cellular pathways to create an environment favorable for virus replication. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a major conserved cellular pathway that controls several critical processes in the cell by regulating the levels of proteins involved in cell cycle, DNA repair, innate immunity, and other processes. We summarize here the interactions of HBx with components of the UPS, including the CUL4 adaptor DDB1, the cullin regulatory complex CSN, and the 26S proteasome. Understanding how these protein interactions benefit virus replication remains a challenge due to limited models in which to study HBV replication. However, studies from other viral systems that similarly target the UPS provide insight into possible strategies used by HBV. PMID:25421893

Minor, Marissa M.; Slagle, Betty L.

2014-01-01

93

Microarray analysis of isolated human islet transcriptome in type 2 diabetes and the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in pancreatic beta cell dysfunction.  

PubMed

To shed light on islet cell molecular phenotype in human type 2 diabetes (T2D), we studied the transcriptome of non-diabetic (ND) and T2D islets to then focus on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the major protein degradation pathway. We assessed gene expression, amount of ubiquitinated proteins, proteasome activity, and the effects of proteasome inhibition and prolonged exposure to palmitate. Microarray analysis identified more than one thousand genes differently expressed in T2D islets, involved in many structures and functions, with consistent alterations of the UPS. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated downregulation of selected UPS genes in T2D islets and beta cell fractions, with greater ubiquitin accumulation and reduced proteasome activity. Chemically induced reduction of proteasome activity was associated with lower glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which was partly reproduced by palmitate exposure. These results show the presence of many changes in islet transcriptome in T2D islets and underline the importance of the association between UPS alterations and beta cell dysfunction in human T2D. PMID:23246353

Bugliani, Marco; Liechti, Robin; Cheon, Hwanju; Suleiman, Mara; Marselli, Lorella; Kirkpatrick, Clare; Filipponi, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Xenarios, Ioannis; Syed, Farooq; Ladriere, Laurence; Wollheim, Claes; Lee, Myung-Shik; Marchetti, Piero

2013-03-10

94

Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 Replication, and Its Activity May Be Mediated through Dysregulation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is widely used as an antioxidant or an NF-?B inhibitor. It has been reported to inhibit the replication of human rhinoviruses, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and influenza virus. In this paper, we report that PDTC could inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). PDTC suppressed the expression of HSV-1 and HSV-2 viral immediate early (IE) and late (membrane protein gD) genes and the production of viral progeny. This antiviral property was mediated by the dithiocarbamate moiety of PDTC and required the presence of Zn2+. Although PDTC could potently block reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, it was found that this property did not contribute to its anti-HSV activity. PDTC showed no activity in disrupting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation induced by viral infection that was vital for the virus's propagation. We found that PDTC modulated cellular ubiquitination and, furthermore, influenced HSV-2-induced I?B-? degradation to inhibit NF-?B activation and enhanced PML stability in the nucleus, resulting in the inhibition of viral gene expression. These results suggested that the antiviral activity of PDTC might be mediated by its dysregulation of the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:23740985

Qiu, Min; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Lin; Chu, Ying; Song, Hong-Yong

2013-01-01

95

Ubiquitin-proteasome system involvement in Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin (htt) gene. This triplet expansion encodes a polyglutamine stretch (polyQ) in the N-terminus of the high molecular weight (348-kDa) and ubiquitously expressed protein htt. Normal individuals have between 6 and 35 CAG triplets, while expansions longer than 40 repeats lead to HD. The onset and severity of the disease depend on the length of the polyQ tract: the longer the polyglutamine stretch (polyQ) is, the earlier the disease begins and the more severe the symptoms are. One of the main histopathological hallmarks of HD is the presence of intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusion bodies, whose prominent and invariant feature is the presence of ubiquitin (Ub); therefore, they can be detected with anti-ubiquitin and anti-proteasome antibodies. This, together with the observation that mutations in components of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) give rise to some neurodegenerative diseases, suggests that UPS impairment may be causative of HD. Even though the link between disrupted Ub homeostasis and protein aggregation to HD is undisputed, the functional significance of these correlations and their mechanistic implications remains unresolved. Moreover, there is no consistent evidence documenting an accompanying decrease in levels of free Ub or disruption of Ub pool dynamics in neurodegenerative disease or models thus suggesting that the Ub-conjugate accumulation may be benign and just underlie lesion in 26S function. In this chapter we will elaborate on the different studies that have been performed using different experimental approaches, in order to shed light to this matter.

Ortega, Zaira; Lucas, Jose J.

2014-01-01

96

Ubiquitin-proteasome system involvement in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin (htt) gene. This triplet expansion encodes a polyglutamine stretch (polyQ) in the N-terminus of the high molecular weight (348-kDa) and ubiquitously expressed protein htt. Normal individuals have between 6 and 35 CAG triplets, while expansions longer than 40 repeats lead to HD. The onset and severity of the disease depend on the length of the polyQ tract: the longer the polyglutamine stretch (polyQ) is, the earlier the disease begins and the more severe the symptoms are. One of the main histopathological hallmarks of HD is the presence of intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusion bodies, whose prominent and invariant feature is the presence of ubiquitin (Ub); therefore, they can be detected with anti-ubiquitin and anti-proteasome antibodies. This, together with the observation that mutations in components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) give rise to some neurodegenerative diseases, suggests that UPS impairment may be causative of HD. Even though the link between disrupted Ub homeostasis and protein aggregation to HD is undisputed, the functional significance of these correlations and their mechanistic implications remains unresolved. Moreover, there is no consistent evidence documenting an accompanying decrease in levels of free Ub or disruption of Ub pool dynamics in neurodegenerative disease or models thus suggesting that the Ub-conjugate accumulation may be benign and just underlie lesion in 26S function. In this chapter we will elaborate on the different studies that have been performed using different experimental approaches, in order to shed light to this matter. PMID:25324717

Ortega, Zaira; Lucas, Jose J

2014-01-01

97

Modulation of adipocyte differentiation by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

We have evaluated the effects of three different omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) – docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) on fat accumulation and expression of adipogenic and inflammatory markers using both 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicate that ?-3 PUFAs induce the degradation of fatty acid synthase through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is likely to have beneficial metabolic effect on adipose cells. Omega-3 PUFAs also increase overall levels of polyubiquitinated proteins, at least in part through decreasing the expression of proteasome subunits. Moreover, adipocytes are resistant to proteasome inhibition, which induces adipophilin while decreasing perilipin expression. On the other hand, ?-3 PUFAs decrease expression of SREBP1 while inducing expression of adipophilin and GLUT4. Moreover, all three ?-3 PUFAs appear to induce tumour necrosis factor-? without affecting NF?B levels. All three ?-3 PUFAs appear to have overall similar effects. Further research is needed to elucidate their mechanism of action. PMID:24834523

Wójcik, Cezary; Lohe, Kimberly; Kuang, Chenzhong; Xiao, Yan; Jouni, Zeida; Poels, Eduard

2014-04-01

98

The ubiquitin proteasome system - Implications for cell cycle control and the targeted treatment of cancer  

PubMed Central

Two families of E3 ubiquitin ligases are prominent in cell cycle regulation and mediate the timely and precise ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation of key cell cycle proteins: the SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) complex and the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome). While certain SCF ligases drive cell cycle progression throughout the cell cycle, APC/C (in complex with either of two substrate recruiting proteins: Cdc20 and Cdh1) orchestrates exit from mitosis (APC/CCdc20) and establishes a stable G1 phase (APC/CCdh1). Upon DNA damage or perturbation of the normal cell cycle, both ligases are involved in checkpoint activation. Mechanistic insight into these processes has significantly improved over the last ten years, largely due to a better understanding of APC/C and the functional characterization of multiple F-box proteins, the variable substrate recruiting components of SCF ligases. Here, we review the role of SCF- and APC/C-mediated ubiquitylation in the normal and perturbed cell cycle and discuss potential clinical implications of SCF and APC/C functions. PMID:23466868

Bassermann, Florian; Eichner, Ruth; Pagano, Michele

2013-01-01

99

The ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurodegenerative diseases: precipitating factor, yet part of the solution  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases based on the presence of deposits consisting of ubiquitylated proteins in affected neurons. It has been postulated that aggregation-prone proteins associated with these disorders, such as ?-synuclein, ?-amyloid peptide, and polyglutamine proteins, compromise UPS function, and delay the degradation of other proteasome substrates. Many of these substrates play important regulatory roles in signaling, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis, and their inadvertent stabilization due to an overloaded and improperly functioning UPS may thus be responsible for cellular demise in neurodegeneration. Over the past decade, numerous studies have addressed the UPS dysfunction hypothesis using various model systems and techniques that differ in their readout and sensitivity. While an inhibitory effect of some disease proteins on the UPS has been demonstrated, increasing evidence attests that the UPS remains operative in many disease models, which opens new possibilities for treatment. In this review, we will discuss the paradigm shift that repositioned the UPS from being a prime suspect in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration to an attractive therapeutic target that can be harnessed to accelerate the clearance of disease-linked proteins. PMID:25132814

Dantuma, Nico P.; Bott, Laura C.

2014-01-01

100

Regulation of TRAIL-Receptor Expression by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- receptor (TRAIL-R) family has emerged as a key mediator of cell fate and survival. Ligation of TRAIL ligand to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway characterized by the recruitment of death domains, assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), caspase activation and ultimately apoptosis. Conversely the decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4, which lack the pro-apoptotic death domain, function to dampen the apoptotic response by competing for TRAIL ligand. The tissue restricted expression of the decoy receptors on normal but not cancer cells provides a therapeutic rational for the development of selective TRAIL-mediated anti-tumor therapies. Recent clinical trials using agonistic antibodies against the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptors or recombinant TRAIL have been promising; however the number of patients in complete remission remains stubbornly low. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance are relatively unexplored but may in part be due to TRAIL-R down-regulation or shedding of TRAIL-R by tumor cells. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying TRAIL resistance is required. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been shown to regulate TRAIL-R members suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the UPS may be a novel strategy to augment TRAIL-based therapies and increase efficacies. We recently identified b-AP15 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. Interestingly, exposure of tumor cell lines to b-AP15 resulted in increased TRAIL-R2 expression and enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cell death in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, targeting the UPS may represent a novel strategy to increase the cell surface expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL-R on cancer cells and should be considered in clinical trials targeting TRAIL-receptors in cancer patients. PMID:25318057

Sarhan, Dhifaf; D'Arcy, Padraig; Lundqvist, Andreas

2014-01-01

101

Pesticides that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome system: effect measure modification by genetic variation in SKP1 in Parkinson?s disease.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology, may protect against cytotoxic proteins. Since the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) degrades cytotoxic proteins, dysfunction in the UPS may contribute to PD etiology. Our goal in this study was to screen pesticides for proteasome inhibition and investigate (i) whether ambient exposures to pesticides that inhibit the UPS increase PD risk and (ii) whether genetic variation in candidate genes of the UPS pathway modify those increased risks. We assessed 26S UPS activity in SK-N-MC(u) cells by fluorescence. We recruited idiopathic PD cases (n=360) and population-based controls (n=816) from three counties in California with considerable commercial agriculture. We determined ambient pesticide exposure by our validated GIS-based model utilizing residential and workplace address histories. We limited effect measure modification assessment to Caucasians (287 cases, 453 controls). Eleven of 28 pesticides we screened inhibited 26S UPS activity at 10 µM. Benomyl, cyanazine, dieldrin, endosulfan, metam, propargite, triflumizole, and ziram were associated with increased PD risk. We estimated an odds ratio of 2.14 (95% CI: 1.42, 3.22) for subjects with ambient exposure to any UPS-inhibiting pesticide at both residential and workplace addresses; this association was modified by genetic variation in the s-phase kinase-associated protein 1 gene (SKP1; interaction p-value=0.005). Our results provide evidence that UPS-inhibiting pesticides play a role in the etiology of PD and suggest that genetic variation in candidate genes involved in the UPS pathway might exacerbate the toxic effects of pesticide exposures. PMID:23988235

Rhodes, Shannon L; Fitzmaurice, Arthur G; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Ritz, Beate

2013-10-01

102

Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by cIAP2 Involves Accelerating the Ubiquitin-Proteasome-Mediated Destruction of Polymerase?†  

PubMed Central

Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) is a potent suppressor of apoptotic cell death. We have shown previously that cIAP2 is involved in the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) response; however, the mechanism for this antiviral effect remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that cIAP2 can significantly reduce the levels of HBV DNA replication intermediates but not the total viral RNA or core protein levels. Domain-mapping analysis revealed that the carboxy-terminal domains of cIAP2 were indispensable for this anti-HBV ability and that an E3 ligase-deficient mutant of cIAP2 (termed cIAP2*) completely lost its antiviral activity. We further identified HBV polymerase as the target of cIAP2. Overexpression of cIAP2 but not cIAP2* reduced polymerase protein levels, while cIAP2 knockdown increased polymerase expression. In addition, we observed that cIAP2 promoted the degradation of the viral polymerase through a proteasome-dependent pathway. Further experiments demonstrated that cIAP2 can bind to polymerase and promote its polyubiquitylation. Finally, we found that cIAP2 downregulated the encapsidation of HBV pregenomic RNA. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism for the inhibition of HBV replication by cIAP2 via acceleration of the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated decay of polymerase and reduction of the encapsidation of HBV pregenomic RNA, making this mechanism a novel strategy for HBV therapy. PMID:21865390

Wang, Zekun; Ni, Jinjing; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Bisheng; Xu, Yang; Yuan, Zhenghong

2011-01-01

103

Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant molecular pathology in OPMD animal models and patients.  

PubMed

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset progressive muscle disorder caused by a poly-alanine expansion mutation in the Poly(A) Binding Protein Nuclear 1 (PABPN1). The molecular mechanisms that regulate disease onset and progression are largely unknown. In order to identify molecular pathways that are consistently associated with OPMD, we performed an integrated high-throughput transcriptome study in affected muscles of OPMD animal models and patients. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was found to be the most consistently and significantly OPMD-deregulated pathway across species. We could correlate the association of the UPS OPMD-deregulated genes with stages of disease progression. The expression trend of a subset of these genes is age-associated and therefore, marks the late onset of the disease, and a second group with expression trends relating to disease-progression. We demonstrate a correlation between expression trends and entrapment into PABPN1 insoluble aggregates of OPMD-deregulated E3 ligases. We also show that manipulations of proteasome and immunoproteasome activity specifically affect the accumulation and aggregation of mutant PABPN1. We suggest that the natural decrease in proteasome expression and its activity during muscle aging contributes to the onset of the disease. PMID:21798095

Anvar, Seyed Yahya; 't Hoen, Peter Ac; Venema, Andrea; van der Sluijs, Barbara; van Engelen, Baziel; Snoeck, Marc; Vissing, John; Trollet, Capucine; Dickson, George; Chartier, Aymeric; Simonelig, Martine; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; van der Maarel, Silvere M; Raz, Vered

2011-01-01

104

The Ubiquitin–Proteasome System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Protein modifications provide cells with exquisite temporal and spatial control of protein function. Ubiquitin is among the most important modifiers, serving both to target hundreds of proteins for rapid degradation by the proteasome, and as a dynamic signaling agent that regulates the function of covalently bound proteins. The diverse effects of ubiquitylation reflect the assembly of structurally distinct ubiquitin chains on target proteins. The resulting ubiquitin code is interpreted by an extensive family of ubiquitin receptors. Here we review the components of this regulatory network and its effects throughout the cell. PMID:23028185

Finley, Daniel; Ulrich, Helle D.; Sommer, Thomas; Kaiser, Peter

2012-01-01

105

Cadmium interferes with the degradation of ATF5 via a post-ubiquitination step of the proteasome degradation pathway  

SciTech Connect

ATF5 is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. In the current study, using a transient transfection system to express FLAG epitope fusion proteins of ATF5, we have shown that CdCl{sub 2} or NaAsO{sub 3} increases the protein levels of ATF5 in cells, and that cadmium stabilizes the ATF5 protein. Proteasome inhibitors had a similar effect to cadmium on the cellular accumulation of ATF5. Proteasome inhibition led to an increase in ubiquitinated ATF5, while cadmium did not appear to reduce the extent of ATF5 ubiquitination. ATF5 contains a putative nuclear export signal within its N-terminus. We demonstrated that whereas deletion of N-terminal region resulted in a increase of ATF5 levels, this region does not appear to be involved in the ubiquitination of ATF5. These results indicate that ATF5 is targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and that cadmium slows the rate of ATF5 degradation via a post-ubiquitination mechanism.

Uekusa, Hiroyuki; Namimatsu, Mihoko; Hiwatashi, Yusuke; Akimoto, Takuya [Laboratory of Environmental Molecular Physiology, School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Nishida, Tamotsu [Department of Human Functional Genomics, Life Science Research Center, Mie University, 1577 Kurima-machiya, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Takahashi, Shigeru [Laboratory of Environmental Molecular Physiology, School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)], E-mail: shigeru@ls.toyaku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Yuji [Laboratory of Environmental Molecular Physiology, School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

2009-03-13

106

Inhibition of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Affects Influenza A Virus Infection at a Postfusion Step?  

PubMed Central

We have demonstrated that influenza A virus (IAV) RNA synthesis depends on the ubiquitin-proteasome system. IAV replication was reduced both by proteasome inhibitors and in E36ts20 cells, which contain the thermolabile ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. While virus entry was not affected in E36ts20 cells, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 retained viral particles in the cytoplasm. Addition-removal experiments of MG132 in combination with bafilomycin A1, a well-established inhibitor of IAV entry and fusion, showed that MG132 affected IAV infection at a postfusion step. This was confirmed by the lack of inhibition of IAV entry by proteasome inhibitors in a virus-like particle fusion assay. PMID:20631148

Widjaja, Ivy; de Vries, Erik; Tscherne, Donna M.; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Rottier, Peter J. M.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.

2010-01-01

107

Ubiquitin-proteasome system components are up-regulated during intestinal regeneration  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the main proteolytic system of cells. Recent evidence suggests that the UPS plays a regulatory role in regeneration processes. Here we explore the possibility that the UPS is involved during intestinal regeneration of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. These organisms can regenerate most of their digestive tract following a process of evisceration. Initially, we identified components of H. glaberrima UPS, including sequences for Rpn10, ?3 and ubiquitin-RPL40. Predicted proteins from the mRNA sequences showed high degree of conservation that ranged from 60% (Rpn10) to 98% (Ub-RPL40). Microarrays and RT-PCR experiments showed that these genes were up-regulated during intestinal regeneration. In addition, we demonstrated expression of alpha 20S proteasome subunits and ubiquitinated proteins during intestinal regeneration and detected them in the epithelium and connective tissue of the regenerating intestine. Finally, the intestinal regeneration was altered in animals treated with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. These findings support our contention that proteasomes are playing an important role during intestinal regeneration. PMID:21913312

Pasten, Consuelo; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo A.; E.Garcia-Arraras, Jose

2011-01-01

108

Ubiquitin-proteasome system controls ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension  

PubMed Central

Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that organize numerous key signals during developments and tissue homeostasis. Ciliary microtubule doublet, named axoneme, is grown directly from the distal end of mother centrioles through a multistep process upon cell cycle exit; however, the instructive signals that initiate these events are poorly understood. Here we show that ubiquitin-proteasome machinery removes trichoplein, a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, from mother centrioles and thereby causes Aurora-A inactivation, leading to ciliogenesis. Ciliogenesis is blocked if centriolar trichoplein is stabilized by treatment with proteasome inhibitors or by expression of non-ubiquitylatable trichoplein mutant (K50/57R). Started from two-stepped global E3 screening, we have identified KCTD17 as a substrate-adaptor for Cul3-RING E3 ligases (CRL3s) that polyubiquitylates trichoplein. Depletion of KCTD17 specifically arrests ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension through aberrant trichoplein-Aurora-A activity. Thus, CRL3-KCTD17 targets trichoplein to proteolysis to initiate the axoneme extension during ciliogenesis. PMID:25270598

Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Kiyono, Tohru; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Era, Saho; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

2014-01-01

109

Cytokine-induced oxidative stress in cardiac inflammation and heart failure--how the ubiquitin proteasome system targets this vicious cycle  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is critical for the regulation of many intracellular processes necessary for cell function and survival. The absolute requirement of the UPS for the maintenance of protein homeostasis and thereby for the regulation of protein quality control is reflected by the fact that deviation of proteasome function from the norm was reported in cardiovascular pathologies. Inflammation is a major factor contributing to cardiac pathology. Herein, cytokines induce protein translation and the production of free radicals, thereby challenging the cellular protein equilibrium. Here, we discuss current knowledge on the mechanisms of UPS-functional adaptation in response to oxidative stress in cardiac inflammation. The increasing pool of oxidant-damaged degradation-prone proteins in cardiac pathology accounts for the need for enhanced protein turnover by the UPS. This process is accomplished by an up-regulation of the ubiquitylation machinery and the induction of immunoproteasomes. Thereby, the inflamed heart muscle is cleared from accumulating misfolded proteins. Current advances on immunoproteasome-specific inhibitors in this field question the impact of the proteasome as a therapeutic target in heart failure. PMID:23508734

Voigt, Antje; Rahnefeld, Anna; Kloetzel, Peter M.; Kruger, Elke

2013-01-01

110

Unfolded protein response and activated degradative pathways regulation in GNE myopathy.  

PubMed

Although intracellular beta amyloid (A?) accumulation is known as an early upstream event in the degenerative course of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) myopathy, the process by which A?deposits initiate various degradative pathways, and their relationship have not been fully clarified. We studied the possible secondary responses after amyloid beta precursor protein (A?PP) deposition including unfolded protein response (UPR), ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) activation and its correlation with autophagy system. Eight GNE myopathy patients and five individuals with normal muscle morphology were included in this study. We performed immunofluorescence and immunoblotting to investigate the expression of A?PP, phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones. Proteasome activities were measured by cleavage of fluorogenic substrates. The expression of proteasome subunits and linkers between proteasomal and autophagy systems were also evaluated by immunoblotting and relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Four molecular chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), calreticulin and calnexin and valosin containing protein (VCP) were highly expressed in GNE myopathy. 20S proteasome subunits, three main proteasome proteolytic activities, and the factors linking UPS and autophagy system were also increased. Our study suggests that A?PP deposition results in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and highly expressed VCP deliver unfolded proteins from endoplasmic reticulum to proteosomal system which is activated in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) in GNE myopathy. Excessive ubiquitinated unfolded proteins are exported by proteins that connect UPS and autophagy to autophagy system, which is activated as an alternative pathway for degradation. PMID:23472144

Li, Honghao; Chen, Qi; Liu, Fuchen; Zhang, Xuemei; Li, Wei; Liu, Shuping; Zhao, Yuying; Gong, Yaoqin; Yan, Chuanzhu

2013-01-01

111

Ubiquitin-proteasome system impairment and MPTP-induced oxidative stress in the brain of C57BL/6 wild-type and GSTP knockout mice.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the primary proteolytic complex responsible for the elimination of damaged and misfolded intracellular proteins, often formed upon oxidative stress. Parkinson's disease (PD) is neuropathologically characterized by selective death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and accumulation of intracytoplasmic inclusions of aggregated proteins. Along with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, defects in the UPS have been implicated in PD. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP) is a phase II detoxifying enzyme displaying important defensive roles against the accumulation of reactive metabolites that potentiate the aggression of SN neuronal cells, by regulating several processes including S-glutathionylation, modulation of glutathione levels and control of kinase-catalytic activities. In this work we used C57BL/6 wild-type and GSTP knockout mice to elucidate the effect of both MPTP and MG132 in the UPS function and to clarify if the absence of GSTP alters the response of this pathway to the neurotoxin and proteasome inhibitor insults. Our results demonstrate that different components of the UPS have different susceptibilities to oxidative stress. Importantly, when compared to the wild-type, GSTP knockout mice display decreased ubiquitination capacity and overall increased susceptibility to UPS damage and inactivation upon MPTP-induced oxidative stress. PMID:23129554

Carvalho, Andreia Neves; Marques, Carla; Rodrigues, Elsa; Henderson, Colin J; Wolf, C Roland; Pereira, Paulo; Gama, Maria João

2013-04-01

112

Stressing the ubiquitin-proteasome system without 20S proteolytic inhibition selectively kills cervical cancer cells.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer cells exhibit an increased requirement for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation associated with an elevated metabolic turnover rate, and for specific signaling pathways, notably HPV E6-targeted degradation of p53 and PDZ proteins. Natural compounds with antioxidant properties including flavonoids and triterpenoids hold promise as anticancer agents by interfering with ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. An increasing body of evidence indicates that their ?-? unsaturated carbonyl system is the molecular determinant for inhibition of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation up-stream of the catalytic sites of the 20S proteasome. Herein we report the identification and characterization of a new class of chalcone-based, potent and cell permeable chemical inhibitors of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, and a lead compound RAMB1. RAMB1 inhibits ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation without compromising the catalytic activities of the 20S proteasome, a mechanism distinct from that of Bortezomib. Treatment of cervical cancer cells with RAMB1 triggers unfolded protein responses, including aggresome formation and Hsp90 stabilization, and increases p53 steady state levels. RAMB1 treatment results in activation of lysosomal-dependent degradation pathways as a mechanism to compensate for increasing levels of poly-ubiquitin enriched toxic aggregates. Importantly, RAMB1 synergistically triggers cell death of cervical cancer cells when combined with the lysosome inhibitor Chloroquine. PMID:21909374

Anchoori, Ravi K; Khan, Saeed R; Sueblinvong, Thanasak; Felthauser, Alicia; Iizuka, Yoshie; Gavioli, Riccardo; Destro, Federica; Isaksson Vogel, Rachel; Peng, Shiwen; Roden, Richard B S; Bazzaro, Martina

2011-01-01

113

Degradation of Postsynaptic Scaffold GKAP and Regulation of Dendritic Spine Morphology by the TRIM[subscript 3] Ubiquitin Ligase in Rat Hippocampal Neurons  

E-print Network

Changes in neuronal activity modify the structure of dendritic spines and alter the function and protein composition of synapses. Regulated degradation of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome ...

Sheng, Morgan Hwa-Tze

114

The Mammalian Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation System  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis for nearly one-third of the eukaryotic proteome and is accordingly endowed with specialized machinery to ensure that proteins deployed to the distal secretory pathway are correctly folded and assembled into native oligomeric complexes. Proteins failing to meet this conformational standard are degraded by ER-associated degradation (ERAD), a complex process through which folding-defective proteins are selected and ultimately degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. ERAD proceeds through four tightly coupled steps involving substrate selection, dislocation across the ER membrane, covalent conjugation with polyubiquitin, and proteasomal degradation. The ERAD machinery shows a modular organization with central ER membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligases linking components responsible for recognition in the ER lumen to the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cytoplasm. The core ERAD machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes and much of our basic understanding of ERAD organization has been derived from genetic and biochemical studies of yeast. In this article we discuss how the core ERAD machinery is organized in mammalian cells. PMID:23232094

Olzmann, James A.; Kopito, Ron R.; Christianson, John C.

2013-01-01

115

Regulation of Interferon-gamma-Activated STAT1 by the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

STAT proteins (signal transducers and activators of transcription) are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that are phosphorylated by Janus kinases in response to cytokines. Phosphorylated STAT proteins translocate to the nucleus, where they transiently turn on specific sets of cytokine-inducible genes. The mechanism that controls the amounts of activated STAT proteins is not understood. STAT1 proteins activated by interferon-gamma treatment in

Tae Kook Kim; Tom Maniatis

1996-01-01

116

Bee venom effects on ubiquitin proteasome system in hSOD1G85R-expressing NSC34 motor neuron cells  

PubMed Central

Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from a progressive loss of motor neurons. Familial ALS (fALS) is caused by missense mutations in Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) that frequently result in the accumulation of mutant protein aggregates that are associated with impairments in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). UPS impairment has been implicated in many neurological disorders. Bee venom (BV) extracted from honey bees has been used as a traditional medicine for treating inflammatory diseases and has been shown to attenuate the neuroinflammatory events that occur in a symptomatic ALS animal model. Methods NSC34 cells were transiently transfected with a WT or G85R hSOD1-GFP construct for 24 hrs and then stimulated with 2.5 ?g/ml BV for 24 hrs. To determine whether a SOD1 mutation affects UPS function in NSC34 cells, we examined proteasome activity and performed western blotting and immunofluorescence using specific antibodies, such as anti-misfolded SOD1, anti-ubiquitin, anti-GRP78, anti-LC3, and anti-ISG15 antibodies. Results We found that GFP-hSOD1G85R overexpression induced SOD1 inclusions and reduced proteasome activity compared with the overexpression of GFP alone in NSC34 motor neuronal cells. In addition, we also observed that BV treatment restored proteasome activity and reduced the accumulation of ubiquitinated and misfolded SOD1 in GFP-hSOD1G85R-overexpressing NSC34 motor neuronal cells. However, BV treatment did not activate the autophagic pathway in these cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest that BV may rescue the impairment of the UPS in ALS models. PMID:23866691

2013-01-01

117

Fluorene Degradation Pathway Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM/BBD) contains "microbial biocatalytic reactions and biodegradation pathways primarily for xenobiotic, chemical compounds." A new microbial enzyme-catalyzed reactions has been posted for Flourene. Flourene is commonly found in vehicle exhaust emissions, motor oils, crude oils, coal and oil combustion products, industrial effluents, and waste incineration, and is a major component of "fossil fuels and their derivatives." The Fluorene pathway map includes organisms which initiate the pathway, as well as organisms that carry out later steps. The pathway map provides detailed information on each hyperlinked step, including graphics, product/substrate reactions, and external links to further information.

Feng, Jingfeng.; Solanas, Anna M.

2001-01-01

118

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Degradation by Proteasome Controls a Developmental Switch in Neurotrophin Dependence*  

PubMed Central

Neonatal brains develop through a program that eliminates about half of the neurons. During this period, neurons depend on neurotrophins for their survival. Recently, we reported that, at the conclusion of the naturally occurring death period, neurons become neurotrophin-independent and, further, that this developmental switch is achieved by the emergence of a second survival pathway mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Here I show that calcineurin plays a key role in controlling the developmental switch in mouse hippocampal neurons. Calcineurin promotes the degradation of STAT3 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Inhibition of calcineurin acutely increases total levels of STAT3 as well as its activated forms, resulting in decreased levels of the tumor suppressor p53 and its proapoptotic target, Bax. In vivo and in vitro, calcineurin regulates levels of STAT3 and neurotrophin dependence. TMF/ARA 160 (TATA element modulatory factor/androgen receptor co-activator 160), the key mediator of STAT3 ubiquitination, is required for calcineurin-dependent STAT3 degradation. Thus, these results show that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway controls the critical developmental switch of neurotrophin dependence in the newborn hippocampus. PMID:23733189

Murase, Sachiko

2013-01-01

119

The Proteasome Inhibitor, MG132, Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting SnoN Degradation In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has been shown to be involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The SnoN protein can regulate TGF-? signaling through interaction with Smad proteins. Recent studies have shown that SnoN is mainly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the role of SnoN in the regulation of TGF-?/Smad signaling in DN is still unclear. In this study, diabetic rats were randomly divided into a diabetic control group (DC group) and a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) diabetes therapy group (DT group). Kidney damage parameters and the expression of SnoN, Smurf2, and TGF-? were observed. Simultaneously, we cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) stimulated with high glucose, and SnoN and Arkadia expression were measured. Results demonstrated that 24-hour urine protein, ACR, BUN, and the expression of Smurf2 and TGF-? were significantly increased (P < 0.05), whereas SnoN was significantly decreased in the DC group (P < 0.05). However, these changes diminished after treatment with MG132. SnoN expression in GMCs decreased significantly (P < 0.05), but Arkadia expression gradually increased due to high glucose stimulation (P < 0.05), which could be almost completely reversed by MG132 (P < 0.05). The present results support the hypothesis that MG132 may alleviate kidney damage by inhibiting SnoN degradation and TGF-? activation, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may become a new therapeutic target for DN. PMID:25003128

Huang, Wei; Yang, Chen; Nan, Qinling; Gao, Chenlin; Feng, Hong; Gou, Fang; Chen, Guo; Zhang, Zhihong; Yan, Pijun; Peng, Juan

2014-01-01

120

Human Cytomegalovirus UL76 Elicits Novel Aggresome Formation via Interaction with S5a of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

HCMV UL76 is a member of a conserved Herpesviridae protein family (Herpes_UL24) that is involved in viral production, latency, and reactivation. UL76 presents as globular aggresomes in the nuclei of transiently transfected cells. Bioinformatic analyses predict that UL76 has a propensity for aggregation and targets cellular proteins implicated in protein folding and ubiquitin-proteasome systems (UPS). Furthermore, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments suggests that UL76 reduces protein mobility in the aggresome, which indicates that UL76 elicits the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Moreover, in the absence of other viral proteins, UL76 interacts with S5a, which is a major receptor of polyubiquitinated proteins for UPS proteolysis via its conserved region and the von Willebrand factor type A (VWA) domain of S5a. We demonstrate that UL76 sequesters polyubiquitinated proteins and S5a to nuclear aggresomes in biological proximity. After knockdown of endogenous S5a by RNA interference techniques, the UL76 level was only minimally affected in transiently expressing cells. However, a significant reduction in the number of cells containing UL76 nuclear aggresomes was observed, which suggests that S5a may play a key role in aggresome formation. Moreover, we show that UL76 interacts with S5a in the late phase of viral infection and that knockdown of S5a hinders the development of both the replication compartment and the aggresome. In this study, we demonstrate that UL76 induces a novel nuclear aggresome, likely by subverting S5a of the UPS. Given that UL76 belongs to a conserved family, this underlying mechanism may be shared by all members of the Herpesviridae. PMID:23966401

Lin, Shin-Rung; Jiang, Meei Jyh; Wang, Hung-Hsueh; Hu, Cheng-Hui; Hsu, Ming-Shan; Hsi, Edward; Duh, Chang-Yih

2013-01-01

121

JNK1 participates in the VHL-independent HIF-1? degradation pathway by regulating Hsp90/Hsp70 turnover and the HDAC6-dependent chaperone activity  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia induced factor-1? (HIF-1?) is a master transcription factor that is critical for the regulation of various cellular functions. HIF-1? is rapidly degraded via a von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene product (VHL)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in normoxia conditions. Most recent studies reveal that heat-shock proteins (Hsp) can regulate HIF-1? protein degradation via a VHL-independent pathway. Here we demonstrate that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is required for such an Hsp-dependent HIF-1? regulation. HIF-1? stabilization was impaired in JNK1?/? cells, and could be rescued by reconstitutional expression of JNK1 in either hypoxia or chemical-mimicked hypoxia conditions. This phenomena was confirmed in different cell lines using the shRNA-JNK1 knockdown approach. Accordingly, HIF-1-dependent transcriptional activity and its downstream gene’s expression were dramatically reduced in JNK1-deficient cells. We further found that in JNK1?/? cells the low expression level of Hsp90/Hsp70 proteins affected the protective roles of these chaperones in maintaining newly synthesized HIF-1? stabilization, and forced expression of Hsp90 or Hsp70 in JNK1?/? cells showed a notable increase in HIF-1? stability compared with that of parental cells. Furthermore, our studies found that defective HDAC6 expression and subsequently increased Hsp90 acetylation could account for the reduction of Hsp90 chaperon activity in JNK1?/? cells. Taken together, our studies provide strong evidence for a novel function of JNK1 in regulating VHL-independent HIF-1? degradation. PMID:20068160

Zhang, Dongyun; Li, Jingxia; Costa, Max; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu

2009-01-01

122

Breaking Down Protein Degradation Mechanisms In Cardiac Muscle: Therapeutic Outlooks For Disease  

PubMed Central

Regulated protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal-autophagy systems is critical for homeostatic protein-turnover in cardiac muscle, and for proper cardiac function. The discovery of muscle-specific components in these systems has illuminated how aberrations in their levels are pivotal to the development of cardiac stress and disease. New evidence suggests that equal importance in disease development should be given to ubiquitously expressed degradation components. These are compartmentalized within cardiac muscles and, when mislocalized, can be critical in the development of specific cardiac diseases. Here, we discuss how alterations in the compartmentalization of degradation components affect disease states, the tools available to investigate these mechanisms, as well as recent discoveries that highlight the therapeutic value of targeting these pathways in disease. PMID:23453282

Lyon, Robert C.; Lange, Stephan; Sheikh, Farah

2013-01-01

123

Degradation and aggresome formation of the Gn tail of the apathogenic Tula hantavirus.  

PubMed

The cytoplasmic tails of envelope glycoprotein Gn of pathogenic hantaviruses but not of the apathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV) were recently reported to be proteasomally degraded in simian COS7 cells. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic tails of the glycoproteins of the apathogenic hantaviruses Tula virus (TULV) and PHV are also degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, both in human HEK-293 and in simian Vero E6 cells. TULV Gn tails formed aggresomes in cells with proteasomal inhibitors. We conclude that degradation upon aggregation of Gn tails, which may represent a general cellular response to misfolded protein used by hantaviruses to control maturation of virions, is unrelated to pathogenicity. PMID:19675185

Wang, Hao; Strandin, Tomas; Hepojoki, Jussi; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

2009-12-01

124

A novel interplay between the ubiquitin–proteasome system and serine proteases during Drosophila development.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the Drosophila proteasomal and extraproteasomal polyubiquitin receptors fluctuate in a developmentally regulated fashion. This fluctuation is generated by a previously unidentified proteolytic activity. In the present paper, we describe the purification, identification and characterization of this protease (endoproteinase I). Its expression increases sharply at the L1-L2 larval stages, remains high until the second half of the L3 stage, then declines dramatically. This sharp decrease coincides precisely with the increase of polyubiquitin receptor concentrations in late L3 larvae, which suggests a tight developmental co-regulation. RNAi-induced down-regulation of endoproteinase I results in pupal lethality. Interestingly, we found a cross-talk between the 26S proteasome and this larval protease: transgenic overexpression of the in vivo target of endoproteinase I, the C-terminal half of the proteasomal polyubiquitin receptor subunit p54/Rpn10 results in transcriptional down-regulation of endoproteinase I and consequently a lower level of proteolytic elimination of the polyubiquitin receptors. Another larval protease, Jonah65A-IV, which degrades only unfolded proteins and exhibits similar cross-talk with the proteasome has also been purified and characterized. It may prevent the accumulation of polyubiquitylated proteins in larvae contrary to the low polyubiquitin receptor concentration. PMID:23805892

Lipinszki, Zoltán; Klement, Eva; Hunyadi-Gulyas, Eva; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Márkus, Róbert; Pál, Margit; Deák, Péter; Udvardy, Andor

2013-09-15

125

and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Implications for Cancer Pathogenesis  

E-print Network

Theperoxisomeproliferator-activatedreceptors(PPAR)?, ?/?,and? are ligand-activated nuclear receptors involved in a number of physiological processes, including lipid and glucose homeostasis, inflammation, cell growth, differentiation, and death. PPAR agonists are used in the treatment of human diseases, like type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, and PPARs appear as promising therapeutic targets in other conditions, including cancer. A better understanding of the functions and regulation of PPARs in normal and pathological processes is of primary importance to devise appropriate therapeutic strategies. The ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in controlling level and activity of many nuclear receptors and transcription factors. PPARs are subjected to UPS-dependent regulation. Interestingly, the three PPAR isotypes are differentially regulated by the UPS in response to ligand-dependent activation, a phenomenon that may be intrinsically connected to their distinct cellular functions and behaviors. In addition to their effects ongene expression, PPARs appear to affect protein levels and downstream pathways also by modulating the activity of the UPS in target-specific manners. Here we review the current knowledge of the interactions between the UPS and PPARs in light of the potential implications for their effects on cell fate and tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2008 Davide Genini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.

Proliferators-activated Receptors; Davide Genini; Carlo V. Catapano

2008-01-01

126

Curcumin protects neuronal cells from Japanese encephalitis virus-mediated cell death and also inhibits infective viral particle formation by dysregulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an arboviral disease common in Southeast Asia encompassing a population of 3 billion people. Periodic outbreak of JE takes hundreds of lives. Children are major victims of JE. About one third of JE patients die, and many of the survivors suffer from permanent neuropsychiatric sequel, owing to the lack of specific therapeutic measure. Curcumin is a naturally occurring phenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa L. Previous studies have reported that curcumin possesses strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral activity. We used Neuro2a cell line and infected them with JE virus. The infected cells were treated with varying doses of curcumin. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production within the cells, and change in cellular membrane integrity were studied. The changes in expression of some signaling and stress-related proteins were also assessed. We also studied the inhibitory role of curcumin on the production of infective viral particles by dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this study, we found that curcumin imparts neuroprotection in vitro, probably by decreasing cellular reactive oxygen species level, restoration of cellular membrane integrity, decreasing pro-apoptotic signaling molecules, and modulating cellular levels of stress-related proteins. We have also shown that curcumin, by inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome system causes reduction in infective viral particle production from previously infected neuroblastoma cells. PMID:19434500

Dutta, Kallol; Ghosh, Debapriya; Basu, Anirban

2009-09-01

127

Smad3 Prevents ?-Catenin Degradation and Facilitates ?-Catenin Nuclear Translocation in Chondrocytes*  

PubMed Central

Our previous study demonstrated that transforming growth factor (TGF)-? activates ?-catenin signaling through Smad3 interaction with ?-catenin in chondrocytes. In the present studies, we further investigated the detailed molecular mechanism of the cross-talk between TGF-?/Smad3 and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways. We found that C-terminal Smad3 interacted with both the N-terminal region and the middle region of ?-catenin protein in a TGF-?-dependent manner. Both Smad3 and Smad4 were required for the interaction with ?-catenin and protected ?-catenin from an ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation. In addition, the formation of the Smad3-Smad4-?-catenin protein complex also mediated ?-catenin nuclear translocation. This Smad3-mediated regulatory mechanism of ?-catenin protein stability enhanced the activity of ?-catenin to activate downstream target genes during chondrogenesis. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism between TGF-? and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways during chondrocyte development. PMID:20097766

Zhang, Ming; Wang, Meina; Tan, Xiaohong; Li, Tian-Fang; Zhang, Ying E.; Chen, Di

2010-01-01

128

Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of  

E-print Network

Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of Cations in Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells Cation degradation insights obtained by computational modeling could result in better performance are effective in increasing cation stability. With the help of computational modeling, more cations are being

129

L166P MUTANT DJ-1, CAUSATIVE FOR RECESSIVE PARKINSON'S DISEASE IS DEGRADED THROUGH THE UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Mutations in a gene on chromosome 1, DJ-1, have been reported recently to be associated with recessive, early-onset Parkinson's disease. Whilst one mutation is a large deletion that is predicted to produce an effective knockout of the gene, the second is a point ...

130

Histone deacetylase inhibitors prevent the degradation and restore the activity of glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher disease  

PubMed Central

Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by a spectrum of genetic mutations within the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). These mutations often lead to misfolded proteins that are recognized by the unfolded protein response system and are degraded through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Modulating this pathway with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) has been shown to improve protein stability in other disease settings. To identify the mechanisms involved in the regulation of GCase and determine the effects of HDACis on protein stability, we investigated the most prevalent mutations for nonneuronopathic (N370S) and neuronopathic (L444P) GD in cultured fibroblasts derived from GD patients and HeLa cells transfected with these mutations. The half-lives of mutant GCase proteins correspond to decreases in protein levels and enzymatic activity. GCase was found to bind to Hsp70, which directed the protein to TCP1 for proper folding, and to Hsp90, which directed the protein to the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Using a known HDACi (SAHA) and a unique small-molecule HDACi (LB-205), GCase levels increased rescuing enzymatic activity in mutant cells. The increase in the quantity of protein can be attributed to increases in protein half-life that correspond primarily with a decrease in degradation rather than an increase in chaperoned folding. HDACis reduce binding to Hsp90 and prevent subsequent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation without affecting binding to Hsp70 or TCP1. These findings provide insight into the pathogenesis of GD and indicate a potent therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of GD and other human protein misfolding disorders. PMID:22160715

Lu, Jie; Yang, Chunzhang; Chen, Masako; Ye, Donald Y.; Lonser, Russell R.; Brady, Roscoe O.; Zhuang, Zhengping

2011-01-01

131

Identification of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in the Regulation of the Stability of Eukaryotic Elongation Factor2 Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase) is a highly conserved calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent enzyme in- volved in the regulation of protein translation and cell proliferation. Rapid changes in the activity and abundance of eEF-2 kinase have been observed on growth stimulation, and increased enzyme activity is characteristic of malignant cell growth. Yet the mechanism for controlling the turnover of this kinase is

Sonia Arora; Jin-Ming Yang; William N. Hait

2005-01-01

132

Genetic myostatin decrease in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy model does not significantly affect the ubiquitin proteasome system despite enhancing the severity of disease  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that inhibiting the protein myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, may improve outcomes in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy by enhancing muscle mass. When the dystrophin-deficient golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog was bred with whippets having a heterozygous mutation for the myostatin gene, affected GRMD dogs with decreased myostatin (GRippets) demonstrated an accelerated physical decline compared to related affected GRMD dogs with full myostatin. To examine the role of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems in this accelerated decline, we determined the expression of the muscle ubiquitin ligases MuRF1, Atrogin-1, RNF25, RNF11, and CHIP: the proteasome subunits PSMA6, PSMB4, and PSME1: and calpain 1/2 by real time PCR in the cranial sartorius and vastus lateralis muscles in control, affected GRMD, and GRippet dogs. While individual affected GRMD and GRippet dogs contributed to an increased variability seen in ubiquitin ligase expression, neither group was significantly different from the control group. The affected GRMD dogs demonstrated significant increases in caspase-like and trypsin-like activity in the cranial sartorius; however, all three proteasome activities in the GRippet muscles did not differ from controls. Increased variability in calpain 1 and calpain 2 expression and activity in the affected GRMD and GRippet groups were identified, but no statistical differences from the control group were seen. These studies suggest a role of myostatin in the disease progression of GRMD, which does not significantly involve key components of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems involved in the protein quality control of sarcomere and other structural skeletal muscle proteins. PMID:24349620

Cotten, Steven W; Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Wadosky, Kristine M; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

2014-01-01

133

Promotion of Heat Shock Factor Hsf1 Degradation via Adaptor Protein Filamin A-interacting Protein 1-Like (FILIP-1L)*  

PubMed Central

Heat shock factor Hsf1 is involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes including heat shock response, development and differentiation, aging, and tumorigenesis. Hsf1 transcriptional activity is tightly controlled through phosphorylation, sumoylation, and acetylation, and through association with a number of regulatory proteins. However, regulation of Hsf1 protein stability or turnover remains unknown. We have identified a novel Hsf1-interacting protein, FILIP-1L, that was found to bind to Hsf1 through yeast two-hybrid screening. FILIP-1L encodes multiple isoforms spanning from 711 to 1135 amino acid residues. FILIP-1L contains four coiled-coil and two N-terminal leucine zipper domains. Ectopic expression of FILIP-1L reduces the expression of the Hsf1 protein because FILIP-1L promotes Hsf1 ubiquitination and degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, leading to a reduction in Hsf1-mediated transcription. FILIP-1L, Hsf1, and the ubiquitin-binding domain of HhR23A, a receptor that transports polyubiquitinated proteins to the 19 S proteasome subunit targeting them for degradation, are found in a complex. This indicates that FILIP-1L is a potential adaptor that is involved in the Hsf1 degradation pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that FILIP-1L interacts with Hsf1, controlling its stability and thus modulating the heat shock response. These data indicate a novel function for FILIP-1L and a pathway for Hsf1 degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:21784850

Hu, Yanzhong; Mivechi, Nahid F.

2011-01-01

134

Glucocorticoids differentially regulate degradation of MyoD and Id1 by N-terminal ubiquitination to promote muscle protein catabolism  

PubMed Central

Accelerated protein degradation via the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway is the principal cause of skeletal muscle wasting associated with common human disease states and pharmacological treatment with glucocorticoids. Although many protein regulatory factors essential for muscle development and regeneration are degraded via the ubiquitin system, little is known about the mechanisms and regulation of this pathway that promote wasting muscle. Here, we demonstrate that, in differentiated myotubes, glucocorticoid, via the glucocorticoid receptor, selectively induces a decrease in protein abundance of MyoD, a master switch for muscle development and regeneration, but not that of its negative regulator Id1. This decrease in MyoD protein results from accelerated degradation after glucocorticoid exposure. Using MyoD and Id1 mutants deficient in either N terminus-dependent or internal lysine-dependent ubiquitination, we further show that these ubiquitination pathways of MyoD degradation are regulated differently from those of Id1 degradation. Specifically, glucocorticoid activates the N-terminal ubiquitination pathway in MyoD degradation in myotubes, without concomitant effects on Id1 degradation. This effect of glucocorticoid on MyoD and Id1 protein degradation is associated with the distinct cellular compartments in which their degradation occurs. Taken together, these results support a key role for the N terminus-dependent ubiquitination pathway in the physiology of muscle protein degradation. PMID:18296633

Sun, Liping; Trausch-Azar, Julie S.; Muglia, Louis J.; Schwartz, Alan L.

2008-01-01

135

Degradation of Activated Protein Kinases by Ubiquitination  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways and play critical roles in diverse cellular functions. Once a protein kinase is activated, its activity is subsequently downregulated through a variety of mechanisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that the activation of protein kinases commonly initiates their downregulation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Failure to regulate protein kinase activity or expression levels can cause human diseases. PMID:19489726

Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony

2009-01-01

136

Biochemical insights on degradation of Arabidopsis DELLA proteins gained from a cell-free assay system.  

PubMed

The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development. GA responses are triggered by the degradation of DELLA proteins, which function as repressors in GA signaling pathways. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) have implied that the degradation of DELLA proteins occurred via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we developed an Arabidopsis cell-free system to recapitulate DELLA protein degradation in vitro. Using this cell-free system, we documented that Lys-29 of ubiquitin is the major site for ubiquitin chain formation to mediate DELLA protein degradation. We also confirmed the specific roles of GA receptors and multisubunit E3 ligase components in regulating DELLA protein degradation. In addition, blocking DELLA degradation with a PP1/PP2A phosphatase inhibitor in our cell-free assay suggested that degradation of DELLA proteins required protein Ser/Thr dephosphorylation activity. Furthermore, our data revealed that the LZ domain of Arabidopsis DELLA proteins is essential for both their stability and activity. Thus, our in vitro degradation system provides biochemical insights into the regulation of DELLA protein degradation. This in vitro assay system could be widely adapted for dissecting cellular signaling pathways in which regulated proteolysis is a key recurrent theme. PMID:19717618

Wang, Feng; Zhu, Danmeng; Huang, Xi; Li, Shuang; Gong, Yinan; Yao, Qinfang; Fu, Xiangdong; Fan, Liu-Min; Deng, Xing Wang

2009-08-01

137

Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and Implications on the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

Antimalarial drug resistance remains a major obstacle in malaria control. Evidence from Southeast Asia shows that resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is inevitable. Ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the efficacy of curcumin against Plasmodium spp. Drug interaction assays between curcumin/piperine/chloroquine and curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combinations and the potential of drug treatment to interfere with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) were analyzed. In vivo efficacy of curcumin was studied in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi clones resistant to chloroquine and artemisinin, and drug interactions were analyzed by isobolograms. Subtherapeutic doses of curcumin, chloroquine, and artemisinin were administered to mice, and mRNA was collected following treatment for RT-PCR analysis of genes encoding deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Curcumin was found be nontoxic in BALB/c mice. The combination of curcumin/chloroquine/piperine reduced parasitemia to 37% seven days after treatment versus the control group's 65%, and an additive interaction was revealed. Curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combination did not show a favorable drug interaction in this murine model of malaria. Treatment of mice with subtherapeutic doses of the drugs resulted in a transient increase in genes encoding DUBs indicating UPS interference. If curcumin is to join the arsenal of available antimalarial drugs, future studies exploring suitable drug partners would be of interest. PMID:23691276

Neto, Zoraima; Machado, Marta; Lindeza, Ana; do Rosario, Virgilio; Gazarini, Marcos L.; Lopes, Dinora

2013-01-01

138

Regulation of the cytoplasmic quality control protein degradation pathway by BAG2.  

PubMed

The cytoplasm is protected against the perils of protein misfolding by two mechanisms: molecular chaperones (which facilitate proper folding) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which regulates degradation of misfolded proteins. CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) is an Hsp70-associated ubiquitin ligase that participates in this process by ubiquitylating misfolded proteins associated with cytoplasmic chaperones. Mechanisms that regulate the activity of CHIP are, at present, poorly understood. Using a proteomics approach, we have identified BAG2, a previously uncharacterized BAG domain-containing protein, as a common component of CHIP holocomplexes in vivo. Binding assays indicate that BAG2 associates with CHIP as part of a ternary complex with Hsc70, and BAG2 colocalizes with CHIP under both quiescent conditions and after heat shock. In vitro and in vivo ubiquitylation assays indicate that BAG2 is an efficient and specific inhibitor of CHIP-dependent ubiquitin ligase activity. This activity is due, in part, to inhibition of interactions between CHIP and its cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcH5a, which may in turn be facilitated by ATP-dependent remodeling of the BAG2-Hsc70-CHIP heterocomplex. The association of BAG2 with CHIP provides a cochaperone-dependent regulatory mechanism for preventing unregulated ubiquitylation of misfolded proteins by CHIP. PMID:16169850

Dai, Qian; Qian, Shu-Bing; Li, Hui-Hua; McDonough, Holly; Borchers, Christoph; Huang, David; Takayama, Shinichi; Younger, J Michael; Ren, Hong Yu; Cyr, Douglas M; Patterson, Cam

2005-11-18

139

Photovoltaic lifetime and degradation science statistical pathway development: acrylic degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scienti c and mechanistic statistical analytics must be performed on a large sample of materials, components and systems. Statistically signi - cant relationships were investigated between di erent mechanistically based variables to develop a statistical pathway diagram for the degradation of acrylic that is important in concentrating photovoltaics. The statisti- cally signi cant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation science using a domain knowledge semi-supervised generalized structural equation modeling (semi-gSEM. Predictive analytics and prognostics are informed from the statistical pathway diagram in order to predictively understand the lifetime of PV modules in di erent stress conditions and help with these critical lifetime technologies.

Bruckman, Laura S.; Wheeler, Nicholas R.; Kidd, Ian V.; Sun, Jiayang; French, Roger H.

2013-09-01

140

A comprehensive framework of E2–RING E3 interactions of the human ubiquitin–proteasome system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to substrates is crucial to protein degradation, transcription regulation and cell signalling. Highly specific interactions between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and ubiquitin protein E3 ligases fulfil essential roles in this process. We performed a global yeast-two hybrid screen to study the specificity of interactions between catalytic domains of the 35 human E2s with 250 RING-type E3s. Our

Sjoerd J L van Wijk; Sjoerd J de Vries; Patrick Kemmeren; Anding Huang; Rolf Boelens; Alexandre M J J Bonvin; H Th Marc Timmers

2009-01-01

141

Bacterial Effectors and Their Functions in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Insight from the Modes of Substrate Recognition  

PubMed Central

Protein ubiquitination plays indispensable roles in the regulation of cell homeostasis and pathogenesis of neoplastic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given the importance of this modification, it is to be expected that several pathogenic bacteria have developed the ability to utilize the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit. Modulation of the host ubiquitin system by bacterial effector proteins inhibits innate immune responses and hijacks central signaling pathways. Bacterial effectors mimic enzymes of the host ubiquitin system, but may or may not be structurally similar to the mammalian enzymes. Other effectors bind and modify components of the host ubiquitin system, and some are themselves subject to ubiquitination. This review will describe recent findings, based on structural analyses, regarding how pathogens use post-translational modifications of proteins to establish an infection. PMID:25257025

Kim, Minsoo; Otsubo, Ryota; Morikawa, Hanako; Nishide, Akira; Takagi, Kenji; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Mizushima, Tsunehiro

2014-01-01

142

Regulation of Subtilase Cytotoxin-Induced Cell Death by an RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase-Dependent Proteasome Pathway in HeLa Cells  

PubMed Central

Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) produces subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), which cleaves the molecular chaperone BiP in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to an ER stress response and then activation of apoptotic signaling pathways. Here, we show that an early event in SubAB-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells is mediated by RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), not activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) or inositol-requiring enzyme 1(Ire1), two other ER stress sensors. PERK knockdown suppressed SubAB-induced eIF2? phosphorylation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) expression, caspase activation, and cytotoxicity. Knockdown of eIF2? by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or inhibition of eIF2? dephosphorylation by Sal003 enhanced SubAB-induced caspase activation. Treatment with proteasome inhibitors (i.e., MG132 and lactacystin), but not a general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD) or a lysosome inhibitor (chloroquine), suppressed SubAB-induced caspase activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome system controls events leading to caspase activation, i.e., Bax/Bak conformational changes, followed by cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins in HeLa cells were significantly decreased by SubAB treatment. Further, in an early event, some antiapoptotic proteins, which normally turn over rapidly, have their synthesis inhibited, and show enhanced degradation via the proteasome, resulting in apoptosis. In PERK knockdown cells, SubAB-induced loss of ubiquitinated proteins was inhibited. Thus, SubAB-induced ER stress is caused by BiP cleavage, leading to PERK activation, not by accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, which undergo PERK-dependent degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:22354021

Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Ogura, Kohei; Nagasawa, Sayaka; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

2012-01-01

143

Ubiquitin-protein ligases in muscle wasting: multiple parallel pathways?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in a wide variety of animal models of muscle wasting have led to the concept that increased protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for the loss of muscle mass seen as muscle atrophy. The complexity of the ubiquitination apparatus has hampered our understanding of how this pathway is activated in atrophying muscles and which ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in muscle are responsible. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments have shown that two newly identified ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), atrogin-1/MAFbx and MURF-1, are critical in the development of muscle atrophy. Other in-vitro studies also implicated E2(14k) and E3alpha, of the N-end rule pathway, as playing an important role in the process. SUMMARY: It seems likely that multiple pathways of ubiquitin conjugation are activated in parallel in atrophying muscle, perhaps to target for degradation specific classes of muscle proteins. The emerging challenge will be to define the protein targets for, as well as inhibitors of, these E3s.

Lecker, Stewart H.; Goldberg, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

144

Distinct protein degradation profiles are induced by different disuse models of skeletal muscle atrophy  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle atrophy can be a consequence of many diseases, environmental insults, inactivity, age, and injury. Atrophy is characterized by active degradation, removal of contractile proteins, and a reduction in muscle fiber size. Animal models have been extensively used to identify pathways that lead to atrophic conditions. We used genome-wide expression profiling analyses and quantitative PCR to identify the molecular changes that occur in two clinically relevant mouse models of muscle atrophy: hindlimb casting and Achilles tendon laceration (tenotomy). Gastrocnemius muscle samples were collected 2, 7, and 14 days after casting or injury. The total amount of muscle loss, as measured by wet weight and muscle fiber size, was equivalent between models on day 14, although tenotomy resulted in a more rapid induction of muscle atrophy. Furthermore, tenotomy resulted in the regulation of significantly more mRNA transcripts then did casting. Analysis of the regulated genes and pathways suggest that the mechanisms of atrophy are distinct between these models. The degradation following casting was ubiquitin-proteasome mediated, while degradation following tenotomy was lysosomal and matrix-metalloproteinase mediated, suggesting a possible role for autophagy. These data suggest that there are multiple mechanisms leading to muscle atrophy and that specific therapeutic agents may be necessary to combat atrophy resulting from different conditions. PMID:21791639

Bialek, Peter; Morris, Carl; Parkington, Jascha; St. Andre, Michael; Owens, Jane; Yaworsky, Paul; Seeherman, Howard

2011-01-01

145

Glycosylation-independent ERAD pathway serves as a backup system under ER stress  

PubMed Central

During endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–associated degradation (ERAD), terminally misfolded proteins are retrotranslocated from the ER to the cytosol and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Misfolded glycoproteins are recognized by calnexin and transferred to EDEM1, followed by the ER disulfide reductase ERdj5 and the BiP complex. The mechanisms involved in ERAD of nonglycoproteins, however, are poorly understood. Here we show that nonglycoprotein substrates are captured by BiP and then transferred to ERdj5 without going through the calnexin/EDEM1 pathway; after cleavage of disulfide bonds by ERdj5, the nonglycoproteins are transferred to the ERAD scaffold protein SEL1L by the aid of BiP for dislocation into the cytosol. When glucose trimming of the N-glycan groups of the substrates is inhibited, glycoproteins are also targeted to the nonglycoprotein ERAD pathway. These results indicate that two distinct pathways for ERAD of glycoproteins and nonglycoproteins exist in mammalian cells, and these pathways are interchangeable under ER stress conditions. PMID:23966469

Ushioda, Ryo; Hoseki, Jun; Nagata, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

146

Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves  

PubMed Central

Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin) and essential amino acids (EAA) would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of synergistic effects between glucose + EAA infusion on muscle protein degradation or expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. PMID:18269762

Sadiq, Fouzia; Crompton, Leslie A; Scaife, Jes R; Lomax, Michael A

2008-01-01

147

Identification of RNF8 as a Ubiquitin Ligase Involved in Targeting the p12 Subunit of DNA Polymerase ? for Degradation in Response to DNA Damage*?  

PubMed Central

DNA polymerase ? consists of four subunits, one of which, p12, is degraded in response to DNA damage through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the identities of the ubiquitin ligase(s) that are responsible for the proximal biochemical events in triggering proteasomal degradation of p12 are unknown. We employed a classical approach to identifying a ubiquitin ligase that is involved in p12 degradation. Using UbcH5c as ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, a ubiquitin ligase activity that polyubiquitinates p12 was purified from HeLa cells. Proteomic analysis revealed that RNF8, a RING finger ubiquitin ligase that plays an important role in the DNA damage response, was the only ubiquitin ligase present in the purified preparation. In vivo, DNA damage-induced p12 degradation was significantly reduced by shRNA knockdown of RNF8 in cultured human cells and in RNF8?/? mouse epithelial cells. These studies provide the first identification of a ubiquitin ligase activity that is involved in the DNA damage-induced destruction of p12. The identification of RNF8 allows new insights into the integration of the control of p12 degradation by different DNA damage signaling pathways. PMID:23233665

Zhang, Sufang; Zhou, Yajing; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Thomson, Timothy M.; Zhang, Zhongtao; Lee, Ernest Y. C.; Lee, Marietta Y. W. T.

2013-01-01

148

Regulation of protein degradation pathways by amino acids and insulin in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid gain in lean mass in neonates requires greater rates of protein synthesis than degradation. We previously delineated the molecular mechanisms by which insulin and amino acids, especially leucine, modulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis and how this changes with development. In the current study, we identified mechanisms involved in protein degradation regulation. In experiment 1, 6- and 26-d-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic, 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hyperaminoacidemic, and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps for 2 h. In experiment 2, 5-d-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic-euleucinemic, 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hypoaminoacidemic-hyperleucinemic, and 3) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic-hyperleucinemic clamps for 24 h. We determined in muscle indices of ubiquitin-proteasome, i.e., atrogin-1 (MAFbx) and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1) and autophagy-lysosome systems, i.e., unc51-like kinase 1 (UKL1), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp-2). For comparison, we measured ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) activation, components of translation initiation. Results Abundance of atrogin-1, but not MuRF1, was greater in 26- than 6-d-old pigs and was not affected by insulin, amino acids, or leucine. Abundance of ULK1 and LC3 was higher in younger pigs and not affected by treatment. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was reduced and ULK1 phosphorylation increased by insulin, amino acids, and leucine. These responses were more profound in younger pigs. Abundance of Lamp-2 was not affected by treatment or development. Abundance of eIF4E, but not rpS6, was higher in 6- than 26-d-old-pigs but unaffected by treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E was not affected by treatment, however, insulin, amino acids, and leucine stimulated rpS6 phosphorylation, and the responses decreased with development. Conclusions The rapid growth of neonatal muscle is in part due to the positive balance between the activation of protein synthesis and degradation signaling. Insulin, amino acids, and, particularly, leucine, act as signals to modulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation in neonates. PMID:24438646

2014-01-01

149

Inhibition of Ubiquitin\\/Proteasome-Dependent Protein Degradation by the Gly-Ala Repeat Domain of the Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 is expressed in latently infected B lymphocytes that persist for life in healthy virus carriers and is the only viral protein regularly detected in all EBV associated malignancies. The Gly-Ala repeat domain of EBNA1 was shown to inhibit in cis the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic

Jelena Levitskaya; Anatoly Sharipo; Ainars Leonchiks; Aaron Ciechanover; Maria G. Masucci

1997-01-01

150

The Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Oncoprotein Tax Controls Forkhead Box O4 Activity through Degradation by the Proteasome?  

PubMed Central

Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway by the viral Tax oncoprotein plays a pivotal role in clonal expansion of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells. As the Forkhead box O (FoxO) tumor suppressors act as downstream effectors of PI3K/Akt, they represent good candidate targets whose dysregulation by Tax might be involved in HTLV-1-mediated activation and transformation of infected cells. In this report, we provide evidence showing that Tax induces a dose-dependent degradation of FoxO4 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Consistent with that, we demonstrate that Tax expression increases the interaction between FoxO4 and Mdm2 E3 ligase, leading to a strong FoxO4 polyubiquitination. These processes require the phosphorylation of FoxO4 by Akt, since a mutant of FoxO4 with mutations on its three Akt phosphorylation sites appears to be resistant to Tax-mediated degradation and ubiquitination. In addition, we show that Tax expression is associated with degradation and phosphorylation of endogenous FoxO4 in Jurkat T cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Tax represses FoxO4 transcriptional activity. Our study demonstrates that Tax can control FoxO4 protein stability and transcriptional activity and provides new insight into the subversion of cell signaling pathways during HTLV-1 infection. PMID:21525355

Oteiza, Alexandra; Mechti, Nadir

2011-01-01

151

Stress-Induced Phosphorylation and Proteasomal Degradation of Mitofusin 2 Facilitates Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mitochondria play central roles in integrating pro- and anti-apoptotic stimuli and JNK is well-known to have roles in activating apoptotic pathways. We establish a critical link between stress-induced JNK activation, mitofusin 2, which is an essential component of the mitochondrial outer membrane fusion apparatus, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). JNK phosphorylation of mitofusin 2 in response to cellular stress leads to recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase (E3) Huwe1/Mule/ARF-BP1/HectH9/E3Histone/Lasu1 to mitofusin 2, with the BH3 domain of Huwe1 implicated in this interaction. This results in ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of mitofusin 2, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation and enhanced apoptotic cell death. The stability of a non-phosphorylatable mitofusin 2 mutant is unaffected by stress and protective against apoptosis. Conversely, a mitofusin 2 phosphomimic is more rapidly degraded without cellular stress. These findings demonstrate how proximal signaling events can influence both mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis through phosphorylation-stimulated degradation of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. PMID:22748923

Leboucher, Guillaume P.; Tsai, Yien Che; Yang, Mei; Shaw, Kristin C.; Zhou, Ming; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Glickman, Michael H.; Weissman, Allan M.

2012-01-01

152

Role of Hsc70 binding cycle in CFTR folding and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation  

PubMed Central

The Hsp/c70 cytosolic chaperone system facilitates competing pathways of protein folding and degradation. Here we use a reconstituted cell-free system to investigate the mechanism and extent to which Hsc70 contributes to these co- and posttranslational decisions for the membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Hsc70 binding to CFTR was destabilized by the C-terminal domain of Bag-1 (CBag), which stimulates client release by accelerating ADP-ATP exchange. Addition of CBag during CFTR translation slightly increased susceptibility of the newly synthesized protein to degradation, consistent with a profolding function for Hsc70. In contrast, posttranslational destabilization of Hsc70 binding nearly completely blocked CFTR ubiquitination, dislocation from the endoplasmic reticulum, and proteasome-mediated cleavage. This effect required molar excess of CBag relative to Hsc70 and was completely reversed by the CBag-binding subdomain of Hsc70. These results demonstrate that the profolding role of Hsc70 during cotranslational CFTR folding is counterbalanced by a dominant and essential role in posttranslational targeting to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Moreover, the degradative outcome of Hsc70 binding appears highly sensitive to the duration of its binding cycle, which is in turn governed by the integrated expression of regulatory cochaperones. PMID:21697503

Matsumura, Yoshihiro; David, Larry L.; Skach, William R.

2011-01-01

153

Preventing p38 MAPK-Mediated MafA Degradation Ameliorates ?-Cell Dysfunction under Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The reduction in the expression of glucose-responsive insulin gene transcription factor MafA accompanies the development of ?-cell dysfunction under oxidative stress/diabetic milieu. Humans with type 2 diabetes have reduced MafA expression, and thus preventing this reduction could overcome ?-cell dysfunction and diabetes. We previously showed that p38 MAPK, but not glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), is a major regulator of MafA degradation under oxidative stress. Here, we examined the mechanisms of this degradation and whether preventing MafA degradation under oxidative stress will overcome ?-cell dysfunction. We show that under oxidative and nonoxidative conditions p38 MAPK directly binds to MafA and triggers MafA degradation via ubiquitin proteasomal pathway. However, unlike nonoxidative conditions, MafA degradation under oxidative stress depended on p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation at threonine (T) 134, and not T57. Furthermore the expression of alanine (A) 134-MafA, but not A57-MafA, reduced the oxidative stress-mediated loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which was independent of p38 MAPK action on protein kinase D, a regulator of insulin secretion. Interestingly, the expression of proteasomal activator PA28? that degrades GSK3-phosphorylated (including T57) MafA was reduced under oxidative stress, explaining the dominance of p38 MAPK over the GSK3 pathway in regulating MafA stability under oxidative stress. These results identify two distinct pathways mediating p38 MAPK-dependent MafA degradation under oxidative and nonoxidative conditions and show that inhibiting MafA degradation under oxidative stress ameliorates ?-cell dysfunction and could lead to novel therapies for diabetes. PMID:23660596

El Khattabi, Ilham

2013-01-01

154

ATF4 degradation relies on a phosphorylation-dependent interaction with the SCF(betaTrCP) ubiquitin ligase.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates gene expression through protein degradation. Here we show that the F-box protein betaTrCP, the receptor component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for IkappaBalpha and beta-catenin degradation, is colocalized in the nucleus with ATF4, a member of the ATF-CREB bZIP family of transcription factors, and controls its stability. Association between the two proteins depends on ATF4 phosphorylation and on ATF4 serine residue 219 present in the context of DSGXXXS, which is similar but not identical to the motif found in other substrates of betaTrCP. ATF4 ubiquitination in HeLa cells is enhanced in the presence of betaTrCP. The F-box-deleted betaTrCP protein behaves as a negative transdominant mutant that inhibits ATF4 ubiquitination and degradation and, subsequently, enhances its activity in cyclic AMP-mediated transcription. ATF4 represents a novel substrate for the SCF(betaTrCP) complex, which is the first mammalian E3 ubiquitin ligase identified so far for the control of the degradation of a bZIP transcription factor. PMID:11238952

Lassot, I; Ségéral, E; Berlioz-Torrent, C; Durand, H; Groussin, L; Hai, T; Benarous, R; Margottin-Goguet, F

2001-03-01

155

Genomic and functional profiling of duplicated chromosome 15 cell lines reveal regulatory alterations in UBE3A-associated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder having both genetic and epigenetic etiological elements. Isodicentric chromosome 15 (Idic15), characterized by duplications of the multi-disorder critical region of 15q11-q14, is a relatively common cytogenetic event. When the duplication involves maternally derived con- tent, this abnormality is strongly correlated with autism disorder. However, the mechanistic links between Idic15 and autism are ill-defined. To

Colin A. Baron; Clifford G. Tepper; Stephenie Y. Liu; Ryan R. Davis; Nicholas J. Wang; N. Carolyn Schanen; Jeffrey P. Gregg

2006-01-01

156

Most F508del-CFTR Is Targeted to Degradation at an Early Folding Checkpoint and Independently of Calnexin  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis and folding of multidomain transmembrane proteins is a complex process. Structural fidelity is monitored by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control involving the molecular chaperone calnexin. Retained misfolded proteins undergo ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our data show that the major degradation pathway of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) with F508del (the most frequent mutation found in patients with the genetic disease cystic fibrosis) from the ER is independent of calnexin. Moreover, our results demonstrate that inhibition of mannose-processing enzymes, unlike most substrate glycoproteins, does not stabilize F508del-CFTR, although wild-type (wt) CFTR is drastically stabilized under the same conditions. Together, our data support a novel model by which wt and F508del-CFTR undergo ERAD from two distinct checkpoints, the mutant being disposed of independently of N-glycosidic residues and calnexin, probably by the Hsc70/Hsp70 machinery, and wt CFTR undergoing glycan-mediated ERAD. PMID:15923638

Farinha, Carlos M.; Amaral, Margarida D.

2005-01-01

157

Most F508del-CFTR is targeted to degradation at an early folding checkpoint and independently of calnexin.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis and folding of multidomain transmembrane proteins is a complex process. Structural fidelity is monitored by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control involving the molecular chaperone calnexin. Retained misfolded proteins undergo ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our data show that the major degradation pathway of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) with F508del (the most frequent mutation found in patients with the genetic disease cystic fibrosis) from the ER is independent of calnexin. Moreover, our results demonstrate that inhibition of mannose-processing enzymes, unlike most substrate glycoproteins, does not stabilize F508del-CFTR, although wild-type (wt) CFTR is drastically stabilized under the same conditions. Together, our data support a novel model by which wt and F508del-CFTR undergo ERAD from two distinct checkpoints, the mutant being disposed of independently of N-glycosidic residues and calnexin, probably by the Hsc70/Hsp70 machinery, and wt CFTR undergoing glycan-mediated ERAD. PMID:15923638

Farinha, Carlos M; Amaral, Margarida D

2005-06-01

158

Geldanamycin-induced degradation of Chk1 is mediated by proteasome  

SciTech Connect

Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a cell cycle regulator and a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) client. It is essential for cell proliferation and survival. In this report, we analyzed the mechanisms of Chk1 regulation in U87MG glioblastoma cells using Geldanamycin (GA), which interferes with the function of Hsp90. GA reduced Chk1 protein level but not its mRNA level in glioblastoma cells. Co-treatment with GA and cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, induced a decrease of half-life of the Chk1 protein to 3 h and resulted in Chk1 down-regulation. CHX alone induced only 32% reduction of Chk1 protein even after 24 h. These findings indicated that reduction of Chk1 by GA was due to destabilization and degradation of the protein. In addition, GA-induced down-regulation of Chk1 was reversed by MG132, a specific proteasome inhibitor. And it was revealed that Chk1 was ubiquitinated by GA. These results have indicated that degradation of Chk1 by GA was mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in U87MG glioblastoma cells.

Nomura, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama Sakae Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); E-mail: nomura413jp@yahoo.co.jp; Nomura, N. [Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Social Insurance Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamashita, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan)

2005-09-30

159

Cyclophilin A Restricts Influenza A Virus Replication through Degradation of the M1 Protein  

PubMed Central

Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a typical member of the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases and is involved in the replication of several viruses. Previous studies indicate that CypA interacts with influenza virus M1 protein and impairs the early stage of the viral replication. To further understand the molecular mechanism by which CypA impairs influenza virus replication, a 293T cell line depleted for endogenous CypA was established. The results indicated that CypA inhibited the initiation of virus replication. In addition, the infectivity of influenza virus increased in the absence of CypA. Further studies indicated that CypA had no effect on the stages of virus genome replication or transcription and also did not impair the nuclear export of the viral mRNA. However, CypA decreased the viral protein level. Additional studies indicated that CypA enhanced the degradation of M1 through the ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. Our results suggest that CypA restricts influenza virus replication through accelerating degradation of the M1 protein. PMID:22347431

Xu, Chongfeng; Sun, Lei; Chen, Jilong; Zhang, Lianfeng; Liu, Wenjun

2012-01-01

160

Regulating the 20S Proteasome Ubiquitin-Independent Degradation Pathway  

PubMed Central

For many years, the ubiquitin-26S proteasome degradation pathway was considered the primary route for proteasomal degradation. However, it is now becoming clear that proteins can also be targeted for degradation by the core 20S proteasome itself. Degradation by the 20S proteasome does not require ubiquitin tagging or the presence of the 19S regulatory particle; rather, it relies on the inherent structural disorder of the protein being degraded. Thus, proteins that contain unstructured regions due to oxidation, mutation, or aging, as well as naturally, intrinsically unfolded proteins, are susceptible to 20S degradation. Unlike the extensive knowledge acquired over the years concerning degradation by the 26S proteasome, relatively little is known about the means by which 20S-mediated proteolysis is controlled. Here, we describe our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate 20S proteasome-mediated degradation, and highlight the gaps in knowledge that remain to be bridged. PMID:25250704

Ben-Nissan, Gili; Sharon, Michal

2014-01-01

161

ATR checkpoint kinase and CRL1?TRCP collaborate to degrade ASF1a and thus repress genes overlapping with clusters of stalled replication forks  

PubMed Central

Many agents used for chemotherapy, such as doxorubicin, interfere with DNA replication, but the effect of this interference on transcription is largely unknown. Here we show that doxorubicin induces the firing of dense clusters of neoreplication origins that lead to clusters of stalled replication forks in gene-rich parts of the genome, particularly on expressed genes. Genes that overlap with these clusters of stalled forks are actively dechromatinized, unwound, and repressed by an ATR-dependent checkpoint pathway. The ATR checkpoint pathway causes a histone chaperone normally associated with the replication fork, ASF1a, to degrade through a CRL1?TRCP-dependent ubiquitination/proteasome pathway, leading to the localized dechromatinization and gene repression. Therefore, a globally active checkpoint pathway interacts with local clusters of stalled forks to specifically repress genes in the vicinity of the stalled forks, providing a new mechanism of action of chemotherapy drugs like doxorubicin. Finally, ASF1a-depleted cancer cells are more sensitive to doxorubicin, suggesting that the 7%–10% of prostate adenocarcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas reported to have homozygous deletion or significant underexpression of ASF1a should be tested for high sensitivity to doxorubicin. PMID:24700029

Im, Jun-Sub; Keaton, Mignon; Lee, Kyung Yong; Kumar, Pankaj; Park, Jonghoon; Dutta, Anindya

2014-01-01

162

Binding-induced folding of prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein on the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase targets substrates for degradation  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analogue of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein bearing little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled-coils that recognize Pup. Mpa binds unstructured Pup via hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an ?-helix in Pup. Our work revealed a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This critical difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:20953180

Wang, Tao; Darwin, K. Heran; Li, Huilin

2010-01-01

163

Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of softwood: hemicellulose degradation pathways.  

PubMed

This study investigated softwood hemicelluloses degradation pathways during alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment of Douglas fir. It was found that glucomannan is much more susceptible to alkaline pretreatment than xylan. Organic acids, including lactic, succinic, glycolic and formic acid are the predominant products from glucomannan degradation. At low treatment temperature (90°C), a small amount of formic acid is produced from glucomannan, whereas glucomannan degradation to lactic acid and succinic acid becomes the main reactions at 140°C and 180°C. The addition of H2O2 during alkaline pretreatment of D. fir led to a significant removal of lignin, which subsequently facilitated glucomannan solubilization. However, H2O2 has little direct effect on the glucomannan degradation reaction. The main degradation pathways involved in glucomannan conversion to organics acids are elucidated. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to optimize pretreatment conditions to maximize the value of biomass hemicellulose. PMID:24185034

Alvarez-Vasco, Carlos; Zhang, Xiao

2013-12-01

164

Validation of microarray data in human lymphoblasts shows a role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and NF-kB in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Down syndrome (DS) is a complex disorder caused by the trisomy of either the entire, or a critical region of chromosome 21 (21q22.1-22.3). Despite representing the most common cause of mental retardation, the molecular bases of the syndrome are still largely unknown. Methods To better understand the pathogenesis of DS, we analyzed the genome-wide transcription profiles of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from six DS and six euploid individuals and investigated differential gene expression and pathway deregulation associated with trisomy 21. Connectivity map and PASS-assisted exploration were used to identify compounds whose molecular signatures counteracted those of DS lymphoblasts and to predict their therapeutic potential. An experimental validation in DS LCLs and fetal fibroblasts was performed for the most deregulated GO categories, i.e. the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and the NF-kB cascade. Results We show, for the first time, that the level of protein ubiquitination is reduced in human DS cell lines and that proteasome activity is increased in both basal conditions and oxidative microenvironment. We also provide the first evidence that NF-kB transcription levels, a paradigm of gene expression control by ubiquitin-mediated degradation, is impaired in DS due to reduced IkB-alfa ubiquitination, increased NF-kB inhibitor (IkB-alfa) and reduced p65 nuclear fraction. Finally, the DSCR1/DYRK1A/NFAT genes were analysed. In human DS LCLs, we confirmed the presence of increased protein levels of DSCR1 and DYRK1A, and showed that the levels of the transcription factor NFATc2 were decreased in DS along with a reduction of its nuclear translocation upon induction of calcium fluxes. Conclusions The present work offers new perspectives to better understand the pathogenesis of DS and suggests a rationale for innovative approaches to treat some pathological conditions associated to DS. PMID:23830204

2013-01-01

165

Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2,5 (or 3,6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation.

Lepine, F. (Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada)); Masse, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Pointe-Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1990-11-01

166

Current Understanding on the Role of Standard and Immunoproteasomes in Inflammatory/Immunological Pathways of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Both ex vivo analyses and animal models suggest that activity and composition of ubiquitin-proteasome system are altered in MS. Proteasome isoforms endowed of immunosubunits may affect the functionality of different cell types such as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells as well as neurons during MS development. Furthermore, the study of proteasome-related biomarkers, such as proteasome antibodies and circulating proteasomes, may represent a field of interest in MS. Proteasome inhibitors are already used as treatment for cancer and the recent development of inhibitors selective for immunoproteasome subunits may soon represent novel therapeutic approaches to the different forms of MS. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the potential role of proteasomes in MS and discuss the pro et contra of possible therapies for MS targeting proteasome isoforms. PMID:24523959

Bellavista, Elena; Santoro, Aurelia; Galimberti, Daniela; Comi, Cristoforo; Luciani, Fabio; Mishto, Michele

2014-01-01

167

Pathways and Analytical Tools in Degradation Studies of Organic Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

All chemical compounds may undergo a variety of processes resulting from chemical, biological, or photochemical reactions. Depending on the environmental compartment in which organic compounds are present (e.g., soil, benthic sediments, surfacewaters, and groundwaters), they can undergo slow changes resulting from different chemical, physical, biological, or photochemical processes. In this study, different degradation pathways for selected persistent organic pollutants under

Dagmara Dabrowska; Agata Kot-Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2005-01-01

168

Pin1 Modulates ER? Levels in Breast Cancer through Inhibition of Phosphorylation-dependent Ubiquitination and Degradation  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) is an important biomarker used to classify and direct therapy decisions in breast cancer. Both ER? protein and its transcript, ESR1, are used to predict response to tamoxifen therapy, yet certain tumors have discordant levels of ER? protein and ESR1, which is currently unexplained. Cellular ER? protein levels can be controlled post-translationally by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) through a mechanism that depends on phosphorylation at residue S118. Phospho-S118 (pS118-ER?) is a substrate for the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, Pin1, which mediates cis-trans isomerization of the pS118-P119 bond to enhance ER? transcriptional function. Here, we demonstrate that Pin1 can increase ER? protein without affecting ESR1 transcript levels by inhibiting proteasome-dependent receptor degradation. Pin1 disrupts ER? ubiquitination by interfering with receptor interactions with the E3 ligase, E6AP, which also is shown to bind pS118-ER?. Quantitative in situ assessments of ER? protein, ESR1, and Pin1 in human tumors from a retrospective cohort show that Pin1 levels correlate with ER? protein but not to ESR1 levels. These data show that ER? protein is post-translationally regulated by Pin1 in a proportion of breast carcinomas. Since Pin1 impacts both ER? protein levels and transactivation function, these data implicate Pin1 as a potential surrogate marker for predicting outcome of ER?-positive breast cancer. PMID:23542176

Rajbhandari, Prashant; Schalper, Kurt A.; Solodin, Natalia M.; Ellison-Zelski, Stephanie J.; Lu, Kun Ping; Rimm, David L.; Alarid, Elaine T.

2013-01-01

169

Pin1 modulates ER? levels in breast cancer through inhibition of phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) is an important biomarker used to classify and direct therapy decisions in breast cancer (BC). Both ER? protein and its transcript, ESR1, are used to predict response to tamoxifen therapy, yet certain tumors have discordant levels of ER? protein and ESR1, which is currently unexplained. Cellular ER? protein levels can be controlled post-translationally by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through a mechanism that depends on phosphorylation at residue S118. Phospho-S118 (pS118-ER?) is a substrate for the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, Pin1, which mediates cis-trans isomerization of the pS118-P119 bond to enhance ER? transcriptional function. Here, we demonstrate that Pin1 can increase ER? protein without affecting ESR1 transcript levels by inhibiting proteasome-dependent receptor degradation. Pin1 disrupts ER? ubiquitination by interfering with receptor interactions with the E3 ligase, E6AP, which also is shown to bind pS118-ER?. Quantitative in situ assessments of ER? protein, ESR1, and Pin1 in human tumors from a retrospective cohort show that Pin1 levels correlate with ER? protein but not to ESR1 levels. These data show that ER? protein is post-translationally regulated by Pin1 in a proportion of breast carcinomas. As Pin1 impacts both ER? protein levels and transactivation function, these data implicate Pin1 as a potential surrogate marker for predicting outcome of ER?-positive BC. PMID:23542176

Rajbhandari, P; Schalper, K A; Solodin, N M; Ellison-Zelski, S J; Ping Lu, K; Rimm, D L; Alarid, E T

2014-03-13

170

Fenretinide induces ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, SCD1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein and a rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, regulates cellular functions by controlling the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids. Increase in SCD expression is strongly implicated in the proliferation and survival of cancer cells, whereas its decrease is known to impair proliferation, induce apoptosis, and restore insulin sensitivity. We examined whether fenretinide, (N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide, 4HPR), which induces apoptosis in cancer cells and recently shown to improve insulin sensitivity, can modulate the expression of SCD. We observed that fenretinide decreased SCD protein and enzymatic activity in the ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cell line. Increased expression of BiP/GRP78, ATF4, and GADD153 implicated ER stress. Tunicamycin and thapsigargin, compounds known to induce ER stress, also decreased the SCD protein. This decrease was completely blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, PYR41, an inhibitor of ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, blocked the fenretinide-mediated decrease in SCD. Immunoprecipitation analysis using anti-ubiquitin and anti-SCD antibodies and the blocking of SCD loss by PYR41 inhibition of ubiquitination further corroborate that fenretinide mediates the degradation of SCD in human RPE cells via the ubiquitin-proteasome dependent pathway. Therefore, the effect of fenretinide on SCD should be considered in its potential therapeutic role against cancer, type-2 diabetes, and retinal diseases. PMID:24357007

Samuel, William; Kutty, R Krishnan; Duncan, Todd; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Kuo, Bryan C; Chapa, Krysten M; Redmond, T Michael

2014-08-01

171

Proteolysis of MOB1 by the ubiquitin ligase praja2 attenuates Hippo signalling and supports glioblastoma growth  

PubMed Central

Human glioblastoma is the most frequent and aggressive form of brain tumour in the adult population. Proteolytic turnover of tumour suppressors by the ubiquitin–proteasome system is a mechanism that tumour cells can adopt to sustain their growth and invasiveness. However, the identity of ubiquitin–proteasome targets and regulators in glioblastoma are still unknown. Here we report that the RING ligase praja2 ubiquitylates and degrades Mob, a core component of NDR/LATS kinase and a positive regulator of the tumour-suppressor Hippo cascade. Degradation of Mob through the ubiquitin–proteasome system attenuates the Hippo cascade and sustains glioblastoma growth in vivo. Accordingly, accumulation of praja2 during the transition from low- to high-grade glioma is associated with significant downregulation of the Hippo pathway. These findings identify praja2 as a novel upstream regulator of the Hippo cascade, linking the ubiquitin proteasome system to deregulated glioblastoma growth. PMID:23652010

Lignitto, Luca; Arcella, Antonietta; Sepe, Maria; Rinaldi, Laura; Delle Donne, Rossella; Gallo, Adriana; Stefan, Eduard; Bachmann, Verena A.; Oliva, Maria A.; Tiziana Storlazzi, Clelia; L'Abbate, Alberto; Brunetti, Arturo; Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Insabato, Luigi; Garbi, Corrado; Gottesman, Max E.; Feliciello, Antonio

2013-01-01

172

Characterization of MRFAP1 Turnover and Interactions Downstream of the NEDD8 Pathway*  

PubMed Central

The NEDD8-Cullin E3 ligase pathway plays an important role in protein homeostasis, in particular the degradation of cell cycle regulators and transcriptional control networks. To characterize NEDD8-cullin target proteins, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of cells treated with MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of the NEDD8 conjugation pathway. MRFAP1 and its interaction partner, MORF4L1, were among the most up-regulated proteins after NEDD8 inhibition in multiple human cell lines. We show that MRFAP1 has a fast turnover rate in the absence of MLN4924 and is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The increased abundance of MRFAP1 after MLN4924 treatment results from a decreased rate of degradation. Characterization of the binding partners of both MRFAP1 and MORF4L1 revealed a complex protein-protein interaction network. MRFAP1 bound to a number of E3 ubiquitin ligases, including CUL4B, but not to components of the NuA4 complex, including MRGBP, which bound to MORF4L1. These data indicate that MRFAP1 may regulate the ability of MORF4L1 to interact with chromatin-modifying enzymes by binding to MORF4L1 in a mutually exclusive manner with MRGBP. Analysis of MRFAP1 expression in human tissues by immunostaining with a MRFAP1-specific antibody revealed that it was detectable in only a small number of tissues, in particular testis and brain. Strikingly, analysis of the seminiferous tubules of the testis showed the highest nuclear staining in the spermatogonia and much weaker staining in the spermatocytes and spermatids. MRGBP was inversely correlated with MRFAP1 expression in these cell types, consistent with an exchange of MORF4L1 interaction partners as cells progress through meiosis in the testis. These data highlight an important new arm of the NEDD8-cullin pathway. PMID:22038470

Larance, Mark; Kirkwood, Kathryn J.; Xirodimas, Dimitris P.; Lundberg, Emma; Uhlen, Mathias; Lamond, Angus I.

2012-01-01

173

The many intersecting pathways underlying apolipoprotein B secretion and degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the levels of secreted apolipoprotein B (apoB) directly correlate with circulating serum cholesterol levels, there is a pressing need to define how the bio- synthesis of this protein is regulated. Most commonly, the concentration of a secreted, circulating protein corresponds to transcriptionally and\\/or translationally regulated events. By contrast, circulating apoB levels are controlled by degradative pathways in the cell

Jeffrey L. Brodsky; Edward A. Fisher

2008-01-01

174

The trans-Anethole Degradation Pathway in an Arthrobacter sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain (TA13) capable of utilizing t-anethole as the sole carbon source was isolated from soil. The strain was identified as Arthrobacter aurescens based on its 16 S rRNA gene sequence. Key steps of the degradation pathway of t-anethole were identified by the use of t-anethole-blocked mutants and specific inducible enzy- matic activities. In addition to t-anethole, strain TA13

Eyal Shimoni; Timor Baasov; Uzi Ravid; Yuval Shoham

2002-01-01

175

Pseudolaric acid B induces apoptosis via proteasome-mediated Bcl-2 degradation in hormone-refractory prostate cancer DU145 cells.  

PubMed

Pseudolaric acid B (PAB), a natural diterpene acid present in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Tu-Jin-Pi, exerted anticancer effects on various cancer cells. However, the effect of PAB on DU145 cells, an in vitro model of hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC), has not been reported previously. In the study, PAB significantly suppressed proliferation of DU145 cells in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxicity. IC(50) values of 0.89 ± 0.18 and 0.76 ± 0.15 ?M at 48h was determined by Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay and clone formation assay, respectively. PAB also induced DU145 cells apoptosis as confirmed by typical morphological changes and Annexin V-FITC staining. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PAB caused a concentration-dependent elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in DU145 cells, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, a well-known ROS scavenger) could block PAB-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Western blotting and/or caspase activity data indicated that PAB downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which were largely rescued by NAC or MG-132 (proteasome inhibitor). Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that PAB may inhibit growth of HRPC DU145 cells and induce apoptosis through ROS generation and Bcl-2 degradation via the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:22388098

Zhao, Dandan; Lin, Feng; Wu, Xingde; Zhao, Qinshi; Zhao, Binjiahui; Lin, Ping; Zhang, Yanlong; Yu, Xiaoguang

2012-06-01

176

Processing of N-linked glycans during endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation of a short-lived variant of ribophorin I.  

PubMed Central

Recently, the role of N-linked glycans in the process of ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation) of proteins has been widely recognized. In the present study, we attempted to delineate further the sequence of events leading from a fully glycosylated soluble protein to its deglycosylated form. Degradation intermediates of a truncated form of ribophorin I, namely RI(332), which contains a single N-linked oligosaccharide and is a substrate for the ERAD/ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, were characterized in HeLa cells under conditions blocking proteasomal degradation. The action of a deoxymannojirimycin- and kifunensine-sensitive alpha1,2-mannosidase was shown here to be required for both further glycan processing and progression of RI(332) in the ERAD pathway. In a first step, the Man(8) isomer B, generated by ER mannosidase I, appears to be the major oligomannoside structure associated with RI(332) intermediates. Some other trimmed N-glycan species, in particular Glc(1)Man(7)GlcNAc(2), were also found on the protein, indicating that several mannosidases might be implicated in the initial trimming of the oligomannoside. Secondly, another intermediate of degradation of RI(332) accumulated after proteasome inhibition. We demonstrated that this completely deglycosylated form arose from the action of an N-glycanase closely linked to the ER membrane. Indeed, the deglycosylated form of the protein remained membrane-associated, while being accessible from the cytoplasm to ubiquitinating enzymes and to added protease. Our results indicate that deglycosylation of a soluble ERAD substrate glycoprotein occurs in at least two distinct steps and is coupled with the retro-translocation of the protein preceding its proteasomal degradation. PMID:12952521

Kitzmuller, Claudia; Caprini, Andrea; Moore, Stuart E H; Frenoy, Jean-Pierre; Schwaiger, Eva; Kellermann, Odile; Ivessa, N Erwin; Ermonval, Myriam

2003-01-01

177

Protein degradation and quality control in cells from laforin and malin knockout mice.  

PubMed

Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes that encode a glycogen phosphatase, laforin, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase, malin, respectively. Lafora disease is characterized by accumulation of insoluble, poorly branched, hyperphosphorylated glycogen in brain, muscle, heart, and liver. The laforinmalin complex has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of glycogen metabolism and protein quality control. We evaluated three arms of the protein degradation/ quality control process (the autophago-lysosomal pathway, the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Epm2a(-/-), Epm2b(-/-), and Epm2a(-/-) Epm2b(-/-) mice. The levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy, were decreased in all knock-out cells as compared with wild type even though they still showed a slight response to starvation and rapamycin. Furthermore, ribosomal protein S6 kinase and S6 phosphorylation were increased. Under basal conditions there was no effect on the levels of ubiquitinated proteins in the knock-out cells, but ubiquitinated protein degradation was decreased during starvation or stress. Lack of malin (Epm2b(-/-) and Epm2a(-/-) Epm2b(-/-) cells) but not laforin (Epm2a(-/-) cells) decreased LAMP1, a lysosomal marker. CHOP expression was similar in wild type and knock-out cells under basal conditions or with ER stress-inducing agents. In conclusion, both laforin and malin knock-out cells display mTOR-dependent autophagy defects and reduced proteasomal activity but no defects in the ER stress response. We speculate that these defects may be secondary to glycogen overaccumulation. This study also suggests a malin function independent of laforin, possibly in lysosomal biogenesis and/or lysosomal glycogen disposal. PMID:24914213

Garyali, Punitee; Segvich, Dyann M; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

2014-07-25

178

Aerobic Degradation of Dinitrotoluenes and Pathway for Bacterial Degradation of 2,6-Dinitrotoluene  

PubMed Central

An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkholderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. We report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize 2,4-DNT by the same pathway and the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that mineralize 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkholderia cepacia strain JS850 and Hydrogenophaga palleronii strain JS863 grew on 2,6-DNT as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The initial steps in the pathway for degradation of 2,6-DNT were determined by simultaneous induction, enzyme assays, and identification of metabolites through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. 2,6-DNT was converted to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol by a dioxygenation reaction accompanied by the release of nitrite. 3-Methyl-4-nitrocatechol was the substrate for extradiol ring cleavage yielding 2-hydroxy-5-nitro-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoic acid, which was converted to 2-hydroxy-5-nitropenta-2,4-dienoic acid. 2,4-DNT-degrading strains also converted 2,6-DNT to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol but did not metabolize the 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol. Although 2,6-DNT prevented the degradation of 2,4-DNT by 2,4-DNT-degrading strains, the effect was not the result of inhibition of 2,4-DNT dioxygenase by 2,6-DNT or of 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol monooxygenase by 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol. PMID:10788393

Nishino, Shirley F.; Paoli, George C.; Spain, Jim C.

2000-01-01

179

The Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Pathways of Budding Yeast  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding is a common cellular event that can produce intrinsically harmful products. To reduce the risk, quality control mechanisms are deployed to detect and eliminate misfolded, aggregated, and unassembled proteins. In the secretory pathway, it is mainly the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways that perform this role. Here, specialized factors are organized to monitor and process the folded states of nascent polypeptides. Despite the complex structures, topologies, and posttranslational modifications of client molecules, the ER mechanisms are the best understood among all protein quality-control systems. This is the result of convergent and sometimes serendipitous discoveries by researchers from diverse fields. Although major advances in ER quality control and ERAD came from all model organisms, this review will focus on the discoveries culminating from the simple budding yeast. PMID:23209158

Thibault, Guillaume; Ng, Davis T.W.

2012-01-01

180

Emerging Mechanistic Insights into AAA Complexes Regulating Proteasomal Degradation  

PubMed Central

The 26S proteasome is an integral element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and, as such, responsible for regulated degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It consists of the core particle, which catalyzes the proteolysis of substrates into small peptides, and the regulatory particle, which ensures specificity for a broad range of substrates. The heart of the regulatory particle is an AAA-ATPase unfoldase, which is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits enabling substrate recognition and processing. Cryo-EM-based studies revealed the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome and its conformational rearrangements, providing insights into substrate recognition, commitment, deubiquitylation and unfolding. The cytosol proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitylated substrates is tuned by various associating cofactors, including deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitin ligases, shuttling ubiquitin receptors and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48/p97. Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors function upstream of the 26S proteasome, and their modular organization exhibits some striking analogies to the regulatory particle. In archaea PAN, the closest regulatory particle homolog and Cdc48 even have overlapping functions, underscoring their intricate relationship. Here, we review recent insights into the structure and dynamics of the 26S proteasome and its associated machinery, as well as our current structural knowledge on the Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors that function in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:25102382

Forster, Friedrich; Schuller, Jan M.; Unverdorben, Pia; Aufderheide, Antje

2014-01-01

181

Myostatin and the skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and is conserved in many species, from rodents to humans. Myostatin inactivation can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. As it represents a potential target for stimulating muscle growth and/or preventing muscle wasting, myostatin regulation and functions in the control of muscle mass have been extensively studied. A wealth of data strongly suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle mass are associated with dysregulation in myostatin expression. Moreover, myostatin plays a central role in integrating/mediating anabolic and catabolic responses. Myostatin negatively regulates the activity of the Akt pathway, which promotes protein synthesis, and increases the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to induce atrophy. Several new studies have brought new information on how myostatin may affect both ribosomal biogenesis and translation efficiency of specific mRNA subclasses. In addition, although myostatin has been identified as a modulator of the major catabolic pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The goal of this review is to highlight outstanding questions about myostatin-mediated regulation of the anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis has been placed on (1) the cross-regulation between myostatin, the growth-promoting pathways and the proteolytic systems; (2) how myostatin inhibition leads to muscle hypertrophy; and (3) the regulation of translation by myostatin. PMID:25080109

Rodriguez, J; Vernus, B; Chelh, I; Cassar-Malek, I; Gabillard, J C; Hadj Sassi, A; Seiliez, I; Picard, B; Bonnieu, A

2014-11-01

182

Photo-fenton degradation of diclofenac: identification of main intermediates and degradation pathway.  

PubMed

In recent years, the presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been of growing interest. These new contaminants are important because many of them are not degraded under the typical biological treatments applied in the wastewater treatment plants and represent a continuous input into the environment. Thus, compounds such as diclofenac are present in surface waters in all Europe and a crucial need for more enhanced technologies that can reduce its presence in the environment has become evident. In this sense, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) represent a good choice for the treatment of hazardous nonbiodegradable pollutants. This work deals with the solar photodegradation of diclofenac, an antiinflammatory drug, in aqueous solutions by photo-Fenton reaction. A pilot-scale facility using a compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor was used for this study. Results obtained show rapid and complete oxidation of diclofenac after 60 min, and total mineralization (disappearance of dissolved organic carbon, DOC) after 100 min of exposure to sunlight. Although diclofenac precipitates during the process at low pH, its degradation takes place in the homogeneous phase governed by a precipitation-redissolution-degradation process. Establishment of the reaction pathway was made possible by a thorough analysis of the reaction mixture identifying the main intermediate products generated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/ MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) were used to identify 18 intermediates, in two tentative degradation routes. The main one was based on the initial hydroxylation of the phenylacetic acid moiety in the C-4 position and subsequent formation of a quinone imine derivative that was the starting point for further multistep degradation involving hydroxylation, decarboxylation, and oxidation reactions. An alternative route was based on the transient preservation of the biphenyl amino moiety that underwent a similar oxidative process of C-N bond cleavage. The proposed degradation route differs from those previously reported involving alternative degradation processes (ozonization, UV/H2O2, or photolysis), indicating that diclofenac degradation follows different pathways, depending on the treatment applied. PMID:16294867

Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Malato, Sixto; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Agüera, Ana; Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2005-11-01

183

Necdin Promotes Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation of PIAS1 SUMO E3 Ligase  

PubMed Central

Necdin, a pleiotropic protein that promotes differentiation and survival of mammalian neurons, is a member of MAGE (melanoma antigen) family proteins that share a highly conserved MAGE homology domain. Several MAGE proteins interact with ubiquitin E3 ligases and modulate their activities. However, it remains unknown whether MAGE family proteins interact with SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) E3 ligases such as PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family, Nsmce2/Mms21 and Cbx4/Pc2. In the present study, we examined whether necdin interacts with these SUMO E3 ligases. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that necdin, MAGED1, MAGEF1 and MAGEL2 bound to PIAS1 but not to Nsmce2 or Cbx4. These SUMO E3 ligases bound to MAGEA1 but failed to interact with necdin-like 2/MAGEG1. Necdin bound to PIAS1 central domains that are highly conserved among PIAS family proteins and suppressed PIAS1-dependent sumoylation of the substrates STAT1 and PML (promyelocytic leukemia protein). Remarkably, necdin promoted degradation of PIAS1 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In transfected HEK293A cells, amino- and carboxyl-terminally truncated mutants of PIAS1 bound to necdin but failed to undergo necdin-dependent ubiquitination. Both PIAS1 and necdin were associated with the nuclear matrix, where the PIAS1 terminal deletion mutants failed to localize, implying that the nuclear matrix is indispensable for necdin-dependent ubiquitination of PIAS1. Our data suggest that necdin suppresses PIAS1 both by inhibiting SUMO E3 ligase activity and by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation. PMID:24911587

Gur, Ibrahim; Fujiwara, Kazushiro; Hasegawa, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki

2014-01-01

184

ARTS and Siah Collaborate in a Pathway for XIAP Degradation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY ARTS (Apoptosis-Related protein in the TGF-? Signaling pathway) is a mitochondrial protein that binds XIAP (X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein) upon entering the cytosol, thus promoting cell death. Expression of ARTS is lost in some malignancies. Here we show that ARTS binds to XIAP at BIR1, a domain distinct from the caspase-binding sites. Furthermore, ARTS interacts with the E3 ligase Siah-1 (seven in absentia homolog 1) to induce ubiquitination and degradation of XIAP. Cells lacking either Siah or ARTS contain higher steady-state levels of XIAP. Thus, ARTS serves as an adapter to bridge Siah-1 to XIAP, targeting it for destruction. PMID:21185211

Garrison, Jason B.; Correa, Ricardo G.; Gerlic, Motti; Yip, Kenneth W.; Krieg, Andreas; Tamble, Craig M.; Shi, Ranxin; Welsh, Kate; Duggineni, Srinivas; Huang, Ziwei; Ren, Keqin; Du, Chunying; Reed, John C.

2010-01-01

185

Extended Anti-inflammatory Action of a Degradation-resistant Mutant of Cell-penetrating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3*  

PubMed Central

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) regulates the proinflammatory cytokine signaling mediated by the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. SOCS3 is rapidly induced and then targeted to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway via a mechanism that requires the C-terminal SOCS box. Due to its rapid turnover, the intracellular stores of SOCS3 seem insufficient to control acute or protracted inflammatory diseases. Previously, we developed an intracellular protein therapy that uses a recombinant cell-penetrating form of SOCS3 (CP-SOCS3) to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway and prevent cytokine-mediated lethal inflammation and apoptosis of the liver (Jo, D., Liu, D., Yao, S., Collins, R. D., and Hawiger, J. (2005) Nat. Med. 11, 892–898). The potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activity of CP-SOCS3 prompted us to analyze its intracellular turnover, as compared with that of endogenous SOCS3 protein induced in macrophages by the proinflammatory agonists, interferon-? and lipopolysaccharide. We found that the half-life (t½) of endogenous SOCS3 is 0.7 h in activated macrophages, compared with a t½ of 6.2 h for recombinant CP-SOCS3. Deletion of the SOCS box in CP-SOCS3 renders it more resistant to proteasomal degradation, extending its t½ to 29 h. Consequently, this SOCS box-deleted form of CP-SOCS3 displays persistent inhibitory activity for 24 h toward interferon-?- and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and chemokine production. Compared with the wild-type suppressor, this gain-of-function CP-SOCS3 mutant provides a longer acting inhibitor of cytokine signaling, a feature that offers a clear advantage for the intracellular delivery of proteins to treat acute or protracted inflammatory diseases. PMID:20400504

Fletcher, Tynetta C.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hawiger, Jacek

2010-01-01

186

Degradation of sulphonated azo dye Red HE7B by Bacillus sp. and elucidation of degradative pathways.  

PubMed

Bacteria capable of degrading the sulfonated azo dye Red HE7B were isolated from textile mill effluent contaminated soil. The most efficient isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. Azo1 and the isolate could successfully decolorize up to 89% of the dye. The decolorized cultural extract analyzed by HPLC confirmed degradation. Enzymatic analysis showed twofold and fourfold increase in the activity of azoreductase and laccase enzymes, respectively, indicating involvement of both reductive and oxidative enzymes in biodegradation of Red HE7B. Degraded products which were identified by GC/MS analysis included various metabolites like 8-nitroso 1-naphthol, 2-diazonium naphthalene. Mono azo dye intermediate was initially generated from the parent molecule. This mono azo dye was further degraded by the organism, into additional products, depending on the site of cleavage of R-N=N-R molecule. Based on the degradation products identified, three different pathways have been proposed. The mechanism of degradation in two of these pathways is different from that of the previously reported pathway for azo dye degradation. This is the first report of a microbial isolate following multiple pathways for azo dye degradation. Azo dye Red HE7B was observed to be phytotoxic, leading to decrease in root development, shoot length and seedling fresh weight. However, after biotreatment the resulting degradation products were non-phytotoxic. PMID:24682261

Thakur, Jyoti Kumar; Paul, Sangeeta; Dureja, Prem; Annapurna, K; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Gopal, Madhuban

2014-08-01

187

Ring cleavage and degradative pathway of cyanuric acid in bacteria.  

PubMed

The degradative pathway of cyanuric acid [1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione] was examined in Pseudomonas sp. strain D. The bacterium grew with cyanuric acid, biuret, urea or NH4+ as sole source of nitrogen, and each substrate was entirely metabolized concomitantly with growth. Enzymes from strain D were separated by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and three reactions were examined. Cyanuric acid (1 mol) was converted stoichiometrically into 1.0 mol of CO2 and 1.1 mol of biuret, which was conclusively identified. Biuret (1 mol) was converted stoichiometrically into 1.1 mol of NH4+, about 1 mol of CO2 and 1.0 mol of urea, which was conclusively identified. Urea (1 mol) was converted into 1.9 mol of NH4+ and 1.0 mol of CO2. The reactions proceeded under aerobic or anoxic conditions and were presumed to be hydrolytic. Data indicate that the same pathway occurred in another pseudomonad and a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:3904735

Cook, A M; Beilstein, P; Grossenbacher, H; Hütter, R

1985-10-01

188

Ubiquitin conjugation by the N-end rule pathway and mRNAs for its components increase in muscles of diabetic rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insulin deficiency (e.g., in acute diabetes or fasting) is associated with enhanced protein breakdown in skeletal muscle leading to muscle wasting. Because recent studies have suggested that this increased proteolysis is due to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome (Ub-proteasome) pathway, we investigated whether diabetes is associated with an increased rate of Ub conjugation to muscle protein. Muscle extracts from streptozotocin-induced insulin-deficient rats contained greater amounts of Ub-conjugated proteins than extracts from control animals and also 40-50% greater rates of conjugation of (125)I-Ub to endogenous muscle proteins. This enhanced Ub-conjugation occurred mainly through the N-end rule pathway that involves E2(14k) and E3alpha. A specific substrate of this pathway, alpha-lactalbumin, was ubiquitinated faster in the diabetic extracts, and a dominant negative form of E2(14k) inhibited this increase in ubiquitination rates. Both E2(14k) and E3alpha were shown to be rate-limiting for Ub conjugation because adding small amounts of either to extracts stimulated Ub conjugation. Furthermore, mRNA for E2(14k) and E3alpha (but not E1) were elevated 2-fold in muscles from diabetic rats, although no significant increase in E2(14k) and E3alpha content could be detected by immunoblot or activity assays. The simplest interpretation of these results is that small increases in both E2(14k) and E3alpha in muscles of insulin-deficient animals together accelerate Ub conjugation and protein degradation by the N-end rule pathway, the same pathway activated in cancer cachexia, sepsis, and hyperthyroidism.

Lecker, S. H.; Solomon, V.; Price, S. R.; Kwon, Y. T.; Mitch, W. E.; Goldberg, A. L.

1999-01-01

189

Degradation of diclofenac by ultrasonic irradiation: kinetic studies and degradation pathways.  

PubMed

Diclofenac (DCF) is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug found in various water bodies, posing threats to human health. In this research, the effects of ultrasonic irradiation at 585kHz on the degradation of DCF were studied under the air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen saturated conditions. First, the dechlorination efficiencies under the air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen saturated conditions were calculated to be 67%, 60%, 53% and 59%. Second, there was full mineralization of nitrogen during DCF degradation under the air, oxygen, and argon saturated conditions, but no mineralization of nitrogen under the nitrogen-saturated condition. Different from nitrogen, only partial mineralization of carbon occurred under the four gas-saturated conditions. Third, OH scavengers were added to derive the rate constants in the three reaction zones: cavitation bubble, supercritical interface, and bulk solution. Comparison of the constants indicated that DCF degradation was not limited to the bulk solution as conventionally assumed. Oxidation in the supercritical interface played a dominant role under the air and oxygen saturated conditions, while OH reactions in the cavitation bubble and/or bulk solution were dominant under the nitrogen and argon saturated conditions. After the addition of H2O2, reactions in the cavitation bubble and bulk solution kept their dominant roles under the nitrogen and argon saturated conditions, while reaction in the supercritical interface decreased under the air and oxygen saturated conditions. Finally, LC-MS analysis was used to derive the by-products and propose the main pathways of DCF degradation by ultrasonic irradiation. PMID:25065805

Nie, Er; Yang, Mo; Wang, Dong; Yang, Xiaoying; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

2014-10-01

190

Rates of ubiquitin conjugation increase when muscles atrophy, largely through activation of the N-end rule pathway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid loss of muscle mass that accompanies many disease states, such as cancer or sepsis, is primarily a result of increased protein breakdown in muscle, and several observations have suggested an activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Accordingly, in extracts of atrophying muscles from tumor-bearing or septic rats, rates of 125I-ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins were found to be higher than in control extracts. On the other hand, in extracts of muscles from hypothyroid rats, where overall proteolysis is reduced below normal, the conjugation of 125I-ubiquitin to soluble proteins decreased by 50%, and treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) restored ubiquitination to control levels. Surprisingly, the N-end rule pathway, which selectively degrades proteins with basic or large hydrophobic N-terminal residues, was found to be responsible for most of these changes in ubiquitin conjugation. Competitive inhibitors of this pathway that specifically block the ubiquitin ligase, E3alpha, suppressed most of the increased ubiquitin conjugation in the muscle extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats. These inhibitors also suppressed ubiquitination in normal extracts toward levels in hypothyroid extracts, which showed little E3alpha-dependent ubiquitination. Thus, the inhibitors eliminated most of the differences in ubiquitination under these different pathological conditions. Moreover, 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, was ubiquitinated more rapidly in extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats, and more slowly in those from hypothyroid rats, than in controls. Thus, the rate of ubiquitin conjugation increases in atrophying muscles, and these hormone- and cytokine-dependent responses are in large part due to activation of the N-end rule pathway.

Solomon, V.; Baracos, V.; Sarraf, P.; Goldberg, A. L.

1998-01-01

191

Genome-scale analyses of butanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal an essential role of protein degradation  

PubMed Central

Background n-Butanol and isobutanol produced from biomass-derived sugars are promising renewable transport fuels and solvents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for butanol production, but its high butanol sensitivity poses an upper limit to product titers that can be reached by further pathway engineering. A better understanding of the molecular basis of butanol stress and tolerance of S. cerevisiae is important for achieving improved tolerance. Results By combining a screening of the haploid S. cerevisiae knock-out library, gene overexpression, and genome analysis of evolutionary engineered n-butanol-tolerant strains, we established that protein degradation plays an essential role in tolerance. Strains deleted in genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and in vacuolar degradation of damaged proteins showed hypersensitivity to n-butanol. Overexpression of YLR224W, encoding the subunit responsible for the recognition of damaged proteins of an ubiquitin ligase complex, resulted in a strain with a higher n-butanol tolerance. Two independently evolved n-butanol-tolerant strains carried different mutations in both RPN4 and RTG1, which encode transcription factors involved in the expression of proteasome and peroxisomal genes, respectively. Introduction of these mutated alleles in the reference strain increased butanol tolerance, confirming their relevance in the higher tolerance phenotype. The evolved strains, in addition to n-butanol, were also more tolerant to 2-butanol, isobutanol and 1-propanol, indicating a common molecular basis for sensitivity and tolerance to C3 and C4 alcohols. Conclusions This study shows that maintenance of protein integrity plays an essential role in butanol tolerance and demonstrates new promising targets to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved tolerance. PMID:23552365

2013-01-01

192

Degradation of HIF-1alpha under Hypoxia Combined with Induction of Hsp90 Polyubiquitination in Cancer Cells by Hypericin: a Unique Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

The perihydroxylated perylene quinone hypericin has been reported to possess potent anti-metastatic and antiangiogenic activities, generated by targeting diverse crossroads of cancer-promoting processes via unique mechanisms. Hypericin is the only known exogenous reagent that can induce forced poly-ubiquitination and accelerated degradation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in cancer cells. Hsp90 client proteins are thereby destabilized and rapidly degraded. Hsp70 client proteins may potentially be also affected via preventing formation of hsp90-hsp70 intermediate complexes. We show here that hypericin also induces enhanced degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in two human tumor cell lines, U87-MG glioblastoma and RCC-C2VHL?/? renal cell carcinoma and in the non-malignant ARPE19 retinal pigment epithelial cell line. The hypericin-accelerated turnover of HIF-1?, the regulatory precursor of the HIF-1 transcription factor which promotes hypoxic stress and angiogenic responses, overcomes the physiologic HIF-1? protein stabilization which occurs in hypoxic cells. The hypericin effect also eliminates the high HIF-1? levels expressed constitutively in the von-Hippel Lindau protein (pVHL)-deficient RCC-C2VHL?/? renal cell carcinoma cell line. Unlike the normal ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-dependent turnover of HIF-? proteins which occurs in normoxia, the hypericin-induced HIF-1? catabolism can occur independently of cellular oxygen levels or pVHL-promoted ubiquitin ligation of HIF-1?. It is mediated by lysosomal cathepsin-B enzymes with cathepsin-B activity being optimized in the cells through hypericin-mediated reduction in intracellular pH. Our findings suggest that hypericin may potentially be useful in preventing growth of tumors in which HIF-1? plays pivotal roles, and in pVHL ablated tumor cells such as renal cell carcinoma through elimination of elevated HIF-1? contents in these cells, scaling down the excessive angiogenesis which characterizes these tumors. PMID:21949677

Livnat, Tami; Weinberger, Dov; Lavie, Gad

2011-01-01

193

SIAH-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of acetyl-transferases regulate the p53 response and protein acetylation.  

PubMed

Posttranslational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation regulates many biological processes ranging from signal transduction to chromatin compaction. Here we identify the acetyl-transferases CBP/p300, Tip60 and PCAF as new substrates for the ubiquitin E3 ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2. While CBP/p300 can undergo ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation by SIAH1 and SIAH2, the two other acetyl-transferases are exclusively degraded by SIAH2. Accordingly, SIAH-deficient cells show enhanced protein acetylation, thus revealing SIAH proteins as indirect regulators of the cellular acetylation status. Functional experiments show that Tip60/PCAF-mediated acetylation of the tumor suppressor p53 is antagonized by the p53 target gene SIAH2 which mediates ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation of both acetyl-transferases and consequently diminishes p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. The p53 kinase HIPK2 mediates hierarchical phosphorylation of SIAH2 at 5 sites, which further boosts its activity as a ubiquitin E3 ligase for several substrates and therefore dampens the late p53 response. PMID:23044042

Grishina, Inna; Debus, Katherina; García-Limones, Carmen; Schneider, Constanze; Shresta, Amit; García, Carlos; Calzado, Marco A; Schmitz, M Lienhard

2012-12-01

194

The eukaryotic initiation factor-2 kinase pathway facilitates differential GADD45a expression in response to environmental stress.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) regulates general and gene-specific translation in response to diverse environmental stresses. Central to gene expression induced by eIF2 phosphorylation is the preferential translation of ATF4, a basic zipper transcription activator. Phosphorylation of eIF2 and its attendant induction of ATF4 can lead to different patterns of gene expression depending on the environmental stress. This is of fundamental importance because eIF2 kinases can induce the expression of genes involved in survival as well as in apoptosis. In this report, we explore the molecular basis for why there can be differential expression of GADD45a, a stress-responsive protein that regulates genome stability, apoptosis, and immune responses. We find that whereas ATF4 is required for GADD45a transcription during many different environmental stresses, GADD45a protein accumulates only during a limited number of stress arrangements. The basis for this difference between measurable GADD45a mRNA and protein lies in the observation that GADD45a protein is labile. Those stress agents that enhance ATF4-directed GADD45a transcription and impede the turnover of GADD45a protein by blocking ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation elevate GADD45a protein levels. By comparison, those stress arrangements that trigger ATF4 levels and GADD45a transcription, but do not perturb the proteasome pathway, only elevate GADD45a mRNA levels. This study highlights the molecular mechanisms by which environmental stresses can differentially control central regulatory proteins targeted by the eIF2 kinase pathway. PMID:17170114

Jiang, Hao-Yuan; Jiang, Li; Wek, Ronald C

2007-02-01

195

Disease-Associated Mutations of TDP-43 Promote Turnover of the Protein Through the Proteasomal Pathway.  

PubMed

TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of most ubiquitin-positive neuronal and glial inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). A number of missense mutations in the TARDBP gene have been identified in patients with familial and sporadic ALS, as well as familial FTLD with ALS. In the diseased states, TDP-43 proteins exhibit characteristic alterations, including truncation, abnormal phosphorylation, and altered subcellular distribution. However, the mechanisms by which TDP-43 mutations induce neurodegeneration remain unclear at present. In the current study, we analyzed protein turnover and subcellular distribution of wild-type TDP-43 and two disease-associated mutants (G298S and A382T) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing TDP-43 with a C-terminal tag. Cycloheximide chase experiments revealed more rapid turnover of TDP-43 mutant proteins than their wild-type counterpart. The decrease in the TDP-43 level after cycloheximide treatment was partially recovered upon co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, epoxomicin, but not the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, suggesting involvement of the proteasomal pathway in TDP-43 degradation. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of TDP-43 revealed predominant localization in the nuclear fraction, whereas the relative level in the cytoplasm remained unaltered in cells expressing either mutant protein, compared with wild-type protein. Our results suggest that higher turnover of disease-associated mutant TDP-43 proteins through the ubiquitin proteasome system is pathogenetically relevant and highlight the significance of proteolysis in the pathogenetic mechanism of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:24477737

Araki, Wataru; Minegishi, Seiji; Motoki, Kazumi; Kume, Hideaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Araki, Yumiko M; Tamaoka, Akira

2014-12-01

196

Enzymes involved in a novel anaerobic cyclohexane carboxylic Acid degradation pathway.  

PubMed

The anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHC) has so far been studied only in Rhodopseudomonas palustris, in which CHC is activated to cyclohexanoyl coenzyme A (cyclohexanoyl-CoA [CHCoA]) and then dehydrogenated to cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (CHeneCoA). This intermediate is further degraded by reactions of the R. palustris-specific benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway of aromatic compounds. However, CHeneCoA is not an intermediate in the degradation of aromatic compounds in all other known anaerobic bacteria; consequently, degradation of CHC was mostly unknown in anaerobic bacteria. We identified a previously unknown CHC degradation pathway in the Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter metallireducens by determining the following CHC-induced in vitro activities: (i) the activation of CHC to CHCoA by a succinyl-CoA:CHC CoA transferase, (ii) the 1,2-dehydrogenation of CHCoA to CHeneCoA by CHCoA dehydrogenase, and (iii) the unusual 1,4-dehydrogenation of CHeneCoA to cyclohex-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA. This last represents a previously unknown joint intermediate of the CHC and aromatic compound degradation pathway in bacteria other than R. palustris. The enzymes catalyzing the three reactions were purified and characterized as specific enzymes after heterologous expression of the encoding genes. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that expression of these genes was highly induced during growth with CHC but not with benzoate. The newly identified CHC degradation pathway is suggested to be present in nearly all CHC-degrading anaerobic bacteria, including denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermenting bacteria. Remarkably, all three CHC degradation pathways always link CHC catabolism to the catabolic pathways of aromatic compounds. We propose that the capacity to use CHC as a carbon source evolved from already-existing aromatic compound degradation pathways. PMID:25112478

Kung, Johannes W; Meier, Anne-Katrin; Mergelsberg, Mario; Boll, Matthias

2014-10-15

197

Complete and Integrated Pyrene Degradation Pathway in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 Based on Systems Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 was the first bacterium isolated by virtue of its ability to metabolize the high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene. We used metabolic, genomic, and proteomic approaches in this investigation to construct a complete and integrated pyrene degradation pathway for M. vanbaalenii PYR-1. Genome sequence analyses identified genes involved in the pyrene degradation pathway that we have proposed

Seong-Jae Kim; Ohgew Kweon; Richard C. Jones; James P. Freeman; Ricky D. Edmondson; Carl E. Cerniglia

2007-01-01

198

Molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of angiotensin II-induced muscle wasting: potential therapeutic targets for cardiac cachexia  

PubMed Central

Cachexia is a serious complication of many chronic diseases, such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many factors are involved in the development of cachexia, and there is increasing evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in this process. Patients with advanced CHF or CKD often have increased Ang II levels and cachexia, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment improves weight loss. In rodent models, an increase in systemic Ang II leads to weight loss through increased protein breakdown, reduced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and decreased appetite. Ang II activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system via generation of reactive oxygen species and via inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Ang II inhibits 5? AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and disrupts normal energy balance. Ang II also increases cytokines and circulating hormones such as tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, serum amyloid-A, glucocorticoids and myostatin, which regulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ang II acts on hypothalamic neurons to regulate orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide-Y, orexin and corticotropin-releasing hormone, leading to reduced appetite. Also, Ang II may regulate skeletal muscle regenerative processes. Several clinical studies have indicated that blockade of Ang II signaling via ACE inhibitors or Ang II type 1 receptor blockers prevents weight loss and improves muscle strength. Thus the RAS is a promising target for the treatment of muscle atrophy in patients with CHF and CKD. PMID:23769949

Yoshida, Tadashi; Tabony, A. Michael; Galvez, Sarah; Mitch, William E.; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice

2013-01-01

199

In silico prediction of pharmaceutical degradation pathways: a benchmarking study.  

PubMed

Zeneth is a new software application capable of predicting degradation products derived from small molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients. This study was aimed at understanding the current status of Zeneth's predictive capabilities and assessing gaps in predictivity. Using data from 27 small molecule drug substances from five pharmaceutical companies, the evolution of Zeneth predictions through knowledge base development since 2009 was evaluated. The experimentally observed degradation products from forced degradation, accelerated, and long-term stability studies were compared to Zeneth predictions. Steady progress in predictive performance was observed as the knowledge bases grew and were refined. Over the course of the development covered within this evaluation, the ability of Zeneth to predict experimentally observed degradants increased from 31% to 54%. In particular, gaps in predictivity were noted in the areas of epimerizations, N-dealkylation of N-alkylheteroaromatic compounds, photochemical decarboxylations, and electrocyclic reactions. The results of this study show that knowledge base development efforts have increased the ability of Zeneth to predict relevant degradation products and aid pharmaceutical research. This study has also provided valuable information to help guide further improvements to Zeneth and its knowledge base. PMID:25364862

Kleinman, Mark H; Baertschi, Steven W; Alsante, Karen M; Reid, Darren L; Mowery, Mark D; Shimanovich, Roman; Foti, Chris; Smith, William K; Reynolds, Dan W; Nefliu, Marcela; Ott, Martin A

2014-11-01

200

Oat phytochrome A mRNA degradation appears to occur via two distinct pathways.  

PubMed Central

We have identified possible mechanisms for the degradation of oat phytochrome A (PHYA) mRNA. The majority of PHYA mRNA molecules appeared to be degraded prior to removal of the poly(A) tail, a pathway that differs from that reported for the degradation of other eukaryotic mRNAs. Polyadenylated PHYA mRNA contained a pattern of putative degradation products that is consistent with a 5'-->3' exoribonuclease, although the participation of a stochastic endoribonuclease cannot be excluded. The poly(A) tail of PHYA mRNA was heterogeneous in size and ranged from approximately 14 to 220 nucleotides. Early PHYA mRNA degradation events did not appear to involve site-specific endoribonucleases. Approximately 25% of the apparently full-length PHYA mRNA was poly(A) deficient. Oat H4 histone, beta-tubulin, and actin mRNA populations had lower amounts of apparently full-length mRNAs that were poly(A) deficient. Degradation of the poly(A)-deficient PHYA mRNA, a second pathway, appeared to be initiated by a 3'-->5' exoribonucleolytic removal of the poly(A) tail followed by both 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' exoribonuclease activities. Polysome-associated RNA contained putative PHYA mRNA degradation products and was a mixture of polyadenylated and deadenylated PHYA messages, suggesting that the two distinct degradation pathways are polysome associated. PMID:7915160

Higgs, D C; Colbert, J T

1994-01-01

201

PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

202

Timely Activation of Budding Yeast APCCdh1 Involves Degradation of Its Inhibitor, Acm1, by an Unconventional Proteolytic Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Regulated proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system is a fundamental and essential feature of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. Most proteins with cell cycle-regulated stability are targeted for degradation by one of two related ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1-cullin-F box protein (SCF) complex or the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Here we describe an unconventional cell cycle-regulated proteolytic mechanism that acts on the Acm1 protein, an inhibitor of the APC activator Cdh1 in budding yeast. Although Acm1 can be recognized as a substrate by the Cdc20-activated APC (APCCdc20) in anaphase, APCCdc20 is neither necessary nor sufficient for complete Acm1 degradation at the end of mitosis. An APC-independent, but 26S proteasome-dependent, mechanism is sufficient for complete Acm1 clearance from late mitotic and G1 cells. Surprisingly, this mechanism appears distinct from the canonical ubiquitin targeting pathway, exhibiting several features of ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation. For example, Acm1 degradation in G1 requires neither lysine residues in Acm1 nor assembly of polyubiquitin chains. Acm1 was stabilized though by conditional inactivation of the ubiquitin activating enzyme Uba1, implying some requirement for the ubiquitin pathway, either direct or indirect. We identified an amino terminal predicted disordered region in Acm1 that contributes to its proteolysis in G1. Although ubiquitin-independent proteasome substrates have been described, Acm1 appears unique in that its sensitivity to this mechanism is strictly cell cycle-regulated via cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation. As a result, Acm1 expression is limited to the cell cycle window in which Cdk is active. We provide evidence that failure to eliminate Acm1 impairs activation of APCCdh1 at mitotic exit, justifying its strict regulation by cell cycle-dependent transcription and proteolytic mechanisms. Importantly, our results reveal that strict cell-cycle expression profiles can be established independent of proteolysis mediated by the APC and SCF enzymes. PMID:25072887

Melesse, Michael; Choi, Eunyoung; Hall, Hana; Walsh, Michael J.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hall, Mark C.

2014-01-01

203

AEROBIC DEGRADATION OF DINITROTOLUENES AND PATHWAY FOR BACTERIAL DEGRADATION OF 2,6-DINITROTOLUENE  

EPA Science Inventory

An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkhoderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. We report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkhoderia ...

204

Isolation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacteria and their degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Four strains of biphenyl-degrading bacteria were isolated from a sewage and identified from the Rhodococcus genus (SK-1, SK-3, and SK-4) and Aquamicrobium genus (SK-2) by 16S rRNA sequence. Among these strains, strain SK-2 was most suitable for biphenyl degradation. When 0.65, 1.3, 2.6, or 3.9 mM of biphenyl was used, the biphenyl was completely degraded within 24 and 96 h of culture, respectively. However, in the case of 6.5 and 9.75 mM of biphenyl, the biphenyl degradation yields were about 80 % and 46.7 % after 120 h of culture, respectively. The isolated strains could degrade a broad spectrum of aromatic compounds including high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the presence of biphenyl. In addition, strain SK-2 could utilize PCB congeners containing one to six chlorine substituents such as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. The PCB utilization rate by the strain SK-2 was increased compared to that of other PCB congener-utilizing bacteria. The four isolates metabolized 4-chlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-(4'-chlorophenyl)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid. These results suggest the isolated strains might be good candidates for the bioremediation of PCB-contaminated soil, especially high-saline soils. PMID:23529656

Chang, Young-Cheol; Takada, Kazunori; Choi, Dubok; Toyama, Tadashi; Sawada, Ken; Kikuchi, Shintaro

2013-05-01

205

Proteomic analysis of the benzoate degradation pathway in Acinetobacter sp. KS-1.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to perform proteome analysis of Acinetobacter sp. KS-1, a bacterium capable of degrading benzoate as a sole carbon source. In order to understand the benzoate degradation pathway used by strain KS-1, proteomes of benzoate-cultured and succinate-cultured KS-1 were comparatively analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Eighteen protein spots proteins were exclusively induced from the benzoate-cultured strain KS-1. Of these 18 spots, two benzoate-degrading enzymes (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and beta-ketoadipate succinyl-CoA transferase) were identified by MS/MS analysis by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, which suggests that strain KS-1 degrades benzoate by the beta-ketoadipate pathway. DEAE-chromatography suggested that strain KS-1 induced only one type of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase during benzoate degradation. The catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was purified using three steps of ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-sepharose, and Mono-Q chromatography. The purified catechol 1,2-dioxygenase of strain KS-1 had strong dioxygenase activity for 4-methylcatechol as well as catechol. Sequencing analysis using N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences showed that this catechol 1,2-dioxygenase is highly homologous with catechol 1,2-dioxygenase of Acinetobacter radioresistens. These results suggest that comparative proteomic analysis of biodegrading bacteria cultured under different conditions may be a useful initial step toward the elucidation of the aromatic compound degradation pathway. PMID:14643408

Kim, Seung Il; Song, Seung Youl; Kim, Kyung Wook; Ho, Eun Mi; Oh, Kye Heon

2003-12-01

206

Has the bacterial biphenyl catabolic pathway evolved primarily to degrade biphenyl? The diphenylmethane case.  

PubMed

In this work, we have compared the ability of Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to metabolize diphenylmethane and benzophenone, two biphenyl analogs in which the phenyl rings are bonded to a single carbon. Both chemicals are of environmental concern. P. pnomenusa B356 grew well on diphenylmethane. On the basis of growth kinetics analyses, diphenylmethane and biphenyl were shown to induce the same catabolic pathway. The profile of metabolites produced during growth of strain B356 on diphenylmethane was the same as the one produced by isolated enzymes of the biphenyl catabolic pathway acting individually or in coupled reactions. The biphenyl dioxygenase oxidizes diphenylmethane to 3-benzylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol very efficiently, and ultimately this metabolite is transformed to phenylacetic acid, which is further metabolized by a lower pathway. Strain B356 was also able to cometabolize benzophenone through its biphenyl pathway, although in this case, this substrate was unable to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway and the degradation was incomplete, with accumulation of 2-hydroxy-6,7-dioxo-7-phenylheptanoic acid. Unlike strain B356, B. xenovorans LB400 did not grow on diphenylmethane. Its biphenyl pathway enzymes metabolized diphenylmethane, but they poorly metabolize benzophenone. The fact that the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain B356 metabolized diphenylmethane and benzophenone more efficiently than that of strain LB400 brings us to postulate that in strain B356, this pathway evolved divergently to serve other functions not related to biphenyl degradation. PMID:23749969

Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sylvestre, Michel

2013-08-01

207

Has the Bacterial Biphenyl Catabolic Pathway Evolved Primarily To Degrade Biphenyl? The Diphenylmethane Case  

PubMed Central

In this work, we have compared the ability of Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to metabolize diphenylmethane and benzophenone, two biphenyl analogs in which the phenyl rings are bonded to a single carbon. Both chemicals are of environmental concern. P. pnomenusa B356 grew well on diphenylmethane. On the basis of growth kinetics analyses, diphenylmethane and biphenyl were shown to induce the same catabolic pathway. The profile of metabolites produced during growth of strain B356 on diphenylmethane was the same as the one produced by isolated enzymes of the biphenyl catabolic pathway acting individually or in coupled reactions. The biphenyl dioxygenase oxidizes diphenylmethane to 3-benzylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol very efficiently, and ultimately this metabolite is transformed to phenylacetic acid, which is further metabolized by a lower pathway. Strain B356 was also able to cometabolize benzophenone through its biphenyl pathway, although in this case, this substrate was unable to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway and the degradation was incomplete, with accumulation of 2-hydroxy-6,7-dioxo-7-phenylheptanoic acid. Unlike strain B356, B. xenovorans LB400 did not grow on diphenylmethane. Its biphenyl pathway enzymes metabolized diphenylmethane, but they poorly metabolize benzophenone. The fact that the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain B356 metabolized diphenylmethane and benzophenone more efficiently than that of strain LB400 brings us to postulate that in strain B356, this pathway evolved divergently to serve other functions not related to biphenyl degradation. PMID:23749969

Pham, Thi Thanh My

2013-01-01

208

Proteasome Inhibition Enhances the Induction and Impairs the Maintenance of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays important roles in synaptic plasticity, but the molecular mechanisms by which proteolysis regulates synaptic strength are not well understood. We investigated the role of the proteasome in hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP), a model for enduring synaptic plasticity.…

Dong, Chenghai; Upadhya, Sudarshan C.; Ding, Lan; Smith, Thuy K.; Hegde, Ashok N.

2008-01-01

209

Unveiling New Degradation Intermediates/Pathways from the Photocatalytic Degradation of Microcystin-LR  

EPA Science Inventory

This study focuses on the identification of reaction intermediates formed during the photocatalytic degradation of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR with immobilized TiO2 Tphotocatalysts at neutral pH. To differentiate between impurities already existing in the MC-LR stand...

210

The E3 ubiquitin ligase mind bomb 1 ubiquitinates and promotes the degradation of survival of motor neuron protein  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy is an inherited motor neuron disease that results from a deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is ubiquitinated and degraded through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). We have previously shown that proteasome inhibition increases SMN protein levels, improves motor function, and reduces spinal cord, muscle, and neuromuscular junction pathology of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) mice. Specific targets in the UPS may be more efficacious and less toxic. In this study, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, mind bomb 1 (Mib1), interacts with and ubiquitinates SMN and facilitates its degradation. Knocking down Mib1 levels increases SMN protein levels in cultured cells. Also, knocking down the Mib1 orthologue improves neuromuscular function in Caenorhabditis elegans deficient in SMN. These findings demonstrate that Mib1 ubiquitinates and catalyzes the degradation of SMN, and thus represents a novel therapeutic target for SMA. PMID:23615451

Kwon, Deborah Y.; Dimitriadi, Maria; Terzic, Barbara; Cable, Casey; Hart, Anne C.; Chitnis, Ajay; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Burnett, Barrington G.

2013-01-01

211

Roles of protein ubiquitination and degradation kinetics in biological oscillations.  

PubMed

Protein ubiquitination and degradation play important roles in many biological functions and are associated with many human diseases. It is well known that for biochemical oscillations to occur, proper degradation rates of the participating proteins are needed. In most mathematical models of biochemical reactions, linear degradation kinetics has been used. However, the degradation kinetics in real systems may be nonlinear, and how nonlinear degradation kinetics affects biological oscillations are not well understood. In this study, we first develop a biochemical reaction model of protein ubiquitination and degradation and calculate the degradation rate against the concentration of the free substrate. We show that the protein degradation kinetics mainly follows the Michaelis-Menten formulation with a time delay caused by ubiquitination and deubiquitination. We then study analytically how the Michaelis-Menten degradation kinetics affects the instabilities that lead to oscillations using three generic oscillation models: 1) a positive feedback mediated oscillator; 2) a positive-plus-negative feedback mediated oscillator; and 3) a negative feedback mediated oscillator. In all three cases, nonlinear degradation kinetics promotes oscillations, especially for the negative feedback mediated oscillator, resulting in much larger oscillation amplitudes and slower frequencies than those observed with linear kinetics. However, the time delay due to protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination generally suppresses oscillations, reducing the amplitude and increasing the frequency of the oscillations. These theoretical analyses provide mechanistic insights into the effects of specific proteins in the ubiquitination-proteasome system on biological oscillations. PMID:22506034

Xu, Lida; Qu, Zhilin

2012-01-01

212

Oxidative Degradation of Acetaminophen by Permanganate in Neutral Medium-A Kinetic and Mechanistic Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is an emerging issue. Several studies observed that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug acetaminophen is ubiquitously present in most of the surveyed surface waters, worldwide. This spectroscopic study presents the kinetics and degradation pathways of oxidation of acetaminophen by permanganate in neutral medium. The variables affecting the reactions were carefully investigated and the conditions

S. Tabassum; S. Sabir; O. Sulaiman; M. Rafatullah; I. Khan; R. Hashim

2011-01-01

213

Kinetic models and pathways of ronidazole degradation by chlorination, UV irradiation and UV/chlorine processes.  

PubMed

Degradation kinetics and pathways of ronidazole (RNZ) by chlorination (Cl2), UV irradiation and combined UV/chlorine processes were investigated in this paper. The degradation kinetics of RNZ chlorination followed a second-order behavior with the rate constants calculated as (2.13 ± 0.15) × 10(2) M(-2) s(-1), (0.82 ± 0.52) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) and (2.06 ± 0.09) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1) for the acid-catalyzed reaction, as well as the reactions of RNZ with HOCl and OCl(-), respectively. Although UV irradiation degraded RNZ more effectively than chlorination did, very low quantum yield of RNZ at 254 nm was obtained as 1.02 × 10(-3) mol E(-1). RNZ could be efficiently degraded and mineralized in the UV/chlorine process due to the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The second-order rate constant between RNZ and hydroxyl radical was determined as (2.92 ± 0.05) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The degradation intermediates of RNZ during the three processes were identified with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization - mass spectrometry and the degradation pathways were then proposed. Moreover, the variation of chloropicrin (TCNM) and chloroform (CF) formation after the three processes were further evaluated. Enhanced formation of CF and TCNM precursors during UV/chlorine process deserves extensive attention in drinking water treatment. PMID:25141357

Qin, Lang; Lin, Yi-Li; Xu, Bin; Hu, Chen-Yan; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Zhu, Wen-Qian; Huang, He; Gao, Nai-Yun

2014-11-15

214

Mechanism and pathways of chlorfenapyr photocatalytic degradation in aqueous suspension of TiO2.  

PubMed

The light-induced degradation of chlorfenapyr under UV was investigated in aqueous solutions containing TiO2 as photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation of chlorfenapyr followed pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics (Ct = C0e(-kt)). The study focused on the identification of possible intermediate products during the degradation, using gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1HNMR. Six aromatic intermediates were identified by several techniques during the treatment and some of them were further confirmed by matching authentic standards. Structure analysis of the degradation products suggested two degradation pathways: (1) The aliphatic ether group was cleaved from chlorfenapyr to form pyrrole-alph-carboxylic acid, then the pyrrole group was broken to form 4-chloroglycine; (2) Chlorfenapyr was debrominated and the aliphatic ether group was cleaved from the pyrrole group, which was further broken to form 4-chlorophenylglycine. The glycine was degraded into 4-chlorobenzoic acids, which was further broken into inorganic ions and CO2. PMID:16749708

Cao, Yongsong; Yi, Lei; Huang, Lu; Hou, Ying; Lu, Yitong

2006-05-15

215

New branches in the degradation pathway of monochlorocatechols by Aspergillus nidulans: a metabolomics analysis.  

PubMed

A collective view of the degradation of monochlorocatechols in fungi is yet to be attained, though these compounds are recognised as key degradation intermediates of numerous chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, including monochlorophenols. In the present contribution we have analysed the degradation pathways of monochlorophenols in Aspergillus nidulans using essentially metabolomics. Degradation intermediates herein identified included those commonly reported (e.g. 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate) but also compounds never reported before in fungi revealing for 4-chlorocatechol and for 3-chlorocatechol unknown degradation paths yielding 3-chlorodienelactone and catechol, respectively. A different 3-chlorocatechol degradation path led to accumulation of 2-chloromuconates (a potential dead-end), notwithstanding preliminary evidence of chloromuconolactones and protoanemonin simultaneous formation. In addition, some transformation intermediates, of which sulfate conjugates of mono-chlorophenols/chlorocatechols were the most common, were also identified. This study provides critical information for understanding the role of fungi in the degradation of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons; furthering their utility in the development of innovative bioremediation strategies. PMID:24509097

Martins, Tiago M; Núñez, Oscar; Gallart-Ayala, Hector; Leitão, Maria Cristina; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Silva Pereira, Cristina

2014-03-15

216

Metagenomic Identification of Bacterioplankton Taxa and Pathways Involved in Microcystin Degradation in Lake Erie  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera) and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax) of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr) were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems. PMID:23637924

Mou, Xiaozhen; Lu, Xinxin; Jacob, Jisha; Sun, Shulei; Heath, Robert

2013-01-01

217

Evidence for the involvement of the anthranilate degradation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilms are complex cell communities found attached to surfaces and surrounded by an extracellular matrix composed of exopolysaccharides, DNA, and proteins. We investigated the whole-genome expression profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sessile cells (SCs) present in biofilms developed on a glass wool substratum. The transcriptome and proteome of SCs were compared with those of planktonic cell cultures. Principal component analysis revealed a biofilm-specific gene expression profile. Our study highlighted the overexpression of genes controlling the anthranilate degradation pathway in the SCs grown on glass wool for 24 h. In this condition, the metabolic pathway that uses anthranilate for Pseudomonas quinolone signal production was not activated, which suggested that anthranilate was primarily being consumed for energy metabolism. Transposon mutants defective for anthranilate degradation were analyzed in a simple assay of biofilm formation. The phenotypic analyses confirmed that P. aeruginosa biofilm formation partially depended on the activity of the anthranilate degradation pathway. This work points to a new feature concerning anthranilate metabolism in P. aeruginosa SCs. PMID:23170231

Costaglioli, Patricia; Barthe, Christophe; Claverol, Stephane; Brozel, Volker S; Perrot, Michel; Crouzet, Marc; Bonneu, Marc; Garbay, Bertrand; Vilain, Sebastien

2012-01-01

218

Evaluation of toluene degradation pathways by two-dimensional stable isotope fractionation.  

PubMed

Toluene degradation by several pure and mixed microbial cultures was investigated bytwo-dimensional compound specific isotope analysis (2D-CSIA). For most of the cultures, the respective toluene degradation pathway and toluene attacking enzymatic step was known. The slope of the linear regression for hydrogen (delta delta(2)H) vs. carbon (delta delta(13)C) discrimination (lamda = delta delta(2)H/ delta delta(13)C approximately epsilonH(bulk)/epsilonC(bulk)) was determined in order to characterize aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation pathways. The highest lamda value was estimated for the monohydroxylation of the methyl group by Pseudomonas putida (lamda = 53 +/- 5). The lowest value was observed for Rhodococcus opacus (lamda = 2 +/- 2) due to its insignificant hydrogen fractionation, which indicates that a ring dioxygenase was responsible for the initial attack of toluene. The fungus Cladosprium sphaerospermum containing a cytochrome P450-dependent methyl monooxygenase grouped within these extreme values (lamda = 16 +/- 6). Lamda values for organisms attacking toluene under anoxic conditions by benzylsuccinate synthase were significantly different and ranged from lamda = 4 +/- 3 (Blastochloris sulfoviridis) to 31 +/- 11 (strain TRM1). Values were in the same range for organisms using nitrate (lamda = 11-14) or sulfate (lamda = 28-31) as electron acceptor, indicating that it might be possible to distinguish toluene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions by 2D-CSIA. PMID:19031862

Vogt, Carsten; Cyrus, Esther; Herklotz, Ilka; Schlosser, Dietmar; Bahr, Arne; Herrmann, Steffi; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Fischer, Anko

2008-11-01

219

Enhanced degradation in soil of the herbicide EPTC and determination of its degradative pathway by an isolated soil microorganism  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted to examine the ability of Ohio soils to develop enhanced degradation of the herbicide EPTC (s-ethyl N,N-dipropyl carbamothiaote) and to determine its metabolism by an isolated soil microorganism. Three soils selected to obtain an range in pH, texture, and organic carbon were treated with EPTC for 4 consecutive applications (6 weeks between applications). EPTC concentrations as measured by gas chromatography, decreased 80% or more one week after the second application in all three soils. Metabolism of unlabelled and labelled EPTC by an isolated soil microbe was followed by GC/MS and TLC/LSC analysis, respectively. Rapid decrease in 14-C activity in the organic fraction corresponded with rapid {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution and transient increase in 14-C activity in the aqueous fraction. Four metabolites were observed in the TLC analysis. Two were identified as EPTC-sulfoxide and N-depropyl EPTC with N-depropyl EPTC being confirmed by GC/MS analysis. The availability of different pathways for EPTC metabolism by soil microbes after repeated applications to the soil results in its very rapid degradation and loss of efficacy.

Ankumah, R.O.

1988-01-01

220

Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 Contains a Novel Degradation Pathway for Limonene  

PubMed Central

Strain DCL14, which is able to grow on limonene as a sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from a freshwater sediment sample. This organism was identified as a strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis by chemotaxonomic and genetic studies. R. erythropolis DCL14 also assimilated the terpenes limonene-1,2-epoxide, limonene-1,2-diol, carveol, carvone, and (?)-menthol, while perillyl alcohol was not utilized as a carbon and energy source. Induction tests with cells grown on limonene revealed that the oxygen consumption rates with limonene-1,2-epoxide, limonene-1,2-diol, 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and carveol were high. Limonene-induced cells of R. erythropolis DCL14 contained the following four novel enzymatic activities involved in the limonene degradation pathway of this microorganism: a flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADH-dependent limonene 1,2-monooxygenase activity, a cofactor-independent limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase activity, a dichlorophenolindophenol-dependent limonene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity, and an NADPH-dependent 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene 1,2-monooxygenase activity. Product accumulation studies showed that (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, (1S,4R)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and (3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate were intermediates in the (4R)-limonene degradation pathway. The opposite enantiomers [(1R,2R,4S)-limonene-1,2-diol, (1R,4S)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and (3S)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate] were found in the (4S)-limonene degradation pathway, while accumulation of (1R,2S,4S)-limonene-1,2-diol from (4S)-limonene was also observed. These results show that R. erythropolis DCL14 metabolizes both enantiomers of limonene via a novel degradation pathway that starts with epoxidation at the 1,2 double bond forming limonene-1,2-epoxide. This epoxide is subsequently converted to limonene-1,2-diol, 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and 7-hydroxy-4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone. This lactone spontaneously rearranges to form 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate. In the presence of coenzyme A and ATP this acid is converted further, and this finding, together with the high levels of isocitrate lyase activity in extracts of limonene-grown cells, suggests that further degradation takes place via the ?-oxidation pathway. PMID:10224006

van der Werf, Mariet J.; Swarts, Henk J.; de Bont, Jan A. M.

1999-01-01

221

A Novel Sucrose Synthase Pathway for Sucrose Degradation in Cultured Sycamore Cells 1  

PubMed Central

Enzymes of sucrose degradation and glycolysis in cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells were assayed and characterized in crude extracts and after partial purification, in an attempt to identify pathways for sucrose catabolism. Desalted cell extracts contained similar activities (20-40 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute) of sucrose synthase, neutral invertase, glucokinase, fructokinase, phosphofructokinase, and UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase (assayed with 2 micromolar pyrophosphate (PPi). PPi-linked phosphofructokinase activity was virtually dependent upon fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, and the maximum activity exceeded that of ATP-linked phosphofructokinase. Hexokinase activity, with glucose as substrate, was highly specific for ATP, whereas fructokinase activity was relatively nonspecific. At 1 millimolar nucleoside triphosphate, fructokinase activity decreased in the order: UTP > ATP > CTP > GTP. We propose two pathways for sucrose degradation. One involves invertase action, followed by classical glycolysis of hexose sugars, and the other is a novel pathway initiated by sucrose synthase. The Km for sucrose of sucrose synthase was severalfold lower than that of neutral invertase (15 versus 65 millimolar), which may determine carbon partitioning between the two pathways. The sucrose synthase pathway proposed involves cycling of uridylates and PPi. UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase, which is shown to be an effective `PPi-scavenger,' would consume PPi and form UTP. The UTP could be then utilized in the UTP-linked fructokinase reaction, thereby forming UDP for sucrose synthase. The source of PPi is postulated to arise from the back reaction of PPi-linked phosphofructokinase. Sycamore cells contained a substantial endogenous pool of PPi (about 3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, roughly 1/10 the amount of ATP in these cells), and sufficient fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (0.09 nanomole per gram fresh weight) to activate the PPi-linked phosphofructokinase. Possible regulation and energetic differences between the sucrose synthase and invertase pathways are discussed. PMID:16664934

Huber, Steven C.; Akazawa, Takashi

1986-01-01

222

Effects of reforesting degraded grassland on hydrological flow pathways on Leyte, the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reforestation of degraded land in the tropics is promoted for a wide range of expected benefits, including carbon sequestration and streamflow regulation. However, how reforestation of degraded land affects runoff generation mechanisms and catchment water yield is still poorly understood as most experimental work pertains to non-degraded terrain. We set out to study the differences in hydrological functioning of a small degraded grassland catchment and a similar catchment that was reforested 15 years ago. Both catchments are located near Tacloban, Leyte, the Philippines. Stream stage, EC and temperature are measured continuously since June 2013. Precipitation, soil moisture content, and groundwater levels are monitored as well. Samples are taken from streamflow, precipitation, groundwater, and soil water prior to and during rainfall events for geochemical and stable isotope analysis to elucidate source contributions to storm runoff. Streamflow and event water contributions increase rapidly during almost every rainfall event in the grassland. In the reforested catchment, event water contributions to streamflow are much smaller and only increase during large events. These tracer results suggest that overland flow occurs much less frequently and is much less widespread in the reforested catchment compared to the grassland catchment. Our results thus indicate that the dominant flow pathways have changed as a result of reforestation and suggest that reforestation can largely restore the hydrological functioning of degraded sites if the forest is allowed to develop over a sufficiently long period without subsequent disturbance.

van Meerveld, Ilja; Zhang, Jun; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno

2014-05-01

223

Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway  

PubMed Central

The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (?500 ?M) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

2014-01-01

224

Deubiquitination of Tip60 by USP7 determines the activity of the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Tip60 is an essential acetyltransferase required for acetylation of nucleosomal histones and other nonhistone proteins. Tip60 acetylates the p53 tumor suppressor at lysine 120 (K120), a modification essential for p53-dependent induction of PUMA and apoptosis. It is known that Tip60 is turned over in cells by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the deubiquitinase activity for stabilizing Tip60 is unknown. Here we show that USP7 interacts with and deubiquitinates Tip60 both in vitro and in vivo. USP7 deubiquitinase activity is required for the stabilization of Tip60 in order to operate an effective p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in response to genotoxic stress. Inhibiting USP7 with the small-molecule inhibitor P22077 attenuates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway by destabilizing Tip60. P22077, however, is still cytotoxic, and this is partly due to destabilization of Tip60. PMID:23775119

Dar, Ashraf; Shibata, Etsuko; Dutta, Anindya

2013-08-01

225

Deubiquitination of Tip60 by USP7 Determines the Activity of the p53-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway  

PubMed Central

Tip60 is an essential acetyltransferase required for acetylation of nucleosomal histones and other nonhistone proteins. Tip60 acetylates the p53 tumor suppressor at lysine 120 (K120), a modification essential for p53-dependent induction of PUMA and apoptosis. It is known that Tip60 is turned over in cells by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the deubiquitinase activity for stabilizing Tip60 is unknown. Here we show that USP7 interacts with and deubiquitinates Tip60 both in vitro and in vivo. USP7 deubiquitinase activity is required for the stabilization of Tip60 in order to operate an effective p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in response to genotoxic stress. Inhibiting USP7 with the small-molecule inhibitor P22077 attenuates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway by destabilizing Tip60. P22077, however, is still cytotoxic, and this is partly due to destabilization of Tip60. PMID:23775119

Dar, Ashraf; Shibata, Etsuko

2013-01-01

226

Virulence Factor NSs of Rift Valley Fever Virus Recruits the F-Box Protein FBXO3 To Degrade Subunit p62 of General Transcription Factor TFIIH  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The nonstructural protein NSs is the main virulence factor of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), a serious pathogen of livestock and humans in Africa. RVFV NSs blocks transcriptional upregulation of antiviral type I interferons (IFN) and destroys the general transcription factor TFIIH subunit p62 via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Here, we identified a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligases, F-box protein FBXO3, as a host cell interactor of NSs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of FBXO3 rescued p62 protein levels in RVFV-infected cells and elevated IFN transcription by 1 order of magnitude. NSs interacts with the full-length FBXO3 protein as well as with a truncated isoform that lacks the C-terminal acidic and poly(R)-rich domains. These isoforms are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NSs exclusively removes the nuclear pool of full-length FBXO3, likely due to consumption during the degradation process. F-box proteins form the variable substrate recognition subunit of the so-called SCF ubiquitin ligases, which also contain the constant components Skp1, cullin 1 (or cullin 7), and Rbx1. siRNA knockdown of Skp1 also protected p62 from degradation, suggesting involvement in NSs action. However, knockdown of cullin 1, cullin 7, or Rbx1 could not rescue p62 degradation by NSs. Our data show that the enzymatic removal of p62 via the host cell factor FBXO3 is a major mechanism of IFN suppression by RVFV. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever virus is a serious emerging pathogen of animals and humans. Its main virulence factor, NSs, enables unhindered virus replication by suppressing the antiviral innate immune system. We identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO3 as a novel host cell interactor of NSs. NSs recruits FBXO3 to destroy the general host cell transcription factor TFIIH-p62, resulting in suppression of the transcriptional upregulation of innate immunity. PMID:24403578

Kainulainen, Markus; Habjan, Matthias; Hubel, Philipp; Busch, Laura; Lau, Simone; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pichlmair, Andreas

2014-01-01

227

Involvement of Two Latex-Clearing Proteins during Rubber Degradation and Insights into the Subsequent Degradation Pathway Revealed by the Genome Sequence of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans Strain VH2  

PubMed Central

The increasing production of synthetic and natural poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber leads to huge challenges in waste management. Only a few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, and little is known about the mechanism of microbial rubber degradation. The genome of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, which is one of the most effective rubber-degrading bacteria, was sequenced and annotated to elucidate the degradation pathway and other features of this actinomycete. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 5,669,805 bp and a circular plasmid of 174,494 bp with average GC contents of 67.0% and 65.7%, respectively. It contains 5,110 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes responsible for rubber degradation and other biotechnically relevant pathways. Furthermore, we detected two homologues of a latex-clearing protein, which is supposed to be a key enzyme in rubber degradation. The deletion of these two genes for the first time revealed clear evidence that latex-clearing protein is essential for the microbial utilization of rubber. Based on the genome sequence, we predict a pathway for the microbial degradation of rubber which is supported by previous and current data on transposon mutagenesis, deletion mutants, applied comparative genomics, and literature search. PMID:22327575

Hiessl, Sebastian; Schuldes, Jorg; Thurmer, Andrea; Halbsguth, Tobias; Broker, Daniel; Angelov, Angel; Liebl, Wolfgang; Daniel, Rolf

2012-01-01

228

Systematic Unraveling of the Unsolved Pathway of Nicotine Degradation in Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas putida play important roles in the mineralization of organic wastes and toxic compounds. To comprehensively and accurately elucidate key processes of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas putida, we measured differential protein abundance levels with MS-based spectral counting in P. putida S16 grown on nicotine or glycerol, a non-repressive carbon source. In silico analyses highlighted significant clustering of proteins involved in a functional pathway in nicotine degradation. The transcriptional regulation of differentially expressed genes was analyzed by using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We observed the following key results: (i) The proteomes, containing 1,292 observed proteins, provide a detailed view of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. These proteins could be assigned to the functional groups of transport, detoxification, and amino acid metabolism. There were significant differences in the cytosolic protein patterns of cells growing in a nicotine medium and those in a glycerol medium. (ii) The key step in the conversion of 3-succinoylpyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine was catalyzed by a multi-enzyme reaction consisting of a molybdopeterin binding oxidase (spmA), molybdopterin dehydrogenase (spmB), and a (2Fe-2S)-binding ferredoxin (spmC) with molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide as a cofactor. (iii) The gene of a novel nicotine oxidoreductase (nicA2) was cloned, and the recombinant protein was characterized. The proteins and functional pathway identified in the current study represent attractive targets for degradation of environmental toxic compounds. PMID:24204321

Tang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Kunzhi; Yao, Yuxiang; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

229

A novel degradative pathway of 2-nitrobenzoate via 3-hydroxyanthranilate in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain KU-7, identified as a Pseudomonas fluorescens by 16S rDNA sequencing, was one of the 12 new isolates that are able to grow on 2-nitrobenzoate as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Resting cells of KU-7 were found to accumulate ammonia in the medium indicating that degradation of 2-NBA proceeds through a reductive route. Metabolite analyses by thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography indicated that 3-hydroxyanthranilate is an intermediate of 2-nitrobenzoate metabolism in KU-7 cells. This offers an alternative route to 2-nitrobenzoate metabolism since anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) or catechol were detected as intermediates in other bacteria. Crude extracts of KU-7 cells converted 2-nitrobenzoate to 3-hydroxyanthranilate with oxidation of 2 mol of NADPH. Ring cleavage of 3-hydroxyanthranilate produced a transient yellow product, identified as 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde, that has a maximum absorbance at 360 nm. The initial enzymes of the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation pathway were found to be inducible since succinate-grown cells produced very low enzyme activities. A pathway for 2-nitrobenzoate degradation in KU-7 was proposed. PMID:11034277

Hasegawa, Y; Muraki, T; Tokuyama, T; Iwaki, H; Tatsuno, M; Lau, P C

2000-09-15

230

Optimization of polyphosphate degradation and phosphate secretion using hybrid metabolic pathways and engineered host strains  

SciTech Connect

Polyphosphate degradation and phosphate secretion were optimized in Escherichia coli strains over-expressing the E. coli polyphosphate kinase gene (ppk) and either the E. coli polyphosphatase gene (ppx) or the Saccharomyces cerevisiae polyphosphatase gene (scPPX1) from different inducible promoters on medium- and high-copy plasmids. The use of a host strain without functional ppk or ppx genes on the chromosome yielded the highest levels of polyphosphate, as well as the fastest degradation of polyphosphate when the gene for polyphosphatase was induced. The introduction of a hybrid metabolic pathway consisting of the E. coli ppk gene and the S cerevisiae polyphosphatase gene resulted in lower polyphosphate concentrations than when using both the ppk and ppx genes from E. coli, and did not significantly improve the degradation rate. It was also found that the rate of polyphosphate degradation was highest when ppx was induced late in growth, most likely due to the high intracellular polyphosphate concentration. The phosphate released from polyphosphate allowed the growth of phosphate-starved cells; excess phosphate was secreted into the medium, leading to a down-regulation of the phosphate-starvation (Pho) response. The production of alkaline phosphatase, an indicator of the Pho response, can be precisely controlled by manipulating the degree of ppx induction.

Dien, S.J. van; Keasling, J.D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-09-20

231

Chemical Modification and Degradation of Atrazine in Medicago sativa through Multiple Pathways.  

PubMed

Atrazine is a member of the triazine herbicide family intensively used to control weeds for crop production. In this study, atrazine residues and its degraded products in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were characterized using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS. Most of atrazine absorbed in plants was found as chemically modified derivatives like deisopropylated atrazine (DIA), dehydrogenated atrazine (DHA), or methylated atrazine (MEA), and some atrazine derivatives were conjugated through different functional groups such as sugar, glutathione, and amino acids. Interestingly, the specific conjugates DHA+hGSH (homoglutathione) and MEA-HCl+hGSH in alfalfa were detected. These results suggest that atrazine in alfalfa can be degraded through different pathways. The increased activities of glycosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase were determined to support the atrazine degradation models. The outcome of the work uncovered the detailed mechanism for the residual atrazine accumulation and degradation in alfalfa and will help to evaluate whether the crop is suitable to be cultivated in the atrazine-polluted soil. PMID:25226578

Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Yang, Hong

2014-10-01

232

A catabolic pathway for the degradation of chrysene by Pseudoxanthomonas sp. PNK-04.  

PubMed

The chrysene-degrading bacterium Pseudoxanthomonas sp. PNK-04 was isolated from a coal sample. Three novel metabolites, hydroxyphenanthroic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and salicylic acid, were identified by TLC, HPLC and MS. Key enzyme activities, namely 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate hydroxylase, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase, salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase, were noted in the cell-free extract. These results suggest that chrysene is catabolized via hydroxyphenanthroic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, salicylic acid and catechol. The terminal aromatic metabolite, catechol, is then catabolized by catechol-1,2-dioxygenase to cis,cis-muconic acid, ultimately forming TCA cycle intermediates. Based on these studies, the proposed catabolic pathway for chrysene degradation by strain PNK-04 is chrysene ? hydroxyphenanthroic acid ? 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid ? 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene ? salicylic acid ? catechol ?cis,cis-muconic acid. PMID:21545490

Nayak, Anand S; Sanjeev Kumar, Sanganal; Santosh Kumar, Mudde; Anjaneya, Oblesha; Karegoudar, Timmanagouda B

2011-07-01

233

Ouabain induces endocytosis and degradation of tight junction proteins through ERK1/2-dependent pathways.  

PubMed

In addition to being a very well-known ion pump, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and the receptor of digitalis, which transduces regulatory signals for cell adhesion, growth, apoptosis, motility and differentiation. Prolonged ouabain (OUA) blockage of activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase leads to cell detachment from one another and from substrates. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in tight junction (TJ) disassembly upon exposure to toxic levels of OUA (?300 nM) in epithelial renal canine cells (MDCK). OUA induces a progressive decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER); inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, PD153035), cSrc (SU6656 and PP2) and ERK1/2 kinases (PD98059) delay this decrease. We have determined that the TER decrease depends upon internalization and degradation of the TJs proteins claudin (CLDN) 2, CLDN-4, occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). OUA-induced degradation of proteins is either sensitive (CLDN-4, OCLN and ZO-1) or insensitive (CLDN-2) to ERK1/2 inhibition. In agreement with the protein degradation findings, OUA decreases the cellular content of ZO-1 and CLDN-2 mRNAs but surprisingly, increases the mRNA of CLDN-4 and OCLN. Changes in the mRNA levels are sensitive (CLDN-4, OCLN and ZO-1) or insensitive (CLDN-2) to ERK1/2 inhibition as well. Thus, toxic levels of OUA activate the EGFR-cSrc-ERK1/2 pathway to induce endocytosis, internalization and degradation of TJ proteins. We also observed decreases in the levels of CLDN-2 protein and mRNA, which were independent of the EGFR-cSrc-ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:24140471

Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Flores-Benitez, David; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Bonilla-Delgado, José; García-Hernández, Vicky; Verdejo-Torres, Odette; Castillo, Aida M; Larré, Isabel; Poot-Hernández, Augusto C; Franco, Martha; Gariglio, Patricio; Reyes, José L; Contreras, Rubén G

2014-01-01

234

Elimination of paternal mitochondria through the lysosomal degradation pathway in C. elegans.  

PubMed

In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondrion and its DNA (mtDNA) is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional mitochondria into the oocyte during fertilization. The mechanisms responsible for the elimination of the paternal mitochondria remain largely unknown. We report here that this paternal mitochondrial elimination process is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the lysosomal pathway actively participates in this process. Molecular and cell biological analyses indicate that in wild-type animals paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are destroyed within two hours after fertilization. In animals with compromised lysosomes, paternal mitochondria persist until late embryonic stages. Therefore, the lysosomal pathway plays an important role in degrading paternal mitochondria introduced into the oocyte during fertilization. Our study indicates that C. elegans is an excellent animal model for understanding and dissecting this conserved biological process critical for animal development and reproduction. PMID:22105480

Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Xue, Ding

2011-12-01

235

Involvement of the Nrf2-proteasome pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in pancreatic ?-cells  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a central role in protein quality control through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of unfolded and misfolded proteins. NF-E2?related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of an array of phase II detoxification and antioxidant genes. Nrf2 signaling has additionally been shown to upregulate the expression of the proteasome catalytic subunits in several cell types. Here, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in tunicamycin-induced ER stress using a murine insulinoma ?-cell line, ?TC-6. shRNA-mediated silencing of Nrf2 expression in ?TC-6 cells significantly increased tunicamycin-induced cytotoxicity, elevated the expression of the pro-apoptotic ER stress marker Chop10, and inhibited tunicamycin-inducible expression of the proteasomal catalytic subunits Psmb5 and Psmb6. The effects of 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), a small molecule Nrf2 activator, on ER stress were also examined in ?TC-6 cells. D3T pretreatment reduced tunicamycin cytotoxicity and attenuated the tunicamycin-inducible Chop10 and protein kinase RNA-activated?like ER kinase (Perk). The protective effect of D3T was shown to be associated with increased ERAD. D3T increased the expression of Psmb5 and Psmb6 and elevated chymotrypsin-like peptidase activity; proteasome inhibitor treatment blocked D3T effects on tunicamycin cytotoxicity and ER stress marker changes. Similarly, silencing of Nrf2 abolished the protective effect of D3T against ER stress. These results indicate that the Nrf2 pathway contributes to the ER stress response in pancreatic ?-cells by enhancing proteasome-mediated ERAD. -- Highlights: ? Nrf2 silencing in pancreatic ?-cells enhanced tunicamycin-mediated ER stress. ? Expression of the proteasome was inducible by Nrf2 signaling. ? Nrf2 activator D3T protected ?-cells from tunicamycin-mediated ER stress. ? Protective effect of D3T was associated with Nrf2-dependent proteasome induction.

Lee, Sanghwan; Hur, Eu-gene [Yeungnam University, College of Pharmacy, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712?749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yeungnam University, College of Pharmacy, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712?749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, In-geun; Jung, Kyeong-Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Pharmacy, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420?743 (Korea, Republic of)] [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Pharmacy, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420?743 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jiyeon [Inha University, College of Medicine, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402?751 (Korea, Republic of)] [Inha University, College of Medicine, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402?751 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Mi-Kyoung, E-mail: mkwak@catholic.ac.kr [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Pharmacy, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420?743 (Korea, Republic of)] [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Pharmacy, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420?743 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-01

236

Methyl-mercury degradation pathways: A comparison among three mercury impacted ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined microbial methylmercury (MeHg) degradation in sediment of the Florida Everglades, Carson River (NV), and San Carlos Creek (CA), three freshwater environments that differ in the extent and type of mercury contamination and sediment biogeochemistry. Degradation rate constant (k(deg)) values increased with total mercury (Hg(t)) contamination both among and within ecosystems. The highest k(deg)'s (2.8-5.8 d-1) were observed in San Carlos Creek, at acid mine drainage impacted sites immediately downstream of the former New Idria mercury mine, where Hg(t) ranged from 4.5 to 21.3 ppm (dry wt). A reductive degradation pathway (presumably mer-detoxification) dominated degradation at these sites, as indicated by the nearly exclusive production of 14CH4 from 14C-MeHg, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At the upstream control site, and in the less contaminated ecosystems (e.g. the Everglades), k(deg)'s were low (???0.2 d-1) and oxidative demethylation (OD) dominated degradation, as evident from 14CO2 production. k(deg) increased with microbial CH4 production, organic content, and reduced sulfur in the Carson River system and increased with decreasing pH in San Carlos Creek. OD associated CO2 production increased with pore-water SO42- in Everglades samples but was not attributable to anaerobic methane oxidation, as has been previously proposed. This ecosystem comparison indicates that severely contaminated sediments tend to have microbial populations that actively degrade MeHg via mer-detoxification, whereas OD occurs in heavily contaminated sediments as well but dominates in those less contaminated.We examined microbial methylmercury (MeHg) degradation in sediment of the Florida Everglades, Carson River (NV), and San Carlos Creek (CA), three freshwater environments that differ in the extent and type of mercury contamination and sediment biogeochemistry. Degradation rate constant (kdeg) values increased with total mercury (Hgt) contamination both among and within ecosystems. The highest kdeg???s (2.8-5.8 d-1) were observed in San Carlos Creek, at acid mine drainage impacted sites immediately downstream of the former New Idria mercury mine, where Hgt ranged from 4.5 to 21.3 ppm (dry wt). A reductive degradation pathway (presumably mer-detoxification) dominated degradation at these sites, as indicated by the nearly exclusive production of 14CH4 from 14C-MeHg, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At the upstream control site, and in the less contaminated ecosystems (e.g. the Everglades), kdeg???s were low (???0.2 d-1) and oxidative demethylation (OD) dominated degradation, as evident from 14CO2 production. kdeg in increased with microbial CH4 production, organic content, and reduced sulfur in the Carson River system and increased with decreasing pH in San Carlos Creek. OD associated CO2 production increased with pore-water SO42- in Everglades samples but was not attributable to anaerobic methane oxidation, as has been previously proposed. This ecosystem comparison indicates that severely contaminated sediments tend to have microbial populations that actively degrade MeHg via mer-detoxification, whereas OD occurs in heavily contaminated sediments as well but dominates in those less contaminated.Methylmercury degradation dynamics, in terms of methane and carbon dioxide end-products, were investigated in three Hg-contaminated ecosystems: the Florida everglades, San Carlos Creek, CA, and Carson River, NV. The everglades represented a moderately contaminated ecosystem, while the other two exhibited significantly higher Hg levels. Sediment samples were collected from each study site and analyzed. Results showed that the degradation rate constants increased with total Hg contamination both among and within the ecosystems, with highest rates observed in San Carlos Creek. The degradation dynamics were dominated by a reductive degradation pathway at San Carlos Creek, while in the everglades, oxidative demethylation was imp

Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Agee, J.; Mcgowan, C.; Oremland, R.S.; Thomas, M.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Gilmour, C.C.

2000-01-01

237

Assessment of degradation pathways in an aquifer with mixed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination using stable isotope analysis.  

PubMed

The demonstration of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater is typically conducted through the evaluation of concentration trends and parent-daughter product relationships along prevailing groundwater flow paths. Unfortunately, at sites contaminated by mixtures of chlorinated ethenes, ethanes, and methanes, the evaluation of MNA by using solely concentration data and parent-daughter relationships can result in erroneous conclusions regarding the degradation mechanisms that are truly active at the site, since many of the daughter products can be derived from multiple parent compounds. Stable carbon isotope analysis was used, in conjunction with concentration data, to clarify and confirm the active degradation pathways at a former waste solvent disposal site where at least 14 different chlorinated hydrocarbons have been detected in the groundwater. The isotope data indicate that TCE, initially believed to be present as a disposed product and/or a PCE dechlorination intermediate, is attributable to dehydrochlorination of 1,1,2,2-PCA. The isotope data further support that vinyl chloride and ethene in the site groundwater result from dichloroelimination of 1,1,2-trichlorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, respectively, rather than from reductive dechlorination of the chlorinated ethenes PCE, TCE, or 1,2-DCE. The isotope data confirm that the chlorinated ethanes and chlorinated methanes are undergoing significant intrinsic degradation, whereas degradation of the chlorinated ethenes may be limited. In addition to the classical trend of enriched isotope values of the parent compounds with increasing distance associated to biodegradation, shifts of isotope ratios of degradation byproduct in the opposite direction due to mixing of isotopically light byproducts of biodegradation with compounds from the source are shown to be of high diagnostic value. These data underline the value of stable isotope analysis in confirming transformation processes at sites with complex mixtures of chlorinated compounds. PMID:16173553

Hunkeler, Daniel; Aravena, Ramon; Berry-Spark, Karen; Cox, Evan

2005-08-15

238

The convergence of endosomal and autophagosomal pathways: implications for APP-CTF degradation.  

PubMed

We have reported previously that autophagy is responsible for amyloid precursor protein-C-terminal fragment (APP-CTF) degradation and therefore A? clearance. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, using LC3 affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis, immunoprecipitation (IP), as well as live imaging analysis, we identified and demonstrated that the adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP2) and PICALM (phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein) are in a complex with LC3 and APP-CTF. Taken together, this new set of data suggests that the AP2-PICALM complex functions as an autophagic cargo receptor for the recognition and shipment of APP-CTF from the endocytic pathway to the LC3-dependent autophagic degradation pathway. Interestingly this AP2-LC3 connection seems to be involved in chemically-induced APP-CTF clearance as we observed using the small compound SMER28. The effect observed following SMER28 was significantly reduced after silencing AP2. While more work is required to elucidate the detailed molecular mechanisms involved, our actual data suggest that there is some level of specificity in the steps mentioned above. PMID:24447917

Tian, Yuan; Chang, Jerry C; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

2014-04-01

239

Kinetics and reaction pathways of formaldehyde degradation using the UV-fenton method.  

PubMed

This study was based on the purpose of investigating the reaction rules of formaldehyde (HCHO) as an intermediate product in the degradation of many other organic wastewaters. The process conditions of UV-Fenton method for the degradation of the low concentrations of HCHO were studied in a batch photochemical reactor. The results showed that, when the original HCHO concentration was 30 mg/L, at an operating temperature of 23 degrees C, pH = 3, an H202 dosage of 68 mg/L, and an H2O2-to-Fe2+ mole ratio (H2O2:Fe2+) of 5, 91.89% of the HCHO was removed after 30 minutes. The degradation of HCHO in the UV-Fenton system was basically in accordance with the exponential decay. The kinetic study results showed that the reaction orders of HCHO, Fe2+, and H2O2 in the system were 1.054, 0.510, and 0.728, respectively, and the activation energy (Ea) was 9.85 kJ/mol. The comparison of UV/H2O2, Fenton, and UV-Fenton systems for the degradation of HCHO, and the results of iron catalyst tests showed that the mechanism of UV-Fenton on the degradation of HCHO was through a synergistic effect of Fe2+ and UV light to catalyze the decomposition of H2O2. The introduction of UV irradiation to the Fenton system largely increased the degradation rate of HCHO, mainly as a result of the accelerating effect on the formation of the Fe2+/Fe3+ cycle. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyzer. The effluent gases also were analyzed by gas chromatography. Based on those results, the reaction pathways of HCHO in the UV-Fenton system were proposed. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the reaction products and the COD showed that the main intermediate product of the reaction was formic acid, and the further oxidation of it was the rate-limiting step for the degradation of HCHO. PMID:21657193

Liu, Xiangxuan; Liang, Jiantao; Wang, Xuanjun

2011-05-01

240

Degradation Pathway for Eplerenone by Validated Stability Indicating UP-LC Method  

PubMed Central

Degradation pathway for eplerenone is established as per ICH recommendations by validated and stability-indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method. Eplerenone is subjected to stress conditions of acid, base, oxidation, and thermal and photolysis. Significant degradation is observed in acid and base stress conditions. Four impurities are studied and the major degradant (RRT about 0.31) was identified by LC-MS and spectral analysis. The stress samples are assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance is found close to 99.5%. Efficient chromatographic separation is achieved on a Waters symmetry C18 stationary phase with simple mobile phase combination delivered in gradient mode and quantification is carried at 240?nm at a flow rate of 1.0?mL?min?1. In the developed LC method the resolution between eplerenone and four potential impurities (imp-1, imp-2, imp-3, and imp-4) is found to be greater than 4.0. Regression analysis shows an r value (correlation coefficient) of greater than 0.999 for eplerenone and four potential impurities. This method is capable to detect the impurities of eplerenone at a level of 0.020% with respect to test concentration of 1.0?mg?mL?1 for a 20??L injection volume. The developed UPLC method is validated with respect to specificity, linearity and range, accuracy, precision, and robustness for impurities and assay determination. PMID:23097723

Sudhakar Babu, Kondru; Madireddy, Venkataramanna; Indukuri, Venkata Somaraju

2012-01-01

241

Degradation Pathway for Eplerenone by Validated Stability Indicating UP-LC Method.  

PubMed

Degradation pathway for eplerenone is established as per ICH recommendations by validated and stability-indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method. Eplerenone is subjected to stress conditions of acid, base, oxidation, and thermal and photolysis. Significant degradation is observed in acid and base stress conditions. Four impurities are studied and the major degradant (RRT about 0.31) was identified by LC-MS and spectral analysis. The stress samples are assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance is found close to 99.5%. Efficient chromatographic separation is achieved on a Waters symmetry C18 stationary phase with simple mobile phase combination delivered in gradient mode and quantification is carried at 240?nm at a flow rate of 1.0?mL?min(-1). In the developed LC method the resolution between eplerenone and four potential impurities (imp-1, imp-2, imp-3, and imp-4) is found to be greater than 4.0. Regression analysis shows an r value (correlation coefficient) of greater than 0.999 for eplerenone and four potential impurities. This method is capable to detect the impurities of eplerenone at a level of 0.020% with respect to test concentration of 1.0?mg?mL(-1) for a 20??L injection volume. The developed UPLC method is validated with respect to specificity, linearity and range, accuracy, precision, and robustness for impurities and assay determination. PMID:23097723

Sudhakar Babu, Kondru; Madireddy, Venkataramanna; Indukuri, Venkata Somaraju

2012-01-01

242

Degradation and Pathway of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Solution by Potassium Ferrate.  

PubMed

In the context of water treatment, the ferrate ([FeO(4)](2-)) ion has long been known for its strong oxidizing power and for producing a coagulant from its reduced form [i.e., Fe(III)]. However, it has not been widely applied in water treatment, because of preparation difficulties and high cost. This article describes a low-cost procedure for producing solid potassium ferrate. In this synthetic procedure, NaClO was used in place of chlorine generation; and 10?M KOH was used in place of saturated KOH in the previous procedures. In addition, this study investigated the reactions of potassium ferrate with tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) at different pH and molar ratios. Results showed that the optimal pH range for TC degradation was pH 9-10, and TC could be mostly removed by Fe(VI) in 60?s. However, results showed >70% of TC degraded and <15% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction at molar ratio of 1:20. The main degradation pathway of TC is proposed based on the experimental data. PMID:22566741

Ma, Yan; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Cong

2012-05-01

243

Candida albicans utilizes a modified ?-oxidation pathway for the degradation of toxic propionyl-CoA.  

PubMed

Propionyl-CoA arises as a metabolic intermediate from the degradation of propionate, odd-chain fatty acids, and some amino acids. Thus, pathways for catabolism of this intermediate have evolved in all kingdoms of life, preventing the accumulation of toxic propionyl-CoA concentrations. Previous studies have shown that fungi generally use the methyl citrate cycle for propionyl-CoA degradation. Here, we show that this is not the case for the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans despite its ability to use propionate and valerate as carbon sources. Comparative proteome analyses suggested the presence of a modified ?-oxidation pathway with the key intermediate 3-hydroxypropionate. Gene deletion analyses confirmed that the enoyl-CoA hydratase/dehydrogenase Fox2p, the putative 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA hydrolase Ehd3p, the 3-hydroxypropionate dehydrogenase Hpd1p, and the putative malonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase Ald6p essentially contribute to propionyl-CoA degradation and its conversion to acetyl-CoA. The function of Hpd1p was further supported by the detection of accumulating 3-hydroxypropionate in the hpd1 mutant on propionyl-CoA-generating nutrients. Substrate specificity of Hpd1p was determined from recombinant purified enzyme, which revealed a preference for 3-hydroxypropionate, although serine and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate could also serve as substrates. Finally, virulence studies in a murine sepsis model revealed attenuated virulence of the hpd1 mutant, which indicates generation of propionyl-CoA from host-provided nutrients during infection. PMID:24497638

Otzen, Christian; Bardl, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nett, Markus; Brock, Matthias

2014-03-21

244

Identification of Genes and Pathways Related to Phenol Degradation in Metagenomic Libraries from Petroleum Refinery Wastewater  

PubMed Central

Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system. PMID:23637911

Silva, Cynthia C.; Hayden, Helen; Sawbridge, Tim; Mele, Pauline; De Paula, Sergio O.; Silva, Livia C. F.; Vidigal, Pedro M. P.; Vicentini, Renato; Sousa, Maira P.; Torres, Ana Paula R.; Santiago, Vania M. J.; Oliveira, Valeria M.

2013-01-01

245

Stress-induced nuclear RNA degradation pathways regulate yeast bromodomain factor 2 to promote cell survival.  

PubMed

Bromodomain proteins are key regulators of gene expression. How the levels of these factors are regulated in specific environmental conditions is unknown. Previous work has established that expression of yeast Bromodomain factor 2 (BDF2) is limited by spliceosome-mediated decay (SMD). Here we show that BDF2 is subject to an additional layer of post-transcriptional control through RNase III-mediated decay (RMD). We found that the yeast RNase III Rnt1p cleaves a stem-loop structure within the BDF2 mRNA to down-regulate its expression. However, these two nuclear RNA degradation pathways play distinct roles in the regulation of BDF2 expression, as we show that the RMD and SMD pathways of the BDF2 mRNA are differentially activated or repressed in specific environmental conditions. RMD is hyper-activated by salt stress and repressed by hydroxyurea-induced DNA damage while SMD is inactivated by salt stress and predominates during DNA damage. Mutations of cis-acting signals that control SMD and RMD rescue numerous growth defects of cells lacking Bdf1p, and show that SMD plays an important role in the DNA damage response. These results demonstrate that specific environmental conditions modulate nuclear RNA degradation pathways to control BDF2 expression and Bdf2p-mediated gene regulation. Moreover, these results show that precise dosage of Bromodomain factors is essential for cell survival in specific environmental conditions, emphasizing their importance for controlling chromatin structure and gene expression in response to environmental stress. PMID:25232960

Roy, Kevin; Chanfreau, Guillaume

2014-09-01

246

Multiple pathways for toluene degradation in Burkholderia sp. strain JS150.  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) sp. strain JS150 uses multiple pathways for the metabolism of catechols that result from degradation of aromatic compounds. This suggests that the strain also uses multiple upstream pathways for the initial hydroxylation of aromatic substrates. Two distinct DNA fragments that allowed Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1c to grow with benzene as a sole carbon source were cloned from strain JS150. One of the recombinant plasmids containing the initial steps for the degradative pathway contained a 14-kb DNA insert and was designated pRO2016. We have previously shown that the DNA insert originated from a plasmid carried by strain JS150 and contained genes encoding a multicomponent toluene-2-monooxygenase (tbmABCDEF) as well as the cognate regulatory protein (tbmR) that controls expression of the 2-monooxygenase (G. R. Johnson and R. H. Olsen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3336-3346, 1995). Subsequently, we have identified an additional region on this DNA fragment that encodes toluene-4-monooxygenase activity. The toluene-4-monooxygenase activity was also regulated by the tbmR gene product. A second DNA fragment that allowed P. aeruginosa to grow with benzene was obtained as a 20-kb insert on a recombinant plasmid designated pRO2015. The DNA insert contained genes encoding toluene-4-monooxygenase activity but no toluene-2-monooxygenase activity. The pRO2015 insert originated from the chromosome of strain JS150, unlike the region cloned in pRO2016. Southern blots and restriction map comparisons showed that the genes for the individual 4-monooxygenases were distinct from one another. Thus, strain JS150 has been shown to have at least three toluene/benzene monooxygenases to initiate toluene metabolism in addition to the toluene dioxygenase reported previously by others. PMID:9327568

Johnson, G R; Olsen, R H

1997-01-01

247

Stress-Induced Nuclear RNA Degradation Pathways Regulate Yeast Bromodomain Factor 2 to Promote Cell Survival  

PubMed Central

Bromodomain proteins are key regulators of gene expression. How the levels of these factors are regulated in specific environmental conditions is unknown. Previous work has established that expression of yeast Bromodomain factor 2 (BDF2) is limited by spliceosome-mediated decay (SMD). Here we show that BDF2 is subject to an additional layer of post-transcriptional control through RNase III-mediated decay (RMD). We found that the yeast RNase III Rnt1p cleaves a stem-loop structure within the BDF2 mRNA to down-regulate its expression. However, these two nuclear RNA degradation pathways play distinct roles in the regulation of BDF2 expression, as we show that the RMD and SMD pathways of the BDF2 mRNA are differentially activated or repressed in specific environmental conditions. RMD is hyper-activated by salt stress and repressed by hydroxyurea-induced DNA damage while SMD is inactivated by salt stress and predominates during DNA damage. Mutations of cis-acting signals that control SMD and RMD rescue numerous growth defects of cells lacking Bdf1p, and show that SMD plays an important role in the DNA damage response. These results demonstrate that specific environmental conditions modulate nuclear RNA degradation pathways to control BDF2 expression and Bdf2p-mediated gene regulation. Moreover, these results show that precise dosage of Bromodomain factors is essential for cell survival in specific environmental conditions, emphasizing their importance for controlling chromatin structure and gene expression in response to environmental stress. PMID:25232960

Roy, Kevin; Chanfreau, Guillaume

2014-01-01

248

Bacterial degradation of benzoate: cross-regulation between aerobic and anaerobic pathways.  

PubMed

We have studied for the first time the transcriptional regulatory circuit that controls the expression of the box genes encoding the aerobic hybrid pathway used to assimilate benzoate via coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives in bacteria. The promoters responsible for the expression of the box cluster in the ?-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp., their cognate transcriptional repressor, the BoxR protein, and the inducer molecule (benzoyl-CoA) have been characterized. The BoxR protein shows a significant sequence identity to the BzdR transcriptional repressor that controls the bzd genes involved in the anaerobic degradation of benzoate. Because the boxR gene is present in all box clusters so far identified in bacteria, the BoxR/benzoyl-CoA regulatory system appears to be a widespread strategy to control this aerobic hybrid pathway. Interestingly, the paralogous BoxR and BzdR regulators act synergistically to control the expression of the box and bzd genes. This cross-regulation between anaerobic and aerobic pathways for the catabolism of aromatic compounds has never been shown before, and it may reflect a biological strategy to increase the cell fitness in organisms that survive in environments subject to changing oxygen concentrations. PMID:22303008

Valderrama, J Andrés; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Blázquez, Blas; García, José Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Díaz, Eduardo

2012-03-23

249

Physiology of deletion mutants in the anaerobic ?-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans  

PubMed Central

Background Monoterpenes present a large and versatile group of unsaturated hydrocarbons of plant origin with widespread use in the fragrance as well as food industry. The anaerobic ?-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans strain 65Phen differs from well known aerobic, monooxygenase-containing pathways. The initial enzyme linalool dehydratase-isomerase ldi/LDI catalyzes the hydration of ?-myrcene to (S)-(+)-linalool and its isomerization to geraniol. A high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase geoA/GeDH and a geranial dehydrogenase geoB/GaDH contribute to the formation of geranic acid. A genetic system was for the first time applied for the betaproteobacterium to prove in vivo the relevance of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase and the geraniol dehydrogenase. In-frame deletion cassettes were introduced by conjugation and two homologous recombination events. Results Polar effects were absent in the in-frame deletion mutants C. defragrans ?ldi and C. defragrans ?geoA. The physiological characterization of the strains demonstrated a requirement of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase for growth on acyclic monoterpenes, but not on cyclic monoterpenes. The deletion of geoA resulted in a phenotype with hampered growth rate on monoterpenes as sole carbon and energy source as well as reduced biomass yields. Enzyme assays revealed the presence of a second geraniol dehydrogenase. The deletion mutants were in trans complemented with the broad-host range expression vector pBBR1MCS-4ldi and pBBR1MCS-2geoA, restoring in both cases the wild type phenotype. Conclusions In-frame deletion mutants of genes in the anaerobic ?-myrcene degradation revealed novel insights in the in vivo function. The deletion of a high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase hampered, but did not preclude growth on monoterpenes. A second geraniol dehydrogenase activity was present that contributes to the ?-myrcene degradation pathway. Growth on cyclic monoterpenes independent of the initial enzyme LDI suggests the presence of a second enzyme system activating unsaturated hydrocarbons. PMID:22947208

2012-01-01

250

PIASy controls ubiquitination-dependent proteasomal degradation of Ets-1  

PubMed Central

The ETS transcription factor Ets-1 (E26 transformation-specific-1) plays a critical role in many physiological processes including angiogenesis, haematopoietic development and tumour progression. Its activity can be regulated by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. Recently, we showed that Ets-1 is a target for SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification and that PIASy [protein inhibitor of activated STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) Y], a specific SUMO-E3 ligase for Ets-1, represses Ets-1-dependent transcription. In the present study, we demonstrated that Ets-1 is degraded by the proteasome and that overexpression of PIASy increased the stability of endogenous and ectopically expressed Ets-1 protein by preventing proteasomal degradation. Moreover, knockdown of the endogenous PIASy expression by RNA interference reduced the protein level of endogenous Ets-1. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 reversed this effect. Deletion analysis showed that the TAD (transcriptional activation domain), which has been identified as the interaction domain with PIASy, was also required for Ets-1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. However, the Ets-1 stabilization by PIASy was not due to reduced ubiquitination of Ets-1. Our results suggested that PIASy controls Ets-1 function, at least in part, by inhibiting Ets-1 protein turnover via the ubiquitin–proteasome system. PMID:17456046

Nishida, Tamotsu; Terashima, Motoko; Fukami, Kiyoko; Yamada, Yoshiji

2007-01-01

251

Novel Pathway of Toluene Catabolism in the Trichloroethylene-Degrading Bacterium G4  

PubMed Central

o-Cresol and 3-methylcatechol were identified as successive transitory intermediates of toluene catabolism by the trichloroethylene-degrading bacterium G4. The absence of a toluene dihydrodiol intermediate or toluene dioxygenase and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities suggested that G4 catabolizes toluene by a unique pathway. Formation of a hybrid species of 18O- and 16O-labeled 3-methylcatechol from toluene in an atmosphere of 18O2 and 16O2 established that G4 catabolizes toluene by successive monooxygenations at the ortho and meta positions. Detection of trace amounts of 4-methylcatechol from toluene catabolism suggested that the initial hydroxylation of toluene was not exclusively at the ortho position. Further catabolism of 3-methylcatechol was found to proceed via catechol-2,3-dioxygenase and hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase activities. PMID:16347956

Shields, Malcolm S.; Montgomery, Stacy O.; Chapman, Peter J.; Cuskey, Stephen M.; Pritchard, P. H.

1989-01-01

252

Characterization of an aldolase-dehydrogenase complex from the cholesterol degradation pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

HsaF and HsaG are an aldolase and dehydrogenase from the cholesterol degradation pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HsaF could be heterologously expressed and purified as a soluble dimer, but the enzyme was inactive in the absence of HsaG. HsaF catalyzes the aldol cleavage of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoacids to produce pyruvate and an aldehyde. The enzyme requires divalent metals for activity, with a preference for Mn(2+). The Km values for 4-hydroxy-2-oxoacids were about 20-fold lower than observed for the aldolase homologue, BphI from the polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway. Acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were channeled directly to the dehydrogenase, HsaG, without export to the bulk solvent where they were transformed to acyl-CoA in an NAD(+) and coenzyme A dependent reaction. HsaG is able to utilize aldehydes up to five carbons in length as substrates, with similar catalytic efficiencies. The HsaF-HsaG complex was crystallized and its structure was determined to a resolution of 1.93 Å. Substitution of serine 41 in HsaG with isoleucine or aspartate resulted in about 35-fold increase in Km for CoA but only 4-fold increase in Km dephospho-CoA, suggesting that this residue interacts with the 3'-ribose phosphate of CoA. A second protein annotated as a 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoic acid aldolase in M. tuberculosis (MhpE, Rv3469c) was expressed and purified, but was found to lack aldolase activity. Instead this enzyme was found to possess oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity, consistent with the conservation (with the 4-hydroxy-2-oxoacid aldolases) of residues involved in pyruvate enolate stabilization. PMID:23614353

Carere, Jason; McKenna, Sarah E; Kimber, Matthew S; Seah, Stephen Y K

2013-05-21

253

Toxoplasma gondii infection of activated J774-A1 macrophages causes inducible nitric oxide synthase degradation by the proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

Classically activated macrophages produce nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent microbicidal agent. NO production is catalyzed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which uses arginine as substrate producing NO and citruline. However, it has been demonstrated that NO production is inhibited after macrophage infection of Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, due to iNOS degradation. Three possible iNOS degradation pathways have been described in activated macrophages: proteasome, calpain and lysosomal. To identify the iNOS degradation pathway after T. gondii infection, J774-A1 macrophage cell line was activated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma for 24 h, treated with the following inhibitors, lactacystin (proteasome), calpeptin (calpain), or concanamycin A (lysosomal), and infected with the parasite. NO production and iNOS expression were evaluated after 2 and 6 h of infection. iNOS was degraded in J774-A1 macrophages infected with T. gondii. However, treatment with lactacystin maintained iNOS expression in J774-A1 macrophages infected for 2 h by T. gondii, and after 6 h iNOS was localized in aggresomes. iNOS was degraded after parasite infection of J774-A1 macrophages treated with calpeptin or concanamycin A. NO production confirmed iNOS expression profiles. These results indicate that T. gondii infection of J774-A1 macrophages caused iNOS degradation by the proteasome pathway. PMID:24845536

Padrão, Juliana da Cruz; Cabral, Gabriel Rabello de Abreu; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Sarro; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

2014-10-01

254

Multiple pathways are involved in DNA degradation during keratinocyte terminal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Loss of the nucleus is a critical step in keratinocyte terminal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we focused on two characteristic events: nuclear translocation of N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin and caspase-14-dependent degradation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). First, we demonstrated that epidermal mesotrypsin liberated a 55-kDa N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin (FLG-N) and FLG-N was translocated into the nucleus. Interestingly, these cells became TUNEL positive. Mutation in the mesotrypsin-susceptible Arg-rich region between FLG-N and the first filaggrin domain abolished these changes. Furthermore, caspase-14 caused limited proteolysis of ICAD, followed by accumulation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in TUNEL-positive nuclei. Knockdown of both proteases resulted in a significant increase of remnant nuclei in a skin equivalent model. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both caspase-14 and mesotrypsin were markedly downregulated in parakeratotic areas of lesional skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Collectively, our results indicate that at least two pathways are involved in the DNA degradation process during keratinocyte terminal differentiation. PMID:24743736

Yamamoto-Tanaka, M; Makino, T; Motoyama, A; Miyai, M; Tsuboi, R; Hibino, T

2014-01-01

255

Inducible Degradation of Hydroxyproline in Pseudomonas putida: Pathway Regulation and Hydroxyproline Uptake  

PubMed Central

Studies in Pseudomonas putida of the inducible degradation of hydroxyproline to ?-ketoglutarate have indicated that either of the two epimers, hydroxy-l-proline or allohydroxy-d-proline, acts as an inducer of all the pathway enzymes. In a mutant lacking the first enzyme of the sequence, hydroxyproline-2-epimerase, which interconverts these two hydroxyproline epimers, either epimer is still equally active as an inducer of the remaining three enzymes, suggesting that each epimer has intrinsic inducer activity. The second and third enzymes of the sequence were induced coordinately. The induction process appeared to be insensitive to catabolite repression under a number of experimental conditions. The induced enzymes were stable even under conditions of nitrogen starvation and other conditions designed to increase protein turnover. In addition to inducing the degradative enzymes, the two hydroxyproline epimers were also found to induce an uptake system that concentrates hydroxyproline intracellularly. Either amino acid induced the uptake system for its epimer as well as for itself. PMID:5764334

Gryder, Rosa M.; Adams, Elijah

1969-01-01

256

M2-like macrophages are responsible for collagen degradation through a mannose receptor-mediated pathway  

PubMed Central

Tissue remodeling processes critically depend on the timely removal and remodeling of preexisting collagen scaffolds. Nevertheless, many aspects related to the turnover of this abundant extracellular matrix component in vivo are still incompletely understood. We therefore took advantage of recent advances in optical imaging to develop an assay to visualize collagen turnover in situ and identify cell types and molecules involved in this process. Collagen introduced into the dermis of mice underwent cellular endocytosis in a partially matrix metalloproteinase–dependent manner and was subsequently routed to lysosomes for complete degradation. Collagen uptake was predominantly executed by a quantitatively minor population of M2-like macrophages, whereas more abundant Col1a1-expressing fibroblasts and Cx3cr1-expressing macrophages internalized collagen at lower levels. Genetic ablation of the collagen receptors mannose receptor (Mrc1) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor–associated protein (Endo180 and Mrc2) impaired this intracellular collagen degradation pathway. This study demonstrates the importance of receptor-mediated cellular uptake to collagen turnover in vivo and identifies a key role of M2-like macrophages in this process. PMID:24019537

Madsen, Daniel H.; Leonard, Daniel; Masedunskas, Andrius; Moyer, Amanda; Jurgensen, Henrik Jessen; Peters, Diane E.; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Selvaraj, Arul; Yamada, Susan S.; Brenner, David A.; Burgdorf, Sven; Engelholm, Lars H.; Behrendt, Niels; Holmbeck, Kenn; Weigert, Roberto

2013-01-01

257

Characterization of the Complete Uric Acid Degradation Pathway in the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed. PMID:23667704

Lee, I. Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H. N.; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Fraser, James A.

2013-01-01

258

Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway  

PubMed Central

Lentiviruses contain accessory genes that have evolved to counteract the effects of host cellular defence proteins that inhibit productive infection. One such restriction factor, SAMHD1, inhibits HIV-1 infection of myeloid-lineage cells 1,2 as well as resting CD4+ T cells 3,4 by reducing the cellular dNTP concentration to a level where the viral reverse transcriptase cannot function 5,6. In other lentiviruses, including HIV-2 and related SIVs, SAMHD1 restriction is overcome by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx) or the related viral protein r (Vpr) that target and recruit SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation 7,8. The molecular mechanism by which these viral proteins are able to usurp the host cell’s ubiquitination machinery to destroy the cell’s protection against these viruses has not been defined. We present here the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Vpx with the host cell’s E3 ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 and the C-terminal region of SAMHD1. Vpx is made up of a three-helical bundle, stabilised by a zinc finger motif and wraps tightly around the disc-shaped DCAF1 molecule to present a new molecular surface. This adapted surface is then able to recruit SAMHD1 via its C-terminus making it a competent substrate for the E3 ligase to mark for proteasomal degradation. The structure provides the first description of how a lentiviral accessory protein is able to subvert the cell’s normal protein degradation pathway to inactivate the cellular viral defence system. PMID:24336198

Schwefel, David; Groom, Harriet C. T.; Boucherit, Virginie C.; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Walker, Philip A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.; Bishop, Kate N.; Taylor, Ian A.

2013-01-01

259

Genetic causes of Parkinson’s disease: UCHL-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin proteasome system is an important cellular pathway that ubiquitinates damaged proteins and degrades them via the 26S proteasome. Abnormalities of this pathway can result in molecular protein aggregation and have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). UCHL-1, an enzyme central to the system, possesses catalytic hydrolase activity that can hydrolyze peptide-ubiquitin bonds and recycle ubiquitin monomers for re-use

Daniel G. Healy; Patrick M. Abou-Sleiman; Nicholas W. Wood

2004-01-01

260

The Whole Genome Sequence of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum L-1: Insights into the Evolution of the Pentachlorophenol Degradation Pathway  

SciTech Connect

Sphingobium chlorophenolicum Strain L-1 can mineralize the toxic pesticide pentachlorophenol (PCP). We have sequenced the genome of S. chlorophenolicum Strain L-1. The genome consists of a primary chromosome that encodes most of the genes for core processes, a secondary chromosome that encodes primarily genes that appear to be involved in environmental adaptation, and a small plasmid. The genes responsible for degradation of PCP are found on chromosome 2. We have compared the genomes of S. chlorophenolicum Strain L-1 and Sphingobium japonicum, a closely related Sphingomonad that degrades lindane. Our analysis suggests that the genes encoding the first three enzymes in the PCP degradation pathway were acquired via two different horizontal gene transfer events, and the genes encoding the final two enzymes in the pathway were acquired from the most recent common ancestor of these two bacteria.

Copley, Shelley D. [University of Colorado; Rokicki, Joseph [University of Colorado; Turner, Pernilla [University of Colorado; Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL

2012-01-01

261

The whole genome sequence of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum L-1: insights into the evolution of the pentachlorophenol degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Sphingobium chlorophenolicum Strain L-1 can mineralize the toxic pesticide pentachlorophenol (PCP). We have sequenced the genome of S. chlorophenolicum Strain L-1. The genome consists of a primary chromosome that encodes most of the genes for core processes, a secondary chromosome that encodes primarily genes that appear to be involved in environmental adaptation, and a small plasmid. The genes responsible for degradation of PCP are found on chromosome 2. We have compared the genomes of S. chlorophenolicum Strain L-1 and Sphingobium japonicum, a closely related Sphingomonad that degrades lindane. Our analysis suggests that the genes encoding the first three enzymes in the PCP degradation pathway were acquired via two different horizontal gene transfer events, and the genes encoding the final two enzymes in the pathway were acquired from the most recent common ancestor of these two bacteria. PMID:22179583

Copley, Shelley D; Rokicki, Joseph; Turner, Pernilla; Daligault, Hajnalka; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam

2012-01-01

262

An iron-regulated and glycosylation-dependent proteasomal degradation pathway for the plasma membrane metal transporter ZIP14.  

PubMed

Protein degradation is instrumental in regulating cellular function. Plasma membrane proteins targeted for degradation are internalized and sorted to multivesicular bodies, which fuse with lysosomes, where they are degraded. ZIP14 is a newly identified iron transporter with multitransmembrane domains. In an attempt to dissect the molecular mechanisms by which iron regulates ZIP14 levels, we found that ZIP14 is endocytosed, extracted from membranes, deglycosylated, and degraded by proteasomes. This pathway did not depend on the retrograde trafficking to the endoplasmic reticulum and thus did not involve the well-defined endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway. Iron inhibited membrane extraction of internalized ZIP14, resulting in higher steady-state levels of ZIP14. Asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycosylation of ZIP14, particularly the glycosylation at N102, was required for efficient membrane extraction of ZIP14 and therefore is necessary for its iron sensitivity. These findings highlight the importance of proteasomes in the degradation of endocytosed plasma membrane proteins. PMID:24927598

Zhao, Ningning; Zhang, An-Sheng; Worthen, Christal; Knutson, Mitchell D; Enns, Caroline A

2014-06-24

263

Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pre-treatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator.  

PubMed

To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity. PMID:24904560

Wang, Wei; Yang, Shihui; Hunsinger, Glendon B; Pienkos, Philip T; Johnson, David K

2014-01-01

264

Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pre-treatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator  

PubMed Central

To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity. PMID:24904560

Wang, Wei; Yang, Shihui; Hunsinger, Glendon B.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Johnson, David K.

2014-01-01

265

Cytolethal Distending Toxins Require Components of the ER-Associated Degradation Pathway for Host Cell Entry  

PubMed Central

Intracellular acting protein exotoxins produced by bacteria and plants are important molecular determinants that drive numerous human diseases. A subset of these toxins, the cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), are encoded by several Gram-negative pathogens and have been proposed to enhance virulence by allowing evasion of the immune system. CDTs are trafficked in a retrograde manner from the cell surface through the Golgi apparatus and into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before ultimately reaching the host cell nucleus. However, the mechanism by which CDTs exit the ER is not known. Here we show that three central components of the host ER associated degradation (ERAD) machinery, Derlin-2 (Derl2), the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Hrd1, and the AAA ATPase p97, are required for intoxication by some CDTs. Complementation of Derl2-deficient cells with Derl2:Derl1 chimeras identified two previously uncharacterized functional domains in Derl2, the N-terminal 88 amino acids and the second ER-luminal loop, as required for intoxication by the CDT encoded by Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd-CDT). In contrast, two motifs required for Derlin-dependent retrotranslocation of ERAD substrates, a conserved WR motif and an SHP box that mediates interaction with the AAA ATPase p97, were found to be dispensable for Hd-CDT intoxication. Interestingly, this previously undescribed mechanism is shared with the plant toxin ricin. These data reveal a requirement for multiple components of the ERAD pathway for CDT intoxication and provide insight into a Derl2-dependent pathway exploited by retrograde trafficking toxins. PMID:25078082

Eshraghi, Aria; Dixon, Shandee D.; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Kim, Emily Jin-Kyung; Gargi, Amandeep; Kulik, Julia C.; Damoiseaux, Robert; Blanke, Steven R.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

2014-01-01

266

Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation (ERAD) Pathway in Degradation of Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Proteins and Production of Virus Particles*  

PubMed Central

Viral infections frequently cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in host cells leading to stimulation of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, which subsequently targets unassembled glycoproteins for ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. However, the role of the ERAD pathway in the viral life cycle is poorly defined. In this paper, we demonstrate that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection activates the ERAD pathway, which in turn controls the fate of viral glycoproteins and modulates virus production. ERAD proteins, such as EDEM1 and EDEM3, were found to increase ubiquitylation of HCV envelope proteins via direct physical interaction. Knocking down of EDEM1 and EDEM3 increased the half-life of HCV E2, as well as virus production, whereas exogenous expression of these proteins reduced the production of infectious virus particles. Further investigation revealed that only EDEM1 and EDEM3 bind with SEL1L, an ER membrane adaptor protein involved in translocation of ERAD substrates from the ER to the cytoplasm. When HCV-infected cells were treated with kifunensine, a potent inhibitor of the ERAD pathway, the half-life of HCV E2 increased and so did virus production. Kifunensine inhibited the binding of EDEM1 and EDEM3 with SEL1L, thus blocking the ubiquitylation of HCV E2 protein. Chemical inhibition of the ERAD pathway neither affected production of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) nor stability of the JEV envelope protein. A co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that EDEM orthologs do not bind with JEV envelope protein. These findings highlight the crucial role of the ERAD pathway in the life cycle of specific viruses. PMID:21878646

Saeed, Mohsan; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Masaki, Takahiro; Tomonaga, Mitsunori; Muhammad, Amir; Kato, Takanobu; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Haruo; Wakita, Takaji; Suzuki, Tetsuro

2011-01-01

267

Analysis of hydroxycinnamic acid degradation in Agrobacterium fabrum reveals a coenzyme A-dependent, beta-oxidative deacetylation pathway.  

PubMed

The soil- and rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to have species-specific genes involved in ferulic acid degradation. Here, we characterized, by genetic and analytical means, intermediates of degradation as feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionyl-CoA, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The genes atu1416, atu1417, and atu1420 have been experimentally shown to be necessary for the degradation of ferulic acid. Moreover, the genes atu1415 and atu1421 have been experimentally demonstrated to be essential for this degradation and are proposed to encode a phenylhydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionic acid (HMPKP)-CoA ?-keto-thiolase, respectively. We thus demonstrated that the A. fabrum hydroxycinnamic degradation pathway is an original coenzyme A-dependent ?-oxidative deacetylation that could also transform p-coumaric and caffeic acids. Finally, we showed that this pathway enables the metabolism of toxic compounds from plants and their use for growth, likely providing the species an ecological advantage in hydroxycinnamic-rich environments, such as plant roots or decaying plant materials. PMID:24657856

Campillo, Tony; Renoud, Sébastien; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Gaillard, Vincent; Bellvert, Floriant; Chamignon, Cécile; Comte, Gilles; Nesme, Xavier; Lavire, Céline; Hommais, Florence

2014-06-01

268

Overexpression of the transcriptional coregulator Cited2 protects against glucocorticoid-induced atrophy of C2C12 myotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with various catabolic conditions, glucocorticoid excess induces skeletal muscle wasting by accelerating protein degradation via the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Although the transcriptional coactivator p300 has been implicated in this pathological process, regulatory mechanisms and molecular targets of its action remain unclear. Here we show that CREB-binding protein (CBP)\\/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail 2 (Cited2), which binds to the cysteine-histidine-rich

Kazutoshi Tobimatsu; Tetsuya Noguchi; Tetsuya Hosooka; Mashito Sakai; Kenjiro Inagaki; Yasushi Matsuki; Ryuji Hiramatsu; Masato Kasuga

2009-01-01

269

Rabring7 Degrades c-Myc through Complex Formation with MM-1  

PubMed Central

We have reported that a novel c-Myc-binding protein, MM-1, repressed E-box-dependent transcription and transforming activities of c-Myc and that a mutation of A157R in MM-1, which is often observed in patients with leukemia or lymphoma, abrogated all of the repressive activities of MM-1 toward c-Myc, indicating that MM-1 is a novel tumor suppressor. MM-1 also binds to the ubiquitin-proteasome system, leading to degradation of c-Myc. In this study, we identified Rabring7, a Rab7-binding and RING finger-containing protein, as an MM-1-binding protein, and we found that Rabring7 mono-ubiquitinated MM-1 in the cytoplasm without degradation of MM-1. Rabring7 was also found to bind to c-Myc and to ubiquitinate c-Myc in a threonine 58-dependent manner. When c-Myc was co-transfected with MM-1 and Rabring7, c-Myc was degraded. Furthermore, it was found that c-Myc was stabilized in MM-1-knockdown cells even when Rabring7 was transfected and that Rabring7 was bound to and co-localized with MM-1 and c-Myc after MM-1 and Rabring7 had been translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These results suggest that Rabring7 stimulates c-Myc degradation via mono-ubiquitination of MM-1. PMID:22844532

Torii, Ayako; Tashiro, Erika; Miyazawa, Makoto; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.

2012-01-01

270

Persistence and Degradation Pathways of Tributyltin in Freshwater and Estuarine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of tributyltin (TBT) in contaminated freshwater and estuarine sediments was investigated for a 330-day period under controlled laboratory conditions. Rates of TBT degradation at different depths within various sediments were established, where possible, using regression modelling, and revealed TBT half-lives ranging from 360 to 775 days in surficial sediments. There appeared to be very little difference between degradation

P. H. Dowson; J. M. Bubb; J. N. Lester

1996-01-01

271

GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on ?-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.  

PubMed

GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway. PMID:23017406

Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

2013-01-01

272

Structure of 2,6-dihydroxypyridine 3-hydroxylase from a nicotine-degrading pathway.  

PubMed

The enzyme 2,6-dihydroxypyridine-3-hydroxylase catalyzes the sixth step of the nicotine degradation pathway in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. The enzyme was produced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystal structure was solved at 2.6 A resolution, revealing a significant structural relationship with the family of FAD-dependent aromatic hydroxylases, but essentially no sequence homology. The structure was aligned with those of the established family members, showing that the FAD molecules are bound at virtually identical locations. The reported enzyme is a dimer like most other family members, but its dimerization contact differs from the others. The binding position of NAD(P)H to this enzyme family is not clear. Since the reported enzyme accepts only NADH for flavin reduction in contrast to the other established members using NADPH, we searched through the structural alignment and found an indication for the position of the 2'-phosphate of NADPH that is in general agreement with mutational studies on a related enzyme, but contradicts a crystal soaking experiment. Using a bound glycerol molecule and the known substrate positions of three related enzymes as a guide, the substrate 2,6-dihydroxypyridine was placed into the active center. The access to the binding site is discussed. The new active center geometry introduces constraints that render some reaction scenarios more likely than others. It suggests that flavin is reduced at its out-position and then drawn into its in-position, where it binds molecular oxygen. The geometry is consistent with the proposal that peroxy-flavin is protonated by the solvent to yield the electrophilic hydroperoxy-flavin. The substrate is activated by two buried histidines but there is no appropriate base to store the surplus proton of the hydroxylated carbon atom. The implications of this problem are discussed. PMID:18440023

Treiber, Nora; Schulz, Georg E

2008-05-23

273

Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-{kappa}B pathway through I{kappa}B degradation  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-{kappa}B in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B activation was characterized by translocation of NF-{kappa}B from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-{kappa}B-regulated gene expression. NF-{kappa}B activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-{kappa}B activation. Degradation of I{kappa}B protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of I{kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}DN) significantly suppressed NF-{kappa}B activation induced by PRRSV. However, I{kappa}B{alpha}DN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-{kappa}B was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-{kappa}B-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-{kappa}B activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV.

Lee, Sang-Myeong [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Kleiboeker, Steven B. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States) and Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]. E-mail: KleiboekerS@Missouri.edu

2005-11-10

274

A vacuolar carboxypeptidase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is degraded by the ERAD pathway independently of its N-glycan  

SciTech Connect

Misfolded proteins produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by a mechanism, the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report establishment of the experimental system to analyze the ERAD in plant cells. Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is a vacuolar enzyme and its mutant CPY* is degraded by the ERAD in yeast. Since Arabidopsis thaliana has AtCPY, an ortholog of yeast CPY, we constructed and expressed fusion proteins consisting of AtCPY and GFP and of AtCPY*, which carries a mutation homologous to yeast CPY*, and GFP in A. thaliana cells. While AtCPY-GFP was efficiently transported to the vacuole, AtCPY*-GFP was retained in the ER to be degraded in proteasome- and Cdc48-dependent manners. We also found that AtCPY*-GFP was degraded by the ERAD in yeast cells, but that its single N-glycan did not function as a degradation signal in yeast or plant cells. Therefore, AtCPY*-GFP can be used as a marker protein to analyze the ERAD pathway, likely for nonglycosylated substrates, in plant cells.

Yamamoto, Masaya; Kawanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoko; Endo, Toshiya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi, E-mail: shuh@biochem.chem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

2010-03-12

275

Targeted substrate degradation by an engineered double RING ubiquitin ligase.  

PubMed

Recognition of the substrates by ubiquitin ligases is crucial for substrate specificity in the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. In the present study, we designed a double RING finger ubiquitin ligase to direct the ubiquitin machinery to a specific substrate. The engineered ligase contains the RING finger domains of both BRCA1 and BARD1 linked to a substrate recognition site PCNA, which is known to interact with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57. The double RING finger ubiquitin ligase formed a homo-oligomer complex and exhibited significant ligase activity. Co-transfection of the ligase reduced the expression of transfected p57 to the background level in a proteasome-dependent manner and restored the colony formation ability of U2OS cells that is otherwise inhibited by overexpressed p57. The results indicate the ability of the engineered double RING ubiquitin ligase to target the intended substrate. By redesigning the substrate recognition site, expression of engineered double RING ubiquitin ligases may provide a useful tool for removing many different gene products at the protein level. PMID:12150958

Oyake, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Koizuka, Izumi; Fukuda, Mamoru; Ohta, Tomohiko

2002-07-12

276

Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HDAC4, a new regulator of random cell motility  

PubMed Central

HDAC4 (histone deacetylase 4) belongs to class IIa of histone deacetylases, which groups important regulators of gene expression, controlling pleiotropic cellular functions. Here we show that, in addition to the well-defined nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling, HDAC4 activity is modulated by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Serum starvation elicits the poly-ubiquitination and degradation of HDAC4 in nontransformed cells. Phosphorylation of serine 298 within the PEST1 sequence plays an important role in the control of HDAC4 stability. Serine 298 lies within a glycogen synthase kinase 3? consensus sequence, and removal of growth factors fails to trigger HDAC4 degradation in cells deficient in this kinase. GSK3? can phosphorylate HDAC4 in vitro, and phosphorylation of serine 302 seems to play the role of priming phosphate. We have also found that HDAC4 modulates random cell motility possibly through the regulation of KLF2 transcription. Apoptosis, autophagy, cell proliferation, and growth arrest were unaffected by HDAC4. Our data suggest a link between regulation of HDAC4 degradation and the control of cell motility as operated by growth factors. PMID:21118993

Cernotta, Nadia; Clocchiatti, Andrea; Florean, Cristina; Brancolini, Claudio

2011-01-01

277

HUWE1 ubiquitinates MyoD and targets it for proteasomal degradation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HUWE1 ubiquitinates MyoD in vitro and in cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ubiquitination by HUWE1 targets MyoD for proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HUWE1 can modify MyoD on its N-terminal residue. -- Abstract: MyoD is a tissue-specific transcriptional activator that acts as a master switch for muscle development. It activates a broad array of muscle-specific genes, which leads to conversion of proliferating myoblasts into mature myotubes. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in controlling MyoD. Both its N-terminal residue and internal lysines can be targeted by ubiquitin, and both modifications appear to direct it for proteasomal degradation. The protein is short-lived and has a half-life of {approx}45 min in different cells. It was reported that MyoD can be ubiquitinated by MAFbx/AT-1, but accumulating lines of experimental evidence showed that other ligase(s) may also participate in its targeting. Here we describe the involvement of HUWE1 in the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of MyoD. Furthermore, we show that the ligase can ubiquitinate the protein in its N-terminal residue.

Noy, Tahel; Suad, Oded [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096 (Israel)] [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096 (Israel); Taglicht, Daniel [Proteologics Ltd., Weizmann Science Park, Rehovot 76704 (Israel)] [Proteologics Ltd., Weizmann Science Park, Rehovot 76704 (Israel); Ciechanover, Aaron, E-mail: c_tzachy@netvision.net.il [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096 (Israel)] [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096 (Israel)

2012-02-10

278

SCF?-TRCP-mediated degradation of NEDD4 inhibits tumorigenesis through modulating the PTEN/Akt signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

The HECT domain-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase NEDD4 is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and plays a crucial role in governing a wide spectrum of cellular processes including cell growth, tissue development and homeostasis. Recent reports have indicated that NEDD4 might facilitate tumorigenesis through targeted degradation of multiple tumor suppressor proteins including PTEN. However, the molecular mechanism by which NEDD4 stability is regulated has not been fully elucidated. Here we report that SCF?-TRCP governs NEDD4 protein stability by targeting it for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation in a Casein Kinase-I (CKI) phosphorylation-dependent manner. Specifically, depletion of ?-TRCP, or inactivation of CKI, stabilized NEDD4, leading to down-regulation of its ubiquitin target PTEN and subsequent activation of the mTOR/Akt oncogenic pathway. Furthermore, we found that CKI?-mediated phosphorylation of Ser347 and Ser348 on NEDD4 promoted its interaction with SCF?-TRCP for subsequent ubiquitination and degradation. As a result, compared to ectopic expression of wild-type NEDD4, introducing a non-degradable NEDD4 (S347A/S348A-NEDD4) promoted cancer cell growth and migration. Hence, our findings revealed the CKI/SCF?-TRCP signaling axis as the upstream negative regulator of NEDD4, and further suggested that enhancing NEDD4 degradation, presumably with CKI or SCF?-TRCP agonists, could be a promising strategy for treating human cancers. PMID:24657926

Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Liu, Jiankang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wei, Wenyi

2014-01-01

279

GADD45b mediates p53 protein degradation via Src/PP2A/MDM2 pathway upon arsenite treatment  

E-print Network

OPEN GADD45b mediates p53 protein degradation via Src/PP2A/MDM2 pathway upon arsenite treatment Y protein degradation via targeting Src/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/murine double minute 2 (MDM2) pathway-differentiation primary-response gene (also named MyD118).1 GADD45b is a small (18 kD) protein quickly induced

Cai, Long

280

Prediction of CL-20 chemical degradation pathways, theoretical and experimental evidence for dependence on competing modes of reaction.  

PubMed

Highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies, formation energies, bond lengths and FTIR spectra all suggest competing CL-20 degradation mechanisms. This second of two studies investigates recalcitrant, toxic, aromatic CL-20 intermediates that absorb from 370 to 430 nm. Our earlier study (Struct. Chem., 15, 2004) revealed that these intermediates were formed at high OH(-) concentrations via the chemically preferred pathway of breaking the C-C bond between the two cyclopentanes, thereby eliminating nitro groups, forming conjugated pi bonds, and resulting in a pyrazine three-ring aromatic intermediate. In attempting to find and make dominant a more benign CL-20 transformation pathway, this current research validates hydroxylation results from both studies and examines CL-20 transformations via photo-induced free radical reactions. This article discusses CL-20 competing modes of degradation revealed through: computational calculation; UV/VIS and SF spectroscopy following alkaline hydrolysis; and photochemical irradiation to degrade CL-20 and its byproducts at their respective wavelengths of maximum absorption. PMID:16272046

Qasim, M; Fredrickson, H; Honea, P; Furey, J; Leszczynski, J; Okovytyy, S; Szecsody, J; Kholod, Y

2005-10-01

281

Phospholipids of Five Pseudomonad Archetypes for Different Toluene Degradation Pathways 1 1058-8337/00/$.50  

E-print Network

in the initial attack to form o-cresol (Shields and Montgomery, 1989). The TBU pathway occurs in B. pickettii PK-monooxygenase to yield m-cresol (Kukor and Olson, 1996). Finally, the TMO pathway is expressed by P. mendocina KR1, which uses tolu- ene p-monooxygenase to yield p-cresol (Whited and Gibson, 1991). These five reference

Alvarez, Pedro J.

282

Novel Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Neurotoxicity Models of Dopaminergic Degeneration: Relevance to Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by extensive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system. Neurochemical and neuropathological analyses clearly indicate that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are major mechanisms of dopaminergic degeneration. Evidence from experimental models and postmortem PD brain tissues demonstrates that apoptotic cell death is the common final pathway responsible for selective and irreversible loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons. Epidemiological studies imply both environmental neurotoxicants and genetic predisposition are risk factors for PD, though the cellular mechanisms underlying selective dopaminergic degeneration remain unclear. Recent progress in signal transduction research is beginning to unravel the complex mechanisms governing dopaminergic degeneration. During 12th International Neurotoxicology meeting, discussion at one symposium focused on several key signaling pathways of dopaminergic degeneration. This review summarizes two novel signaling pathways of nigral dopaminergic degeneration that have been elucidated using neurotoxicity models of PD. Dr. Anumantha Kanthasamy described a cell death pathway involving the novel protein kinase C delta isoform (PKC?) in oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death in experimental models of PD. Dr. Ajay Rana presented his recent work on the role of mixed lineage kinase-3 (MLK3) in neuroinflammatory processes in neurotoxic cell death. Collectively, PKC? and MLK3 signaling pathways provide new understanding of neurodegenerative processes in PD, and further exploration of these pathways may translate into effective neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of PD. PMID:20005250

Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Jin, Huajun; Mehrotra, Suneet; Mishra, Rajakishore; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Rana, Ajay

2009-01-01

283

NOVEL PATHWAY OF TOLUENE CATABOLISM IN THE TRICHLOROETHYLENE DEGRADING BACTERIUM G4  

EPA Science Inventory

o-Cresol and 3-methylcatechol were identified as successive transitory intermediates of toluene catabolism by the trichloroethylene-degrading bacterium G4. he absence of a toluene dihydrodiol intermediate or toluene dioxygenase and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities sug...

284

Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Represents an Apolipoprotein E-independent Pathway of A? Uptake and Degradation by Astrocytes*  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of the amyloid ? (A?) peptide within the brain is hypothesized to be one of the main causes underlying the pathogenic events that occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). Consequently, identifying pathways by which A? is cleared from the brain is crucial for better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutics. Cellular uptake and degradation by glial cells is one means by which A? may be cleared from the brain. In the current study, we demonstrate that modulating levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a cell surface receptor that regulates the amount of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the brain, altered both the uptake and degradation of A? by astrocytes. Deletion of LDLR caused a decrease in A? uptake, whereas increasing LDLR levels significantly enhanced both the uptake and clearance of A?. Increasing LDLR levels also enhanced the cellular degradation of A? and facilitated the vesicular transport of A? to lysosomes. Despite the fact that LDLR regulated the uptake of apoE by astrocytes, we found that the effect of LDLR on A? uptake and clearance occurred in the absence of apoE. Finally, we provide evidence that A? can directly bind to LDLR, suggesting that an interaction between LDLR and A? could be responsible for LDLR-mediated A? uptake. Therefore, these results identify LDLR as a receptor that mediates A? uptake and clearance by astrocytes, and provide evidence that increasing glial LDLR levels may promote A? degradation within the brain. PMID:22383525

Basak, Jacob M.; Verghese, Philip B.; Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Jungsu; Holtzman, David M.

2012-01-01

285

Improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through up-regulation of the ethanol degradation pathway and expression of the heterologous phosphoketolase pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have properties similar to current crude diesel and could therefore form an important contribution to the development of sustainable transportation fuels in future. It is important to develop novel cell factories for efficient production of FAEEs and their precursors. Results Here, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory expressing a heterologous wax ester synthase (ws2) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus was used to produce FAEEs from ethanol and acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA). The production of acyl-CoA requires large amounts of NADPH and acetyl-CoA. Therefore, two metabolic engineering strategies for improved provision of NADPH and acetyl-CoA were evaluated. First, the ethanol degradation pathway was employed to re-channel carbon flow towards the synthesis of acetyl-CoA. Therefore, ADH2 and ALD6 encoding, respectively, alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase were overexpressed together with the heterologous gene acsSEL641P encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase. The co-overexpression of ADH2, ALD6 and acsSEL641P with ws2 resulted in 408?±?270 ?g FAEE gCDW?1, a 3-fold improvement. Secondly, for the expression of the PHK pathway two genes, xpkA and ack, both descending from Aspergillus nidulans, were co-expressed together with ws2 to catalyze, respectively, the conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate to acetyl phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and acetyl phosphate to acetate. Alternatively, ack was substituted with pta from Bacillus subtilis, encoding phosphotransacetylase for the conversion of acetyl phosphate to acetyl-CoA. Both PHK pathways were additionally expressed in a strain with multiple chromosomally integrated ws2 gene, which resulted in respectively 5100?±?509 and 4670?±?379 ?g FAEE gCDW?1, an up to 1.7-fold improvement. Conclusion Two different strategies for engineering of the central carbon metabolism for efficient provision of acetyl-CoA and NADPH required for fatty acid biosynthesis and hence FAEE production were evaluated and it was found that both the ethanol degradation pathway as well as the phosphoketolase pathway improve the yield of FAEEs. PMID:24618091

2014-01-01

286

Burkholderia pseudomallei suppresses Caenorhabditis elegans immunity by specific degradation of a GATA transcription factor.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that infects both humans and animals. Although cell culture studies have revealed significant insights into factors contributing to virulence and host defense, the interactions between this pathogen and its intact host remain to be elucidated. To gain insights into the host defense responses to B. pseudomallei infection within an intact host, we analyzed the genome-wide transcriptome of infected Caenorhabditis elegans and identified ?6% of the nematode genes that were significantly altered over a 12-h course of infection. An unexpected feature of the transcriptional response to B. pseudomallei was a progressive increase in the proportion of down-regulated genes, of which ELT-2 transcriptional targets were significantly enriched. ELT-2 is an intestinal GATA transcription factor with a conserved role in immune responses. We demonstrate that B. pseudomallei down-regulation of ELT-2 targets is associated with degradation of ELT-2 protein by the host ubiquitin-proteasome system. Degradation of ELT-2 requires the B. pseudomallei type III secretion system. Together, our studies using an intact host provide evidence for pathogen-mediated host immune suppression through the destruction of a host transcription factor. PMID:23980181

Lee, Song-Hua; Wong, Rui-Rui; Chin, Chui-Yoke; Lim, Tian-Yeh; Eng, Su-Anne; Kong, Cin; Ijap, Nur Afifah; Lau, Ming-Seong; Lim, Mei-Perng; Gan, Yunn-Hwen; He, Fang-Lian; Tan, Man-Wah; Nathan, Sheila

2013-09-10

287

Dysfunction of the autophagy/lysosomal degradation pathway is a shared feature of the genetic synucleinopathies  

PubMed Central

The past decade has witnessed huge advances in our understanding of the genetics underlying Parkinson’s disease. Identifying commonalities in the biological function of genes linked to Parkinson’s provides an opportunity to elucidate pathways that lead to neuronal degeneration and eventually to disease. We propose that the genetic forms of Parkinson’s disease largely associated with ?-synuclein-positive neuropathology (SNCA, LRRK2, and GBA) are brought together by involvement in the autophagy/lysosomal pathway and that this represents a unifying pathway to disease in these cases. PMID:23682122

Manzoni, Claudia; Lewis, Patrick A.

2014-01-01

288

The RNA Degradation Pathway Regulates the Function of GAS5 a Non-Coding RNA in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Studies of various mRNAs have revealed that changes in the abundance of transcripts, through mRNA degradation, act as a critical step in the control of various biological pathways. Similarly, the regulation of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) levels is also considered to be important for their biological functions; however, far less is known about the mechanisms and biological importance of ncRNA turnover for the regulation of ncRNA functions. The growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) ncRNA accumulates during growth arrest induced by serum starvation and its transcript is degraded by the well characterized nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway. Historically, NMD was discovered as a RNA quality control system to eliminate aberrant transcripts; however, accumulating evidence shows that NMD also regulates the abundance of physiological transcripts. Interestingly, the GAS5 transcript has the ability to bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), resulting in the inhibition of its ligand-dependent association with DNA. The GR binds the promoters of various glucocorticoid-responsive genes, including apoptosis-related genes. In this study, we examined whether the RNA degradation pathway can regulate this function of GAS5. We measured the steady-state abundance and the decay rate of GAS5 in UPF1-depleted human cells using the 5?-bromo-uridine immunoprecipitation chase (BRIC) method, an inhibitor-free method for directly measuring RNA stability. We found that levels of the GAS5 transcript were elevated owing to prolonged decay rates in response to UPF1 depletion, and consequently the apoptosis-related genes, cIAP2 and SGK1, were down-regulated. In addition, serum starvation also increased the transcript levels of GAS5 because of prolonged decay rates, and conversely decreased levels of cIAP2 and SGK1 mRNA. Taken together, we found that the RNA degradation pathway can regulate the function of the GAS5 ncRNA in mammalian cells. PMID:23383264

Tani, Hidenori; Torimura, Masaki; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi

2013-01-01

289

Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of a Pathway for the Degradation of 2-Aminoethylphosphonate in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021*  

PubMed Central

A variety of microorganisms have the ability to use phosphonic acids as sole sources of phosphorus. Here, a novel pathway for degradation of 2-aminoethylphosphonate in the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 is proposed based on the analysis of the genome sequence. Gene deletion experiments confirmed the involvement of the locus containing phnW, phnA, and phnY genes in the conversion of 2-aminoethylphosphonate to inorganic phosphate. Biochemical studies of the recombinant PhnY and PhnA proteins verified their roles as phosphonoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase and phosphonoacetate hydrolase, respectively. This pathway is likely not limited to S. meliloti as suggested by the presence of homologous gene clusters in other bacterial genomes. PMID:21543322

Borisova, Svetlana A.; Christman, Harry D.; Metcalf, M. E. Mourey; Zulkepli, Nurul A.; Zhang, Jun Kai; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Metcalf, William W.

2011-01-01

290

Identification and characterization of the furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural degradation pathways of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14  

PubMed Central

The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates pose significant problems for the production of second-generation biofuels and biochemicals. Among these inhibitors, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) and furfural are specifically notorious. In this study, we describe the complete molecular identification and characterization of the pathway by which Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 metabolizes HMF and furfural. The identification of this pathway enabled the construction of an HMF and furfural-metabolizing Pseudomonas putida. The genetic information obtained furthermore enabled us to predict the HMF and furfural degrading capabilities of sequenced bacterial species that had not previously been connected to furanic aldehyde metabolism. These results pave the way for in situ detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, which is a major step toward improved efficiency of utilization of lignocellulosic feedstock. PMID:20194784

Koopman, Frank; Wierckx, Nick; de Winde, Johannes H.; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.

2010-01-01

291

Bimodal degradation of MLL by SCFSkp2 and APCCdc20 assures cell cycle execution: a critical regulatory circuit lost in leukemogenic MLL fusions  

PubMed Central

Human chromosome 11q23 translocations disrupting MLL result in poor prognostic leukemias. It fuses the common MLL N-terminal ?1400 amino acids in-frame with >60 different partners without shared characteristics. In addition to the well-characterized activity of MLL in maintaining Hox gene expression, our recent studies established an MLL–E2F axis in orchestrating core cell cycle gene expression including Cyclins. Here, we demonstrate a biphasic expression of MLL conferred by defined windows of degradation mediated by specialized cell cycle E3 ligases. Specifically, SCFSkp2 and APCCdc20 mark MLL for degradation at S phase and late M phase, respectively. Abolished peak expression of MLL incurs corresponding defects in G1/S transition and M-phase progression. Conversely, overexpression of MLL blocks S-phase progression. Remarkably, MLL degradation initiates at its N-terminal ?1400 amino acids, and tested prevalent MLL fusions are resistant to degradation. Thus, impaired degradation of MLL fusions likely constitutes the universal mechanism underlying all MLL leukemias. Our data conclude an essential post-translational regulation of MLL by the cell cycle ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) assures the temporal necessity of MLL in coordinating cell cycle progression. PMID:17908926

Liu, Han; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.; Hsieh, James J.-D.

2007-01-01

292

Effect of various gases and chemical catalysts on phenol degradation pathways by pulsed electrical discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of phenol degradation by pulsed electrical discharges were investigated under several kinds of discharge atmospheres (oxygen, argon, nitrogen and ozone) and chemical catalysts (ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide). The temporal variations of the concentrations of phenol and the intermediate products were monitored by HPLC and GC–MS, respectively. It has been found that the effect of various gases bubbling

Yongjun Shen; Lecheng Lei; Xingwang Zhang; Minghua Zhou; Yi Zhang

2008-01-01

293

Mutations in NGLY1 Cause an Inherited Disorder of the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation (ERAD) Pathway  

PubMed Central

Purpose The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway is responsible for the translocation of misfolded proteins across the ER membrane into the cytosol for subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In order to understand the spectrum of clinical and molecular findings in a complex neurological syndrome, we studied a series of eight patients with inherited deficiency of N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1), a novel disorder of cytosolic ERAD dysfunction. Methods Whole-genome, whole-exome or standard Sanger sequencing techniques were employed. Retrospective chart reviews were performed in order to obtain clinical data. Results All patients had global developmental delay, a movement disorder, and hypotonia. Other common findings included hypo- or alacrima (7/8), elevated liver transaminases (6/7), microcephaly (6/8), diminished reflexes (6/8), hepatocyte cytoplasmic storage material or vacuolization (5/6), and seizures (4/8). The nonsense mutation c.1201A>T (p.R401X) was the most common deleterious allele. Conclusions NGLY1 deficiency is a novel autosomal recessive disorder of the ERAD pathway associated with neurological dysfunction, abnormal tear production, and liver disease. The majority of patients detected to date carry a specific nonsense mutation that appears to be associated with severe disease. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to enlarge as cases with a more broad range of mutations are detected. PMID:24651605

Enns, Gregory M.; Shashi, Vandana; Bainbridge, Matthew; Gambello, Michael J.; Zahir, Farah R.; Bast, Thomas; Crimian, Rebecca; Schoch, Kelly; Platt, Julia; Cox, Rachel; Bernstein, Jonathan; Scavina, Mena; Walter, Rhonda S.; Bibb, Audrey; Jones, Melanie; Hegde, Madhuri; Graham, Brett H.; Need, Anna C.; Oviedo, Angelica; Schaaf, Christian P.; Boyle, Sean; Butte, Atul J.; Chen, Rong; Clark, Michael J.; Haraksingh, Rajini; Cowan, Tina M.; He, Ping; Langlois, Sylvie; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Snyder, Michael; Gibbs, Richard; Freeze, Hudson H.; Goldstein, David B.

2014-01-01

294

Targeting C4-demethylating genes in the cholesterol pathway sensitizes cancer cells to EGFR inhibitors via increased EGFR degradation  

PubMed Central

Persistent signaling by the oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a major source of cancer resistance to EGFR targeting. We established that inactivation of two sterol biosynthesis pathway genes, SC4MOL (sterol C4-methyl oxidase-like) and its partner NSDHL (NADP-dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like), sensitized tumor cells to EGFR inhibitors. Bioinformatics modeling of interactions for the sterol pathway genes in eukaryotes allowed us to hypothesize, and then extensively validate an unexpected role for SC4MOL and NSDHL in controlling the signaling, vesicular trafficking and degradation of EGFR and its dimerization partners, ERBB2 and ERBB3. Metabolic block upstream of SC4MOL with ketoconazole or CYP51A1 siRNA rescued cancer cell viability and EGFR degradation. Inactivation of SC4MOL markedly sensitized A431 xenografts to cetuximab, a therapeutic anti-EGFR antibody. Analysis of Nsdhl-deficient Bpa1H/+ mice confirmed dramatic and selective loss of internalized PDGFR in fibroblasts, and reduced activation of EGFR and its effectors in regions of skin lacking NSDHL. PMID:23125191

Sukhanova, Anna; Gorin, Andrey; Serebriiskii, Ilya G.; Gabitova, Linara; Zheng, Hui; Restifo, Diana; Egleston, Brian L.; Cunningham, David; Bagnyukova, Tetyana; Liu, Hanqing; Nikonova, Anna; Adams, Gregory P.; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Dong-Hua; Mehra, Ranee; Burtness, Barbara; Cai, Kathy Q.; Klein-Szanto, Andres; Kratz, Lisa E.; Kelley, Richard I.; Weiner, Louis M.; Herman, Gail E.; Golemis, Erica A.; Astsaturov, Igor

2012-01-01

295

Elucidation of the upper pathway of alicyclic musk Romandolide degradation in OECD screening tests with activated sludge.  

PubMed

The degradation of Romandolide ([1-(3',3'-dimethyl-1'-cyclohexyl)ethoxycarbonyl] methyl propanoate), a synthetic alicyclic musk, by activated sludge inocula was investigated using both the manometric respirometry test OECD 301F and the CO? evolution test. In addition to measuring its biodegradability, key steps of the upper part of the metabolic pathway responsible for Romandolide degradation were identified using extracts at different time points of incubation. Early metabolism of Romandolide yielded ester hydrolysis products, including Cyclademol (1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethanol). The principal metabolites after 31 days were identified as 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone and 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexyl acetate. Formation of 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone from Cyclademol by sludge was confirmed in subsequent experiments using Cyclademol as a substrate, indicating the involvement of an oxygen insertion reminiscent of a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Further mineralization of 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone was also confirmed in subsequent studies. Three steps were thus required for complete biodegradation of the alicyclic musk: (1) successive ester hydrolyses leading to the formation of Cyclademol with concomitant degradation of the resulting acids, (2) conversion of Cyclademol into 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone, and (3) further mineralization via ring cleavage. PMID:24277432

Seyfried, M; Boschung, A; Miffon, F; Ohleyer, E; Chaintreau, A

2014-08-01

296

Direct entry by RNase E is a major pathway for the degradation and processing of RNA in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli endoribonuclease E has a major influence on gene expression. It is essential for the maturation of ribosomal and transfer RNA as well as the rapid degradation of messenger RNA. The latter ensures that translation closely follows programming at the level of transcription. Recently, one of the hallmarks of RNase E, i.e. its ability to bind via a 5'-monophosphorylated end, was shown to be unnecessary for the initial cleavage of some polycistronic tRNA precursors. Here we show using RNA-seq analyses of ribonuclease-deficient strains in vivo and a 5'-sensor mutant of RNase E in vitro that, contrary to current models, 5'-monophosphate-independent, 'direct entry' cleavage is a major pathway for degrading and processing RNA. Moreover, we present further evidence that direct entry is facilitated by RNase E binding simultaneously to multiple unpaired regions. These simple requirements may maximize the rate of degradation and processing by permitting multiple sites to be surveyed directly without being constrained by 5'-end tethering. Cleavage was detected at a multitude of sites previously undescribed for RNase E, including ones that regulate the activity and specificity of ribosomes. A potentially broad role for RNase G, an RNase E paralogue, in the trimming of 5'-monophosphorylated ends was also revealed. PMID:25237058

Clarke, Justin E; Kime, Louise; Romero A, David; McDowall, Kenneth J

2015-02-01

297

The alkyl tert-butyl ether intermediate 2-hydroxyisobutyrate is degraded via a novel cobalamin-dependent mutase pathway.  

PubMed

Fuel oxygenates such as methyl and ethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and ETBE, respectively) are degraded only by a limited number of bacterial strains. The aerobic pathway is generally thought to run via tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate (2-HIBA), whereas further steps are unclear. We have now demonstrated for the newly isolated beta-proteobacterial strains L108 and L10, as well as for the closely related strain CIP I-2052, that 2-HIBA was degraded by a cobalamin-dependent enzymatic step. In these strains, growth on substrates containing the tert-butyl moiety, such as MTBE, TBA, and 2-HIBA, was strictly dependent on cobalt, which could be replaced by cobalamin. Tandem mass spectrometry identified a 2-HIBA-induced protein with high similarity to a peptide whose gene sequence was found in the finished genome of the MTBE-degrading strain Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1. Alignment analysis identified it as the small subunit of isobutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) mutase (ICM; EC 5.4.99.13), which is a cobalamin-containing carbon skeleton-rearranging enzyme, originally described only in Streptomyces spp. Sequencing of the genes of both ICM subunits from strain L108 revealed nearly 100% identity with the corresponding peptide sequences from M. petroleiphilum PM1, suggesting a horizontal gene transfer event to have occurred between these strains. Enzyme activity was demonstrated in crude extracts of induced cells of strains L108 and L10, transforming 2-HIBA into 3-hydroxybutyrate in the presence of CoA and ATP. The physiological and evolutionary aspects of this novel pathway involved in MTBE and ETBE metabolism are discussed. PMID:16751524

Rohwerder, Thore; Breuer, Uta; Benndorf, Dirk; Lechner, Ute; Müller, Roland H

2006-06-01

298

The Alkyl tert-Butyl Ether Intermediate 2-Hydroxyisobutyrate Is Degraded via a Novel Cobalamin-Dependent Mutase Pathway  

PubMed Central

Fuel oxygenates such as methyl and ethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and ETBE, respectively) are degraded only by a limited number of bacterial strains. The aerobic pathway is generally thought to run via tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate (2-HIBA), whereas further steps are unclear. We have now demonstrated for the newly isolated ?-proteobacterial strains L108 and L10, as well as for the closely related strain CIP I-2052, that 2-HIBA was degraded by a cobalamin-dependent enzymatic step. In these strains, growth on substrates containing the tert-butyl moiety, such as MTBE, TBA, and 2-HIBA, was strictly dependent on cobalt, which could be replaced by cobalamin. Tandem mass spectrometry identified a 2-HIBA-induced protein with high similarity to a peptide whose gene sequence was found in the finished genome of the MTBE-degrading strain Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1. Alignment analysis identified it as the small subunit of isobutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) mutase (ICM; EC 5.4.99.13), which is a cobalamin-containing carbon skeleton-rearranging enzyme, originally described only in Streptomyces spp. Sequencing of the genes of both ICM subunits from strain L108 revealed nearly 100% identity with the corresponding peptide sequences from M. petroleiphilum PM1, suggesting a horizontal gene transfer event to have occurred between these strains. Enzyme activity was demonstrated in crude extracts of induced cells of strains L108 and L10, transforming 2-HIBA into 3-hydroxybutyrate in the presence of CoA and ATP. The physiological and evolutionary aspects of this novel pathway involved in MTBE and ETBE metabolism are discussed. PMID:16751524

Rohwerder, Thore; Breuer, Uta; Benndorf, Dirk; Lechner, Ute; Muller, Roland H.

2006-01-01

299

Coupled metabolic and photolytic pathway for degradation of pyridinedicarboxylic acids, especially dipicolinic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isomers of pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) (2,3-, 2,5-, and 2,6-PDCA) were partially oxidized by marine bacteria when grown aerobically on the corresponding phthalate analogs. The metabolites, unlike the parent PDCAs, absorbed light in the solar actinic range (wavelengths greater than 300 nm) and were readily degraded in sunlight. The principal product from 2,6-PDCA (dipicolinic acid) metabolism was extracted from a

J. A. Amador; B. F. Taylor

1990-01-01

300

Microbial degradation is a key elimination pathway of hexachlorocyclohexanes from the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are the most abundant pesticides in arctic air and water. We have calculated in situ microbial degradation rates of ?- and ?-HCH for the Arctic Ocean using enantiomer ratio (ER) data and concentrations in water at the surface and after it has subducted to depth. The ERs of ?-HCH, which provide the first direct evidence of microbial degradation, allow rates to be estimated. The half-lives due to microbial activity for (+)-?-HCH, (-)-?-HCH and ?-HCH (respectively 5.9 ± 1.2, 22.8 ± 4.7 and 18.8 ± 10.1 years) are 3-10 times faster than removal by the only other known breakdown mechanism, hydrolysis (Harner et al., 1999). Microbial degradation is highlighted as an important elimination process in a revised HCH loss budget for the Arctic Ocean, removing 204 t y-1, ?-HCH and 23 t y-1, ?-HCH. These tonnages represent 29-37% of the annual HCH removal from the Arctic Ocean.

Harner, Tom; Jantunen, Liisa M. M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Barrie, Leonard A.; Kylin, Henrik; Strachan, William M. J.; Macdonald, Robie W.

301

Elucidating the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fatty Acid Degradation Pathway: Identification of Additional Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase Homologues  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid (FA) degradation pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, was recently shown to be involved in nutrient acquisition during BALB/c mouse lung infection model. The source of FA in the lung is believed to be phosphatidylcholine, the major component of lung surfactant. Previous research indicated that P. aeruginosa has more than two fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes (fadD; PA3299 and PA3300), which are responsible for activation of FAs using ATP and coenzyme A. Through a bioinformatics approach, 11 candidate genes were identified by their homology to the Escherichia coli FadD in the present study. Four new homologues of fadD (PA1617, PA2893, PA3860, and PA3924) were functionally confirmed by their ability to complement the E. coli fadD mutant on FA-containing media. Growth phenotypes of 17 combinatorial fadD mutants on different FAs, as sole carbon sources, indicated that the four new fadD homologues are involved in FA degradation, bringing the total number of P. aeruginosa fadD genes to six. Of the four new homologues, fadD4 (PA1617) contributed the most to the degradation of different chain length FAs. Growth patterns of various fadD mutants on plant-based perfumery substances, citronellic and geranic acids, as sole carbon and energy sources indicated that fadD4 is also involved in the degradation of these plant-derived compounds. A decrease in fitness of the sextuple fadD mutant, relative to the ?fadD1D2 mutant, was only observed during BALB/c mouse lung infection at 24 h. PMID:23737986

Zarzycki-Siek, Jan; Norris, Michael H.; Kang, Yun; Sun, Zhenxin; Bluhm, Andrew P.; McMillan, Ian A.; Hoang, Tung T.

2013-01-01

302

Oxidation of Microcystin-LR by Ferrate(VI): Kinetics, Degradation Pathways, and Toxicity Assessments.  

PubMed

The presence of the potent cyanotoxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), in drinking water sources poses a serious risk to public health. The kinetics of the reactivity of ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)) with MC-LR and model compounds (sorbic acid, sorbic alcohol, and glycine anhydride) are reported over a range of solution pH. The degradation of MC-LR followed second-order kinetics with the bimolecular rate constant (kMCLR+Fe(VI)) decreasing from 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10(2) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.5 to 8.1 ± 0.08 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 10.0. The specific rate constants for the individual ferrate species were determined and compared with a number of common chemical oxidants employed for water treatment. Detailed product studies using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated the oxidized products (OPs) were primarily the result of hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, double bond of the methyldehydroalanine (Mdha) amino acid residue, and diene functionality. Products studies also indicate fragmentation of the cyclic MC-LR structure occurs under the reaction conditions. The analysis of protein phosphatase (PP1) activity suggested that the degradation byproducts of MC-LR did not possess significant biological toxicity. Fe(VI) was effective for the degradation MC-LR in water containing carbonate ions and fulvic acid (FA) and in lake water samples, but higher Fe(VI) dosages would be needed to completely remove MC-LR in lake water compared to deionized water. PMID:25215438

Jiang, Wenjun; Chen, Long; Batchu, Sudha Rani; Gardinali, Piero R; Jasa, Libor; Marsalek, Blahoslav; Zboril, Radek; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E; Sharma, Virender K

2014-10-21

303

Population sinks resulting from degraded habitats of an obligate life-history pathway.  

PubMed

Many species traverse multiple habitats across ecosystems to complete their life histories. Degradation of critical, life stage-specific habitats can therefore lead to population bottlenecks and demographic deficits in sub-populations. The riparian zone of waterways is one of the most impacted areas of the coastal zone because of urbanisation, deforestation, farming and livestock grazing. We hypothesised that sink populations can result from alterations of habitats critical to the early life stages of diadromous fish that use this zone, and tested this with field-based sampling and experiments. We found that for Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, obligate riparian spawning habitat was very limited and highly vulnerable to disturbance across 14 rivers in New Zealand. Eggs were laid only during spring tides, in the highest tidally influenced vegetation of waterways. Egg survival increased to >90% when laid in three riparian plant species and where stem densities were great enough to prevent desiccation, compared to no survival where vegetation was comprised of other species or was less dense. Experimental exclusion of livestock, one of the major sources of riparian degradation in rural waterways, resulted in quick regeneration, a tenfold increase in egg laying by fish and a threefold increase in survival, compared to adjacent controls. Overall, there was an inverse relationship between river size and egg production. Some of the largest rivers had little or no spawning habitat and very little egg production, effectively becoming sink populations despite supporting large adult populations, whereas some of the smallest pristine streams produced millions of eggs. We demonstrate that even a wide-ranging species with many robust adult populations can be compromised if a stage-specific habitat required to complete a life history is degraded by localised or more diffuse impacts. PMID:21076966

Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

2011-05-01

304

Coupled Metabolic andPhotolytic Pathway forDegradation of Pyridinedicarboxylic Acids, Especially Dipicolinic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

acid(PDCA)(2,3-, 2,5-, and2,6-PDCA) werepartially oxidized by marine bacteria whengrownaerobically onthecorresponding phthalate analogs. Themetabolites, unlike the parent PDCAs,absorbed light inthesolar actinic range(wavelengths greater than300nm)andwerereadily degraded insunlight. Theprincipal product from2,6-PDCA (dipicolinic acid) metabolism wasextracted from aculture fluid, purified bycolumnchromatography, andanalyzed byUV-visible, infrared, and'3Cnuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thecompound wasidentified as2,3-dihydroxypicolinic acid(2,3-DHPA). 2,3-DHPA wasphotolyzed inaqueous solution (pH8.0) withahalf-life of100min.Eight photoproducts, three ofwhichwerephotolabile, weredetected byhigh-performance

BARRIEF. TAYLOR

1990-01-01

305

Betulinic Acid Selectively Increases Protein Degradation and Enhances Prostate Cancer-Specific Apoptosis: Possible Role for Inhibition of Deubiquitinase Activity  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation is a valid anti-cancer strategy and has led to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, the alternative approach of enhancing the degradation of oncoproteins that are frequently overexpressed in cancers is less developed. Betulinic acid (BA) is a plant-derived small molecule that can increase apoptosis specifically in cancer but not in normal cells, making it an attractive anti-cancer agent. Our results in prostate cancer suggested that BA inhibited multiple deubiquitinases (DUBs), which resulted in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, decreased levels of oncoproteins, and increased apoptotic cell death. In normal fibroblasts, however, BA did not inhibit DUB activity nor increased total poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which was associated with a lack of effect on cell death. In the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer, treatment with BA (10 mg/kg) inhibited primary tumors, increased apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and proliferation, and lowered androgen receptor and cyclin D1 protein. BA treatment also inhibited DUB activity and increased ubiquitinated proteins in TRAMP prostate cancer but had no effect on apoptosis or ubiquitination in normal mouse tissues. Overall, our data suggests that BA-mediated inhibition of DUBs and induction of apoptotic cell death specifically in prostate cancer but not in normal cells and tissues may provide an effective non-toxic and clinically selective agent for chemotherapy. PMID:23424652

Reiner, Teresita; Parrondo, Ricardo; de las Pozas, Alicia; Palenzuela, Deanna; Perez-Stable, Carlos

2013-01-01

306

FBXL5-mediated degradation of single-stranded DNA-binding protein hSSB1 controls DNA damage response.  

PubMed

Human single-strand (ss) DNA binding proteins 1 (hSSB1) has been shown to participate in DNA damage response and maintenance of genome stability by regulating the initiation of ATM-dependent signaling. ATM phosphorylates hSSB1 and prevents hSSB1 from ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. However, the E3 ligase that targets hSSB1 for destruction is still unknown. Here, we report that hSSB1 is the bona fide substrate for an Fbxl5-containing SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F box) E3 ligase. Fbxl5 interacts with and targets hSSB1 for ubiquitination and degradation, which could be prevented by ATM-mediated hSSB1 T117 phosphorylation. Furthermore, cells overexpression of Fbxl5 abrogated the cellular response to DSBs, including activation of ATM and phosphorylation of ATM targets and exhibited increased radiosensitivity, chemosensitivity and defective checkpoint activation after genotoxic stress stimuli. Moreover, the protein levels of hSSB1 and Fbxl5 showed an inverse correlation in lung cancer cells lines and clinical lung cancer samples. Therefore, Fbxl5 may negatively modulate hSSB1 to regulate DNA damage response, implicating Fbxl5 as a novel, promising therapeutic target for lung cancers. PMID:25249620

Chen, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Bin; Tang, Nai-Wang; Xu, Yun-Hua; Ye, Xiang-Yun; Li, Zi-Ming; Niu, Xiao-Min; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Lu, Shun; Xu, Ling

2015-02-01

307

Poly-Ub-Substrate-Degradative Activity of 26S Proteasome Is Not Impaired in the Aging Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Proteostasis is critical for the maintenance of life. In neuronal cells an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases during aging. Partly, this seems to be due to a decrease in the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, wherein the 20S/26S proteasome complexes catalyse the proteolytic step. We have characterised 20S and 26S proteasomes from cerebrum, cerebellum and hippocampus of 3 weeks old (young) and 24 month old (aged) rats. Our data reveal that the absolute amount of the proteasome is not dfferent between both age groups. Within the majority of standard proteasomes in brain the minute amounts of immuno-subunits are slightly increased in aged rat brain. While this goes along with a decrease in the activities of 20S and 26S proteasomes to hydrolyse synthetic fluorogenic tripeptide substrates from young to aged rats, the capacity of 26S proteasomes for degradation of poly-Ub-model substrates and its activation by poly-Ub-substrates is not impaired or even slightly increased in brain of aged rats. We conclude that these alterations in proteasome properties are important for maintaining proteostasis in the brain during an uncomplicated aging process. PMID:23667697

Giannini, Carolin; Kloss, Alexander; Gohlke, Sabrina; Mishto, Michele; Nicholson, Thomas P.; Sheppard, Paul W.; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Dahlmann, Burkhardt

2013-01-01

308

Polar localization and degradation of Arabidopsis boron transporters through distinct trafficking pathways.  

PubMed

Boron (B) is essential for plant growth but is toxic when present in excess. In the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana under B limitation, a boric acid channel, NIP5;1, and a boric acid/borate exporter, BOR1, are required for efficient B uptake and subsequent translocation into the xylem, respectively. However, under high-B conditions, BOR1 activity is repressed through endocytic degradation, presumably to avoid B toxicity. In this study, we investigated the localization of GFP-tagged NIP5;1 and BOR1 expressed under the control of their native promoters. Under B limitation, GFP-NIP5;1 and BOR1-GFP localized preferentially in outer (distal) and inner (proximal) plasma membrane domains, respectively, of various root cells. The polar localization of the boric acid channel and boric acid/borate exporter indicates the radial transport route of B toward the stele. Furthermore, mutational analysis revealed a requirement of tyrosine residues, in a probable cytoplasmic loop region of BOR1, for polar localization in various cells of the meristem and elongation zone. The same tyrosine residues were also required for vacuolar targeting upon high B supply. The present study of BOR1 and NIP5;1 demonstrates the importance of selective endocytic trafficking in polar localization and degradation of plant nutrient transporters for radial transport and homeostasis of plant mineral nutrients. PMID:20194745

Takano, Junpei; Tanaka, Mayuki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Miwa, Kyoko; Kasai, Koji; Fuji, Kentaro; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Naito, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Toru

2010-03-16

309

Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: Kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation.  

PubMed

The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na2SO4. The intermediates identified by LC-MS and GC-MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the SN bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test. PMID:25215656

Fabia?ska, Aleksandra; Bia?k-Bieli?ska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan; Siedlecka, Ewa Maria

2014-09-15

310

Coupled metabolic and photolytic pathway for degradation of pyridinedicarboxylic acids, especially dipicolinic acid  

SciTech Connect

Three isomers of pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) (2,3-, 2,5-, and 2,6-PDCA) were partially oxidized by marine bacteria when grown aerobically on the corresponding phthalate analogs. The metabolites, unlike the parent PDCAs, absorbed light in the solar actinic range (wavelengths greater than 300 nm) and were readily degraded in sunlight. The principal product from 2,6-PDCA (dipicolinic acid) metabolism was extracted from a culture fluid, purified by column chromatography, and analyzed by UV-visible, infrared, and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was identified as 2,3-dihydroxypicolinic acid (2,3-DHPA). 2,3-DHPA was photolyzed in aqueous solution (pH 8.0) with a half-life of 100 min. Eight photoproducts, three of which were photolabile, were detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Ammonia was also photoproduced from 2,3-DHPA. Analysis of the photoproducts by UV-visible spectroscopy and by high-performance liquid chromatography of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones indicated that the products were conjugated carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Six of the photoproducts were readily consumed by bacterial strain CC9M. In illuminated aquatic environments, couple bio- and photodegradative mechanisms probably contribute to the degradation of PDCAs.

Amador, J.A. (Cornell Univ. Ithace, NY (USA)); Taylor, B.F. (Univ. of Miami, FL (USA))

1990-05-01

311

Degradation pathway of an anthraquinone dye catalyzed by a unique peroxidase DyP from Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1.  

PubMed

The reactants produced by action of a purified unique dye-decolorizing peroxidase, DyP, on a commercial anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 5, were investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and (1)H- and (13)C- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results of ESI-MS analysis showed that phthalic acid, a Product 2 (molecular weight 472.5), and a Product 3 (molecular weight 301.5), were produced. Product 2 and Product 3 were generated by usual peroxidase reaction, whereas phthalic acid was generated by hydrolase- or oxygenase-catalyzed reaction. One potential associated product, o-aminobenzene sulfonic acid, was found to be converted to 2,2'-disulfonyl azobenzene by ESI-MS and NMR analyses. From these results, we propose, for the first time, the degradation pathway of an anthraquinone dye by the enzyme DyP. PMID:19009358

Sugano, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuko; Tsuchiya, Katsunori; Aoki, Hirokazu; Hirai, Mitsuyo; Shoda, Makoto

2009-06-01

312

Lipid rafts participate in aberrant degradative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta peptide in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Amyloid-beta peptide is the main component of amyloid plaques, which are found in Alzheimer's disease. The generation and deposition of amyloid-beta is one of the crucial factors for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Lipid rafts are glycolipid-rich liquid domains of the plasma membrane, where certain types of protein tend to aggregate and intercalate. Lipid rafts are involved in the generation of amyloid-beta oligomers and the formation of amyloid-beta peptides. In this paper, we review the mechanism by which lipid rafts disturb the aberrant degradative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta, which plays an important role in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, we describe this mechanism from the view of the Two-system Theory of fasciology and thus, suggest that lipid rafts may be a new target of Alzheimer's disease treatment.

Zhou, Xin; Yang, Chun; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Peng; Yang, Huiying; Dai, Jingxing; Qu, Rongmei; Yuan, Lin

2014-01-01

313

Phenol\\/cresol degradation by the thermophilic Bacillus thermoglucosidasius A7: cloning and sequence analysis of five genes involved in the pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thermoglucosidasius A7 degraded phenol at 65°C via the meta cleavage pathway. Five enzymes used in the metabolism of phenol were cloned from B. thermoglucosidasius A7 into pUC18. Nine open reading frames were present on the 8.1kb insert, six of which could be assigned a function in phenol degradation using database homologies and enzyme activities. The phenol hydroxylase is a

Fiona M Duffner; Ulrike Kirchner; Michael P Bauer; Rudolf Müller

2000-01-01

314

Immature and mature species of the human Prostacyclin Receptor are ubiquitinated and targeted to the 26S proteasomal or lysosomal degradation pathways, respectively  

PubMed Central

Background The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) undergoes agonist-induced phosphorylation, desensitisation and internalisation and may be recycled to the plasma membrane or targeted for degradation by, as yet, unknown mechanism(s). Results Herein it was sought to investigate the turnover of the hIP under basal conditions and in response to cicaprost stimulation. It was established that the hIP is subject to low-level basal degradation but, following agonist stimulation, degradation is substantially enhanced. Inhibition of the lysosomal pathway prevented basal and agonist-induced degradation of the mature species of the hIP (46-66 kDa). Conversely, inhibition of the proteasomal pathway had no effect on levels of the mature hIP but led to time-dependent accumulation of four newly synthesised immature species (38-44 kDa). It was established that both the mature and immature species of the hIP may be polyubiquitinated and this modification may be required for lysosomal sorting of the mature, internalised receptors and for degradation of the immature receptors by the 26S proteasomes through the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) process, respectively. Moreover, these data substantially advance knowledge of the factors regulating processing and maturation of the hIP, a complex receptor subject to multiple post-translational modifications including N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, isoprenylation, palmitoylation, in addition to polyubiquitination, as determined herein. Conclusion These findings indicate that the hIP is post-translationally modified by ubiquitination, which targets the immature species to the 26S proteasomal degradation pathway and the mature species to the lysosomal degradation pathway. PMID:19781057

Donnellan, Peter D; Kinsella, B Therese

2009-01-01

315

Towards a Biocatalyst for (S)Styrene Oxide Production: Characterization of the Styrene Degradation Pathway of Pseudomonas sp. Strain VLB120  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to design a biocatalyst for the production of optically pure styrene oxide, an important building block in organic synthesis, the metabolic pathway and molecular biology of styrene degradation in Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120 was investigated. A 5.7-kb XhoI fragment, which contained on the same strand of DNA six genes involved in styrene degradation, was isolated from a gene

SVEN PANKE; BERNARD WITHOLT; ANDREAS SCHMID; MARCEL G. WUBBOLTS

1998-01-01

316

The unique degradation pathway of the PTS2 receptor, Pex7, is dependent on the PTS receptor/coreceptor, Pex5 and Pex20.  

PubMed

Peroxisomal matrix protein import uses two peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs). Most matrix proteins use the PTS1 pathway and its cargo receptor, Pex5. The PTS2 pathway is dependent on another receptor, Pex7, and its coreceptor, Pex20. We found that during the matrix protein import cycle, the stability and dynamics of Pex7 differ from those of Pex5 and Pex20. In Pichia pastoris, unlike Pex5 and Pex20, Pex7 is constitutively degraded in wild-type cells but is stabilized in pex mutants affecting matrix protein import. Degradation of Pex7 is more prevalent in cells grown in methanol, in which the PTS2 pathway is nonessential, in comparison with oleate, suggesting regulation of Pex7 turnover. Pex7 must shuttle into and out of peroxisomes before it is polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. The shuttling of Pex7, and consequently its degradation, is dependent on the receptor recycling pathways of Pex5 and Pex20 and relies on an interaction between Pex7 and Pex20. We also found that blocking the export of Pex20 from peroxisomes inhibits PTS1-mediated import, suggesting sharing of limited components in the export of PTS receptors/coreceptors. The shuttling and stability of Pex7 are divergent from those of Pex5 and Pex20, exemplifying a novel interdependence of the PTS1 and PTS2 pathways. PMID:25009284

Hagstrom, Danielle; Ma, Changle; Guha-Polley, Soumi; Subramani, Suresh

2014-09-01

317

Molecular and biochemical characterization of the 5-nitroanthranilic acid degradation pathway in Bradyrhizobium sp. strain JS329.  

PubMed

Biodegradation pathways of synthetic nitroaromatic compounds and anilines are well documented, but little is known about those of nitroanilines. We previously reported that the initial step in 5-nitroanthranilic acid (5NAA) degradation by Bradyrhizobium sp. strain JS329 is a hydrolytic deamination to form 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5NSA), followed by ring fission catalyzed by 5NSA dioxygenase. The mechanism of release of the nitro group was unknown. In this study, we subcloned, sequenced, and expressed the genes encoding 5NAA deaminase (5NAA aminohydrolase, NaaA), 5NSA dioxygenase (NaaB) and lactonase (NaaC), the key genes responsible for 5NAA degradation. Sequence analysis and enzyme characterization revealed that NaaA is a hydrolytic metalloenzyme with a narrow substrate range. The nitro group is spontaneously eliminated as nitrite concomitant with the formation of a lactone from the ring fission product of 5NSA dioxygenation. The elimination of the nitro group during lactone formation is a previously unreported mechanism for denitration of nitro aliphatic compounds. PMID:21498645

Qu, Yi; Spain, Jim C

2011-06-01

318

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the 5-Nitroanthranilic Acid Degradation Pathway in Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain JS329 ? †  

PubMed Central

Biodegradation pathways of synthetic nitroaromatic compounds and anilines are well documented, but little is known about those of nitroanilines. We previously reported that the initial step in 5-nitroanthranilic acid (5NAA) degradation by Bradyrhizobium sp. strain JS329 is a hydrolytic deamination to form 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5NSA), followed by ring fission catalyzed by 5NSA dioxygenase. The mechanism of release of the nitro group was unknown. In this study, we subcloned, sequenced, and expressed the genes encoding 5NAA deaminase (5NAA aminohydrolase, NaaA), 5NSA dioxygenase (NaaB) and lactonase (NaaC), the key genes responsible for 5NAA degradation. Sequence analysis and enzyme characterization revealed that NaaA is a hydrolytic metalloenzyme with a narrow substrate range. The nitro group is spontaneously eliminated as nitrite concomitant with the formation of a lactone from the ring fission product of 5NSA dioxygenation. The elimination of the nitro group during lactone formation is a previously unreported mechanism for denitration of nitro aliphatic compounds. PMID:21498645

Qu, Yi; Spain, Jim C.

2011-01-01

319

Sulfoacetate Is Degraded via a Novel Pathway Involving Sulfoacetyl-CoA and Sulfoacetaldehyde in Cupriavidus necator H16  

PubMed Central

Bacterial degradation of sulfoacetate, a widespread natural product, proceeds via sulfoacetaldehyde and requires a considerable initial energy input. Whereas the fate of sulfoacetaldehyde in Cupriavidus necator (Ralstonia eutropha) H16 is known, the pathway from sulfoacetate to sulfoacetaldehyde is not. The genome sequence of the organism enabled us to hypothesize that the inducible pathway, which initiates sau (sulfoacetate utilization), involved a four-gene cluster (sauRSTU; H16_A2746 to H16_A2749). The sauR gene, divergently orientated to the other three genes, probably encodes the transcriptional regulator of the presumed sauSTU operon, which is subject to inducible transcription. SauU was tentatively identified as a transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, and SauT was deduced to be a sulfoacetate-CoA ligase. SauT was a labile protein, but it could be separated and shown to generate AMP and an unknown, labile CoA-derivative from sulfoacetate, CoA, and ATP. This unknown compound, analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS, had a relative molecular mass of 889.7, which identified it as protonated sulfoacetyl-CoA (calculated 889.6). SauS was deduced to be sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating). The enzyme was purified 175-fold to homogeneity and characterized. Peptide mass fingerprinting confirmed the sauS locus (H16_A2747). SauS converted sulfoacetyl-CoA and NADPH to sulfoacetaldehyde, CoA, and NADP+, thus confirming the hypothesis. PMID:20693281

Weinitschke, Sonja; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Kusian, Bernhard; Bowien, Botho; Smits, Theo H. M.; Cook, Alasdair M.

2010-01-01

320

Magnetite particles triggering a faster and more robust syntrophic pathway of methanogenic propionate degradation.  

PubMed

Interspecies electron transfer mechanisms between Bacteria and Archaea play a pivotal role during methanogenic degradation of organic matter in natural and engineered anaerobic ecosystems. Growing evidence suggests that in syntrophic communities electron transfer does not rely exclusively on the exchange of diffusible molecules and energy carriers such as hydrogen or formate, rather microorganisms have the capability to exchange metabolic electrons in a more direct manner. Here, we show that supplementation of micrometer-size magnetite (Fe3O4) particles to a methanogenic sludge enhanced (up to 33%) the methane production rate from propionate, a key intermediate in the anaerobic digestion of organic matter and a model substrate to study energy-limited syntrophic communities. The stimulatory effect most probably resulted from the establishment of a direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), based on magnetite particles serving as electron conduits between propionate-oxidizing acetogens and carbon dioxide-reducing methanogens. Theoretical calculations revealed that DIET allows electrons to be transferred among syntrophic partners at rates which are substantially higher than those attainable via interspecies H2 transfer. Besides the remarkable potential for improving anaerobic digestion, which is a proven biological strategy for renewable energy production, the herein described conduction-based DIET could also have a role in natural methane emissions from magnetite-rich soils and sediments. PMID:24901501

Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Rossetti, Simona; Fazi, Stefano; Paiano, Paola; Majone, Mauro; Aulenta, Federico

2014-07-01

321

Finely tuned regulation of the aromatic amine degradation pathway in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

FeaR is an AraC family regulator that activates transcription of the tynA and feaB genes in Escherichia coli. TynA is a periplasmic topaquinone- and copper-containing amine oxidase, and FeaB is a cytosolic NAD-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase. Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine are oxidized by TynA to the corresponding aldehydes, releasing one equivalent of H2O2 and NH3. The aldehydes can be oxidized to carboxylic acids by FeaB, and (in the case of phenylacetate) can be further degraded to enter central metabolism. Thus, phenylethylamine can be used as a carbon and nitrogen source, while tyramine and dopamine can be used only as sources of nitrogen. Using genetic, biochemical and computational approaches, we show that the FeaR binding site is a TGNCA-N8-AAA motif that occurs in 2 copies in the tynA and feaB promoters. We show that the coactivator for FeaR is the product rather than the substrate of the TynA reaction. The feaR gene is upregulated by carbon or nitrogen limitation, which we propose reflects regulation of feaR by the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and the nitrogen assimilation control protein (NAC), respectively. In carbon-limited cells grown in the presence of a TynA substrate, tynA and feaB are induced, whereas in nitrogen-limited cells, only the tynA promoter is induced. We propose that tynA and feaB expression is finely tuned to provide the FeaB activity that is required for carbon source utilization and the TynA activity required for nitrogen and carbon source utilization. PMID:24013633

Zeng, Ji; Spiro, Stephen

2013-11-01

322

Transfer of the Cholera Toxin A1 Polypeptide from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Cytosol Is a Rapid Process Facilitated by the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active pool of internalized cholera toxin (CT) moves from the endosomes to the Golgi apparatus en route to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The catalytic CTA1 polypeptide is then translocated from the ER to the cytosol, possibly through the action of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Translocation was previously measured indirectly through the downstream effects of CT action. We have

Ken Teter; Rebecca L. Allyn; Michael G. Jobling; Randall K. Holmes

2002-01-01

323

Proteogenomic elucidation of the initial steps in the benzene degradation pathway of a novel halophile, Arhodomonas sp. strain Rozel, isolated from a hypersaline environment.  

PubMed

Lately, there has been a special interest in understanding the role of halophilic and halotolerant organisms for their ability to degrade hydrocarbons. The focus of this study was to investigate the genes and enzymes involved in the initial steps of the benzene degradation pathway in halophiles. The extremely halophilic bacteria Arhodomonas sp. strain Seminole and Arhodomonas sp. strain Rozel, which degrade benzene and toluene as the sole carbon source at high salinity (0.5 to 4 M NaCl), were isolated from enrichments developed from contaminated hypersaline environments. To obtain insights into the physiology of this novel group of organisms, a draft genome sequence of the Seminole strain was obtained. A cluster of 13 genes predicted to be functional in the hydrocarbon degradation pathway was identified from the sequence. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to corroborate the role of the predicted open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs 1080 and 1082 were identified as components of a multicomponent phenol hydroxylase complex, and ORF 1086 was identified as catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3-CAT). Based on this analysis, it was hypothesized that benzene is converted to phenol and then to catechol by phenol hydroxylase components. The resulting catechol undergoes ring cleavage via the meta pathway by 2,3-CAT to form 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To substantiate these findings, the Rozel strain was grown on deuterated benzene, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected deuterated phenol as the initial intermediate of benzene degradation. These studies establish the initial steps of the benzene degradation pathway in halophiles. PMID:22885747

Dalvi, Sonal; Azetsu, Sei; Patrauchan, Marianna A; Aktas, Deniz F; Fathepure, Babu Z

2012-10-01

324

Substrate-Dependent Regulation of Anaerobic Degradation Pathways for Toluene and Ethylbenzene in a Denitrifying Bacterium, Strain EbN1  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic biodegradation of toluene and ethylbenzene is of environmental concern and biochemical interest due to toxicity and novel reactions, respectively. The denitrifying strain EbN1 is unique in anaerobically degrading both alkylbenzenes via different pathways which converge at benzoyl coenzyme A. The organization of genes involved in both pathways was only recently determined for strain EbN1. In the present study, global expression analysis (DNA microarray and proteomics) indicated involvement of several thus-far-unknown proteins in the degradation of both alkylbenzenes. For example, orf68 and orf57, framing the ebd operon, are implicated in ethylbenzene degradation, and the ebA1932 and ebA1936 genes, located 7.2 kb upstream of the bbs operon, are implicated in toluene degradation. In addition, expression studies were now possible on the level of the complete pathways. Growth experiments demonstrated that degradative capacities for toluene and ethylbenzene could be simultaneously induced, regardless of the substrate used for adaptation. Regulation was studied at the RNA (real-time reverse transcription-PCR and DNA microarray) and protein (two-dimensional-difference gel electrophoresis) level by using cells adapted to anaerobic growth with benzoate, toluene, ethylbenzene, or a mixture of toluene and ethylbenzene. Expression of the two toluene-related operons (bss and bbs) was specifically induced in toluene-adapted cells. In contrast, genes involved in anaerobic ethylbenzene degradation were induced in ethylbenzene- and toluene-adapted cells, suggesting that toluene may act as a gratuitous inducer. In agreement with the predicted sequential regulation of the ethylbenzene pathway, Ebd proteins (encoding subunits of ethylbenzene dehydrogenase) were formed in ethylbenzene- but not in acetophenone-adapted cells, while Apc proteins (subunits of predicted acetophenone carboxylase) were formed under both conditions. PMID:15687214

Kuhner, Simon; Wohlbrand, Lars; Fritz, Ingo; Wruck, Wasco; Hultschig, Claus; Hufnagel, Peter; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Rabus, Ralf

2005-01-01

325

Targeting of the ?6 gene to suppress degradation of ECM via inactivation of the MAPK pathway in breast adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Integrin ???6 has emerged as a potential novel target for anticancer and plays a major role in promoting malignant tumor progression. Recent studies indicate that integrin ???6 occurs in many cancers. However, whether and how ???6 is regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in breast cancer remain unknown. In the present study, two different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the ?6 gene were designed and constructed into pSUPER, respectively, which were transfected into the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. The ?6-shRNA stably transfected cells were successfully established, and significant lower levels of ???6 mRNA and protein expression were confirmed. Furthermore, inhibition of integrin ???6 markedly downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in tumor conditioned medium. Furthermore, ?6-shRNA-mediated silencing of the ???6 gene obviously decreased the expression of ERK1/2. In particular, supression of integrin ???6 caused significant downregulation of the degradation of basement membrane type IV collagen secretion via modulation of the plasminogen activation cascade. Our results thus indicate that ???6 plays a fundamental role in promoting invasion and growth of breast adenocarcinoma cells. Taken together, this study revealed that targeting of the ?6 gene by RNA interference (RNAi) could efficiently downregulate ???6 expression and suppress the ERK1/2-dependent extracellular matrix degradation in vitro, which is dependent upon inactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. These findings may offer a useful therapeutic approach to block invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. PMID:25176506

Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Lijing; Yu, Jin; Li, Guang; Zhang, Xiuru; Wang, Anliu; He, Yanjiao; Li, Hongli; Yin, Deling

2014-11-01

326

Targeting of the ?6 gene to suppress degradation of ECM via inactivation of the MAPK pathway in breast adenocarcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Integrin ???6 has emerged as a potential novel target for anticancer and plays a major role in promoting malignant tumor progression. Recent studies indicate that integrin ???6 occurs in many cancers. However, whether and how ???6 is regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in breast cancer remain unknown. In the present study, two different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the ?6 gene were designed and constructed into pSUPER, respectively, which were transfected into the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. The ?6-shRNA stably transfected cells were successfully established, and significant lower levels of ???6 mRNA and protein expression were confirmed. Furthermore, inhibition of integrin ???6 markedly downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in tumor conditioned medium. Furthermore, ?6-shRNA-mediated silencing of the ???6 gene obviously decreased the expression of ERK1/2. In particular, supression of integrin ???6 caused significant downregulation of the degradation of basement membrane type IV collagen secretion via modulation of the plasminogen activation cascade. Our results thus indicate that ???6 plays a fundamental role in promoting invasion and growth of breast adenocarcinoma cells. Taken together, this study revealed that targeting of the ?6 gene by RNA interference (RNAi) could efficiently downregulate ???6 expression and suppress the ERK1/2-dependent extracellular matrix degradation in vitro, which is dependent upon inactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. These findings may offer a useful therapeutic approach to block invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. PMID:25176506

ZHANG, YUHUA; WEI, LIJING; YU, JIN; LI, GUANG; ZHANG, XIURU; WANG, ANLIU; HE, YANJIAO; LI, HONGLI; YIN, DELING

2014-01-01

327

Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug.  

PubMed

A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. PMID:24967691

Mosedale, Merrie; Wu, Hong; Kurtz, C Lisa; Schmidt, Stephen P; Adkins, Karissa; Harrill, Alison H

2014-10-01

328

Exploring the topology of the Gid complex, the E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in catabolite-induced degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes.  

PubMed

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, key regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase are degraded via the ubiquitin proteasome system when cells are replenished with glucose. Polyubiquitination is carried out by the Gid complex, a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that consists of seven different Gid (glucose-induced degradation-deficient) proteins. Under gluconeogenic conditions the E3 ligase is composed of six subunits (Gid1/Vid30, Gid2/Rmd5, Gid5/Vid28, Gid7, Gid8, and Gid9/Fyv10). Upon the addition of glucose the regulatory subunit Gid4/Vid24 appears, binds to the Gid complex, and triggers ubiquitination of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. All seven proteins are essential for this process; however, nothing is known about the arrangement of the subunits in the complex. Interestingly, each Gid protein possesses several remarkable motifs (e.g. SPRY, LisH, CTLH domains) that may play a role in protein-protein interaction. We, therefore, generated altered versions of individual Gid proteins by deleting or mutating these domains and performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments to analyze the interaction between distinct subunits. Thus, we were able to create an initial model of the topology of this unusual E3 ubiquitin ligase. PMID:22645139

Menssen, Ruth; Schweiggert, Jörg; Schreiner, Jens; Kusevic, Denis; Reuther, Julia; Braun, Bernhard; Wolf, Dieter H

2012-07-20

329

Exploring the Topology of the Gid Complex, the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Involved in Catabolite-induced Degradation of Gluconeogenic Enzymes*  

PubMed Central

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, key regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase are degraded via the ubiquitin proteasome system when cells are replenished with glucose. Polyubiquitination is carried out by the Gid complex, a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that consists of seven different Gid (glucose-induced degradation-deficient) proteins. Under gluconeogenic conditions the E3 ligase is composed of six subunits (Gid1/Vid30, Gid2/Rmd5, Gid5/Vid28, Gid7, Gid8, and Gid9/Fyv10). Upon the addition of glucose the regulatory subunit Gid4/Vid24 appears, binds to the Gid complex, and triggers ubiquitination of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. All seven proteins are essential for this process; however, nothing is known about the arrangement of the subunits in the complex. Interestingly, each Gid protein possesses several remarkable motifs (e.g. SPRY, LisH, CTLH domains) that may play a role in protein-protein interaction. We, therefore, generated altered versions of individual Gid proteins by deleting or mutating these domains and performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments to analyze the interaction between distinct subunits. Thus, we were able to create an initial model of the topology of this unusual E3 ubiquitin ligase. PMID:22645139

Menssen, Ruth; Schweiggert, Jorg; Schreiner, Jens; Kusevic, Denis; Reuther, Julia; Braun, Bernhard; Wolf, Dieter H.

2012-01-01

330

A JNK-mediated autophagy pathway that triggers c-IAP degradation and necroptosis for anticancer chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Killing cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis is one of the main mechanisms of chemotherapy. However, numerous cancer cells have primary or acquired apoptosis resistance, resulting in chemoresistance. In this study, using a novel chalcone derivative chalcone-24 (Chal-24), we identified a novel anticancer mechanism through autophagy-mediated necroptosis (RIP1- and RIP3-dependent necrosis). Chal-24 potently killed different cancer cells with induction of necrotic cellular morphology while causing no detectable caspase activation. Blocking the necroptosis pathway with either necrostatin-1 or by knockdown of RIP1 and RIP3 effectively blocked the cytotoxicity of Chal-24, suggesting that Chal-24-induced cell death is associated with necroptosis. Chal-24 robustly activated JNK and ERK and blockage of which effectively suppressed Chal-24-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, Chal-24 strongly induced autophagy that is dependent on JNK-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and dissociation of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL from Beclin-1. Importantly, suppression of autophagy, with either pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNAs targeting the essential autophagy components ATG7 and Beclin-1, effectively attenuated Chal-24-induced cell death. Furthermore, we found that autophagy activation resulted in c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 degradation and formation of the Ripoptosome that contributes to necroptosis. These results thus establish a novel mechanism for killing cancer cells that involves autophagy-mediated necroptosis, which may be employed for overcoming chemoresistance. PMID:23831571

He, W; Wang, Q; Srinivasan, B; Xu, J; Padilla, M T; Li, Z; Wang, X; Liu, Y; Gou, X; Shen, H-M; Xing, C; Lin, Y

2014-06-01

331

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning. Methods/Results In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22432004

Smith, Steven B.; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin; Brown, James R.; Magid-Slav, Michal

2012-01-01

332

Tumor proteomics by multivariate analysis on individual pathway data for characterization of vulvar cancer phenotypes.  

PubMed

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is the fourth most common gynecological cancer. Based on etiology VSCC is divided into two subtypes; one related to high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and one HPV negative. The two subtypes are proposed to develop via separate intracellular signaling pathways. We investigated a suggested link between HPV infection and relapse risk in VSCC through in-depth protein profiling of 14 VSCC tumor specimens. The tumor proteomes were analyzed by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Relative protein quantification was performed by 8-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification. Labeled peptides were fractionated by high-resolution isoelectric focusing prior to liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to reduce sample complexity. In total, 1579 proteins were regarded as accurately quantified and analyzed further. For classification of clinical groups, data analysis was performed by comparing protein level differences between tumors defined by HPV and/or relapse status. Further, we performed a biological analysis on individual tumor proteomes by matching data to known biological pathways. We here present a novel analysis approach that combines pathway alteration data on individual tumor level with multivariate statistics for HPV and relapse status comparisons. Four proteins (signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, myxovirus resistance protein 1, proteasome subunit alpha type-5 and legumain) identified as main classifiers of relapse status were validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Two of the proteins are interferon-regulated and on mRNA level known to be repressed by HPV. By both liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry data we could single out a subgroup of HPV negative/relapse-associated tumors. The pathway level data analysis confirmed three of the proteins, and further identified the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as altered in the high risk subgroup. We show that pathway fingerprinting with resolution on individual tumor level adds biological information that strengthens a generalized protein analysis. PMID:22499770

Sandberg, Annsofi; Lindell, Gunnel; Källström, Brita Nordström; Branca, Rui Mamede; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell; Dahlberg, Mats; Larson, Barbro; Forshed, Jenny; Lehtiö, Janne

2012-07-01

333

An endogenous calcium-dependent, caspase-independent intranuclear degradation pathway in thymocyte nuclei: Antagonism by physiological concentrations of K{sup +} ions  

SciTech Connect

Calcium ions have been implicated in apoptosis for many years, however the precise role of this ion in the cell death process remains incomplete. We have extensively examined the role of Ca{sup 2+} on nuclear degradation in vitro using highly purified nuclei isolated from non-apoptotic rat thymocytes. We show that these nuclei are devoid of CAD (caspase-activated DNase), and DNA degradation occurs independent of caspase activity. Serine proteases rather than caspase-3 appear necessary for this Ca{sup 2+}-dependent DNA degradation in nuclei. We analyzed nuclei treated with various concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} in the presence of both a physiological (140 mM) and apoptotic (40 mM) concentration of KCl. Our results show that a 5-fold increase in Ca{sup 2+} is required to induce DNA degradation at the physiological KCl concentration compared to the lower, apoptotic concentration of the cation. Ca{sup 2+}-induced internucleosomal DNA degradation was also accompanied by the release of histones, however the apoptotic-specific phosphorylation of histone H2B does not occur in these isolated nuclei. Interestingly, physiological concentrations of K{sup +} inhibit both Ca{sup 2+}-dependent DNA degradation and histone release suggesting that a reduction of intracellular K{sup +} is necessary for this apoptosis-associated nuclear degradation in cells. Together, these data define an inherent caspase-independent catabolic pathway in thymocyte nuclei that is sensitive to physiological concentrations of intracellular cations.

Ajiro, Kozo; Bortner, Carl D.; Westmoreland, Jim [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Cidlowski, John A. [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: cidlows1@niehs.nih.gov

2008-04-01

334

Factors Affecting Biodefluorination of Fluorotelomer Alcohols (FTOHs): Degradative Microorganisms, Transformation Metabolites and Pathways, and Effects of Co-substrates  

E-print Network

responsible for biotransformation of FTOHs. This study deciphered factors affecting biodefluorination of FTOHs and their metabolites, and developed three effective FTOH-degrading consortia. Two alkane-degrading Pseudomonas strains (P. oleovorans and P...

Kim, Myung Hee 1982-

2012-12-11

335

A Proteasome For All Occasions  

PubMed Central

In the ubiquitin-proteasome system, substrates fated for destruction first acquire covalent modification by ubiquitin, and are subsequently destroyed by the proteasome. Traditionally, 26S proteasomes have been seen as largely uniform in their composition and functional capacity. Accordingly, cells can control proteasome abundance via transcriptional pathways that mediate concerted regulation of all known proteasome genes. However, recent evidence suggests that the proteasome is also subject to subunit-specific modes of regulation, which serve to alter proteasome function and may generate ensembles of compositionally distinct proteasomes. These modes of proteasome regulation provide varied means to adapt protein degradation pathways to changing conditions in the cell. PMID:17418826

Hanna, John; Finley, Daniel

2007-01-01

336

Hepatitis B Virus Large and Middle Glycoproteins Are Degraded by a Proteasome Pathway in Glucosidase-Inhibited Cells but Not in Cells with Functional Glucosidase Enzyme  

PubMed Central

The secretion of hepatitis B virus (HBV) large (LHBs) and middle (MHBs) envelope polypeptides from tissue cultures requires proper protein folding and is prevented by inhibitors of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glucosidase. Using competitive inhibitors of the ER glucosidase, here it is shown that the amounts of glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of LHBs and MHBs proteins are all greatly reduced in tissue cultures producing HBV envelope glycoproteins. In contrast, the HBV small (SHBs) protein was not affected. The reduction in secretion of LHBs and MHBs proteins appears to be mediated by proteasomal degradation pathways, since it is prevented by either lactacystin or epoxomicin, two inhibitors of proteasomal degradation. Although there is no detectable proteasomal degradation of LHBs and MHBs in cells with functional glucosidase, the implications of the nearly quantitative sensitivity of glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of LHBs and MHBs proteins, with selective sparing of SHBs protein, in cells in which glucosidase is inhibited is surprising, and its implications are discussed. PMID:16188993

Simsek, Ender; Mehta, Anand; Zhou, Tianlun; Dwek, Raymond A.; Block, Timothy

2005-01-01

337

Study of biochemical pathway and enzyme involved in metsulfuron-methyl degradation by Ancylobacter sp. XJ-412-1 isolated from soil.  

PubMed

Ancylobacter sp. XJ-412-1, capable of degrading metsulfuron-methyl, was isolated from sulfonylurea-contaminated soil. When metsulfuron-methyl was provided as the sole carbon source, more than 90.5% of metsulfuron-methyl at concentration of 50 mg l(-1) was degraded by strain XJ-412-1 after incubation at 30°C for 7 days. The initial degradation products of metsulfuron-methyl (MSM), thifensulfuron-methyl (TSM), and bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) by XJ-412-1 were identified as corresponding deesterified derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which indicated a primary pathway of the deesterification of these three sulfonylurea herbicides. The carboxyesterase activity of the cell-free extracts was assayed and strongly inhibited by 4-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and malathion. PMID:21431836

Lu, Peng; Jin, Lei; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shunpeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Huang, Xing

2011-06-01

338

PP2A inhibitors suppress migration and growth of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition on the Wnt/?-catenin pathway by phosphorylation and degradation of ?-catenin  

PubMed Central

Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine, and presents strong anticancer activity in various cell lines. Cantharidin is a potent and selective inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Our previous studies revealed the prospect of application of cantharidin, as well as other PP2A inhibitors, in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms involved in the anticancer effect of PP2A inhibitors have not been fully explored. The Wnt/?-catenin pathway is involved in cell migration and proliferation and participates in the progression of pancreatic cancer. If ?-catenin is phosphorylated and degraded, the Wnt/?-catenin pathway is blocked. PP2A dephosphorylates ?-catenin and keeps the Wnt/?-catenin pathway active. In the present study, we found that PP2A inhibitor treatment induced phosphorylation and degradation of ?-catenin. The suppression on the migration and growth of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells could be attenuated by pretreatment with FH535, a ?-catenin pathway inhibitor. Microarray showed that PP2A inhibitor treatment induced expression changes in 13 of 138 genes downstream of the ?-catenin pathway. Real-time PCR further confirmed that FH535 attenuated the expression changes induced by PP2A inhibitors in 6 of these 13 candidate genes. These 6 genes, VEGFB, Dkk3, KRT8, NRP1, Cacnalg and WISP2, have been confirmed to participate in the migration and/or growth regulation in previous studies. Thus, the phosphorylation- and degradation-mediated suppression on ?-catenin participates in the cytotoxicity of PP2A inhibitors. Our findings may provide insight into the treatment of pancreatic cancer using a targeting PP2A strategy. PMID:24926961

WU, MENG-YAO; XIE, XIN; XU, ZE-KUAN; XIE, LI; CHEN, ZHENG; SHOU, LIU-MEI; GONG, FEI-RAN; XIE, YU-FENG; LI, WEI; TAO, MIN

2014-01-01

339

Genome-wide Map of Nuclear Protein Degradation Shows NCoR1 Turnover as a Key to Mitochondrial Gene Regulation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Transcription factor activity and turnover are functionally linked, but the global patterns by which DNA-bound regulators are eliminated remain poorly understood. We established an assay to define the chromosomal location of DNA-associated proteins that are slated for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The genome-wide map described here ties proteolysis in mammalian cells to active enhancers and to promoters of specific gene families. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes in particular correlate with protein elimination, which positively affects their transcription. We show that the nuclear receptor corepressor NCoR1 is a key target of proteolysis and physically interacts with the transcription factor CREB. Proteasome inhibition stabilizes NCoR1 in a site-specific manner and restrains mitochondrial activity by repressing CREB-sensitive genes. In conclusion, this functional map of nuclear proteolysis links chromatin architecture with local protein stability and identifies proteolytic derepression as highly dynamic in regulating the transcription of genes involved in energy metabolism. PMID:24315104

Catic, Andre; Suh, Carol Y.; Hill, Cedric T.; Daheron, Laurence; Henkel, Theresa; Orford, Keith W.; Dombkowski, David M.; Liu, Tao; Liu, X. Shirley; Scadden, David T.

2014-01-01

340

The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF34 Protein Binds to HIF-1? and Causes Its Degradation via the Proteasome Pathway  

PubMed Central

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two other lymphoproliferative disorders, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Kaposi's sarcoma is a highly vascular tumor, and recently both hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and HIF-2? were detected in KS samples, indicating a role of HIFs in the KSHV life cycle. Previously, we showed that ORF34, a lytic gene of unassigned function, was activated by hypoxia and that ORF34 transcription was upregulated by both HIFs (M. Haque, D. A. Davis, V. Wang, I. Widmer, and R. Yarchoan, J Virol. 77:6761–6768, 2003). In the present study, we show that coexpression of ORF34 with HIF-1?m (degradation-resistant HIF-1?) caused substantial reduction in HIF-1?-dependent transcription, as evidenced by reporter assays. Two-way immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that ORF34 physically interacted with HIF-1?m in transient expression experiments. Deletion analysis revealed that three different ORF34 domains interacted with the amino-terminal domain of HIF-1?. Also, purified HIF-1? and ORF34 proteins interacted with each other. The observed transcriptional inhibition of HIF-1?-dependent promoters was attributed to degradation of HIF-1? after binding with ORF34, since the overall amount of wild-type HIF-1? but not the degradation-resistant one (HIF-1?m) was reduced in the presence of ORF34. Moreover, ORF34 caused degradation of HIF-1? in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-dependent pathway by the chemical proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented HIF-1? degradation in the presence of ORF34. These results show that ORF34 binds to HIF-1?, leading to its degradation via the proteasome-dependent pathway. PMID:23221556

Kousoulas, Konstantin G.

2013-01-01

341

P42 Ebp1 regulates the proteasomal degradation of the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K by recruiting a chaperone-E3 ligase complex HSP70/CHIP  

PubMed Central

The short isoform of ErbB3-binding protein 1 (Ebp1), p42, is considered to be a potent tumor suppressor in a number of human cancers, although the mechanism by which it exerts this tumor-suppressive activity is unclear. Here, we report that p42 interacts with the cSH2 domain of the p85 subunit of phosphathidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to inhibition of its lipid kinase activity. Importantly, we found that p42 induces protein degradation of the p85 subunit and further identified HSP70/CHIP complex as a novel E3 ligase for p85 that is responsible for p85 ubiquitination and degradation. In this process, p42 couples p85 to the HSP70/CHIP-mediated ubiquitin–proteasomal system (UPS), thereby promoting a reduction of p85 levels both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the tumor-suppressing effects of p42 in cancer cells are driven by negative regulation of the p85 subunit of PI3K. PMID:24651434

Ko, H R; Kim, C K; Lee, S B; Song, J; Lee, K-H; Kim, K K; Park, K W; Cho, S-W; Ahn, J-Y

2014-01-01

342

Homoacetogenesis as the alternative pathway for H 2 sink during thermophilic anaerobic degradation of butyrate under suppressed methanogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrate degradation for hydrogen production under conditions suppressing methanogenesis was evaluated in continuously fed-tank reactors operated at 55°C and started up with digested manure as inoculum. This study shows that the reaction of butyrate degradation to acetate and hydrogen could happen when gas sparging was applied. Gas sparging was very important for reducing hydrogen partial pressure and made the reaction

Vilailuck Siriwongrungson; Raymond J. Zeng; Irini Angelidaki

2007-01-01

343

Removal of Acid Orange 7 in simulated wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor: removal mechanisms and dye degradation pathway.  

PubMed

The removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in simulated wastewater was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor with granular activated carbon as the particle electrode, ACF (activated carbon fiber)/Fe as the anode, and ACF/Ti as the cathode. Particular attention was paid to the reaction mechanisms and the dye degradation pathway in the system. The removal of AO7 in the system was mainly dependent on the oxidation by the produced active substances (()OH, etc.) and the coagulation by Fe(II) or Fe(III) dissolved from the anode. The former mechanism was predominant. A possible pathway for AO7 degradation was proposed by monitoring the temporal evolution of intermediates in the solution, with the use of some techniques including GC/MS, FTIR and HPLC. The AO7 molecule was observed to be firstly decomposed to aromatic intermediates, further degraded to ring opening products and finally mineralized to CO(2), H(2)O and inorganic salts. The intermediates increased the biodegradability of the wastewater, which was proved by the increase of the BOD/COD value after electrolysis treatment. The three-dimensional electrode method can be considered an effective alternative to dye wastewater pretreatment prior to the biological process. PMID:19897229

Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Sun, Yan; Xu, Li-Na; Ni, Jin-Ren

2010-01-01

344

The E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6 degrades squalene monooxygenase and affects 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and the cholesterol synthesis pathway.  

PubMed

The mevalonate pathway is used by cells to produce sterol and nonsterol metabolites and is subject to tight metabolic regulation. We recently reported that squalene monooxygenase (SM), an enzyme controlling a rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, is subject to cholesterol-dependent proteasomal degradation. However, the E3-ubiquitin (E3) ligase mediating this effect was not established. Using a candidate approach, we identify the E3 ligase membrane-associated RING finger 6 (MARCH6, also known as TEB4) as the ligase controlling degradation of SM. We find that MARCH6 and SM physically interact, and consistent with MARCH6 acting as an E3 ligase, its overexpression reduces SM abundance in a RING-dependent manner. Reciprocally, knockdown of MARCH6 increases the level of SM protein and prevents its cholesterol-regulated degradation. Additionally, this increases cell-associated SM activity but is unexpectedly accompanied by increased flux upstream of SM. Prompted by this observation, we found that knockdown of MARCH6 also controls the level of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in hepatocytes and model cell lines. In conclusion, MARCH6 controls abundance of both SM and HMGCR, establishing it as a major regulator of flux through the cholesterol synthesis pathway. PMID:24449766

Zelcer, Noam; Sharpe, Laura J; Loregger, Anke; Kristiana, Ika; Cook, Emma C L; Phan, Lisa; Stevenson, Julian; Brown, Andrew J

2014-04-01

345

Glycogen synthase kinase-3? stabilizes the interleukin (IL)-22 receptor from proteasomal degradation in murine lung epithelia.  

PubMed

Signaling through the interleukin (IL)-22 cytokine axis provides essential immune protection in the setting of extracellular infection as part of type 17 immunity. Molecular regulation of IL-22 receptor (IL-22R) protein levels is unknown. In murine lung epithelia, IL-22R is a relatively short-lived protein (t½ ?1.5 h) degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome under normal unstimulated conditions, but its degradation is accelerated by IL-22 treatment. Lys(449) within the intracellular C-terminal domain of the IL-22R serves as a ubiquitin acceptor site as disruption of this site by deletion or site-directed mutagenesis creates an IL-22R variant that, when expressed in cells, is degradation-resistant and not ubiquitinated. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? phosphorylates the IL-22R within a consensus phosphorylation signature at Ser(410) and Ser(414), and IL-22 treatment of cells triggers GSK-3? inactivation. GSK-3? overexpression results in accumulation of IL-22R protein, whereas GSK-3? depletion in cells reduces levels of the receptor. Mutagenesis of IL-22R at Ser(410) and Ser(414) results in receptor variants that display reduced phosphorylation levels and are more labile as compared with wild-type IL-22R when expressed in cells. Further, the cytoskeletal protein cortactin, which is important for epithelial spreading and barrier formation, is phosphorylated and activated at the epithelial cell leading edge after treatment with IL-22, but this effect is reduced after GSK-3? knockdown. These findings reveal the ability of GSK-3? to modulate IL-22R protein stability that might have significant implications for cytoprotective functions and therapeutic targeting of the IL-22 signaling axis. PMID:24742671

Weathington, Nathaniel M; Snavely, Courtney A; Chen, Bill B; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Yutong; Mallampalli, Rama K

2014-06-20

346

Genes and biochemical pathways in human skeletal muscle affecting resting energy expenditure and fuel partitioning  

PubMed Central

Genes influencing resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) represent candidate genes for obesity and the metabolic syndrome because of the involvement of these traits in energy balance and substrate oxidation. We aim to explore the molecular basis for individual variation in REE and fuel partitioning as reflected by RQ. We performed microarray studies in human vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from 40 healthy subjects with measured REE and RQ values. We identified 2,392 and 1,115 genes significantly correlated with REE and RQ, respectively. Genes correlated with REE and RQ encompass a broad array of functions, including carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gene expression, mitochondrial processes, and membrane transport. Microarray pathway analysis revealed that REE was positively correlated with upregulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling (meet criteria/total genes: 65 of 283) involved in autonomic nervous system functions, including those receptors mediating adrenergic, dopamine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and serotonin action (meet criteria/total genes: 46 of 176). Reduced REE was associated with an increase in genes participating in ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolytic pathways (58 of 232). Serine-type peptidase activity (9 of 76) was positively correlated with RQ, while genes involved in the protein phosphatase type 2A complex (4 of 9), mitochondrial function and cellular respiration (38 of 315), and unfolded protein binding (19 of 97) were associated with reduced RQ values and a preference for lipid fuel metabolism. Individual variations in whole body REE and RQ are regulated by differential expressions of specific genes and pathways intrinsic to skeletal muscle. PMID:21109598

Wu, Xuxia; Patki, Amit; Lara-Castro, Cristina; Cui, Xiangqin; Zhang, Kui; Walton, R. Grace; Osier, Michael V.; Gadbury, Gary L.; Allison, David B.; Martin, Mitchell

2011-01-01

347

Rare hereditary autoinflammatory disorders: towards an understanding of critical in vivo inflammatory pathways.  

PubMed

Hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes are monogenic disorders with an inborn error of innate immunity, and include periodic fever syndromes such as familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), pyogenic diseases such as pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome (PAPAS), and granulomatous diseases such as Blau syndrome. By identifying the genetic abnormalities and subsequent analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders, several critical in vivo pathways for inflammatory processes have been discovered. In this review, three categories of autoinflammatory disorders are discussed: inflammasomopathies, receptor antagonist deficiencies and proteasome disability syndromes. Inflammasomopathies are diseases with dysregulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and include CAPS with NLRP3, FMF with MEFV, and PAPAS with PSTPIP1 mutations. Analyses of these diseases have clarified some critical pathways regulating NLRP3 inflammasome signaling. Receptor antagonist deficiencies include the newly defined deficiency for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist resulting in sterile multifocal osteomyelitis with periostosis and pustulosis, and deficiency for interleukin-36 receptor antagonist resulting in generalized pustular psoriasis. The identification of these genetic abnormalities has revealed a critical role for receptor antagonists of IL-1 family cytokines in regulating neutrophil activation/recruitment. Finally, proteasome disability syndromes with PSMB8 mutations include Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome and related disorders distributed globally. Analyses of these diseases have unexpectedly shown a critical role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the regulation or homeostasis of inflammation/metabolism. Since there still remain a number of predicted but undefined hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes, further clinical and genetic approaches are required to discover novel in vivo critical inflammatory pathways. PMID:22336993

Kanazawa, Nobuo

2012-06-01

348

Dubble or Nothing? Is HAUSP Deubiquitylating Enzyme the Final Arbiter of p53 Levels?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Signal transduction processes can be regulated by biochemical modifications that affect protein activity or localization and by protein stability. Proteins implicated in cancer, such as β-catenin and p53, are regulated by a combination of posttranslational modifications and protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Wood explores how ubiquitylation of these proteins may not be as unidirectional as previously thought. With the identification of substrate-specific deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitylation may not always lead to protein destruction, but may provide another finely tunable step for controlling protein activity.

Stephen A. Wood (University of Adelaide;Child Health Research Institute and Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development REV)

2002-07-30

349

Dubble or nothing? Is HAUSP deubiquitylating enzyme the final arbiter of p53 levels?  

PubMed

Signal transduction processes can be regulated by biochemical modifications that affect protein activity or localization and by protein stability. Proteins implicated in cancer, such as beta-catenin and p53, are regulated by a combination of posttranslational modifications and protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Wood explores how ubiquitylation of these proteins may not be as unidirectional as previously thought. With the identification of substrate-specific deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitylation may not always lead to protein destruction, but may provide another finely tunable step for controlling protein activity. PMID:12149513

Wood, Stephen A

2002-07-30

350

Rhabdoviruses and the Cellular Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: a Budding Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matrix (M) proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RV) play a key role in both assembly and budding of progeny virions. A PPPY motif (PY motif or late-budding domain) is conserved in the M proteins of VSV and RV. These PY motifs are important for virus budding and for mediating interactions with specific cellular proteins containing

RONALD N. HARTY; MELISSA E. BROWN; JAMES P. MCGETTIGAN; GUANGLI WANG; HIMANGI R. JAYAKAR; JON M. HUIBREGTSE; MICHAEL A. WHITT; MATTHIAS J. SCHNELL

2001-01-01

351

Dysfunction of the Ubiquitin Proteasome and Ubiquitin-Like Systems in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Protein expression abnormalities have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but the underlying cause of these changes is not known. We sought to investigate ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (UBL) systems (SUMOylation, NEDD8ylation, and Ufmylation) as putative mechanisms underlying protein expression abnormalities seen in schizophrenia. For this, we performed western blot analysis of total ubiquitination, free ubiquitin, K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination, and E1 activases, E2 conjugases, and E3 ligases involved in ubiquitination and UBL post-translational modifications in postmortem brain tissue samples from persons with schizophrenia (n=13) and comparison subjects (n=13). We studied the superior temporal gyrus (STG) of subjects from the Mount Sinai Medical Center brain collection that were matched for age, tissue pH, and sex. We found an overall reduction of protein ubiquitination, free ubiquitin, K48-linked ubiquitination, and increased K63 polyubiquitination in schizophrenia. Ubiquitin E1 activase UBA (ubiquitin activating enzyme)-6 and E3 ligase Nedd (neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated)-4 were decreased in this illness, as were E3 ligases involved in Ufmylation (UFL1) and SUMOylation (protein inhibitor of activated STAT 3, PIAS3). NEDD8ylation was also dysregulated in schizophrenia, with decreased levels of the E1 activase UBA3 and the E3 ligase Rnf7. This study of ubiquitin and UBL systems in schizophrenia found abnormalities of ubiquitination, Ufmylation, SUMOylation, and NEDD8ylation in the STG in this disorder. These results suggest a novel approach to the understanding of schizophrenia pathophysiology, where a disruption in homeostatic adaptation of the cell underlies discreet changes seen at the protein level in this illness. PMID:23571678

Rubio, Maria D; Wood, Krista; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H

2013-01-01

352

A Role of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Neuropathic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropathic pain (characterized by hyperalgesia and allodynia to mechanical and thermal stimuli) causes cellular changes in spinal dorsal horn neurons, some of which parallel those in synaptic plasticity associated with learning. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH) appears to play a key role in long- term facilitation in Aplysia. The cooperation of UCH with the proteolytic enzyme complex known as the proteasome

Andrew Moss; Gordon Blackburn-Munro; Emer M. Garry; James A. Blakemore; Tracey Dickinson; Roberta Rosie; Rory Mitchell; Susan M. Fleetwood-Walker

2002-01-01

353

Activation of a Membrane-Bound Transcription Factor by Regulated Ubiquitin\\/Proteasome-Dependent Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing of integral membrane proteins in order to liberate active proteins is of exquisite cellular importance. Examples are the processing events that govern sterol regulation, Notch signaling, the unfolded protein response, and APP fragmentation linked to Alzheimer's disease. In these cases, the proteins are thought to be processed by regulated intramembrane proteolysis, involving site-specific, membrane-localized proteases. Here we show that

Thorsten Hoppe; Kai Matuschewski; Michael Rape; Stephan Schlenker; Helle D Ulrich; Stefan Jentsch

2000-01-01

354

Caspase-dependent regulation of the ubiquitin–proteasome system through direct substrate targeting  

PubMed Central

Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) 1 (DIAP1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates apoptosis in flies, in large part through direct inhibition and/or ubiquitinylation of caspases. IAP antagonists, such as Reaper, Hid, and Grim, are thought to induce cell death by displacing active caspases from baculovirus IAP repeat domains in DIAP1, but can themselves become targets of DIAP1-mediated ubiquitinylation. Herein, we demonstrate that Grim self-associates in cells and is ubiquitinylated by DIAP1 at Lys136 in an UbcD1-dependent manner, resulting in its rapid turnover. K48-linked ubiquitin chains are added almost exclusively to BIR2-bound Grim as a result of its structural proximity to DIAP1’s RING domain. However, active caspases can simultaneously cleave Grim at Asp132, removing the lysine necessary for ubiquitinylation as well as any existing ubiquitin conjugates. Cleavage therefore enhances the stability of Grim and initiates a feed-forward caspase amplification loop, resulting in greater cell death. In summary, Grim is a caspase substrate whose cleavage promotes apoptosis by limiting, in a target-specific fashion, its ubiquitinylation and turnover by the proteasome. PMID:23940367

Yeh, Ting-Chun; Bratton, Shawn B.

2013-01-01

355

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Is a Key Component of the SUMO2\\/3 Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many proteins are regulated by a variety of post-transla- tional modifications, and orchestration of these modifica- tions is frequently required for full control of activity. Cur- rently little is known about the combinatorial activity of different post-translational modifications. Here we show that extensive cross-talk exists between sumoylation and ubiquitination. We found that a subset of SUMO-2-conju- gated proteins is subsequently

Joost Schimmel; Katja M. Larsen; Ivan Matic; Martijn van Hagen; Jurgen Cox; Matthias Mann; Jens S. Andersen; Alfred C. O. Vertegaal

2008-01-01

356

MIR125B1 represses the degradation of the PML-RARA oncoprotein by an autophagy-lysosomal pathway in acute promyelocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the t(15;17)-associated PML-RARA fusion gene. We have previously found that MIR125B1 is highly expressed in patients with APL and may be associated with disease pathogenesis; however, the mechanism by which MIR125B1 exerts its oncogenic potential has not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that MIR125B1 abundance correlates with the PML-RARA status. MIR125B1 overexpression enhanced PML-RARA expression and inhibited the ATRA-induced degradation of the PML-RARA oncoprotein. RNA-seq analysis revealed a direct link between the PML-RARA degradation pathway and MIR125B1-arrested differentiation. We further demonstrated that the MIR125B1-mediated blockade of PML-RARA proteolysis was regulated via an autophagy-lysosomal pathway, contributing to the inhibition of APL differentiation. Furthermore, we identified DRAM2 (DNA-damage regulated autophagy modulator 2), a critical regulator of autophagy, as a novel target that was at least partly responsible for the function of MIR125B1 involved in autophagy. Importantly, the knockdown phenotypes for DRAM2 are similar to the effects of overexpressing MIR125B1 as impairment of PML-RARA degradation, inhibition of autophagy, and myeloid cell differentiation arrest. These effects of MIR125B1 and its target DRAM2 were further confirmed in an APL mouse model. Thus, MIR125B1 dysregulation may interfere with the effectiveness of ATRA-mediated differentiation through an autophagy-dependent pathway, representing a novel potential APL therapeutic target. PMID:25126724

Zeng, Cheng-Wu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Xing-Ju; Han, Bo-Wei; Lin, Kang-Yu; Li, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yangqiu; Chen, Yue-Qin

2014-10-01

357

Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation  

PubMed Central

Background Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. Results The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized "central" enzymes to support anaerobic aromatic degradation of benzene proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzylsuccinate synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for fumarate addition to toluene) and the central benzoyl-CoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex and exosortase (epsH) are also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Conclusion Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial species. Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica's evolutionary history. Gene families that constitute metabolic cycles presumed to create D. aromatica's environmental 'foot-print' indicate a high level of diversification between its predicted capabilities and those of its close relatives, A. aromaticum str EbN1 and Azoarcus BH72. PMID:19650930

2009-01-01

358

Impurity profiling of trandolapril under stress testing: Structure elucidation of by-products and development of degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Various regulatory authorities like International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), US Food and Drug Administration, Canadian Drug and Health Agency are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in active pharmaceutical drugs. Qualification of the impurities is the process of acquiring and evaluating data that establishes biological safety of an individual impurity; thus, revealing the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. As no stability-indicating method is available for identification of degradation products of trandolapril, a new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), under stress testing, the development of an accurate method is needed for quantification and qualification of degradation products. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used for the rapid and simultaneous analysis of trandolapril and its degradation products. Chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 4 min, with improved peak resolution and sensitivity. Thanks to this method, the kinetics of trandolapril degradation under various operating conditions and the characterization of the structure of the by-products formed during stress testing have been determined. Thereafter, a mechanism of trandolapril degradation in acid and neutral conditions, including all the identified products, was then proposed. PMID:22960502

Dendeni, M; Cimetiere, N; Amrane, A; Hamida, N Ben

2012-11-15

359

Identification of the Inorganic Pyrophosphate Metabolizing, ATP Substituting Pathway in Mammalian Spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is generated by ATP hydrolysis in the cells and also present in extracellular matrix, cartilage and bodily fluids. Fueling an alternative pathway for energy production in cells, PPi is hydrolyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) in a highly exergonic reaction that can under certain conditions substitute for ATP-derived energy. Recombinant PPA1 is used for energy-regeneration in the cell-free systems used to study the zymology of ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the role of sperm-borne proteasomes in mammalian fertilization. Inspired by an observation of reduced in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates in the presence of external, recombinant PPA1, this study reveals, for the first time, the presence of PPi, PPA1 and PPi transporter, progressive ankylosis protein ANKH in mammalian spermatozoa. Addition of PPi during porcine IVF increased fertilization rates significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorometric assay detected high levels of PPi in porcine seminal plasma, oviductal fluid and spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence detected PPA1 in the postacrosomal sheath (PAS) and connecting piece of boar spermatozoa; ANKH was present in the sperm head PAS and equatorial segment. Both ANKH and PPA1 were also detected in human and mouse spermatozoa, and in porcine spermatids. Higher proteasomal-proteolytic activity, indispensable for fertilization, was measured in spermatozoa preserved with PPi. The identification of an alternative, PPi dependent pathway for ATP production in spermatozoa elevates our understanding of sperm physiology and sets the stage for the improvement of semen extenders, storage media and IVF media for animal biotechnology and human assisted reproductive therapies. PMID:22485177

Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Kennedy, Chelsey; Sutovsky, Peter

2012-01-01

360

Repression of the auxin response pathway increases Arabidopsis susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi.  

PubMed

In plants, resistance to necrotrophic pathogens depends on the interplay between different hormone systems, such as those regulated by salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, and abscisic acid. Repression of auxin signaling by the SA pathway was recently shown to contribute to antibacterial resistance. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis auxin signaling mutants axr1, axr2, and axr6 that have defects in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box) ubiquitination pathway exhibit increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungi Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Botrytis cinerea. Also, stabilization of the auxin transcriptional repressor AXR3 that is normally targeted for removal by the SCF-ubiquitin/proteasome machinery occurs upon P. cucumerina infection. Pharmacological inhibition of auxin transport or proteasome function each compromise necrotroph resistance of wild-type plants to a similar extent as in non-treated auxin response mutants. These results suggest that auxin signaling is important for resistance to the necrotrophic fungi P. cucumerina and B. cinerea. SGT1b (one of two Arabidopsis SGT1 genes encoding HSP90/HSC70 co-chaperones) promotes the functions of SCF E3-ubiquitin ligase complexes in auxin and JA responses and resistance conditioned by certain Resistance (R) genes to biotrophic pathogens. We find that sgt1b mutants are as resistant to P. cucumerina as wild-type plants. Conversely, auxin/SCF signaling mutants are uncompromised in RPP4-triggered resistance to the obligate biotrophic oomycete, Hyaloperonospora parasitica. Thus, the predominant action of SGT1b in R gene-conditioned resistance to oomycetes appears to be at a site other than assisting SCF E3-ubiquitin ligases. However, genetic additivity of sgt1b axr1 double mutants in susceptibility to H. parasitica suggests that SCF-mediated ubiquitination contributes to limiting biotrophic pathogen colonization once plant-pathogen compatibility is established. PMID:19825556

Llorente, Francisco; Muskett, Paul; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; López, Gemma; Ramos, Brisa; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Jordá, Lucia; Parker, Jane; Molina, Antonio

2008-05-01

361

Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons  

PubMed Central

The dopamine transporter (DAT) clears the extracellular dopamine released during neurotransmission and is a major target for both therapeutic and addictive psychostimulant amphetamines. Amphetamine exposure or activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the phorbol ester PMA has been shown to down-regulate cell surface DAT. However, in dopamine neurons, the trafficking itinerary and fate of internalized DAT has not been elucidated. By monitoring surface-labeled DAT in transfected dopamine neurons from embryonic rat mesencephalic cultures, we find distinct sorting and fates of internalized DAT after amphetamine or PMA treatment. Although both drugs promote DAT internalization above constitutive endocytosis in dopamine neurons, PMA induces ubiquitination of DAT and leads to accumulation of DAT on LAMP1-positive endosomes. In contrast, after amphetamine exposure DAT is sorted to recycling endosomes positive for Rab11 and the transferrin receptor. Furthermore, quantitative assessment of DAT recycling using an antibody-feeding assay reveals that significantly less DAT returns to the surface of dopamine neurons after internalization by PMA, compared with vehicle or amphetamine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in neurons, the DAT is sorted differentially to recycling and degradative pathways after psychostimulant exposure or PKC activation, which may allow for either the transient or sustained inhibition of DAT during dopamine neurotransmission.—Hong, W. C., Amara, S. G. Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons. PMID:23612789

Hong, Weimin C.; Amara, Susan G.

2013-01-01

362

Water deficit induces chlorophyll degradation via the 'PAO/phyllobilin' pathway in leaves of homoio- (Craterostigma pumilum) and poikilochlorophyllous (Xerophyta viscosa) resurrection plants.  

PubMed

Angiosperm resurrection plants exhibit poikilo- or homoiochlorophylly as a response to water deficit. Both strategies are generally considered as effective mechanisms to reduce oxidative stress associated with photosynthetic activity under water deficiency. The mechanism of water deficit-induced chlorophyll (Chl) degradation in resurrection plants is unknown but has previously been suggested to occur as a result of non-enzymatic photooxidation. We investigated Chl degradation during dehydration in both poikilochlorophyllous (Xerophyta viscosa) and homoiochlorophyllous (Craterostigma pumilum) species. We demonstrate an increase in the abundance of PHEOPHORBIDE?a?OXYGENASE (PAO), a key enzyme of Chl breakdown, together with an accumulation of phyllobilins, that is, products of PAO-dependent Chl breakdown, in both species. Phyllobilins and PAO levels diminished again in leaves from rehydrated plants. We conclude that water deficit-induced poikilochlorophylly occurs via the well-characterized PAO/phyllobilin pathway of Chl breakdown and that this mechanism also appears conserved in a resurrection species displaying homoiochlorophylly. The roles of the PAO/phyllobilin pathway during different plant developmental processes that involve Chl breakdown, such as leaf senescence and desiccation, fruit ripening and seed maturation, are discussed. PMID:24697723

Christ, Bastien; Egert, Aurélie; Süssenbacher, Iris; Kräutler, Bernhard; Bartels, Dorothea; Peters, Shaun; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

2014-11-01

363

Oxidation products and degradation pathways of 4-chlorophenol by catalytic ozonation with MnOx/?-Al2O3/TiO2 as catalyst in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

To identify the intermediates of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and bring forward the degradation pathways in the process of catalytic ozonation of 4-CP, 4-CP was ozonated with MnOx/?-Al2O3/TiO2 (MAT) catalyst, and 4-CP was almost decomposed within 30 min, the mineralization reaching above 94.1% at 100 min. The evident reduction of the degradation with the addition of the radical scavenger tert-butanol (TBA) and the stronger spin-adduct signals of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) indicated that 4-CP was oxidized primarily by hydroxyl radical (·OH). Analysis of GC-MS, HPLC and IC confirmed that aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids were predominant oxidative organic intermediates of 4-CP in catalytic ozonation.The main degrada