Sample records for ulnar nerve lesions

  1. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow, so prolonged pressure on the elbow or entrapment ...

  2. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow. The damage destroys the nerve covering ( myelin sheath) ... be caused by: Long-term pressure on the elbow An elbow fracture or dislocation Temporary pain and ...

  3. Cervical dermatomal zona misdiagnosed as ulnar nerve entrapment.

    PubMed

    ?alçini, Celal; Sunter, Gülin; Gumustas, Seyit Ali; Evrensel, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a secondary reactivation of primary contagious varicella-zoster virus in the dorsal root ganglia. While thoracic zona is common, cervical dermatomal zona is a rare segmental complication of herpes zoster and can be easily misdiagnosed as other diseases. This article describes a patient with initial neuralgia without dermatomal lesions that was treated as ulnar nerve entrapment syndrome until manifestation of herpetiform cutaneous lesions appeared. It is important that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of zoster infection when evaluating the onset of neuralgia in a dermatomal distribution in the upper limb, especially without rash. PMID:26032704

  4. Ulnar nerve reconstruction with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene conduit.

    PubMed

    Stanec, S; Stanec, Z

    1998-12-01

    The ulnar nerve of a 22-year-old woman was reconstructed by expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduit, 141 days after nerve transection at the distal forearm level. A 2.9 cm nerve gap was bridged by a corrugated, 3.9 cm long, 6 mm diameter ePTFE tube. At final evaluation 3 years later the patient achieved excellent motor and sensory recovery. Exploration of the tube, at that time, showed macroscopically normal nerve inside the conduit. PMID:10209470

  5. Tardy ulnar nerve palsy after fracture non-union medial epicondyle of humerus - An unusual case.

    PubMed

    Thiyam, Rajesh; Lalchandani, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    Tardy ulnar nerve palsy is a chronic clinical condition characterised by delayed onset ulnar neuropathy. Typically tardy ulnar nerve palsy occurs as a consequence of non-union of lateral condyle in child resulting in cubitus valgus deformity which ultimately is the cause of ulnar nerve palsy. However very few literature are available for tardy ulnar nerve palsy as a result of old fracture of medial epicondyle without cubitus varus or valgus deformity. We report a rare case of tardy ulnar nerve in an adult male with fracture non-union of medial epicondyle of humerus. PMID:25983522

  6. Ulnar nerve repair by the silicone chamber technique. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G; Dahlin, L B; Danielsen, N

    1991-01-01

    The ulnar nerve of a 21-year old man was repaired at the wrist by a silicone chamber technique 10 days after a traumatic transection. A 3 mm gap was left between the nerve ends inside the chamber. At follow-up three years later, motor and sensory recovery was excellent. At exploration at that time a macroscopically normal nerve was found in the tube. PMID:2052913

  7. Ulnar Nerve Entrapment at the Elbow (Cubital Tunnel Syndrome)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in your hand and ? ngers. Imaging Tests X-rays. These imaging tests provide detailed pictures of dense structures, like bone. Most causes of compression of the ulnar nerve cannot be seen on an x-ray. However, your doctor may take x-rays of ...

  8. Tendon Transfers Part II: Transfers for Ulnar Nerve Palsy and Median Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sammer, Douglas M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives After reading this article (part II of II), the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the anatomy and function of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm and hand. 2. Describe the clinical deficits associated with injury to each nerve. 3. Describe the indications, benefits, and drawbacks for various tendon transfer procedures used to treat median and ulnar nerve palsy.4. Describe the treatment of combined nerve injuries. 5. Describe postoperative care and possible complications associated with these tendon transfer procedures. Summary This article discusses the use of tendon transfer procedures for treatment of median and ulnar nerve palsy as well as combined nerve palsies. Postoperative management and potential complications are also discussed. PMID:19730287

  9. Unusual Communications between the Cutaneous Branches of Ulnar Nerve in the Palm

    PubMed Central

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Jetti, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Variations of dorsal and volar digital cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve are of tremendous clinical importance for successful regional nerve blocks, skin flaps, carpal tunnel release and placement of electrodes for electrophysiological studies. With the aforementioned clinical implications it is worth to report the variations of cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve. In the current case, we have encountered a rare variation (Kaplan`s anastomosis) of ulnar nerve, in the right upper limb. We have noticed that the dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve divided into three branches, the lateral two branches supplied the skin of the medial one and half fingers of the dorsum of hand. The medial branch established communications with the superficial branches of ulnar nerve and distributed to the skin of the one and half fingers of the volar aspect of hand. The possible outcome of this communications is discussed. Course and distribution of ulnar nerve on the contralateral side was found to be normal. PMID:25954612

  10. Evaluation of the function status of the ulnar nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liu, N; Wang, Y W; Zhang, Z C; Zheng, L N; Zhu, J

    2015-01-01

    Many carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients have symptoms in both the median and ulnar digits more frequently than in the median digits alone. This is possibly because of close anatomical contiguity of the carpal tunnel and Guyon's canal, and the high pressure may also affect the latter, causing indirect compression of ulnar nerve fibers. Thus, we evaluated the functional status of the ulnar nerve in patients with CTS in order to investigate the relationship between ulnar nerve impairment and sensory symptoms of the ulnar territory. Electrophysiological studies were conducted in CTS patients and healthy controls. CTS patients were divided into the mild/moderate group and severe group; they were further divided into the symptomatic and asymptomatic subgroups according to the sensory symptom of the fifth digit region. The findings suggest that CTS patients could have coexisting ulnar nerve wrist entrapments that might exacerbate the severity of CTS. Sensory impairment in the ulnar territory was observed more frequently in the mild/moderate stage of CTS, which is associated with ulnar nerve involvement. These findings also suggest that damage to the ulnar nerve fibers caused by compression forces in Guyon's canal may underlie the ulnar spread of symptoms in CTS. PMID:25966136

  11. Anterior translation and morphologic changes of the ulnar nerve at the elbow in adolescent baseball players.

    PubMed

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Chau; Wang, Lin-Hwa; Chao, Shu-Yi; Huang, Christine Nai-Hui; Jou, I-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The effect of repetitive throwing on the ulnar nerve is not clear. There are no published imaging studies regarding this issue in adolescent baseball players. The purpose of this cross-sectional ultrasonographic study was to use 5- to 10-MHz frequency ultrasonography to define the anterior translation and flattening of the ulnar nerve in different elbow positions. We divided 39 adolescent baseball players into two groups, 19 pitchers and 20 fielders, according to the amount of throwing. Twenty-four non-athlete junior high school students were also included as controls. We ultrasonographically examined each participant's ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion. Anterior translation and flattening of the ulnar nerve occurred in all groups. Pitchers had larger-scale anterior translation than did controls. In pitchers, the ulnar nerve exhibited more anterior movement on the dominant side than on the non-dominant side. The anterior subluxation of the ulnar nerve occurred in players without ulnar nerve palsy and was not correlated with elbow pain. In addition to the known musculoskeletal adaptations of pitchers' elbows, ultrasonography revealed new changes in the ulnar nerve, anterior translation and subluxation, after repetitive throwing. These changes might also be physiologic adaptations of throwing elbows. PMID:24139913

  12. Outcome study of ulnar nerve compression at the elbow treated with simple decompression and an early programme of physical therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Nathan; R. C. Keniston; K. D. Meadows

    1995-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper limb. This paper presents the experience of treating cubital tunnel syndrome with simple decompression in 131 patients (164 ulnar nerves) over the past 12 years. 85% of these patients had mild or moderate ulnar nerve disease. In 146\\/164 ulnar nerves (89%), simple decompression resulted in good or

  13. The distal sensory nerve action potential as a diagnostic tool for the differentiation of lesions in dorsal roots and peripheral nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Benecke; B. Conrad

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of the conception that, in preganglionic lesions, peripheral sensory nerve fibers should remain intact, the question arises whether evaluation of distal sensory nerve action potentials can be helpful in differentiating between cervical dorsal root and peripheral nerve lesions. Amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) and corresponding distal sensory conduction velocities (SCV) of the median and ulnar

  14. Electrodiagnostic approach in entrapment neuropathies of the median and ulnar nerves

    PubMed Central

    Galamb, Ana Maria; Minea, Ioan Dan; Rogozea, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study’s aim was to analyze the late responses’ parameters in order to determine the utility of each one. Methods: The study, conducted on a total of 325 patients with entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve and 36 with entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve, included the bilateral evaluation of the median and the ulnar nerve and analysis of 20 F-wave and 4 A-wave parameters. Results: The authors emphasize the necessity of bilateral examination and that of examining the ipsilateral ulnar/median nerve, such as to calculate the difference in F-wave average latency of the median/ulnar and the ipsilateral ulnar/median nerve. This was the most sensitive parameter studied, altered in more than 70% of cases, significantly in more cases than when using only the M-wave distal latency. Also there was a statistically significant correlation between patient age and F-wave latency. Conclusions: The completed research yielded the recommendation for F-wave parameter studies to include the difference in F-wave average latency of the median/ulnar and the ipsilateral ulnar/median nerve. This parameter was also included in the composite score, along with the recommendations of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM).

  15. Aberrant radial-ulnar nerve communication in the upper arm presenting as an unusual radial nerve palsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Daniel J; Buzas, David; Siegel, Geoffrey; Afsari, Alan

    2015-05-01

    An unusual communication between the radial and ulnar nerves was observed during repair of a fracture of the humerus in an adult patient who presented with unusual physical exam findings. The patient had loss of radial and ulnar nerve motor function, as well as decreased sensation in both nerve distributions. Radial nerve injury following fracture of the humerus is a common condition, and anatomic variations are therefore of importance to clinicians. Communications between branches of the brachial plexus are also not uncommon findings; however there is very little mention of communication between the radial and ulnar nerves in the literature. An appreciation of unusual nerve anatomy is important in explaining unusual finding in patients. PMID:25481257

  16. Sensory nerve conduction velocities in the cutaneous afferents of the ulnar and peroneal nerves of the dog: Tissue temperature-dependent reference ranges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Miyamoto; A. Sumi; Y. Ishido; T. Nakano; M. Yahagi; S. Inada

    1990-01-01

    Sensory nerve conduction velocities in the cutaneous afferents of the ulnar and peroneal nerves of the neurologically normal adult dog were determined by stimulation at stimulus intensities of 15, 20 and 25 V through subcutaneously placed electrodes and by the averaged evoked response technique. Stimulus intensities of 15 V for the ulnar nerve and 20 V for the peroneal nerve

  17. Scand J Work Environ Health . Author manuscript Incidence of ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow in repetitive work

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at the elbow in repetitive work Alexis Descatha 1 * , Annette Leclerc 1 , Jean-Fran ois Chastangç 1 , Yves working conditions and ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (UNEE) has not been the object of much study ; Risk Factors ; Workplace ; psychology Author Keywords elbow ; repetitive work ; ulnar nerve entrapment

  18. The use of silicone tubing in the late repair of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm.

    PubMed

    Braga-Silva, J

    1999-12-01

    A silicone tube segment was used for repairing the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm. This study includes 26 patients (20 male and six female), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18-26). Injuries were caused by saw, knife and glass accidents, the latter being most frequent. The mean interval between the injury and repair was 101 days. Fourteen patients had median nerve injuries, eight had ulnar nerve injuries and four had both median and ulnar nerve injuries. The technique was effective in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries with gaps of up to 3 cm, with better results in the ulnar nerves than in the median nerves. PMID:10672808

  19. Sleeve bridging of the rhesus monkey ulnar nerve with muscular branches of the pronator teres: multiple amplification of axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yu-hui; Zhang, Pei-xun; Wang, Yan-hua; Chen, Bo; Han, Na; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hong-bo; Yin, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-bud regeneration, i.e., multiple amplification, has been shown to exist in peripheral nerve regeneration. Multiple buds grow towards the distal nerve stump during proximal nerve fiber regeneration. Our previous studies have verified the limit and validity of multiple amplification of peripheral nerve regeneration using small gap sleeve bridging of small donor nerves to repair large receptor nerves in rodents. The present study sought to observe multiple amplification of myelinated nerve fiber regeneration in the primate peripheral nerve. Rhesus monkey models of distal ulnar nerve defects were established and repaired using muscular branches of the right forearm pronator teres. Proximal muscular branches of the pronator teres were sutured into the distal ulnar nerve using the small gap sleeve bridging method. At 6 months after suture, two-finger flexion and mild wrist flexion were restored in the ulnar-sided injured limbs of rhesus monkey. Neurophysiological examination showed that motor nerve conduction velocity reached 22.63 ± 6.34 m/s on the affected side of rhesus monkey. Osmium tetroxide staining demonstrated that the number of myelinated nerve fibers was 1,657 ± 652 in the branches of pronator teres of donor, and 2,661 ± 843 in the repaired ulnar nerve. The rate of multiple amplification of regenerating myelinated nerve fibers was 1.61. These data showed that when muscular branches of the pronator teres were used to repair ulnar nerve in primates, effective regeneration was observed in regenerating nerve fibers, and functions of the injured ulnar nerve were restored to a certain extent. Moreover, multiple amplification was subsequently detected in ulnar nerve axons. PMID:25788920

  20. [Skipping of the ulnar nerve and the medial head of the triceps--a case report].

    PubMed

    Pomianowski, Stanis?aw; Sawicki, Grzegorz; Grys, Grzegorz

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe rare phenomenon of the snapping of the medial head of the triceps muscle and recurrent dislocation of the ulnar nerve. The indications for operative treatment are established. The authors describe its own case making a conclusion that operative treatment is a good option in some cases. PMID:15751725

  1. The clinical anatomy of the communications between the radial and ulnar nerves on the dorsal surface of the hand.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Louis, Robert G; Wartmann, Christopher T; Tubbs, R Shane; Turan-Ozdemir, Senem; Kramer, Jessica

    2008-03-01

    Sensations of the dorsal surface of the hand are supplied by the radial and ulnar nerves with the boundary between these two nerves classically being the midline of the fourth digit. Overlap and variations of this division exist and a communicating branch (RUCB) between the radial and ulnar nerves could potentially explain variations in the sensory examination of the dorsal hand. The aim of this study was to examine the origin and distribution of the RUCB thereby providing information that may potentially decrease iatrogenic injury to this connection. We grossly examined 200 formalin-fixed adult human hands. A RUCB was found to be present in 120 hands (60%). Of the specimens with RUCBs, we were able to identify four notable types. Type I (71, 59.1%) originated proximally from the radial nerve and proceeded distally to join the ulnar nerve. Type II (23, 19.1%) originated proximally from the ulnar nerve and proceeded distally to join the radial nerve. Type III (4, 3.3%) traveled perpendicularly between the radial and ulnar nerves so that it was not possible to determine which nerve served as its point of origin. Type IV (18.3%) had multiple RUCBs arising from both the radial and ulnar nerves. With the continual development of new surgical techniques and the ongoing effort to decrease postoperative complications, it is hoped that this study will provide useful information to both anatomists and surgeons. PMID:18217183

  2. Lesions of the optic nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Atkins; Nancy J. Newman; Valerie Biousse

    2011-01-01

    As experts on the central nervous system, neurologists are expected to be familiar with the many conditions that can result in visual loss arising from lesions of the optic nerve. The optic nerves are unique central nervous system structures in terms of surrounding anatomy, size, location, and blood supply; therefore, they are uniquely vulnerable to every pathological process that can

  3. Ultrasound of radial, ulnar, median, and sciatic nerves in healthy subjects and patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Heinemeyer; Carl D Reimers

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of ultrasonography to visualize extremity nerves. Fifty healthy women and men and 10 patients suffering with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) were examined. The radial nerve lateral to the humerus, ulnar nerve distal to the cubital tunnel, median nerve in the middle of the forearm and proximal to the palmar crease,

  4. Nerve fiber planimetry in acute and chronic nerve lesions and in nerve lesions in continuity.

    PubMed

    Guelinckx, P J; Boeckx, W D; Dom, R; Gruwez, J A

    1985-10-01

    The level of resection of damaged nerve tissue in acute and chronic nerve lesions was determined on the basis of the vascular structure, the consistency of the nerve during palpation, the amount of interfascicular connective tissue, and the mushroom formation of the fascicles. Intraoperative electrophysiologic recordings were performed on the cut nerve ends to determine the function of the axons. Postoperative planimetric analyses of cross sections made through the resected nerve stumps were performed to measure axonal and endoneural tube diameters and to correlate these results with the clinical criteria used through the operating microscope. Axons in the proximal nerve ends of acute and chronic nerve lesions displayed a similar mean diameter. Endoneural tubes in chronic nerve lesions shrunk significantly as nerve repair was delayed. In several nerve lesions in continuity, axons remained present across the injured site despite absence of electrical conduction. When comparing the results of axonal or endoneural tube diameters of chronic nerve lesions to the results of other studies or acute nerve lesions, we demonstrated that careful examination through the operating microscope provided valid information about the proper management and resection level of chronic nerve lesions. Electrophysiologic evaluation aided the surgical management but was not useful for the resection of the distal damaged nerve segment. The presence of an evoked potential in the proximal nerve ends guaranteed a nearly normal nerve fiber diameter distribution, while the absence of such a potential in the distal nerve ends indicated an abnormal, absent, or disturbed endoneural tube diameter histogram. PMID:4034768

  5. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  6. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on peripheral nerve regeneration: experimental work on the ulnar nerve of the rat.

    PubMed

    Saceda, Javier; Isla, Alberto; Santiago, Susana; Morales, Carmen; Odene, Cristina; Hernández, Borja; Deniz, Kenan

    2011-10-24

    Neurotrophic factors may be used to improve the growth and repair of injured peripheral nerves. In this study we determined the effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone on peripheral nerve injury in the Wistar rat. The ulnar nerve of the rat was sectioned and its proximal and distal ends were sutured to either end of a silastic tube, with the aim of encouraging regeneration through the tube. 32 ulnar nerve specimens were randomized into two groups: 18 nerves regenerating under the influence of recombinant growth hormone, and 14 nerves regenerating in its absence. The study was performed over a period of 8 weeks and progression of regeneration was assessed with regular surface electroneurography every 1-2 weeks after surgery. In the group receiving recombinant growth hormone, it comprised a significant improvement in the recovery of conduction velocity, and a more gradual increase in the amplitude of motor potential from the fifth week onwards was observed. Histological analysis of study specimens in the recombinant hormone group revealed an improved architecture of the regenerating nerve, a greater density of nerve fibers, and increased myelination with a lesser degree of endoneural fibrosis. Our work demonstrates the positive effect of the administration of recombinant human growth hormone in obtaining significantly improved conduction velocities, and a greater improvement in nerve regeneration from the fifth week of monitoring when compared to the control group. Histological analysis in the group receiving hormone showed acceptable degree of myelination with little granulation tissue and fibrosis. PMID:21945950

  7. Changes of the ratio between myelin thickness and axon diameter in human developing sural, femoral, ulnar, facial, and trochlear nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Schröder; J. Bohl; U. Bardeleben

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies on sural nerves were extended to human femoral, ulnar, facial and trochlear nerves. An asynchronous development of axon diameter and myelin sheath thickness was noted in all nerves studied. Whereas axons reach their maximal diameter by or before 5 years of age, maximal myelin sheath thickness is not attained before 16–17 years of age, i.e., more than 10

  8. Ultrasound in Dual Nerve Impairment after Proximal Radial Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lämmer, Alexandra B; Schwab, Stefan; Schramm, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sonography in classical nerve entrapment syndromes is an established and validated method. In contrast, few publications highlight lesions of the radial nerve, particularly of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN). Method Five patients with a radial nerve lesion were investigated by electromyography, nerve conduction velocity and ultrasound. Further normative values of 26 healthy subjects were evaluated. Results Four patients presented a clinical and electrophysiological proximal axonal radial nerve lesion and one patient showed a typical posterior interosseous nerve syndrome (PINS). The patient with PINS presented an enlargement of the PIN anterior to the supinator muscle. However four patients with proximal lesions showed an unexpected significant enlargement of the PIN within the supinator muscle. Conclusion High-resolution sonography is a feasible method to demonstrate the radial nerve including its distal branches. At least in axonal radial nerve lesions, sonography might reveal abnormalities far distant from a primary proximal lesion site clearly distinct from the appearance in classical PINS. PMID:25992766

  9. Endometriotic lesions of the lower troncular nerves.

    PubMed

    Niro, J; Fournier, M; Oberlin, C; Le Tohic, A; Panel, P

    2014-10-01

    Although exceptional, endometriotic lesions of the troncular nerves of the lower limb may occur and are often diagnosed with delay. We report, hereby, the first case of femoral nerve endometriosis the treatment of which consisted of radical resection with femoral nerve transplant. We completed a review of the literature on sciatic nerve endometriotic lesions and discussed the physiopathology and surgical treatment. PMID:25267476

  10. Tissue response to silicone tubes used to repair human median and ulnar nerves.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, L B; Anagnostaki, L; Lundborg, G

    2001-03-01

    Silicone tubes of appropriate sizes were used to enclose the injured zone of transsected ulnar and median nerves in the human forearm as an alternative to conventional microsurgical repair of the nerve trunk. A gap measuring 3-5 mm was left intentionally between the nerve ends inside the tube. The clinical early results from a prospective randomised study that compared these two principles have recently been presented. Seven patients (five men and two women), aged 15-49 years (median 20) were reexplored 12-44 months (median 22) after the initial procedure because of local discomfort from the tube in four patients. There was a new nerve structure bridging the former gap and in most cases it was impossible to distinguish the site of the injury. In all cases there was a thin capsule around the silicone tube that microscopically consisted of connective tissue with thin walls and no signs of inflammation, granuloma or macrophages (n = 4), while in two cases a mild foreign body reaction was seen at a single site (n = 1) or at patchy areas (n = 1). These results indicate that after more than one year there is a limited tissue reaction around silicone tubes used to repair median and ulnar nerves in humans. PMID:11291347

  11. Magnetic Resonance Spectrum Technique in the Follow-up of an Ulnar Nerve Injured Patient

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yihui; Yang, Bo; Bao, Qiyuan; Ye, Chuntao; Wang, Tao; Xie, Yaling; Jia, Jianchang; Xue, Aimin; Ji, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A 49-year-old Chinese man sustained laceration of the right forearm by a dagger, with his right ulnar nerve completely transected. Four months postinjury, he underwent surgery to repair the nerve. He was examined by electromyogram, nerve conduction velocity, magnetic resonance imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the injury. Before surgery, intramyocellular lipid (IMCL)/creatine (Cr) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL)/Cr were observed to be higher than those of the uninjured side. During the recovery, IMCL/Cr and EMCL/Cr became lower and closer to the uninjured side. This case demonstrates that the change of IMCL/Cr and EMCL/Cr may be related to the recovery of peripheral nerve. PMID:26090293

  12. Pressure Monitoring of Intraneural an Perineural Injections Into the Median, Radial, and Ulnar Nerves; Lessons From a Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Andrzej; Szarko, Matthew; Vala, Arber; De Andres, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nerve damage after regional anesthesia has been of great concern to anesthetists. Various modalities have been suggested to recognize and prevent its incidence. An understudied area is the measurement of intraneural pressure during peripheral nerve blockade. Previous investigations have produced contradicting results with only one study being conducted on human cadavers. Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to systematically record intraneural and perineural injection pressures on the median, ulnar, and radial nerves exclusively as a primary outcome. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography-guided injections of 1 mL of 0.9% NaCl over ten seconds were performed on phenol glycerine embalmed cadaveric median, ulnar, and radial nerves. A total of 60 injections were performed, 30 intraneural and 30 perineural injections. The injections pressure was measured using a controlled disc stimulation device. Anatomic dissection was used to confirm needle placement. Results: Intraneural needle placement produced significantly greater pressures than perineural injections did. The mean generated pressures in median, radial, and ulnar nerves were respectively 29.4 ± 9.3, 27.3 ± 8.5, and 17.9 ± 7.0 pound per square inch (psi) (1 psi = 51.7 mmHg) for the intraneural injections and respectively 7.2 ± 2.5, 8.3 ± 2.5, and 6.7 ± 1.8 psi for perineural injections. Additionally the intraneural injection pressures of the ulnar nerve were lower than those of the median and radial nerves. Conclusions: Obtained results demonstrate significant differences between intraneural and perineural injection pressures in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. Intraneural injection pressures show low specificity but high sensitivity suggesting that pressure monitoring might be a valuable tool in improving the safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve blockade in regional anesthesia. Peripheral nerves “pressure mapping” hypothetically might show difference amongst various nerves depending on anatomic location, histologic structure, and ultrasonographic appearance. PMID:26161318

  13. Development and validation of the patient-rated ulnar nerve evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compression neuropathy at the elbow causes substantial pain and disability. Clinical research on this disorder is hampered by the lack of a specific outcome measure for this problem. A patient-reported outcome measure, The Patient-Rated Ulnar Nerve Evaluation (PRUNE) was developed to assess pain, symptoms and functional disability in patients with ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. Methods An iterative process was used to develop and test items. Content validity was addressed using patient/expert interviews and review; linking of the scale items to International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) codes; and cognitive coding of the items. Psychometric analysis of data collected from 89 patients was evaluated. Patients completed a longer version of the PRUNE at baseline. Item reduction was performed using statistical analyses and patient input to obtain the final 20 item version. Score distribution, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, correlational construct validity, discriminative known group construct validity, and responsiveness to change were evaluated. Results Content analysis indicated items were aligned with subscale concepts of pain and sensory/motor symptoms impairments; specific upper extremity-related tasks; and that the usual function subscale provided a broad view of self-care, household tasks, major life areas and recreation/ leisure. Four subscales were demonstrated by factor analysis (pain, sensory/motor symptoms impairments, specific activity limitations, and usual activity/role restrictions). The PRUNE and its subscales had high reliability coefficients (ICCs > 0.90; 0.98 for total score) and low absolute error. The minimal detectable change was 7.1 points. It was able to discriminate between clinically meaningful subgroups determined by an independent evaluation assessing work status, residual symptoms, motor recovery, sensory recovery and global improvement) p < 0.01. Responsiveness was excellent (SRM = 1.55). Conclusion The PRUNE is a brief, open-access, patient-reported outcome measure for patients with ulnar nerve compression that demonstrates strong measurement properties. PMID:23617407

  14. Tubular repair of the median or ulnar nerve in the human forearm: a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G; Rosén, B; Dahlin, L; Holmberg, J; Rosén, I

    2004-04-01

    The long-term outcome from silicone tube nerve repair was compared with the outcome from routine microsurgical repair in a clinical randomized prospective study, comprising 30 patients with median or ulnar nerve injuries in the distal forearm. Postoperatively, the patients underwent neurophysiological and clinical assessments of sensory and motor function regularly over a 5-year period. After 5 years there was no significant difference in outcome between the two techniques except that cold intolerance was significantly less severe with the tubular technique. In the total group there was ongoing improvement of functional sensibility throughout the 5 years after repair. It is concluded that tubular repair of the median and ulnar nerves is at least as good as routine microsurgical repair, and results in less cold intolerance. PMID:15010152

  15. Usefulness of combination of grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasound findings in the diagnosis of ulnar nerve entrapment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mohammad Ebrahim; Karami, Mehdi; Zarezadeh, Abolghasem; Sarrami, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ulnar nerve entrapment (UNE) has been diagnosed with clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies. This study was designed to determine the value of a combination of grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasound findings in the diagnosis of patients with UNE. Materials and Methods: During May to August 2013 41 patients with UNE (proven by electrodiagnostic studies) and 44 healthy volunteers were evaluated by ultrasound study. Three cross-sectional area (CSA) of ulnar nerve around cubital fossa was determined and measured in both groups. The maximum and minimum diameter of ulnar nerve was measured for calculating flattening ratio index (FRI). Vascularity of ulnar nerve around cubital fossa was also examined in proper color Doppler setting. Results: The mean CSA of nerve at all proximal, middle and distal levels were greater in patients with UNE than in controls (P = 0.02, <0.001 and 0.34 respectively). A cut-off point of 10.5 mm2 for CSA (in the level of the cubital fossa) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 92.7% and 93.2%, respectively. Mean FRI was 3.1 ± 0.6 in patients with UNE group and 1.4 ± 0.2 in the control group with a significant difference (P < 0.001). FRI with cutoff point 2.15 has been shown as an important parameter for the detection of UNE. The vascularity in UNE has a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 93.2%, respectively, and has a higher probability of being positive in severe UNE. Conclusion: Combination of grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasound may provide valuable diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of UNE.

  16. [Ulnar nerve neuropathy in the elbow region: surgical findings and conclusions about the etiologic mechanism and indications for surgery].

    PubMed

    Nigst, H

    1976-01-01

    The operative findings of 191 cases of so-called tardy ulnar neuritis are demonstrated. They may be divided into 2 groups, neuropathies associated with (67 cases) and without dislocation or subluxation of the nerve (124 cases). Cases of ulnar neuritis associated with dislocation of the nerve showing no other pathologic changes indicate that dislocation of the nerve alone may account for clinical signs. The next step is the formation of adhesions followed at a later date by formation of a pseudoneuroma. As this condition is mostly of congenital origin an additional factor is needed for including clinical manifestations such as direct or chronic professional trauma. Not enough importance has been attached to the strong triceps, with large muscle mass reaching far down to the olecranon, which might cause irritation of the nerve by pressing it against the wall of the sulcus or dislocating it over the epicondyle. In cases of neuropathy without dislocation/subluxation there is always a pathological finding even when there is no pseudoneuroma. The m. epitrochleoanconaeus is found in this category (14 cases, 11%). The cubital tunnel syndrom of OSBORNE in a very large sense (all possible causes of compression distal to the sulcus) has been found 28 times. Therapeutic measures aim at taking the nerve away from the causative irritation (anterior transposition) or at erradicating the cause (resection of the epicondyle, section of the arcus tendineus, excision of a tumor etc.). OSBORNE's operation has been performed only thrice. Subluxation or dislocation of the nerve may follow this procedure or the nerve is left more exposed to pressure than before. Deep submuscular transposition is preferred in patients less than 50 years old but other factors may determine the choice between deep and subcutaneous transposition such as the cause of the neuropathy, arthritis of the elbow joint, strength of the flexor muscle mass etc. PMID:186363

  17. A widely displaced Galeazzi-equivalent lesion with median nerve compromise.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, Ilias; Fogg, Quentin; Ashwood, Neil; Fu, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old boy with a right distal radial fracture accompanied by a severely displaced complete distal ulnar physeal separation and associated median nerve compromise. This injury is known as Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in children and is an extremely rare injury associated with growth arrest. Recognition of the lesion can be difficult but wide displacement may be associated with other significant injuries such as neurovascular compromise. Prompt intervention reversed the neurological symptoms. At 10-month postoperation there was neither growth arrest nor loss of motion. Complete separation of the ulna physis remains often because of soft tissue interposition or capsule problems and prompt reduction is recommended in the literature as a priority. PMID:22907852

  18. The nerve lesion in the carpal tunnel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Sunderland

    1976-01-01

    The relative roles of pressure deformation and ischaemia in the production of compression nerve lesions remain a controversial issue. This paper concerns the genesis of the structural changes which follow compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. The initial lesion is an intrafunicular anoxia caused by obstruction to the venous return from the funiculi as the result of

  19. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

  20. Anterior Subcutaneous versus Submuscular Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve for Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Chang-Xian; Xu, Jie; Wang, Han-Long; Ke, Xiao-Bin; Zhuang, Zhi-Yong; Lai, Zhan-Long; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To pool reliable evidences for the optimum anterior transposition technique in the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome by comparing the clinical efficacy of subcutaneous and submuscular anterior ulnar nerve transposition. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, OVID AMED, EBSCO and potentially relevant surgical archives. Risk of bias of each included studies was evaluated according to Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the clinical improvement in function compared to baseline. Heterogeneity was assessed across studies, and subgroup analysis was also performed based on the study type and follow-up duration. Results Three studies with a total of 352 participants were identified, and the clinically relevant improvement was used as the primary outcomes. Our meta-analysis revealed that no significant difference was observed between two comparison groups in terms of postoperative clinical improvement in those studies (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.25, P = 0.72). Meanwhile, subgroup analyses by study type and follow-up duration revealed the consistent results with the overall estimate. Additionally, the pre- and postoperative motor nerve conduction velocities were reported in two studies with a total of 326 patients, but we could not perform a meta-analysis because of the lack of concrete numerical value in one study. The quality of evidence for clinical improvement was ‘low’ or ‘moderate’ on the basis of GRADE approach. Conclusions Based on small numbers of studies with relatively poor methodological quality, the limited evidence is insufficient to identify the optimum anterior transposition technique in the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. The results of the present study suggest that anterior subcutaneous and submuscular transposition might be equally effective in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Therefore, more high-quality randomized controlled trials with standardized clinical improvement metrics are required to further clarify this topic and to provide reproducible pre- and postoperative objective outcomes. PMID:26114865

  1. The usefulness of terminal latency index of median nerve and f-wave difference between median and ulnar nerves in assessing the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Kang Min; Shin, Kyong Jin; Park, Jinse; Ha, Sam Yeol; Kim, Sung Eun

    2014-04-01

    The calculated electrophysiological parameters, such as terminal latency index (TLI), residual latency, modified F ratio, and F-wave inversion, have been investigated as a diagnostic tool for detection of early stage of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the literature. However, the correlation of these calculated electrophysiological parameters with the clinical severity of CTS has not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of the calculated electrophysiological parameters and clinical severity in patients with CTS. A retrospective study was performed with 212 hands of 106 CTS patients. The CTS hands were classified as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe according to the clinical severity. The distal motor latency and distal motor conduction velocity of median nerve, minimal F-wave latency of median and ulnar nerves, and sensory nerve conduction velocity in the finger-wrist and palm-wrist segment of median nerve (SNCV f-w and SNCV p-w) were obtained in a conventional nerve conduction study. The TLI, residual latency, and modified F ratio of the median nerve and the difference of minimal F-wave latencies between the median and ulnar nerves (F-diff M-U) were calculated. The distal motor latency, residual latency, and F-diff M-U were significantly increased according to the clinical severity of CTS. The motor conduction velocity, SNCV p-w, SNCV f-w, TLI, and modified F ratio were significantly decreased according to the clinical severity of CTS. In analyses of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test, we used the Scheffe test as a post-hoc comparison analysis. The TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w showed a significant difference among all groups of each CTS severity. The sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between asymptomatic and mild, mild and moderate, and moderate and severe CTS groups were calculated by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The cut-off values of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between the asymptomatic and mild CTS groups were, respectively, 0.33 millisecond, 0.3 millisecond, and 40 cm/second. The cut-off values of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between mild and moderate were, respectively, 0.27 millisecond, 2.3 milliseconds, and 34.8 cm/second. The cut-off values of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between moderate and severe CTS groups were, respectively, 0.20 millisecond, 4.2 milliseconds, and 26.4 cm/second. We found that calculated electrophysiological parameters of conventional nerve conduction study could be a good indicator to determine the severity of CTS. PMID:24691235

  2. Ulnar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour diagnosis in a mixed-breed dog as a model to study human: histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinicopathologic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Canine Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNSTs) are uncommonly reported in the ulnar, since they are underestimated relative to the more common spindle cell tumours of soft tissue. In dogs, MPNST accounts for 27% of nervous system tumours. In man, MPNST represents 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas and is often associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1).An 8-year-old, 9 kg, female mixed-breed dog with a subcutaneous mass on the upper right side of the ulnar region was presented to the small animal research and teaching hospital of Tehran University. The dog was anorexic with general weakness. The mass (7 × 4 cm) was removed surgically and processed routinely. Microscopically, the mass was composed of highly cellular areas with a homogeneous population of round or spindle cells, high cellular pleomorphism, high mitotic index and various morphologic patterns. Furthermore, spindle cells arranged in densely or loosely sweeping fascicles, interlacing whorls, or storiform patterns together with wavy cytoplasm, nuclear palisades, and round cells were arranged in sheets or cords with a meshwork of intratumoral nerve fibers. In addition, in this case the presence of neoplastic cells within the blood vessels was observed. Immunohistochemically, tumor was positive for vimentin and S-100 protein. The histopathologic features coupled with the S-100 and vimentin immunoreactivity led to a diagnosis of malignant neurofibroma. To the best of our knowledge, primary ulnar MPNST has not been reported in animals. This is the first documentation of an ulnar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in a dog. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1310907815984587 PMID:23688209

  3. Can local supply of bone marrow mononuclear cells improve the outcome from late tubular repair of human median and ulnar nerves?

    PubMed

    Braga-Silva, J; Gehlen, D; Padoin, A V; Machado, D C; Garicochea, B; Costa da Costa, J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this non-randomised retrospective study was to compare nerve regeneration after reconnection with silicone tubes with two different strategies. A total of 44 patients with injured median or ulnar nerves in the forearm were surgically treated. In one group of patients, a silicone tube alone was placed in the nerve gap. In a second group, the silicone tube was filled with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells obtained by aspiration from the iliac crest. Motor function, sensation and the effect of pain on function were assessed 1 year after surgery. The tubes filled with bone marrow cells showed better recovery than the empty tubes. The use of bone marrow mononuclear cells in addition to tube re-connection may promote better nerve regeneration than conventional tubular repair. PMID:18687837

  4. Tubular versus conventional repair of median and ulnar nerves in the human forearm: early results from a prospective, randomized, clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G; Rosén, B; Dahlin, L; Danielsen, N; Holmberg, J

    1997-01-01

    Injury to a peripheral nerve is followed by local synthesis and release of neurotrophic factors of importance for the regeneration process. This concept was adopted for repair of transected human median and ulnar nerves in the forearm. As an alternative to conventional microsurgical repair of the nerve trunk, silicone tubes of appropriate size were used to enclose the injury zone, intentionally leaving a gap measuring 3-4 mm between the nerve ends inside the tube. The early results from a prospective, randomized, clinical study comparing this principle with conventional microsurgical technique for repair of human median and ulnar nerves, is presented. Eighteen patients (14 men and 4 women), aged 12-72 (mean, 29.5) years, were randomized to either tubulization (11 cases) or conventional microsurgical repair (7 cases). A battery of tests for sensory and motor functions of the hand were carried out at regular intervals for up to 1 year after surgery. The results show no difference between the both techniques, with the exception of perception of touch, which showed a significant difference (p < .05) at the 3-month checkup in favor of the tubulization technique. At re-exploration 11 months after the initial procedure (1 case), the former gap was replaced by regenerated nerve tissue in direct continuity with the proximal and distal parts of the nerve trunk, the exact level of the former injury being impossible to identify. Study data demonstrate an intrinsic capacity of human major nerve trunks to reconstruct themselves in a preformed space when an optimal environment is offered and the surgical trauma is minimized. PMID:9018621

  5. Central changes in primary afferent fibers following peripheral nerve lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E Coggeshall; H. A Lekan; T. P Doubell; A Allchorne; C. J Woolf

    1997-01-01

    Cutting or crushing rat sciatic nerve does not significantly reduce the number of central myelinated sensory axons in the dorsal roots entering the fourth and fifth lumbar segments even over very extended periods of time. Unmyelinated axons were reduced by ?50%, but only long after sciatic nerve lesions (four to eight months), and reinnervation of the peripheral target did not

  6. Sensory ReEducation after Median Nerve Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. WYNN PARRY; M. SALTER

    1976-01-01

    Technique for re-educating sensory function after median nerve lesions at the wrist is described.Results of re-education of Twenty-three patients are presented. The functional results are good and belie the traditional view of sensory function after nerve suture.Recent advances in sensory neuro-physiology-are discussed which may explain the successes of this technique.

  7. Incomplete peripheral facial nerve palsy and ulnar neuropathy due to leprosy mistaken as faciobrachial stroke.

    PubMed

    Lalla, Rakesh; Mulherkar, Rupal Vijay; Misar, Parag Vijay

    2015-01-01

    A middle-aged woman was referred to our hospital emergency ward in view of acute onset left faciobrachial weakness. An urgent MRI of the brain was performed, which did not reveal any abnormality and hence a neurology consultation was arranged in order to rule out acute stroke. However, examination and retrospective history taking proved to be a valuable aid in this patient's diagnosis. The incomplete lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy and hand weakness due to leprosy in reaction was confused by the general practitioner as a faciobrachial stroke. PMID:26106179

  8. The nerve lesion in the carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, S

    1976-01-01

    The relative roles of pressure deformation and ischaemia in the production of compression nerve lesions remain a controversial issue. This paper concerns the genesis of the structural changes which follow compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. The initial lesion is an intrafunicular anoxia caused by obstruction to the venous return from the funiculi as the result of increased pressure in the tunnel. This leads to intrafunicular oedema and an increase in intrafunicular pressure which imperil and finally destroy nerve fibres by impairing their blood supply and by compression. The final outcome is the fibrous tissue replacement of the contents of the funiculi. Images PMID:993794

  9. Late Hardware-induced Sciatic Nerve Lesions After Acetabular Revision

    PubMed Central

    Ylinen, Pekka; Puusa, Asko; Paavilainen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    We encountered late hardware-induced sciatic nerve lesions after acetabular revision in six patients. There were five female patients and one male patient. The mean age of the patients at the time of index acetabular revision was 59.3 years (range, 42–76 years). The interval from the index acetabular revision to the onset of sciatic nerve symptoms averaged 9.4 months (range, 4–16 months) and that from the onset of symptoms to nerve release was 11.3 months (range, 8–13 months), except in two patients with intermittent symptoms in which it was 9 and 10.5 years, respectively. Sciatic nerve release was successful in two patients, but in four patients, the nerve had been partly or entirely cut by the metallic hardware resulting in a permanent deficit. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4 years; range, 2–7 years). Mechanical irritation should be suspected in the case of any late sign of peroneal neuropathy after acetabular revision with a macrocup or antiprotrusion device, and plate fixation of the posterior column. We recommend exploration and nerve release before a permanent lesion of the nerve has developed. Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18299949

  10. Axonal transcription factors signal retrogradely in lesioned peripheral nerve

    E-print Network

    Pilpel, Yitzhak

    ; neuronal injury; STAT Introduction Regeneration of lesioned peripheral nerves is dependent neurons. The involve- ment of importins in retrograde transport suggests that transcription factors (TFs, and is transported retrogradely with dynein and importin a5 to modulate survival of peripheral sensory neurons after

  11. Snoring-Induced Nerve Lesions in the Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Poothrikovil, Rajesh P; Al Abri, Mohammed A

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of habitual snoring is extremely high in the general population, and is reported to be roughly 40% in men and 20% in women. The low-frequency vibrations of snoring may cause physical trauma and, more specifically, peripheral nerve injuries, just as jobs which require workers to use vibrating tools over the course of many years result in local nerve lesions in the hands. Histopathological analysis of upper airway (UA) muscles have shown strong evidence of a varying severity of neurological lesions in groups of snoring patients. Neurophysiological assessment shows evidence of active and chronic denervation and re-innervation in the palatopharyngeal muscles of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. Neurogenic lesions of UA muscles induced by vibration trauma impair the reflex dilation abilities of the UA, leading to an increase in the possibility of UA collapse. The neurological factors which are partly responsible for the progressive nature of OSAS warrant the necessity of early assessment in habitual snorers. PMID:22548134

  12. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia.

    PubMed

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  13. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  14. Differential increases in rat retinal ganglion cell size with various methods of optic nerve lesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Moore; Solon Thanos

    1996-01-01

    Optic nerve injury is a well established paradigm for studying a variety of neuronal responses, although the actual method of nerve severance is rarely taken into account. This study assessed changes to ganglion cell size in three different methods of optic nerve lesions. Adult rats underwent either one of two types of mechanical nerve crush, or an axotomy. Ganglion cells

  15. Targeted Expression of a Multifunctional Chimeric Neurotrophin in the Lesioned Sciatic Nerve Accelerates Regeneration of Sensory and Motor Axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Funakoshi; Marten Risling; Thomas Carlstedt; Urban Lendahl; Tonis Timmusk; Madis Metsis; Yuji Yamamoto; Carlos F. Ibanez

    1998-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury markedly regulates expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in the lesioned nerve. However, the role of endogenously produced neurotrophins in the process of nerve regeneration is unclear. Expression of a multifunctional neurotrophin, panneurotrophin-1 (PNT-1), was targeted to the peripheral nerves of transgenic mice by using a gene promoter that is specifically activated after nerve lesion but that

  16. [Ulnar-sided wrist pain in sports : TFCC lesions and fractures of the hook of the hamate bone as uncommon diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Plöger, M M; Kabir, K; Friedrich, M J; Welle, K; Burger, C

    2015-06-01

    Injuries to the hand and wrist are common sports injuries. The diagnosis and therapy of wrist injuries are becoming more important, especially in increasingly more popular ball-hitting sports, such as golf, tennis and baseball. Ulnar-sided wrist pain is initially often misdiagnosed and treated as tenosynovitis or tendinitis but tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and fractures of the hook of hamate bone, which can also occur in these sports are seldomly diagnosed. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature focussing on TFCC lesions and fractures of the hook of the hamate bone in racquet sports, baseball and golf. A systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed on the occurrence of TFCC lesions and fractures of the hook of the hamate bone. All studies and case reports were included. Because of the rarity of these injuries there were no exclusion criteria concerning the number of cases. Injuries associated with ball-hitting sports, such as TFCC lesions and fractures of hook of the hamate bone are still underrepresented in the current literature on sports injuries. The diagnosis and treatment of these injuries are often delayed and can severely handicap the performance and career of affected professional as well as amateur athletes. PMID:25956726

  17. Monkey median nerve repaired by nerve graft or collagen nerve guide tube.

    PubMed

    Archibald, S J; Shefner, J; Krarup, C; Madison, R D

    1995-05-01

    Nerve regeneration was followed in 15 median and 1 ulnar nerve of eight Macaca fascicularis monkeys by serial electrophysiological assessments over a period of three and a half years. Nerve gaps of 5 mm at the wrist were bridged by collagen-based nerve guides, nerve autografts, or direct suture repairs. Thenar muscle reinnervation occurred between 50 and 70 d for all groups, indicating axonal elongation rates of approximately 1 mm/d. The recovery rates of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and the compound sensory action potential (CSAP) amplitudes were significantly slower after direct suture repair compared to the other two procedures, although the final levels of recovery were all comparable. Similar results were achieved in one median and one ulnar nerve following nerve guide repair of a 15 mm nerve gap. The functional reinnervation of Pacinian corpuscles was detected in all cases following either nerve graft or nerve guide repair, with similar amplitudes and latencies of the tactile evoked CSAP for both types of repair. Histological analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of myelinated axons in the median nerve distal to the nerve lesions following both nerve graft and nerve guide repairs compared to proximal and normal controls, with significant reductions of fiber diameter and corresponding increases in g-ratio. The return of a bimodal frequency distribution of myelinated axon fiber diameter was confirmed by three-dimensional surface plots which illustrate the frequency distribution of the relationship between fiber diameter and g-ratio. These combined results demonstrate that nerve regeneration after repair of a 5 mm nerve gap with a collagen nerve guide in the nonhuman primate is similar to that after graft repair, and the final level of physiological recovery for both repair procedures is comparable to direct suture repair of the median nerve. PMID:7751969

  18. Low-power laser efficacy in peripheral nerve lesion treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Nacu, Mihaela; Bruckner, Ion I.; Bunila, Daniela; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Ionescu, Elena

    1998-07-01

    In order to establish the low energy laser (LEL) effects on nervous tissue regeneration in clinical practice, we evaluated in double blind, placebo controlled study, the efficacy of LEL in the functional recovery of 46 patients with distal forearm post- traumatic nerve lesion, after surgical suture. The patients were divided into two groups: A-26 patients were treated with LEL; B- 20 patients, as control, were treated with placebo lasers and classical medical and physical therapy. Lasers used were: HeNe, 632.5 nm wavelength, 2 mW power, and GaAlAs diode laser, 880 nm wavelength, pulsed emission with an output power about 3 mW. Before, during and after the treatment, electromyography (EMG) and electroneurography (ENG) were done in order to measure objectively the efficacy of the treatment. We obtained good results after 4 - 5 months at 80.7% patients from group A and about the same results at 70% patients from group B, but after at least 8 months. The good results were noticed concerning the improvement of EMG and ENG registrations and on the involution of pain, inflammations, movements and force of the fingers. Finally we can say that the favorable results were obtained in at least half the time with LEL treatment faster than with classical therapy.

  19. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-05-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors.

  20. Optic nerve lesions in diabetic rats: blood flow to the optic nerve, permeability of micro blood vessels and histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun-Ping; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Song, Chen; Li, Xiang-Hong; Li, Yu-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    AIM To study optic nerve lesions, changes in blood flow to the optic nerve, and permeability of micro blood vessels and histopathology in diabetic rats. METHODS Male Wistar rats (n=20) were randomly divided into control and diabetic groups. The diabetic model was prepared by a single injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg) into the caudal vein. Three months later, laser Doppler perfusion imaging was used to observe the changes in blood flow to the optic nerve. Each rat was injected with 15g/L Evans blue (5µL/g). The permeability of microvessels in diabetic optic nerves was measured by spectrophotometry. Optic nerves were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS Diabetic rats had atrophic optic nerve fibers with neurite swelling, loss of myelin, and a greater-than-normal proliferation of astrocytes, occurring within 3 months of induction of diabetes. Blood flow to the optic nerve was lower in diabetic rats than in controls. Microvessel permeability in diabetic rats increased 2.03-fold compared to controls. CONCLUSION Diabetic rats develop significant pathological changes in the optic nerve, reduced blood flow to the optic nerve and increase microvessel permeability. PMID:22553576

  1. Absent median nerve P14 far-field somatosensory evoked potential with persistent tibial nerve P30 component in a patient with ischemic pontine lesion.

    PubMed

    Insola, A; Padua, L; Valeriani, M

    2011-05-01

    In a patient with an ischemic lesion of the right paramedian region of the pons, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recording to median nerve stimulation showed an absent P14 response with still preserved P13 and N18 potentials. The tibial nerve P30 and N33 SEP components were normal. Our results suggest that the median nerve P14 potential, absent in our patient, has a different origin from the tibial nerve P30 response, normal in the present case. PMID:21624710

  2. Electrophysiological findings in entrapment of the median nerve at wrist and elbow

    PubMed Central

    Buchthal, Fritz; Rosenfalck, Annelise; Trojaborg, Werner

    1974-01-01

    In 117 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 patients with a compression syndrome of the median nerve at elbow, motor and sensory conduction along the median and ulnar nerves and quantitative electromyography were compared with findings in 190 normal controls of the same age. In 25% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome in whom motor conduction and EMG were normal, the lesion was located from abnormalities in sensory conduction. The fact that conduction along the same fibres was moderately slowed from digit to palm, severely slowed across the flexor retinaculum, and normal from wrist to elbow indicates that slowing was due to demyelination at the site of compression. Fifteen per cent of the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome had clinical and electrophysiological signs of ulnar involvement. In the other patients conduction along the ulnar nerve was as in 100 normal controls. Compression at the elbow was located by electromyographical findings rather than by abnormalities in conduction. PMID:4829536

  3. Clinical utility of residual latency in ulnar neuropathy at elbow: Is there any correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Khosrawi, Saeid; Dehghan, Farnaz; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Residual latency is the time difference between measured and predicted distal conduction time. We investigated ulnar nerve residual latency in patients with ulnar neuropathy at elbow for the possibility of its clinical utility. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, ulnar nerve residual latency was calculated by using standard settings in 63 hands of patients who had signs and symptoms suggesting ulnar neuropathy at elbow and 94 healthy hands as the control group. Results: Mean ulnar nerve residual latency for case and control groups were 1.82 ± 0.45 and 1.59 ± 0.54 ms, respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in mean ulnar nerve residual latency between males and females and also between right and left hands (P > 0.05). By considering different cut-off points, the sensitivity and specificity of a residual latency of 2.86 ms were 70% and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: Ulnar nerve residual latency may reflect the effects of an axonal injury at elbow on distal ulnar motor fibers. So, its measurement may help in the diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at elbow. PMID:25709986

  4. E587 antigen is upregulated by goldfish oligodendrocytes after optic nerve lesion and supports retinal axon regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Ankerhold; Christian A. Leppert; Martin Bastmeyer; Claudia A. O. Stuermer

    1998-01-01

    The properties of glial cells in lesioned nerves contribute quite substan- tially to success or failure of axon regeneration in the CNS. Goldfish retinal axons regenerate after optic nerve lesion (ONS) and express the L1-like cell adhesion protein E587 antigen on their surfaces. Goldfish oligodendrocytes in vitro also produce E587 antigen and promote growth of both fish and rat retinal

  5. Rat Whisker Movement after Facial Nerve Lesion: Evidence for Autonomic Contraction of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, James T.; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Hohman, Marc H.; Knox, Christopher J.; Weinberg, Julie S.; Kleiss, Ingrid J.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervation was from autonomic, cholinergic axons traveling within the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (ION). Rats underwent unilateral facial nerve transection with repair (N=7) or resection without repair (N=11). Post-operative whisking amplitude was measured weekly across 10 weeks, and during intraoperative stimulation of the ION and facial nerves at ?18 weeks. Whisking was also measured after subsequent ION transection (N=6) or pharmacologic blocking of the autonomic ganglia using hexamethonium (N=3), and after snout cooling intended to elicit a vasodilation reflex (N=3). Whisking recovered more quickly and with greater amplitude in rats that underwent facial nerve repair compared to resection (P<0.05), but individual rats overlapped in whisking amplitude across both groups. In the resected rats, non-facial-nerve mediated whisking was elicited by electrical stimulation of the ION, temporarily diminished following hexamethonium injection, abolished by transection of the ION, and rapidly and significantly (P<0.05) increased by snout cooling. Moreover, fibrillation-related whisker movements decreased in all rats during the initial recovery period (indicative of reinnervation), but re-appeared in the resected rats after undergoing ION transection (indicative of motor denervation). Cholinergic, parasympathetic axons traveling within the ION innervate whisker pad vasculature, and immunohistochemistry for vasoactive intestinal peptide revealed these axons branching extensively over whisker pad muscles and contacting neuromuscular junctions after facial nerve resection. This study provides the first behavioral and anatomical evidence of spontaneous autonomic innervation of skeletal muscle after motor nerve lesion, which not only has implications for interpreting facial nerve reinnervation results, but also calls into question whether autonomic-mediated innervation of striated muscle occurs naturally in other forms of neuropathy. PMID:24480367

  6. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy After Distal Radius Fracture Malunion: Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Barbaric, Katarina; Rujevcan, Gordan; Labas, Marko; Delimar, Domagoj; Bicanic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Malunion of distal radius fracture is often complicated with shortening of the radius with disturbed radio- ulnar variance, frequently associated with lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Positive ulnar variance may result in wrist pain located in ulnar part of the joint, limited ulnar deviation and forearm rotation with development of degenerative changes due to the overloading that occurs between the ulnar head and corresponding carpus. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) is the standard procedure for correcting positive ulnar variance. Goal of this procedure is to minimize the symptoms by restoring the neutral radio - ulnar variance. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for ulnar shorthening osteotomy, their advantages and drawbacks. Methods of ulnar shortening osteotomies are divided into intraarticular and extraarticular. Intraarticular method of ulnar shortening can be performed arthroscopically or through open approach. Extraarticular methods include subcapital osteotomy and osteotomy of ulnar diaphysis, which depending on shape can be transverse, oblique, and step cut. All of those osteotomies can be performed along wrist arthroscopy in order to dispose and treat possibly existing triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. At the end we described surgical procedures that can be done in case of ulnar shorthening osteotomy failure.

  7. MicroRNA machinery responds to peripheral nerve lesion in an injury-regulated pattern

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Raafat, Mohamed; Pak, Elena; Hammond, Scott; Murashov, Alexander K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, functional and potent RNA interference (RNAi) has been reported in peripheral nerve axons transfected with short-interfering RNA (siRNA). In addition, components of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have been identified in axotomized sciatic nerve fibers as well as in regenerating dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro. Based on these observations, and on the fact that siRNA and microRNAs (miRNA) share the same effector enzymes, we hypothesized that the endogenous miRNA biosynthetic pathway would respond to peripheral nerve injury. To answer this question, we investigated changes in the expression of miRNA biosynthetic enzymes following peripheral nerve crush injury in mice. Here we show that several pivotal miRNA biosynthetic enzymes are expressed in an injury-regulated pattern in sciatic nerve in vivo, and in DRG axons in vitro. Moreover, the sciatic nerve lesion induced expression of mRNA-processing bodies (P-bodies), which are the local foci of mRNA degradation in DRG axons. In addition, a group of injury-regulated miRNAs was identified by miRNA microarray and validated by qPCR and in situ hybridization analyses. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that the peripheral nerve regeneration processes may be regulated by miRNA pathway. PMID:21689732

  8. Tinnitus in fourth nerve palsy: an indicator for an intra-axial lesion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Young; Song, Jae Jin; Hwang, Jeong Min; Kim, Ji Soo

    2010-12-01

    Accompanying neurological symptoms and signs are diagnostic hallmarks of fourth nerve palsy (4NP) from an intra-axial lesion. Due to the proximity of the trochlear nucleus and fascicles to the inferior colliculus (IC), auditory symptoms including tinnitus may occur with an intra-axial 4NP. A 53-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes developed right 4NP with a sudden worsening of tinnitus. MRI disclosed an infarction involving the trochlear fascicle and IC in the left dorsal midbrain. Tinnitus may be a symptom indicating an intra-axial lesion causing a 4NP. PMID:20581691

  9. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Gispen; N. L. U. Meeteren; J. H. Brakkee; P. J. M. Helders; V. M. Wiegant

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min shock box session where rats received three electric footshocks each session

  10. Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: Ulnar Shortening vs. Arthroscopic Wafer Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Smet, Luc De; Vandenberghe, Lore; Degreef, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of ulnar shortenings was compared with that of arthroscopic wafer resections for ulnar impaction (or abutment) syndrome in patients with a positive ulnar variance. The outcome was measured by DASH score, visual analog scale for pain, and working incapacity. The mean DASH score in the ulnar shortening group was 26; in the wafer group it was 36. The VAS scores were respectively 4.4 and 4.6. The working incapacity was 7?months in the ulnar shortening group and 6.1 months in the wafer group. The differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. PMID:25032075

  11. The variable clinical manifestations of ulnar neuropathies at the elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J D Stewart

    1987-01-01

    In twenty-five cases of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, the involvement of the fibres from three sensory and to four motor branches were examined clinically and, where possible, electrophysiologically. Of the sensory fibres, those from the terminal digital nerves were most commonly involved. The fibres to the hand muscles were much more frequently involved than those to the forearm muscles.

  12. The extent of cytokine induction in peripheral nerve lesions depends on the mode of injury and NMDA receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kleinschnitz, C; Brinkhoff, J; Zelenka, M; Sommer, C; Stoll, G

    2004-04-01

    We compared cytokine and chemokine induction in mice after sciatic nerve crush and chronic constriction injury (CCI) by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In both nerve lesion paradigms, transcripts for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased in degenerating nerve stumps already at day 1, with a greater magnitude and longer duration in CCI. NMDA receptor blockade significantly reduced cytokine expression after CCI on the mRNA and protein level. In dorsal root ganglia, only IL-10 mRNA levels were modified after nerve injury. Our study indicates that the mode of nerve injury influences the extent of cytokine expression, and identifies NMDA-mediated signaling as one mechanism of cytokine induction in peripheral nerves. PMID:15020067

  13. Selective measurement of digital nerve conduction velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Terai; Masuo Senda; Hiroyuki Hashizume; Hiroaki Nagashima; Hajime Inoue

    2001-01-01

    We developed a new method to measure the nerve conduction velocity of a single digital nerve. In 27 volunteers (27 hands),\\u000a we separately stimulated each digital nerve on the radial and ulnar sides of the middle and ring fingers. A double-peaked\\u000a potential was recorded above the median nerve at the wrist joint when either the radial-side nerve or the ulnar-side

  14. Effects of ?-tocopherol on nerve conduction velocity and regeneration following a freeze lesion in immature diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Love; M. A. Cotter; N. E. Cameron

    1996-01-01

    We investigated whether anti-oxidant treatment with ?-tocopherol (1?g kg–1 day–1) could prevent the blunting of the normal maturational increase in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity when diabetes\\u000a is induced by streptozotocin in young rats. A further study in the same rats examined effects on myelinated fibre regeneration\\u000a distance 14 days after a punctate sciatic nerve lesion by a liquid

  15. Effects of Adrenal Medulla and Sciatic Nerve Co-Grafts in Rats with Unilateral Substantia Nigra Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Freed, William J.; Willingham, George; Heim, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Major limitations of adrenal medulla transplantation in animal models of Parkinson's disease have been the relatively small behavioral effects and the poor or inconsistent graft survival. Transplantation of fragments of sural nerve in combination with adrenal medulla has been reported to increase the survival of chromaffin cells in adrenal medulla grafts in primates. In the present study, the possibility was tested that peripheral nerve co-grafts would increase the functional effects of adrenal medulla grafts in a 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model. Animals received unilateral substantia nigra lesions, and subsequently received intraventricular grafts of adrenal medulla, sciatic nerve, adrenal medulla plus sciatic nerve, or sham grafts consisting of medium only. Functional effects of the grafts were tested using apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The sciatic nerve co-grafts did not increase the survival of TH-immunoreactive chromaffin cells. The co-grafting treatment also did not augment the overall effect of adrenal medulla grafts on rotational behavior. In the animals with substantial numbers of surviving chromaffin cells, however, the animals with sciatic nerve co-grafts showed greater decreases in rotational behavior as compared to the animals with adrenal medulla grafts alone, even though the number of surviving cells was not increased. PMID:1355367

  16. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nico L. U. van Meeteren; Jan H. Brakkee; Frank P. T. Hamers; Paul J. M. Helders; Willem H. Gispen

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve.Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats, one random selected group was subjected to 24 days of exercise training, whereas the other group served

  17. Slowed motor conduction in lumbosacral nerve roots in cauda equina lesions: a new diagnostic technique.

    PubMed Central

    Swash, M; Snooks, S J

    1986-01-01

    New techniques have been developed for the electrophysiological assessment of patients with suspected cauda equina lesions using transcutaneous spinal stimulation (500-1500 V: time constant 50 microseconds) to measure motor latencies to the external and sphincter and puborectalis muscles from L1 and L4 vertebral levels. These latencies represent motor conduction in the S3 and S4 motor roots of the cauda equina between these levels. Similarly motor latencies can be recorded from spinal stimulation to the anterior tibial muscles (L4 and L5 motor roots). Transrectal stimulation of the pudendal nerves is used to measure the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency. In 32 control subjects, matched for age and sex, mean motor latencies from L1 and L4 spinal stimulation were 5.5 +/- 0.4 ms and 4.4 +/- 0.4 ms (mean + SD). In the 10 patients with cauda equina disease including ependymoma, spinal stenosis, arachnoiditis and trauma, these latencies were 7.2 +/- 0.8 ms and 4.6 +/- 0.9 ms, a significant increase in the L1 latency. The L1/L4 latency ratios to the puborectalis muscle were 1.36 +/- 0.09 in control subjects and 1.72 +/- 0.13 in cauda equina patients. Pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies were normal in eight of the 10 patients with cauda equina disease. The single fibre EMG fibre density in the external and sphincter muscle (normal, 1.5 +/- 0.16) was increased in patients with cauda equina lesions (1.73 +/- 0.28), but was increased more than two standard deviations from the mean only in three patients. This increase in fibre density was not of diagnostic value since it was also found in two of the four patients with low back pain. Slowing of motor conduction in the cauda equina is thus a useful indication of damage to these intraspinal motor roots. These investigations can be used in the selection of patients for myelography, and to follow progress in patients managed conservatively. Images PMID:3018168

  18. Rapidly Expanding Ulnar False Aneurysm Related to a Tablet Computer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Blanco, Álvaro; Gómez-Palonés, Francisco; Ortiz-Monzón, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysms of the ulnar artery are rare, usually related to the hypothenar hammer syndrome and caused by repetitive blunt trauma over the hook of the hamate bone. However, rapidly expanding ulnar false aneurysms are extremely rare, and nearly all are caused by a penetrating injury. We report a singular case of rapidly expanding pseudoaneurysm caused by the repetitive use of the hypothenar eminence as the supporting point of a tablet computer. This tablet model has a notch on its posterior side that played an essential role in the pathogenesis. This report illustrate that even low-intensity trauma can be an exceptional cause of injury to the palmar portion of the ulnar artery, and subsequently, can lead to the development of these lesions. The false aneurysm was repaired by means of resection and reconstruction by an end-to-end anastomosis because a rapid diagnosis and surgical treatment can prevent further complications. PMID:25681171

  19. Implications of the failure of nerve resection and graft to cure chronic pain produced by nerve lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Noordenbos, W; Wall, P D

    1981-01-01

    Seven patients had developed pain and abnormal sensitivity in the area supplied by a single nerve which had been injured. They were treated unsuccessfully for periods ranging from 3 to 108 months by conservative methods including neurolysis, local anaesthesia, sympathetic blocks, guanethidine, transcutaneous stimulation and analgesics. All then had the damaged nerve resected and in five cases a sural nerve graft was inserted to bridge the resected gap. The patients were then examined 20 to 72 months after the operation. In all seven cases pain and abnormal sensitivity of some intensity recurred in the same area and with the same qualitative characteristic as experienced before the operation. This operation should not be done in patients with this condition. Reasons are given to suggest that peripheral nerve damage induces changes in the central nervous system which are not reversed by treatment directed at the area of the original injury. PMID:7334401

  20. Usefulness of Ultrasound for Detecting Suspected Peripheral Nerve Lesions in Diagnosis of Peripheral Neuropathy : Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Hai; Choi, Soon-Kyoo; Shim, Jae-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound scanning of a peripheral nerve along its expected course is a simple and useful method for determining the cause of peripheral neuropathy. We present 3 cases of peripheral neuropathy in which the pathology was detected by simple ultrasound scanning of the affected nerve. There were 2 cases of entrapment neuropathy due to mucoid cyst and 1 case of nerve sheath tumor. All lesions were visualized by simple ultrasound scanning of the involved peripheral nerve. Our results suggest that if a lesion affecting the peripheral nerve is suspected after history and physical examination or electrophysiologic studies, ultrasound scanning of the peripheral nerve of interest throughout its course is very helpful for identifying the causative lesion. PMID:23560182

  1. Stem cell salvage of injured peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Grimoldi, Nadia; Colleoni, Federica; Tiberio, Francesca; Vetrano, Ignazio G; Cappellari, Alberto; Costa, Antonella; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Giordano, Rosaria; Spagnoli, Diego; Pluderi, Mauro; Gatti, Stefano; Morbin, Michela; Gaini, Sergio M; Rebulla, Paolo; Bresolin, Nereo; Torrente, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a collagen tube filled with autologous skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) for bridging long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Here we present a case report describing a compassionate use of this graft for repairing the polyinjured motor and sensory nerves of the upper arms of a patient. Preclinical assessment was performed with collagen/SDSC implantation in rats after sectioning the sciatic nerve. For the patient, during the 3-year follow-up period, functional recovery of injured median and ulnar nerves was assessed by pinch gauge test and static two-point discrimination and touch test with monofilaments, along with electrophysiological and MRI examinations. Preclinical experiments in rats revealed rescue of sciatic nerve and no side effects of patient-derived SDSC transplantation (30 and 180 days of treatment). In the patient treatment, motor and sensory functions of the median nerve demonstrated ongoing recovery postimplantation during the follow-up period. The results indicate that the collagen/SDSC artificial nerve graft could be used for surgical repair of larger defects in major lesions of peripheral nerves, increasing patient quality of life by saving the upper arms from amputation. PMID:24268028

  2. Changes in brainstem calcitonin gene-related peptide after VIIth and VIIIth cranial nerve lesions in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G C; Ross, C D; Thompson, A M; Byers, J M

    1995-06-12

    The present study investigated the effect of seventh and eight cranial nerve lesions on the prominence of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the hypoglossal (XII), facial (VII), abducens (VI), and oculomotor (III) cranial nerve nuclei. Guinea pigs were anesthetized and subjected to unilateral cochlear removal, vestibular end organ ablation, and seventh nerve transection. After a survival period ranging from 4 h to 5 days, each animal was anesthetized and perfused intracardially. Frozen sections were collected through the brainstem and stained immunohistochemically for calcitonin gene-related peptide using a polyclonal antibody with the Vectastain ABC kit and protocol. Positive cells were counted in each nucleus bilaterally and analyzed for side to side differences. Nuclei XII and III showed no significant difference in the numbers of cells staining positively for calcitonin gene-related peptide between the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides to the lesion. However, nuclei VII and VI showed elevated numbers ipsilateral to the lesion on some days, but not all. For VII, there was no significant difference before 24 h, but there were significant differences 1-5 days after the lesion. Similarly, in VI, there was no difference before 24 h, but differences were significant beginning with day 1 and continuing through day 3, and finally disappearing by day 4. Changes in the numbers of CGRP positive cells in VII measurable 24 h after the lesion and continuing for at least 5 days afterward indicate a central nervous system retrograde response to peripheral motor nerve injury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7552338

  3. Loss of dorsal root ganglion cells concomitant with dorsal root axon sprouting following segmental nerve lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Lekan; K. Chung; Y. W. Yoon; J. M. Chung; R. E. Coggeshall

    1997-01-01

    Tight ligation of the fifth and sixth lumbar segmental nerves in the rat provides a model of neuropathic pain. We used this model to assess the changes in primary afferent input to the dorsal horn in neuropathic pain syndromes. Dorsal roots and ganglia were examined for up to 32 weeks following segmental nerve ligation. Stereologic and morphometric techniques revealed a

  4. Differential effects of lesions of the vomeronasal and olfactory nerves on garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) responses to airborne chemical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zuri, Ido; Halpern, Mimi

    2003-02-01

    The roles of the main (MOS) and accessory (AOS) olfactory systems of garter snakes in response to airborne chemicals were investigated. Preoperatively, all snakes responded to airborne odors with increased tongue-flick rate and duration. Postoperatively, sham-operated snakes responded to airborne odors with increased tongue-flick rates, but snakes with main olfactory nerve cuts failed to respond to the odors, and snakes with vomeronasal nerve cuts responded to nonprey odors only. Preoperatively, exposure to earthworm odor produced more frequent and shorter duration tongue-flicks during locomotion compared with exposure to water. Postoperatively, only sham-lesioned snakes exhibited differential responding to earthworm odors. This study demonstrates that the MOS is critical for the initiation of tongue-flick behavior in response to airborne odors and that discrimination of odors with biological significance requires a functional AOS. PMID:12619919

  5. Modified Quad surgery significantly improves the median nerve conduction and functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nerve conduction studies or somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have become an important tool in the investigation of peripheral nerve lesions, and is sensitive in detecting brachial plexus nerve injury, and other nerve injuries. To investigate whether the modified Quad surgical procedure improves nerve conductivity and functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus nerve injury (OBPI) patients. Methods All nerves were tested with direct functional electrical stimulation. A Prass probe was used to stimulate the nerves, and recording the response, the compound motor action potential (CMAP) in the muscle. SSEP monitoring was performed pre- and post modified Quad surgery, stimulating the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist, the radial nerve over the dorsum of the hand, recording the peripheral, cervical and cortical responses. All patients have had the modified Quad surgery (n?=?19). The modified Quad surgery is a muscle release and transfer surgery with nerve decompressions. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by evaluating video recordings of standardized movements, the modified Mallet scale to index active shoulder movements. Results The cervical responses were significantly lower in amplitude in the affected arm than the un-affected arm. The median nerve conduction was significantly improved from 8.04 to 9.26 (P?nerve conduction, and shoulder abduction were significantly improved in OBPI children, who have undergone the modified Quad procedure with neuroplasty, internal microneurolysis and tetanic stimulation of the median nerve. PMID:23714699

  6. Imaging the cranial nerves: Part I: Methodology, infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Borges; Jan Casselman

    2007-01-01

    Many disease processes manifest either primarily or secondarily by cranial nerve deficits. Neurologists, ENT surgeons, ophthalmologists\\u000a and maxillo-facial surgeons are often confronted with patients with symptoms and signs of cranial nerve dysfunction. Seeking\\u000a the cause of this dysfunction is a common indication for imaging. In recent decades we have witnessed an unprecedented improvement\\u000a in imaging techniques, allowing direct visualization of

  7. Methyl group deficiency in nerve tissue: A hypothesis to explain the lesion of subacute combined degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Dinn; D. G. Weir; S. McCann; B. Reed; P. Wilson; J. M. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Summary  The pattern of degeneration induced in the spinal cords and peripheral nerves of 4 monkeys exposed to nitrous oxide resembles\\u000a subacute combined degeneration found in man with untreated vitamin B12 deficiency. Our findings indicate that nitrous oxide directly inhibits the folate dependent methionine synthetase reaction.\\u000a This ultimately results in ‘methyl group deficiency’ with consequent defective remethylation of essential constituents of

  8. Arthroscopic distal metaphyseal ulnar shortening osteotomy for ulnar impaction syndrome: a different technique.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua-Wei; Qiu, Yan-Qun; Shen, Yun-Dong; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Xu, Wen-Dong

    2013-11-01

    Ulnar impaction syndrome generally occurs with positive ulnar variance. The solution to the problem is to unload the ulnocarpal joint. Effective surgical options include diaphyseal ulnar shortening osteotomy, open wafer osteotomy, and arthroscopic wafer osteotomy. Recently, Slade and Gillon described an open procedure of ulnar shortening in the osteochondral region of the ulnar head. The procedure minimizes the risk of hemarthrosis and does not require hardware removal, which are problems with other surgical options. This article introduces a new arthroscopic technique of distal metaphyseal ulnar shortening osteotomy for ulnar impaction syndrome. This technique offers the advantages of minimizing surgical injury to the dorsal capsule of the distal radoulnar joint and so protects its stability. PMID:24206993

  9. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martins Lima, Êmyle; Teixeira Goes, Bruno; Zugaib Cavalcanti, João; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4?Hz), and High-TENS (100?Hz). The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2?h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12??m diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2??m diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity. PMID:25147807

  10. Unusual presentation of multiple nerve entrapment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Citisli, Veli; Kocaoglu, Murat; Göcmen, Selcuk; Korucu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is the most common form of ulnar nerve entrapment and the second most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity after carpal tunnel syndrome. However, bilateral compressive ulnar neuropathy is a rare condition. Electro diagnostic studies are a valid and reliable means of confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25870738

  11. Endogenous prostaglandins and afferent sensory nerves in gastroprotective effect of hydrogen sulfide against stress-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Surmiak, Marcin; Strzalka, Malgorzata; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Wallace, John L; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in human physiology, exerting vasodilatory, neuromodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. H2S has been implicated in the mechanism of gastrointestinal integrity but whether this gaseous mediator can affect hemorrhagic lesions induced by stress has been little elucidated. We studied the effect of the H2S precursor L-cysteine, H2S-donor NaHS, the H2S synthesizing enzyme (CSE) activity inhibitor- D,L-propargylglycine (PAG) and the gastric H2S production by CSE/CBS/3-MST activity in water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) ulcerogenesis and the accompanying changes in gastric blood flow (GBF). The role of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sensory afferent nerves releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the mechanism of gastroprotection induced by H2S was examined in capsaicin-denervated rats and those pretreated with capsazepine to inhibit activity of vanilloid receptors (VR-1). Rats were pretreated with vehicle, NaHS, the donor of H2S and or L-cysteine, the H2S precursor, with or without the concurrent treatment with 1) nonselective (indomethacin) and selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) or COX-2 (rofecoxib) inhibitors. The expression of mRNA and protein for COX-1 and COX-2 were analyzed in gastric mucosa pretreated with NaHS with or without PAG. Both NaHS and L-cysteine dose-dependently attenuated severity of WRS-induced gastric lesions and significantly increased GBF. These effects were significantly reduced by pretreatment with PAG and capsaicin denervation. NaHS increased gastric H2S production via CSE/CBS but not 3-MST activity. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity significantly diminished NaHS- and L-cysteine-induced protection and hyperemia. NaHS increased expression of COX-1, COX-2 mRNAs and proteins and raised CGRP mRNA expression. These effects of NaHS on COX-1 and COX-2 protein contents were reversed by PAG and capsaicin denervation. We conclude that H2S exerts gastroprotection against WRS-induced gastric lesions by the mechanism involving enhancement in gastric microcirculation mediated by endogenous PGs, sensory afferent nerves releasing CGRP and the activation of VR-1 receptors. PMID:25774496

  12. Injury to ulnar collateral ligament of thumb.

    PubMed

    Madan, Simerjit Singh; Pai, Dinker R; Kaur, Avneet; Dixit, Ruchita

    2014-02-01

    Injury of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of thumb can be incapacitating if untreated or not treated properly. This injury is notorious for frequently being missed by inexperienced health care personnel in emergency departments. It has frequently been described in skiers, but also occurs in other sports such as rugby, soccer, handball, basketball, volleyball and even after a handshake. The UCL of the thumb acts as a primary restraint to valgus stress and is injured if hyperabduction and hyperextension forces are applied to the first metacarpophalangeal joint. The diagnosis is best established clinically, though MRI is the imaging modality of choice. Many treatment options exist, surgical treatment being offered depending on various factors, including timing of presentation (acute or chronic), grade (severity of injury), displacement (Stener lesion), location of tear (mid-substance or peripheral), associated or concomitant surrounding tissue injury (bone, volar plate, etc.), and patient-related factors (occupational demands, etc.). This review aims to identify the optimal diagnostic techniques and management options for UCL injury available thus far. PMID:24590986

  13. Low-energy laser action on median and radial nerve post-traumatic lesion after surgical suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Bunila, Daniela; Crangulescu, Nicolae; Nacu, Mihaela; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Stanciulescu, Viorica; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1996-01-01

    The low energy laser (LEL) biostimulatory effects on nervous tissue regeneration are well known. Thirty two patients with medial and/or radial nerve traumatic forearm lesion after surgical suture were divided into two groups: A-18 patients were treated with LEL; B-14 patients, witness, were treated with placebo lasers and classical medical and physical therapy. Lasers used were: HeNe, 632.5 nm wavelength, 2 mW power, and GaAlAs diode laser, 880 nm wavelength, pulsed emission with an output power 2 mW. Before, during, and after treatment EMG was done in order to measure objectively the efficiency of the treatment. We obtained good results after 4 - 5 months at 14 patients (77.7%) from group A and about the same results at 10 patients (71.3%) from group B, but after at least 8 months the good results were noticed concerning the improvements of EMG registration and on movements and force of the fingers. Finally we can say that the favorable results were obtained in at least twice shorter time with LEL treatment than with classical therapy.

  14. Light and ultrastructural study of sciatic nerve lesions induced using intraneural injection of viable Mycobacterium leprae in normal and immunosuppressed Swiss white mice.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vanaja Prabhakar; Antia, Noshir Hormusji

    2002-03-01

    Freshly harvested M. leprae were microinjected into the sciatic nerves of nonimmunosuppressed (non-TR) and immunosuppressed (TR) mice using the technique described by Wisniewski and Bloom. The lesions thus induced, on bypassing the blood-nerve barrier, were biopsied at regular intervals beginning 24 hr and followed up to one year. The fate of M. leprae and the ensuing inflammation and nerve damage were studied using light and electron microscopy. The lesions in both non-TR and TR mice at 24 hr showed an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and an increase in mast cells. The influx and peaking of lymphocytes were delayed by two weeks and 6 weeks, respectively, in TR mice, but the density of lymphocytes at the peak intervals was comparable in both. The plasma cells denoting the humoral response were seen in both, but there was a delay of 3 weeks in non-TR mice. The lesions in non-TR mice showed differentiation of macrophages into epithelioid cells and the formation of giant cells depicting borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT), Whereas in TR mice, the macrophages showed foamy cytoplasmic changes depicting borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL). Other significant observations common to both non-TR and TR mice were: a) The lesions remained highly localized and showed signs of regression at the 6th and the 12th month intervals. b) The characteristic segmental demyelination and some attempt at remyelination were seen at the site. c) The influx of lymphocytes concorded well with demyelination. d) Bacteria were only seen in the macrophages and never in the Schwann cells or endothelial cells. e) Bacteria persisted in the macrophages, but appeared progressively degenerate at the 6th and 12th post-inoculation months, suggesting loss of viability. The study shows that there was a very effective containment of the infection and that the Schwann cells were resistant to M. leprae infection in the neural milieu. Nerve damage and Schwann cell bacillation do not go hand-in-hand. PMID:12120037

  15. A fully implanted drug delivery system for peripheral nerve blocks in behaving animals.

    PubMed

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Jordon, Luke R; Kim, Peter; Miller, Lee E

    2009-09-15

    Inhibiting peripheral nerve function can be useful for many studies of the nervous system or motor control. Accomplishing this in a temporary fashion in animal models by using peripheral nerve blocks permits studies of the immediate effects of the loss, and/or any resulting short-term changes and adaptations in behavior or motor control, while avoiding the complications commonly associated with permanent lesions, such as sores or self-mutilation. We have developed a method of quickly and repeatedly inducing temporary, controlled motor deficits in rhesus macaque monkeys via a chronically implanted drug delivery system. This assembly consists of a nerve cuff and a subdermal injection dome, and has proved effective for delivering local anesthetics directly to peripheral nerves for many months. Using this assembly for median and ulnar nerve blocks routinely resulted in over 80% losses in hand and wrist strength for rhesus monkeys. The assembly was also effective for inducing ambulatory motor deficits in rabbits through blocks of the sciatic nerve. Interestingly, while standard anesthetics were sufficient for the rabbit nerve blocks, the inclusion of epinephrine was essential for achieving significant motor blockade in the monkeys. PMID:19524613

  16. Congenital Ulnar Drift in a Surgeon

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Desirae; Eliasson, Shannon; Griswold, John

    2015-01-01

    Windblown hand is a term used in many instances to describe ulnar deviations of the fingers with or without other malformations. In 1994 Wood reviewed all of the descriptions of cases of windblown hand and pointed out how many variants of congenital ulnar drift there are, suggesting that the many variations seen may all belong to a larger type of arthrogryposis. While the most common cause of ulnar deviation of the fingers is rheumatoid arthritis, it can also be caused by other conditions such as windblown hand or Jaccoud's arthropathy. While most hand surgeons are familiar with presentations of congenital ulnar drift, few of them are knowledgeable about Jaccoud's arthropathy as this is usually discussed within medical communities such as Rheumatology. We present a case of a surgeon who has had noticeable ulnar deviation of the digits at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joint since his early 20s. We propose that the current case is a demonstration of a type of windblown hand that has some hereditary component but is not immediately obvious at birth and presents physically more like Jaccoud's arthropathy than traditional windblown hand.

  17. MR demonstration of an anomalous muscle in a patient with coexistent carpal and ulnar tunnel syndrome. Case report and literature summary.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, J; Jakab, E

    1995-01-01

    An aberrant muscle is demonstrated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a patient presenting with focal wrist swelling and compression neuropathy of median and ulnar nerves following 4 months of carpentry work. The muscle originated from the palmaris longus tendon and ulnar antebrachial fascia at the lower half of the forearm as a single belly, then diverged medially from palmaris longus tendon and bifurcated. Both portions of the split muscle extended into the distal ulnar tunnel or Guyon's canal. One segment joined with the abductor digiti minimi muscle and the other with the flexor retinaculum. MR was able to clearly delineate this hypertrophied, symptomatic muscle anomaly. It may be helpful when mass effect is suspected in either tunnel, or in patients with atypical work-related carpal tunnel syndrome with evidence of significant ulnar neuropathy for evaluation of underlying anomalous musculature. Normal MR images of the wrist are included for comparison and the literature is reviewed. PMID:7773871

  18. Reconstruction of upper-extremity peripheral-nerve injuries with ePTFE conduits.

    PubMed

    Stanec, S; Stanec, Z

    1998-05-01

    This reported investigation was designed to determine the role of a new synthetic conduit-expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tube--in clinical repair of median and ulnar nerves in the upper extremities. The main goals of this study were: to determine the effectiveness of the ePTFE conduit in clinical nerve reconstruction; to evaluate the potential of this technique in reconstruction of various nerve gaps (1.5 to 6 cm); and to analyze the results of repair with the ePTFE tube regarding different mechanisms of injury. Forty-three patients were evaluated. They had upper-extremity peripheral-nerve injuries (21 injuries to the median nerve, and 22 ulnar nerve injuries) located at the various levels of the upper extremities. All surgical procedures described in the study were secondary reconstructions, and the average delay from injury to repair was 4.2 months. With regard to the nerve-gap lengths, patients were categorized in two groups. Group 1 (gaps from 1.5 to 4 cm) included 28 patients (17 median nerve injuries and 11 ulnar nerve injuries), and Group 2 (gaps from 4.1 to 6 cm) comprised 15 patients (4 median nerve injuries and 11 ulnar nerve injuries). Results showed that 78.6 percent of patients from Group 1 demonstrated functional motor and sensory recovery, while reconstruction of only 13.3 percent of peripheral nerves from Group 2 resulted in useful reinnervation. According to published results, ePTFE conduit is a reliable and successful surgical procedure for nerve repair in reconstruction of nerve gaps up to 4 cm between the ends of median and ulnar nerves in various levels of the upper extremity. Because of its properties, ePTFE conduit has the advantages of promoting better nerve regeneration, compared to other synthetic tubes, especially in reconstruction of proximal nerve injuries, larger nerve gaps, and in cases with unfavorable mechanisms of nerve injury. PMID:9618088

  19. Effect of chronic sciatic nerve lesion on the neurogenic inflammatory response in intact and acutely injured denervated rat skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bassirat; R. D. Helme; Z. Khalil

    1996-01-01

    A supersensitivity to the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has been shown to develop in post-terminal membranes of many denervated tissues. This study examined changes in the sensitivity of post-terminal vascular receptors to SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat skin microvasculature following sciatic nerve section. In anaesthetised rats, 0.5 cm of sciatic nerve in the right mid-thigh region was

  20. Interaction between selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors and capsaicin-sensitive afferent sensory nerves in pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric lesions. Role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kwiecien, S; Konturek, P C; Sliwowski, Z; Mitis-Musiol, M; Pawlik, M W; Brzozowski, B; Jasnos, K; Magierowski, M; Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T

    2012-04-01

    Gastric microcirculation plays an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal gastric integrity and the mechanism of injury as well as providing protection to the gastric mucosa. Disturbances in the blood perfusion, through the microcapillaries within the gastric mucosa may result in the formation of mucosal damage. Acute gastric mucosal lesions constitute an important clinical problem. Originally, one of the essential component of maintaining the gastric mucosal integrity was the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs), an issue that has captured the attention of numerous investigations. PGs form due to the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme which is divided into 2 isoforms: constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) ones. The inhibition of COX-1 by SC-560, or COX-2 by rofecoxib, reduces gastric blood flow (GBF) and impairs gastric mucosal integrity. Another detrimental effect on the gastric mucosal barrier results from the ablation of sensory afferent nerves by neurotoxic doses of capsaicin. Functional ablation of the sensory afferent nerves by capsaicin attenuates GBF and also renders the gastric mucosa more susceptible to gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, aspirin and stress. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the interaction between COX specific inhibitors and afferent sensory nerves has not been extensively studied. The aim of our present study was to determine the participation of ROS in pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric lesions in rats administered with SC-560 or rofecoxib, with or without ablation of the sensory afferent nerves. ROS were estimated by measuring the gastric mucosal tissue level of MDA and 4-HNE, the products of lipid peroxidation by ROS as well as the SOD activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, both considered to be scavengers of ROS. It was demonstrated that exposure to 3.5 h of WRS resulted in gastric lesions, causing a significant increase of MDA and 4-HNE in the gastric mucosa, accompanied by a decrease of SOD activity and mucosal GSH level. Pretreatment with COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors (SC-560 and rofecoxib, respectively) aggravated the number of gastric lesions, decreased GBF, attenuated GSH level without further significant changes in MDA and 4-HNE tissue levels and SOD activity. Furthermore, the capsaicin--nactivation of sensory nerves resulted in exaggeration of gastric mucosal damage induced by WRS and this was further augmented by rofecoxib. We conclude that oxidative stress, as reflected by an increase of MDA and 4-HNE tissue concentrations (an index of lipid peroxidation), as well as decrease of SOD activity and the fall in GSH tissue level, may play an important role in the mechanism of interaction between the inhibition of COX activity and afferent sensory nerves releasing vasoactive neuropeptides. This is supported by the fact that the addition of specific COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors to animals with capsaicin denervation led to exacerbation of gastric lesions, and further fall in the antioxidizing status of gastric mucosa exposed to stress. PMID:22653901

  1. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. METHODS: We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. RESULTS: Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 ?g/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) with GSE restored the protection and accompanying hyperemic effects of GSE in rats with capsaicin denervation. CONCLUSION: GSE exerts a potent gastroprotective activity against ethanol and WRS-induced gastric lesions via an increase in endogenous PG generation, suppression of lipid peroxidation and hyperemia possibly mediated by NO and CGRP released from sensory nerves. PMID:16425415

  2. Motor nerve conduction velocity in asymptomatic lead workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-E. Paulev; C. Gry; M. Døssing

    1979-01-01

    No difference was found between the nerve conduction velocities of the ulnar nerve of 32 lead exposed workers in the mill of a lead-zinc mine, compared to that of a control group of 14 persons. The lead exposure period was 2–37 months (mean: 12.9 months).

  3. An alternative to the classical nerve graft for the management of the short nerve gap.

    PubMed

    Dellon, A L; Mackinnon, S E

    1988-11-01

    Reconstruction of a short nerve gap by a nerve graft produces donor-site scarring, loss of donor nerve function, and neuroma formation. This study compared the regeneration achieved after 1 year in 16 monkeys across a 3-cm upper arm ulnar nerve gap with a bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid nerve conduit with the regeneration achieved with a classical interfascicular interpositional sural nerve graft. The results demonstrated electrophysiologic and histologic evidence of neural regeneration across the gaps in all experimental groups. The bioabsorbable nerve conduit groups and the sural nerve graft group had mean fiber diameters, amplitudes, and conduction velocities each significantly less than those of normal control ulnar nerves. There was, however, no significant difference between any of the experimental groups. Electromyography demonstrated recovery of 19 of the 28 (68 percent) intrinsic muscles studied. These results demonstrate that the primate peripheral nerve can regenerate across short nerve gaps when guided by an appropriate nerve conduit, suggesting that a single-stage biodegradable polyglycolic acid conduit may be used as an alternative to a short interfascicular nerve graft. PMID:2845455

  4. n-Hexane-induced changes in nerve conduction velocities and somatosensory evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mutti; F. Ferri; G. Lommi; S. Lotta; S. Lucertini; I. Franchini

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen women from a shoe factory were examined clinically and their cerebral evoked responses to 256 electrical stimulations of the median nerve were averaged. Neurophysiological investigations included maximal motor (MCV) and distal sensory (dSCV) nerve conduction velocity measurement on ulnar, median, and peroneal nerves. A referent group was composed of 15 age-matched women without exposure to neurotoxic chemicals. MCVs and

  5. Nerve Transfers in the Upper Extremity: A Practical User's Guide.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Nerve injuries above the elbow are associated with a poor prognosis, even with prompt repair and appropriate rehabilitation. The past 2 decades have seen the development of numerous nerve transfer techniques, by which a denervated peripheral target is reinnervated by a healthy donor nerve. Nerve transfers are indicated in proximal brachial plexus injuries where grafting is not possible or in proximal injuries of peripheral nerves with long reinnervation distances. Nerve transfers represent a revolution in peripheral nerve surgery and offer the potential for superior functional recovery in severe nerve injuries. However, the techniques have not been universally adopted due in part to a misconception that nerve transfers can only be understood and performed by superspecialists. Nerve transfer procedures are not technically difficult and require no specialized equipment. Numerous transfers have been described, but there are a handful of transfers for which there is strong clinical evidence. To restore shoulder abduction and external rotation in upper trunk brachial plexus injury, the key transfers are the spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve and the medial triceps branch to axillary nerve. For elbow flexion, the flexor carpi ulnaris branch of ulnar nerve to the biceps and brachialis branches of the musculocutaneous nerve is the key transfer. For ulnar intrinsic function, the distal anterior interosseous nerve to ulnar motor branch transfer has yielded excellent functional results. Nerve transfers form a therapeutic triad with traditional tendon transfers and functional motor unit rehabilitation which, when applied appropriately, can yield excellent functional results in complex nerve injuries. Nerve transfers are a powerful yet underused tool for proximal nerve injuries, which offer hope for traditionally discouraging injuries. PMID:25978554

  6. Synthesis and localization of ciliary neurotrophic factor in the sciatic nerve of the adult rat after lesion and during regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sendtner; K. A. Stiickli; H. Thoenen

    1992-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is ex- pressed in high quantifies in Schwann cells of periph- eral nerves during postnatal development of the rat. The absence of a hydrophobic leader sequence and the immunohistochemical localization of CNTF within the cytoplasm of these cells indicate that the factor might not be available to responsive neurons under physio- logical conditions. However, CNTF supports

  7. Prevalence of subclinical neuropathy in diabetic patients: assessment by study of conduction velocity distribution within motor and sensory nerve fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierluigi Bertora; Pierluigi Valla; Elisabetta Dezuanni; Maurizio Osio; Davide Mantica; Maurizio Bevilacqua; Guido Norbiato; Mario Riccardo Caccia; Alfonso Mangoni

    1998-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity distribution (CVD) study is a newly-developed electrodiagnostic method for detecting alterations\\u000a in the composition of nerve fibres according to their conduction velocity. The presence of subclinical neuropathy was evaluated\\u000a in 138 diabetic patients by CVD study of four motor nerves (external popliteal and ulnar nerves bilaterally) and two sensory\\u000a nerves (median nerve bilaterally), and the data obtained

  8. The Effect of Bilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion on Swallowing – A Novel Method to Quantitate Aspirated Volume and Pharyngeal Threshold in Videofluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    DING, Peng; FUNG, George Shiu-Kai; LIN, Ming De; HOLMAN, Shaina D.; GERMAN, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of bilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion on swallowing threshold volume and the occurrence of aspiration, using a novel measurement technique for videofluorscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Methods and Materials We used a novel radiographic phantom to assess volume of the milk containing barium from fluoroscopy. The custom made phantom was firstly calibrated by comparing image intensity of the phantom with known cylinder depths. Secondly, known volume pouches of milk in a pig cadaver were compared to volumes calculated with the phantom. Using these standards, we calculated the volume of milk in the valleculae, esophagus and larynx, for 205 feeding sequences from four infant pigs feeding before and after had bilateral SLN lesions. Swallow safety was assessed using the IMPAS scale. Results The log-linear correlation between image intensity values from the phantom filled with barium milk and the known phantom cylinder depths was strong (R2>0.95), as was the calculated volumes of the barium milk pouches. The threshold volume of bolus in the valleculae during feeding was significantly larger after bilateral SLN lesion than in control swallows (p<0.001). The IMPAS score increased in the lesioned swallows relative to the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion Bilateral SLN lesion dramatically increased the aspiration incidence and the threshold volume of bolus in valleculae. The use of this phantom permits quantification of the aspirated volume of fluid. The custom made phantom and calibration allow for more accurate 3D volume estimation from 2D x-ray in VFSS. PMID:25270532

  9. 21 CFR 888.3810 - Wrist joint ulnar (hemi-wrist) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Wrist joint ulnar (hemi-wrist) polymer prosthesis. 888.3810 Section...Wrist joint ulnar (hemi-wrist) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification...wrist joint ulnar (hemi-wrist) polymer prosthesis is a...

  10. Nerve conduction in Frogs and Humans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Vizsolyi (Univ. of British Columbia; )

    1988-06-13

    These exercises are taken from a vertebrate physiology course, and use either a human subject or a dissected frog, thus providing relatively simply alternatives that may suit your needs. Nerve conduction velocity can be measured in the frog sciatic nerve with recordings of the biphasic action potential on the outside of the nerve trunk. Absolute and relative refractory periods can also be determined. Conduction velocity in the human can be obtained from electromyograms taken from the fourth and fifth fingers following stimulation of the ulnar nerve.

  11. The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

    PubMed

    Benoudiba, F; Toulgoat, F; Sarrazin, J-L

    2013-10-01

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) is a sensory nerve. It is made up of two nerves, the cochlear, which transmits sound and the vestibular which controls balance. It is an intracranial nerve which runs from the sensory receptors in the internal ear to the brain stem nuclei and finally to the auditory areas: the post-central gyrus and superior temporal auditory cortex. The most common lesions responsible for damage to VIII are vestibular Schwannomas. This report reviews the anatomy and various investigations of the nerve. PMID:24095603

  12. Induction of corneal lesion and nerve fiber sprouting by neonatal capsaicin application depends on the dose of the drug and survival time after treatment.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Akio; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    The effects of capsaicin on the rat cornea and its NsAchE (non specific acetylcholinesterase)-positive nerve fibers were investigated after long and short survival periods following subcutaneous (s.c) injection of the drug. Sixteen rats were injected once s.c with capsaicin on postnatal day 2 at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Age-matched rats were injected only vehicle, and served as control (n = 16). After 4 (n = 6), 8 (n = 6) and 12 (n = 4) mos., both sides of the corneas were examined under a binocular microscope to look for corneal abnormalities. Immediately after the enucleation, bilateral corneas were excised with a thin scleral margin and their ciliary body and iris were removed in DPBS solution. Then, they were fixed in a 4% paraformaldehyde solution containing 8% sucrose for 1 h at 4 degrees C, and processed for staining by the NsAchE method. For comparison, 15 rats were injected 3 times with capsaicin (total dose: 150 mg/kg) at a dose of 50 mg/kg on days 1, 2 and 3 after birth. Age-matched rats (n = 16) were injected vehicle as controls. Five (n = 4), 17 (n = 4), 45 (n = 3) and 75 (n = 4) days later, their corneas were similarly handled as described above. Corneal lesions and sprouting of the NsAchE-positive subepithelial nerve fibers appeared 4 mos. after the treatment with capsaicin (50 mg/kg). In particular, all the treated corneas (8/8) at 12 mos. showed corneal abnormalities. Contrary to the results from the single injection of capsaicin, corneal changes had already appeared on day 17 after treatment with capsaicin at a high dose (150 mg/kg). These data reinforce the suggestion that yielding of corneal lesions is closely associated with the longer survival time at lower doses and with the short survival time at a high dose of the drug. Further, the relationship between sprouting of corneal nerve fibers and corneal wounds was discussed on the basis of the previous reports. PMID:16212277

  13. Enchondroma Protuberans of Ulnar Bone: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Hedayati Asl, Abbas; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Noroozinia, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Enchondroma protuberans is an extremely rare benign cartilaginous bone tumor. We report the first case report of enchondroma protuberans in the forearm. Presentation of Case. We report a case of enchondroma protuberans originating in the left ulnar bone of a young woman. A 20-year-old female referred to our hospital complaining of progressive sustained left forearm pain with a radiation to fourth and fifth finger. Conventional radiography revealed a well-defined eccentric osteolytic lesion in the distal diaphysis of ulna with expansion of overlying cortex (without calcification). Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined ovoid intramedullary lesion, which was exophytically protruding from medial surface of left ulnar bone. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Discussion. Enchondroma protuberans typically present as a well-defined intramedullary osteolytic lesion that may be accompanied by a fine matricidal calcification. The connection between the intramedullary portion and the exophytic protrusion can be seen well by magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion. Enchondroma protuberans should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteochondroma, enchondroma, and periosteal chondroid tumors. PMID:23050185

  14. Stacked-blade, single-cut, ulnar-shortening osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Kevin J; Odgers, Ryan A

    2015-02-01

    The authors reviewed a 10-year consecutive series of ulnar-shortening osteotomies using a freehand, single oblique cut with 2 or 3 stacked saw blades. Twenty-one patients (23 wrists) with chronic ulnar impaction syndrome (mean age, 45 years; range, 16 to 73 years) demonstrated an average preoperative ulnar variance of +2.1 mm (range, 0.0 to 4.0 mm). An oblique osteotomy was performed in the distal one-third of the ulnar diaphysis at an estimated 45° or 60° angle, relative to the ulnar axis, and was fixed with a 7-hole, 2.7- or 3.5-mm dynamic compression plate placed dorsally. Using a previously described formula, the authors estimated ulnar shortening on the basis of intraoperative measurement of kerf width and osteotomy angle as 3.3 mm (range, 2.3 to 4.7 mm). The actual measured average radiographic change in ulnar variance (preoperative to postoperative) was 2.8 mm (average 18% variance from intraoperative estimate). Final ulnar variance averaged -0.6 mm (range, -2.0 to 1.0 mm). Radiographic union occurred in all 23 (100%) osteotomies. Ten (43%) wrists required hardware removal for pain; 2 additional patients were symptomatic but declined removal. Ulnar-sided wrist pain was relieved in 22 wrists. This technique is simple, effective, and inexpensive. It can also be translated for use in shortening osteotomies for other long bones, although larger or smaller saw blades may be necessary for larger or smaller bones to achieve the desired amount of shortening. The authors' results also show it to be reasonably predictable, although the intraoperative use of a sterile goniometer for cut placement is recommended. PMID:25665123

  15. Therapeutic potential of 1-methylnicotinamide against acute gastric lesions induced by stress: role of endogenous prostacyclin and sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Chlopicki, Stefan; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Pawlik, Michal; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Pajdo, Robert; Slonimska, Ewa; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Pawlik, Wieslaw W

    2008-07-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA) is one of the major derivatives of nicotinamide, which was recently shown to exhibit antithrombotic and antiinflammatory actions. However, it is not yet known whether MNA affects gastric mucosal defense. The effects of exogenous MNA were studied on gastric secretion and gastric lesions induced in rats by 3.5 h of water immersion and water restraint stress (WRS) or in rats administered 75% ethanol. MNA [6.25-100 mg/kg intragastrically (i.g.)] led to a dose-dependent rise in the plasma MNA level, inhibited gastric acid secretion, and attenuated these gastric lesions induced by WRS or ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of MNA was accompanied by an increase in the gastric mucosal blood flow and plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels, the preservation of prostacyclin (PGI(2)) generation (measured as 6-keto-PGF1alpha), and an overexpression of mRNAs for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and CGRP in the gastric mucosa. R-3-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-2-[5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-benzofuran-2-ylmethoxycarbonylamino]-propionic acid (RO 324479), which is the selective antagonist of IP/PGI(2) receptors, reversed the effects of MNA on gastric lesions and GBF. MNA-induced gastroprotection was attenuated by suppression of COX-1 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole; SC-560] and COX-2 [4-(4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-3-phenyl-5H-furan-2-one; rofecoxib] activity, capsaicin denervation, and by the pretreatment with CGRP(8-37) or capsazepine. Addition of exogenous PGI(2) or CGRP restored the MNA-induced gastroprotection in rats treated with COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors or in those with capsaicin denervation. WRS enhanced MDA content while decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gastric mucosa, but pretreatment with MNA reversed these changes. MNA exerts potent gastroprotection against WRS damage via mechanisms involving cooperative action of PGI(2) and CGRP in preservation of microvascular flow, antioxidizing enzyme SOD activity, and reduction in lipid peroxidation. PMID:18385449

  16. Electrophysiological findings in entrapment of the median nerve at wrist and elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Buchthal; Annelise Rosenfalck; Werner Trojaborg

    1974-01-01

    In 117 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 patients with a compression syndrome of the median nerve at elbow, motor and sensory conduction along the median and ulnar nerves and quantitative electromyography were compared with findings in 190 normal controls of the same age. In 25% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome in whom motor conduction and EMG

  17. Nerve conduction, tactile sensibility, and the electromyogram after suture or compression of peripheral nerve: a longitudinal study in man.

    PubMed Central

    Buchthal, F; Kühl, V

    1979-01-01

    In three patients sequential studies were performed of sensory and motor conduction after complete section and suture of the median nerve at the wrist and in one patient after partial section of the nerve. The sensory potential evoked by stimuli to digits III and I and recorded proximal to the suture line at the wrist appeared after a delay of three to four months, corresponding to a growth rate of 1.5-2.0 mm per day. From early in the course of regeneration the sensory potential was dispersed in 40 components. In the adult patient the cumulative amplitude increased for two years slowly and thereafter at a two times faster rate. Amplitude and tactile sensibility were normal after 40 months, but the sensory potential was still five times more dispersed than normal. The overall increase in the amplitude of the sensory potentials in children aged 10 and 12 years was three times faster than in adults. In the adults and in the children the maximum sensory conduction velocity was 10-25% of normal. It then increased at 3% per month during the first two years, and thereafter 10 times slower. Forty months after suture in the adults and 13-19 months after suture in the children the conduction velocity had reached 65-75% of normal. The pattern of discrete electrical activity during voluntary effort and the prolonged duration of motor unit potentials indicate persistent enlargement of the reinnervated motor units by peripheral sprouting. The sensory potential recovered five times faster after a compressive nerve lesion than after section and suture as seen in another patient with an affection of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Normal tactile sensibility was attained 10 times faster than after section and suture. Maximum sensory and motor condution velocity recovered within one year from 60-70% to 80-90% of normal. PMID:448383

  18. Palmar radiocarpal dislocation resulting in ulnar radiocarpal translocation and multidirectional instability.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Alan E; Ferguson, Christopher A; McCraney, William O

    2006-07-01

    Posttraumatic ulnar radiocarpal translation is a rare, often subtle, highly unstable, and potentially devastating manifestation of severe "proximal radiocarpal ligamentous instability. Radiocarpal dislocation should alert the treating physician to the risks of the spectrum of radiocarpal instabilities. Radiocarpal instability may initially be masked or unappreciated owing to presentation without radiocarpal dislocation, local pain and swelling, initially normal standard wrist radiographs, lack of recognition, or delay in the appearance of a static lesion. The specificity, sequence, and extent of extrinsic radiocarpal and ulnocarpal ligament traumatic disruptions are not fully understood, vary with injury severity, and may differ in instances of dorsal as opposed to palmar subluxation or dislocation. Multidirectional (global) wrist instability typically accompanies this ulnar radiocarpal instability in its most severe form and consequences may be dire. The carpus may be difficult to reduce or maintain owing to marked instability, compressive forces across the wrist, and soft tissue or bony fragment interposition. Additional local distal radioulnar joint or intercarpal injuries may further confound stability and require their own specific and simultaneous treatment. Radiocarpal reduction and repair of the radioscaphocapitate ligament and radiolunate ligaments may be sufficient treatment for acute isolated palmar radiocarpal instability. Temporary K-wire fixation may be added as a precaution to prevent palmar carpal subluxation during the time of ligament healing. Radiocarpal reduction, palmar and dorsal soft-tissue repair, and temporary K-wire fixation comprise one method of treatment for early recognized cases of post-traumatic ligamentous ulnar radiocarpal transposition. Halikis et al have recommended radiolunate arthrodesis. Rayhack et al have suggested that limited or complete wrist arthrodesis may be indicated for patients with delayed presentation or in acute cases with extreme instability. Wrist arthrodesis is one means of management for patients with severe radiocarpal instability confounded by distal radioulnar joint or intercarpal instability, as seen in our patient. Damaged ligaments may have a poor blood supply and often may not hold sutures or heal well. Bone anchor sutures or some type of ligament augmentation may help to restore joint stability in some patients. Loss of stability may occur later owing to ligamentous laxity or inadequate soft-tissue healing. Radiolunate, radiocarpal, or complete wrist arthrodesis may be necessary to relieve pain, restore wrist alignment and stability, and reestablish extremity function for patients with chronic radiocarpal instability. Wrist symptoms, age, general health, hand dominance, and occupation may be among the factors that influence the necessity for and timing of reconstruction. Rayhack et al have also postulated that negative ulnar variance may accommodate the occurrence of ulnar radiocarpal translocation and confound repair owing to lack of buttress at the ulnocarpal joint. They further speculated that a joint leveling procedure might improve the support for ligamentous repair or reconstruction in these cases. Permanent functional impairment must be anticipated in patients with ulnar radiocarpal instability. Impairment has typically been commensurate with the extent of the initial lesion, additional confounding local lesions, and length of follow-up. PMID:16866092

  19. Femoral nerve transfer for treatment of brachial plexus root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y D; Cheng, X M; Chen, D S; Zhang, G M; Xu, J G; Chen, L; Zhang, L Y; Cai, P Q

    1998-11-01

    Femoral nerve transfer to the muscular branches of the thenar and hypothenar muscles was performed to determine its protective effect on the hand intrinsic muscles. Seven cases of brachial plexus root avulsion treated from May of 1989 to October of 1991 were involved. The femoral nerve transfer to the muscular branches of the thenar and hypothenar muscles was done at the same stage of multiple neurotization. The muscular branches derived from the femoral nerve were isolated and coapted with the thenar muscle branch of the median nerve and the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. A groin flap was harvested simultaneously to form a skin-tube pedicle that covered the nerve bridge. At the second stage, when regeneration of the median and ulnar nerves was found to reach as far as the level of the wrist, the femoral nerve was divided and the muscular branches of the thenar and hypothenar muscles were anastomosed with the regenerated median and ulnar nerves. All the cases were followed up for more than 6 years. Six months after femoral nerve transfer, muscle power of the interosseous muscles and adductor pollicis recovered to MRC3, whereas that of the abductor pollicis brevis recovered to MRC1 to 2. Five cases underwent second-stage transfer. Four to five years of follow-up revealed that the muscle power of the interosseous muscles and adductor pollicis was MRC2 in one case, MRC1 in three cases, and MRC0 in one case. As for the donor area, muscle power of the quadriceps femoris reduced to M3 to 4 within 1 month after femoral nerve transfer and recovered to normal at 3 months. In conclusion, femoral nerve transfer to the muscular branches of the thenar and hypothenar muscles has some protective effect on the hand intrinsic muscles. The outcome of the second stage, however, is not satisfactory. PMID:9810993

  20. Nerve regeneration through a pseudosynovial sheath in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, S E; Dellon, A L; Hudson, A R; Hunter, D A

    1985-06-01

    This study investigated nerve regeneration through a pseudosynovial sheath in a primate. After resecting a 3-cm segment of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, the two ends of the divided nerve were placed at either end of the pseudosynovial tube, positioning the nerve ends such that they were separated by a 3-cm gap. Histologic evaluation at 3, 5, 7, and 9 months demonstrated evidence of nerve regeneration across this gap. Nerve fiber diameter and density assessment demonstrated a maturation of the fiber pattern with time. The overall morphologic pattern of the regenerating nerve within the pseudosheath was that of multiple small fascicles, each within its own perineurial compartment. This pattern resembled neither the proximal nor distal nerve fascicular pattern. PMID:4001203

  1. Ulnar shortening for tears of the triangular fibrocartilaginous complex.

    PubMed

    Boulas, H J; Milek, M A

    1990-05-01

    Ten consecutive patients had their ulnas shortened for treatment of ulnar wrist pain associated with triangular fibrocartilaginous complex tears. Each injury was traced to a previous fall or an overuse syndrome. Conservative treatment failed. In all patients, x-ray films showed ulnar positive or neutral variance. The ulna was shortened an average of 2 mm. Frank ulnolunate abutment and/or cartilage degeneration was found in six cases. Follow-up averaged 23 months, and except for one patient in whom radiocarpal arthritis developed, the remaining patients were satisfied and returned to their work or previous level of activity. Relief of pain, grip strength, and range of motion were excellent, except for an average decrease in flexion of 25.8 degrees (p = 0.01). Hardware irritation was noted in six patients. These findings substantiate the use of ulnar shortening to relieve ulnolunate impingement in patients with ulnar positive or neutral wrists in whom ulnar wrist pain develops and who demonstrate triangular fibrocartilaginous complex tears after acute trauma and/or overuse syndromes. PMID:2348058

  2. Ulnar Component Surface Finish Influenced the Outcome of Primary Coonrad-Morrey Total Elbow Arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In-Ho Jeon; Bernard F. Morrey; Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo

    BackgroundControversy remains regarding the mechanisms leading to ulnar loosening after elbow replacement. We therefore assessed the loosening rate of the ulnar component as a function of the surface finish of a commonly used implant design.

  3. [Studies of peripheral nerve conduction velocities in vibrating tool operators].

    PubMed

    Hisanaga, H

    1982-05-01

    Vibrating tools such as chain-saws, rock-drills, grinders and tie-tampers have been widely used in many kinds of industries in Japan, causing vibration syndrome among the operators. As is well-known, the syndrome includes disorders of the peripheral circulation in the hands, e.g. Raynaud's phenomenon, and of the peripheral and central nervous systems. As the result of preventive countermeasures to the syndrome during the last decade, the picture of the syndrome has been partly changing especially for the patients among the state forestry workers; for example, the prevalence of the peripheral nerve disorders has been relatively increasing compared with that of Raynaud's phenomenon. Peripheral nerve disorders such as numbness, paresthesia and hypesthesia in the upper limbs tend to be usually cumulative and irreversible. The disorders are very important problem of vibration syndrome from the standpoint of treatment and prevention, though there are only a few reports of the study on the disorders using electrophysiological methods. In order to make objectively clear the peripheral nerve disorders, 236 male vibrating tool operators (= Group V) were examined. The following nerve conduction velocities were measured: (1) Maximal motor nerve conduction velocities (MCV) of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm. (2) Sensory nerve conduction velocities (SCV) of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm and palm. (3) Residual latency (RL) of the median and ulnar nerves. Besides, working conditions and complaints relevant to vibration syndrome were examined by using questionnaires. MCVs, SCVs and RLs that were outside of mean +/- 2 S.D. of the control group (= Group C), consisting of 30 healthy men, were evaluated as abnormal. The obtained results led to the following conclusions: (1) All MCVs, SCVs and RLs of Group V were significantly less than those of the control group. In Group V, prevalence of the abnormality in each of forearm SCVs was higher than that in each of MCVs of the corresponding nerves. (2) The difference between the median and ulnar SCV in the palm and the respective SCV in the forearm of each subject was significantly greater for Group V than Group C. (Palm-forearm difference) (3) The difference between the forearm and palmar SCV of the ulnar nerve and the respective velocities of the median nerve was statistically greater for Group V than for Group C. (Ulnar-median difference) (4) Ulnar SCV in the palm of Group V was significantly related to the total operating hours of vibrating tools. (5) There was no significant relation between all the nerve conduction velocities and the white finger attack. But a significant relation was noticed between the prevalence of the abnormal values of ulnar SCV in the palm and the peripheral circulatory function score computed from the data of nail press test and cold immersion test. PMID:6292556

  4. Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Kenneth M.; Brown, Justin M.; Shah, Sameer B.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial financial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, including a novel internal fixator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps. PMID:25317163

  5. Effects of Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning on Function of Peripheral Nerves: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Sudheera S.; Pathirana, Kithsiri D.; Buckley, Nick A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Following acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning patients complain of numbness without objective sensory abnormalities or other features of OP induced delayed polyneuropathy. The aim of this study was to measure peripheral nerve function after acute exposure to OP. Methods A cohort study was conducted with age, gender and occupation matched controls. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), amplitude and area of compound muscle action potential (CMAP), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), F- waves and electromyography (EMG) on the deltoid and the first dorsal interosseous muscles on the dominant side were performed, following acute OP poisoning. All neurophysiological assessments except EMG were performed on the controls. Assessments were performed on the day of discharge from the hospital (the first assessment) and six weeks (the second assessment) after the exposure. The controls were assessed only once. Results There were 70 patients (50 males) and 70 controls. Fifty-three patients attended for the second assessment. In the first assessment MNCV of all the motor nerves examined, CMAP amplitude and SNCV of ulnar nerve, median and ulnar F-wave occurrence in the patients were significantly reduced compared to the controls. In the second assessment significant reduction was found in SNCV of both sensory nerves examined, MNCV of ulnar nerve, CMAP amplitude of common peroneal nerve, F-wave occurrence of median and ulnar nerves. No abnormalities were detected in the patients when compared to the standard cut-off values of nerve conduction studies except F-wave occurrence. EMG studies did not show any abnormality. Conclusion There was no strong evidence of irreversible peripheral nerve damage following acute OP poisoning, however further studies are required. PMID:23185328

  6. Transverse Ultrasound Assessment of Median Nerve Deformation and Displacement in the Human Carpal Tunnel during Wrist Movements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiang; Zhao, Chunfeng; Passe, Sandra M.; Filius, Anika; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, a compression neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, are aggravated by wrist motion, but the effect of these motions on median nerve motion are unknown. In order to better understand the biomechanics of the abnormal nerve, it is first necessary to understand normal nerve movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deformation and displacement of the normal median nerve at the proximal carpal tunnel level on transverse ultrasound images during different wrist movements, in order to have a baseline for comparison with abnormal movements. Dynamic ultrasound images were obtained in both wrists of 10 asymptomatic volunteers during wrist maximal flexion, extension and ulnar deviation. In order to simplify the analysis, the initial and final shape and position of the median nerve were measured and analyzed. The circularity of the median nerve was significantly increased and the aspect ratio and perimeter were significantly decreased in the final image compared to that in the first image during wrist flexion with finger extension, wrist flexion with finger flexion and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (p<0.01). There were significant differences in median nerve displacement vector between finger flexion, wrist flexion with finger extension and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (all p<0.001). The mean amplitudes of the median nerve motion in wrist flexion with finger extension (2.36±0.79 NU), wrist flexion with finger flexion (2.46±0.84 NU) and wrist ulnar deviation with finger extension (2.86±0.51 NU) were higher than those in finger flexion (0.82±0.33 NU), wrist extension with finger extension (0.77±0.46 NU) and wrist extension with finger flexion (0.81±0.58 NU) (p<0.0001). In the normal carpal tunnel, wrist flexion and ulnar deviation could induce significant transverse displacement and deformation of the median nerve. PMID:24210862

  7. Sural nerve defects after nerve biopsy or nerve transfer as a sensory regeneration model for peripheral nerve conduit implantation.

    PubMed

    Radtke, C; Kocsis, J D; Reimers, K; Allmeling, C; Vogt, P M

    2013-09-01

    Nerve repair after injury can be effectively accomplished by direct suture approximation of the proximal and distal segments. This is more successful if coadaptation can be achieved without tension. Currently, the gold standard repair of larger deficits is the transplantation of an autologous sensory sural nerve graft. However, a significant disadvantage of this technique is the inevitable donor morbidity (sensory loss, neuroma and scar formation) after harvesting of the sural nerve. Moreover, limitation of autologous donor nerve length and fixed diameter of the available sural nerve are major drawbacks of current autograft treatment. Another approach that was introduced for nerve repair is the implantation of alloplastic nerve tubes made of, for example, poly-L-lactide. In these, nerve stumps of the transected nerves are surgically bridged using the biosynthetic conduit. A number of experimental studies, primarily in rodents, indicate axonal regeneration and remyelination after implantation of various conduits. However, only limited clinical studies with conduit implantation have been performed in acute peripheral nerve injuries particularly on digital nerves. Clinical transfer of animal studies, which can be carefully calibrated for site and extent of injury, to humans is difficult to interpret due to the intrinsic variability in human nerve injuries. This prevents effective quantification of improvement and induces bias in the study. Therefore, standardization of lesion/repair in human studies is warranted. Here we propose to use sural nerve defects, induced due to nerve graft harvesting or from diagnostic nerve biopsies as a model site to enable standardization of nerve conduit implantation. This would help better with the characterization of the implants and its effectiveness in axonal regeneration and remyelination. Nerve regeneration can be assessed, for example, by recovery of sensation, measured non-invasively by threshold to von Frey filaments and cold allodynia. Moreover, the implantation of nerve conduits may not only serve as a model to examine nerve repair, but it could also prevent neuroma formation, which is a major morbidity of sural nerve extraction. PMID:23867139

  8. Effect of low-intensity millimeter-range electromagnetic irradiation on the recovery of function in lesioned sciatic nerves in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Kolosova; G. N. Akoev; O. V. Ryabchikova; V. D. Avelev

    1998-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of wavelength 5.6 mm (frequency 53.57 GHz) and power density 4 mW\\/cm2 on the recovery of function in damaged rat sciatic nerve were studied; damage was produced by nerve section followed by microsuturing.\\u000a Irradiation was applied to the skin of the thigh in the area of suturing. Total action potential (TAP) recording from the

  9. [Repair of peripheral nerve effect by direct suture after elongation of nerve by traction].

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Wang, H; Chen, J

    1998-05-01

    To find new technique for repair of peripheral nerve defect, the nerve elongation repair technique was adopted. Two cases with nerve defect were treated by this method. One was a 12 year old male, the defect length of right radial nerve was 7.2 cm at the elbow. The other one was a 28 year old male, the defect length of left ulnar nerve the was 5 cm at elbow. In this method, the nerve was elongated by slow stretch from distal and proximal end of the ruptured nerve. After a few days, the nerve was repaired by direct suture. After operation, the function of nerves were recovered in 119 days and 114 days respectively. Follow-up for 5 years, the function of the effected limbs were recovered to the normal side. It was concluded that: (1) the peripheral never can be elongated by slow stretch; (2) to stretch the nerve end in a rubber tube can prevent adhesion and connective tissue blocking; (3) strength and supporting point of stretching should be designed carefully. PMID:10437049

  10. Expression of endopeptidase-24.11 (common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen CD10) in the sciatic nerve of the adult rat after lesion and during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kioussi, C; Mamalaki, A; Jessen, K; Mirsky, R; Hersh, L B; Matsas, R

    1995-05-01

    Endopeptidase-24.11, which is identical with the common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen CD10 (CALLA), is a cell surface Zn2+ metalloprotease that regulates peptide-induced responses in different tissues, including the nervous and immune systems. In the peripheral nervous system, high levels of the enzyme are present in all neonatal and early postnatal Schwann cells, while as myelination proceeds it is gradually suppressed in the majority of cells that form myelin but retained in non-myelin-forming cells in the adult animal. In the present study we have investigated the effects of transection, crush and regeneration of the adult rat sciatic nerve on the expression of the endopeptidase by Schwann cells in situ. Endopeptidase-24.11 was monitored by immunocytochemistry using the monoclonal anti-endopeptidase antibody 23B11. For comparison, a parallel study was carried out with a monoclonal antibody directed against the rat nerve growth factor receptor. We found that (i) all Schwann cells of the distal segment re-expressed endopeptidase-24.11 as early as 4 days after axotomy, the level of immunostaining reaching a maximum after 2 weeks, (ii) axonal regeneration repressed Schwann cell expression of endopeptidase-24.11, and (iii) the induction of the nerve growth factor receptor followed a similar pattern to that of endopeptidase-24.11 in the transected and crushed nerve. Enzymatic amplification of endopeptidase-24.11 cDNA from normal and axotomized adult rat sciatic nerve confirmed the expression of endopeptidase-24.11 in these tissues. Our results show that the expression of endopeptidase-24.11 in Schwann cells, as is the case with the nerve growth factor receptor, is induced by the loss of the normal axon-Schwann cell contact. The significant increase in the expression of endopeptidase-24.11 by Schwann cells after axonal damage suggests that the enzyme could play a role in axonal regeneration. PMID:7613630

  11. Use of tubes in peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, L B; Lundborg, G

    2001-04-01

    The use of tubes as an alternative to primary nerve suture in fresh nerve transections has been introduced as a biologic approach to nerve injuries, creating optimal conditions for axonal regeneration over a short empty space intentionally created between the proximal and distal nerve ends. The idea may seem controversial and has been criticized using the arguments that silicone in itself may create problems like inflammation and the tube may compress the nerve ends. With the use of appropriately sized tubes for bridging a maximum 5-mm gap in human median and ulnar nerves, the authors have found the technique to be useful and persistent at follow-up examinations for up to 4 to 5 years. In addition, from the intellectual point of view, the principle illustrates the concept by which emphasis is placed on the intrinsic healing capacities of the nerve rather than on the technical skill of the surgeon. The thin mesothelial lining found around the silicone tube lacks primary inflammatory signs at follow-up after 1 year, and no signs of compression are seen. It may be an advantage because it allows sliding of the repair site against the surrounding tissues. Tubes made of bioresorbable material may seem ideal, but they may introduce new problems associated with the resorption process in terms of a substantial unrestricted macrophage invasion, fibrosis, and disorganized axonal growth. For an extended nerve defect, the use of autologous nerve grafts is still the gold standard, because no tubular conduit or other conduit has so far proved equal to autologous nerve grafts, at least not for reconstruction of human median and ulnar nerve trunks. Alternatives other than tubes are currently being developed and investigated. For the future, the use of tubes for repair and reconstruction of nerves may have interesting potentials, because such a structure allows several types of tissue engineering. Various matrices containing, for instance, appropriate cells, factors, or other stimulating agents can be introduced in the tube lumen and can also be incorporated in a slow-release form in the walls of the tube and manipulated. Cultured Schwann cells or other cellular components, with or without manipulated production machinery, are probably the cells of choice for introduction in the tubes. Tubes may thus prove to be interesting alternatives to conventional repair techniques for primary repair of nerves and for reconstruction of segmental defects and for neuroma treatment in the future. PMID:11525212

  12. Median and ulnar muscle and sensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Felsenthal, G

    1978-08-01

    The medical literature was reviewed to find suggested clinical applications of the study of the amplitude of evoked muscle action potentials (MAP) and sensory action potentials (SAP). In addition, the literature was reviewed to ascertain the normal amplitude and duration of the evoked MAP and SAP as well as the factors affecting the amplitude: age, sex, temperature, ischemia. The present study determined the normal amplitude and duration of the median and ulnar MAP and SAP in fifty normal subjects. The amplitude of evoked muscle or sensory action potentials depends on multiple factors. Increased skin resistance, capacitance, and impedance at the surface of the recording electrode diminishes the amplitude. Similarly, increased distance from the source of the action potential diminishes its amplitude. Increased interelectrode distance increases the amplitude of the bipolarly recorded sensory action potential until a certain interelectrode distance is exceeded and the diphasic response becomes tri- or tetraphasic. Artifact or poor technique may reduce the potential difference between the recording electrodes or obscure the late positive phase of the action potential and thus diminish the peak to peak amplitude measurement. Intraindividual comparison indicated a marked difference of amplitude in opposite hands. The range of the MAP of the abductor pollicis brevis in one hand was 40.0--100% of the response in the opposite hand. For the abductor digiti minimi, the MAP was 58.5--100% of the response of the opposite hand. The median and ulnar SAP was between 50--100% of the opposite SAP. Consequent to these findings the effect of hand dominance on the amplitude of median and ulnar evoked muscle and sensory action potentials was studied in 41 right handed volunteers. The amplitudes of the median muscle action potential (p less than 0.02) and the median and ulnar sensory action potentials (p less than 0.001) were significantly less in the dominant hand. There was no significant difference between the ulnar muscle action potentials or for the median and ulnar distal motor and sensory latencies in the right and left hands of this group of volunteers. PMID:696811

  13. In vitro cell alignment obtained with a Schwann cell enriched microstructured nerve guide with longitudinal guidance channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Bozkurt; Ronald Deumens; Christina Beckmann; Leon Olde Damink; Frank Schügner; Ingo Heschel; Bernd Sellhaus; Joachim Weis; Wilhelm Jahnen-Dechent; Gary A. Brook; Norbert Pallua

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic benefits of autologous nerve grafting in repair of peripheral nerve lesions have not been reached using any alternative nerve guide. Nevertheless, issues of co-morbidity and limited availability of donor nerves urgently ask for a need of bioartificial nerve guides which could either replace or complement autologous nerve grafts. It is increasingly appreciated that optimal nerve guides comprise both physical

  14. Evaluation of Nerve Conduction Studies in Obese Children With Insulin Resistance or Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ince, Hülya; Ta?demir, Haydar Ali; Aydin, Murat; Ozyürek, Hamit; Tilki, Hacer Erdem

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate nerve conduction studies in terms of neuropathic characteristics in obese patients who were in prediabetes stage and also to determine the abnormal findings. The study included 69 obese adolescent patients between April 2009 and December 2010. All patients and control group underwent motor (median, ulnar, tibial, and peroneal) and sensory (median, ulnar, sural, and medial plantar) nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. Sensory response amplitude of the medial plantar nerve was significantly lower in the patients with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. To our knowledge, the present study is the first study demonstrating the development of sensory and autonomic neuropathy due to metabolic complications of obesity in adolescent children even in the period without development of diabetes mellitus. We recommend that routine electrophysiological examinations be performed, using medial plantar nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. PMID:25342307

  15. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuya Watanabe; Felipe Souza; Peter S. Vezeridis; Philip Blazar; Hiroshi Yoshioka

    2010-01-01

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex\\u000a anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US),\\u000a computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to\\u000a differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed

  16. Recovery features in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Y?ld?r?m, Pelin; Yildirim, Apdullah; Misirlioglu, Tugce Ozekli; Evcili, Gokhan; Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Gunduz, Osman Hakan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effect of age, sex, and entrapment localization on recovery time in patients treated conservatively for ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. [Subjects] Thirty-five patients (16 women and 15 men) who were diagnosed with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow using short segment conduction studies were evaluated retrospectively. [Methods] Definition of recovey was made based on patient satisfaction. The absence of symptoms was considered as the marker of recovery. Patients who recovered within 0–4 weeks were in Group 1, and patients who recovered within 4 weeks to 6 months were in Group 2. The differences between Group 1 and Group 2 in terms of age, sex and entrapment localization were investigated. [Results] Entrapment was most frequent in the retroepicondylar groove (54.3%). No significant difference was found in terms of age and entrapment localizations between Groups 1 and 2. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups for the male sex. [Conclusion] In ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, age and entrapment localization do not affect recovery time. However, male sex appears to be associated with longer recovery time.

  17. Occupational True Aneurysm of the Ulnar Artery: A Case Report of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with a pulsing mass of the right palm. He was an electrical construction engineer who frequently used a screwdriver. Computed tomography (CT) examination revealed a 22- × 30-mm saccular aneurysm of the right ulnar artery. The ulnar artery aneurysm was resected, and we could perform direct anastomosis of the ulnar artery. The dilated true aneurysm was compatible with a traumatic origin. A postoperative enhanced CT examination showed smooth reconstruction of the palmar arch. An occupational true aneurysm of the ulnar artery could be treated by resection and direct anastomosis. PMID:24130624

  18. [The influence of ulnar variance on the healing of scaphoid fractures].

    PubMed

    Rogalski, S; Hug, U; Osinga, R; Link, B-C; von Wartburg, U

    2011-10-01

    The recent literature shows that a negative ulnar variance could pose a risk factor for scaphoid fractures.The aim of the current study was to determine whether the ulnar variance also affects the healing of a scaphoid fracture.2 cohorts of 50 patients each, with either a scaphoid fracture or a non-union, were retrospectively compared. The ulnar variance was measured on the X-rays using the Gelberman method.The average value of the ulnar variance in patients with a scaphoid fracture was -1.0?mm. The negative ulnar variance was measured in 64% of the patients. In the second group with scaphoid non-union, the average value of ulnar variance was -0.8?mm. The negative ulnar variance was similarly high, in 68% of the patients. Our results demonstrated almost identical values in both groups with regard to ulnar variance or its distribution, neutral, negative or positive, without statistical significance.Thus, we can exclude the negative ulnar variance as a risk factor for the development of non-union in cases of scaphoid fractures. PMID:21935848

  19. Heat Generation During Ulnar Osteotomy with Microsagittal Saw Blades

    PubMed Central

    Firoozbakhsh, K; Moneim, MS; Mikola, E; Haltom, S

    2003-01-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is a surgical treatment option for patients with symptomatic ulnar positive variance for a variety of reasons. Delayed healing and nonunion of the osteotomized sites have been reported and present problematic complications of this procedure. Studies have shown nonunion rate with transverse cuts ranging from 8-15%. The goal is to achieve parallel cuts, thus maximizing the contacting bony surface area for a better union rate. The senior surgeon attempted using a custom thick blade to insure parallel cuts. The concern is whether the heat generated during such a cut would contribute to non-union. It is our hypothesis that complications with ulnar shortening osteotomy using a thick blade are secondary to excess heat generation. When generated heat surpasses the threshold temperature of bone tissue, the organic matrix is irreversibly damaged and necrosis of the bony ends may occur. The present study measured the heat generation during ulnar osteotomy using different blade thicknesses. Thirty-five fresh turkey femurs, having similar size and cortical thickness of the human ulna, were used. Loading was done at three different speeds of 0.66, 1.0, and 1.5 mm/second corresponding respectively to 30, 20, and 10 seconds for the complete cut. A general linear statistical model was fitted relating temperature rise to three predictive factors: blade thickness, sensor distance, and initial bone temperature. There was a statistically significant relationship between temperature rise and all three predictor variables at the 99% confidence level. There was no statistically significant relationship between temperature rise and the number of cuts with the same blade up to 10 times. Compared with the single microsagital saw blade, the temperature rise for the double thickness blade was 14% higher and for the triple thickness blade was 23% higher. The temperature rise was inversely related to the speed of the cut. The temperature rise for the bone cut in 30 seconds was 1.5 times higher than the temperature rise when the bone was cut in 10 seconds. Complications with ulnar shortening osteotomy may be secondary to excess heat generation. A new thick saw blade design and the use of proper internal/external irrigation may overcome the problem. PMID:14575249

  20. Facial nerve neuromas: radiologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Latack, J T; Gabrielsen, T O; Knake, J E; Kemink, J L; Graham, M D; Gebarski, S S; Yang, P J

    1983-12-01

    Eight patients who had facial nerve neuromas were examined, and the radiographic findings are reported. Thin section tomography, high resolution computed tomography, posterior fossa computed tomography, and cerebellopontine angle cisternography using Pantopaque (iophendylate) demonstrated bone erosions and soft tissue masses conforming to the course of the facial nerve. The lesions generally exhibited either a proximal or a distal pattern of nerve involvement. Radiologic imaging frequently permits a correct preoperative diagnosis and accurate definition of the extent of facial nerve neuromas, assessments that are important for proper patient management. PMID:6606188

  1. [Use of a transcutaneous neuro-stimulator as peroperative stimulator in neurosurgical treatment of spasticity and traumatic lesions of the peripheral nerves and brachial plexus].

    PubMed

    Finiels, P J; Privat, J M; Vlahovitch, B

    1996-01-01

    We have had the opportunity to use a standard percutaneous stimulator as an intraoperative stimulator, with the use of sterile leads, in order to palliate the sudden failure of our usual surgical stimulator. The simplicity and the possibility of modulation of the device, brought us to use it several times in different purposes of surgical work for spasticity, neurotization of the brachial plexus and treatment of fresh wounds of the nerves. Important features of this new way of using this device are simplicity of programation (width and frequency rates), good stability of chosen parameters, low diffusion allowing selective stimulation, and above all low cost versus standard devices used for this purpose. PMID:9084745

  2. Rotatory palmar subluxation of the lunate in post-traumatic ulnar carpal translocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Stäbler; Richard G. H. Baumeister; Ulrike Szeimies; Ulrich Fink; Hermann Berger

    1994-01-01

    Post-traumatic ulnar carpal translocation is a rare, severe ligamentous injury to the wrist. Radiologic findings include widening of the radiocarpal joint space at the radial styloid process and ulnar displacement of the carpus. Less than 50% of the lunate articulates with the radius in the neutral position; the lunate is tilted dorsally with palmar subluxation due to a ruptured radioscapholunate

  3. Histology and Arthroscopic Anatomy of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Timmerman; James R. Andrews

    1994-01-01

    The histology and arthroscopic anatomy of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow were studied in cadav eric specimens. The capsule consists of two layers of collagen fibers, with two distinct ligamentous bundles corresponding to anterior and posterior portions of the ulnar collateral ligament. The posterior bundle consists of distinct collagen bundles within the layers of the cap sule ;

  4. Fascicular tubulization: a comparison of experimental nerve repair techniques in the cat.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J M; Pham, H N; Hentz, V R

    1989-06-01

    Peripheral nerve repair remains one of the most difficult problems in hand surgery; the results of conventional epineurial and fascicular suture repair are a major limitation to the rehabilitation of the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate a tubulization technique of nerve repair by wrapping a membrane of hypoantigenic collagen around the nerve at the fascicular level. Cat ulnar and median nerves were used as a multifascicular nerve model. Thirty-eight animals were studied. Ten animals were included in long-term studies comparing fascicular tubulization to either epineurial suture or fascicular suture nerve repair. Histologically, the tube repairs demonstrated improved organization at the repair site compared with either suture technique. Tube repair is not significantly different statistically by quantitative histological and physiological evaluation methods from epineurial suture or fascicular suture repairs. Further studies in more clinically applicable animal models are required before this technique can be considered as an alternative to present clinical nerve suture techniques. PMID:2751220

  5. Nerve and Nerve Root Biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein

    \\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically

  6. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of mandible.

    PubMed

    Zakhary, Ibrahim; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ishag, Ilia; Taher, Taher; Hassan, Mohammed; Gehani, Rafi; Orafi, Marai; El-Mekkawi, Hatem

    2011-03-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a common tumor that rarely affects the head and neck region. The patient presented in this report is a teenage girl presented with a lesion in the right body of the mandible with severe disfigurement of the lower face. The lesion was first histopathologically diagnosed as embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. After excision, however, the histopathology report proved the diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. PMID:21415661

  7. Radiation therapy for primary optic nerve meningiomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Smith; M. M. Vuksanovic; B. M. Yates; D. C. Bienfang

    1981-01-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningiomas, formerly thought to be rare, have been encountered with surprising frequency since the widespread use of computed tomography. Early diagnosis led to an enthusiastic surgical approach to these lesions, but this has been tempered by the realization that even in the best of hands, blindness followed such surgery with distressing frequency. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas may

  8. Vascular Anatomy and Clinical Application of the Free Proximal Ulnar Artery Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yitao; Shi, Xiaotian; Yu, Yaling; Zhong, Guiwu; Tang, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of detailed published work on the anatomy of ulnar artery perforators. The objective of this study was to fully document the vascular basis of the free proximal ulnar artery perforator flap and report its use in reconstruction of the hand. Methods: (1) The ulnar artery perforators were studied in 25 fresh cadavers and 10 cast preparations. Cadavers were injected with lead oxide for 3-dimensional reconstruction. The origin, course, and distribution of the ulnar artery perforators were comprehensively documented. (2) Between August 2011 and January 2013, 29 free proximal ulnar artery perforator flaps were utilized for reconstruction of soft-tissue defects of the hand in 25 patients. Flap size varied from 3.5 × 2.0 cm to 24.0 × 4.0 cm, with a consistent thickness of approximately 3 mm. Results: (1) There were 7 ± 2.0 ulnar artery perforators. The average external diameter was 0.6 ± 0.2 mm. Each perforator supplied an average area of 26 ± 7.0 cm2. Extensive anastomoses were found between the ulnar artery perforators and multiple adjacent source arteries. (2) All flaps survived. The clinical results were satisfactory after 10.2 ± 5.3 months of follow-up. The flaps were considered cosmetically acceptable by both patients and doctors. Conclusions: The main advantage of the proximal ulnar artery perforator flap is that it is a thin flap that is ideal for upper extremity reconstruction, either as proximally or distally based local perforator flap or as a free flap. The donor site is excellent, and the vascular anatomy is very consistent. PMID:25426362

  9. Ulnar impaction syndrome with different operative methods: a comparative biomechanical study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ya-Dong; Wu, Tao; Tian, Fang-Tao; Shang, Yun-Tao; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Bai, Yan-Bin; Han, Chang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ulnar impaction syndrome seriously impairs wrist and hand function. Three main treatment procedures are available; however, little systematic research on the post-operation changes in wrist biomechanics currently exists. This study aimed to determine the long-term effects of these procedures and the optimal treatment methods for ulnar impaction syndrome. Methods: Twenty-four cases of fresh upper limb specimens were randomized into four groups: (1) the control group, (2) the ulnar-shortening operation group, (3) the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group (distal radioulnar arthrodesis and intentional distal ulnar pseudoarthrosis), and (4) the Darrach procedure group (distal ulna resection). After keeping the wrist in a neutral position, a pressure sensitive film was applied. Starting at 0 N, the load was increased gradually at a speed of 0.1 N/s until reaching 200 N and then maintained for 60 s by the CSS-44020 series biomechanical machine. Then, the pressure sensitive films from each group were measured, and the results were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The mean pressure and force on the ulna in the groups followed a decreasing trend from the control group, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group and ulnar-shortening operation group. The mean pressure of the scaphoid fossa and the force on distal aspect of the radius in the groups followed an increasing trend from the control group, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group, ulnar-shortening operation group and Darrach procedure group. This study found no significant differences in the mean pressure of the scaphoid fossa and the force on distal aspect of the radius between the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group and the ulnar-shortening operation group. The Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group showed the greatest mean pressure on lunate fossa. Conclusions: In this comprehensive analysis of wrist biomechanics, the ulnar-shortening operation was superior to the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure and Darrach procedure, which adequately maintained the anatomical relationships of the wrist.

  10. Retardation of rat sciatic nerve regeneration after local application of minute doses of vincristine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gé S. F. Ruigt; Maria H. C. Brok

    1995-01-01

    The effect of vincristine on regeneration of rat sural and tibial nerves following a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve was studied in the pinch test. Vincristine locally applied through an osmotic minipump at the site of the lesion dose-dependently retarded regeneration of the tibial and sural nerve at a threshold dose of 5 ng\\/day, whereas regeneration was blocked at

  11. [Clinical application of implantation of vascular bundle into silicone tube to bridge the peripheral nerve defect].

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; Wang, T; Fang, H

    1997-11-01

    In order to improve the therapeutic effect of non-neural tissue in bridging the peripheral nerve defect and increase the blood supply of the implant, the silicone tube was chosen to bridge the gap, and the vessel bundle was inserted into the tube. The procedures were performed as following: resected the pseudoneuroma and enveloped the proximal and the distal ends in a silicone tube, and then sutured the epineurium and the tube wall with 7/0 stitch. In patients, eleven cases with fifteen nerves were treated, including seven median nerves, five ulnar nerves and three radial nerves. The lengths of the nerve defects were within 3 cm in 13 nerves and 3 cm-5 cm in 2 nerves. They were followed up from one to five years and the result was excellent (M4S4) in 8 nerves, good (M3S3) in 3 and poor (M1S1) in 2. It was discussed that the indication for the procedure should be included: the nerve defect could not be sutured directly, and the patient would not agree to use his own nerve for graft. PMID:9868001

  12. Combined nerve transfers for repair of the upper brachial plexus injuries through a posterior approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiuzhou; Xu, Jianguang; Xu, Wendong; Xu, Lei; Fang, Yousheng; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong

    2012-02-01

    The upper brachial plexus injury leads to paralysis of muscles innervated by C5 and C6 nerve roots. In this report, we present our experience on the use of the combined nerve transfers for reconstruction of the upper brachial plexus injury. Nine male patients with the upper brachial plexus injury were treated with combined nerve transfers. The time interval between injury and surgery ranged from 3 to 11 months (average, 7 months). The combined nerve transfers include fascicles of the ulnar nerve and/or the median nerve transfer to the biceps and/or the brachialis motor branch, and the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) and triceps branches to the axillary nerve through a posterior approach. At an average of 33 months of follow-up, all patients recovered the full range of the elbow flexion. Six out of nine patients were able to perform the normal range of shoulder abduction with the strength degraded to M3 or M4. These results showed that the technique of the combined nerve transfers, specifically the SAN to the SSN and triceps branches to the axillary nerve through a posterior approach, may be a valuable alternative in the repair of the upper brachial plexus injury. Further evaluations of this technique are necessary. PMID:22002897

  13. New sonographic measures of peripheral nerves: a tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve involvement in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Lugão, Helena Barbosa; Furini, Renata Bazan; Marques Júnior, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of peripheral nerves, indexes of the differences between CSAs at the same point (?CSAs) and between tunnel (T) and pre-tunnel (PT) ulnar CSAs (?TPTs) in leprosy patients (LPs) and healthy volunteers (HVs). Seventy-seven LPs and 49 HVs underwent bilateral US at PT and T ulnar points, as well as along the median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves, to calculate the CSAs, ?CSAs and ?TPTs. The CSA values in HVs were lower than those in LPs (p < 0.0001) at the PT (5.67/9.78 mm2) and T (6.50/10.94 mm2) points, as well as at the M (5.85/8.48 mm2) and CF (8.17/14.14 mm2) nerves. The optimum CSA- receiver operating characteristic (ROC) points and sensitivities/specificities were, respectively, 6.85 mm2 and 68-85% for the PT point, 7.35 mm2 and 71-78% for the T point, 6.75 mm2 and 62-75% for the M nerve and 9.55 mm2 and 81-72% for the CF nerve. The ?CSAs of the LPs were greater than those of the HVs at the PT point (4.02/0.85; p = 0.007), T point (3.71/0.98; p = 0.0005) and CF nerve (2.93/1.14; p = 0.015), with no difference found for the M nerve (1.41/0.95; p = 0.17). The optimum ?CSA-ROC points, sensitivities, specificities and p-values were, respectively, 1.35, 49%, 80% and 0.003 at the PT point, 1.55, 55-85% and 0.0006 at the T point, 0.70, 58-50% and 0.73 for the M nerve and 1.25, 54-67% and 0.022 for the CF nerve. The ?TPT in the LPs was greater than that in the HVs (4.43/1.44; p <0.0001). The optimum ?TPT-ROC point was 2.65 (90% sensitivity/41% specificity, p < 0.0001). The ROC analysis of CSAs showed the highest specificity and sensitivity at the PT point and CF nerve, respectively. The PT and T ?CSAs had high specificities (> 80%) and ?TPT had the highest specificity (> 90%). New sonographic peripheral nerve measurements (?CSAs and ?TPT) provide an important methodological improvement in the detection of leprosy neuropathy. PMID:23778664

  14. Ulnar styloid fracture in distal radius fractures managed with volar locking plates: to fix or not?

    PubMed

    Gogna, Paritosh; Selhi, Harpal Singh; Mohindra, Mukul; Singla, Rohit; Thora, Ankit; Yamin, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Distal radius fracture is usually associated with ulnar styloid fracture. Whether to fix the ulnar styloid or not remains a surgical dilemma as some surgeons believe that their repair is imperative while others feel that they should be managed conservatively. This prospective study involved 47 patients with unilateral fracture of the distal radius who met the inclusion criterion and underwent open reduction and internal fixation with volar locking plates; 28 patients (12 males and females?=?16) had an associated ulnar styloid fracture (Group A) while 19 (7 males; 12 females) did not have any ulnar styloid fracture (Group B). At the time of final evaluation both the groups were compared clinically by measuring the grip strength and range of motion around the wrist and the radiologically by measuring radial angle, radial length, volar angle and ulnar variance. Subjective assessment was done using DASH score and final assessment using Demerit point system of Saito. In Group A, average time for consolidation was 9.4 weeks, 17 patients developed non-union of the ulnar styloid, average DASH scores was 4.4 and according to Demerit point system of Saito, there were 78.5 % excellent, 17.9 % good and 3.6 % fair results; there were 2 cases of loss of reduction out of which one had persistent ulnar sided wrist pain. In Group B the average time for consolidation was 10.2 weeks, average DASH score was 3.8.and Demerit point system of Saito yielded 78.9 % excellent, 15.8 % good and 5.3 % fair results. There was one case of loss of reduction and one case of carpal tunnel syndrome which was managed conservatively. Both groups attained excellent range of motion, grip strength and well maintained the post operative radiological parameters. The comparison of clinico-radiological parameters in both groups was found to be statistically insignificant. To conclude, ulnar styloid fracture or its non union does not affect the outcome of an adequately fixed distal end radius fracture. We urge caution in electing operative treatment of non-united fracture of the ulnar styloid until better scientific report for treatment of pain associated with these fracture is available. PMID:25414551

  15. Optic Nerve Drusen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Drusen En Español Read in Chinese What are optic nerve drusen? Optic nerve drusen are abnormal globular ...

  16. Factors predicting sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries

    PubMed Central

    He, Bo; Zhu, Zhaowei; Zhu, Qingtang; Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Canbin; Li, Pengliang; Zhu, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries. DATA SOURCES: The online PubMed database was searched for English articles describing outcomes after the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries in humans with a publication date between 1 January 1990 and 16 February 2011. STUDY SELECTION: The following types of article were selected: (1) clinical trials describing the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries published in English; and (2) studies that reported sufficient patient information, including age, mechanism of injury, nerve injured, injury location, defect length, repair time, repair method, and repair materials. SPSS 13.0 software was used to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and to investigate the patient and intervention factors associated with outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensory function was assessed using the Mackinnon-Dellon scale and motor function was assessed using the manual muscle test. Satisfactory motor recovery was defined as grade M4 or M5, and satisfactory sensory recovery was defined as grade S3+ or S4. RESULTS: Seventy-one articles were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that repair time, repair materials, and nerve injured were independent predictors of outcome after the repair of nerve injuries (P < 0.05), and that the nerve injured was the main factor affecting the rate of good to excellent recovery. CONCLUSION: Predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up. PMID:25206870

  17. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spinal cord. Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... body. There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  18. Traumatic ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm following a grenade blast: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Belyayev, Leonid; Rich, Norman M; McKay, Patricia; Nesti, Leon; Wind, Gary

    2015-06-01

    Vascular injuries comprised a small percentage of total injuries requiring medevac in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts; however, their impact cannot be overstated. This case highlights an individual who sustained a grenade blast injury leading to hemorrhage, and forearm compartment syndrome. He was initially treated with irrigation and debridement, forearm fasciotomy, and delayed primary closure. The patient developed persistent ulnar neuropathy and hypothenar atrophy despite a normal initial vascular examination. During reconstructive surgery, he was discovered to have a proximal ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm. Upper extremity pseudoaneurysms are a rare sequelae following vascular injury, but have significant consequences for the patient and are identifiable by imaging. PMID:26032392

  19. Motion analysis in two dimensions of radial-ulnar deviation of type I versus type II lunates.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Beppu, M; Patterson, R M; Hanson, C A; Hume, P J; Viegas, S F

    2000-09-01

    The motions of 2 different types of lunate (type I, no medial hamate facet; type II, medial hamate facet) were evaluated and compared during radial-ulnar deviation of the wrist using radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Ten right wrists (5 type I and 5 type II lunates) were studied using posteroanterior and lateral x-rays. Six of the 10 normal volunteers (3 type I and 3 type II lunates) were studied using magnetic resonance imaging in 6 positions of radial-ulnar deviation. In the radiographic study the ulnar shift ratio of the lunate (USR), the shortest distance between the proximal ulnar tip of the lunate and the distal ulnar edge of the sigmoid notch of the radius (R-L), the closest distance between the distal ulnar tip of the lunate and the proximal pole of the hamate (L-H), the radius of curvature of the proximal head of the capitate (Cr) on posteroanterior view, and the radiolunate angle on lateral view were measured in each wrist in each of the 6 positions. There were statistically significant differences between type I and II lunates with regard to average maximum ulnar deviation of USR and R-L, total change of USR, R-L distance and L-H distance, average L-H distance and Cr distance in all positions, and average radiolunate angle in neutral and 15 degrees ulnar deviation. In the magnetic resonance imaging study the wrists with a type I lunate did not have contact between the lunate and hamate in any position; the wrists with a type II lunate did have contact between the hamate and the lunate, but only in ulnar deviation. The results of this study demonstrate that the kinematics of a type I lunate are different from those of a type II lunate during radial-ulnar deviation of the wrist. PMID:11040303

  20. [The influence of induced sympathectomy on human peripheral nerves regeneration after autoneuroplasty].

    PubMed

    Merculov, M V; Golubev, I O; Krupatkin, A I

    2015-01-01

    86 patients with posttraumatic defects of median and ulnar nerves were examined. Autoneuroplasty was performed at all of patients: in 42 cases--in combination with sympathectomy (thoracoscopic clipping of Th3-4 sympathetic ganglions), in 44 cases--without sympathectomy. Ultrasonography of nerve trunks, stimulation electroneuromyography, computer thermography, laser Doppler flowmetry with spectral wavelet-analysis of blood flow oscillations were used during checkup. For the first time was shown that induced sympathectomy has positive activating influence on restoring innervation and tissue trophics in the course of posttraumatic nerve regeneration. Combination of autoneuroplasty with induced sympathectomy contributes to a more complete restoration of motor and sensory nerve fibres, helps to normalize blood flow in microvascular bed and thermotopography of the damaged segment of the extremity including the previously denervated area. PMID:26027338

  1. Entrapment of the superficial peroneal nerve: an anatomical insight.

    PubMed

    Tzika, Maria; Paraskevas, George; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    Entrapment of the superficial peroneal nerve is an uncommon neuropathy that may occur because of mechanical compression of the nerve, usually at its exit from the crural fascia. The symptoms include sensory alterations over the distribution area of the superficial peroneal nerve. Clinical examination, electrophysiologic findings, and imaging techniques can establish the diagnosis. Variations in the superficial peroneal sensory innervation over the dorsum of the foot may lead to variable results during neurologic examination and variable symptomatology in patients with nerve entrapment or lesions. Knowledge of the nerve's anatomy at the lower leg, foot, and ankle is of essential significance for the neurologist and surgeon intervening in the area. PMID:25815655

  2. Current applications and future perspectives of artificial nerve conduits.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu; Lim, Shawn H; Mao, Hai-Quan; Chew, Sing Yian

    2010-05-01

    Artificial nerve guide conduits have the advantage over autografts in terms of their availability and ease of fabrication. However, clinical outcomes associated with the use of artificial nerve conduits are often inferior to that of autografts, particularly over long lesion gaps. There have been significant advances in the designs of artificial nerve conduits over the years. In terms of materials selection and design, a wide variety of new synthetic polymers and biopolymers have been evaluated. The inclusion of nerve conduit lumen fillers has also been demonstrated as essential to enable nerve regeneration across large defect gaps. These lumen filler designs have involved the integration of physical cues for contact guidance and biochemical signals to control cellular function and differentiation. Novel conduit architectural designs using porous and fibrous substrates have also been developed. This review highlights the recent advances in synthetic nerve guide designs for peripheral nerve regeneration, and the in vivo applicability and future prospects of these nerve guide conduits. PMID:19769967

  3. Motonuclear changes after cranial nerve injury and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, E; Pallini, R; Lauretti, L; La Marca, F; Scogna, A; Rossi, G F

    1997-09-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms at play in nerve regeneration after nerve injury. Personal studies are reported regarding motonuclear changes after regeneration of injured cranial nerves, in particular of the facial and oculomotor nerves, as well as the influence that the natural molecule acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has on post-axotomy cranial nerve motoneuron degeneration after facial and vagus nerve lesions. Adult and newborn animal models were used. Massive motoneuron response after nerve section and reconstruction was observed in the motonuclei of all nerves studied. ALC showed to have significant neuroprotective effects on the degeneration of axotomized motoneurons. Complex quantitative, morphological and somatotopic nuclear changes occurred that sustain new hypotheses regarding the capacities of motoneurons to regenerate and the possibilities of new neuron proliferation. The particularities of such observations are described and discussed. PMID:9270896

  4. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats: walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen R. Dijkstra; Marcel F. Meek; Peter H. Robinson; Albert Gramsbergen

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and group C consisted

  5. Regeneration in Spinal Neurons: Proteosynthesis Following Nerve Growth Factor Administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Scott Jr.; Ernest Gutmann; Peter Horsky

    1966-01-01

    Incorporation of H3-leucine into dorsal root ganglion cells in rats was markedly increased over that of controls following section of sciatic and femoral nerves. Crush lesion of dorsal roots did not increase the H3-leucine uptake of these cells except in animals which had received nerve growth factor after the operation.

  6. The Influence of Non-union of the Ulnar Styloid on Pain, Wrist Function and Instability after Distal Radius Fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Wijffels; David Ring

    2011-01-01

    The influence of non-union on the outcome of distal radius fractures is debated. We tested the null hypothesis that there\\u000a is no difference in pain, wrist function, or instability between patients with union or non-union of an ulnar styloid base\\u000a fracture after operative treatment of a fracture of the distal radius. Eighteen adults with an ulnar styloid base non-union\\u000a were

  7. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    Neuropathy - femoral nerve; Femoral neuropathy ... Felice, KJ. Focal neuropathies of the femoral, obturator, lateral femoral cutaneous and other nerves of the thigh and pelvis. In: Bromberg MB, Smith ...

  8. Myelinated sensory and alpha motor axon regeneration in peripheral nerve neuromas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macias, M. Y.; Lehman, C. T.; Sanger, J. R.; Riley, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase (CE) activities was used to analyze sensory and motor axon regeneration, respectively, during neuroma formation in transected and tube-encapsulated peripheral nerves. Median-ulnar and sciatic nerves in the rodent model permitted testing whether a 4 cm greater distance of the motor neuron soma from axotomy site or intrinsic differences between motor and sensory neurons influenced regeneration and neuroma formation 10, 30, and 90 days later. Ventral root radiculotomy confirmed that CE-stained axons were 97% alpha motor axons. Distance significantly delayed axon regeneration. When distance was negligible, sensory axons grew out sooner than motor axons, but motor axons regenerated to a greater quantity. These results indicate regeneration differences between axon subtypes and suggest more extensive branching of motor axons within the neuroma. Thus, both distance from injury site to soma and inherent motor and sensory differences should be considered in peripheral nerve repair strategies.

  9. Myelinated sensory and alpha motor axon regeneration in peripheral nerve neuromas.

    PubMed

    Macias, M Y; Lehman, C T; Sanger, J R; Riley, D A

    1998-12-01

    Histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase (CE) activities was used to analyze sensory and motor axon regeneration, respectively, during neuroma formation in transected and tube-encapsulated peripheral nerves. Median-ulnar and sciatic nerves in the rodent model permitted testing whether a 4 cm greater distance of the motor neuron soma from axotomy site or intrinsic differences between motor and sensory neurons influenced regeneration and neuroma formation 10, 30, and 90 days later. Ventral root radiculotomy confirmed that CE-stained axons were 97% alpha motor axons. Distance significantly delayed axon regeneration. When distance was negligible, sensory axons grew out sooner than motor axons, but motor axons regenerated to a greater quantity. These results indicate regeneration differences between axon subtypes and suggest more extensive branching of motor axons within the neuroma. Thus, both distance from injury site to soma and inherent motor and sensory differences should be considered in peripheral nerve repair strategies. PMID:9843078

  10. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, Vessela TZ; Papazov, Sava P; Daskalov, Ivan K

    2003-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium. PMID:14693034

  11. The diagnostic value of provocative clinical tests in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is marginal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Beekman; A H C M L Schreuder; C. A. M. Rozeman; P. J. Koehler; B. M. J. Uitdehaag

    2009-01-01

    Background:Provocative clinical tests are often performed in the diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) although the evidence for the usefulness of these tests is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of provocative clinical tests in the diagnosis of UNE in a relevant spectrum of patients and controls.Methods:A prospective cohort study was performed

  12. Long-term results of simple hemiresection arthroplasty in the rheumatoid distal radio-ulnar joint.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Chung, U S; Lee, B G; Shim, J H; Lee, K H

    2013-09-01

    We retrospectively studied the radiological and clinical results of a simple hemiresection arthroplasty, a modification of previous oblique distal ulnar resections, in 62 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (68 wrists) over a mean follow-up of 103 (range 60-173) months. Fourteen wrists (20%) became fused at the radiocarpal joint and 28 wrists fused (41%) at the midcarpal joints during follow-up. Severe ulnar translocation of the carpus was observed in two wrists (3%), radio-ulnar convergence in five wrists (7%), as well as a significant decrease of carpal height ratio, without any radiological findings of stylocarpal impingement. Improvements in forearm pronation and supination, and reduction in pain were maintained at the last follow-up. Grip strength was not significantly improved. The Jebsen-Taylor hand function test showed improvements in writing, card turning, and simulated feeding. Fifty-two patients (58 wrists, 85%) were satisfied with the results at the last follow-up. Simple hemiresection arthroplasty showed good long-term results with few complications. PMID:23303834

  13. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, A.S.; Michaelsen, S.M.; Achaval, M.; Ilha, J.; Hermel, E.E.S.; Back, F.P.; Netto, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330?g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group) were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either “skilled” (reaching for small food pellets) or “unskilled” (walking on a motorized treadmill) training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05). The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05). These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury. PMID:22584636

  14. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597

  15. Evaluation of Tookad-mediated photodynamic effect on peripheral nerve and pelvic nerve in a canine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Dole, Kenneth C.; Blanc, Dominique; Whalen, Lawrence R.; Gould, Daniel H.; Huang, Zheng

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a novel vascular targeting photosensitizer pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) has been investigated as an alternative modality for the treatment of prostate cancer and other diseases. This study investigated, for the first time, the vascular photodynamic effects of Tookad-PDT on nerve tissues. We established an in situ canine model using the cutaneous branches of the saphenous nerve to evaluate the effect of Tookad-PDT secondary to vascular damage on compound-action potentials. With Tookad dose of 2 mg/kg, treatment with 50 J/cm2 induced little change in nerve conduction. However, treatment with 100 J/cm2 resulted in decreases in nerve conduction velocities, and treatment with 200 J/cm2 caused a total loss of nerve conduction. Vasculature surrounding the saphenous nerve appeared irritated. The nerve itself looked swollen and individual fibers were not as distinct as they were before PDT treatment. Epineurium had mild hemorrhage, leukocyte infiltration, fibroplasias and vascular hypertrophy. However, the nerve fascicles and nerve fibers were free of lesions. We also studied the effect of Tookad-PDT secondary to vascular damage on the pelvic nerve in the immediate vicinity of the prostate gland. The pelvic nerve and saphenous nerve showed different sensitivity and histopathological responses to Tookad-PDT. Degeneration nerve fibers and necrotic neurons were seen in the pelvic nerve at a dose level of 1 mg/kg and 50 J/cm2. Adjacent connective tissue showed areas of hemorrhage, fibrosis and inflammation. Our preliminary results suggest that possible side effects of interstitial PDT on prostate nerve tissues need to be further investigated.

  16. Nerve Sheath Myxoma: Report of A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Amoolya; C, Vijaya; VK, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Nerve sheath myxoma defined by Harkin and Reed is an uncommon benign neoplasm with nerve sheath like features. It has several cytological and histological differential diagnoses. One such lesion is neurothekeoma, which can be differentiated using immunohistochemistry. In most of the previous reports nerve sheath myxoma and neurothekeoma were considered synonymous and were often confused for one another. This case report separates the two using immunohistochemistry. Also, the cytological features of nerve sheath myxoma are not well documented in the past. This case report attempts to display the cyto-morphology of nerve sheath myxoma. We report a rare case of nerve sheath myxoma diagnosed on cytological features confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in a 32-year-old lady who presented with an asymptomatic nodule over the left cervical area and discuss its cyto-histological mimics. PMID:26023558

  17. Hypoglossal nerve monitoring, a potential application of intraoperative nerve monitoring in head and neck surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) has many applications in different surgical fields. In head and neck surgery, IONM has been used to perform surgery of the parotid, thyroid and parathyroid glands, preserving the facial and recurrent nerves. However, hypoglossal nerve neuromonitoring has not been addressed with such relevance. Material and methods A retrospective review of surgeries performed on patients with special tongue and floor of mouth conditions was undertaken to examine the indications that prompted its use. Particular attention was given to the pathology, intraoperative findings and the final outcome of each patient. Results Four patients, aged between 6 years and 68 years, with complex oral tongue and floor of mouth lesions were reviewed. Three patients were male, aged 22 years and younger, and two of these patients had oral tongue cancers with previous surgery. Oral tongue and neck conditions are challenging since the functions of the hypoglossal nerve are put at risk. The use of IONM technology allowed us to preserve nerve functions, speech and swallowing. Conclusions Although IONM of the hypoglossal nerve is not a common indication in tongue and floor of mouth lesions, under special conditions its application can be extrapolated to challenging surgical cases, like the ones described. PMID:24028712

  18. Iatrogenic nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Thomas; Heinen, Christian W; Antoniadis, Gregor; Richter, Hans-Peter; König, Ralph W

    2009-01-01

    As long as humans have been medically treated, unfortunate cases of inadvertent injury to nerves afflicted by the therapist have occurred. Most microsurgically treated iatrogenic nerve injuries occur directly during an operation. Certain nerves are at a higher risk than others, and certain procedures and regions of the body are more prone to sustaining nerve injury. A high degree of insecurity regarding the proper measures to take can be observed among medical practitioners. A major limiting factor in successful treatment is delayed referral for evaluation and reconstructive surgery. This article on iatrogenic nerve injuries intends to focus on relevant aspects of management from a nerve surgeon's perspective. PMID:19064181

  19. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required.

  20. “Crevasse” Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goljan, Peter; Devitt, Brian M.; Peixoto, Lourenço P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to report on a distinctive pattern of linear femoral head chondral lesions that were observed in 7 patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for the treatment of mixed-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Design: Between 2010 and 2012, 702 patients were treated with hip arthroscopy at our institution for symptomatic FAI. Among those patients, 7 were found to have a unique vertical chondral fissure located on the posterior femoral head. A retrospective review of the preoperative history, physical examination, and radiographic findings in addition to the intraoperative findings and surgical procedures performed was carried out for each patient. Results: All patients were diagnosed with mixed-type FAI by dynamic examination intraoperatively. The femoral head cartilage lesions were noted to be both linear and deep and resembled the appearance of a crevasse. Three of the 7 patients in whom these lesions were identified reported an acute event preceding their pain. Of the other 4 patients, 3 were involved in sports that involved vigorous rotational hip movements: golf, tennis, and wrestling. Notably, none of these lesions were identifiable on preoperative 3-T MRI scans. Conclusions: This series reports on a previously undefined femoral head cartilage lesion. It is hypothesized that increased pathologic translational movements and perching of the femoral head on the posterior rim of the acetabulum create this pattern of chondral damage. Recognition of this pattern of damage on the femoral head is important in the setting of mixed-type FAI.

  1. [Iatrogenic injuries of the facial nerve in the mastoid region].

    PubMed

    Príhodová, J; Zelený, M; Kozák, J

    1990-09-01

    During the past ten years nine patients were referred to our hospital with lesions of the VIIth nerve. These lesions were inflicted during operation on account of chronic otitis media. One patient recovered after conservative treatment. Based on the EMG examination and clinical picture, eight patients were operated. In one who had an extensive lesion it did not prove possible to find the proximal stump and the patient improved after Normann-Dott's operation. In the remaining seven subjects also severe damage was involved: five times complete severing of the nerve occurred, twice partial severing and contusion, always in the mastoid portion of the VIIth nerve. The authors achieved as a rule a 50-75% restoration of function of the VIIth nerve Ballance-Duel's operation, using a graft of the n. suralis with microsuture of the epineurium and gluing of the nerve by plasma. Evaluation of late functional results was made 1-8 years after Ballance-Duel's operation. The authors recommend to reduce the risk of iatrogenic lesions of the VIIth nerve in beginners by assistance of experienced surgeons at several operations. PMID:2225170

  2. Is there a safe zone to avoid superficial radial nerve injury with Kirschner wire fixation in the treatment of distal radius? A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ayman M.; El-Alfy, Barakat; Attia, Hamdino

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the relation of the superficial radial nerve to bony land-marks and to identify a safe zone for K-wire pinning in the distal radius. Method The superficial radial nerve was dissected in sixteen upper extremities of preserved cadavers. Results We found that the superficial radial nerve emerged from under brachioradialis at a mean distance of 8.45 (±1.22) cm proximal to the radial styloid. The mean distance from the first major branching point of the superficial radial nerve to the radial styloid were 4.8 ± 0.4 cm. All branches of the superficial radial nerve were found to lie in the radial half of an isosceles triangle formed by the radial styloid, Lister's tubercle and the exit point of the superficial radial nerve. There is an elliptical area just proximal to the Lister's tubercle. This area is not crossed by any tendons or nerve. It is bounded by the extensor carpiradialis brevis, extensor pollicis longus. Conclusion Pinning through the radial styloid is unsafe as the branches of the superficial radial nerve passé close to it. The ulnar half of the isosceles triangle is safe regarding the nerve. The elliptical zone just proximal to the Lister's tubercle is safe regarding the tendons and nerve. PMID:25983505

  3. Geometric mouse variation: implications to the axial ulnar loading protocol and animal specific calibration.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David W; Chan, Stephanie; Castillo, Alesha B; Beaupre, Gary S

    2013-09-01

    Large variations in axial ulnar load strain calibration results suggest that animal-specific calibrations may be necessary. However, the optimal set of geometric measures for performing an animal-specific calibration are not known, potentially as a result of confounding effects associated with experimentally introduced variation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inherent variability of ulnar geometric measures known to influence periosteal midshaft strain during axial ulnar exogenous loading, and to further quantify the relationship between the variance of those geometric measures and periosteal strain during axial loading. Thirty-nine right mouse forelimbs were scanned with microCT. Seven geometric measures that influence periosteal strain resulting from a combined axial and bending loading were computed and used to estimate animal-specific strains on the periosteal midshaft. Animal specific strains were estimated using a theoretical model based on the generalized flexure formula. The predicted mean and standard deviation of the simulated midshaft strain gauge measurement resulting from the inter-animal geometric differences was -985 ± 148 ??/N. The complete beam bending term associated with bending about the I(min) axis accounted for 89% of the variance and reduced the residual RMSE to 50.4 ??. Eccentricity associated with the axial loading contributed a substantial portion of variation to the computed strain suggesting that calibration procedures to account for animal differences should incorporate that variable. The method developed in this study provides a relatively simple procedure for computing animal-specific strains using microCT scan data, without the need of a load/strain calibration study or computationally intensive finite element models. PMID:23880439

  4. Radiocephalic Fistula Complicated by Distal Ischemia: Treatment by Ulnar Artery Dilatation

    SciTech Connect

    Raynaud, Alain; Novelli, Luigi, E-mail: sfanfy@gmail.com; Rovani, Xavier; Carreres, Thierry [Clinique Alleray Labrouste, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (France); Bourquelot, Pierre [Clinique Jouvenet (France); Hermelin, Alain; Angel, C.; Beyssen, B. [Clinique Alleray Labrouste, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (France)

    2010-02-15

    Hand ischemic steal syndrome due to a forearm arteriovenous fistula is a rare occurrence. However, its frequency is increasing with the rise in numbers of elderly and diabetic patients. This complication, which is more common for proximal than for distal accesses, can be very severe and may cause loss of hand function, damage to fingers, and even amputation of fingers or the hand. Its treatment is difficult and often leads to access loss. We report here a case of severe hand ischemia related to a radiocephalic fistula successfully treated by ulnar artery dilatation.

  5. Rapid Diagnosis of an Ulnar Fracture with Portable Hand-Held Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Brown, Ross; Diebel, Lawrence N.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Marshburn, Tom; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic fractures are a common injury in operational activities, injuries that often occur in isolated or hostile environments. Clinical ultrasound devices have become more user friendly and lighter allowing them to be easily transported with forward medical teams. The bone-soft tissue interface has a very large acoustic impedance, with a high reflectance that can be used to visualize breaks in contour including fractures. Herein reported is a case of an ulnar fracture that was quickly visualized in the early phase of a multi-system trauma resuscitation with a hand-held ultrasound device. The implications for operational medicine are discussed.

  6. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  7. `L'acropathie ulcéro-mutilante familiale' with involvement of the distal mixed nerves and long bones fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Juši?; Z. Radoševi?; N. Gr?evi?; V. Hlavka; R. Petri?evi?-Migi?; V. Hartl-Prpi?

    1973-01-01

    Two siblings are described with mutilating lesions of the feet and hands, with sensory disturbances and muscle amyotrophy. The motor and afferent nerve conduction velocities were at the lower limit of normal. The nerve action potentials disappeared, first with percutaneous stimulation of the fingers and later with more proximal direct nerve stimulation. Early in the course of the illness indolent

  8. Engineering Peripheral Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Laura; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

    2013-01-01

    Current approaches for treating peripheral nerve injury have resulted in promising, yet insufficient functional recovery compared to the clinical standard of care, autologous nerve grafts. In order to design a construct that can match the regenerative potential of the autograft, all facets of nerve tissue must be incorporated in a combinatorial therapy. Engineered biomaterial scaffolds in the future will have to promote enhanced regeneration and appropriate reinnervation by targeting the highly sensitive response of regenerating nerves to their surrounding microenvironment. PMID:23790730

  9. Cerebellar lesion.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Raul; Chittiboina, Prashant; Willis, Brian K; Gonzalez-Toldeo, Eduardo; Nanda, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Lhermitte-Duclos disease is a rare cerebellar lesion that poses many diagnostic, pathophysiologic and therapeutic conundrums. Here we present a case that highlights the most important imaging characteristics for diagnosis, the pathophysiology of the disease, and the current management recommendations. PMID:20666170

  10. Cranial Nerves Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliann Garza (University of Texas-Pan American Physician Assistant Studies)

    2010-08-16

    Lesson is designed to introduce students to cranial nerves through the use of an introductory lecture. Students will then create a three-dimensional model of the cranial nerves. An information sheet will accompany the model in order to help students learn crucial aspects of the cranial nerves.

  11. Optic Nerve Imaging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... machines can help monitor and detect loss of optic nerve fibers. The Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) is a special ... can directly measure the thickness of the nerve fiber layer and create a three dimensional representation of the optic nerve. Last reviewed on May 02, 2012 Was ...

  12. Cervico-mediastinal schwannoma of the vagus nerve: resection with intraoperative nerve monitoring.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Andrea; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; De Monte, Lavinia; Conti, Valentina; Rotolo, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Schwannomas are usually benign, single, encapsulated, slow-growing tumours originating from cranial or spinal nerve sheaths. The vagus nerve involvement at the mediastinal inlet is very uncommon. For anatomical reasons, the resection of cervical and mediastinal schwannoma of the vagus nerve has a high risk of vocal fold paralysis. We describe the case of a 67-year-old female with a cervico-mediastinal schwannoma of the vagus nerve that we removed using the intraoperative neuromonitoring technique. The patient presented with mild hoarseness and complained of discomfort behind the jugular notch. Neck and chest computerized tomography described a 35 × 30 mm solid lesion behind the left clavi-sternal junction; preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology revealed schwannoma. Resection of the mass was performed with a cervical approach and the vagus nerve tumour was completely removed under continuous neuromonitoring (NIM-3(®) System), preserving the vagus and the recurrent laryngeal nerve function. Pathology on the resected mass documented A-type schwannoma with "ancient schwannoma" areas. The intraoperative neurostimulation and neuromonitoring approach for the resection of vagus schwannoma are recommended because it may reduce the risk of injury to the vagus and to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. PMID:21210273

  13. Unusually large quiescent ancient schwannoma of hypoglossal nerve.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Sangeeta P; Wanjari, Panjab V; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Ancient schwannoma is considered as a variant of schwannoma, comprising about 10% of all schwanommas. Schwannoma is a benign neoplasm derived from the nerve sheath of peripheral motor, sensory and sympathetic nerves and from the cranial nerve pairs. It usually presents as a solitary soft-tissue lesion which is slow growing, encapsulated and is often associated with nerve attached peripherally. Diagnosis is often confirmed with the microscopic examination. The long standing schwannoma attributes to degenerative changes and is termed "ancient" schwannoma. Present case is of a 68-year-old female patient who reported with an asymptomatic large swelling below mandible on the left side since last 23 years. The lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia. PMID:24552945

  14. Can therapeutic ultrasound influence the regeneration of peripheral nerves?

    PubMed

    Raso, Vanessa Vilela Monte; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; Mazzer, Nilton; Fasan, Valéria Sassoli

    2005-03-30

    An experimental study of the influence of the therapeutic ultrasound on the regeneration of the sciatic nerve submitted to a controlled crush injury was carried out in rats. Twenty female Wistar rats weighing 250 g on average were used and divided into two groups of 10 animals each, respectively, submitted to: (1) crush injury followed by ultrasound irradiation and (2) crush injury only. Under general anaesthesia the sciatic nerve was exposed on the right thigh and crushed with a device especially developed and built for this purpose, with a 15,000g constant load for 10 min, affecting a 5mm-long segment of the nerve proximal to its bifurcation. Pulsed ultrasound irradiation (1:5, 1 MHz, 0.4 W/cm(2), 2 min duration) was started the day after the operation and repeated for 10 consecutive days. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was evaluated at weekly intervals up to the third week, when the animal was killed for histologic and nerve fiber density studies of the sciatic nerve carried out on the lesion site and on the segments immediately proximal and distal to it. The SFI progressively improved for both treated and untreated nerves but in a more marked and significant way for the treated nerves (73 and 55%, respectively). Nerve fiber density did no return to normal in either case but was significantly higher in the treated nerves, with predominance of small diameter thin myelin sheath fibers typical of nerve regeneration in the treated nerves, as opposed to large diameter thin myelin sheath fibers in the untreated nerves. The authors conclude that low intensity therapeutic ultrasound enhances nerve regeneration, as demonstrated with significance on the 21st postoperative day. PMID:15698658

  15. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Nath, Devajit; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Thakkar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannoma occurring within the parotid gland is a rare tumour. We report a case of schwannoma within the parotid gland in a young female patient, who underwent ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequent surgical excision of the lesion. The lesion showed hyperintensity on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. There was no adjacent lymphadenopathy. Although hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted MRI could suggest malignant tumours, the characteristic “string sign” provided the clue for the diagnosis of schwannoma. PMID:25789306

  16. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Nath, Devajit; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Thakkar, Alok

    2015-03-16

    Facial nerve schwannoma occurring within the parotid gland is a rare tumour. We report a case of schwannoma within the parotid gland in a young female patient, who underwent ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequent surgical excision of the lesion. The lesion showed hyperintensity on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. There was no adjacent lymphadenopathy. Although hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted MRI could suggest malignant tumours, the characteristic "string sign" provided the clue for the diagnosis of schwannoma. PMID:25789306

  17. [Common and not so common nerve entrapment syndromes: diagnostics, clinical aspects and therapy].

    PubMed

    Schulte-Mattler, W J; Grimm, T

    2015-02-01

    Altogether, nerve entrapment syndromes have a very high incidence. Neurological deficits attributable to a focal peripheral nerve lesion lead to the clinical diagnosis. Frequently, pain is the dominant symptom but is often not confined to the nerve supply area. Electroneurography, electromyography, and more recently also neurosonography are the most important diagnostic tools. In most patients surgical therapy is necessary, which should be carried out in a timely manner. The entrapment syndromes discussed are suprascapular nerve entrapment, carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, meralgia paraesthetica, thoracic outlet syndrome and anterior interosseous nerve syndrome. PMID:25526716

  18. Changes in sensation after nerve injury or amputation: the role of central factors.

    PubMed Central

    Braune, S; Schady, W

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic changes in somatosensory cortical maps are known to occur in experimental animals subjected to peripheral nerve transection or amputation. To study the sensory effects of central nervous system adaptation to temporary or permanent loss of input from a part of the hand, multimodality quantitative sensory tests were carried out in 11 patients with complete traumatic division and repair of the median or ulnar nerves and in six patients who had undergone amputation of one or more digits. As expected, vibration, two point discrimination, and tactile thresholds were raised in the territory of the injured nerve in a graded fashion, sensitivity being poorest in the patients with the most recent injuries. Surprisingly, localisation was better in the tips than at the base of the hypoaesthetic fingers, suggesting a central attentional gradient. Stimulus-response curves conformed to a power function whose exponent was higher in denervated than in normal skin. Changes in psychophysical functions were also discernible in the intact hand. There was no hyperaesthesia in the territory of the nerve adjacent to the injured one or in the stump in the case of amputees. Central factors contribute to the sensory changes seen after nerve injury, but the functional effects of the cortical reorganisation that follows partial deafferentation are more subtle than a simple heightening of sensitivity in the surrounding skin. PMID:8482960

  19. Protecting the genitofemoral nerve during direct/extreme lateral interbody fusion (DLIF/XLIF) procedures.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Faisal R; Sherman, Jonathan H; Holmberg, Andrea; Louis, Robert; Elias, Jeff; Vega-Bermudez, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    A 77-year-old male presented with a history of severe lower back pain for 10 years with radiculopathy, positive claudication type symptoms in his calf with walking, and severe "burning" in his legs bilaterally with walking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed lumbar stenosis at the L3-L4 and L4-L5 levels. During the direct or extreme lateral interbody fusion (DLIF/XLIF) procedure, bilateral posterior tibial, femoral, and ulnar nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were recorded with good morphology of waveforms observed. Spontaneous electromyography (S-EMG) and triggered electromyography (T-EMG) were recorded from cremaster and ipsilateral leg muscles. A left lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach was used to access the anterior disc space for complete discectomy, distraction, and interbody fusion. T-EMG ranging from 0.05 to 55.0 mA with duration of 200 microsec was used for identification of the genitofemoral nerve using a monopolar stimulator during the approach. The genitofemoral nerve (L1-L2) was identified, and the guidewire was redirected away from the nerve. Post-operatively, the patient reported complete pain relief and displayed no complications from the procedure. Intraoperative SSEPs, S-EMG, and T-EMG were utilized effectively to guide the surgeon's approach in this DLIF thereby preventing any post-operative neurological deficits such as damage to the genitofemoral nerve that could lead to groin pain. PMID:21313792

  20. A (heat) shock to the system promotes peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Höke, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerves are easily damaged, resulting in loss of motor and sensory function. Recovery of motor and sensory function after peripheral nerve injury is suboptimal, even after appropriate surgical repair. This is due to the slow rate of axonal elongation during regeneration and atrophic changes that occur in denervated Schwann cells and target muscle with proximal lesions. One way to solve this problem is to accelerate the rate at which the axons regenerate. In this issue of the JCI, Ma and colleagues show that this can be achieved in mice by overexpression of heat shock protein 27, providing hope for enhanced functional recovery in patients after peripheral nerve damage. PMID:21965324

  1. Are human peripheral nerves sensitive to X-ray imaging?

    PubMed

    Scopel, Jonas Francisco; de Souza Queiroz, Luciano; O'Dowd, Francis Pierce; Júnior, Marcondes Cavalcante França; Nucci, Anamarli; Hönnicke, Marcelo Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques play an important role in assessing the exact location, cause, and extent of a nerve lesion, thus allowing clinicians to diagnose and manage more effectively a variety of pathological conditions, such as entrapment syndromes, traumatic injuries, and space-occupying lesions. Ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging are becoming useful methods for this purpose, but they still lack spatial resolution. In this regard, recent phase contrast x-ray imaging experiments of peripheral nerve allowed the visualization of each nerve fiber surrounded by its myelin sheath as clearly as optical microscopy. In the present study, we attempted to produce high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of a human sciatic nerve by using synchrotron radiation propagation-based imaging. The images showed high contrast and high spatial resolution, allowing clear identification of each fascicle structure and surrounding connective tissue. The outstanding result is the detection of such structures by phase contrast x-ray tomography of a thick human sciatic nerve section. This may further enable the identification of diverse pathological patterns, such as Wallerian degeneration, hypertrophic neuropathy, inflammatory infiltration, leprosy neuropathy and amyloid deposits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful phase contrast x-ray imaging experiment of a human peripheral nerve sample. Our long-term goal is to develop peripheral nerve imaging methods that could supersede biopsy procedures. PMID:25757086

  2. The Mouse Median Nerve Experimental Model in Regenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Buskbjerg Jager, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Sciatic nerve crush injury in rat animal model is one of the most common experimental models used in regenerative research. However, the availability of transgenic mouse for nerve regeneration studies is constantly increasing and, therefore, the shift from rat model to mouse model is, in some cases, necessary. Moreover, since most of the human nerve lesions occur in the upper limb, it is also advantageous to shift from sciatic nerve to median nerve. In this study we described an experimental model which involves lesions of the median nerve in the mouse. Data showed that the finger flexor muscle contraction strength, assessed to evaluate the motor function recovery, and reached values not different from the control already 20 days after injury. The degree of nerve regeneration evaluated with stereological methods in light microscopy showed that, 25 days after injury, the number of regenerated myelinated fibers was comparable to the control, but they were smaller with a thinner myelin thickness. Stereological analysis made in electron microscopy confirmed these results, although the total number of fibers quantified was significantly higher compared to light microscopy analysis, due to the very small size of some fibers that can be detected only in electron microscopy. PMID:25180190

  3. Nerve Conduction Velocity of Small Components in Human Sensory Nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Tackmann; R. Minkenberg

    1977-01-01

    Slow conducted components of sensory nerve action potentials were investigated in median and in sural nerves of controls and in patients with peripheral nerve diseases. In the normal group the slow components showed no relation to age which is in contrast to the maximum velocity. In both the median nerve and sural nerve of about 20% of the patients with

  4. Radiation therapy for primary optic nerve meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.; Vuksanovic, M.M.; Yates, B.M.; Bienfang, D.C.

    1981-06-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningiomas, formerly thought to be rare, have been encountered with surprising frequency since the widespread use of computed tomography. Early diagnosis led to an enthusiastic surgical approach to these lesions, but this has been tempered by the realization that even in the best of hands, blindness followed such surgery with distressing frequency. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas may be divided into primary, secondary, and multiple meningioma groups. Five patients with primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas treated with irradiation therapy are presented in this report. Improvement in visual acuity, stabilization to increase in the visual field, and decrease in size to total regression of optociliary veins, have been documented following irradiation therapy of the posterior orbital and intracanalicular portions of the optic nerve in some of these cases. Although each patient must be carefully individualized, there is no question that visual palliation can be achieved in some cases of optic nerve sheath meningioma. Further investigation of this therapeutic modality in selected cases in advised.

  5. Intravenous Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Enhance Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Matthes, Stella M.; Reimers, Kerstin; Janssen, Insa; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Vogt, Peter M.; Radtke, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common and devastating complication after trauma and can cause irreversible impairment or even complete functional loss of the affected limb. While peripheral nerve repair results in some axonal regeneration and functional recovery, the clinical outcome is not optimal and research continues to optimize functional recovery after nerve repair. Cell transplantation approaches are being used experimentally to enhance regeneration. Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into spinal cord injury and stroke was shown to improve functional outcome. However, the repair potential of intravenously transplanted MSCs in peripheral nerve injury has not been addressed yet. Here we describe the impact of intravenously infused MSCs on functional outcome in a peripheral nerve injury model. Rat sciatic nerves were transected followed, by intravenous MSCs transplantation. Footprint analysis was carried out and 21 days after transplantation, the nerves were removed for histology. Labelled MSCs were found in the sciatic nerve lesion site after intravenous injection and regeneration was improved. Intravenously infused MSCs after acute peripheral nerve target the lesion site and survive within the nerve and the MSC treated group showed greater functional improvement. The results of study suggest that nerve repair with cell transplantation could lead to greater functional outcome. PMID:24459671

  6. Painful legs and moving toes: evidence on the site of the lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, P W

    1978-01-01

    A condition of painful legs with moving toes was described in 1971. Further examples of this condition are now reported, showing lesions in the posterior root ganglion, cauda equina, nerve roots, or a peripheral nerve of the lower limb. It is concluded that this syndrome is caused by a lesion of the afferent fibres of the posterior nerve roots. It is likely that this lesion causes frequent spontaneous impulses in the posterior roots which activate local circuits of interneurones and motoneurones and result in co-ordinated movements involving local muscles. Images PMID:215727

  7. Somatotopic fascicular organization of the human sciatic nerve demonstrated by MR neurography

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether the human sciatic nerve might have a consistent somatotopic organization according to proximal fascicle input by spinal nerves. Methods: Twelve patients (55.3 ± 15.5 years) with confirmed lesions of either the L5 or S1 spinal nerve root underwent magnetic resonance neurography of sciatic nerve fascicles including thigh and knee levels (T2-weighted sequence with fat saturation, repetition time/echo time 7,552/52 milliseconds, voxel size 0.27 × 0.27 × 3.0 mm3). Twenty healthy subjects and 12 additional patients with an established diagnosis of peripheral polyneuropathy served as 2 separate age- and sex-matched control groups. Two blinded readers assessed patients and controls for presence of distinct lesion patterns. Spatial maps of normalized T2 signal were rendered after segmentation and coregistration of sciatic nerve voxels to detect fascicle lesion patterns. Results: A clear somatotopic distribution of nerve fascicles was observed on cross-sections along the entire course of the sciatic nerve and was distinct between patients with L5 and those with S1 lesions. Fascicles emerging from L5 were ordered in anterolateral positions within sciatic nerve cross-sections, while fascicles emerging from S1 appeared posteromedially. Visual assessment discriminated these somatotopic lesions in all cases from both healthy and polyneuropathy controls. Conclusion: A distinct pattern of somatotopy was identified within the sciatic nerve according to proximal fascicle input by L5 and S1 spinal nerves. Knowledge of human nerve somatotopy may have clinically useful implications in imaging-aided diagnosis of neuropathies. PMID:25841030

  8. Sensory nerves and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingfu

    2014-01-01

    Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local vasodilatation and plasma extravasation. Deactivation of sensory nerves often leads to the disturbances of pancreatic microcirculation. Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated. Experimental studies in animals and tissue analysis in patients with pancreatitis have shown significant changes in sensory nerves supplying the pancreatic gland. Thus making clear the whole mechanism of pancreatitis is essential to treat and cure it. Sensory nerves may have a close correlation with the development of pancreatitis, and knowing more about the role of sensory nerve in pancreatitis is important for the treatment for pancreatitis. This review is aimed to summarize the relationship between sensory nerves and pancreatitis. PMID:25493260

  9. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type of distal median nerve dysfunction is carpal tunnel syndrome . ... repetitive movements increase the chance of developing carpal tunnel entrapment. Conditions that affect connective tissue or cause ...

  10. Intraneural Perineurioma of the Median Nerve: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sachanandani, Neil S.; Zaidman, Craig; Brown, Stephanie S.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor of perineurial cell origin. We present the case of an intraneural perineurioma of the median nerve in a 23-year-old woman which posed a diagnostic challenge. Ultrasonography was found to be a quick, easy, and effective screening tool for identifying the source of the deficit followed by MRI to further elucidate the lesion. We discuss surgical management options for optimizing functional outcomes when addressing such lesions. PMID:19876692

  11. Rare case report of Traumatic neuroma of anterior superior alveolar nerve associated with high frenal attachment.

    PubMed

    Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Srilekha, Namala; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Kiresur, Mohammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    We present an incredible case of traumatic neuroma (TN) in the anterior superior alveolar nerve leading to the swelling in the upper labial mucosa. This paper attempts to highlight the rarity of site of occurrence of this lesion and reports the first case of TN of anterior superior alveolar nerve. PMID:25972959

  12. Selective electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve by two-channel cuff electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-Li Lin; Ming-Shaung Ju; Chou-Ching K. Lin

    Functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) is a method to restore the motor function of the patients with lesions in central nervous system. For the purpose of feedback control, selective stimulation of a nerve trunk is an important field. This paper considers the dual stimulation method to improve the selectivity of electrical stimulation of the rabbit's sciatic nerve by a two-channel spiral

  13. Optic Nerve Morphology May Reveal Adverse Events During Prenatal and Perinatal Life—Digital Image Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Hellström

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate optic nerve morphology in children with various conditions caused by adverse events during prenatal and\\/or perinatal life and to investigate whether optic nerve morphology can reveal brain lesions associated with these conditions, as well as provide insight into the etiology and timing of the prenatal and perinatal damage. Methods and patients: A digital image analysis technique was

  14. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, RR; Mankar, SR; Joshi, M; Sontakke, YA

    2010-01-01

    Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm. PMID:21799623

  15. Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma with hypertrophic nerves.

    PubMed

    Doshi-Chougule, Bhavana N; Gust, Alexandra; Mentzel, Thomas; Böer-Auer, Almut

    2013-12-01

    Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma (MCAH) represents a rare benign skin lesion characterized by multiple papules that are usually found on the distal extremities or face of middle-aged women. We report on a 60-year-old male with a history of monoclonal gammopathy and severe rheumatoid arthritis who had several asymptomatic red-to-livid papules grouped on the right side of his trunk. The lesions had been present for a few years and were gradually enlarging. Biopsies from three lesions showed a spectrum of changes consisting of a proliferation of small venules together with thickened collagen bundles and increased numbers of interstitial cells including bizarre, multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemically, the multinucleated cells were positive for vimentin and lysozyme while the interstitial cells expressed CD68, factor XIIIa and lysozyme. Interestingly, strikingly enlarged dermal nerves were seen in all the three biopsies and two of the biopsies showed an accompanying infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells. PMID:24117769

  16. Predominant patterns of median nerve displacement and deformation during individual finger motion in early carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liong, Kyrin; Lahiri, Amitabha; Lee, Shujin; Chia, Dawn; Biswas, Arijit; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common neuropathy, yet the pathologic changes do not explain the fleeting dynamic symptoms. Dynamic nerve-tendon interaction may be a contributing factor. Based on dynamic ultrasonographic examination of the carpal tunnel, we quantified nerve-tendon movement in thumb, index finger and middle finger flexion in normal subjects and those with mild-idiopathic CTS. Predominant motion patterns were identified. The nerve consistently moves volar-ulnarly. In thumb and index finger flexion, the associated tendons move similarly, whereas the tendon moves dorsoradially in middle finger flexion. Nerve displacement and deformation increased from thumb to index finger to middle finger flexion. Predomination motion patterns may be applied in computational simulations to prescribe specific motions to the tendons and to observe resultant nerve pressures. By identification of the greatest pressure-inducing motions, CTS treatment may be better developed. Symptomatic subjects displayed reduced nerve movement and deformation relative to controls, elucidating the physiologic changes that occur during mild CTS. PMID:24785444

  17. Ultrasound Neurography in the Evaluation of Sciatic Nerve Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bilgici, Ayhan; Çokluk, Cengiz; Ayd?n, Keramettin

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the benefits and the basic principles of ultrasonographic examination in the evaluation of sciatic nerve injuries. [Subjects and Methods] Patients with sciatic nerve injury were evaluated using a real-time utrasonographic examination. The capabilty of ultrasonography in terms of determination of the type and the localization of injury, the position of the proximal and distal nerve segments, the presence or absence of a neuroma, and perilesional scar tissue were evaluated in all cases. [Results] Ten cases with sciatic nerve injury were evaluated with real time sonography. Perilesional scar tissue formation was found in 4 (40%) cases. Two (20%) cases had stump neuroma diagnosed by sonographic examination. The capability of ultrasonographic examination was satisfactory for all evaluation parameters. [Conclusion] Ultrasonographic examination of sciatic nerve lesions may be used for the description of the degree of injury, determination of complete or incomplete nerve sectioning, the presence of hematoma and foreign body, the continuity of nerve, determination of nerve stumps, formation of perilesional scar tissue, and the presence of neuroma. PMID:24259759

  18. A variation of the cords of the brachial plexus on the right and a communication between the musculocutaneous and median nerves on the left upper limb: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Kirazl?, Özlem; Tatarl?, Necati; Ceylan, Davut; Hac?o?lu, Hüsniye; Uygun, Seda; ?eker, A?k?n; Kele?, Evren; Çavdar, Safiye

    2013-12-01

    During routine anatomical dissection of the upper extremity of a 64-year-old cadaver for educational purposes, we observed variations in the brachial plexus on each side. On the right an anomaly of cord formation was present and on the left there was a communication between the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) and median nerve (MN). On the right side the brachial plexus showed two trunks, superior (C5 and C6) and inferior (C7, C8, and T1); the middle trunk was absent. The superior trunk bifurcated into anterior and posterior divisions, the anterior division continued as the lateral cord forming the MCN. The posterior division gave off the subscapular branch. The inferior trunk trifurcated into radial, median, and ulnar nerves. The radial nerve gave off the axillary and thoracodorsal nerves. The ulnar nerve gave off the median cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm. The median nerve received a small ascending branch from the MCN. On the right side, there was a communicating branch from the MCN to the MN in the lower third of the arm region. This communicating branch also gave rise to a muscular branch to the brachialis muscle and the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. No additional heads of the biceps brachii muscle were observed in either upper limb. Knowledge of the variations of the brachial plexus in humans can be valuable for operations of the shoulder joint and its repair for providing an effective block or treatment for anesthetists and also for explaining otherwise incomprehensible clinical signs for neurologists. PMID:23444130

  19. Motor nerve transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gray, W P; Keohane, C; Kirwan, W O

    1997-10-01

    The motor nerve transplantation (MNT) technique is used to transfer an intact nerve into a denervated muscle by harvesting a neurovascular pedicle of muscle containing motor endplates from the motor endplate zone of a donor muscle and implanting it into a denervated muscle. Thirty-six adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent reinnervation of the left long peroneal (LP) muscle (fast twitch) with a motor nerve graft from the soleus muscle (slow twitch). The right LP muscle served as a control. Reinnervation was assessed using microstimulatory single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG), alterations in muscle fiber typing and grouping, and isometric response curves. Neurofilament antibody was used for axon staining. The neurofilament studies provided direct evidence of nerve growth from the motor nerve graft into the adjacent denervated muscle. Median motor endplate jitter was 13 microsec preoperatively, and 26 microsec at 2 months, 29.5 microsec at 4 months, and 14 microsec at 6 months postoperatively (p < 0.001). Isometric tetanic tension studies showed a progressive functional recovery in the reinnervated muscle over 6 months. There was no histological evidence of aberrant reinnervation from any source outside the nerve pedicle. Isometric twitch responses and adenosine triphosphatase studies confirmed the conversion of the reinnervated LP muscle to a slow-type muscle. Acetylcholinesterase studies confirmed the presence of functioning motor endplates beneath the insertion of the motor nerve graft. It is concluded that the MNT technique achieves motor reinnervation by growth of new nerve fibers across the pedicle graft into the recipient muscle. PMID:9322851

  20. Enhanced expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and its endogenous ligand octadecaneuropeptide (ODN) in the regenerating adult rat sciatic nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Lacor; Jesús Benavides; Badia Ferzaz

    1996-01-01

    In this study we have :investigated the expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and its endogenous ligand octadecaneuropeptide (ODN) in the sciatic nerve of the adult rat by immunohistochemistry. We have also determined the effect of nerve freezing lesion or chronic denervation on PBR and ODN expression. In the sciatic nerve of control rats PBR- and ODN-immunoreactivities (IR) were

  1. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expression in the neural retina and optic nerve of zebrafish during optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saul, Katherine E; Koke, Joseph R; García, Dana M

    2010-02-01

    Fish, unlike mammals, can regenerate axons in the optic nerve following optic nerve injury. We hypothesized that using microarray analysis to compare gene expression in fish which had experienced optic nerve lesion to fish which had undergone a similar operation but without optic nerve injury would reveal genes specifically involved in responding to optic nerve injury (including repair), reducing detection of genes involved in the general stress and inflammatory responses. We discovered 120 genes were significantly (minimally two-fold with a P-value < or = 0.05) differentially expressed (up or down) at one or more time point. Among these was ATF3, a member of the cAMP-response element binding protein family. Work by others has indicated that elevated cAMP could be important in axon regeneration. We investigated ATF3 expression further by qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry and found ATF3 expression is significantly upregulated in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, the nerve fiber layer and the optic nerve of the injured eye. The upregulation in retina is detectable by qRT-PCR by 24 h after injury, at which time ATF-3 mRNA levels are 8-fold higher than in retinas from sham-operated fish. We conclude ATF3 may be an important mediator of optic nerve regeneration-promoting gene expression in fish, a role which merits further investigation. PMID:19896551

  2. On the maxillary nerve.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Hiroki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The trigeminal, the fifth cranial nerve of vertebrates, represents the rostralmost component of the nerves assigned to pharyngeal arches. It consists of the ophthalmic and maxillomandibular nerves, and in jawed vertebrates, the latter is further divided into two major branches dorsoventrally. Of these, the dorsal one is called the maxillary nerve because it predominantly innervates the upper jaw, as seen in the human anatomy. However, developmentally, the upper jaw is derived not only from the dorsal part of the mandibular arch, but also from the premandibular primordium: the medial nasal prominence rostral to the mandibular arch domain. The latter component forms the premaxillary region of the upper jaw in mammals. Thus, there is an apparent discrepancy between the morphological trigeminal innervation pattern and the developmental derivation of the gnathostome upper jaw. To reconcile this, we compared the embryonic developmental patterns of the trigeminal nerve in a variety of gnathostome species. With the exception of the diapsid species studied, we found that the maxillary nerve issues a branch (nasopalatine nerve in human) that innervates the medial nasal prominence derivatives. Because the trigeminal nerve in cyclostomes also possesses a similar branch, we conclude that the vertebrate maxillomandibular nerve primarily has had a premandibular branch as its dorsal element. The presence of this branch would thus represent the plesiomorphic condition for the gnathostomes, implying its secondary loss within some lineages. The branch for the maxillary process, more appropriately called the palatoquadrate component of the maxillary nerve (V(2)), represents the apomorphic gnathostome trait that has evolved in association with the acquisition of an upper jaw. PMID:24151219

  3. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  4. Optic nerve enlargement in infantile form of Krabbe disease

    PubMed Central

    Castilha-Neto, Dimas; Monteiro, Letícia Fernandes; Peruchi, Mirella Maccarini; Filho, João Moreno; Scarlatelli-Lima, Aline Vieira; Lin, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Krabbe disease (KD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by dysfunctional galactosylceramidase activity. Infantile form is the most common subtype, occurring at about 6-month of age. We present a rare case of infantile KD with magnetic resonance imaging showing white matter, thalamic and basal ganglia lesions rarely associated with an enlargement of the optic nerves bilaterally. PMID:24765480

  5. Survival and subsequent regeneration of olfactory neurons after a distal axonal lesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Cancalon

    1987-01-01

    Summary If an axonal lesion is made close enough to the cell body, injured olfactory neurons degenerate and are replaced by new nerve cells arising from undifferentiated mucosal basal cells. Therefore, under these conditions neural regeneration occurs through a process similar to neuronal development. The use of the long garfish olfactory nerve has revealed that neuronal death is not an

  6. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:18539550

  7. Cyclic AMP Signaling: A Molecular Determinant of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Knott, Eric P.; Assi, Mazen; Pearse, Damien D.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of axonal integrity during injury to the peripheral nerve system (PNS) sets into motion a cascade of responses that includes inflammation, Schwann cell mobilization, and the degeneration of the nerve fibers distal to the injury site. Yet, the injured PNS differentiates itself from the injured central nervous system (CNS) in its remarkable capacity for self-recovery, which, depending upon the length and type of nerve injury, involves a series of molecular events in both the injured neuron and associated Schwann cells that leads to axon regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional restitution. Herein we discuss the essential function of the second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), in the PNS repair process, highlighting the important role the conditioning lesion paradigm has played in understanding the mechanism(s) by which cyclic AMP exerts its proregenerative action. Furthermore, we review the studies that have therapeutically targeted cyclic AMP to enhance endogenous nerve repair. PMID:25177696

  8. Surgical correction of ulnar deviation deformity of the wrist in patients with birth brachial plexus palsy sequelae.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Praveen; Parekh, Harshil; Venkatramani, Hari; Raja Sabapathy, S

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar deviation deformity of the wrist in patients with birth brachial plexus palsy is an important cosmetic concern among the patients and their relatives; especially in the patients who have recovered the basic limb functions. Though there is ample literature available regarding the management of the shoulder deformity there is paucity of literature regarding management of wrist ulnar deviation deformity. We report our experience with correction of this deformity in five cases with isolated ulnar deviation deformity without forearm rotational deformity or weakness of the wrist muscles. All the patients underwent extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) to extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) tendon transfer. At a minimum of 18 months follow-up all the patients and their families were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance of the limb. Correction of the deformity improves the appearance of the limb, improves self-confidence of the child, and allows them to integrate well into the society. Interestingly, the patients expressed improvement in their grip strength and overall hand function after this surgery. The notable functions which improved were easy reach of the hand-to-mouth for feeding and easy handling of the things requiring bimanual activities. Although the main aim of this operation was to correct the appearance of the hand it was found to be also functionally useful by the patients and hence we are encouraged to report it for wider use. The results were maintained during the follow-up period of as long as 47 months. PMID:25609294

  9. Suprascapular nerve entrapment.

    PubMed

    Corò, L; Azuelos, A; Alexandre, A

    2005-01-01

    It is important to be aware of neuropathy involving the suprascapular nerve. While direct trauma to the suprascapular nerve is the usual cause (direct blow to the base of the neck or posterior shoulder, shoulder dislocation or fracture), the problem may result from overuse injuries (such as repetitive tennis serving or spiking of a volley ball), excessive horizontal adduction, weight lifting, backpacking or no apparent reason. These last three years we have operated 8 cases of suprascapular nerve neurolysis at the level of suprascapular incision, and section of the transverse scapular ligament through the back supraspinal approach. PMID:15830964

  10. Intracranial facial nerve reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yammine, F G; Dufour, J J; Mohr, G

    1999-06-01

    Surgery for tumours of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) or the internal auditory canal (IAC) is sometimes complicated by the severing of the seventh nerve. Many procedures are available for facial reanimation. Among these, primary intracranial VII-VII reanastomosis is considered as the method of choice. This series reviews all the cases of primary intracranial facial nerve reconstruction that we have performed either directly or with the use of a nerve graft interposition. Functional results are analyzed according to the House-Brackmann grading scale. The advantages and benefits of this technique are discussed as compared with other methods of facial reanimation, namely, the hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. PMID:10410348

  11. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Gradients of GDNF in the Injured Peripheral Nerve: Effects on Nerve Coil Formation, Schwann Cell Maturation and Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, Ruben; de Winter, Fred; Hoyng, Stefan A.; Roet, Kasper C. D.; Ehlert, Erich M.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Verhaagen, Joost; Tannemaat, Martijn R.

    2013-01-01

    Although the peripheral nerve is capable of regeneration, only a small minority of patients regain normal function after surgical reconstruction of a major peripheral nerve lesion, resulting in a severe and lasting negative impact on the quality of life. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival- and outgrowth-promoting effects on motoneurons, but locally elevated levels of GDNF cause trapping of regenerating axons and the formation of nerve coils. This phenomenon has been called the “candy store” effect. In this study we created gradients of GDNF in the sciatic nerve after a ventral root avulsion. This approach also allowed us to study the effect of increasing concentrations of GDNF on Schwann cell proliferation and morphology in the injured peripheral nerve. We demonstrate that lentiviral vectors can be used to create a 4 cm long GDNF gradient in the intact and lesioned rat sciatic nerve. Nerve coils were formed throughout the gradient and the number and size of the nerve coils increased with increasing GDNF levels in the nerve. In the nerve coils, Schwann cell density is increased, their morphology is disrupted and myelination of axons is severely impaired. The total number of regenerated and surviving motoneurons is not enhanced after the distal application of a GDNF gradient, but increased sprouting does result in higher number of motor axon in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve. These results show that lentiviral vector mediated overexpression of GDNF exerts multiple effects on both Schwann cells and axons and that nerve coil formation already occurs at relatively low concentrations of exogenous GDNF. Controlled expression of GDNF, by using a viral vector with regulatable GDNF expression, may be required to avoid motor axon trapping and to prevent the effects on Schwann cell proliferation and myelination. PMID:23951085

  12. The truth is in the water: metastatic prostate cancer presenting as an intermittent facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Wooles, N; Gupta, S; Wilkin-Crowe, H; Juratli, A

    2015-01-01

    An elderly man presented to the acute ear, nose and throat (ENT) services with a history of intermittent, self-limiting facial nerve palsy. Full ENT examination was normal, with all cranial nerves and peripheral neurology intact. Multiple imaging modalities suggested an aggressive bony lesion, secondary to locally advanced prostate malignancy with extensive metastatic infiltration. Prostate cancer is known to preferentially metastasise to bone and has been known to cause multiple cranial nerve palsies and ophthalmoplegia. This is the first case described in the literature of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with intermittent facial nerve palsy. PMID:25911361

  13. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  14. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  15. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-06-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  16. Optic nerve aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lisi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    We report a 55-year-old woman with optic nerve Aspergillosis. Aspergillus is an ubiquitous airborne saprophytic fungus. Inhaled Aspergillus conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms; however, in immunosuppressed patients, they can cause disease. The woman had a past medical history of hypertension and migraines. She presented 1year prior to death with a new onset headache behind the left eye and later developed blurred vision and scotoma. A left temporal artery biopsy was negative for giant cell arteritis. One month prior to the current admission, she had an MRI showing optic nerve thickening with no other findings. Because of the visual loss and a positive antinuclear antibody test, she was given a trial of high dose steroids and while it significantly improved her headache, her vision did not improve. At autopsy, the left optic nerve at the level of the cavernous sinus and extending into the optic chiasm was enlarged in diameter and there was a 1.3cm firm nodule surrounding the left optic nerve. Histologically, an abscess surrounded and involved the left optic nerve. Acute angle branching, angioinvasive fungal hyphae were identified on Grocott's methenamine silver stained sections, consistent with Aspergillus spp. No gross or microscopic evidence of systemic vasculitis or infection was identified in the body. The literature on optic nerve Aspergillosis is reviewed. PMID:25861888

  17. Clinical analysis of a large kindred with the pallister ulnar-mammary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bamshad, M.; Root, S.; Carey, J.C. [Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-11-11

    The ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies. We present the clinical descriptions of 33 members of a six generation kindred with UMS. The number of affected individuals in this family is more than the sum of all previously reported cases of UMS. The clinical expression of UMS is highly variable. While most patients have limb deficiencies, the range of abnormalities extends from hypoplasia of the terminal phalanx of the 5th digit to complete absence of the ulna and 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits. Moreover, affected individuals may have posterior digital duplications with or without contralateral limb deficiencies. Apocrine gland abnormalities range from diminished axillary perspiration with normal breast development and lactation, to complete absence of the breasts and no axillary perspiration. Dental abnormalities include misplaced or absent teeth. Affected males consistently undergo delayed puberty, and both sexes have diminished to absent axillary hair. Imperforate hymen were seen in some affected women. A gene for UMS was mapped to chromosome area 12q23-q24.1. A mutation in the gene causing UMS can interfere with limb patterning in the proximal/distal, anterior/posterior, and dorsal/ventral axes. This mutation disturbs development of the posterior elements of forearm, wrist, and hand while growth and development of the anterior elements remain normal. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A new syndrome, congenital extraocular muscle fibrosis with ulnar hand anomalies, maps to chromosome 21qter

    PubMed Central

    Tukel, T; Uzumcu, A; Gezer, A; Kayserili, H; Yuksel-Apak, M; Uyguner, O; Gultekin, S; Hennies, H; Nurnberg, P; Desnick, R; Wollnik, B

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe a new autosomal recessive syndrome of CFEOM and ulnar hand abnormalities, and localise the disease causing gene. Methods: Clinical evaluation of the affected members and positional mapping. Results: Six affected patients with CFEOM/U (aged 2 to 29 years) from a large consanguineous Turkish family were studied. Ophthalmological involvement was characterised by non-progressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia with blepharoptosis of the right eye. The postaxial oligodactyly/oligosyndactyly of the hands was more severe on the right side. A genome-wide scan established linkage of this new autosomal recessive syndrome to a locus on chromosome 21qter. The multipoint LOD score was 4.53 at microsatellite marker D21S1259, and fine mapping defined a ?1.5 Mb critical region between microsatellite marker D21S1897 and the telomere of the long arm. Conclusions: CFEOM/U maps to a 1.5 Mb region at chromosome 21qter. Future identification of the disease causing gene may provide insights into the development of the extraocular muscles and brain stem ? motor neurones, as well as anteroposterior limb development. PMID:15863670

  19. A dynamic simulator to evaluate distal radio-ulnar joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Haugstvedt, J R; Berglund, L J; Neale, P G; Berger, R A

    2001-03-01

    In order to perform cadaveric biomechanical studies of the human forearm and distal radio-ulnar joint, a dynamic simulator has been constructed. The device is based upon a Plexiglas frame, to which the ulna is secured in a vertical orientation and the humerus in a horizontal orientation. The hand is secured in a sliding bar linkage to a stepper-motor that is used to rotate the forearm. The tendons to be loaded are connected to pneumatic actuators that provide agonist and antagonist muscle loading resulting in torque along the forearm axis. The muscle loading profiles and magnitudes are programmable as a function of the pronation-supination position and direction. A magnetic tracking system is used to collect three-dimensional kinematics data of up to four segments, in conjunction with the muscle tendon loads, forearm torque and other prescribed experimental measures. All functions are under PC control using custom software written with LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX). For the DRUJ testing, the validity of the tendon loading protocol to produce physiologic torque/rotation patterns was verified using in vivo data. The relationship of individual muscle forces to forearm torque was determined by a cadaveric study. PMID:11182124

  20. Morphological variations in ulnar supinator crests and fossae as identifying markers of occupational stress.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K A

    1983-10-01

    Recent morphometric studies of ulnae of prehistoric skeletal remains from populations known to have used spears, atlatls, and similar projectile weapons for hunting and warfare reveal a high incidence of hypertrophy of the ulnar crest, to which the supinator muscle is attached, along with pronounced depth of the adjacent supinator fossa, especially in the upper extremities of males. Similar features occur in the right ulnae of living persons of both sexes who are habitually engaged in certain occupational and athletic activities involving angular displacement of the forearm as a result of medial rotation of the arm at the shoulder, shoulder and arm rapid extension, and abrupt shifts from forearm supination to pronation. Aside from its forensic science implications in determination of right- or left-handedness as a trait peculiar to the individual, observation of these markers of stress on the proximal end of the ulna are significant in identification of skeletal remains of persons known to have engaged in specific brachial activities during life. The biomechanics of these movement patterns and activities in which they occur, when properly interpreted, are relevant to forensic science problems of individual identification and paleoanthropological studies of occupational stress factors in extinct populations for which a skeletal record is available. PMID:6631369

  1. In vivo assessment of forearm bone mass and ulnar bending stiffness in healthy men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Zhou, L. J.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    The cross-sectional bending stiffness EI of the ulna was measured in vivo by mechanical resistance tissue analysis (MRTA) in 90 men aged 19-89 years. MRTA measures the impedance response of low-frequency vibrations to determine EI, which is a reflection of elastic modulus E and moment of inertia I for the whole ulna. EI was compared to conventional estimates of bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW), and BMC/BW, which were all measured by single-photon absorptiometry. Results obtained from the nondominant ulna indicate that BW increases (r = 0.27, p = 0.01) and ulnar BMC/BW decreases (r = -0.31, p < or = 0.005) with age. Neither BMC nor EI declined with age. The single best predictor of EI was BW (r2 = 0.47, p = 0.0001), and further small but significant contributions were made by BMC (r2 = 0.53, p = 0.0001) and grip strength (r2 = 0.55, p = 0.0001). These results suggest that the resistance of older men to forearm fracture is related to age-associated changes in the moment of inertia achieved by redistributing bone mineral farther from the bending axis. We conclude that the in vivo assessment of bone geometry offers important insights to the comprehensive evaluation of bone strength.

  2. Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of the Nerve Arising in the Neck: A Case Report With Review of the Literature and Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Philp, Lauren; Naert, Karen A; Ghazarian, Danny

    2015-07-01

    We report an unusual case of a fibrolipomatous hamartoma that arose in a nuchal nerve. Typically, fibrolipomatous hamartoma, otherwise known as a neural fibrolipoma or lipomatosis of nerve, arises in the median nerve, brachial plexus, cranial nerves, or plantar nerves. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes benign and malignant spindle cell lesions, such as spindle cell lipoma, perineurioma, and myxoid liposarcoma. We were able to identify the lesion based on the typical histology, including triphasic composition with spindle cell, neural, and adipocytic components and whorled architecture. Because of the atypical location in the neck, detailed immunohistochemical staining was performed. The lesional spindle cells were negative for SMA, CD10, CD68, EMA, S100, PGP9.5, CD34, CD56, and beta-catenin. Colloidal iron stain highlighted marked intralesional mucin deposition. This detailed immunohistochemical profile is a useful diagnostic aid and to our knowledge has not been previously described. PMID:25033011

  3. MULTICOMPONENT T2 ANALYSIS OF DITHIOCARBAMATE- MEDIATED PERIPHERAL NERVE DEMYELINATION

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Holly L.; Does, Mark D.; Marshall, Vivian; Tonkin, Elizabeth G.; Valentine, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Standard light microscope histological evaluation of peripheral nerve lesions has been used routinely to assess peripheral nerve demyelination; however, the development of magnetic resonance (MR) methodology for assessing peripheral nerve may provide complimentary information, with less expense and in less time than nerve histology methods. In this study, the utility of multicomponent NMR T2 relaxation analysis for assessing myelin injury in toxicology studies was examined using two dithiocarbamates, N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), known to produce myelin injury and elevate copper in the nervous system. T2 analysis was used in conjunction with standard histological methods to assess myelin injury and determine if dithiocarbamate-mediated copper accumulation in peripheral nerve was associated with more severe myelin lesions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered i.p. DEDC for 8 weeks and maintained on either a diet containing normal (13 ppm) or elevated (200 ppm) copper. Another group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was administered oral PDTC and a 200 ppm copper diet, with controls given only the 200 ppm copper diet, for 47 weeks. Following exposures, the morphology of sciatic nerve was evaluated using light microscopy and multicomponent T2 analysis of excised fixed nerves; and copper levels in sciatic nerve were determined using ICP-AES. Light microscopy demonstrated the presence of a primary myelinopathy in dithiocarbamate-exposed rats characterized by intramyelinic edema, demyelination, and secondary axonal degeneration. Both the nerve copper level and number of degenerated axons, as ascertained by ICP-AES and microscopy respectively, were augmented by dietary copper supplementation in conjunction with administration of DEDC or PDTC. T2 analysis revealed a decreased contribution from the shortest T2 component in multicomponent T2 spectra obtained from animals administered DEDC or PDTC, consistent with decreased myelin content; and the decrease of the myelin water component was inversely correlated to the levels of nerve copper and myelin lesion counts. Also, the T2 analysis showed reduced variability compared to histological assessment. These studies support multicomponent T2 analysis as a complementary method to light microscopic evaluations that may also be applicable to in vivo assessments. PMID:17350098

  4. Brachial plexus lesions after backpack carriage in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Ramstad, Raimo; Mattila, Ville; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2006-11-01

    Carrying a heavy backpack exerts compression on shoulders, with the potential to cause brachial plexopathy. We evaluated the incidence and predisposing factors of compression plexopathy of the shoulder region in 152,095 military conscripts, hypothesizing that a low body mass index and poor physical fitness predispose to the plexus lesion. Reports of conscripts with neural lesions of the upper arm associated with load carriage were reviewed retrospectively for details associated with the condition onset, symptoms, signs, nerve conduction studies, and electromyographic examinations. Height, weight, and physical fitness scores were obtained from their military training data. The incidence of neural compression after shoulder load carriage in Finnish soldiers was 53.7 (95% confidence interval, 39.5-67.8) per 100,000 conscripts per year. The long thoracic nerve was affected in 19, the axillary nerve in 13, the suprascapular nerve in seven, and the musculocutaneous nerve in six patients. Four patients (7%) had hereditary neuropathy with susceptibility to pressure palsies (HNPP). Symptoms were induced by lighter loads in patients with HNPP. Vulnerability to brachial plexopathy was not predictable from body structure or physical fitness level. To prevent these lesions, awareness of the condition and its symptoms should be increased and backpack designs should be improved. PMID:16906084

  5. Repair of sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caishun; Lv, Gang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered nerves with acellular nerve allografts in Sprague-Dawley rats, which were prepared using chemical detergents-enzymatic digestion and mechanical methods, in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of Wistar rats cultured in vitro, to repair 15 mm sciatic bone defects in Wistar rats. At postoperative 12 weeks, electrophysiological detection results showed that the conduction velocity of regenerated nerve after repair with tissue-engineered nerves was similar to that after autologous nerve grafting, and was higher than that after repair with acellular nerve allografts. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that motor endplates with acetylcholinesterase-positive nerve fibers were orderly arranged in the middle and superior parts of the gastrocnemius muscle; regenerated nerve tracts and sprouted branches were connected with motor endplates, as shown by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry combined with silver staining. The wet weight ratio of the tibialis anterior muscle at the affected contralateral hind limb was similar to the sciatic nerve after repair with autologous nerve grafts, and higher than that after repair with acellular nerve allografts. The hind limb motor function at the affected side was significantly improved, indicating that acellular nerve allografts combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell bridging could promote functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25206507

  6. Stretch-induced nerve injury: a proposed technique for the study of nerve regeneration and evaluation of the influence of gabapentin on this model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, J.A.; Ghizoni, M.F.; Bertelli, J.; Teske, Gabriel C.; Teske, Guilherme C.; Martins, D.F.; Mazzardo-Martins, L.; Cargnin-Ferreira, E.; Santos, A.R.S.; Piovezan, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The rat models currently employed for studies of nerve regeneration present distinct disadvantages. We propose a new technique of stretch-induced nerve injury, used here to evaluate the influence of gabapentin (GBP) on nerve regeneration. Male Wistar rats (300 g; n=36) underwent surgery and exposure of the median nerve in the right forelimbs, either with or without nerve injury. The technique was performed using distal and proximal clamps separated by a distance of 2 cm and a sliding distance of 3 mm. The nerve was compressed and stretched for 5 s until the bands of Fontana disappeared. The animals were evaluated in relation to functional, biochemical and histological parameters. Stretching of the median nerve led to complete loss of motor function up to 12 days after the lesion (P<0.001), compared to non-injured nerves, as assessed in the grasping test. Grasping force in the nerve-injured animals did not return to control values up to 30 days after surgery (P<0.05). Nerve injury also caused an increase in the time of sensory recovery, as well as in the electrical and mechanical stimulation tests. Treatment of the animals with GBP promoted an improvement in the morphometric analysis of median nerve cross-sections compared with the operated vehicle group, as observed in the area of myelinated fibers or connective tissue (P<0.001), in the density of myelinated fibers/mm2 (P<0.05) and in the degeneration fragments (P<0.01). Stretch-induced nerve injury seems to be a simple and relevant model for evaluating nerve regeneration. PMID:24270909

  7. Different effects of intracranial and intraorbital section of the optic nerve on the functional responses of rat retinal ganglion cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Domenici; A. Gravina; N. Berardi; L. Maffei

    1991-01-01

    A lesion to the optic nerve of adult mammals leads to the retrograde degeneration and finally to the death of injured retinal ganglion cells. In this study, we have evaluated the effects induced by different sites of axotomy on the functional changes occurring in the retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve section. We have investigated the functional properties of retinal

  8. Spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wiater, J M; Bigliani, L U

    1999-11-01

    Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can lead to dysfunction of the trapezius. The trapezius is a major scapular stabilizer and is composed of three functional components. It contributes to scapulothoracic rhythm by elevating, rotating, and retracting the scapula. The superficial course of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior cervical triangle makes it susceptible to injury. Iatrogenic injury to the nerve after a surgical procedure is one of the most common causes of trapezius palsy. Dysfunction of the trapezius can be a painful and disabling condition. The shoulder droops as the scapula is translated laterally and rotated downward. Patients present with an asymmetric neckline, a drooping shoulder, winging of the scapula, and weakness of forward elevation. Evaluation should include a complete electrodiagnostic examination. If diagnosed within 1 year of the injury, microsurgical reconstruction of the nerve should be considered. Conservative treatment of chronic trapezius paralysis is appropriate for older patients who are sendentary. Active and healthy patients in whom 1 year of conservative treatment has failed are candidates for surgical reconstruction. Studies have shown the Eden-Lange procedure, in which the insertions of the levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, and rhomboideus major muscles are transferred, relieves pain, corrects deformity, and improves function in patients with irreparable injury to the spinal accessory nerve. PMID:10613148

  9. Peripheral nerve tumours: 30-year experience in the surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Gutkowska, Olga; Mazurek, Piotr; Koszewicz, Magdalena; Zió?kowski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral nerve tumours are relatively rare type of soft tissue tumours. The aim of this work is to present our experience with surgical treatment of this type of lesions. Clinical material consists of 94 patients (56 females, 38 males), in whom 101 tumours deriving from peripheral nervous system were removed. The patients underwent surgical treatment between 1983 and 2012. Tumours occurred mainly in the upper extremity (72 tumours), less often in the lower extremity (25 tumours). Lesions developed in major peripheral nerves (51 tumours) and small nerve branches (50 tumours). The most common symptoms reported before surgery included presence of tumour mass (100 %), positive Hoffmann-Tinel sign (95.6 %) and paraesthesia (93.4 %). Less often sensory deficit (89.1 %) and pain (71.7 %) were observed. Motor deficit was the least common manifestation (41.3 %). Benign tumours prevailed in presented material (94 tumours). In 7 cases, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) was identified. As a result of surgical treatment in the group of tumours deriving from major peripheral nerves, in 87.8 % of the patients, pain relief was achieved; in 84 %, Hoffmann-Tinel sign was negative; and in 79 %, paraesthesia resolved. Sensory function improvement was observed in 51.2 % of the patients while motor function improved in 26.3 % of the patients. None of the patients experienced tumour relapse. In the group of tumours deriving from small nerve branches, 47 patients had no signs of tumour recurrence. One female patient diagnosed with MPNST suffered a relapse. Obtaining satisfactory results of peripheral nerve tumour treatment requires both careful differential diagnosis and well thought-out strategy at every stage of therapeutic management. PMID:25727458

  10. Lipofibromatous Hamartoma of the Median Nerve in Association with or without Macrodactyly.

    PubMed

    Kini, Jyoti R; Kini, Hema; Rau, Aarathi; Kamath, Jagannath; Kini, Anand

    2014-11-01

    Lipofibromatous hamartoma is a rare tumour-like condition involving the peripheral nerves, particularly the median nerve. It commonly affects the volar aspect of the hands, wrists and forearms of young adults. Most patients present either early with macrodactyly or later with a forearm mass lesion or symptoms consistent with compressive neuropathy of the involved nerve. The clinical and histomorphological findings of five patients with lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve are analysed. The presentation, pathological features and differential diagnosis of neural lipofibromas are discussed along with a brief review of the literature. Of the five cases of lipofibromatous hamartoma, all were seen to involve the median nerve, occurring in four women and one man. Three of these cases had associated macrodactyly which was congenital in two and was seen from childhood in one. Microscopic examination showed fibrofatty tissue surrounding and infiltrating along the epineurium and perineurium. The nerve bundles were splayed apart by the infiltrating adipose tissue. Neural fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a benign condition. Most respond to conservative management with surgical exploration, biopsy and carpal tunnel release to decompress the nerve. Correct diagnosis of this uncommon lesion is important as surgical excision of the lesion may lead to loss of neurological function. PMID:25371022

  11. A novel and robust conditioning lesion induced by ethidium bromide.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Edmund R; Ishiko, Nao; Tolentino, Kristine; Doherty, Ernest; Rodriguez, Maria J; Calcutt, Nigel A; Zou, Yimin

    2015-03-01

    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the peripheral conditioning lesion remain unsolved. We show here that injection of a chemical demyelinating agent, ethidium bromide, into the sciatic nerve induces a similar set of regeneration-associated genes and promotes a 2.7-fold greater extent of sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord than sciatic nerve crush. We found that more severe peripheral demyelination correlates with more severe functional and electrophysiological deficits, but more robust central regeneration. Ethidium bromide injection does not activate macrophages at the demyelinated sciatic nerve site, as observed after nerve crush, but briefly activates macrophages in the dorsal root ganglion. This study provides a new method for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the conditioning response and suggests that loss of the peripheral myelin may be a major signal to change the intrinsic growth state of adult sensory neurons and promote regeneration. PMID:25541322

  12. Dexamethasone Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  13. Dexamethasone enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  14. Overview of Optic Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... each optic nerve splits, and half of its fibers cross over to the other side. Because of this anatomic arrangement, damage along the optic nerve pathway causes specific patterns of vision loss. ...

  15. Kainic acid lesions increase reafferentation of the striatum by substantia nigra grafts.

    PubMed

    Takashima, H; Walker, B R; Cannon-Spoor, H E; Freed, W J

    1993-09-01

    Effects of kainic acid lesions of the striatum on reafferentation of the striatum produced by intraventricular substantia nigra (SN) grafts were investigated. Rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the SN received intrastriatal kainic acid lesions or sham lesions, and then received fetal (E16) SN or sciatic nerve grafts in the lateral ventricle. The depth of reafferentation of the striatum by catecholaminergic neurites from SN grafts was significantly increased in rats with kainic acid-induced striatal lesions, as compared to the sham-lesioned controls. No reafferentation was seen in the control animals with sciatic nerve grafts. These data suggest that striatal injury promotes the growth of dopaminergic neurites from SN grafts. PMID:8221075

  16. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Paul Amar; Michael L. Levy; Charles Y. Liu; Michael L. J. Apuzzo

    2008-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a safe and reliable treatment adjunct for patients with medically intractable epilepsy. It is both a preventive and an abortive form of therapy, potentially effective against both partial and generalized seizures in adults and children. VNS also has a number of serendipitous effects on mood, memory, and attention and has been approved for the treatment

  17. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  18. Histopathological features of bone regeneration in a canine segmental ulnar defect model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today, finding an ideal biomaterial to treat the large bone defects, delayed unions and non-unions remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeions and researchers. Several studies have been carried out on the subject of bone regeneration, each having its own advantages. The present study has been designed in vivo to evaluate the effects of cellular auto-transplantation of tail vertebrae on healing of experimental critical bone defect in a dog model. Methods Six indigenous breeds of dog with 32?±?3.6 kg average weight from both sexes (5 males and 1 female) received bilateral critical-sized ulnar segmental defects. After determining the health condition, divided to 2 groups: The Group I were kept as control I (n?=?1) while in Group II (experimental group; n?=?5) bioactive bone implants were inserted. The defects were implanted with either autogeneic coccygeal bone grafts in dogs with 3-4 cm diaphyseal defects in the ulna. Defects were stabilized with internal plate fixation, and the control defects were not stabilized. Animals were euthanized at 16 weeks and analyzed by histopathology. Results Histological evaluation of this new bone at sixteen weeks postoperatively revealed primarily lamellar bone, with the formation of new cortices and normal-appearing marrow elements. And also reformation cortical compartment and reconstitution of marrow space were observed at the graft-host interface together with graft resorption and necrosis responses. Finally, our data were consistent with the osteoconducting function of the tail autograft. Conclusions Our results suggested that the tail vertebrae autograft seemed to be a new source of autogenous cortical bone in order to supporting segmental long bone defects in dogs. Furthermore, cellular autotransplantation was found to be a successful replacement for the tail vertebrae allograft bone at 3-4 cm segmental defects in the canine mid- ulna. Clinical application using graft expanders or bone autotransplantation should be used carefully and requires further investigation. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2028232688119271. PMID:24636669

  19. [Intraneural cysts of the peroneal nerve in childhood: report of 2 cases and literature review].

    PubMed

    Robla-Costales, J; Socolovsky, M; Dubrovsky, A; Astorino, F; Fernández-Fernández, J; Ibáñez-Plágaro, J; García-Cosamalón, J

    2011-08-01

    Intraneural cysts are benign lesions filled with mucinous content and located inside the epineurum of the peripheral nerves. Peroneal nerve is the most affected nerve. The entity is rare and its ethiopathology still remains to be definitely elucidated. In 2003 Spinner et al published their articular theory, implicated in the formation and frequent recurrence of these lesions after surgical treatment. The practical application of this theory, nowadays almost universally accepted, generated an important diminution in the recurrence rate after surgical evacuation of this lesions, previously very elevated. Most of the cases of this entity are described in adults. In the present paper we describe two pediatric cases and analyze the clinical aspects of these cysts in pediatric and adults patients. Peroneal intraneural cysts are one of the differential diagnoses in foot drop, and an adequate treatment concludes in a complete remission of the symptoms. PMID:21858406

  20. Spatiotemporal Expression of PSD95 and nNOS After Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shangfeng Gao; Min Fei; Chun Cheng; Xiaowei Yu; Mengling Chen; Shuxian Shi; Jing Qin; Zhiqin Guo; Aiguo Shen

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been implicated to influence peripheral nerve lesion and regeneration. Post-synaptic\\u000a density-95 (PSD-95) is one of nNOS-anchoring proteins and plays an important role in specifying the sites of reaction of NO\\u000a in nervous system. Here we established a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model to examine the spatiotemporal expression of PSD-95\\u000a and nNOS. At gene

  1. Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy due to skull base metastasis from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pavithran, K; Doval, D C; Hukku, S; Jena, A

    2001-11-01

    We describe a 44-year-old woman who presented with an isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve paralysis caused by a skull base metastasis from breast cancer. The patient had a modified radical mastectomy followed by local radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Fourteen months later she presented with difficulty in speaking. Physical examination revealed an isolated left hypoglossal nerve paralysis. The MRI scan showed a mass lesion involving the left occipital condyle extending into hypoglossal canal. PMID:11903195

  2. Nerve regenerative effects of GABA-B ligands in a model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Magnaghi, Valerio; Castelnovo, Luca Franco; Faroni, Alessandro; Cavalli, Erica; Caffino, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Procacci, Patrizia; Pajardi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the peripheral somatosensory system. It may be associated with allodynia and increased pain sensitivity. Few studies correlated neuropathic pain with nerve morphology and myelin proteins expression. Our aim was to test if neuropathic pain is related to nerve degeneration, speculating whether the modulation of peripheral GABA-B receptors may promote nerve regeneration and decrease neuropathic pain. We used the partial sciatic ligation- (PSL-) induced neuropathic model. The biochemical, morphological, and behavioural outcomes of sciatic nerve were analysed following GABA-B ligands treatments. Simultaneous 7-days coadministration of baclofen (10 mg/kg) and CGP56433 (3 mg/kg) alters tactile hypersensitivity. Concomitantly, specific changes of peripheral nerve morphology, nerve structure, and myelin proteins (P0 and PMP22) expression were observed. Nerve macrophage recruitment decreased and step coordination was improved. The PSL-induced changes in nociception correlate with altered nerve morphology and myelin protein expression. Peripheral synergic effects, via GABA-B receptor activation, promote nerve regeneration and likely ameliorate neuropathic pain. PMID:25165701

  3. Nerve Regenerative Effects of GABA-B Ligands in a Model of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Erica; Pajardi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the peripheral somatosensory system. It may be associated with allodynia and increased pain sensitivity. Few studies correlated neuropathic pain with nerve morphology and myelin proteins expression. Our aim was to test if neuropathic pain is related to nerve degeneration, speculating whether the modulation of peripheral GABA-B receptors may promote nerve regeneration and decrease neuropathic pain. We used the partial sciatic ligation- (PSL-) induced neuropathic model. The biochemical, morphological, and behavioural outcomes of sciatic nerve were analysed following GABA-B ligands treatments. Simultaneous 7-days coadministration of baclofen (10?mg/kg) and CGP56433 (3?mg/kg) alters tactile hypersensitivity. Concomitantly, specific changes of peripheral nerve morphology, nerve structure, and myelin proteins (P0 and PMP22) expression were observed. Nerve macrophage recruitment decreased and step coordination was improved. The PSL-induced changes in nociception correlate with altered nerve morphology and myelin protein expression. Peripheral synergic effects, via GABA-B receptor activation, promote nerve regeneration and likely ameliorate neuropathic pain. PMID:25165701

  4. Review of Literature of Radial Nerve Injuries Associated with Humeral Fractures—An Integrated Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiang; Wu, QiuLi; Li, Yan; Feng, ShiQing

    2013-01-01

    Background Radial nerve palsy associated with fractures of the shaft of the humerus is the most common nerve lesion complicating fractures of long bones. However, the management of radial nerve injuries associated with humeral fractures is debatable. There was no consensus between observation and early exploration. Methods and Findings The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, CINAHL, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched. Two authors independently searched for relevant studies in any language from 1966 to Jan 2013. Thirty studies with 2952 humeral fractures participants were identified. Thirteen studies favored conservative strategy. No significant difference between early exploration and no exploration groups (OR, 1.03, 95% CI 0.61, 1.72; I2?=?0.0%, p?=?0.918 n.s.). Three studies recommend early radial nerve exploration in patients with open fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. Five studies proposed early exploration was performed in high-energy humeral shaft fractures with radial nerve injury. Conclusions The conservative strategy was a good choice for patients with low-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. We recommend early radial nerve exploration (within the first 2 weeks) in patients with open fractures or high-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. PMID:24250799

  5. Myelinated Nerve Fibre, Myelin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margit Pavelka; Jürgen Roth

    \\u000a Nerve fibres designed for particularly rapid and efficient conduction of action potentials are equipped with a myelin sheath,\\u000a a lipid-enriched layer, produced by specialised glial cells, the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, and the Schwann\\u000a cells in the peripheral nervous system. The myelin sheath isolates the axon from the surrounding compartments. It reduces\\u000a the current flow across the axonal

  6. Parallel Changes in Structural and Functional Measures of Optic Nerve Myelination after Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Walt, Anneke; Kolbe, Scott; Mitchell, Peter; Wang, Yejun; Butzkueven, Helmut; Egan, Gary; Yiannikas, Con; Graham, Stuart; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Klistorner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual evoked potential (VEP) latency prolongation and optic nerve lesion length after acute optic neuritis (ON) corresponds to the degree of demyelination, while subsequent recovery of latency may represent optic nerve remyelination. We aimed to investigate the relationship between multifocal VEP (mfVEP) latency and optic nerve lesion length after acute ON. Methods Thirty acute ON patients were studied at 1,3,6 and 12 months using mfVEP and at 1 and 12 months with optic nerve MRI. LogMAR and low contrast visual acuity were documented. By one month, the mfVEP amplitude had recovered sufficiently for latency to be measured in 23 (76.7%) patients with seven patients having no recordable mfVEP in more than 66% of segments in at least one test. Only data from these 23 patients was analysed further. Results Both latency and lesion length showed significant recovery during the follow-up period. Lesion length and mfVEP latency were highly correlated at 1 (r = 0.94, p = <0.0001) and 12 months (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Both measures demonstrated a similar trend of recovery. Speed of latency recovery was faster in the early follow-up period while lesion length shortening remained relatively constant. At 1 month, latency delay was worse by 1.76ms for additional 1mm of lesion length while at 12 months, 1mm of lesion length accounted for 1.94ms of latency delay. Conclusion A strong association between two putative measures of demyelination in early and chronic ON was found. Parallel recovery of both measures could reflect optic nerve remyelination. PMID:26020925

  7. Ultrasound guidance of uncommon nerve blocks

    PubMed Central

    Thallaj, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In the past nerve stimulation was considered the standard tool for anesthesiologists to locate the peripheral nerve for nerve blocks. However, with the recent introduction of ultrasound (US) technology for regional anesthesia, the use of nerve stimulation has become a rarity nowadays. There is a growing interest by most anesthesiologists in using US for nerve blocks because of its simplicity and accuracy. US is now available in most hospitals practicing regional anesthesia and is a popular tool for performance of nerve blocks. Although nerve stimulation became a rarity, however the use of it is now limited to identify small nerve structures, such as greater auricular nerve and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve of the forearm. However, in this review article we discuss the role of ultrasonography for greater auricular and antebrachial cutaneous nerve blocks, which could replace nerve stimulation technique. We look at the available literature on the role of US for the performance of uncommon nerve blocks and its benefits. PMID:22144927

  8. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed. PMID:25851889

  9. Nerve Cross-Bridging to Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model of Delayed Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays. PMID:26016986

  10. Hybrid peripheral nerve sheath tumors, including a malignant variant in type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kuroda, Naoto; Tanaka, Azusa; Sima, Radek; Denisjuk, Natalja; Kreuzberg, Boris; Ricarova, Renata; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2013-08-01

    The authors report a small case series of hybrid nerve sheath tumors occurring in the setting of type 1 neurofibromatosis. Four lesions were benign and consisted of plexiform neurofibromas with considerable areas of perineuriomatous differentiation in patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis. In these lesions, biphasic (Schwannian and perineuriomatous) differentiation was apparent on immunohistochemistry, with the perineuriomatous areas staining for epithelial membrane antigen, glut-1, and claudin-1 and being negative for S-100 protein. Three patients were members of a single family, with a history of various malignant neoplasms. Included in the series is 1 hybrid lesion in which neurofibromatous and perineuriomatous areas were clearly visible on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. The lesion was unique in that it manifested malignant change in the S-100 protein-positive component, which was classified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The malignant component showed areas with an epithelioid cell morphology. PMID:23676318

  11. Magnetic property of the nerve.

    PubMed

    Varga, L; Barrett, J S; Keszthelyi, L; Madarász, E

    1978-01-01

    An electromagnet of inhomogeneous magneticfield has been used to measure the magnetic susceptibility of the frog's nerve. Specimen of frog sciatic nerve were attached to a thin tungsten wire hanging into the inhomogeneous magnetic field, and from the deviation of this pendulum from the perpendicular position the magnetic susceptibility of the nerve has been determined to be -0.8 . 10(-6) cm3g-1 in a good agreement with the known magnetic property of the constituents of the nerve. PMID:754499

  12. Nerve Agents: A Comprehensive Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sage W. Wiener; Robert S. Hoffman

    2004-01-01

    Nerve agents are perhaps the most feared of potential agents of chemical attack. The authors review the history, physical characteristics, pharmacology, clinical effects, and treatment of these agents.

  13. Nerve conduction and electromyography studies.

    PubMed

    Kane, N M; Oware, A

    2012-07-01

    Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG), often shortened to 'EMGs', are a useful adjunct to clinical examination of the peripheral nervous system and striated skeletal muscle. NCS provide an efficient and rapid method of quantifying nerve conduction velocity (CV) and the amplitude of both sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) and compound motor action potentials (cMAPs). The CV reflects speed of propagation of action potentials, by saltatory conduction, along large myelinated axons in a peripheral nerve. The amplitude of SNAPs is in part determined by the number of axons in a sensory nerve, whilst amplitude of cMAPs reflects integrated function of the motor axons, neuromuscular junction and striated muscle. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) can identify defects of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission, pre- or post-synaptic. Needle EMG examination can detect myopathic changes in muscle and signs of denervation. Combinations of these procedures can establish if motor and/or sensory nerve cell bodies or peripheral nerves are damaged (e.g. motor neuronopathy, sensory ganglionopathy or neuropathy), and also indicate if the primary target is the axon or the myelin sheath (i.e. axonal or demyelinating neuropathies). The distribution of nerve damage can be determined as either generalised, multifocal (mononeuropathy multiplex) or focal. The latter often due to compression at the common entrapment sites (such as the carpal tunnel, Guyon's canal, cubital tunnel, radial groove, fibular head and tarsal tunnel, to name but a few of the reported hundred or so 'entrapment neuropathies'). PMID:22614870

  14. The near-nerve sensory nerve conduction in tarsal tunnel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S J Oh; H S Kim; B K Ahmad

    1985-01-01

    The near-nerve sensory nerve conduction in the medial and lateral plantar nerves was studied in 25 cases of tarsal tunnel syndrome. Sensory nerve conduction was abnormal in 24 cases (96%) The most common abnormalities were slow nerve conduction velocities and dispersion phenomenon (prolonged duration of compound nerve action potentials). These two electrophysiological abnormalities are indicative of a focal segmental demyelination

  15. Role of the ventrolateral region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in processing respiratory afferent input from vagus and superior laryngeal nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. McCrimmon; D. F. Speck; J. L. Feldman

    1987-01-01

    The role of respiratory neurons located within and adjacent to the region of the ventrolateral nucleus of the tractus solitarius (vlNTS) in processing respiratory related afferent input from the vagus and superior laryngeal nerves was examined. Responses in phrenic neural discharge to electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus or superior laryngeal nerve afferents were determined before and after lesioning the

  16. Neurotrophin3 enhances sprouting of corticospinal tract during development and after adult spinal cord lesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Schnell; Regula Schneider; Roland Kolbeck; Yves-Alain Barde; Martin E. Schwab

    1994-01-01

    THE number of neurotrophic factors found in the central nervous system is rapidly growing, but their functions in vivo are largely unknown. In the peripheral nervous system they promote the survival of developing and lesioned neurons and enhance nerve fibre growth and regeneration1-6. Here we study the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)

  17. Nervous System, Neurons, Nerves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How does the nervous system work? It is a question that has engaged the minds of scientists, doctors, and others for centuries. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has created this tour of the nervous system for teachers and students. First-time visitors can start with the Explore a Nerve Cell area, which goes over the membrane, nucleus, axon, dendrites, and the synapse in exquisite detail with interactive graphics. Moving on, The Basics area provides summaries of the operation of the nervous system and a rather illustrative area named Ouch! The site is rounded out by the Nervous Systems Explorations section, which has some nice simulations covering Brainstorms and Simple Reflexes.

  18. Demyelinating hypertrophic inferior alveolar nerve mimicking a nerve tumor.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroaki; Kokubun, Norito; Sada, Tsubasa; Nagashima, Takahide; Komagamine, Tomoko; Kawabe, Kiyokazu; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a patient with demyelinating inferior alveolar nerve hypertrophy, which was initially suspected to have a nerve tumor. A 39-year-old woman with childhood-onset polyneuropathy presented with tooth pain and visited a dental clinic. An X-ray examination of the mandible revealed enlargement of the mandibular canal, and a nerve tumor was suspected. CT scan and MRI showed hypertrophy of the inferior alveolar nerve along its entire length. We diagnosed the patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), which was supported by the spontaneous recovery reported in her childhood, the results from a nerve conduction study and MRI data. CIDP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mandibular canal enlargement. PMID:25948359

  19. In vivo detection of nerve injury in familial amyloid polyneuropathy by magnetic resonance neurography

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Ernst; Hornung, Benjamin; Hegenbart, Ute; Schönland, Stefan O.; Kimmich, Christoph; Kristen, Arnt V.; Purrucker, Jan; Röcken, Christoph; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy is a rare, autosomal-dominant inherited multisystem disorder usually manifesting with a rapidly progressive, axonal, distally-symmetric polyneuropathy. The detection of nerve injury by nerve conduction studies is limited, due to preferential involvement of small-fibres in early stages. We investigated whether lower limb nerve-injury can be detected, localized and quantified in vivo by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. We prospectively included 20 patients (12 male and eight female patients, mean age 47.9 years, range 26–66) with confirmed mutation in the transthyretin gene: 13 with symptomatic polyneuropathy and seven asymptomatic gene carriers. A large age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy volunteers served as controls (20 male and 20 female, mean age 48.1 years, range 30–73). All patients received detailed neurological and electrophysiological examinations and were scored using the Neuropathy Impairment Score–Lower Limbs, Neuropathy Deficit and Neuropathy Symptom Score. Magnetic resonance neurography (3 T) was performed with large longitudinal coverage from proximal thigh to ankle-level and separately for each leg (140 axial slices/leg) by using axial T2-weighted (repetition time/echo time = 5970/55 ms) and dual echo (repetition time 5210 ms, echo times 12 and 73 ms) turbo spin echo 2D sequences with spectral fat saturation. A 3D T2-weighted inversion-recovery sequence (repetition time/echo time 3000/202 ms) was acquired for imaging of the spinal nerves and lumbar plexus (50 axial slice reformations). Precise manual segmentation of the spinal/sciatic/tibial/common peroneal nerves was performed on each slice. Histogram-based normalization of nerve–voxel signal intensities was performed using the age- and sex-matched control group as normative reference. Nerve-voxels were subsequently classified as lesion-voxels if a threshold of >1.2 (normalized signal-intensity) was exceeded. At distal thigh level, where a predominant nerve–lesion–voxel burden was observed, signal quantification was performed by calculating proton spin density and T2-relaxation time as microstructural markers of nerve tissue integrity. The total number of nerve–lesion voxels (cumulated from proximal-to-distal) was significantly higher in symptomatic patients (20 405 ± 1586) versus asymptomatic gene carriers (12 294 ± 3199; P = 0.036) and versus controls (6536 ± 467; P < 0.0001). It was also higher in asymptomatic carriers compared to controls (P = 0.043). The number of nerve–lesion voxels was significantly higher at thigh level compared to more distal levels (lower leg/ankle) of the lower extremities (f-value = 279.22, P < 0.0001). Further signal-quantification at this proximal site (thigh level) revealed a significant increase of proton-density (P < 0.0001) and T2-relaxation-time (P = 0.0011) in symptomatic patients, whereas asymptomatic gene-carriers presented with a significant increase of proton-density only. Lower limb nerve injury could be detected and quantified in vivo on microstructural level by magnetic resonance neurography in symptomatic familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and also in yet asymptomatic gene carriers, in whom imaging detection precedes clinical and electrophysiological manifestation. Although symptoms start and prevail distally, the focus of predominant nerve injury and injury progression was found proximally at thigh level with strong and unambiguous lesion-contrast. Imaging of proximal nerve lesions, which are difficult to detect by nerve conduction studies, may have future implications also for other distally-symmetric polyneuropathies. PMID:25526974

  20. Feline dental resorptive lesions.

    PubMed

    Harvey, C E

    1993-08-01

    Resorptive lesions in feline teeth are frustrating. Despite a number of studies, there is as yet no satisfactory, clear-cut explanation for the cause, high prevalence, and recent emergence of this lesion, and experience with treatment has identified more problems, rather than indicated a successful management regime. PMID:8210801

  1. Noninfectious penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Joel M H; Sea, Jason; Thompson, Ian M; Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-15

    Family physicians commonly diagnose and manage penile cutaneous lesions. Noninfectious lesions may be classified as inflammatory and papulosquamous (e.g., psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, angiokeratomas, lichen nitidus, lichen planus), or as neoplastic (e.g., carcinoma in situ, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). The clinical presentation and appearance of the lesions guide the diagnosis. Psoriasis presents as red or salmon-colored plaques with overlying scales, often with systemic lesions. Lichen sclerosus presents as a phimotic, hypopigmented prepuce or glans penis with a cellophane-like texture. Angiokeratomas are typically asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, red or blue papules, whereas lichen nitidus usually produces asymptomatic pinhead-sized, hypopigmented papules. The lesions of lichen planus are pruritic, violaceous, polygonal papules that are typically systemic. Carcinoma in situ should be suspected if the patient has velvety red or keratotic plaques of the glans penis or prepuce, whereas invasive squamous cell carcinoma presents as a painless lump, ulcer, or fungating irregular mass. Some benign lesions, such as psoriasis and lichen planus, can mimic carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. Biopsy is indicated if the diagnosis is in doubt or neoplasm cannot be excluded. The management of benign penile lesions usually involves observation or topical corticosteroids; however, neoplastic lesions generally require surgery. PMID:20082512

  2. The Optical Stretcher Nerve Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Steiner, Ullrich

    standing paradigm that neurons in the CNS cannot regenerate is gone (after 3500 years). While most research!"# $ %& ' "!((! )# The Optical Stretcher Nerve Regeneration Cells as Optical Fibres Novel Imaging present after neurological trauma to see whether those pose mechanical barriers to nerve regeneration. We

  3. Temporal Adaptation Silicon Auditory Nerve

    E-print Network

    Lazzaro, John

    Temporal Adaptation in a Silicon Auditory Nerve John Lazzaro CS Division UC Berkeley 571 Evans Hall Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract Many auditory theorists consider the temporal adaptation of the auditory nerve localization and pitch perception also suggest temporal adaptation is an important ele- ment of practical

  4. NERVE INJURY AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC VARICOCELECTOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTIN CHROUSER; DAVID VANDERSTEEN; JULIE CROCKER; YURI REINBERG

    2004-01-01

    Purpose:Laparoscopic varicocelectomy is a minimally invasive option for varicoceles in children. Occasional reports of nerve injury after inguinal laparoscopic procedures have been published. There is anatomical variation in the sensory innervation of the anterior thigh and variable branching patterns of the nerves involved. We report a retrospective analysis of our patients, focusing on the incidence of sensory changes on the

  5. Nerve Regeneration After Radiofrequency Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyasu Ochiai; James P. Tasto; Seiji Ohtori; Norimasa Takahashi; Hideshige Moriya; David Amiel

    Background: Many patients with chronic tendinosis have experienced early pain relief after application of bipolar radiofrequency treatment. It is hypothesized that the mechanism of action may be the acute degeneration and\\/or ablation of sensory nerve fibers. Hypothesis: After ablation or degeneration by bipolar radiofrequency, nerve fibers will have the ability to regenerate with time. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods:

  6. Soft-tissue myxomatous lesions: review of salient imaging features with pathologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M; Walker, Eric A; Logie, Chika I; Clarke, Loren E; Duryea, Dennis M; Murphey, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Myxoid soft-tissue lesions are a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors with an abundance of extracellular mucoid material. These lesions may mimic cysts on radiologic evaluation because of the high water content, and histopathologic features also overlap. Benign myxoid lesions include intramuscular myxoma, synovial cyst, bursa, ganglion, and benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, including neurofibroma and schwannoma. Malignant entities include myxoid liposarcoma, myxoid leiomyosarcoma, myxoid chondrosarcoma, ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, and myxofibrosarcoma. Some syndromes are associated with myxoid soft-tissue lesions, such as Mazabraud syndrome in patients with soft-tissue myxomas and fibrous dysplasia. Certain discriminating features, such as intralesional fat in a myxoid liposarcoma, perilesional edema and a rim of fat in soft-tissue myxoma, and the swirled T2-weighted signal intensity and enhancement pattern of aggressive angiomyxoma, assist the radiologist in differentiating these lesions. The presence of an internal chondroid matrix or incomplete peripheral ossification may suggest myxoid chondrosarcoma or ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, respectively. The entering-and-exiting-nerve sign is suggestive of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Communication with a joint or tendon sheath and peripheral enhancement may indicate a ganglion or synovial cyst. This article (a) reviews the magnetic resonance, computed tomographic, and ultrasonographic imaging characteristics of soft-tissue myxomatous lesions, emphasizing imaging findings that can help differentiate benign and malignant lesions; (b) presents differential diagnoses; and (c) provides pathologic correlation. PMID:25019435

  7. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Faroni, Alessandro; Smith, Richard JP; Reid, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients alongside high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacrificing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to provide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacrifice of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of regeneration in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts. PMID:25221589

  8. Nerve and skin damage in leprosy is associated with increased intralesional heat shock protein.

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar-Young, S; Young, D B; Colston, M J; Stanley, J N; Lockwood, D N

    1994-01-01

    Leprosy is frequently complicated by the development of reversal reactions in which peripheral nerve and skin lesions become inflamed and irreversible nerve damage may ensue. Increased expression of proteins belonging to the 70-kD heat shock family (hsp 70) occurs in cells of the central nervous system exposed to hyperthermia, physical damage or drug-induced trauma. In the present study we have used immunocytochemical staining to monitor hsp70 levels in peripheral nerves infected by Mycobacterium leprae. Hsp70 was detected in skin and nerve lesions from all leprosy patients, but was particularly prominent in lesions from patients undergoing reversal reactions. Hsp70 immunocytochemistry can thus be used as a marker of neural injury in the peripheral as well as in the central nervous system. The cellular dynamics of nerve damage in leprosy are currently poorly understood, and we postulate that the immunopathology of leprosy may be partly due to an autoimmune response to heat shock proteins. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8187328

  9. Stimulation of regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve by 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rusovan, A.; Kanje, M. (Univ. of Lund, (Sweden))

    1991-06-01

    The effect of sinusoidal magnetic field stimulation on regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve was studied. Rats were exposed, after crush lesioning of the nerve, between a pair of Helmholtz coils to a 50 Hz magnetic field of 0.2 mT or 0.4 mT, respectively. Regeneration of the sciatic nerve was measured by the 'pinch test,' or by immunocytochemical staining for neurofilaments 1 to 6 days after the crush lesion. Intermittent stimulation (4 h/day) at 0.2 mT did not affect regeneration, while continuous stimulation with the same field enhanced regeneration distances measured at Days 1, 2, and 3. Intermittent stimulation with 0.4 mT increased regeneration distances in 3-day regenerated nerves. In the rats exposed continuously to 0.4 mT regeneration was higher in all groups (1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days). This field enhanced the regeneration velocity by 21%. Pretreatment for 7 days with continuous stimulation either at 0.2 mT or at 0.4 mT did not affect regeneration of the sciatic nerve after a crush lesion.

  10. Ancient Schwannoma of superficial peroneal nerve presenting as intermittent leg pain: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Germano; Nomi, Thaís; Marques, Raquel; Leiria, João; Silva, Carmen; Periquito, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Schwannomas are benign, encapsulated, slow-growing and usually solitary tumors originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the superficial peroneal nerves are very rare, and therefore scarcely documented in the literature. The authors report a case of a diagnosed superficial fibular nerve sheath tumor with an unreported clinical presentation. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 52-year-old Caucasian female arrived to our Orthopedics Department complaining of pain and numbness of the lateral aspect of her left leg. These symptoms were present for a year and were more evident at the end of the day, or after a long time in the orthostatic position. No evidence of other medical illnesses was found. There was no record of prior traumatic events related to that limb. Diagnosis of a benign peripheral nerve tumor was achieved and the patient was treated by surgical excision of the lesion. DISCUSSION The intermittent symptomatology presentation on this case suggest a mechanical compression etiology, allied to classical pain and paresthesia often exhibited by this kind of the tumor. An intracompartimental pressure elevation could explain why the symptoms disclosed an episodic pattern, due to a constricted, inclosed nerve. CONCLUSION We describe a rare case of a patient with an unusual superficial peroneal nerve Schwannoma clinical presentation. Literature on this topic is scarce and, therefore, this case report intends to add further data about this kind of lesion. PMID:25506844

  11. Inferior alveolar nerve transposition--an in vitro comparison between piezosurgery and conventional bur use.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Marc C; Bormann, K H; Schoen, R; Gellrich, N C; Schmelzeisen, R

    2006-01-01

    An in vitro comparison between a new ultrasound-based piezoelectric device and a conventional bur was performed for lateralization or transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve to evaluate the effects on soft and hard tissue. Transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve was performed in the cadaver mandibles of 10 sheep: the left nerve was uncovered with a saline-cooled diamond-coated spherical bur (2000 rpm), and the right nerve was uncovered with the piezoelectric device mounted with a spherical diamond tip. The surface, the zone of bone defect, and the nerve were examined by light microscopy and laser microscopy. Bone treated with the rotary bur showed significantly smoother surfaces and shallower defect zones (50 microm) in comparison with the piezoelectric device (150 microm). Lesions of the epineurium and an increased amount of bone particles were found in the lesions prepared with the piezoelectric device. In vitro preparation with the piezoelectric device was more invasive to the bone than was a conventional diamond bur. Touching the inferior alveolar nerve resulted in roughening of the epineurium without affecting deeper structures. The degree of injury was lower than when using the conventional rotary bur. PMID:16526578

  12. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Satoshi; Kageshita, Toshiro; Wakasugi, Shoji; Matsushita, Shigeto; Kaguchi, Atushi; Ishihara, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Tomomichi

    2006-12-01

    Herein, we describe a rare case of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the head in a 38-year-old Japanese man. The tumor measured 210 mm at its largest diameter and was ulcerated, hemorrhagic, multilocular and non-mobile. It should be noted that the patient stubbornly refused to see a doctor for a long time, resulting in the extreme growth of the tumor. We suspect a psychological basis for this behavior. Dermatohistopathological findings of the biopsy indicated ancient schwannoma and total excision was therefore performed. However, after 4 months, the patient developed multiple metastases and died. Post-mortem skin biopsy revealed features of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. We performed immunohistochemical studies on the primary and recurrent lesions and concluded that there was a difference in the expression of Ki67 and p16. We propose that the expressions of Ki67 and p16 should be checked for all lesions of peripheral nerve sheath tumor for distinguishing benign from malignant forms. PMID:17169091

  13. Apoptosis in leukoaraiosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Brown, William R; Moody, Dixon M; Challa, Venkata R; Thore, Clara R; Anstrom, John A

    2002-11-15

    Leukoaraiosis (LA), an age-related degenerative condition, appears as an area of hyperintense signal in the deep white matter on MRI. It may be caused by chronic ischemia. LA lesions are characterized by demyelination, loss of glial cells, spongy appearance, and occlusion of veins and venules by collagenous thickening of the vessel walls. Since necrosis is not obvious in LA lesions, we investigated the occurrence of apoptosis. We obtained 1.5-cm-thick coronal brain slices at autopsy from two patients with LA. MRI was performed on the brain slices. Blocks were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Sections were stained by several methods including the TUNEL method for DNA fragmentation. Some TUNEL-positive cells showed nuclear morphology indicative of apoptosis. In case 1, TUNEL-positive cells were more numerous in an LA lesion than in nearby unaffected white matter (P=0.008). In case 2, LA lesions were examined in six areas; left and right frontal, middle, and occipital slices. TUNEL-positive cells were more numerous in the LA lesions than in nearby white matter (P=0.002). We also found TUNEL-positive cells in the cortex and in the walls of blood vessels. In case 1, more severe venous collagenosis was found in the LA lesion, which was near the cortex, than in the periventricular area, where venous collagenosis and LA are more commonly found. The presence of numerous scattered cells in the LA lesions showing DNA fragmentation suggests that those cells are damaged and dying, at least some by apoptosis. The apoptosis in the white matter adjacent to the LA lesions suggests progressive cell loss and expansion of the LA lesions. PMID:12417378

  14. Unusual Spinal Dysraphic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Pollyana; Wanderley, Luiz Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Human tail and multiple spinal dysraphism are unusual congenital malformations. Human tail appeared as a prominent lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region, generally without connection between the tail and the neurospinal axis. Spinal dysraphisms are usually isolated, reaching 0.038% of incidence of multiple spinal dysraphisms in the same child. There were three cases described of unusual spinal dysraphic lesions: two cases of human tail and a case of a multiple thoracic myelomeningocele. The literature about diagnosis and treatment was reviewed. Microsurgical technique was performed to provide better exploration of the lesions, and resection could be done in those congenital malformations, without morbidity. PMID:24194997

  15. Mechanisms of insulin action on sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Anderson, Erling A.; Johnson, Alan Kim; Mark, Allyn L.

    1996-01-01

    Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of arterial hypertension. Although insulin may elevate arterial pressure, in part, through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the sites and mechanisms of insulin-induced sympathetic excitation remain uncertain. While sympathoexcitation during insulin may be mediated by the baroreflex, or by modulation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve endings, it has been shown repeatedly that insulin increases sympathetic outflow by actions on the central nervous system. Previous studies employing norepinephrine turnover have suggested that insulin causes sympathoexcitation by acting in the hypothalamus. Recent experiments from our laboratory involving direct measurements of regional sympathetic nerve activity have provided further evidence that insulin acts in the central nervous system. For example, administration of insulin into the third cerebralventricle increased lumbar but not renal or adrenal sympathetic nerve activity in normotensive rats. Interestingly, this pattern of regional sympathetic nerve responses to central neural administration of insulin is similar to that seen with systemic administration of insulin. Further, lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle hypothalamic (AV3V) region abolished increases in sympathetic activity to systemic administration of insulin with euglycemic clamp, suggesting that AV3V-related structures are critical for insulin-induced elevations in sympathetic outflow.

  16. TBX3 , the gene mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome, promotes growth of mammary epithelial cells via repression of p19ARF , independently of p53

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Platonova; Maddalena Scotti; Polina Babich; Gloria Bertoli; Elena Mento; Vasco Meneghini; Aliana Egeo; Ileana Zucchi; Giorgio R. Merlo

    2007-01-01

    TBX3, the gene mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS), is involved in the production of a transcription factor of the T-box family,\\u000a known to inhibit transcription from the p14ARF (p19ARF in mouse) promoter in fibroblasts and to contribute to cell immortalization. One of the main features of the UMS phenotype\\u000a is the severe hypoplasia of the breast, associated with haploinsufficiency of

  17. Overview of pediatric peripheral facial nerve paralysis: analysis of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Özkale, Yasemin; Erol, ?lknur; Sayg?, Semra; Y?lmaz, ?smail

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral facial nerve paralysis in children might be an alarming sign of serious disease such as malignancy, systemic disease, congenital anomalies, trauma, infection, middle ear surgery, and hypertension. The cases of 40 consecutive children and adolescents who were diagnosed with peripheral facial nerve paralysis at Baskent University Adana Hospital Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology Unit between January 2010 and January 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. We determined that the most common cause was Bell palsy, followed by infection, tumor lesion, and suspected chemotherapy toxicity. We noted that younger patients had generally poorer outcome than older patients regardless of disease etiology. Peripheral facial nerve paralysis has been reported in many countries in America and Europe; however, knowledge about its clinical features, microbiology, neuroimaging, and treatment in Turkey is incomplete. The present study demonstrated that Bell palsy and infection were the most common etiologies of peripheral facial nerve paralysis. PMID:24810082

  18. Microscopic lesions suggestive of Marek's disease in a Black Francolin (Francolinus f. francolinus).

    PubMed

    Pettit, J R; Taylor, P A; Gough, A W

    1976-01-01

    Microscopic lesions suggestive of Marek's disease were found in tissues from the exotic game bird Black Francolin (Francolinus f. francolinus). These lesions consisted of a solitary spherical mass near the syrinx, histologically composed of sheets of small pleomorphic lymphocytes and a few plasma cells. Lymphocytic cell infiltrates were also seen microscopically in cuffs around vessels of the brain, in the sciatic nerve, and in several visceral organs. PMID:938389

  19. Central giant cell lesion.

    PubMed

    Valentine, James C; Nelson, Brenda L

    2011-12-01

    A classic case of central giant cell lesion (CGCL) is presented with emphasis on clinical, radiologic, and histologic features. The differential is discussed including peripheral giant cell granuloma, brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism, and giant cell tumor of bone. The molecular pathway of osteoclastogenesis is selectively reviewed and applied to suggest possible etiologies of the giant cell lesions. CGCL syndromes and treatment are also discussed. PMID:21898170

  20. Nerve Agents ATSDR ? General Information 1

    E-print Network

    Baloh, Bob

    Nerve Agents ATSDR ? General Information 1 Nerve Agents Tabun (GA) CAS 77-81-6; Sarin (GB) CAS 107-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate ? Persons whose skin or clothing is contaminated with nerve agent can contaminate rescuers by direct contact orthrough off-gassing vapor. Persons whose skin is exposed only to nerve agent vapor pose

  1. Recurrent largngeal nerve paralysis: a laryngographic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Agha, F.P.

    1983-07-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is a relatively common entity, usually resulting from a pathologic process of the vagus nerve or its recurrent larynegeal branch. It is rarely caused by intralargngeal lesions. Four teen patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP) were evaluated by laryngography, computed tomography (CT), or both. In the evaluation of the paramedian cord, CT was limited in its ability to differentiate between tumor or RLNP as the cause of the fixed cord, but it yielded more information than laryngography on the structural abnormalities of the larynx and pre-epiglottic and paralaryngeal spaces. Laryngography revealed distinct features of RLNP and is the procedure of choice for evaluation of functional abnormalities of the larynx until further experience with faster CT scanners and dynamic scanning of the larynx is gained.

  2. Quantitative analysis of contact sites between mast cells and sensory nerves in cutaneous psoriasis and lichen planus based on a histochemical double staining technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Naukkarinen; I. T. Harvima; M. L. Aalto; R. J. Harvima; M. Horsmanheimo

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test further our previous hypothesis that the inflammatory reaction in psoriasis is neurogenic. For this purpose, contact sites between mast cells and sensory nerves were morphometrically analysed in the basement membrane zone, papillary dermis and three dermal zones of lesional\\/non-lesional psoriatic and lichen planus skin as well as in healthy control skin.

  3. Distribution of sodium channels during nerve elongation in rat peripheral nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harumitsu Ichimura; Takashi Shiga; Ichiro Abe; Yuki Hara; Naoto Terui; Akihito Tsujino; Naoyuki Ochiai

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated electrophysiological and morphological changes of peripheral nerves during gradual elongation. There has been, however, no report on the distribution of sodium channels at Ranvier’s nodes during peripheral nerve elongation. We investigated peripheral nerve injury after the gradual elongation of rat sciatic nerves. Indirect nerve elongation was induced by leg lengthening at a rate of

  4. Neuromuscular hamartoma of the sciatic nerve: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sandi; Grandhi, Ramesh; Wong, Ricky; Hamilton, Ronald; Greene, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular hamartomas are rare benign tumors with mature skeletal elements mixed with mature neural elements. They present typically as solitary lesions in childhood and have been reported to be associated with cranial nerves or large peripheral nerves such as the brachial plexus, median nerve, and sciatic nerve. To date, eight cases of sciatic nerve neuromuscular hamartomas have been reported. We present a case along with an outline for the natural history of the disease with a review of the literature of the reported cases dating back to 1895. Case Description: An 11-year-old boy presented with progressive right lower extremity pain and atrophy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large right sciatic nerve mass, and electromyography demonstrated evidence of ongoing denervation and reinnervation. Initial computed tomography-guided biopsy was unrevealing and subsequent open biopsy was consistent with neuromuscular choristoma. Conclusion: Neuromuscular choristomas represent a rare disease. Symptoms of foot deformity, leg size discrepancy, and pain merit a complete work-up including spinal and peripheral nerve etiologies. PMID:23493803

  5. Ultrasound of the nerves of the knee region: Technique of examination and normal US appearance

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, S.; Martinoli, C.; Demondion, X.

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the peripheral nerves (PN) has traditionally been based on clinical and electrophysiological data since nerve tissue cannot be visualized on standard radiographs. More recently, however, nerve structures have been evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US). The former modality is expensive and not available in all institutions. There are also some contraindications to its use, and the assessment of long nerves can be time-consuming since different coils must be used. Thanks to recent advances in sonographic software and hardware, US can now be used for in-depth assessment of the PN of the upper and lower limbs. Most knee disorders involve lesions to the cruciate ligaments and/or the menisci, which are difficult to evaluate with US. However, similar symptoms may be caused by compression of one or more nerves in the knee region or intrinsic disorders involving these structures. Because of their superficial positions, the nerves around the knee can be clearly visualized with US. A thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy of this region and a careful scanning technique are essential for a successful diagnostic US examination. In this article, we will review the normal gross and microscopic anatomy of the nerves in the knee region, the US technique used for their examination, and their normal US appearance. PMID:23396637

  6. Myelination and nodal formation of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers following transplantation of acutely prepared olfactory ensheathing cells

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Mary A.; Sasaki, Masanori; Lankford, Karen L.; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Radtke, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into injured spinal cord results in improved functional outcome. Mechanisms suggested to account for this functional improvement include axonal regeneration, remyelination and neuroprotection. OECs transplanted into transected peripheral nerve have been shown to modify peripheral axonal regeneration and functional outcome. However, little is known of the detailed integration of OECs at the transplantation site in peripheral nerve. To address this issue cells populations enriched in OECs were isolated from the olfactory bulbs of adult green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transgenic rats and transplanted into a sciatic nerve crush lesion which transects all axons. Five weeks to six months after transplantation the nerves were studied histologically. GFP-expressing OECs survived in the lesion and distributed longitudinally across the lesion zone. The internodal regions of individual teased fibers distal to the transection site were characterized by GFP expression in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of cells surrounding the axons. Immuno-electron microscopy for GFP indicated that the transplanted OECs formed peripheral type myelin. Immunostaining for sodium channel and Caspr revealed a high density of Nav1.6 at the newly formed nodes of Ranvier which were flanked by paranodal Caspr staining. These results indicate that transplanted OECs extensively integrate into transected peripheral nerve and form myelin on regenerated peripheral nerve fibers, and that nodes of Ranvier of these axons display proper sodium channel organization. PMID:17112480

  7. Bone Augmentation and Nerve Repositioning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of Bone-Augmentation Procedures Nerve Repositioning For dental implants to be successful, the jawbone must have enough ... of procedures used to "build" bone so that dental implants can be placed. These procedures typically involve grafting ( ...

  8. Ion Channels in Nerve Membranes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenstein, Gerald

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research that indicates that nerve membranes, which play a key role in the conduction of impulses, are traversed by protein channels with ion pathways opened and closed by the membrane electric field. (Author/MLH)

  9. Peripheral Nerve Injuries and Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Axonal Regeneration and Remyelination: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2012-01-01

    Successful nerve regeneration after nerve trauma is not only important for the restoration of motor and sensory functions, but also to reduce the potential for abnormal sensory impulse generation that can occur following neuroma formation. Satisfying functional results after severe lesions are difficult to achieve and the development of interventional methods to achieve optimal functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury is of increasing clinical interest. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been used to improve axonal regeneration and functional outcome in a number of studies in spinal cord injury models. The rationale is that the OECs may provide trophic support and a permissive environment for axonal regeneration. The experimental transplantation of OECs to support and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration is much more limited. This chapter reviews studies using OECs as an experimental cell therapy to improve peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:23202929

  10. Sequence of the Essex-Lopresti lesion—a high-speed video documentation and kinematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The pathomechanics of the Essex-Lopresti lesion are not fully understood. We used human cadavers and documented the genesis of the injury with high-speed cameras. Methods 4 formalin-fixed cadaveric specimens of human upper extremities were tested in a prototype, custom-made, drop-weight test bench. An axial high-energy impulse was applied and the development of the lesion was documented with 3 high-speed cameras. Results The high-speed images showed a transversal movement of the radius and ulna, which moved away from each other in the transversal plane during the impact. This resulted into a transversal rupture of the interosseous membrane, starting in its central portion, and only then did the radius migrate proximally and fracture. The lesion proceeded to the dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint and then to a full-blown Essex-Lopresti lesion. Interpretation Our findings indicate that fracture of the radial head may be preceded by at least partial lesions of the interosseous membrane in the course of high-energy axial trauma. PMID:24479620

  11. Alveolar nerve unfolding technique for synoptic analysis: visualization and quantification of inferior alveolar nerve tracings in three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Wolfgang; Nyssen, Edgard; Sun, Yi; De Munter, Stephanie; Sijbers, Jan; Politis, Constantinus

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the technique presented here is to visualize the anatomical context of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) canal. For 2 cases, cone-beam computed tomography images of the mandible were obtained from patient files together with the manual preoperative IAN canal tracings. For both cases, similar to simulated panoramic images, a two-dimensional image is extracted from a three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography image. Unlike panoramic images, the unfolding does not follow the general curvature of the mandible but follows the nerve tracing closely and places the traced nerve track on a horizontal central line. Because of the centering of the nerve tracing together with the nerve canal and its surroundings in a two-dimensional representation, the technique (ANUTSA [Alveolar Nerve Unfolding Technique for Synoptic Analysis]) allowed the first case to evidence the adjacency of root tips along the IAN, whereas in the second case the degree of penetration of the IAN by an implant is revealed. The global aspect of the representation through unfolding allowed for the detection of the anomalies and the IAN-penetrating lesion along the IAN canal at a glance. PMID:23851874

  12. Effects of airbag deployment: lesions, epidemiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Trincone, Silvana; Virgili, Annarosa

    2004-01-01

    Airbags are restraining safety devices, but their activation may sometimes induce injuries during road accidents. Rapid deceleration due to an impact causes the ignition of a sodium azide cartridge, which releases nitrogen gas to inflate the nylon rubber bag. Numerous high-temperature gases, sodium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, and various other metallic oxides are also released producing a corrosive alkaline aerosol. Cutaneous and extracutaneous injuries due to airbag deployment may occur. Cutaneous injuries are frequent, and consist of irritant dermatitis, and chemical and thermal burns. Furthermore, numerous kinds of traumatic lesions (abrasions, friction burns, and lacerations) may be observed. Extracutaneous damage may involve the eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, nerves, joints, and bones. The nature of airbag lesions, their frequency, and management are reported. Even though the majority of airbag lesions are minor and do not require hospitalization, correct diagnosis and the choice of the most suitable treatment are necessary. PMID:15554730

  13. Nerve Regeneration After Radiofrequency Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyasu Ochiai; James P. Tasto; Seiji Ohtori; Norimasa Takahashi; Hideshige Moriya; David Amiel

    2007-01-01

    Background: Many patients with chronic tendinosis have experienced early pain relief after application of bipolar radiofrequency treatment. It is hypothesized that the mechanism of action may be the acute degeneration and\\/or ablation of sensory nerve fibers.Hypothesis: After ablation or degeneration by bipolar radiofrequency, nerve fibers will have the ability to regenerate with time.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats

  14. Microsurgical management of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the scalp: two case reports and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the scalp are rare lesions of the nervous system. Only 14 cases have been reported to date. The field of neurosurgery has struggled with diagnosing and treating these tumors. In this report, we present two cases of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the scalp and retrospectively analyze the clinical features, imaging findings, pathological features, and prognoses of these two patients. Each underwent microsurgery and radiotherapy. In addition, based on a literature review, we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies used to treat these unusual lesions. PMID:24112233

  15. Optic Nerve Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Paul; Kokemüller, Horst; Tavassol, Frank; Lindhorst, Daniel; Lemound, Juliana; Essig, Harald; Rücker, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Orbital and anterior skull base surgery is generally performed close to the prechiasmatic visual pathway, and clear strategies for detecting and handling visual pathway damage are essential. To overcome the common problem of a missed clinical examination because of an uncooperative or unresponsive patient, flash visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms should be used. These electrophysiologic examination techniques can provide evidence of intact, pathologic, or absent conductivity of the visual pathway when clinical assessment is not feasible. Visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms are thus essential diagnostic procedures not only for primary diagnosis but also for intraoperative evaluation. A decision for or against treatment of a visual pathway injury has to be made as fast as possible due to the enormous importance of the time elapsed with such injuries; this can be achieved additionally using multislice spiral computed tomography. The first-line conservative treatment of choice for such injuries is megadose methylprednisolone therapy. Surgery is used to decompress the orbital compartment by exposure of the intracanalicular part of the optic nerve in the case of optic canal compression. Modern craniomaxillofacial surgery requires detailed consideration of the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic visual pathway damage with the ultimate goal of preserving visual acuity. PMID:24436741

  16. A Case of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor of the Hypoglossal Nerve after Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tong; Juric-Sekhar, Gordana; Born, Donald; Sekhar, Laligam N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives?Hypoglossal schwannomas are rare. Surgical resection has been the standard treatment modality. Radiosurgery has been increasingly used for treatment. Radiation-associated secondary malignancy/malignant transformation has not been documented in the literature for the treatment of nonvestibular schwannomas. Setting?The patient was a 52-year-old man with an enlarging high cervical/skull base lesion 8.5 years after CyberKnife treatment of a presumed vagal schwannoma. A decision was made for surgical resection, and the tumor was found to originate from the hypoglossal nerve intraoperatively. Final pathology diagnosis was malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Results?Patient had a gross total resection. Three months after resection, he received fractionated radiation of 50?Gy in 25 fractions and a boost gamma knife radiosurgery of 10?Gy to the 50% isodose surface. He remained tumor free on repeat magnetic resonance imaging 9 months after the resection. Conclusion?Although extremely rare, radiation treatment of nonvestibular schwannomas can potentially cause malignant transformation. PMID:25083387

  17. Locating the target nerve and injectate spread in rabbit sciatic nerve block

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duk Hyun Sung

    2004-01-01

    Background and objectivesThe purpose of this study is to determine how close the needle tip is placed to the target nerve using a nerve stimulator and to determine how far the injectate spreads in percutaneous nerve blocks.

  18. Evidence of neurotrophic events due to peritoneal endometriotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Barcena de Arellano, Maria Luisa; Arnold, Julia; Lang, Helene; Vercellino, Giuseppe Filiberto; Chiantera, Vito; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the neurotrophic properties of endometriosis, as well as the involvement of neurotrophic factors in the development of chronic pelvic pain in patients with endometriosis, we performed a prospective clinical study. The presence of neurotrophins was investigated in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of patients with peritoneal endometriotic lesions or adenomyosis, as well as from women with non-endometriotic adhesions and from women without endometriosis/adenomyosis/adhesions. The PF from patients with peritoneal endometriotic lesions was divided in three groups: asymptomatic endometriosis, minimal pain and severe pain. PF from patients with adenomyosis or with non-endometriotic adhesions and the control group were divided in patients without pain and with pain. Neurotrophin expression in PF was analyzed using Elisa and the neuronal growth assay with cultured chicken sensory ganglia (dorsal-root-ganglia, DRG) and sympathetic ganglia. PF from women with peritoneal endometriotic lesions overexpress nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), but not brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whereas the PF of women with adenomyosis or adhesions seems to express normal amounts of these factors. Neurotrophin expression did not differ among the pain groups. Furthermore, the PF from patients with peritoneal endometriotic lesions induced a strong sensory and a marginal sympathetic neurite outgrowth, while the PF from women with adenomyosis and non-endometriotic adhesions induced an outgrowth similar to the control group. The induced neurite outgrowth could only be inhibited in DRG incubated with peritoneal endometriotic lesions. Interestingly, the outgrowth of sympathetic ganglia was inhibited in all studied groups. The present study suggests that only peritoneal endometriotic lesions lead to an increased release of NGF and NT-3 into the PF and that NGF modulates the nerve fiber growth in endometriosis. PMID:23545214

  19. RESIDENTS CASE REPORT: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS IN A HIGH SCHOOL BASEBALL PITCHER FOLLOWING ULNAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (UCL) RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Craig; Conway, John

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Accurate diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in an outpatient setting is difficult; however, proper screening and prompt referral can be lifesaving. The purpose of this case report is to present the unusual findings of a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) in an otherwise healthy young male following an upper extremity surgery. Case Description: An 18 year-old male high school baseball pitcher presented to the clinic for his four month follow up visit after Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) reconstruction surgery. Patient complained of a recent “groin strain” and “calf strain” following baseball conditioning, that upon examination demonstrated signs and symptoms consistent with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Outcomes: Following emergent referral the patient was diagnosed with multiple emboli and was treated with Lovenox and Coumadin. Discussion: Lower extremity DVT is a serious and potentially life threatening disorder. Physical therapists need to be vigilant in their subjective and objective examination of any patient that presents with lower extremity pain and swelling. This case report presents the unlikely findings of a DVT in a young, healthy, male high school baseball pitcher after surgical repair of the UCL. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:24175133

  20. Sphenoidal mucocele presenting as acute cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Clarissa S M; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Yip, Chee Chew; Yuen, Heng-Wai

    2012-10-01

    Sphenoidal sinus mucoceles are indolent lesions that, when sufficiently large, can compress on the optic canal or superior orbital fissure, rapidly causing loss of vision, optic neuropathy, ptosis, pain, ophthalmoplegia, and diplopia. We herein report a 72-year-old gentleman who presented acutely with Cranial Nerve II, III, and IV palsies secondary to a sphenoidal sinus mucocele that was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging and successfully treated with endoscopic drainage. This cause of orbital apex syndrome is important for clinicians to know as early diagnosis and treatment is critical in recovering visual potential. PMID:23961035

  1. A solitary hemangioblastoma located on the trochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiwei; Wang, Chongqian; Shi, Jiong

    2014-02-01

    Hemangioblastomas are tumors of the central nervous system that originate from the vascular system. They are most commonly composed of stromal cells in small blood vessels and usually occur in the cerebellum and spinal cord. We report a rare instance of a patient with a solitary hemangioblastoma located on the trochlear nerve. A 27-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache, vomiting, and diplopia. Imaging studies revealed a round mass lesion anterior to the pons with subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns of the posterior fossa extending to the fourth ventricle. A biopsy confirmed it was a hemangioblastoma. PMID:24012244

  2. Spontaneous neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in aging Donryu rats.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, A; Onodera, H; Tanigawa, H; Furuta, K; Matsuoka, C; Kanno, J; Ogiu, T; Hayashi, Y

    1986-09-01

    Spontaneous neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in 95 male and 96 female Donryu rats which were observed up to 120 weeks of age, were examined. The incidence of spontaneous tumors was 73.7% in males and 88.5% in females. In males, the most frequent tumors were pituitary adenomas, followed by pheochromocytomas and insulinomas. In females, uterine adenocarcinomas, mammary fibroadenomas and pituitary adenomas were the most common. Other tumors with relatively high incidences in both sexes included cortical adenomas of the adrenal gland, histiocytic sarcomas of the hematopoietic organs and granular cell tumors of the brain. Various tumors were also found in many other organs and/or tissues, although their incidences were low. The organ distribution and incidences of spontaneous tumors observed in Donryu rats were different from those in other strains of rats such as the ACI, Wistar, F344 or Sprague-Dawley strains. The main non-neoplastic lesions were observed in the lung, cervical lymph nodes and kidney of both sexes. In addition, lesions were also observed in the urinary bladder, prostate and peripheral nerves (spinal nerve roots and peripheral nerves) and/or femoralis muscle of males. Histologically, the most characteristic lesion was radiculoneuropathy with degeneration of the peripheral nerves. PMID:3095285

  3. Effects of sympathectomy on experimentally induced pulpal inflammation and periapical lesions in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R Haug; K. J Heyeraas

    2003-01-01

    The role of sympathetic nerves in bone physiology is largely unknown. Recent studies have shown a correlation between sympathectomy and bone remodeling. The present experiments were aimed to study the effects of unilateral sympathectomy on bilateral experimentally induced pulpitis and periapical lesions in the rat maxilla and mandible. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were used. Experimental rats (n=11) had the right

  4. Nerve agent intoxication: Recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Collombet, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jmcollombet@imassa.fr

    2011-09-15

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3 months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. - Highlights: > This review focuses on neuropathophysiology following nerve agent poisoning in mice. > Extensive data on long-term neuropathology and related inflammation are provided here. > Delayed self-repair attempts encountered in lesioned rodent brains are also described. > Cell therapy is considered as a valuable treatment against nerve agent intoxication.

  5. Intraventricular mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Sobel, D.F.; Kelley, W.M.; Norman, D.

    1984-11-01

    Determining the precise etiology of an intraventricular mass can be a difficult diagnostic problem. CT and angiographic findings were reviewed in a series of 73 patients who had intraventricular masses. The histologic diagnosis can be suggested preoperatively by an analysis of the frequency of lesions occurring at a given ventricular location, lesion density before and after administration of contrast material, age, and sex of the patient, morphologic appearance of the mass, and presence or absence of hydrocephalus. Angiography is useful when meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma, or arteriovenous malformation are considered.

  6. Axonal and vascular changes following injury to the rat's optic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, J A

    1985-01-01

    The optic nerve of the rat has been examined by light and electron microscopy, and also for vascular permeability to fluorescently labelled albumin, 2 days to 34 weeks after crushing in the orbit. The operation was usually followed by loss of 20-70% of the retinal ganglion cells. Axons could be followed from the retina into the optic nerve at all postoperative times, but they always ended anterior to the lesion. Evidence of feeble regenerative growth of optic axons was seen in the first few postoperative weeks: bifurcating fibres and fibres that turned back towards the eye were present within the optic nerve anterior to the lesion. At the site of crushing, the optic nerve eventually became a thin cord of astroglia, surrounded and partly infiltrated by collagenous connective tissue. Long argyrophilic fibres were conspicuous in the intracranial part of the crushed optic nerve from the seventh to the fourteenth postoperative week. These were shown by electron microscopy to be degenerating myelinated axons that had not been phagocytosed. It was conceivable that axons from the contralateral retina could have sprouted at the chiasma and grown into the degenerated optic nerve. This possibility was excluded by tracing anterograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into the contralateral eye. Intravenously injected fluorescent protein entered the connective tissue of the orbit and the connective tissue trabeculae of the optic nerve, but it did not permeate into the central nervous tissue except at the lamina cribrosa, where the optic axons pierce the sclera. Permeability at this site was the same on the operated and unoperated sides. Abnormal permeability of the vasculature was seen at the site of crushing the optic nerve. Fluorescence there was strongest in the first two postoperative weeks and was not seen after the third week. A much less conspicuous defect of barrier function occurred in the intracranial portion of the crushed optic nerve, from the seventh to the fourteenth postoperative week. The responses of the optic nerve of the rat to axotomy contrast markedly with those of the goldfish, in which the blood vessels become permeable to protein throughout the optic pathway and the axons regenerate successfully. Various attempts were made to increase or prolong the opening of the blood-optic nerve barrier in the rat, in the hope of enhancing axonal regeneration, but these endeavours were all unsuccessful. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077712

  7. Effects of gastric vagotomy on visceral cell proliferation induced by ventromedial hypothalamic lesions: role of vagal hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Kintaka, Yuri; Osaka, Toshimasa; Suzuki, Yoko; Hashiguchi, Takeo; Niijima, Akira; Kageyama, Haruaki; Fumiko, Takenoya; Shioda, Seiji; Inoue, Shuji

    2009-07-01

    In rats, ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) lesions induce cell proliferation in the visceral organs (stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas) due to hyperactivity of the vagus nerve. To investigate the effects of selective gastric vagotomy on VMH lesion-induced cell proliferation and secretion of gastric acid, we assessed the mitotic index (the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive cells per 1,000 cells in the gastric mucosal cell layer) and measured the volume of secreted basal gastric acid. Furthermore, to explore whether or not ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML) lead to ulcer formation in VMH-lesioned rats, we assessed the ulcer index of both sham-operated and VMH-lesioned rats after administration of ethanol. VMH lesions resulted in an increased mitotic index and thickness of the gastric mucosal cell layer and gave rise to the hypersecretion of gastric acid. Selective gastric vagotomy restored these parameters to normal without affecting cell proliferation in other visceral organs. Ethanol-induced AGML caused ulcers in sham VMH-lesioned rats, whereas VMH-lesioned rats were less likely to exhibit such ulcers. These results suggest that VMH lesion-induced vagally mediated cell proliferation in the visceral organs is associated with hyperfunction in these organs, and VMH lesion-induced resistance to ethanol may be due to thickening of the gastric mucosal cell layer resulting from cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa-this in turn is due to hyperactivity of the vagus nerve. PMID:19455436

  8. Hypovitaminosis D in widespread pain: its effect on pain perception, quality of life and nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Akyuz, Gulseren; Yagci, Ilker; Giray, Esra

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of hypovitaminosis D on pain, quality of life (QoL) and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). We randomly selected 83 female patients with CWP according to their vitamin D levels in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups as sufficient vitamin D level (above 20 ng/ml) and deficient vitamin D level (below 20 ng/ml, hypovitaminosis D). Various pain scales and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were used. NCSs were also done. In patients with hypovitaminosis D, there were significantly higher pain scores for all scales (p value range 0.002-0.027). The subscale and total NHP scores were significantly higher in hypovitaminosis D group (p = 0.048-0.001) except social isolation subscale (p = 0.553). Vitamin D levels were in negative correlation with right and left median and/or ulnar motor nerve amplitudes, left tibial motor amplitude. This study confirm that hypovitaminosis D is related with higher pain intensity and lower QoL scores in patients with CWP when compared with control group. Additionally, we identified for the first time that there were negative correlations between vitamin D levels and some findings of NCSs. PMID:25085713

  9. Genital lesions following bestiality.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Shenoi, S D; Kumar, K B; Sharma, P V

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution. PMID:20877040

  10. Gastrointestinal Tract Mesenchymal Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora Lam-Himlin

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the most common and characteristic mesenchymal lesions found in the gastrointestinal tract and intraabdominal location in a pattern-based approach: spindle and epithelioid tumors (gastrointestinal stromal tumor, schwannoma, glomus tumor, leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma, inflammatory fibroid polyp, perineurioma, melanoma, calcifying fibrous tumor, sclerosing mesenteritis, mesenteric fibromatosis, and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor), and clear and granular tumors (clear cell sarcoma, granular

  11. Facial-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis using laser nerve welding.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Sun Goo; Kim, Dae Joong

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare laser nerve welding to microsurgical suturing of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis (HFA), and a result of immediate to delayed repair, and to evaluate the effect of laser nerve welding on HFA for reanimation of facial palsy. The first group of five rats underwent immediate HFA by microsurgical suturing and the second group of five rats by CO2 laser welding. The third group of five rats underwent delayed HFA by microsurgical suturing, and the fourth group of five rats by laser nerve welding. The fifth group of five rats served as controls, with intact hypoglossal and facial nerve. In all rats of the four different treatment groups, cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the anastomosis site on the postoperative 6th week and in the normal hypoglossal nerve in the five rats of the control group. Neurons labeled CTb of hypoglossal nuclei were positive immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. In the immediate HFA groups, CTb-positive neurons were 751 +/- 247 in the laser welding group (n = 5) and 888 +/- 60 in the microsurgical suturing group (n = 5). There was no significant difference (P = 0.117). In the delayed HFA groups, CTb-positive neurons were 749 +/- 54 in the laser welding group (n = 5) and 590 +/- 169 in the microsurgical suturing group (n = 5). The difference was not significant (P = 0.116). There was no significant difference between immediate and delayed anastomosis in the laser welding group (P = 0.600), but there was significance between immediate and delayed anastomosis in the microsurgical suturing group (P = 0.009). Injected CTb in intact hypoglossal neurons (n = 5) were labeled 1,003 +/- 52. No dehiscence in the laser welding site of nerve anastomosis was seen at the time of re-exploration for injection of CTb in all 10 rats. This study shows that the regeneration of anastomosed hypoglossal-facial nerve was affected similarly by laser welding and microsurgical suturing, and more effective, especially in delayed repair. PMID:16877915

  12. Enhanced early sensory outcome after nerve repair as a result of immediate post-operative re-learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosén, B; Vikström, P; Turner, S; McGrouther, D A; Selles, R W; Schreuders, T A R; Björkman, A

    2015-07-01

    We assessed the use of guided plasticity training to improve the outcome in the first 6 months after nerve repair. In a multicentre randomized controlled trial, 37 adults with median or ulnar nerve repair at the distal forearm were randomized to intervention, starting the first week after surgery with sensory and motor re-learning using mirror visual feedback and observation of touch, or to a control group with re-learning starting when reinnervation could be detected. The primary outcome at 3 and 6 months post-operatively was discriminative touch (shape texture identification test, part of the Rosen score). At 6 months, discriminative touch was significantly better in the early intervention group. Improvement of discriminative touch between 3 and 6 months was also significantly greater in that group. There were no significant differences in motor function, pain or in the total score. We conclude that early re-learning using guided plasticity may have a potential to improve the outcomes after nerve repair. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II. PMID:25294735

  13. Bone marrow-derived, neural-like cells have the characteristics of neurons to protect the peripheral nerve in microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Zhi-Ying; Xu, Yan; Zhi, Yun-Xia; Han, Chang-Jie; Zhou, Yu-Hao; Liu, Fang; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Chuan-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Effective repair of peripheral nerve defects is difficult because of the slow growth of new axonal growth. We propose that "neural-like cells" may be useful for the protection of peripheral nerve destructions. Such cells should prolong the time for the disintegration of spinal nerves, reduce lesions, and improve recovery. But the mechanism of neural-like cells in the peripheral nerve is still unclear. In this study, bone marrow-derived neural-like cells were used as seed cells. The cells were injected into the distal end of severed rabbit peripheral nerves that were no longer integrated with the central nervous system. Electromyography (EMG), immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the development of the cells in the peripheral nerve environment. The CMAP amplitude appeared during the 5th week following surgery, at which time morphological characteristics of myelinated nerve fiber formation were observed. Bone marrow-derived neural-like cells could protect the disintegration and destruction of the injured peripheral nerve. PMID:25861281

  14. Bone Marrow-Derived, Neural-Like Cells Have the Characteristics of Neurons to Protect the Peripheral Nerve in Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shi-lei; Zhang, Zhi-ying; Zhi, Yun-xia; Han, Chang-jie; Zhou, Yu-hao; Liu, Fang; Lin, Hai-yan; Zhang, Chuan-sen

    2015-01-01

    Effective repair of peripheral nerve defects is difficult because of the slow growth of new axonal growth. We propose that “neural-like cells” may be useful for the protection of peripheral nerve destructions. Such cells should prolong the time for the disintegration of spinal nerves, reduce lesions, and improve recovery. But the mechanism of neural-like cells in the peripheral nerve is still unclear. In this study, bone marrow-derived neural-like cells were used as seed cells. The cells were injected into the distal end of severed rabbit peripheral nerves that were no longer integrated with the central nervous system. Electromyography (EMG), immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the development of the cells in the peripheral nerve environment. The CMAP amplitude appeared during the 5th week following surgery, at which time morphological characteristics of myelinated nerve fiber formation were observed. Bone marrow-derived neural-like cells could protect the disintegration and destruction of the injured peripheral nerve. PMID:25861281

  15. A precision mechanical nerve stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1988-11-01

    An electromechanical device, used to apply and monitor stimulating pulses to a mammalian motor nerve, has been successfully developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Two existing force transducers, a flight skin friction balance and a miniature skin friction balance which were designed for making aerodynamic drag measurements, were modified and incorporated to form this precision instrument. The nerve stimulator is a type one servomechanism capable of applying and monitoring stimulating pulses of 0 to 10 grams with a precision of better than +/- 0.05 grams. Additionally, the device can be independently used to apply stimulating pulses by displacing the nerve from 0 to 0.25 mm with a precision of better than +/- 0.001 mm while measuring the level of the load applied.

  16. Nerve blocks in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Chambers, W A

    2008-07-01

    Although between 85% and 90% of patients with advanced cancer can have their pain well controlled with the use of analgesic drugs and adjuvants, there are some patients who will benefit from an interventional procedure. This includes a variety of nerve blocks and also some neurosurgical procedures. Approximately 8-10% of patients may benefit from a peripheral nerve block and around 2% from a central neuraxial block. The most common indication is because opioid dose escalation is limited by signs of opioid toxicity but some patients will benefit from one component of their pain being relieved by a simple peripheral block. Most patients about to undergo these procedures are already taking high doses of opiods and obtaining valid consent may pose problems. The use of peripheral nerve blocks, epidural and intrathecal infusions, and plexus blocks is discussed. PMID:18495677

  17. Neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan G

    2014-01-01

    The shoulder joint is an enarthrodial or ball-and-socket joint. A complex network of anatomic structures endows the human shoulder with tremendous mobility, greater than any other joint in the body. Many pathologies can been found in those patients with chronic shoulder pain. The painful limitation of shoulder motion affects hand and arm motion as well; therefore, it significantly influences work performance and everyday activities as well as the quality of life. Therefore, the treatment of patients with chronic shoulder pain has major social and health economic implications. In this article we present a patient with a complex history of shoulder pathology including 7 surgeries that left the patient with chronic debilitating shoulder pain. She was suffering from chronic pain and limited mobility of the shoulder joint due to adhesive shoulder capsulitis. She was treated with a multimodality approach with the goals of increasing shoulder range of motion and decreasing her pain. This did not provide significant improvement. The suprascapular nerve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the shoulder, and can be easily accessible in the supraspinatus fossa. A suprascapular nerve block dramatically decreased her pain. This clinical observation along with confirmatory nerve block play an important role during the decision-making process for a trial period of electrical neuromodulation. She was followed for 3 months after the permanent implantation of a suprascapular nerve stimulator. Her pain and shoulder range of motion in all planes improved dramatically. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) of the suprascapular nerve, in addition to multimodality pain management, is one approach to the difficult task of treating adhesive capsulitis with accompanying pain and the inability to move the shoulder. We conducted a literature review on PubMed and found no case describing a similar patient to our knowledge. PMID:25415792

  18. Electrospun conducting polymer nanofibers and electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Jin, Guorui; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-11-01

    Tissue engineering of nerve grafts requires synergistic combination of scaffolds and techniques to promote and direct neurite outgrowth across the lesion for effective nerve regeneration. In this study, we fabricated a composite polymeric scaffold which is conductive in nature by electrospinning and further performed electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells seeded on the electrospun nanofibers. Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) was blended with polyaniline (PANi) at a ratio of 85:15 and electrospun to obtain PLLA/PANi nanofibers with fiber diameters of 195 ± 30 nm. The morphology, chemical and mechanical properties of the electrospun PLLA and PLLA/PANi scaffolds were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and tensile instrument. The electrospun PLLA/PANi fibers showed a conductance of 3 × 10?? S by two-point probe measurement. In vitro electrical stimulation of the nerve stem cells cultured on PLLA/PANi scaffolds applied with an electric field of 100 mV/mm for a period of 60 min resulted in extended neurite outgrowth compared to the cells grown on non-stimulated scaffolds. Our studies further strengthen the implication of electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells on conducting polymeric scaffolds towards neurite elongation that could be effective for nerve tissue regeneration. PMID:21813321

  19. Olfactory stimulatory with grapefruit and lavender oils change autonomic nerve activity and physiological function.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuya; Niijima, Akira; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the effects of olfactory stimulation with grapefruit and lavender oils on autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of grapefruit oil (GFO) increases the activity of sympathetic nerves that innervate white and brown adipose tissues, the adrenal glands, and the kidneys, decreases the activity of the gastric vagal nerve in rats and mice. This results in an increase in lipolysis, thermogenesis, and blood pressure, and a decrease in food intake. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of lavender oil (LVO) elicits the opposite changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. Olfactory stimulation with scent of limonene, a component of GFO, and linalool, a component of LVO, has similar effects to stimulation with GFO and LVO, respectively. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, abolishes all GFO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables, and the hitstamine H3-receptor antagonist, thioperamide, eliminates all LVO-induced changes. Lesions to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and anosmic treatment with ZnSO4 also abolish all GFO- and LVO-induced changes. These findings indicate that limonene and linalool might be the active substances in GFO and LVO, and suggest that the suprachiasmatic nucleus and histamine are involved in mediating the GFO- and LVO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. PMID:25002406

  20. [Ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve block].

    PubMed

    Ota, Junichi; Hara, Kaoru

    2008-05-01

    Theoretically, sciatic nerve block can be used alone or in combination with lumbar plexus block or femoral nerve block for anesthesia and/or analgesia of lower limb surgery. However, clinical use of sciatic nerve block was limited by technical difficulties in performing the block since techniques used relies only on surface anatomical landmarks. Recent advances in ultrasound technology allow direct visualization of nerves and other surrounding structures and have increased the interest in performing many kinds of peripheral nerve blocks including sciatic nerve block. Preliminary data suggest that ultrasound-guided technique can help perform the sciatic nerve block more reliably and safely. In this article we describe the anatomy of the sciatic nerve, sonographic features, and technique of three major approaches including subgluteal, anterior, and popliteal approaches. The use of this technique for postoperative analgesia is also discussed. PMID:18516885

  1. Electromagnetic mechanism of magnetic nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masuhiro; Yamada, Satoshi; Daimon, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Isao; Kawakami, Tadashi; Takenaka, Toshibumi

    1989-08-01

    Rabbit sciatic nerves were stimulated by pulsed magnetic fields and nerve responses were analyzed on the basis of electromagnetic theory to understand the dominant factors in magnetic stimulation. Some conducting substance surrounding the nerve is required to induce the currents exciting it. The strength of a magnetic stimulus is evaluated by the rate of change in the vector potential at the nerve, dA/dt, which equals the magnitude of the induced electric field E. The minimum strength of dA/dt for exciting the nerve is 18 Wb/ms (18 V/m) in the agar with a conductivity of 0.6 S/m. The induced current density of 10 A/m2 is comparable to that used in the electric stimulation of peripheral nerves. The component of the vector potential parallel to the nerve is more effective in stimulating the nerve than the component perpendicular to it.

  2. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...aid in repairing the nerve (e.g., to prevent ingrowth of scar tissue) and for capping the end of the nerve to prevent the formation of neuroma (tumors). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  3. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...aid in repairing the nerve (e.g., to prevent ingrowth of scar tissue) and for capping the end of the nerve to prevent the formation of neuroma (tumors). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  4. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...aid in repairing the nerve (e.g., to prevent ingrowth of scar tissue) and for capping the end of the nerve to prevent the formation of neuroma (tumors). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  5. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...aid in repairing the nerve (e.g., to prevent ingrowth of scar tissue) and for capping the end of the nerve to prevent the formation of neuroma (tumors). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  6. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...aid in repairing the nerve (e.g., to prevent ingrowth of scar tissue) and for capping the end of the nerve to prevent the formation of neuroma (tumors). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  7. Voluntary Nerve Signals from Severed Mammalian Nerves: Long-Term Recordings

    E-print Network

    De Luca, Carlo J.

    and peroneal nerves in rabbits. This electrode may prove suitable for implantation in human amputeesVoluntary Nerve Signals from Severed Mammalian Nerves: Long-Term Recordings Abstract. An electrode unit capable ofdetecting voluntarily elicited nerve signals for prolonged periods oftime has been

  8. Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a) early extratemporal reconstruction, b) early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c) late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies. PMID:21040532

  9. Microsurgical anatomy of the ocular motor nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi ZhangHao; Hao Liu; En-Zhong Liu; You-Zhi Lin; Shi-Guang Zhao; Guo-Hua Jing

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to provide anatomic data to help surgeons avoid damage to the ocular motor nerves during intraorbital\\u000a operations. The microsurgical anatomy of the ocular motor nerves was studied in 50 adult cadaveric heads (100 orbits). Dissections\\u000a were performed with a microscope. The nerves were exposed and the neural and muscular relationships of each portion of the\\u000a nerve

  10. The effects of hypothyroidism on strength-duration properties of peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Yerdelen, Deniz; Ertorer, Eda; Koç, Filiz

    2010-07-15

    Axonal injury and/or demyelination commonly result in peripheral mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy or entrapment neuropathies in hypothyroidism. In this study, we aimed to measure the strength-duration time constants (SDTC) of motor and sensory fibres in patients with primary hypothyroidism before and after hormone replacement treatment. The motor and sensory SDTC and rheobase of 14 patients with overt hypothyroidism (TSH>10mg/ml, free T4ulnar nerve at the wrist. Nerve conduction velocity studies revealed carpal tunnel syndrome in 3 of 14 patients. When the values of patients and control group were compared, motor and sensory rheobase, thresholds using 0.1 ms and 1 ms stimulus for motor and sensory fibres were significantly different (p<0.05). The values were bigger in patient group reflecting a higher threshold. When the values of patients were compared before and after therapy, motor and sensory rheobase, thresholds using 0.1 ms and 1 ms stimulus for motor and sensory fibres were significantly different (p<0.05). When the values of 10 of 14 patients who had undergone hormone therapy were compared with the control group, there wasn't any significant difference. Some reports suggest that axonal injury develop in hypothyroidism. Our results suggest that even in the absence of polyneuropathy findings, an increased threshold and in consequence an increased axonal excitability which can improve after hormone therapy may be present in overt hypothyroidism. PMID:20452625

  11. Unilateral optic nerve transection up-regulate Hsp70 protein expression in lateral geniculate nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Wang, Ningli; Jiang, Libin; Long, Caixia; Li, Junfa

    2006-08-14

    Studies have demonstrated that optic nerve transection results in apoptotic cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and neurons within lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 was reported to be involved in protecting cells from injury under various pathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. To determine the involvement of Hsp70 in protecting neurons within LGN against damage or loss induced by optic nerve injuries, we observed the changes in protein expression and distribution of Hsp70 in LGN at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after unilateral optic nerve transection in the left eye of Sprague-Dawley rats by using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. We found that the levels of Hsp70 protein expression increased significantly (p < 0.05, n = 6 for each group) in both right and left LGN of rats following left optic nerve transection 1-7 days. The maximum of Hsp70 expression reached at day 3. However, Hsp70 protein expression levels in both right and left LGN returned to control levels at 14 and 28 days after left optic nerve lesion. In addition, the increased Hsp70 expression, which mainly localized in the intergeniculate leaflet of LGN, was also observed by immunostaining in right LGN at the end of day 3 after the lesion. These results suggest that increased expression of Hsp70 may be involved in protecting neurons within LGN against damage or loss induced by left optic nerve transection at early stage. PMID:16781812

  12. Anal spindle cell lesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charanjit Kaur; Caroline Finlayson

    2009-01-01

    Anal lumps are often clinically diagnosed as thrombosed or torted haemorrhoids or polyps. We report the case of an elderly woman who presented with a polypoid anal lesion, which showed pleomorphic spindle cell morphology on microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains revealed this to be a melanoma, which diffusely and strongly expressed CD117\\/c-kit protein. There is potential for misdiagnosis of CD117-positive amelanotic anal

  13. Cranial Nerves Model - PowerPoint Presentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliann Garza (University of Texas-Pan American Physician Assistant Studies)

    2010-08-16

    Lesson is designed to introduce students to cranial nerves through the use of an introductory lecture. Students will then create a three-dimensional model of the cranial nerves. An information sheet will accompany the model in order to help students learn crucial aspects of the cranial nerves.

  14. SELECTIVE STIMULATION OF THE HUMAN OPTIC NERVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Veraart; J. Delbeke; M.-C. Wanet-Defalque; A. Vanlierde; G. Michaux; S. Parrini; O. Glineur; M. Verleysen; C. Trullemans; J. T. Mortimer

    1999-01-01

    A blind volunteer affected with retinitis pigmentosa was intracranially implanted with a self- sizing cuff electrode around her right optic nerve. The nerve cuff electrode included 4 monopolar contacts. Its leads were brought through the skin where they ended in an external connector12. After recovery from surgery, electrical activation of the implanted optic nerve was undertaken. A specially dedicated Computer

  15. Action of Quaternary Ammonium Salts on Nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Cowan

    1933-01-01

    EXPERIMENTS similar to those of Fromherz with curare on medullated nerve, referred to by Prof. A. V. Hill in his article on ``The Physical Nature of the Nerve Impulse'',1 in NATURE of April 8, have been made with pure quaternary ammonium salts prepared by Dr. H. R. Ing. These have a curare-like action, preventing transmission of excitation from nerve to

  16. Transplant of embryonal nervous tissue preserves the responses of rat retinal ganglion cells after section of the optic nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gravina; L. Domenici; N. Berardi; L. Galli; L. Maffei

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the effectiveness of embryonal tectal tissue transplants in preserving the physiological activity of lesioned ganglion cells by recording the visual responses from the adult rat retina after section of the optic nerve, with or without transplants of embryonal nervous tissue on the stump. We have found that transplant of embryonal nervous tissue at the level of the

  17. Pathology of the optic nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Doron; A. Behar

    1968-01-01

    The optic nerves and chiasma were examined histologically in 124 unselected autopsy cases with clinical histories of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), hypertensive cardiovascular disease (HCVD) and liver parenchymal damage (LPD) with a view to find out possible changes particularly associated with one of the three respective conditions. Statistical test applied to our material revealed, as was to be expected, a

  18. Correlative ultrasound anatomy of the feline brachial plexus and major nerves of the thoracic limb.

    PubMed

    Ansón, Agustina; Gil, Francisco; Laredo, Francisco G; Soler, Marta; Belda, Eliseo; Ayala, Maria D; Agut, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Brachial plexus avulsions commonly occur in cats due to traumatic injuries involving the shoulder. Ultrasound may be an effective method for detecting injured nerves. Additional applications may include characterization of brachial plexus neoplasms and guidance of anesthetic nerve blocks. Aims of this study were to describe ultrasonographic approaches and the normal appearance of this plexus and other major nerves of the thoracic limb in cats. Eight feline cadavers were used to determine anatomic landmarks, obtain cross-sectional anatomic images of the target nerves, and compare these with ultrasound images. An ultrasonographic study was performed in five fresh feline cadavers to assess the brachial plexus and its major components at the levels of the axilla and proximal, middle and distal (lateral and medial approaches) humeral regions. Five healthy adult cats were recruited for an in vivo ultrasonographic study using the same protocol described for the cadaver ultrasonographic study. The roots of the brachial plexus appeared as a cluster of small, round hypoechoic structures surrounded by a hyperechoic rim in the axillary approach. The radialis, medianus, and ulnaris nerves were individually visualized on proximal and middle humeral approaches. The medianus and ulnaris nerves were easily identified on the medial aspect of the humerus in the distal approach. The superficial branch of radialis nerve was seen on the lateral aspect of the distal humerus approach. The nerves appeared as oval-to-round hypoechogenic structures with a hyperechogenic rim. Future studies are needed to compare findings from this study with those in cats with confirmed brachial plexus injuries or other lesions. PMID:23363032

  19. Neurological Complications in Thyroid Surgery: A Surgical Point of View on Laryngeal Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Varaldo, Emanuela; Ansaldo, Gian Luca; Mascherini, Matteo; Cafiero, Ferdinando; Minuto, Michele N.

    2014-01-01

    The cervical branches of the vagus nerve that are pertinent to endocrine surgery are the superior and the inferior laryngeal nerves: their anatomical course in the neck places them at risk during thyroid surgery. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EB) is at risk during thyroid surgery because of its close anatomical relationship with the superior thyroid vessels and the superior thyroid pole region. The rate of EB injury (which leads to the paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle) varies from 0 to 58%. The identification of the EB during surgery helps avoiding both an accidental transection and an excessive stretching. When the nerve is not identified, the ligation of superior thyroid artery branches close to the thyroid gland is suggested, as well as the abstention from an indiscriminate use of energy-based devices that might damage it. The inferior laryngeal nerve (RLN) runs in the tracheoesophageal groove toward the larynx, close to the posterior aspect of the thyroid. It is the main motor nerve of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, and also provides sensory innervation to the larynx. Its injury finally causes the paralysis of the omolateral vocal cord and various sensory alterations: the symptoms range from mild to severe hoarseness, to acute airway obstruction, and swallowing impairment. Permanent lesions of the RNL occur from 0.3 to 7% of cases, according to different factors. The surgeon must be aware of the possible anatomical variations of the nerve, which should be actively searched for and identified. Visual control and gentle dissection of RLN are imperative. The use of intraoperative nerve monitoring has been safely applied but, at the moment, its impact in the incidence of RLN injuries has not been clarified. In conclusion, despite a thorough surgical technique and the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring, the incidence of neurological complications after thyroid surgery cannot be suppressed, but should be maintained in a low range. PMID:25076936

  20. Ultrastructural Changes in Spinal Motoneurons and Locomotor Functional Study after Sciatic Nerve Repair in Conduit Tube

    PubMed Central

    Delaviz, Hamdollah; Faghihi, Abolfazel; Mohamadi, Jamshid; Roozbehi, Amrollah

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Motor deficit and neuron degeneration is seen after nerve transection. The aim of this study is to determine whether a poled polyvinelidene fluoride (PVDF) tube with other supportive strategies can protect the neuronal morphology and motor function after sciatic nerve transaction in rats. Materials and Methods After transection of the left sciatic nerve in 60 male Wistar rats (200-250 g), the epineural group was sutured end to end. In the autograft rats, a 10 mm piece of sciatic nerve was rotated 180 °C and sutured back into the nerve gap. In the nerve guidance channel (NGC) group, polarized piezoelectric PVDF tube containing NGF and collagen gel was sutured in the gap. In control group sciatic nerve was removed (10 mm) without repair. After one, four and eight weeks, the L4-L6 spinal cord segment was removed for histological study using transmission electron microscope. Functional outcome was assessed using the Basso, Bresnahan and Beattie (BBB) locomotor scale at both four and eight weeks after the lesion. Results Chromatin condensation was seen after 4 weeks in the repair groups. Cell membrane shrinkage and mitochondrial degeneration was observed after 4 and 8 weeks respectively, in the autografted and NGC rats. In the control group, chromatin condensation, cell membrane shrinkage with mitochondrial degeneration and vacuolization of perikaryon was seen after 1, 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. At 56 days, the functional recovery of the epineural rats significantly increased in comparison to the other groups (P< 0.05). Conclusion The epineural suture has more efficacies, and NGC may be used as a proper substitute for autograft in nerve injury. PMID:23492837

  1. Neuro-ophthalmological approach to facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Portelinha, Joana; Passarinho, Maria Picoto; Costa, João Marques

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is associated with significant morbidity and can have different etiologies. The most common causes are Bell's palsy, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome and trauma, including surgical trauma. Incidence varies between 17 and 35 cases per 100,000. Initial evaluation should include accurate clinical history, followed by a comprehensive investigation of the head and neck, including ophthalmological, otological, oral and neurological examination, to exclude secondary causes. Routine laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging is not indicated in patients with new-onset Bell's palsy, but should be performed in patients with risk factors, atypical cases or in any case without resolution within 4 months. Many factors are involved in determining the appropriate treatment of these patients: the underlying cause, expected duration of nerve dysfunction, anatomical manifestations, severity of symptoms and objective clinical findings. Systemic steroids should be offered to patients with new-onset Bell's palsy to increase the chance of facial nerve recovery and reduce synkinesis. Ophthalmologists play a pivotal role in the multidisciplinary team involved in the evaluation and rehabilitation of these patients. In the acute phase, the main priority should be to ensure adequate corneal protection. Treatment depends on the degree of nerve lesion and on the risk of the corneal damage based on the amount of lagophthalmos, the quality of Bell's phenomenon, the presence or absence of corneal sensitivity and the degree of lid retraction. The main therapy is intensive lubrication. Other treatments include: taping the eyelid overnight, botulinum toxin injection, tarsorrhaphy, eyelid weight implants, scleral contact lenses and palpebral spring. Once the cornea is protected, longer term planning for eyelid and facial rehabilitation may take place. Spontaneous complete recovery of Bell's palsy occurs in up to 70% of cases. Long-term complications include aberrant regeneration with synkinesis. FNP after acoustic neuroma surgery remains the most common indication for FN rehabilitation. PMID:25859138

  2. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  3. Surgical management of cavernous malformation of the optic nerve with canalicular extension

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Vítor M.; Gonçalves, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cavernous malformations arising in a single optic nerves paring the chiasm (intracranial prechiasmatic optic nerve) and expanding into the optic canal are extremely rare lesions. Published series or case reports regarding the surgical removal of these vascular malformations within this specific location are scarce. Case Description: We present the first case to be published, of an intracranial optic nerve cavernous malformation with a contiguous canalicular component that was totally and successfully removed through a microsurgical pterional approach with excellent clinical outcome. Conclusion: This pathology should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of optic neuropathy and visual loss. Early detection and surgical proposal are mandatory, warranting the prevention of permanent damage to visual pathways. Radical resection is challenging, but usually curative and associated with favorable visual outcomes. PMID:25422788

  4. Pharmacology of airway afferent nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Undem, Bradley J; Carr, Michael J

    2001-01-01

    Afferent nerves in the airways serve to regulate breathing pattern, cough, and airway autonomic neural tone. Pharmacologic agents that influence afferent nerve activity can be subclassified into compounds that modulate activity by indirect means (e.g. bronchial smooth muscle spasmogens) and those that act directly on the nerves. Directly acting agents affect afferent nerve activity by interacting with various ion channels and receptors within the membrane of the afferent terminals. Whether by direct or indirect means, most compounds that enter the airspace will modify afferent nerve activity, and through this action alter airway physiology. PMID:11686889

  5. Foreign Body Abscess Mimicking a Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in a Patient With Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Johannes; Hagel, Christian; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Mautner, Victor F; Derlin, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of a 47-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 presenting with a growing and painful lesion within the right thigh, suggesting a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. MRI showed a T2-weighted hyperintense lesion with surrounding edema and contrast enhancement. F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated inhomogeneously increased tracer uptake within the right thigh. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a foreign body with purulent fibroinflammatory reaction. F-FDG PET/CT is a highly sensitive tool for detection of malignant transformation in neurofibromatosis type 1, but false-positive findings may be observed in benign lesions, for example, inflammatory processes. PMID:26018702

  6. Amniotic membrane covering for facial nerve repair?

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Murat; Tuncel, Arzu; Sheidaei, Shahrouz; ?enol, Mehmet Güney; Karabulut, Murat Hakan; Deveci, Ildem; Karaman, Nihan

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic membranes have been widely used in ophthalmology and skin injury repair because of their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured therapeutic efficacy and determined if amniotic membranes could be used for facial nerve repair. The facial nerves of eight rats were dissected and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Amniotic membranes were covered on the anastomosis sites in four rats. Electromyography results showed that, at the end of the 3rd and 8th weeks after amniotic membrane covering, the latency values of the facial nerves covered by amniotic membranes were significantly shortened and the amplitude values were significantly increased. Compared with simple facial nerve anastomosis, after histopathological examination, facial nerve anastomosed with amniotic membrane showed better continuity, milder inflammatory reactions, and more satisfactory nerve conduction. These findings suggest that amniotic membrane covering has great potential in facial nerve repair. PMID:25206390

  7. Revisiting Notch in remyelination of multiple sclerosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, Celia F.; John, Gareth R.

    2008-01-01

    MS results from destruction of the protective myelin sheath surrounding axons, which prevents the transmission of nerve impulses. Precursors of oligodendrocytes, the cells capable of myelinating axons, are preserved in demyelinating lesions; however, why these precursors do not differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes and remyelinate axons is unknown. Contactin is a noncanonical Notch receptor ligand that mediates oligodendrocyte differentiation. In this issue of the JCI, Nakahara et al. show that Contactin is abundantly expressed on demyelinated axons in human chronic MS lesions and that Notch1 is activated in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (see the related article beginning on page 169). However, Notch1 intracellular domain coassociates with the nuclear transporter Importin ? but fails to show evidence of nuclear translocation. These cytoplasmic aggregates also contain TAT-interacting protein 30 kDa (TIP30), a proapoptotic factor, which inhibits nuclear transport and, consequently, Notch1-mediated oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination. These data target TIP30 as a new pathogenic factor in MS. PMID:19104146

  8. [An unusual lesion of the nasopharynx: oncocytic metaplasia].

    PubMed

    Khanchel-Lakhoua, Fatma; Nsiri, Emna; Labbène, Naceur; Koubâa, Wafa; Khayat, Olfa; Ben Gamra, Olfa; El Khedim, Abdelkader; Chadli-Debbiche, Aschraf

    2011-10-01

    Oncocytic metaplasia of the nasopharynx is an exceptional lesion which exact etiopathogenesis, although largely discussed, still remains controversial. The purpose of this paper is to present the epidemiological characteristics and clinical signs of this lesion and to study its pathogenesis and its therapeutic modalities. We report two cases that occurred respectively in a 53- and 60-year-old woman. The first presented with pharyngeal dysesthesia and otalgia. The endoscopic examination revealed an irregularity of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. The second patient presented with tinnitus, discomfort of the left ear and bilateral hearing loss. Endoscopic exam revealed a bilateral structural abnormality to the eardrum. Microscopy showed focal oncocytic metaplasia of the nasopharynx mucosa in both cases. There was a positive outcare for both patients after excisional biopsy. Oncocytic metaplasia seems to be in relation to the stimulation of sympathic neuropeptidergic nerve fibers which target epithelial, connective, endothelial and lymphoid cells. PMID:21982249

  9. Dynamics of axonal regeneration in adult and aging zebrafish reveal the promoting effect of a first lesion

    PubMed Central

    Graciarena, Mariana; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine; Ghysen, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Axonal regeneration is a major issue in the maintenance of adult nervous systems, both after nerve injuries and in neurodegenerative diseases. However, studying this process in vivo is difficult or even impossible in most vertebrates. Here we show that the posterior lateral line (PLL) of zebrafish is a suitable system to study axonal regeneration in vivo because of both the superficial location and reproducible spatial arrangement of neurons and targets, and the possibility of following reinnervation in live fish on a daily basis. Axonal regeneration after nerve cut has been demonstrated in this system during the first few days of life, leading to complete regeneration within 24 h. However, the potential for PLL nerve regeneration has not been tested yet beyond the early larval stage. We explore the regeneration potential and dynamics of the PLL nerve in adult zebrafish and report that regeneration occurs throughout adulthood. We observed that irregularities in the original branching pattern are faithfully reproduced after regeneration, suggesting that regenerating axons follow the path laid down by the original nerve branches. We quantified the extent of target reinnervation after a nerve cut and found that the latency before the nerve regenerates increases with age. This latency is reduced after a second nerve cut at all ages, suggesting that a regeneration-promoting factor induced by the first cut facilitates regeneration on a second cut. We provide evidence that this factor remains present at the site of the first lesion for several days and is intrinsic to the neurons. PMID:24474787

  10. [Chorioretinal lesions in deaf mutes].

    PubMed

    State, A; Mocanu, C

    2000-01-01

    The paper reports a study of 216 patients of special deaf-mute schools from Craiova. The exam of them showed us the presence of retinal degenerative lesions in 17 cases (7.8%). There was not a parallelism between deafness' degree and retinal lesions expanse. In point of clinical aspect, the retinal degenerative lesions were Sjögreen retinal lesions in 6 cases, colloidal Amalric-Bessou retinal lesions in 6 cases. In 2 cases lesions had a pseudoinflammatory aspect and another 2 cases were peripheral lesions like "salt and pepper's". Only one case had pigmentary osteoblastic mobilization. Deafness was associated with oligophrenia in 15 cases, with discreet manifestations of eredoataxia Friedreich in 5 cases, with epilepsy in 2 cases and with nanism in another 2 cases. It is necessary a complex oto-neuro-ophthalmological exploration of patients with deaf-muteness. PMID:11021119

  11. Cranial nerves XIII and XIV: nerves in the shadows

    PubMed Central

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    It has been known for over a century that these cranial nerves exist, and that they are not typographical errors nor a sensational event reported in the medical literature. A number of scientific articles on anatomy highlight how textbooks on descriptive anatomy do not always consider variables such as differences related to the geographical areas where people live, and these differences do exist. This is an important concept not only for surgeons, but also for all medical professionals who use manual techniques when treating their patients, ie, osteopaths, chiropractors, physiotherapists, and other manual therapists. This paper highlights the latest developments regarding these cranial nerves, offering at the same time some ideas for further reflection when looking at clinical scenarios that appear to bear little relationship to each other. Inclusion of these concepts in everyday anamnesis is encouraged. PMID:23516138

  12. Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Synaptogenesis and Hypertrophy of Cortical Cholinergic Terminals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorella Garofalo; Alfredo Ribeiro-da-Silva; A. Claudio Cuello

    1992-01-01

    In this study light and EM quantitative analysis were used to examine whether exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) could affect terminal fields and synaptic connections in the adult rat brain in vivo. Adult rats received, immediately after unilateral decortication, 2.5S NGF (12 mug\\/day) or vehicle intracerebroventricularly for 7 days. Thirty days after the lesion cholinergic fiber length was quantified, using

  13. Lesion mimic mutants

    PubMed Central

    Moeder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade a substantial number of lesion mimic mutants (LMM) have been isolated and a growing number of the genes have been cloned. It is now becoming clear that these mutants are valuable tools to dissect various aspects of programmed cell death (PCD) and pathogen resistance pathways in plants. Together with other forward genetics approaches LMMs shed light on the PCD machinery in plant cells and revealed important roles for sphingolipids, Ca2+ and chloroplast-derived porphyrin-metabolites during cell death development. PMID:19513227

  14. Free vascularized deep peroneal nerve grafts.

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Okumoto, K; Umeda, N; Moriguchi, T; Ishii, R; Nakayama, Y

    1996-04-01

    An ideal donor site for vascularized nerve grafts should have a constant anatomy, minimal functional loss after the nerve has been sacrificed, and a dependable blood supply parallel to the nerve over a relatively long distance. Creating a pedicle for a free vascularized deep peroneal nerve graft with the anterior tibial vessels seems to be a most suitable method for repairing long nerve gaps of over 20 cm and digital nerve defects with severe finger damage. Applications of this nerve graft to digital nerve losses with severely scarred beds created by avulsion injury, and two-stage reconstruction in some partial brachial plexus palsies (free vascularized nerve graft in the first stage and free vascularized muscle graft in the second stage) are well indicated. Advantages of this technique are: (1) A long nerve graft (up to 25 cm) can be obtained, and anomalies are rare (the nerve is absent in only 4 percent of cases). (2) The caliber of the vascular pedicle is large (approximately equal to 3 mm). (3) The nerve has a sufficient blood supply from the collateral blood vessels. (4) The graft can be easily obtained in the supine position. (5) A monitoring skin flap, based on the inferior lateral peroneal artery, can be attached to the nerve graft. (6) Sensory loss resulting from the sacrifice of the nerve covers a minimal area. (7) A donor scar on the anterior aspect of the lower leg is more acceptable than one on the posterior aspect because of less movement in walking. Disadvantages of this technique are: (1) Sacrifice of the large vessels in the lower leg may result in circulatory complications in the donor foot; to avoid this problem, preoperative angiography is recommended. (2) The donor scar is in an exposed area in female patients. (3) There may be temporary postoperative edema and disability in the donor leg. PMID:8726331

  15. Immunohistochemical localizations of class II antigens and nerve fibers in human carious teeth: HLA-DR immunoreactivity in Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshiba, N; Yoshiba, K; Iwaku, M; Ozawa, H

    1998-10-01

    Nerve fibers and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen-expressing dendritic cells have been known to gather in the dental pulp beneath carious lesions. Significant functional interactions presumably occur between the neural and immune elements. The present study analyzed the morphological relationship between class II-expressing cells and nerve fibers in fuman carious teeth, visualized by a HLA-DR monoclonal antibody and a protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) polyclonal antibody; a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and an electron microscope were used. In pulps affected by early caries, HLA-DR-positive dendritic cells aggregated mainly in the cell-free zone associated with bundles of PGP 9.5-immuno-reactive nerve fibers. In pulps affected by advanced caries, the accumulated HLA-DR-positive cells and PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers showed close association with each other especially beneath the odontoblast layer: the cells even embraced the nerve fibers. Intriguingly, class II molecules were recognized not only in dendritic cells but also in the Schwann cells of non-myelinated nerves in the pulp. Using immuno-electron microscopy, class II molecules were localized on the surface of the non-myelinating Schwann cells and also within some vesicles, whereas myelinating Schwann cells lacked this immunoreactivity. PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers were also observed densely in the odontoblast layer, and CLSM revealed an intimate association of the nerve fibers and dendritic cells. The immunoreactivity for HLA-DR in Schwann cells depended upon the severity of the carious lesion. Class II-expressing Schwann cells are suggested to function as antigen-presenting cells in addition to dendritic cells. PMID:9862149

  16. Effects of age on nerve fibers in the rhesus monkey optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Sandell, J H; Peters, A

    2001-01-22

    During normal aging there is a reduction in white matter volume in the cerebral hemispheres and structural abnormalities in myelin in some parts of the central nervous system, but whether nerve fibers are lost with age and whether the myelin changes are ubiquitous is not known. Studying the optic nerve, which is a circumscribed bundle of nerve fibers, offers an opportunity to gain further insight into the effects of normal aging on white matter. The present study examined the optic nerves from young (4-10 years) and old (27-33 years) rhesus monkeys using light and electron microscopy. These nerves had been perfused transcardially to obtain optimal preservation of the tissue. Varying degrees of degeneration were encountered in all the optic nerves from the old monkeys. The changes included myelin abnormalities, similar to those reported in other parts of the central nervous system; the presence of degenerating axons and their sheaths; changes in neuroglial cells; and thickening of the trabeculae of connective tissue in the nerve. The total number of nerve fibers was reduced from an average of 1.6 x 10(6) in the young optic nerves to as few as 4 x 10(5) in one old monkey, and with one exception in all of the old optic nerves the packing density of nerve fibers was less than in any of the young optic nerves. The degenerative changes were most marked in those optic nerves that contained the fewest nerve fibers. PMID:11135234

  17. Solitary paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve: A case report with magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Beyazal, Mehmet; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ünal, Özkan; Çankaya, Hakan; Y?lmaz, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 58 Final Diagnosis: Solitary paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve Symptoms: Neck pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgical resection Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Rare disease Background: Paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors originating in the neural crest. Only a few cases of hypoglossal paraganglioma have been reported in the published literature. The localization of hypoglossal paragangliomas close to the carotid artery precludes determination of tumor origin preoperatively. Case Report: A 58-year-old female patient was admitted due to neck pain. During physical examination, a significant mass could not be palpated in the upper left part of the neck, despite sensitivity during palpation. Atrophy and left deviation of the left half of the tongue was observed. MRI of the neck revealed a lesion located superior to the carotid bifurcation between the left internal carotid artery and external carotid artery. There was atrophy in the left half of the tongue. The neck mass displaced the left internal carotid artery anteriorly and medially. The operation was performed with left lateral cervical access. This lesion, which derived from the hypoglossal nerve, was excised. Following histopathological evaluation, the lesion was diagnosed as paraganglioma. Conclusions: Hypoglossal paraganglioma is quite rare and there are no established criteria for preoperative diagnosis. Hypoglossal paraganglioma must be considered to determine treatment options if a lateral neck mass and ipsilateral tongue atrophy are present at the level of the 12th cranial nerve tract. PMID:24349604

  18. [Bony Bankart lesions].

    PubMed

    Spiegl, U J; Braun, S; Euler, S A; Warth, R J; Millett, P J

    2014-12-01

    Fractures of the anteroinferior glenoid rim, termed bony Bankart lesions, have been reported to occur in up to 22% of first time anterior shoulder dislocations. The primary goal of treatment is to create a stable glenohumeral joint and a good shoulder function. Options for therapeutic intervention are largely dependent on the chronicity of the lesion, the activity level of the patient and postreduction fracture characteristics, such as the size, location and number of fracture fragments. Non-operative treatment can be successful for small, acute fractures, which are anatomically reduced after shoulder reduction. However, in patients with a high risk profile for recurrent instability initial Bankart repair is recommended. Additionally, bony fixation is recommended for acute fractures that involve more than 15-20% of the inferior glenoid diameter. On the other hand chronic fractures are generally managed on a case-by-case basis depending on the amount of fragment resorption and bony erosion of the anterior glenoid with high recurrence rates under conservative therapy. When significant bone loss of the anterior glenoid is present, anatomical (e.g. iliac crest bone graft and osteoarticular allograft) or non-anatomical (e.g. Latarjet and Bristow) reconstruction of the anterior glenoid is often indicated. PMID:25492582

  19. Optogenetic control of nerve growth

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongjun; Koppes, Ryan A.; Froriep, Ulrich P.; Jia, Xiaoting; Achyuta, Anil Kumar H.; McLaughlin, Bryan L.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Due to the limited regenerative ability of neural tissue, a diverse set of biochemical and biophysical cues for increasing nerve growth has been investigated, including neurotrophic factors, topography, and electrical stimulation. In this report, we explore optogenetic control of neurite growth as a cell-specific alternative to electrical stimulation. By investigating a broad range of optical stimulation parameters on dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) expressing channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2), we identified conditions that enhance neurite outgrowth by three-fold as compared to unstimulated or wild-type (WT) controls. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of ChR2 expressing DRGs induces directional outgrowth in WT DRGs co-cultured within a 10?mm vicinity of the optically sensitive ganglia. This observed enhancement and polarization of neurite growth was accompanied by an increased expression of neural growth and brain derived neurotrophic factors (NGF, BDNF). This work highlights the potential for implementing optogenetics to drive nerve growth in specific cell populations. PMID:25982506

  20. Mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Scollard, David M; Truman, Richard W; Ebenezer, Gigi J

    2015-01-01

    All patients with leprosy have some degree of nerve involvement. Perineural inflammation is the histopathologic hallmark of leprosy, and this localization may reflect a vascular route of entry of Mycobacterium leprae into nerves. Once inside nerves, M. leprae are ingested by Schwann cells, with a wide array of consequences. Axonal atrophy may occur early in this process; ultimately, affected nerves undergo segmental demyelination. Knowledge of the mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy has been greatly limited by the minimal opportunities to study affected nerves in man. The nine-banded armadillo provides the only animal model of the pathogenesis of M. leprae infection. New tools available for this model enable the study and correlation of events occurring in epidermal nerve fibers, dermal nerves, and nerve trunks, including neurophysiologic parameters, bacterial load, and changes in gene transcription in both neural and inflammatory cells. The armadillo model is likely to enhance understanding of the mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy and offers a means of testing proposed interventions. PMID:25432810

  1. Midterm results of arthroscopic treatment of scapholunate ligament lesions associated with intra-articular distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Peicha, G; Seibert, F; Fellinger, M; Grechenig, W

    1999-01-01

    Since 1993, we have treated 30 patients with acute intra-articular distal radius fractures using arthroscopic assistance. Concomitant lesions of the intrinsic scapholunate (SL) ligaments were diagnosed in 12 patients (40%). Using the grading system of Geissler et al. [13], the identified lesions included a single grade I tear, three grade II, six grade III, and two grade IV. The grade III and IV lesions were accompanied by intraoperative findings of marked instability. Therefore operative stabilization was performed by temporary scapholunate and scaphocapitate arthrodesis. Seven patients in this group (87.5%) were followed up clinically and radiologically for an average of 3 years postoperatively. Clinical examination included range of motion and a subjective questionnaire concerning pain and ability to work. Objective grip strength was measured using a Jamar-tester and compared to the contralateral wrist. Radiological evaluation consisted of posteroanterior and lateral views and of stress views in radial and ulnar deviation. Data were evaluated by the scoring systems of Jakim et al. [21], Cooney et al. [5] and by the demerit point system of Gartland and Werley [12], as modified by Sarmiento et al. [36]. An excellent result was present in 100% of our patients by the Gartland and Werley system, in 86% by that of Jakim et al., and in 60% by that of Cooney et al. Based on a subjective questionnaire, all of the patients had an excellent or good result. PMID:10525704

  2. Ancient schwannoma arising from mental nerve. A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Subhashraj, Krishnaraj; Balanand, Subramanian; Pajaniammalle, Subhashraj

    2009-01-01

    Schwannoma is an intraoral rare, benign neoplasm derived from the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. "Ancient schwannoma" shows histopathological features, such as degenerative changes and atypical nuclei, and may easily be confused with malignant neoplasms. Ancient schwannoma of the head and neck region is relatively uncommon and very few cases had been reported in the oral cavity. We present a case of ancient schwannoma arising from the mental nerve in a 19 year old male which was of eight months duration. Examination revealed a 30 x 25 mm firm, strawberry-like mass in the periapical region of the left lower first premolar, extending anteriorly to the canine and posteriorly to the first molar, obliterating the buccal vestibule, with an intact overlying mucosa. Ultrasonography showed that the tumor was closely associated with the mental nerve on the left side, suggestive of a peripheral neural sheath tumor. Complete excision of the lesion was done under local anesthesia, preserving the mental nerve. The histological picture was strongly suggestive of ancient schwannoma (Antoni A type). There was no evidence of recurrence 18 months after excision. The clinicopathological aspects of this special case are discussed, and the literature regarding this entity is reviewed. PMID:19114949

  3. Use of high-resolution ultrasound in evaluation of the forefoot to differentiate forefoot nerve entrapments.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Brian R; Barrett, Stephen L

    2005-01-01

    Forefoot pain can have single or multiple etiologies, and frequently pain is attributed solely to a forefoot nerve entrapment. It is well known that forefoot nerve entrapments, such as Morton's, can be falsely assumed to be the cause of forefoot pain when in fact other factors, such as plantar plate disturbances, are the true cause. Frequently, the cause of the patient's forefoot pain starts as a forefoot nerve entrapment, but then, as a result of treatment with a corticosteroid injection, other pathologies manifest, such as plantar plate rupture. The development of high-resolution, high-frequency ultrasound scanners has opened the door to in-depth examination of peripheral nerves as well as small pericapsular and intracapsular joint structures of the foot and ankle. In the hands of an experienced clinician, ultrasound can play an important role in differentiating nerve lesions and entrapment syndromes from nonneurogenic pain generators, such as tendons, ligaments, fasciae, and joint capsules. The focus of this article is the forefoot, where differentiation of neuroma, neuritis, and capsulitis can be difficult. PMID:16166458

  4. Interest of Electrostimulation of Peripheral Motor Nerves during Percutaneous Thermal Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin_ramamurthy@hotmail.com; Buy, Xavier, E-mail: xbuy@ymail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [University Hospital of Strasbourg (France)] [University Hospital of Strasbourg (France)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We present our experience of utilizing peripheral nerve electrostimulation as a complementary monitoring technique during percutaneous thermal ablation procedures; and we highlight its utility and feasibility in the prevention of iatrogenic neurologic thermal injury. Methods: Peripheral motor nerve electrostimulation was performed in 12 patients undergoing percutaneous image-guided thermal ablations of spinal/pelvic lesions in close proximity to the spinal cord and nerve roots. Electrostimulation was used in addition to existing insulation (active warming/cooling with hydrodissection, passive insulation with CO{sub 2} insufflation) and temperature monitoring (thermocouples) techniques. Impending neurologic deficit was defined as a visual reduction of muscle response or need for a stronger electric current to evoke muscle contraction, compared with baseline. Results: Significant reduction of the muscle response to electrostimulation was observed in three patients during the ablation, necessitating temporary interruption, followed by injection of warm/cool saline. This resulted in complete recovery of the muscle response in two cases, while for the third patient the response did not improve and the procedure was terminated. No patient experienced postoperative motor deficit. Conclusion: Peripheral motor nerve electrostimulation is a simple, easily accessible technique allowing early detection of impending neurologic injury during percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation. It complements existing monitoring techniques and provides a functional assessment along the whole length of the nerve.

  5. Quantification of histological changes after calibrated crush of the intraorbital optic nerve in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Schimming, Ronald; Zerfowski, Martin; Eysel, Ulf Theodor

    2002-01-01

    Background: Traumatic optic nerve lesions (TONL) are probable but unpredictable consequence after severe midface or skull base trauma. Based on a previously described rat model, the authors developed a new model in order to simulate optic nerve crush during trauma on the optic canal. Methods: To achieve a calibrated TONL, a microinjuring device was designed that made it possible to assess the correlation between a defined trauma and the neuronal degeneration in the rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer. This device is based on a small dynamometer mounted onto a conventional micromanipulator. The supraorbital approach was chosen to expose the extracranial optic nerve. Results: In this rat model (n=100, Wistar strain) the parameters of “force” and “time” could be precisely monitored during the experiment. The decrease in the mean number of retinal neurons (N) according to the pressure exerted (2–30 cN•mm?2) on the optic nerve was linear for 1, 6, and 15 minutes of injuring time; the decrease in N for varying injuring forces also appears to be nearly linear. Conclusion: The results show that this model provides a reliable method for studying quantitatively the anatomical effects of TONL on the RGC layer and the optic nerve itself, and may allow the design of treatment strategies following TONL. PMID:11815353

  6. Use of nerve elongator to repair short-distance peripheral nerve defects: a prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Tian-bing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Wei-wen; Xu, Ji-hai; Cai, Xiao-ming; Zhou, Dan-ya; Cai, Li-bing; Pan, Jia-dong; Tian, Min-tao; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Dian-ying; Fu, Zhong-guo; Zhang, Pei-xun; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    Repair techniques for short-distance peripheral nerve defects, including adjacent joint flexion to reduce the distance between the nerve stump defects, “nerve splint” suturing, and nerve sleeve connection, have some disadvantages. Therefore, we designed a repair technique involving intraoperative tension-free application of a nerve elongator and obtained good outcomes in the repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects in a previous animal study. The present study compared the clinical outcomes between the use of this nerve elongator and performance of the conventional method in the repair of short-distance transection injuries in human elbows. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative follow-up results demonstrated that early neurological function recovery was better in the nerve elongation group than in the conventional group, but no significant difference in long-term neurological function recovery was detected between the two groups. In the nerve elongation group, the nerves were sutured without tension, and the duration of postoperative immobilization of the elbow was decreased. Elbow function rehabilitation was significantly better in the nerve elongation group than in the control group. Moreover, there were no security risks. The results of this study confirm that the use of this nerve elongator for repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects is safe and effective. PMID:25788924

  7. Sciatic nerve regeneration using a nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shengzhong; Peng, Changliang; Wu, Shiqing; Wu, Dongjin; Gao, Chunzheng

    2013-01-01

    Our previous findings confirmed that the nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane provides a good microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays an important role in the regulation of peripheral nerve regeneration. We hypothesized that a nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane can promote neural regeneration by up-regulating p75NTR expression. In this study, we used a silicon nerve conduit to bridge a 15 mm-long sciatic nerve defect and injected a mixture of nerve growth factor and fibrin glue at the anastomotic site of the nerve conduit and the sciatic nerve. Through RT-PCR and western blot analysis, nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane significantly increased p75NTR mRNA and protein expression in the Schwann cells at the anastomotic site, in particular at 8 weeks after injection of the nerve growth factor/fibrin glue mixture. These results indicate that nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane can promote peripheral nerve regeneration by up-regulating p75NTR expression in Schwann cells. PMID:25206664

  8. Nanofibrous nerve conduits for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Pouya, Majid; Rad, Hadi; Nava, Melody Omrani; Azarbakhsh, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects needs to be assessed. In this study, we used a nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit to bridge a 30-mm-long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 months after nerve conduit implantation, regenerated nerves were cally observed and histologically assessed. In the nanofibrous graft, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed by restoration of nerve continuity and formation of myelinated nerve fiber. There were Schwann cells and glial cells in the regenerated nerves. Masson's trichrome staining showed that there were no pathological changes in the size and structure of gastrocnemius muscle cells on the operated side of rats. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit is suitable for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25206536

  9. Enhancement of median nerve regeneration by mesenchymal stem cells engraftment in an absorbable conduit: improvement of peripheral nerve morphology with enlargement of somatosensory cortical representation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julia T.; Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben Ernesto; de Almeida, Fernanda M.; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Martinez, Ana Maria B.; Franca, João G.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the morphology and the cortical representation of the median nerve (MN), 10 weeks after a transection immediately followed by treatment with tubulization using a polycaprolactone (PCL) conduit with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplant. In order to characterize the cutaneous representation of MN inputs in primary somatosensory cortex (S1), electrophysiological cortical mapping of the somatosensory representation of the forepaw and adjacent body parts was performed after acute lesion of all brachial plexus nerves, except for the MN. This was performed in ten adult male Wistar rats randomly assigned in three groups: MN Intact (n = 4), PCL-Only (n = 3), and PCL+MSC (n = 3). Ten weeks before mapping procedures in animals from PCL-Only and PCL+MSC groups, animal were subjected to MN transection with removal of a 4-mm-long segment, immediately followed by suturing a PCL conduit to the nerve stumps with (PCL+MSC group) or without (PCL-Only group) injection of MSC into the conduit. After mapping the representation of the MN in S1, animals had a segment of the regenerated nerve processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. For histomorphometric analysis of the nerve segment, sample size was increased to five animals per experimental group. The PCL+MSC group presented a higher number of myelinated fibers and a larger cortical representation of MN inputs in S1 (3,383 ± 390 fibers; 2.3 mm2, respectively) than the PCL-Only group (2,226 ± 575 fibers; 1.6 mm2). In conclusion, MSC-based therapy associated with PCL conduits can improve MN regeneration. This treatment seems to rescue the nerve representation in S1, thus minimizing the stabilization of new representations of adjacent body parts in regions previously responsive to the MN. PMID:25360086

  10. Techniques for Precancerous Lesion Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Sarah Freygang; de Oliveira Ramos, Grasieli; Rivero, Elena Riet Correa; Modolo, Filipe; Grando, Liliane Janete; Meurer, Maria Inês

    2011-01-01

    The development of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a multistep process that requires the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations usually preceded by detectable mucosal changes, most often leukoplakias and erythroplakias. The clinical appearance of oral precancerous lesions and their degree of epithelium dysplasia suggests the malignization potential. Several techniques have been developed to improve the clinical and cytological diagnosis of oral precancerous lesions. The present paper reviews the main techniques used to improve premalignant lesion diagnosis. PMID:21318165

  11. [Serious jaw osteolytic lesions].

    PubMed

    Junquera, L; Corbacelli, A; Ascani, G; Iacomino, E

    2003-01-01

    Among oral and maxillofacial diseases, the maxillary osteolytic lesions constitute a rich and investigated field to define the more appropriate diagnosis and treatment. In the maxillary region, the same tumors of the other bones (osteogenic sarcoma, chondroma, etc.) cause found together with tumors and dysembryoplasias connected with the teeth development (ameloblastoma, odontoma, odontogenic myxoma, etc.). Moreover in the medullary spaces of the bones, there are reticular and hematopoietic cells that are connected with different diseases (leucemia, myeloma, lymphoma, etc.). What's more, due to the possible presence of pseudotumors (fibrous dysplasia, giant cell tumor, etc.) and metastases of tumors of other regions (breast, lung, prostate gland, etc.), the diagnosis of this disease could be difficult. In this paper the more important pictures of this disease, that due to its recurrence or malignity needs an accurate diagnosis by imaging like CT, CT-3D, MR, etc, are analyzed. The more suitable surgical approach is presented, according to the forms of the disease. PMID:12686916

  12. Posterior approach for both spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve and triceps branch to axillary nerve for upper plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, P S; Deb, Prabal

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of stability and movements at the shoulder joint are the 2 most important goals in the management of brachial plexus injuries. The 2 nerves that are preferentially targeted for this purpose are the suprascapular (SSN) and the axillary (AXN) nerves. These nerve transfers have conventionally been performed by the anterior approach, but recently transfers performed by posterior incisions have been gaining popularity, by virtue of being selective and located close to the target muscles. Herein, we describe the technical details of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) to SSN and triceps branch to AXN for upper plexus injuries, both performed by the posterior approach. PMID:23261196

  13. Saphenous nerve innervation of the medial ankle

    PubMed Central

    Clendenen, Steven R; Whalen, Joseph L

    2013-01-01

    Background The distal saphenous nerve is commonly known to provide cutaneous innervation of the medial side of the ankle and distally to the base of the great toe. We hypothesize that the saphenous nerve innervates the periosteum of the medial malleolus and joint capsule. Methods Five fresh limbs were dissected and the saphenous nerve was traced distally with magnification. The medial malleolus, talus, and soft tissue were fixed in formaldehyde, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histologic slides were then prepared using S100 antibody nerve stains. Results Histologic slides were examined and myelinated nerves could be observed within the medial capsule and periosteum in all the specimens. Conclusion We have demonstrated that the saphenous nerve innervates the periosteum of the medial malleolus and joint capsule. PMID:23630434

  14. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers. PMID:23766904

  15. The Effects of Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) on Nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Qingyu Fan; Zhenwei Ji; Xiuchun Qiu; Zhao Li; Ilya Ulasov

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIf a critical nerve is circumferentially involved with tumor, radical surgery intended to cure the cancer must sacrifice the nerve. Loss of critical nerves may lead to serious consequences. In spite of the impressive technical advancements in nerve reconstruction, complete recovery and normalization of nerve function is difficult to achieve. Though irreversible electroporation (IRE) might be a promising choice to

  16. Meralgia paresthetica-like syndrome may be caused by transient lumbar nerve root injury without definite compression: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dharmasaroja, Pornpatr; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2010-12-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is a well-known sensory syndrome describing paresthesia and/or anesthesia in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh that is supplied by the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Compression of the nerve usually occurs at the point where it passes between the anterior superior iliac spine and the inguinal ligament. Proximal lesions such as lumbar radiculopathy, lumbar disc herniation, and spinal stenosis have been reported to cause meralgia paresthetica-like syndrome. These proximal lesions directly injure L2 and L3 spinal nerve roots and cause a constant compression of the nerve roots. The presented paper introduces a hypothesis that this syndrome can be caused by transient injury to the L2 and L3 nerve roots by the upper adjacent disc bulge without definite compression. This hypothesis is supported by lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging of a patient presenting with a meralgia paresthetica-like symptom during bending forward and twisting of the body, showing no L2/L3 herniated disc but mildly posterior bulging of T12/L1 disc. This hypothesis emphasizes an importance of appropriate postures in patients with meralgia paresthetica-like symptoms in order to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:21294431

  17. Renal tubular acidosis and nerve deafness.

    PubMed Central

    Dunger, D B; Brenton, D P; Cain, A R

    1980-01-01

    Two brothers are described with renal tubular acidosis and nerve deafness: the elder also had rickets and hypokalaemia. The parents were unaffected. Studies of urinary acidification and bicarbonate excretion were consistent with a distal tubular abnormality. This report strengthens the view previously proposed in similar cases that nerve deafness and renal tubular acidosis constitute a genetic entity. Examination for nerve deafness is indicated in any child with renal tubular acidosis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7387165

  18. Nerve Conduction Studies in Multiple System Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Abele; Jörg B. Schulz; Katrin Bürk; Helge Topka; Johannes Dichgans; Thomas Klockgether

    2000-01-01

    To study the frequency and severity of peripheral neuropathy in multiple system atrophy (MSA), we performed nerve conduction studies in 42 MSA patients suffering from either cerebellar MSA (MSA-C) or parkinsonian MSA (MSA-P). Abnormal nerve conduction was present in 24% of the patients. Abnormalities were significantly more frequent in MSA-P (43%) compared to MSA-C (14%). Motor nerve conduction velocities were

  19. Bladder reinnervation using a primarily motor donor nerve (femoral nerve branches) is functionally superior to using a primarily sensory donor nerve (genitofemoral nerve)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; Brown, Justin M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Braverman, Alan S.; Massicotte, Vicky S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether transfer of a primarily motor nerve (Femoral, F) to the anterior vesicle branch of the pelvic nerve (PN) allows more effective bladder reinnervation than a primarily sensory nerve (genitofemoral, GF). Methods Forty-one female mongrel hounds underwent bladder decentralization, decentralization and then bilateral nerve transfer (GFNT and FNT) or were sham/unoperated controls. Decentralization was achieved by bilateral transection of all sacral roots that induce bladder contractions upon electrical stimulation. The retrograde neuronal labeling dye fluorogold was injected into the bladder 3 weeks prior to euthanasia. Results Increased detrusor pressure after direct stimulation of the transferred nerve, lumbar spinal cord or spinal roots was observed in 12/17 GFNT dogs (mean detrusor pressure = 7.6±1.4 cmH2O) and in 9/10 FNT-V dogs (mean detrusor pressure = 11.7±3.1 cm H2O). The mean detrusor pressures after direct electrical stimulation of transferred femoral nerves were statistically significantly greater than after stimulation of the transferred genitofemoral nerves. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the bladder observed in upper lumbar cord segments after GFNT and FNT confirmed bladder reinnervation as did labeled axons at the nerve transfer site. Conclusions While transfer of either a mixed sensory and motor nerve (GFN) or a primarily motor nerve (FN) can reinnervate the bladder, using a primarily motor nerve provides greater return of nerve-evoked detrusor contraction. This surgical approach may be useful for patients with lower motor spinal cord injury to accomplish bladder emptying. PMID:25066874

  20. Hyperalgesic actions of cytokines on peripheral nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Myers; Rochelle Wagner; Linda S. Sorkin

    \\u000a The relationship between nerve injury and pain is pervasive in medicine, being both a simple, common experience and an important\\u000a diagnostic tool. Acute trauma to a nerve is almost always painful and has been experienced by many people in association with\\u000a sports and workplace activities. In these cases, injuries occur usually because of nerve stretching or compression, damaging\\u000a sensory axons

  1. Nerve Signal Processing using Artificial Neural Nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Bogdan; Alexei Babanine; Jörg Kaniecki; Wolfgang Rosenstiel

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we review the aim of the INTER1-project (Intelligent Neural InTERface), especiallyfrom the point of view of Artificial Neural Nets (ANN). We also propose a modus operandi to processreal nerve signals using ANN. We present a method to simulate nerve signals, first experience inseparating nerve signals from multi-array recorded data as well as first experiences using an artificialneural

  2. Staphylococcus aureus infection of the optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Osmanovic, Senad; Al-Heeti, Omar M; Lin, Amy Y; Zivin, Sean P; Justo, Julie Ann; Mayer, Stockton M; Aakalu, Vinay K; Moss, Heather E; Patel, Mahesh C

    2015-03-01

    A 71-year-old woman presented with painful vision loss in the right eye followed by ophthalmoplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated optic nerve sheath enlargement and enhancement. Biopsy of the optic nerve sheath revealed purulent and necrotic material that was positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The patient underwent enucleation of the right eye and was treated with systemic antibiotics with clinical stabilization. Imaging, pathological and treatment aspects of optic nerve sheath abscess are discussed. PMID:25383588

  3. Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} (PLGL) was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide) and nerve growth factor (NGF) for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair. PMID:22776032

  4. Sciatic nerve repair by acellular nerve xenografts implanted with BMSCs in rats xenograft combined with BMSCs.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hua; Wang, Ying; Tong, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Gui-Bo; Li, Qi; Zhang, Li-Xin; Sun, Xiao-Hong

    2012-03-01

    Acellular nerves possess the structural and biochemical features similar to those of naive endoneurial tubes, and have been proved bioactive for allogeneil graft in nerve tissue engineering. However, the source of allogenic donators is restricted in clinical treatment. To explore sufficient substitutes for acellular nerve allografts (ANA), we investigated the effectiveness of acellular nerve xenografts (ANX) combined with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on repairing peripheral nerve injuries. The acellular nerves derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand rabbits were prepared, respectively, and BMSCs were implanted into the nerve scaffolds and cultured in vitro. All the grafts were employed to bridge 1 cm rat sciatic nerve gaps. Fifty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10 per group): ANA group, ANX group, BMSCs-laden ANA group, BMSCs-laden ANX group, and autologous nerve graft group. At 8 weeks post-transplantation, electrophysiological study was performed and the regenerated nerves were assayed morphologically. Besides, growth-promoting factors in the regenerated tissues following the BMSCs integration were detected. The results indicated that compared with the acellular nerve control groups, nerve regeneration and functional rehabilitation for the xenogenic nerve transplantation integrated with BMSCs were advanced significantly, and the rehabilitation efficacy was comparable with that of the autografting. The expression of neurotrophic factors in the regenerated nerves, together with that of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the spinal cord and muscles were elevated largely. In conclusion, ANX implanted with BMSCs could replace allografts to promote nerve regeneration effectively, which offers a reliable approach for repairing peripheral nerve defects. PMID:22127791

  5. Raman microspectroscopy for visualization of peripheral nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Koizumi, Noriaki; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2013-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery is essential for improving quality of life of patients. To preserve peripheral nerves, detection of ne peripheral nerves that cannot be identi ed by human eye or under white light imaging is necessary. In this study, we sought to provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues that employs spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy. A line-illumination confocal Raman microscope was used for the experiment. A laser operating at the wavelength of 532 nm was used as an excitation laser light. We obtained Raman spectra of peripheral nerve, brous connective tissue, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, and adipose tissue of Wistar rats, and extracted speci c spectral features of peripheral nerves and adjacent tissues. By applying multivariate image analysis, peripheral nerves were clearly detected against adjacent tissues without any preprocessing neither xation nor staining. These results suggest the potential of the Raman spectroscopic observation for noninvasive and label-free nerve detection, and we expect this method could be a key technique for nerve-sparing surgery.

  6. Tissue engineered constructs for peripheral nerve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P. J.; Wood, M. D.; Moore, A. M.; Mackinnon, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Tissue engineering has been defined as “an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ”. Traumatic peripheral nerve injury resulting in significant tissue loss at the zone of injury necessitates the need for a bridge or scaffold for regenerating axons from the proximal stump to reach the distal stump. Methods A review of the literature was used to provide information on the components necessary for the development of a tissue engineered peripheral nerve substitute. Then, a comprehensive review of the literature is presented composed of the studies devoted to this goal. Results Extensive research has been directed toward the development of a tissue engineered peripheral nerve substitute to act as a bridge for regenerating axons from the proximal nerve stump seeking the distal nerve. Ideally this nerve substitute would consist of a scaffold component that mimics the extracellular matrix of the peripheral nerve and a cellular component that serves to stimulate and support regenerating peripheral nerve axons. Conclusions The field of tissue engineering should consider its challenge to not only meet the autograft “gold standard” but also to understand what drives and inhibits nerve regeneration in order to surpass the results of an autograft. PMID:24385980

  7. Remote acute demyelination after focal proton radiation therapy for optic nerve meningioma.

    PubMed

    Redjal, Navid; Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Dietrich, Jorg; Dinevski, Nikolaj; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Nahed, Brian V; Loeffler, Jay S

    2015-08-01

    We present a unique patient with delayed onset, acute demyelination that occurred distant to the effective field of radiation after proton beam radiotherapy for an optic nerve sheath meningioma. The use of stereotactic radiotherapy as an effective treatment modality for some brain tumors is increasing, given technological advances which allow for improved targeting precision. Proton beam radiotherapy improves the precision further by reducing unnecessary radiation to surrounding tissues. A 42-year-old woman was diagnosed with an optic nerve sheath meningioma after initially presenting with vision loss. After biopsy of the lesion to establish diagnosis, the patient underwent stereotactic proton beam radiotherapy to a small area localized to the tumor. Subsequently, the patient developed a large enhancing mass-like lesion with edema in a region outside of the effective radiation field in the ipsilateral frontal lobe. Given imaging features suggestive of possible primary malignant brain tumor, biopsy of this new lesion was performed and revealed an acute demyelinating process. This patient illustrates the importance of considering delayed onset acute demyelination in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions in patients previously treated with radiation. PMID:25937571

  8. Motor Nerve Transfers to Restore Extrinsic Median Nerve Function: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Eugene C.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Active pronation is important for many activities of daily living. Loss of median nerve function including pronation is a rare sequela of humerus fracture. Tendon transfers to restore pronation are reserved for the obstetrical brachial plexus palsy patient. Transfer of expendable motor nerves is a treatment modality that can be used to restore active pronation. Nerve transfers are advantageous in that they do not require prolonged immobilization postoperatively, avoid operating within the zone of injury, reinnervate muscles in their native location prior to degeneration of the motor end plates, and result in minimal donor deficit. We report a case of lost median nerve function after a humerus fracture. Pronation was restored with transfer of the extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of the radial nerve to the pronator teres branch of the median nerve. Anterior interosseous nerve function was restored with transfer of the supinator branch to the anterior interosseous nerve. Clinically evident motor function was seen at 4 months postoperatively and continued to improve for the following 18 months. The patient has 4+/5 pronator teres, 4+/5 flexor pollicis longus, and 4?/5 index finger flexor digitorum profundus function. The transfer of the extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of the radial nerve to the pronator teres and supinator branch of the radial nerve to the anterior interosseous nerve is a novel, previously unreported method to restore extrinsic median nerve function. PMID:18807095

  9. A Histopathologic and Morphometric Differentiation of Nerves in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein G. Saadati; Hugo Y. Hsu; Keith B. Heller; Alfredo A. Sadun

    Objectives: To characterize and quantitate optic nerve histopathologic and morphometric differences between optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) as an early and congeni- tal form of intrinsic axonal loss and Leber hereditary op- tic neuropathy (LHON) as a late and acquired form of intrinsic axonal loss. Materials and Methods: Optic nerves from 3 sources were examined: a 42-year-old healthy woman (control), a

  10. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk: A 3D Tutorial of Cranial Nerves in a Virtual Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways…

  11. The Effects of Repetitive Compression on Nerve Conduction and Blood Flow in the Rabbit Sciatic Nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yoshii; Y. Nishiura; N. Terui; Y. Hara; Saijilafu; Naoyuki Ochiai

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of repetitive compression on nerve physiology in an experimental rabbit model. We defined 80 mmHg as a compression force which caused temporary disturbance of nerve conduction and blood flow with a brief compression. The following compressions were applied for 30 minutes to rabbit sciatic nerves: continuous compression, low frequency release

  12. Effects of graded mechanical compression of rabbit sciatic nerve on nerve blood flow and electrophysiological properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takafumi Yayama; Shigeru Kobayashi; Yoshitaka Nakanishi; Kenzo Uchida; Yasuo Kokubo; Tsuyoshi Miyazaki; Kenichi Takeno; Kosuke Awara; Erisa S. Mwaka; Yukihide Iwamoto; Hisatoshi Baba

    2010-01-01

    Entrapment neuropathy is a frequent clinical problem that can be caused by, among other factors, mechanical compression; however, exactly how a compressive force affects the peripheral nerves remains poorly understood. In this study, using a rabbit model of sciatic nerve injury (n=12), we evaluated the time-course of changes in intraneural blood flow, compound nerve action potentials, and functioning of the

  13. Cranial Nerves any nerve that emanates from the skull Motor = efferent

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    Cranial Nerves ­ any nerve that emanates from the skull Motor = efferent somatomotor ­ to skeletal, vision, gustation, hearing, equilibrium Cranial nerves - functions nI ­ olfactory, SS nII ­ optic, SS n gustation, somatosensory nX ­ vagus, somatomotor to larynx, ANS parasympathetic throughout body nXI ­ spinal

  14. Exposure of the sciatic nerve in the gluteal region without sectioning the gluteus maximus: Analysis of a series of 18 cases

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Masi, Gilda Di

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dissecting through the gluteus maximus muscle by splitting its fibers, instead of complete sectioning of the muscle, is faster, involves less damage to tissues, and diminishes recovery time. The objective of the current paper is to present a clinical series of sciatic nerve lesions where the nerve was sufficiently exposed via the transgluteal approach. Methods: We retrospectively selected 18 traumatic sciatic nerve lesions within the buttock, operated upon from January 2005 to December 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. In all patients, a transgluteal approach was employed to explore and reconstruct the nerve. Results: Ten males and eight females, with a mean age of 39.7 years, were studied. The etiology of the nerve lesion was previous hip surgery (n = 7), stab wound (n = 4), gunshot wound (n = 3), injection (n = 3), and hip dislocation (n = 1). In 15 (83.3%) cases, a motor deficit was present; in 12 (66.6%) cases neuropathic pain and in 12 (66.6%) cases sensory alterations were present. In all cases, the transgluteal approach was adequate to expose the injury and treat it by neurolysis alone (10 cases), neurolysis and neurorrhaphy (4 cases), and reconstruction with grafts (4 cases; three of these paired with neurolysis). The mean pre- and postoperative grades for the tibial nerve (LSUHSC scale) were 1.6 and 3.6, respectively; meanwhile, for the peroneal division, preoperative grade was 1.2 and postoperative grade was 2.4. Conclusions: The transgluteal approach adequately exposes sciatic nerve injuries of traumatic origin in the buttock and allows for adequate nerve reconstruction without sectioning the gluteus maximus muscle. PMID:22439106

  15. Cervical neoplasia originating from the vagus nerve in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, C; Hartmann, K; Fischer, A; Hirschberger, J; Hafner, A; Schmidt, P

    2000-03-01

    An eight-year-old intact male Bernese mountain dog was referred with a history of chronic vomiting, coughing and signs of respiratory distress. Other historical findings included lethargy, weight loss and choking. On presentation, clinical findings were Horner's syndrome, ipsilateral laryngeal hemiplegia, coughing, gagging, respiratory distress and vomiting. Lateral cervical radiographs showed ill-defined mineralisation in the soft tissue ventral to the third cervical vertebra, while ultrasonography of the neck revealed a well marginated heterogeneous mass with focal hyperechogenic lesions and acoustic shadowing. Results of an ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate suggested neoplasia. At necropsy, a large tumour was detected in the ventral cervical region, originating from the right vagosympathetic trunk. In view of the infiltrating pattern, the cellular pleomorphism and the numerous mitoses on histopathological examination, the tumour was classified as a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. PMID:10759381

  16. Corticial lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kidd; F. Barkhof; R. McConnell; P. R. Algra; I. V. Allen; T. Revesz

    1999-01-01

    Summary Although previous studies have shown that the lesions of multiple sclerosis may involve the cerebral cortex, there is little published research on the prevalence and distribution of such lesions. Using neuropathological techniques and MRI, a series of studies has been undertaken in order to assess this, in particular to identify their relationship to cortical veins. A serial MRI study

  17. NGF-mediated synaptic sprouting in the cerebral cortex of lesioned primate brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Burgos; Paolo Liberini; Eric Pioro; Eliezer Masliah

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, coronal brain sections of cortically devascularized non-human primates (Cercopithecus aethiops) were used to assess the lesion-associated synaptic loss, and the effect of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) in preventing or reversing this neurodegeneration. The sections were immunolabeled with antibodies against the synaptic marker protein synaptophysin (SYN), as well as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) markers

  18. En bloc petrosectomy using a Gigli saw for petroclival lesions. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Taniguchi, M; Suzuki, I; Kirino, T

    1995-09-01

    The authors report a new technique for en bloc petrosectomy using a Gigli saw as an alternative to drilling the petrous bone in the combined supra- and infratentorial approach or the transpetrosal-transtentorial approach. It is simple and easy and avoids postoperative cosmetic deformity. This technique has been performed in 11 petroclival lesions without injuring the semicircular canals, the cochlea, or the facial nerve. PMID:7666237

  19. Vagal nerve stimulator: Evolving trends.

    PubMed

    Ogbonnaya, Sunny; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Over three decades ago, it was found that intermittent electrical stimulation from the vagus nerve produces inhibition of neural processes, which can alter brain activity and terminate seizures. This paved way for the concept of vagal nerve stimulator (VNS). We describe the evolution of the VNS and its use in different fields of medicine. We also review the literature focusing on the mechanism of action of VNS producing desired effects in different conditions. PUBMED and EMBASE search was performed for 'VNS' and its use in refractory seizure management, depression, obesity, memory, and neurogenesis. VNS has been in vogue over for the past three decades and has proven to reduce the intensity and frequency of seizure by 50% in the management of refractory seizures. Apart from this, VNS has been shown to promote neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus after 48 hours of stimulation of the vagus nerve. Improvement has also been observed in non-psychotic major depression from a randomized trial conducted 7 years ago. The same concept has been utilized to alter behavior and cognition in rodents, and good improvement has been observed. Recent studies have proven that VNS is effective in obesity management in patients with depression. Several hypotheses have been postulated for the mechanism of action of VNS contributing to its success. VNS has gained significant popularity with promising results in epilepsy surgery and treatment-resistant depression. The spectrum of its use has also extended to other fields of medicine including obesity, memory, and neurogenesis, and there is still a viable scope for its utility in the future. PMID:23633829

  20. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving multiple nerves.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Sharma, Rambaksh; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara B

    2012-03-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL), a rare congenital disorder, is considered by some to be a localized form of Proteus syndrome. The implication of the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) gene in both strengthens this belief. We present a case who had MDL in multiple nerve territories--all on the same side of the body--with hypertrophy of mainly fibroadipose tissue throughout their distribution, thus pointing to a form of localized hemihypertrophy; both hemihypertrophy and lipomatous tumors are components of Proteus syndrome. PMID:21948052

  1. Auditory stimulation affects renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takuo; Tanida, Mamoru; Niijima, Akira; Hibino, Hiroshi; Shen, Jiao; Nagai, Katsuya

    2007-04-12

    Here, we examined the effects of auditory stimulation at 50 dB with white noise (WN) or music (Traeumerei [TM] by Schumann or Etude by Chopin) on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and BP in urethane-anesthetized rats. Auditory stimulation with TM, but not with WN or the Etude, significantly decreased RSNA and BP. Complete bilateral destruction of the cochleae and bilateral lesions of the auditory cortex (AuC) eliminated the effects of TM stimulation on RSNA and BP, but bilateral lesions of primary somatosensory cortex (S1C) had no effect. Bilateral lesions of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or intracerebral administration of thioperamide, a histaminergic H3 receptor antagonist, also abolished TM-induced decreases in RSNA and BP. These findings suggest that exposure to music can decrease RSNA and BP through the auditory pathway, histaminergic neurons, and the SCN. PMID:17363164

  2. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  3. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  4. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  7. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868...Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. An electrical peripheral nerve stimulator...

  8. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868...Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. An electrical peripheral nerve stimulator...

  9. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868...Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. An electrical peripheral nerve stimulator...

  10. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868...Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. An electrical peripheral nerve stimulator...

  11. Detoxification of Organophosphate Nerve Agents by Immobilized Dual Functional

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Detoxification of Organophosphate Nerve Agents by Immobilized Dual Functional Biocatalysts of organophosphate nerve agents in bulk liquid phase. ß 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: pesticides; degradation; OPH; CBD; hollow fiber bioreactor; immobilized cells INTRODUCTION All nerve agents belong

  12. Nerve repair by means of tubulization: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Konofaos, P; Ver Halen, J P

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury may result in injury without gaps or injury with gaps between nerve stumps. In the presence of a nerve defect, the placement of an autologous nerve graft is the current gold standard for nerve restoration. The clinical employment of tubes as an alternative to autogenous nerve grafts is mainly justified by the limited availability of donor tissue for nerve autografts and their related morbidity. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the literature on the applications of nerve conduits in peripheral nerve repair. Moreover, the different steps that are involved in the design of an ideal nerve conduit for peripheral nerve repair, including the choice of biomaterial, fabrication technique, and the various potential modifications to the common hollow nerve tube, are also discussed. PMID:23303520

  13. The binding of tetrodotoxin to nerve membranes.

    PubMed

    Keynes, R D; Ritchie, J M; Rojas, E

    1971-02-01

    1. The% reduction in size of the externally recorded action potential produced by concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the range 6-300 nM was determined for the small non-myelinated fibres of the rabbit cervical vagus nerve and of the walking leg nerves of crab and lobster. The concentration of TTX for 50% reduction was around 80 nM for rabbit vagus and 14 nM for crab nerve.2. Bio-assay procedures were devised to measure the amount of TTX taken up by a nerve when it was exposed to a very small volume of a solution whose TTX content was just great enough to produce 100% block of conduction. The extracellular space of each nerve was determined with [(14)C]sugar so that an allowance could be made for extracellular dilution.3. The TTX binding by rabbit, crab and lobster nerve was respectively 0.064, 0.053 and 0.036 p-mole/mg wet weight of nerve.4. The binding of saxitoxin was measured in rabbit vagus nerve, and found to be much the same as that of TTX.5. Control experiments on rabbit sciatic nerve, where the area of excitable membrane was much smaller, showed that there was relatively little unspecific binding of TTX.6. In view of the evidence presented here and elsewhere that the blocking of sodium conductance by TTX involves the attachment of only one TTX molecule at each sodium site, and that unspecific binding of TTX does not cause serious errors, these results suggest that in 1 mum(2) of nerve membrane the number of sodium sites is 75 for rabbit, 49 for crab, and 36 for lobster nerve. PMID:5575342

  14. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  15. Detergent-free Decellularized Nerve Grafts for Long-gap Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Huang, Jiying; Botterman, Barry; Matloub, Hani S.; Keefer, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-gap peripheral nerve defects arising from tumor, trauma, or birth-related injuries requiring nerve reconstruction are currently treated using nerve autografts and nerve allografts. Autografts are associated with limited supply and donor-site morbidity. Allografts require administration of transient immunosuppressants, which has substantial associated risks. To overcome these limitations, we investigated the use of detergent-free decellularized nerve grafts to reconstruct long-gap nerve defects in a rodent model and compared it with existing detergent processing techniques. Methods: Nerve grafts were harvested from the sciatic nerves of 9 donor rats. Twenty-four recipient rats were divided into 4 groups (6 animals per group): (1) nerve grafts (NG, positive control), (2) detergent-free decellularized (DFD) grafts, (3) detergent decellularized grafts, and (4) silicone tube conduits (negative control). Each recipient rat had a 3.5-cm graft or conduit sutured across a sciatic nerve transection injury. All animals were harvested at 12 weeks postimplantation for functional muscle analysis and nerve histomorphometry. Results: Histomorphometry results indicated maximum growth in NG when compared with other groups. DFD and detergent decellularized groups showed comparable regeneration at 12 weeks. Silicone tube group showed no regeneration as expected. Muscle force data indicated functional recovery in NG and DFD groups only. Conclusions: This study describes a detergent-free nerve decellularization technique for reconstruction of long-gap nerve injuries. We compared DFD grafts with an established detergent processing technique and found that DFD nerve grafts are successful in promoting regeneration across long-gap peripheral nerve defects as an alternative to existing strategies. PMID:25426384

  16. Baseline Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Optic Nerve Provides Limited Predictive Information on Short-Term Recovery after Acute Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Sebastian; Kaschka, Iris; Utz, Kathrin S.; Huhn, Konstantin; Lämmer, Alexandra; Lämmer, Robert; Waschbisch, Anne; Kloska, Stephan; Lee, De-Hyung; Doerfler, Arnd; Linker, Ralf A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In acute optic neuritis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help to confirm the diagnosis as well as to exclude alternative diagnoses. Yet, little is known on the value of optic nerve imaging for predicting clinical symptoms or therapeutic outcome. Purpose To evaluate the benefit of optic nerve MRI for predicting response to appropriate therapy and recovery of visual acuity. Methods Clinical data as well as visual evoked potentials (VEP) and MRI results of 104 patients, who were treated at the Department of Neurology with clinically definite optic neuritis between December 2010 and September 2012 were retrospectively reviewed including a follow up within 14 days. Results Both length of the Gd enhancing lesion (r = -0.38; p = 0.001) and the T2 lesion (r = -0.25; p = 0.03) of the optic nerve in acute optic neuritis showed a medium correlation with visual acuity after treatment. Although visual acuity pre-treatment was little but nonsignificantly lower if Gd enhancement of the optic nerve was detected via orbital MRI, improvement of visual acuity after adequate therapy was significantly better (0.40 vs. 0.24; p = 0.04). Intraorbitally located Gd enhancing lesions were associated with worse visual improvement compared to canalicular, intracranial and chiasmal lesions (0.35 vs. 0.54; p = 0.02). Conclusion Orbital MRI is a broadly available, valuable tool for predicting the improvement of visual function. While the accurate individual prediction of long-term outcomes after appropriate therapy still remains difficult, lesion length of Gd enhancement and T2 lesion contribute to its prediction and a better short-term visual outcome may be associated with detection and localization of Gd enhancement along the optic nerve. PMID:25635863

  17. Immediate versus delayed primary nerve repair in the rabbit sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Piskin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zühal; Ç?tlak, Atilla; Sezgin, Hicabi; Yaz?c?, Ozgür; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that peripheral nerve injury should be treated immediately in the clinic, but in some instances, repair can be delayed. This study investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed (3 days after injury) neurorrhaphy on repair of transected sciatic nerve in New Zealand rabbits using stereological, histomorphological and biomechanical methods. At 8 weeks after immediate and delayed neurorrhaphy, axon number and area in the sciatic nerve, myelin sheath and epineurium thickness, Schwann cell morphology, and the mechanical property of nerve fibers did not differ obviously. These results indicate that delayed neurorrhaphy do not produce any deleterious effect on sciatic nerve repair. PMID:25206663

  18. Immediate versus delayed primary nerve repair in the rabbit sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Piskin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zühal; Çitlak, Atilla; Sezgin, Hicabi; Yaz?c?, Ozgür; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2013-12-25

    It is well known that peripheral nerve injury should be treated immediately in the clinic, but in some instances, repair can be delayed. This study investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed (3 days after injury) neurorrhaphy on repair of transected sciatic nerve in New Zealand rabbits using stereological, histomorphological and biomechanical methods. At 8 weeks after immediate and delayed neurorrhaphy, axon number and area in the sciatic nerve, myelin sheath and epineurium thickness, Schwann cell morphology, and the mechanical property of nerve fibers did not differ obviously. These results indicate that delayed neurorrhaphy do not produce any deleterious effect on sciatic nerve repair. PMID:25206663

  19. Effectively Axonal-supercharged Interpositional Jump-Graft with an Artificial Nerve Conduit for Rat Facial Nerve Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Sasaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Yamato, Masayuki; Miyata, Mariko; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interpositional jump graft (IPJG) is a nerve graft axonally supercharged from the hypoglossal nerve. However, for using the technique, an autologous nerve, which should contain the great auricular and sural nerves, must be obtained. Depending on the donor site, unavoidable issues such as nerve disorders and postoperative scarring may appear. To reduce the issues, in this study, the authors developed an end-to-side neurorrhaphy technique with the recipient nerve and an artificial nerve conduit and investigated the efficacy of an IPJG with an artificial nerve conduit in a rat facial nerve paresis model. Methods: A ligature clip was used to crush the facial nerve trunk, thereby creating a partial facial nerve paresis model. An artificial nerve conduit was then prepared with a 10-mm-long silicone tube containing 10 ?L type I collagen and used to create an IPJG between the facial nerve trunk and the hypoglossal nerve (the silicone tube group). Thirteen weeks after the surgery, the outcome was histologically and physiologically compared with conventional IPJG with autograft using the great auricular nerve. Results: Retrograde tracer test confirmed a double innervation by the facial and hypoglossal nerve nuclei. In the autograft and silicone tube groups, the regeneration of myelinated axons was observed. Conclusion: In this study, the authors successfully developed an end-to-side neurorrhaphy technique with the recipient nerve and an artificial nerve conduit, and revealed that an IPJG in the conduit was effective in the rat facial nerve paresis model. PMID:26180717

  20. Hypothermic preservation of peripheral nerve grafts: A histomorphometric study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihito Tsujino; Koichiro Hayashi; Isao Koshima

    1996-01-01

    Nerve preservation is essential for peripheral nerve grafting. We studied nerve regeneration in autografts preserved under\\u000a hypothermic conditions. Twenty-mm sciatic nerve segments were resected from Lewis rats and preserved at 4C for 0 to 48h,\\u000a the duration of preservation being increased in 12-h increments. These nerve segments were then transplanted to syngeneic\\u000a rats. At 15 weeks, the recipient sciatic nerves

  1. Carbon dioxide laser-assisted nerve repair: effect of solder and suture material on nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Menovsky, Tomas; Beek, Johan F

    2003-01-01

    In order to further improve and explore the role of lasers for nerve reconstruction, this study was designed to investigate regeneration of sharply transected peripheral nerves repaired with a CO(2) milliwatt laser in combination with three different suture materials and a bovine albumin protein solder as an adjunct to the welding process. Unilateral sciatic nerve repair was performed in 44 rats. In the laser group, nerves were gently apposed, and two stay sutures (10-0 nylon, 10-0 polyglycolic acid, or 25 microm stainless steel) were placed epi/perineurially. Thereafter, the repair site was fused at 100 mW with pulses of 1.0 s. In the subgroup of laser-assisted nerve repair (LANR), albumen was used as a soldering agent to further reinforce the repair site. The control group consisted of nerves repaired by conventional microsurgical suture repair (CMSR), using 4-6 10-0 nylon sutures. Evaluation was performed at 1 and 6 weeks after surgery, and included qualitative and semiquantitative light microscopy. LANR performed with a protein solder results in a good early peripheral nerve regeneration, with an optimal alignment of nerve fibers and minimal connective tissue proliferation at the repair site. All three suture materials produced a foreign body reaction; the least severe was with polyglycolic acid sutures. CMSR resulted in more pronounced foreign-body granulomas at the repair site, with more connective-tissue proliferation and axonal misalignment. Furthermore, axonal regeneration in the distal nerve segment was better in the laser groups. Based on these results, CO(2) laser-assisted nerve repair with soldering in combination with absorbable sutures has the potential of allowing healing to occur with the least foreign-body reaction at the repair site. Further experiments using this combination are in progress. PMID:12740882

  2. Endoneurial pathology of the needlestick-nerve-injury model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, including rats with and without pain behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Max M.; Lee, Jeung Woon; Siegel, Sandra M.; Downs, Heather M.; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2011-01-01

    Current rodent models of neuropathic pain produce pain hypersensitivity in almost all lesioned animals and not all identified experimental effects are pain specific. 18G needlestick-nerve-injury (NNI) to one tibial nerve of outbred Sprague-Dawley rats models the phenotype of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), a post-traumatic neuropathic pain syndrome, leaving roughly half of NNI rats with hyperalgesia. We compared endoneurial data from these divergent endophenotypes searching for pathological changes specifically associated with pain-behaviors. Tibial, sural, and common sciatic nerves from 12 NNI rats plus 10 nerves from sham-operated controls were removed 14 days post-surgery for morphometric analysis. PGP9.5+ unmyelinated-fibers were quantitated in plantar hindpaw skin. Distal tibial nerves of NNI rats had endoneurial edema, 30% fewer axons, twice as many mast cells, and thicker blood-vessel walls than uninjured tibial nerves. However the only significant difference between nerves from hyperalgesic versus non-hyperalgesic NNI rats was greater endoneurial edema in hyperalgesic rats (p < 0.01). We also discovered significant axonal losses in uninjured ipsilateral sural nerves of NNI rats, demonstrating spread of neuropathy to nearby nerves formerly thought spared. Tibial and sural nerves contralateral to NNI had significant changes in endoneurial bloodvessels. Similar pathological changes have been identified in CRPS-I patients. The current findings suggest that severity of endoneurial vasculopathy and inflammation may correlate better with neuropathic pain behaviors than degree of axonal loss. Spread of pathological changes to nearby ipsilateral and contralesional nerves might potentially contribute to extraterritorial pain in CRPS. PMID:21676634

  3. Microcystic Inner Nuclear Layer Changes and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects in Eyes with Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Akagi, Tadamichi; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Suda, Kenji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Yugo; Nakanishi, Hideo; Miyake, Masahiro; Unoki, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine microcystic inner nuclear layer (INL) changes in glaucomatous eyes and to determine associated factors. Design Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Methods Two hundred seventeen eyes of 133 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 41 eyes of 32 patients with preperimetric glaucoma and 181 normal eyes of 117 subjects were ultimately included. Microcystic INL lesions were examined with infrared fundus images and with 19 vertical spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in the macular area. Results Microcystic INL changes were observed in 6.0% of eyes with POAG, but none of the normal eyes or eyes with preperimetric glaucoma showed microcystic INL changes. The proportion of eyes with advanced glaucoma was significantly larger (P = 0.013) in eyes with microcystic lesions than without. The visual field mean deviation (MD) slope was also significantly worse (P = 0.027) in eyes with microcystic lesions. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, refraction, axial length, intraocular pressure, or MD value between eyes with and without microcystic INL lesions. In several cases, microcystic INL lesions occurred along with glaucomatous visual field progression. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (P = 0.013) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) + inner plexiform layer thickness (P = 0.023) were significantly lower in areas with microcystic lesions than without. The INL was also significantly thicker (P = 0.002) in areas with microcystic lesions. Conclusions Microcystic INL lesions in glaucomatous eyes are closely associated with RNFL and GCL thinning and correlated with worse MD slope. These INL lesions may indicate focal and progressive damage in glaucoma. PMID:26066021

  4. Communications Between the Trigeminal Nerve and the Facial Nerve in the Face: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Yang, Su Cheol; Song, Ju Sung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the article is to elucidate the communications between the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve in the face. In a PubMed search, 328 studies were found using the terms 'trigeminal nerve, facial nerve, and communication.' The abstracts were read and 39 full-text articles were reviewed. Among them, 11 articles were analyzed.In the studies using dissection, the maxillary branch (V2) had the highest frequency (95.0%?±?8.0%) of communication with the facial nerve, followed by the mandibular branch (V3) (76.7%?±?38.5%). The ophthalmic branch (V1) had the lowest frequency of communication (33.8%?±?19.5%). In a Sihler stain, all of the maxillary branches and mandibular branches had communications with the facial nerve and 85.7% (12/14 hemifaces) of the ophthalmic branches had communications. The frequency of communications between the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve were significantly higher (P?=?0.00, t-test) in the studies using a Sihler stain (94.7%?±?1.1%) than the studies using dissection (76.9?±?35.8).The reason for the significantly higher frequency of trigeminal-facial communication in the studies using a Sihler stain is because of the limitation of the Sihler stain itself. This technique cannot differentiate the motor nerves from sensory nerves at the periphery, and a crossover can be misinterpreted as communication near to nerve terminal. PMID:26114519

  5. Ancient schwannoma of vagus nerve mimicking hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Susmita; Biswas, Debabani; Misra, Swapnendu; Dutta, Shantanu; Sen, Annoy

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas arising from vagus nerve sheath are rare mediastinal neurogenic tumours. Schwannomas usually arise from left hemithorax. Unlike a hamartoma, radiologically, calcification is rarely seen in schwannomas. We present the rare case of an ancient schwannoma arising from vagus nerve sheath from the right hemithorax presenting with gross calcification. PMID:25823116

  6. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Binnie

    2000-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation is an empirically based method for treatment of epilepsy by repeated stimulation of the left vagus nerve through implanted electrodes. Despite studies in animals and man, which show changes in brain electrophysiology, metabolism and neurochemistry, the mode of action remains unknown. Clinical testing has presented methodological challenges, as it is difficult to assess under double blind conditions

  7. The Sheath of the Optic Nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sohan Singh Hayreh

    1984-01-01

    The sheath of the optic nerve was studied in rhesus monkeys, humans, and rabbits. The sheath (i.e., dura mater and arachnoid mater) was normally found to be loose near the eyeball, with a much bigger space between the optic nerve and the sheath than anywhere else in its course, consequently presenting bulbous appearance just behind the eyeball. The space was

  8. Ophthalmoscopic Evaluation of the Optic Nerve Head

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jost B. Jonas; Wido M. Budde; Songhomitra Panda-Jonas

    1999-01-01

    Optic nerve diseases, such as the glaucomas, lead to changes in the intrapapillary and parapapillary region of the optic nerve head. These changes can be described by the following variables: size and shape of the optic disk; size, shape, and pallor of the neuroretinal rim; size of the optic cup in relation to the area of the disk; configuration and

  9. A Safe Lab on Nerve Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving pineapples and gelatin that allows students to investigate the conditions that typically render an enzyme functionless, similar to the effect of nerve gasses. Discusses the materials, procedures, and results, drawing analogies to the effects of a nerve gas. (CW)

  10. Ephaptic Coupling of Myelinated Nerve S. Binczaka

    E-print Network

    Eilbeck, Chris

    by nonlinear difference-differential equations. Called "saltatory" conduction by the electrophysiologists, 26, 27, 28, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39], saltatory conduction on myelinated nerve models introduces two and discrete limits, clarifying the nature of the conduction process on an isolated nerve axon. Since

  11. Cadaveric nerve allotransplantation in the treatment of persistent thoracic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Barbour, John R; Yee, Andrew; Moore, Amy M; Trulock, Elbert P; Buchowski, Jacob M; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    When relief from neuralgia cannot be achieved with traditional methods, neurectomy may be considered to abate the stimulus, and primary opposition of the terminal nerve ending is recommended to prevent neuroma. Nerve repair with autograft is limited by autologous nerves available for large nerve defects. Cadaveric allografts provide an unlimited graft source without donor-site morbidities, but are rapidly rejected unless appropriate immunosuppression is achieved. An optimal treatment method for nerve allograft transplantation would minimize rejection while simultaneously permitting nerve regeneration. This report details a novel experience of nerve allograft transplantation using cadaveric nerve grafts to desensitize persistent postoperative thoracic neuralgia. PMID:25841822

  12. Nerve-sparing schwannoma removal from two infrequent origins.

    PubMed

    Inzirillo, Francesco; Giorgetta, Casimiro; Ravalli, Eugenio

    2015-05-01

    Schwannomas of nerve sheath origin (Schwann cell) are the most common neurogenic thoracic tumors and they usually originate from an intercostal nerve, especially in the paravertebral region. Tumors that originate from other nerves such as the phrenic nerve, vagus, or sympathetic nerves are uncommon. We report two cases of schwannomas in rare locations. A 62-year-old woman had a giant schwannoma arising from the right phrenic nerve, and a 57-year-old woman had one from the left sympathetic nerve. Both tumors were completely removed with preservation of the nerves. PMID:24939915

  13. The effects of repetitive compression on nerve conduction and blood flow in the rabbit sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Y; Nishiura, Y; Terui, N; Hara, Y; Saijilafu; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of repetitive compression on nerve physiology in an experimental rabbit model. We defined 80 mmHg as a compression force which caused temporary disturbance of nerve conduction and blood flow with a brief compression. The following compressions were applied for 30 minutes to rabbit sciatic nerves: continuous compression, low frequency release compression (1 second of release time every 30 seconds) and high frequency release compression (1 second of release time every 10 seconds). Compound nerve action potentials and nerve blood flow were evaluated from the start of compression until 30 minutes after release. Endoneurial microvascular permeability was evaluated with Evans Blue albumin. The repetitive compression groups showed delay in recovery of compound nerve action potentials and blood flow after release, with endoneurial oedema. These findings suggest that repetitive compression may increase the risk of breakdown of the blood nerve barrier. PMID:20444785

  14. Dentition and lesion history.

    PubMed

    Eggertsson, H; Ferreira-Zandona, A

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a process that typically keeps recurring throughout life, and the consequences are too often seen as irreversible damage to the dentition. At various stages of life, different parts of the dentition are affected, and the effects continue to be seen in the dentition long after the events took place. They bear witness to previous occurrences of this process throughout the lifetime of an individual. This chapter reviews the linkage between the caries process and the dental caries lesion history of the human dentition. The prevalence and distribution of the caries burden are very variable and closely tied to cultural aspects. In the primary dentition, income and education have been found to be inversely associated with: (1) any early childhood caries and (2) the maxillary incisor caries pattern. A positive association between these caries patterns and minority ethnicity/race status was also identified. These patterns are different from those of the permanent dentition. Well-documented changes in caries prevalence have been observed throughout history, most closely tied to availability and amount of refined sugar consumed. Changes in caries rates are also well documented in the 20th century, mainly with the advent of fluoride in several forms, first as a steep decline and recently as being relatively unchanged. It is likely that there will be dramatic changes in the rates and distribution of dental caries in the future, due to changes in behavioural factors and therapeutic measures. The description drawn is based on the dental caries pattern experienced in modern western societies. PMID:19494678

  15. Peripheral nerve morphogenesis induced by scaffold micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Danish; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Madaghiele, Marta; Brambilla, Paola; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Taveggia, Carla; Riva, Nilo; Trimarco, Amelia; Lopez, Ignazio D.; Comi, Giancarlo; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Sannino, Alessandro; Quattrini, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Several bioengineering approaches have been proposed for peripheral nervous system repair, with limited results and still open questions about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We assessed the biological processes that occur after the implantation of collagen scaffold with a peculiar porous microstructure of the wall in a rat sciatic nerve transection model compared to commercial collagen conduits and nerve crush injury using functional, histological and genome wide analyses. We demonstrated that within 60 days, our conduit had been completely substituted by a normal nerve. Gene expression analysis documented a precise sequential regulation of known genes involved in angiogenesis, Schwann cells/axons interactions and myelination, together with a selective modulation of key biological pathways for nerve morphogenesis induced by porous matrices. These data suggest that the scaffold’s microstructure profoundly influences cell behaviors and creates an instructive micro-environment to enhance nerve morphogenesis that can be exploited to improve recovery and understand the molecular differences between repair and regeneration. PMID:24559639

  16. On the terminology of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Simon, František; Mare?ková-Štolcová, Elena; Pá?, Libor

    2011-10-20

    The present contribution adopts various points of view to discuss the terminology of the twelve nervi craniales. These are paired nerves and have dual names, terms with Roman ordinal numerals, i.e., the nerves are numbered in the top-to-bottom direction, and descriptive historical names. The time of origin and motivation behind the investigated terms are determined. The majority of terms come from the 17th and 18th centuries. The motivation behind most of them is (a) nerve localization, as this is in conformity with anatomical nomenclature in general, (b) nerve function, and rarely (c) nerve appearance. The occurrence of synonymous names and variants is also a focus of attention. In several cases, reference is made to the process called terminologization, meaning when a certain expression acquires technical meaning and the characteristic/feature of the term. PMID:21724380

  17. Sympathetic nerve fibers and ganglia in canine cervical vagus nerves: Localization and quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Onkka, Patrick; Maskoun, Waddah; Rhee, Kyoung-Suk; Hellyer, Jessica; Patel, Jheel; Tan, Jian; Chen, Lan S.; Vinters, Harry V.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical vagal nerve (CVN) stimulation may improve left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with heart failure. Objectives To test the hypothesis that sympathetic structures are present in the CVN and to describe the location and quantitate these sympathetic components of the CVN. Methods We performed immunohistochemical studies of the CVN from 11 normal dogs and simultaneously recorded stellate ganglion nerve activity, left thoracic vagal nerve activity, and subcutaneous electrocardiogram in 2 additional dogs. Results A total of 28 individual nerve bundles were present in the CVNs of the first 11 dogs, with an average of 1.87 ± 1.06 per dog. All CVNs contain tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (sympathetic) nerves, with a total cross-sectional area of 0.97 ± 0.38 mm2. The sympathetic nerves were nonmyelinated, typically located at the periphery of the nerve bundles and occupied 0.03%–2.80% of the CVN cross-sectional area. Cholineacetyltransferase-positive nerve fibers occupied 12.90%–42.86% of the CVN cross-sectional areas. Ten of 11 CVNs showed tyrosine hydroxylase and cholineacetyltransferase colocalization. In 2 dogs with nerve recordings, we documented heart rate acceleration during spontaneous vagal nerve activity in the absence of stellate ganglion nerve activity. Conclusions Sympathetic nerve fibers are invariably present in the CVNs of normal dogs and occupy in average up to 2.8% of the cross-sectional area. Because sympathetic nerve fibers are present in the periphery of the CVNs, they may be susceptible to activation by electrical stimulation. Spontaneous activation of the sympathetic component of the vagal nerve may accelerate the heart rate. PMID:23246597

  18. Pathology of Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: Diagnostic Overview and Update on Selected Diagnostic Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Folpe, Andrew L.; Giannini, Caterina; Perry, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are common neoplasms, with classic identifiable features, but on occasion, they are diagnostically challenging. Although well defined subtypes of peripheral nerve sheath tumors were described early in the history of surgical pathology, controversies regarding the classification and grading of these tumors persist. Advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the nature of the various peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and have begun to suggest novel targeted therapeutic approaches. In this review we discuss current concepts and problematic areas in the pathology of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis for the major categories of nerve sheath tumors are proposed, including neurofibroma, schwannoma, and perineurioma. Diagnostically challenging variants, including plexiform, cellular and melanotic schwannomas are highlighted. A subset of these affects the childhood population, and has historically been interpreted as malignant, although current evidence and outcome data suggests they represent benign entities. The growing current literature and the authors experience with difficult to classify borderline or “hybrid tumors” are discussed and illustrated. Some of these classification gray zones occur with frequency in the gastrointestinal tract, an anatomical compartment that must always be entertained when examining these neoplasms. Other growing recent areas of interest include the heterogeneous group of pseudoneoplastic lesions involving peripheral nerve composed of mature adipose tissue and/or skeletal muscle, such as the enigmatic neuromuscular choristoma. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent a diagnostically controversial group; difficulties in grading and guidelines to separate “atypical neurofibroma” from MPNST are provided. There is an increasing literature of MPNST mimics which neuropathologists must be aware of, including synovial sarcoma and ossifying fibromyxoid tumor. Finally, we discuss entities that are lacking from the section on cranial and paraspinal nerves in the current WHO classification, and that may warrant inclusion in future classifications. In summary, although the diagnosis and classification of most conventional peripheral nerve sheath tumors are relatively straightforward for the experienced observer, borderline and difficult to classify neoplasms continue to be problematic. In the current review, we attempt to provide some useful guidelines for the surgical neuropathologist to help navigate these persistent, challenging problems. PMID:22327363

  19. Pathology of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: diagnostic overview and update on selected diagnostic problems.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Fausto J; Folpe, Andrew L; Giannini, Caterina; Perry, Arie

    2012-03-01

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are common neoplasms, with classic identifiable features, but on occasion, they are diagnostically challenging. Although well-defined subtypes of peripheral nerve sheath tumors were described early in the history of surgical pathology, controversies regarding the classification and grading of these tumors persist. Advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the nature of the various peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and have begun to suggest novel targeted therapeutic approaches. In this review, we discuss current concepts and problematic areas in the pathology of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis for the major categories of nerve sheath tumors are proposed, including neurofibroma, schwannoma, and perineurioma. Diagnostically challenging variants, including plexiform, cellular and melanotic schwannomas are highlighted. A subset of these affects the childhood population, and has historically been interpreted as malignant, although current evidence and outcome data suggest they represent benign entities. The growing current literature and the author's experience with difficult to classify borderline or "hybrid tumors" are discussed and illustrated. Some of these classification gray zones occur with frequency in the gastrointestinal tract, an anatomical compartment that must always be entertained when examining these neoplasms. Other growing recent areas of interest include the heterogeneous group of pseudoneoplastic lesions involving peripheral nerve composed of mature adipose tissue and/or skeletal muscle, such as the enigmatic neuromuscular choristoma. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent a diagnostically controversial group; difficulties in grading and guidelines to separate "atypical neurofibroma" from MPNST are provided. There is an increasing literature of MPNST mimics which neuropathologists must be aware of, including synovial sarcoma and ossifying fibromyxoid tumor. Finally, we discuss entities that are lacking from the section on cranial and paraspinal nerves in the current WHO classification, and that may warrant inclusion in future classifications. In summary, although the diagnosis and classification of most conventional peripheral nerve sheath tumors are relatively straightforward for the experienced observer, yet borderline and difficult-to-classify neoplasms continue to be problematic. In the current review, we attempt to provide some useful guidelines for the surgical neuropathologist to help navigate these persistent, challenging problems. PMID:22327363

  20. Voxelwise Bayesian Lesion Deficit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hillis, Argye E.; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Herskovits, Edward H

    2008-01-01

    Relating cognitive deficits to the presence of lesions has been an important means of delineating structure-function associations in the human brain. We propose a voxel-based Bayesian method for lesion-deficit analysis, which identifies complex linear or nonlinear associations among brain-lesion locations, and neurological status. We validated this method using a simulated data set, and we applied this algorithm to data obtained from an acute-stroke study to identify associations among voxels with infarct or hypoperfusion, and impaired word reading. We found that a distributed region involving Brodmann areas (BA) 22, 37, 39, and 40 was implicated in word reading. PMID:18328733

  1. Electrolytic entorhinal lesions cause seizures.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; McNamara, J O

    1982-01-14

    The entorhinal cortex is a key site of interneuronal communication between a variety of cortical and subcortical areas and hippocampal formation. Lesioning the entorhinal cortex is commonly used in studies of the hippocampal formation, animal behavior and neuronal plasticity. We have found that electrolytic destruction of the entorhinal cortex consistently produces limbic seizure activity in rats. The propensity of lesions in this area for producing seizure activity may facilitate insights into the normal function of this network of neural connections. This unexpected phenomenon represents a potential confounding variable for all researchers using this method for making brain lesions. PMID:7055687

  2. Multifunctional Silk Nerve Guides for Axon Outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupaj, Marie C.

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a critical issue as 2.8% of trauma patients present with this type of injury, estimating a total of 200,000 nerve repair procedures yearly in the United States. While the peripheral nervous system exhibits slow regeneration, at a rate of 0.5 mm -- 9 mm/day following trauma, this regenerative ability is only possible under certain conditions. Clinical repairs have changed slightly in the last 30 years and standard methods of treatment include suturing damaged nerve ends, allografting, and autografting, with the autograft the gold standard of these approaches. Unfortunately, the use of autografts requires a second surgery and there is a shortage of nerves available for grafting. Allografts are a second option however allografts have lower success rates and are accompanied by the need of immunosuppressant drugs. Recently there has been a focus on developing nerve guides as an "off the shelf" approach. Although some natural and synthetic guidance channels have been approved by the FDA, these nerve guides are unfunctionalized and repair only short gaps, less than 3 cm in length. The goal of this project was to identify strategies for functionalizing peripheral nerve conduits for the outgrowth of neuron axons in vitro . To accomplish this, two strategies (bioelectrical and biophysical) were indentified for increasing axon outgrowth and promoting axon guidance. Bioelectrical strategies exploited electrical stimulation for increasing neurite outgrowth. Biophysical strategies tested a range of surface topographies for axon guidance. Novel methods were developed for integrating electrical and biophysical strategies into silk films in 2D. Finally, a functionalized nerve conduit system was developed that integrated all strategies for the purpose of attaching, elongating, and guiding nervous tissue in vitro. Future directions of this work include silk conduit translation into a rat sciatic nerve model in vivo for the purpose of repairing long (> 3 cm) peripheral nerve gaps.

  3. Management of the Facial Nerve in Lateral Skull Base Surgery Analytic Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    El Shazly, Mohamed A.; Mokbel, Mahmoud A.M.; Elbadry, Amr A.; Badran, Hatem S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surgical approaches to the jugular foramen are often complex and lengthy procedures associated with significant morbidity based on the anatomic and tumor characteristics. In addition to the risk of intra-operative hemorrhage from vascular tumors, lower cranial nerves deficits are frequently increased after intra-operative manipulation. Accordingly, modifications in the surgical techniques have been developed to minimize these risks. Preoperative embolization and intra-operative ligation of the external carotid artery have decreased the intraoperative blood loss. Accurate identification and exposure of the cranial nerves extracranially allows for their preservation during tumor resection. The modification of facial nerve mobilization provides widened infratemporal exposure with less postoperative facial weakness. The ideal approach should enable complete, one stage tumor resection with excellent infratemporal and posterior fossa exposure and would not aggravate or cause neurologic deficit. The aim of this study is to present our experience in handling jugular foramen lesions (mainly glomus jugulare) without the need for anterior facial nerve transposition. Methods: In this series we present our experience in Kasr ElEini University hospital (Cairo—Egypt) in handling 36 patients with jugular foramen lesions over a period of 20 years where the previously mentioned preoperative and operative rules were followed. The clinical status, operative technique and postoperative care and outcome are detailed and analyzed in relation to the outcome. Results: Complete cure without complications was achieved in four cases of congenital cholesteatoma and four cases with class B glomus. In advanced cases of glomus jugulare (28 patients) (C and D stages) complete cure was achieved in 21 of them (75%). The operative complications were also related to this group of 28 patients, in the form of facial paralysis in 20 of them (55.6%) and symptomatic vagal paralysis in 18 of them (50%). Conclusions: Total anterior rerouting of the facial nerve carries a high risk of facial paralysis. So it should be reserved for cases where the lesion extends beyond the vertical ICA. Otherwise, for less extensive lesions and less aggressive pathologies, less aggressive approaches could be adopted with less hazards. PMID:24179402

  4. Human nerve xenografting in nude mouse: Experimental study of graft revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Duprez, K.; Bour, C.; Merle, M.; Duprez, A. (Hopital Jeanne d'Arc, Dommartin-les-Toul (France))

    1991-01-01

    In the nude mouse, the congenital absence of T lymphocytes makes it possible to implant human nerve grafts without rejection or iatrogenic modifications (by immunosuppression) of human and murine tissues. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves were harvested from human cadavers 1-18 hours after death. These nerve grafts were implanted using different techniques in nude mice. All the grafts were macroscopically and microscopically revascularized 3 days after implantation. The modifications in time of this vascularization could be studied with precision through the use of repeated biopsies. The absence of human blood group antigens on the neovessel endothelium suggested a murine origin for angiogenesis. In situ DNA hybridizations with human and mouse DNA confirmed this origin. The topography of the revascularization (maximal in the perineurium and endoneurium) and the almost complete absence of human cells other than Schwann cells in the grafts at the peak of angiogenesis (26 days after grafting) suggested that Schwann cells had a determining role in graft vascularization. The irradiation of the nerve grafts with a dose of 30 grays before implantation did not modify significantly their histologic appearance compared to the control group, whereas an irradiation of 60 grays led to massive lesions. The neurotization of murine axons led to chimerical structures of normal histologic appearance, with vascularization similar to that observed in nonneurotized nerves. Through chimerism (human Schwann cells, murine vessels and axons) this model makes it possible to dissociate the respective role of the host and of the nerve graft in angiogenesis and suggests the existence of growth factors produced by the human Schwann cells.

  5. Lesion-induced axonal sprouting in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Deller, Thomas; Haas, Carola A; Freiman, Thomas M; Phinney, Amie; Jucker, Mathias; Frotscher, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Injury or neuronal death often come about as a result of brain disorders. Inasmuch as the damaged nerve cells are interconnected via projections to other regions of the brain, such lesions lead to axonal loss in distal target areas. The central nervous system responds to deafferentation by means of plastic remodeling processes, in particular by inducing outgrowth of new axon collaterals from surviving neurons (collateral sprouting). These sprouting processes result in a partial reinnervation, new circuitry, and functional changes within the deafferented brain regions. Lesioning of the entorhinal cortex is an established model system for studying the phenomenon of axonal sprouting. Using this model system, it could be shown that the sprouting process respects the pre-existing lamination pattern of the deafferented fascia dentata, i. e., it is layer-specific. A variety of different molecules are involved in regulating this reorganization process (extracellular matrix molecules, cell adhesion molecules, transcription factors, neurotrophic factors, growth-associated proteins). It is proposed here that molecules of the extracellular matrix define the boundaries of the laminae following entorhinal lesioning and in so doing limit the sprouting process to the deafferented zone. To illustrate the role of axonal sprouting in disease processes, special attention is given to its significance for neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), and temporal lobe epilepsy. Finally, we discuss both the beneficial as well as disadvantageous functional implications of axonal sprouting for the injured organism in question. PMID:16955706

  6. Dynamic Changes in the MicroRNA Expression Profile Reveal Multiple Regulatory Mechanisms in the Spinal Nerve Ligation Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David von Schack; Michael J. Agostino; B. Stuart Murray; Yizheng Li; Padmalatha S. Reddy; Jin Chen; Sung E. Choe; Brian W. Strassle; Christine Li; Brian Bates; Lynn Zhang; Huijuan Hu; Smita Kotnis; Brendan Bingham; Wei Liu; Garth T. Whiteside; Tarek A. Samad; Jeffrey D. Kennedy; Seena K. Ajit; Maria Castro

    2011-01-01

    Neuropathic pain resulting from nerve lesions or dysfunction represents one of the most challenging neurological diseases to treat. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for causing these maladaptive responses can help develop novel therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neuropathic pain. We performed a miRNA expression profiling study of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissue from rats four weeks post

  7. Reinnervation of the Biceps Brachii Muscle Following Cotransplantation of Fetal Spinal Cord and Autologous Peripheral Nerve into the Injured Cervical Spinal Cord of the Adult Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Duchossoy; L. Kassar-Duchossoy; D. Orsal; O. Stettler; J. C. Horvat

    2001-01-01

    In order to compensate the loss of motoneurons resulting from severe spinal cord injury and to reestablish peripheral motor connectivity, solid pieces of fetal spinal cord, taken from embryonic day 14 rat embryos, were transplanted into unilateral aspiration lesions of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats. Concomitantly, one end of a 3.5-cm autologous peripheral nerve graft was put in

  8. Spinal root origins and innervations of the suprascapular nerve.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chuog; Lee, Seo-Eun; Yu, Kee-Hyun; Chae, Han-Kyo; Lee, Kyu-Seok

    2010-03-01

    The suprascapular nerve branches provide efferent innervation to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles as well as sensory innervation to the shoulder joint. This study was carried out to verify the spinal root origins and innervations of the suprascapular nerve. Fifty samples of the suprascapular nerve taken from 37 adult Korean cadavers were used in this study. The suprascapular nerve was found to comprise the ventral rami of the C5 and C6 in 76.0% of the fifty samples; C4, C5, and C6 nerves in 18.0%; and C5 nerve in only 6.0%. The C5 nerve was consistently shown to be the largest in mean diameter and was found to be a major contributor of nerve fibers leading to the suprascapular nerve. This study shows that the main spinal component of the suprascapular nerve is C5 nerve. In most cases, the rate of the involvement of the C4 and C6 nerves (18.0 and 94.0%, respectively) with the suprascapular nerve was less than that of C5 nerve. C4 and C5 nerves were shown to contribute nerve fibers to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and to both shoulder joints, whereas C6 nerve displayed variable patterns of innervation. PMID:19937327

  9. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  10. Osteochondral Lesions of Major Joints

    PubMed Central

    Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Durur-Karakaya, Afak; Yildirim, Omer Selim

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides information about osteochondral lesions (OCL) and example cases of OCL occurring in major joints, some of which are rarely seen. This simple tutorial is presented in question and answer format. PMID:26180500

  11. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  12. Suprascapular nerve release for treatment of shoulder and periscapular pain following intracranial spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Flores, Leandro Pretto

    2008-11-01

    Iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve is one of the most common causes of trapezius muscle palsy. Dysfunction of this muscle can be a painful and disabling condition because scapular winging may impose traction on the soft tissues of the shoulder region, including the suprascapular nerve. There are few reports regarding therapeutic options for an intracranial injury of the accessory nerve. However, the surgical release of the suprascapular nerve at the level of the scapular notch is a promising alternative approach for treatment of shoulder pain in these cases. The author reports on 3 patients presenting with signs and symptoms of unilateral accessory nerve injury following resection of posterior fossa tumors. A posterior approach was used to release the suprascapular nerve at the level of the scapular notch, transecting the superior transverse scapular ligament. All patients experienced relief of their shoulder and scapular pain following the decompressive surgery. In 1 patient the primary dorsal branch of the C-2 nerve root was transferred to the extracranial segment of the accessory nerve, and in the other 2 patients a tendon transfer (the Eden-Lange procedure) was used. Results from this report show that surgical release of the suprascapular nerve is an effective treatment for shoulder and periscapular pain in patients who have sustained an unrepairable injury to the accessory nerve. PMID:18976092

  13. Using Eggshell Membrane as Nerve Guide Channels in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Gholam Hossein; Heshmatian, Behnam; Karimipour, Mojtaba; Saberi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate the final outcome of nerve regeneration across the eggsell membrane (ESM) tube conduit in comparison with autograft. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats (250-300 g) were randomized into (1) ESM conduit, (2) autograft, and (3) sham surgery groups. The eggs submerged in 5% acetic acid. The decalcifying membranes were cut into four pieces, rotated over the teflon mandrel and dried at 37°C. The left sciatic nerve was surgically cut. A 10-mm nerve segment was cut and removed. In the ESM group, the proximal and distal cut ends of the sciatic nerve were telescoped into the nerve guides. In the autograft group, the 10 mm nerve segment was reversed and used as an autologous nerve graft. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI) and electrophysiology testing. Results: The improvement in SFI from the first to the last evalution in ESM and autograft groups were evaluated. On days 49 and 60 post-operation, the mean SFI of ESM group was significantly greater than the autograft group (P< 0.05). On day 90, the mean nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of ESM group was greater than autograft group, although the difference was not statistically significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that ESM effectively enhances nerve regeneration and promotes functional recovery in injured sciatic nerve of rat. PMID:24106593

  14. Propagation Speed in Myelinated Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley (H.H.) equations modified by Dodge for Rana pipiens myelinated nerve have been solved to determine how well the theory predicts the effects of changes of temperature and [Na+]0 on propagation. Conduction speed ? was found to have an approximately exponential dependence on temperature as was found experimentally, but the theoretical temperature coefficient (Q10) was low; 1.5 compared with the experimental finding of 2.95. ? was found to be a linear function of log ([Na+]0) in contrast to the experimental finding of a square root dependence on [Na+]0. ? is 50% greater at one-fourth normal [Na+]0 than the theory predicts. The difference between the theoretical ?([Na+]0) and the experimental ?([Na+]0) is probably due to an imprecisely known variation of parameters and not to a fundamental inadequacy of the theory. PMID:4542941

  15. Characterization of Endoneurial Fibroblast-like Cells from Human and Rat Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Laurence; Védrenne, Nicolas; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Endoneurial fibroblast-like cells (EFLCs) are one of the cell populations present in the peripheral nervous system. The role and immunophenotypic characteristics of EFLCs are not well known and led us to perform a histological and cytological study of EFLCs in normal human and rat peripheral nerves. We found that all EFLCs express CD34, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), and prolyl-4-hydrolase-beta. In addition, half of the EFLCs in normal peripheral nerves express platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?) and some also express the intermediate filament nestin in vivo (at a lower level than Schwann cells, which express high levels of nestin). Using cell cultures of purified EFLCs, we characterized subpopulations of EFLCs expressing PDGFR-? alone or PDGFR-? and nestin. Experimental nerve lesions in rat resulted in an increase in nestin-positive EFLCs, which returned to normal levels after 8 days. This suggests that some EFLCs could have a different proliferative and/or regenerative potential than others, and these EFLCs may play a role in the initial phase of nerve repair. These “activated” EFLCs share some immunophenotypic similarities with pericytes and Interstitial cells of Cajal, which have progenitor cell potentials. This raises the questions as to whether a proportion of EFLCs have a possible role as endoneurial progenitor cells. PMID:24670794

  16. MRI findings of globe and optic nerves in tilted disk syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orguc, S; Toprak, A B; Demiray, B; Tarhan, S; Güler, C

    2007-04-30

    We assessed the anatomical variations of the globe and optic nerve in tilted disk (TD) syndrome using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and compared them with a control group. Eleven patients diagnosed with TD syndrome during eye examination were referred for MRI of the sella and chiasm to exclude intracranial mass lesions. The shape of the globe, the chiasmal angle, the insertion angles of the optic nerve in axial and parasagittal planes determined by lines parallel to the optic nerve and tangent to the globe in TD syndrome were compared with a control group consisting of 53 cases. Gender ratios were 7/4 (F/M) for the TD group and 35/18 for the control group (p>0.05). The insertion angle of the optic disk to the globe was wider in the temporal quadrant (p<0.05) and narrower in the nasal quadrant (p<0.05) in TD syndrome than in the control group. There was no significant difference in the superior and inferior insertion angles between the groups. The anterior-posterior (AP) diameter of the globe was significantly longer in patients with TD (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the optic chiasm angles. The relationships of the optic disk and the globe were significantly different in patients with TD syndrome in comparison to the control group. TD syndrome is related to the malalignment of optic nerve and globe in the horizontal plane. PMID:24299638

  17. [Cystic lesions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Buerke, B; Schülke, C

    2015-02-01

    Due to the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen, the incidence of cystic pancreatic lesions as an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients is increasing; however, most of these lesions are less than 2 cm in size at the time of diagnosis making a correct classification difficult. A more differentiated understanding of the pathophysiology of these lesions has been developed during recent years. Technical improvements in imaging techniques have resulted in an increase in image resolution and has enabled radiologists to differentiate between intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), serous cystic neoplasms (SCN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN). A correct classification, including the differentiation from malignant pancreatic tumors, can only be achieved by combining the knowledge of lesion pathophysiology and basic epidemiological data, such as age and sex distribution with modern imaging techniques. In conjunction with the correct diagnosis, the radiologist has to decide on the further management of the newly found lesion. This differs greatly depending on the biological behavior, especially the potential for malignant transformation, e.g. in main duct IPMN. This review gives an overview of the different cystic pancreatic lesions, their underlying pathophysiology and imaging characteristics along with recommendations for the further clinical management. PMID:25646005

  18. Hearing disorders in brainstem lesions.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G

    2015-01-01

    Auditory processing can be disrupted by brainstem lesions. It is estimated that approximately 57% of brainstem lesions are associated with auditory disorders. However diseases of the brainstem usually involve many structures, producing a plethora of other neurologic deficits, often relegating "auditory symptoms in the background." Lesions below or within the cochlear nuclei result in ipsilateral auditory-processing abnormalities detected in routine testing; disorders rostral to the cochlear nuclei may result in bilateral abnormalities or may be silent. Lesions in the superior olivary complex and trapezoid body show a mixture of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral abnormalities, whereas lesions of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate body do not affect peripheral auditory processing and result in predominantly subtle contralateral abnormalities that may be missed by routine auditory testing. In these cases psychophysical methods developed for the evaluation of central auditory function should be employed (e.g., dichotic listening, interaural time perception, sound localization). The extensive connections of the auditory brainstem nuclei not only are responsible for binaural interaction but also assure redundancy in the system. This redundancy may explain why small brainstem lesions are sometimes clinically silent. Any disorder of the brainstem (e.g., neoplasms, vascular disorders, infections, trauma, demyelinating disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, malformations) that involves the auditory pathways and/or centers may produce hearing abnormalities. PMID:25726288

  19. Pathology of serrated colorectal lesions.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Adrian C

    2014-10-01

    The concept of serrated colorectal neoplasia has become recognised as a key process in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and an important alternative pathway to malignancy compared with the long established ‘adenoma-carcinoma’ sequence. Increasing recognition of the morphological spectrum of serrated lesions has occurred in parallel with elucidation of the distinct molecular genetic characteristics of progression from normal mucosa, via the ‘serrated pathway’, to CRC. Some of these lesions can be difficult to identify at colonoscopy. Challenges for pathologists include the requirement for accurate recognition of the forms of serrated lesions that are associated with a significant risk of malignant progression and therefore the need for widely disseminated reproducible criteria for their diagnosis. Alongside this process, pathologists and endoscopists need to formulate clear guidelines for the management of patients with these lesions, particularly with respect to the optimal follow-up intervals. This review provides practical guidance for the recognition of these lesions by pathologists, a discussion of ‘serrated adenocarcinoma’ and an insight into the distinct molecular genetic alterations that are seen in this spectrum of lesions in comparison to those that characterise the classic ‘adenoma-carcinoma’ sequence. PMID:24561317

  20. Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances. PMID:25411146

  1. The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Mejías, Wigberto; Jiménez, Luis B.

    2010-01-01

    Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue. PMID:20827375

  2. The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Mejías, Wigberto; Jiménez, Luis B; García-Arrarás, José E

    2010-05-01

    Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue. PMID:20827375

  3. Nerve repair: toward a sutureless approach.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthew J; Morley, John W; Stoodley, Marcus A; Lauto, Antonio; Mahns, David A

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral nerve repair for complete section injuries employ reconstructive techniques that invariably require sutures in their application. Sutures are unable to seal the nerve, thus incapable of preventing leakage of important intraneural fluids from the regenerating nerve. Furthermore, sutures are technically demanding to apply for direct repairs and often induce detrimental scarring that impedes healing and functional recovery. To overcome these limitations, biocompatible and biodegradable glues have been used to seal and repair peripheral nerves. Although creating a sufficient seal, they can lack flexibility and present infection risks or cytotoxicity. Other adhesive biomaterials have recently emerged into practice that are usually based on proteins such as albumin and collagen or polysaccharides like chitosan. These adhesives form their union to nerve tissue by either photothermal (tissue welding) or photochemical (tissue bonding) activation with laser light. These biomaterial adhesives offer significant advantages over sutures, such as their capacity to unite and seal the epineurium, ease of application, reduced invasiveness and add the potential for drug delivery in situ to facilitate regeneration. This paper reviews a number of different peripheral nerve repair (or reconstructive) techniques currently used clinically and in experimental procedures for nerve injuries with or without tissue deficit. PMID:25015388

  4. Continuous Retrograde Monitoring of the Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Vittorio; Fiorino, Francesco G.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous electromyographical (EMG) monitoring of the facial nerve is widely used during acoustic tumor surgery. Mechanical stimulation of the facial nerve is capable of eliciting synchronous and asynchronous EMG responses alerting the surgeon to damaging maneuvers performed on the nerve. Mechanical stimulation, however, elicits EMG responses only when the nerve has been injured by the underlying pathology or previous surgical maneuvers, and the technique is sensitive to administration of muscular blockers. In addition, EMG is unable to furnish quantitative information about the damage. The present paper illustrates an alternative technique for intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, that is, the recording of facial nerve antidromic potentials (FNAPs). Eleven subjects operated on by acoustic neuroma surgery via a retrosigmoid approach (tumor sizes ranging from 12 to 28 mm) participated in the investigation. Bipolar electrical stimulation of the marginalis mandibulae was performed to elicit FNAPs. Stimulus intensity ranged from 2 to 6 mA with a delivery rate of 7/second. A silver-wire electrode positioned on the proximal portion of the acoustic-facial bundle was used to record action potentials. Changes in latency and amplitude of FNAPs were analyzed as a function of the main surgical steps. FNAP monitoring provided quantitative real-time information about damaging maneuvers performed on the nerve and allowed prediction of postoperative facial function. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:17170981

  5. Superior laryngeal nerve block: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, M; Lozanoff, S; Lang, S A; Nyssen, J

    1995-01-01

    Superior laryngeal nerve anaesthesia is frequently used to facilitate endotracheal intubation in the awake patient. We have modified the transcutaneous approach to this nerve block to employ a short bevel needle. This improves tactile perception in performing the procedure thus simplifying identification of the correct depth of injection. This study was designed to determine the anatomical basis of superior laryngeal nerve anaesthesia and to estimate the success rate using our modified technique. At autopsy, 20 cadavers had nerve block performed substituting 0.02% methylene blue for local anaesthetic. Dissection was then performed to identify the anatomical structures stained by the simulated local anaesthetic. Additional dissections were performed in formalin-fixed cadavers. We found that the dye was injected into the paraglottic space bounded laterally by the thyrohyoid membrane and thyroid cartilage, medially by the laryngeal submucosa, caudad by the conus elasticus, cephalad by the hyoid bone, and anteriorly and posteriorly by the anterior and posterior thyrohyoid ligaments, respectively. The internal laryngeal nerve, the sensory branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, passed through this compartment and was heavily stained with simulated local anaesthetic. Resistance to the passage of the short bevel needle was provided by the lateral glossoepiglottic fold, not the thyrohyoid membrane as we had expected. Of 40 injections, 39 were deemed successful for a success rate of 97.5%. We conclude that this is a simple and highly successful technique for performing superior laryngeal nerve anaesthesia. PMID:7712327

  6. Attenuation of negative pain affect produced by unilateral spinal nerve injury in the rat following anterior cingulate cortex activation.

    PubMed

    LaBuda, C J; Fuchs, P N

    2005-01-01

    The affective and the sensory dimensions of pain processing can be differentiated in humans through the use of questionnaires and verbal communication. It is difficult to dissociate these two components of pain processing in rodents, and an understanding of the underlying mechanisms for each component is unclear. The quantification of a novel behavioral response to a repeated noxious cutaneous stimulus together with a measurement of tactile allodynia in nerve-injured rats might be used to differentially explore the sensory and affective components of pain processing in the rat. The present study utilized electrical stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a structure implicated in affective pain processing but not sensory processing, in nerve-injured rats (L5 spinal nerve ligation) and found that the aversive quality of noxious cutaneous hindpaw stimulation was attenuated. There were no effects on sensory processing, because anterior cingulate cortex stimulation did not produce an anti-allodynic effect in L5 spinal nerve ligation animals. Furthermore, anterior cingulate cortex stimulation in animals with bilateral ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area lesions did not affect tactile sensitivity in L5 spinal nerve ligation rats, indicating that an endogenous pain suppression system was not likely activated by anterior cingulate cortex stimulation. However, bilateral ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area lesions in L5 spinal nerve ligation rats blocked the effect produced by anterior cingulate cortex stimulation in the place escape/avoidance paradigm. Specifically, these animals avoided noxious stimulation of the allodynic paw significantly more than anterior cingulate cortex-stimulated, sham or incomplete ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area-lesioned, L5 spinal nerve ligation animals. These findings provide the first quantified report that the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex reduced the aversive quality of repeated noxious tactile stimulation in nerve-injured animals without interfering with normal sensory processing. This effect might require the presence of an intact ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area. It is concluded that the selective manipulation of the anterior cingulate cortex has different effects on pain affect and sensory processing in a rodent model of neuropathic pain. PMID:16404776

  7. Repair of peripheral nerve with vein wrapping*

    PubMed Central

    LEUZZI, S.; ARMENIO, A.; LEONE, L.; DE SANTIS, V.; DI TURI, A.; ANNOSCIA, P.; BUFANO, L.; PASCONE, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The post–traumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuro-anastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps. Patients and methods From a trauma population of 320 patients treated in a single centre between January 2008 and December 2011, twenty-six patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of the arm and enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. In the group A (16 patients) the end-to-end nerve suture was wrapped in a vein sheath and compared with the group B (10 patients) in which a simple end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. The venous segment used to cover the nerve micro-suture was harvested from the superficial veins of the forearm. The parameters analyzed were: functional recovery of motor nerves, sensitivity and pain. Results Average follow-up was 14 months (range: 12–24 months). The group A showed a more rapid motor and sensory recovery and a reduction of the painful symptoms compared to the control group (B). Conclusions The Authors demonstrated that, in their experience, the venous sheath provides a valid solution to avoid the dispersion of the nerve fibres, to prevent adherent scars and painful neuromas formation. Moreover it can compensate the different size of two nerve stumps, allowing, thereby, a more rapid functional and sensitive recovery without expensive devices. PMID:24841688

  8. Lipofuscin in human glaucomatous optic nerves.

    PubMed

    Fernandez de Castro, J P; Mullins, R F; Manea, A M; Hernandez, J; Wallen, T; Kuehn, M H

    2013-06-01

    Lipofuscin accumulation has been observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. We recently found that autofluorescent particles also occur in the aged human optic nerve. In this study we sought to determine the nature of these particles and their correlation with aging, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Groups of eight optic nerves from patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, age-matched controls and four optic nerves derived from controls younger than 42 years were used for the study. All samples were fixed in paraformaldehyde and frozen frontal sections were prepared. Sections were analyzed with fluorescence microscopy, bright field microscopy, Sudan black staining and spectrofluorometry using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Sections were photographed and analyzed to establish the distribution, quantity, and size of the autofluorescent particles. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the ultrastructural location of the granules. On unstained sections under light microscopy granules are detectable as pale brown inclusions and are easily stained with oil-soluble dyes, such as Sudan black. Granules fluoresce when excited at all tested wavelengths but lose their fluorescence after staining with Sudan black. These particles are distributed throughout the axonal columns, but not in the septa, and appear to be located within the glia ensheathing optic nerve axons. The histologic properties of the granules seen in the optic nerve sections correspond to lipofuscin aggregates, a result of incomplete degradation of oxidized proteins. Our morphometric analyses indicate that overall the optic nerves from control, glaucoma, and AMD donors contain similar amounts of lipofuscin. However, optic nerves derived from donors with glaucoma contain lipofuscin particles that are larger than those observed in the age-matched control and AMD groups. Furthermore optic nerves from glaucoma donors display a smaller diameter than those from age-matched controls resulting in a higher concentration of lipofuscin in glaucomatous optic nerves. PMID:23567206

  9. Anatomy of the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves with observations of their spinal nerve contributions.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Zachary; Marshall, Ewarld; Tubbs, R Shane; Louis, Robert G; Wartmann, Christopher T; Loukas, Marios

    2011-05-01

    Proper anesthesia and knowledge of the anatomical location of the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves is important during hernia repair and other surgical procedures. Surgical complications have also implicated these nerves, emphasizing the importance of the development of a clear topographical map for use in their identification. The aim of this study was to explore anatomical variations in the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves and relate this information to clinical situations. One hundred adult formalin fixed cadavers were dissected resulting in 200 iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerve specimens. Each nerve was analyzed for spinal nerve contribution and classified accordingly. All nerves were documented where they entered the abdominal wall with this point being measured in relation to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). The linear course of each nerve was followed, and its lateral distance from the midline at termination was measured. The ilioinguinal nerve originated from L1 in 130 specimens (65%), from T12 and L1 in 28 (14%), from L1 and L2 in 22 (11%), and from L2 and L3 in 20 (10%). The nerve entered the abdominal wall 2.8 ± 1.1 cm medial and 4 ± 1.2 cm inferior to the ASIS and terminated 3 ± 0.5 cm lateral to the midline. The iliohypogastric nerve originated from T12 on 14 sides (7%), from T12 and L1 in 28 (14%), from L1 in 20 (10%), and from T11 and T12 in 12 (6%). The nerve entered the abdominal wall 2.8 ± 1.3 cm medial and 1.4 ± 1.2 cm inferior to the ASIS and terminated 4 ± 1.3 cm lateral to the midline. For both nerves, the distance between the ASIS and the midline was 12.2 ± 1.1 cm. To reduce nerve damage and provide sufficient anesthetic for nerve block during surgical procedures, the precise anatomical location and spinal nerve contributions of the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves need to be considered. PMID:21509811

  10. Ischaemia of peripheral nerve and muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, D G

    1977-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle and peripheral nerves are both resistant to ischaemia there are nevertheless many syndromes in which they are affected, either separately or together. It is frequently difficult to distinguish the effects of arterial ischaemia from those of compression, which may operate through vascular occlusion, or, in the case of peripheral nerve, by mechanical deformation of nerve fibres. A great deal has been learned from experimental models, but not all of it is applicable to the complexity of human neuromuscular ischaemia which requires further study. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3a Fig. 3b Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6a-6b Fig. 6c-6f PMID:269124

  11. Shrapnel injury of isolated third cranial nerve.

    PubMed

    Uluta?, Murat; Seçer, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    Isolated third nerve palsy develops in numerous intracranial pathologies such as closed head trauma, tumor, and aneurysm. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy caused by shrapnel injury is uncommon. After a penetrating intracranial shrapnel injury, our patient with oculomotor ophthalmoplegia underwent surgery. Microsurgery removed the shrapnel that was applying pressure on the third nerve, resulting in contusion. A partial recovery associated with regeneration was observed at month 9. Extraocular muscle surgery should be planned if palsy does not resolve over a prolonged period of time. PMID:25485217

  12. Peripheral Nerve Blocks Improve Analgesia After Total Knee Replacement Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh W. Allen; Spencer S. Liu; Paul D. Ware; Craig S. Nairn; Brian D. Owens

    1998-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) produces severe postop- erative pain. Peripheral nerve blocks can be used as an- algesic adjuncts for TKR, but the efficacy of femoral nerve blocks alone is controversial. The sciatic nerve innervates posterior regions of the knee; thus, perfor- mance of both sciatic and femoral nerve blocks may be necessary to improve analgesia after TKR. We per-

  13. Massive nerve root enlargement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Schady; P J Goulding; B R Lecky; R H King; C M Smith

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report three patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) presenting with symptoms suggestive of cervical (one patient) and lumbar root disease. METHODS: Nerve conduction studies, EMG, and nerve biopsy were carried out, having found the nerve roots to be very enlarged on MRI, CT myelography, and at surgery. RESULTS: Clinically, peripheral nerve thickening was slight or absent. Subsequently

  14. Vagus nerve stimulation and magnet use: Optimizing benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William O. Tatum IV; Sandra L. Helmers

    2009-01-01

    More than 10years ago, the vagus nerve stimulator became the first device approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in persons with epilepsy. The vagus nerve stimulator has subsequently served to spearhead the concept of neurostimulation for seizures. Chronic intermittent electrical stimulation of the left vagus nerve is the foundation for vagus nerve stimulation, yet little is known

  15. Superior segmental optic nerve hypoplasia: The topless disc syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Sowka; Lori Vollmer; Sherrol Reynolds

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundOptic nerve hypoplasia is a well-known congenital maldevelopment presenting with an abnormally small optic nerve head occupying the central aspect of a normally sized chorioscleral canal. Characteristically, the optic nerve head is surrounded by scleral anlage with a “double ring sign.” Less commonly appreciated, however, is the fact that optic nerve hypoplasia may be sectorial rather than total and involving

  16. Emerging nanotechnology approaches in tissue engineering for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Cunha; Silvia Panseri; Stefania Antonini

    2011-01-01

    Effective nerve regeneration and functional recovery subsequent to peripheral nerve injury is still a clinical challenge. Autologous nerve graft transplantation is a feasible treatment in several clinical cases, but it is limited by donor site morbidity and insufficient donor tissue, impairing complete functional recovery. Tissue engineering has introduced innovative approaches to promote and guide peripheral nerve regeneration by using biomimetic

  17. Ganglioside promotes the bridging of sciatic nerve defects in cryopreserved peripheral nerve allografts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaodong; Liu, Yuguang; Liu, Qiang

    2014-10-15

    Previous studies have shown that exogenous gangliosides promote nervous system regeneration and synapse formation. In this study, 10 mm sciatic nerve segments from New Zealand rabbits were thawed from cryopreservation and were used for the repair of left sciatic nerve defects through allograft bridging. Three days later, 1 mL ganglioside solution (1 g/L) was subcutaneously injected into the right hind leg of rabbits. Compared with non-injected rats, muscle wet weight ratio was increased at 2-12 weeks after modeling. The quantity of myelinated fibers in regenerated sciatic nerve, myelin thickness and fiber diameter were elevated at 4-12 weeks after modeling. Sciatic nerve potential amplitude and conduction velocity were raised at 8 and 12 weeks, while conduction latencies were decreased at 12 weeks. Experimental findings indicate that ganglioside can promote the regeneration of sciatic nerve defects after repair with cryopreserved peripheral nerve allografts. PMID:25422644

  18. Arachidonic acid closes innexin/pannexin channels and thereby inhibits microglia cell movement to a nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Lipitz, Jeffrey B.; Wang, Junjie; Dahl, Gerhard; Muller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pannexons are membrane channels formed by pannexins and are permeable to ATP. They have been implicated in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Innexins, the invertebrate homologues of the pannexins, form innexons. Nerve injury induces calcium waves in glial cells, releasing ATP through glial pannexon/innexon channels. The ATP then activates microglia. More slowly, injury releases arachidonic acid (ArA). The present experiments show that ArA itself reduced the macroscopic membrane currents of innexin- and of pannexin-injected oocytes; ArA also blocked K+-induced release of ATP. In leeches, whose large glial cells have been favorable for studying control of microglia migration, ArA blocked glial dye-release and, evidently, ATP-release. A physiological consequence in the leech was block of microglial migration to nerve injuries. Exogenous ATP (100 ?M) reversed the effect, for ATP causes activation and movement of microglia after nerve injury, but nitric oxide directs microglia to the lesion. It was not excluded that metabolites of ArA may also inhibit the channels. But for all these effects, ArA and its non-metabolizable analogue eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) were indistinguishable. Therefore, ArA itself is an endogenous regulator of pannexons and innexons. ArA thus blocks release of ATP from glia after nerve injury and thereby, at least in leeches, stops microglia at lesions. PMID:23650255

  19. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gül?en, Ismail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-04-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  20. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Y?lmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gül?en, ?smail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343