Science.gov

Sample records for ulnar nerve lesions

  1. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow, so prolonged pressure on the elbow or entrapment ...

  2. Outcome following Nerve Repair of High Isolated Clean Sharp Injuries of the Ulnar Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Post, René; de Boer, Kornelis S.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The detailed outcome of surgical repair of high isolated clean sharp (HICS) ulnar nerve lesions has become relevant in view of the recent development of distal nerve transfer. Our goal was to determine the outcome of HICS ulnar nerve repair in order to create a basis for the optimal management of these lesions. Methods High ulnar nerve lesions are defined as localized in the area ranging from the proximal forearm to the axilla just distal to the branching of the medial cord of the brachial plexus. A meta-analysis of the literature concerning high ulnar nerve injuries was performed. Additionally, a retrospective study of the outcome of nerve repair of HICS ulnar nerve injuries at our institution was performed. The Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer and the Rosén-Lundborg protocol were used. Results The literature review identified 46 papers. Many articles presented outcomes of mixed lesion groups consisting of combined ulnar and median nerves, or the outcome of high and low level injuries was pooled. In addition, outcome was expressed using different scoring systems. 40 patients with HICS ulnar nerve lesions were found with sufficient data for further analysis. In our institution, 15 patients had nerve repair with a median interval between trauma and reconstruction of 17 days (range 0–516). The mean score of the motor and sensory domain of the Rosen's Scale instrument was 58% and 38% of the unaffected arm, respectively. Two-point discrimination never reached less then 12 mm. Conclusion From the literature, it was not possible to draw a definitive conclusion on outcome of surgical repair of HICS ulnar nerve lesions. Detailed neurological function assessment of our own patients showed that some ulnar nerve function returned. Intrinsic muscle strength recovery was generally poor. Based on this study, one might cautiously argue that repair strategies of HICS ulnar nerve lesions need to be improved. PMID:23082230

  3. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... full recovery. In some cases, there may be partial or complete loss of movement or sensation. Nerve ... Deformity of the hand Partial or complete loss of sensation in the hand or fingers Partial or complete loss of wrist or hand movement Recurrent ...

  4. Ulnar nerve sonography in leprosy neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Liu, Da-Yue; Lei, Yang-Yang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with a half-year history of rightforearmsensory and motordysfunction. Ultrasound imaging revealed definite thickening of the right ulnar nerve trunk and inner epineurium, along with heterogeneous hypoechogenicity and unclear nerve fiber bundle. Color Doppler exhibited a rich blood supply, which was clearly different from the normal ulnar nerve presentation with a scarce blood supply. The patient subsequently underwent needle aspiration of the right ulnar nerve, and histopathological examination confirmed that granulomatousnoduleshad formed with a large numberof infiltrating lymphocytes anda plurality of epithelioidcells in the fibrous connectivetissues,with visible atypicalfoam cells and proliferous vascularization, consistent withleprosy. Our report will familiarize readers with the characteristic sonographic features of the ulnar nerve in leprosy, particularly because of the decreasing incidence of leprosy inrecent years. PMID:26703181

  5. Median to ulnar nerve anastomosis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Piagkou, M; Tasigiorgos, S; Lappas, D; Troizos-Papavassiliou, P; Piagkos, G; Skandalakis, P; Demesticha, T

    2012-01-01

    Median to Ulnar nerve anastomosis in the forearm has been shown to be of clinical significance leading to "anomalous" innervation and is correlated with misdiagnosis during the assessment of nerve lesions, injuries and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). In 1763, Martin first described the anastomosis and Gruber next mentioning it, in 1870 thus referred to as Martin--Gruber anastomosis. Despite its long history, its nature remains unclear. Many anatomical, electrophysiological, histological and genetic studies have been published, reporting the anastomosis' frequency, citing its clinical importance and classifying it into various classes and types. Diagnosis is made mostly with electrophysiological studies whereby researchers have cited certain clues taking into consideration the asymptomatic nature of the anastomosis. The current literature on median to ulnar nerve anastomosis is reviewed, highlighting its frequency and clinical significance making an excellent tool for correct diagnosis in many clinicians. PMID:23025109

  6. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    PubMed

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW. PMID:26788268

  7. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW. PMID:26788268

  8. Direct radial to ulnar nerve transfer to restore intrinsic muscle function in combined proximal median and ulnar nerve injury: case report and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Benjamin Z; Franco, Michael J; Yee, Andrew; Tung, Thomas H; Mackinnon, Susan E; Fox, Ida K

    2014-07-01

    A distal median to ulnar nerve transfer for timely restoration of critical intrinsic muscle function is possible in isolated ulnar nerve injuries but not for combined ulnar and median nerve injuries. We used a distal nerve transfer to restore ulnar intrinsic function in the case of a proximal combined median and ulnar nerve injury. Transfer of the nonessential radial nerve branches to the abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, and extensor indicis proprius to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve was performed in a direct end-to-end fashion via an interosseous tunnel. This method safely and effectively restored intrinsic function before terminal muscle degeneration. PMID:24836915

  9. Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Cigna, Emanuele; Spagnoli, Anna Maria; Tarallo, Mauro; De Santo, Liliana; Monacelli, Giampaolo; Scuderi, Nicol

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively on day 20, a new thrombosis of the ulnar artery occurred. Conclusion. Hypothenar hammer syndrome is caused by repetitive trauma to the heel of the hand. The alterations of the vessel due to its chronic inflammation caused an acute compression of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon's canal and, in our case, do not allow a permanent revascularisation of the ulnar artery. PMID:22567229

  10. An unusual termination of the ulnar nerve in the palm.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M C; Cezayirli, E; Tagil, S M

    2002-05-01

    During the dissection of the left forearm and hand of a 57-year old male cadaver fixed in 10% formalin, it has been noted that the medial proper palmar digital nerve to the little finger arose from the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, instead of the superficial branch of the same nerve. The dorsal branch, given off by the ulnar nerve in the forearm, coursed distally and dorsally deep to the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Some 2 cm proximal to the pisiform, it pierced the deep fascia on the posteromedial side of the muscle to become superficial. At this point, one of the three branches given off travelled distally on the palmar-ulnar side of the hand to the skin of the little finger. There were connections between this branch and the branches of the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve which innervated the skin of the hypothenar eminence. Further, another branch of the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve passed under the fibrous arch of the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle origin and the opponens digiti minimi muscle to re-unite with its parent nerve. PMID:12056758

  11. Ulnar nerve reconstruction with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene conduit.

    PubMed

    Stanec, S; Stanec, Z

    1998-12-01

    The ulnar nerve of a 22-year-old woman was reconstructed by expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduit, 141 days after nerve transection at the distal forearm level. A 2.9 cm nerve gap was bridged by a corrugated, 3.9 cm long, 6 mm diameter ePTFE tube. At final evaluation 3 years later the patient achieved excellent motor and sensory recovery. Exploration of the tube, at that time, showed macroscopically normal nerve inside the conduit. PMID:10209470

  12. Atraumatic Main-En-Griffe due to Ulnar Nerve Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Aswani, Yashant; Saifi, Shenaz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Leprosy is the most common form of treatable peripheral neuropathy. However, in spite of effective chemotherapeutic agents, neuropathy and associated deformities are seldom ameliorated to a significant extent. This necessitates early diagnosis and treatment. Clinical examination of peripheral nerves is highly subjective and inaccurate. Electrophysiological studies are painful and expensive. Ultrasonography circumvents these demerits and has emerged as the preferred modality for probing peripheral nerves. Case Report We describe a 23-year-old male who presented with weakness and clawing of the medial digits of the right hand (main-en-griffe) and a few skin lesions since eighteen months. The right ulnar nerve was thickened and exquisitely tender on palpation. Ultrasonography revealed an extensive enlargement of the nerve with presence of intraneural color Doppler signals suggestive of acute neuritis. Skin biopsy was consistent with borderline tuberculoid leprosy with type 1 lepra reaction. The patient was started on WHO multidrug therapy for paucibacillary leprosy along with antiinflammatory drugs. Persistence of vascular signals at two months’ follow-up has led to continuation of the steroid therapy. The patient is compliant with the treatment and is on monthly follow-up. Conclusions In this manuscript, we review multitudinous roles of ultrasonography in examination of peripheral nerves in leprosy. Ultrasonography besides diagnosing enlargement of nerves in leprosy and acute neuritis due to lepra reactions, guides the duration of anti-inflammatory therapy in lepra reactions. Further, it is relatively inexpensive, non-invasive and easily available. All these features make ultrasonography a preferred modality for examination of peripheral nerves. PMID:26788223

  13. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Double Crush Syndrome of the Ulnar Nerve by the Anconeus Epitrochlearis and a Ganglion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Min-Wook; Kim, Jae Min

    2016-01-01

    Double compression of the ulnar nerve, including Guyon's canal syndrome associated with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, is a very rare condition. We present a case of double crush syndrome of the ulnar nerve at the wrist and elbow in a 55-year-old man, as well as a brief review of the literature. Although electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with an ulnar nerve lesion only at the elbow, ultrasonography revealed a ganglion compressing the ulnar nerve at the hypothenar area and the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle lying in the cubital tunnel. Careful physical examination and ultrasound assessment of the elbow and wrist confirmed the clinical diagnosis prior to surgery. PMID:26885291

  14. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Double Crush Syndrome of the Ulnar Nerve by the Anconeus Epitrochlearis and a Ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Min-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Double compression of the ulnar nerve, including Guyon's canal syndrome associated with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, is a very rare condition. We present a case of double crush syndrome of the ulnar nerve at the wrist and elbow in a 55-year-old man, as well as a brief review of the literature. Although electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with an ulnar nerve lesion only at the elbow, ultrasonography revealed a ganglion compressing the ulnar nerve at the hypothenar area and the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle lying in the cubital tunnel. Careful physical examination and ultrasound assessment of the elbow and wrist confirmed the clinical diagnosis prior to surgery. PMID:26885291

  15. Retrograde regeneration following neurotmesis of the ulnar nerve.

    PubMed

    Leis, A Arturo; Lancon, John A; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2003-10-01

    A 41-year-old woman experienced a gunshot wound to the forearm with neurotmesis of the ulnar nerve. Surgery 9 months later revealed a neuroma-in-continuity in the midforearm. Intraoperative nerve stimulation failed to elicit direct nerve responses or motor responses from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles. However, neurotonic discharges in response to mechanical irritation of the neuroma were recorded in the FDI, but not the ADM. Surprisingly, after resecting the ulnar nerve distal to the neuroma, neurotonic discharges were still elicited in the FDI following perturbation of the neuroma. Moreover, neurotonic discharges were elicited during ulnar nerve resection 2 cm proximal to the neuroma. No anastomoses or anomalous branches were noted. The findings suggest that regenerating fibers did not reach the FDI through the distal nerve segment. Rather, we speculate that nerve fibers regenerating at random, or impeded by scar tissue, contacted the proximal nerve portion, at which point growth became polarized in a retrograde direction. Retrograde regeneration may have proceeded to a branch point in the forearm (possibly an undetected anomalous branch or fibrous adhesion), where growth of regenerating fibers extended outward into surrounding damaged tissue planes before redirecting distally to reach the FDI. PMID:14506726

  16. [Foreign body retained within ulnar nerve in the distal humerus].

    PubMed

    Pleser, M; Mller, A; Veltin, J; Ludwig, J

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the procedures applied to remove a metal foreign body retained inside the ulnar nerve in the distal humerus of a 49-year-old patient. Exemplified by an unfavorable primary treatment this article presents the first description of removal of an foreign body retained within a nerve whereby emphasis is placed on the problems associated with the preoperative and intraoperative localization of the foreign particle. PMID:23949193

  17. Median and ulnar nerve injuries; what causes different repair outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Nouraei, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini, Alireza; Salek, Shadi; Nouraei, Farhad; Bina, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve injuries have significant effects on patients life quality. To make patients therapeutic expectations more realistic, prediction of repair outcome has significant importance. Materials and Methods: Totally, 74 patients with 94 nerve injuries (44 median and 50 ulnar nerves) were evaluated and followed up for 5 years between 2008 and 2013 in two main university hospitals of Isfahan. Patients age was 664 years. 24 nerves were excluded from the study and among the remaining; 53 nerves were repaired primarily and 17 nerves secondarily. 42 nerves were injured at a low-level, 17 nerves at intermediate and 11 at a high one. Medical Research Council Scale used for sensory and motor assessment. S3+ and S4 scores for sensory recovery and M4 and M5 scores for motor recovery were considered as favorable results. The follow-up time was between 8 and 24 months. Results: There was no significant difference between favorable sensory outcomes of median and ulnar nerves. The difference between favorable motor outcomes of the median nerve was higher than ulnar nerve (P = 0.03, odds ratio = 2.9). More favorable results were seen in high-level injuries repair than low ones (P = 0.035), and also cases followed more than 18 months compared to less than 12 months (P = 0.041), respectively. The favorable outcomes for patients younger than 16 were more than 40 and older, however, their difference was not significant (P = 0.059). The difference between primary and secondary repair favorable outcomes was not significant (P = 0.37). Conclusion: In patients older than 40 or injured at a high-level, there is a high possibility of repetitive operations and reconstructive measures. The necessity for long-term follow-up and careful attentions during a postoperative period should be pointed to all patients. PMID:26605244

  18. Endoscopic Robotic Decompression of the Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jose Carlos; de Souza Montero, Edna Frasson

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment can be treated by a number of surgical techniques when necessary. Endoscopic techniques have recently been developed to access the ulnar nerve by use of a minimally invasive approach. However, these techniques have been considered difficult and, many times, dangerous procedures, reserved for experienced elbow arthroscopic surgeons only. We have developed a new endoscopic approach using the da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) that may be easier and safer. Standardization of the technique was previously developed in cadaveric models to achieve the required safety, reliability, and organization for this procedure, and the technique was then used in a live patient. In this patient the nerve entrapment symptoms remitted after the surgical procedure. The robotic surgical procedure presented a cosmetic advantage, as well as possibly reduced scar formation. This is the first note on this surgical procedure; the procedure needs to be tested and even evolved until a state-of-the-art standard is reached. PMID:25126508

  19. Unusual Communications between the Cutaneous Branches of Ulnar Nerve in the Palm

    PubMed Central

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Jetti, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Variations of dorsal and volar digital cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve are of tremendous clinical importance for successful regional nerve blocks, skin flaps, carpal tunnel release and placement of electrodes for electrophysiological studies. With the aforementioned clinical implications it is worth to report the variations of cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve. In the current case, we have encountered a rare variation (Kaplan`s anastomosis) of ulnar nerve, in the right upper limb. We have noticed that the dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve divided into three branches, the lateral two branches supplied the skin of the medial one and half fingers of the dorsum of hand. The medial branch established communications with the superficial branches of ulnar nerve and distributed to the skin of the one and half fingers of the volar aspect of hand. The possible outcome of this communications is discussed. Course and distribution of ulnar nerve on the contralateral side was found to be normal. PMID:25954612

  20. Unusual Communications between the Cutaneous Branches of Ulnar Nerve in the Palm.

    PubMed

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Padavinangady, Abhinitha; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu

    2015-03-01

    Variations of dorsal and volar digital cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve are of tremendous clinical importance for successful regional nerve blocks, skin flaps, carpal tunnel release and placement of electrodes for electrophysiological studies. With the aforementioned clinical implications it is worth to report the variations of cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve. In the current case, we have encountered a rare variation (Kaplan`s anastomosis) of ulnar nerve, in the right upper limb. We have noticed that the dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve divided into three branches, the lateral two branches supplied the skin of the medial one and half fingers of the dorsum of hand. The medial branch established communications with the superficial branches of ulnar nerve and distributed to the skin of the one and half fingers of the volar aspect of hand. The possible outcome of this communications is discussed. Course and distribution of ulnar nerve on the contralateral side was found to be normal. PMID:25954612

  1. Ulnar nerve motor conduction to the first dorsal interosseous muscle.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, Nathan D; Buschbacher, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The ulnar motor study to the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) is commonly performed, but does not test the terminal deep palmar branch of the ulnar nerve. Although damage to the ulnar nerve most often occurs at the elbow, the damage may occur elsewhere along the course of the nerve, including damage to the deep palmar branch. Ulnar conduction studies of the deep branch have been performed with recording from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. These studies have used differing methodologies and were mostly limited by small sample size. The aim of this study was to develop a normative database for ulnar nerve conduction to the FDI. A new method of recording from the FDI was developed for this study. It utilizes recording with the active electrode over the dorsal first web space, with the reference electrode placed at the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint. This technique reliably yields negative takeoff measurements. An additional comparison was made between ulnar motor latency with recording at the ADM and with recording at the FDI. For this study, 199 subjects with no risk factors for neuropathy were tested. The latency, amplitude, area, and duration were recorded. The upper limit of normal (ULN) was defined as the 97th percentile of observed values. The lower limit of normal (LLN) was defined as the 3rd percentile of observed values. For the FDI, mean latency was 3.8 +/- 0.5 ms, with a ULN of 4.7 ms for males, 4.4 ms for females, and 4.6 ms for all subjects. Mean amplitude was 15.8 +/- 4.9 mV, with a LLN of 5.1 for all subjects. Side-to-side differences in latency to the FDI, from dominant to nondominant hands, was -0.1 +/- 0.4 ms, with a ULN of 0.8 ms. For the amplitude, up to a 52% decrease from side to side was normal. For the same-limb comparison of the FDI and ADM, the mean latency difference was 0.6 +/- 0.4 ms, with a ULN increase of 1.3 ms for latency to the ADM versus the FDI. PMID:17206927

  2. Anatomical variations of the ulnar and median nerves in the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; De Santis, S; Cavallotti, D; Cavallotti, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of our study was the evaluation of the anatomy of ulnar and median nerves in the upper limb in order to ameliorate knowledge on the clinical anatomy of these nerves. In fact, further information on this topic may be useful owing to its possible clinical relevance when planning surgical anatomy and reconstructive surgery in tumor affected and injured patients. The relationships between ulnar and median nerve and neighbouring anatomical structures have been examined, together with the course and ramification of the ulnar and median nerves in six fresh cadavers. Moreover, we have performed a review of the literature. Four specific aspects were evaluated during dissection: 1) division modality of the ulnar nerve at the wrist; 2) anatomical details of the medial humeral epicondyle; 3) anatomical relationships between median nerve and retinaculum flexorum; 4) median-ulnar nerves anastomosis. Our results show that: the medial humeral epicondyle shows specific anatomical details in relation to the ulnar nerve; the relationships between the median nerve and the transverse carpal ligament may be characterized by one or two nerve trunks (two cases of bifid median nerve in our experience); median-ulnar nerve anastomosis may be also found at various levels. Comparing our results with those of the available literature we can conclude that anatomical variations of ulnar and median nerve in the upper limb are not an infrequent finding and their clinical, diagnostic and surgical relevance should be considered. PMID:11103856

  3. Evaluation of the function status of the ulnar nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liu, N; Wang, Y W; Zhang, Z C; Zheng, L N; Zhu, J

    2015-01-01

    Many carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients have symptoms in both the median and ulnar digits more frequently than in the median digits alone. This is possibly because of close anatomical contiguity of the carpal tunnel and Guyon's canal, and the high pressure may also affect the latter, causing indirect compression of ulnar nerve fibers. Thus, we evaluated the functional status of the ulnar nerve in patients with CTS in order to investigate the relationship between ulnar nerve impairment and sensory symptoms of the ulnar territory. Electrophysiological studies were conducted in CTS patients and healthy controls. CTS patients were divided into the mild/moderate group and severe group; they were further divided into the symptomatic and asymptomatic subgroups according to the sensory symptom of the fifth digit region. The findings suggest that CTS patients could have coexisting ulnar nerve wrist entrapments that might exacerbate the severity of CTS. Sensory impairment in the ulnar territory was observed more frequently in the mild/moderate stage of CTS, which is associated with ulnar nerve involvement. These findings also suggest that damage to the ulnar nerve fibers caused by compression forces in Guyon's canal may underlie the ulnar spread of symptoms in CTS. PMID:25966136

  4. [Indications and methods of treatment of injuries of the peripheral nerves. Comparative clinical results of the management of the median nerve and ulnar nerve using the epineural, perineural fascicular suture and transplantation].

    PubMed

    Margić, K; Poljsak, Z; Pavlin, I

    1983-01-01

    In the last five years we have treated 95 lesions of the peripheral nerves. There were 24 lacerations of median and 25 of ulnar nerve. The results of treatment of median and ulnar nerve with epineural, perineural fascicular suture and transplant have been compared. The authors have tested the localisation of touch, two-point discrimination, recognition of small items, basic positions of the hand, precise action of the hand, and the motor power according to the Seddon's scale. The results were divided in excellent (2PD: 3-5 mm, power 5), very good (2PD: 6-9 mm. power 4), good (2 PD: 10-12 mm. power 4), fair (2PD: over 12 mm. power 3) and poor. The good results are groups excellent, very good and good. There were 44% good results using perineural fascicular suture of median nerve and 50% of ulnar nerve. The other methods have given poor results. PMID:6364660

  5. An elbow dislocation in a child with missed medial epicondyle fracture and late ulnar nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Haflah, Nor Hazla Mohamed; Ibrahim, Sharaf; Sapuan, Jamari; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2010-09-01

    Elbow dislocations associated with a medial epicondyle fracture and ulnar nerve palsy are uncommon injuries. We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with an elbow dislocation treated by closed manual reduction. The medial epicondyle fracture was missed initially until she developed an ulnar nerve palsy 2 months later. Intraoperatively we discovered the bony epicondyle piercing the joint capsule and compressing the ulnar nerve. Removal of the bony fragment relieved her symptoms and she returned to normal activities at 1 year follow-up. We would like to highlight this rare occurrence and present the detailed history and management of this case. PMID:20555271

  6. Ulnar nerve entrapment neuropathy at the elbow: relationship between the electrophysiological findings and neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Halac, Gulistan; Topaloglu, Pinar; Demir, Saliha; C?kr?kc?oglu, Mehmet Ali; Karadeli, Hasan Huseyin; Ozcan, Muhammet Emin; Asil, Talip

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Ulnar nerve neuropathies are the second most commonly seen entrapment neuropathies of the upper extremities after carpal tunnel syndrome. In this study, we aimed to evaluate pain among ulnar neuropathy patients by the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale and determine if it correlated with the severity of electrophysiologicalfindings. [Subjects and Methods] We studied 34 patients with clinical and electrophysiological ulnar nerve neuropathies at the elbow. After diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, all patients underwent the Turkish version of the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale. [Results] The ulnar entrapment neuropathy at the elbow was classified as class-2, class-3, class-4, and class-5 (Padua Distal Ulnar Neuropathy classification) for 15, 14, 4, and 1 patient, respectively. No patient included in class-1 was detected. According to Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale, 24 patients scored under 12 points. The number of patients who achieved more than 12 points was 10. Groups were compared by using the ?2 test, and no difference was detected. There was no correlation between the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale and electromyographic findings. [Conclusion] We found that the severity of electrophysiologic findings of ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow did not differ between neuropathic and non-neuropathic groups as assessed by the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale. PMID:26311956

  7. Applied anatomical study of the vascularized ulnar nerve and its blood supply for cubital tunnel syndrome at the elbow region

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei-xiu-li; He, Qiong; Hu, Zhong-lin; Chen, Sheng-hua; Lv, Yun-cheng; Liu, Zheng-hai; Wen, Yong; Peng, Tian-hong

    2015-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is often accompanied by paresthesia in ulnar nerve sites and hand muscle atrophy. When muscle weakness occurs, or after failure of more conservative treatments, anterior transposition is used. In the present study, the ulnar nerve and its blood vessels were examined in the elbows of 18 adult cadavers, and the external diameter of the nutrient vessels of the ulnar nerve at the point of origin, the distances between the origin of the vessels and the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and the length of the vessels accompanying the ulnar nerve in the superior ulnar collateral artery, the inferior ulnar collateral artery, and the posterior ulnar recurrent artery were measured. Anterior transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve was performed to treat cubital tunnel syndrome. The most appropriate distance that the vascularized ulnar nerve can be moved to the subcutaneous tissue under tension-free conditions was 1.8 0.6 cm (1.12.5 cm), which can be used as a reference value during the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome with anterior transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve. PMID:25788935

  8. Ulnar-to-median nerve anastomosis in the forearm. Review and report of 2 new cases.

    PubMed

    Resende, L A; Adamo, A S; Kimaid, P A; Castro, H A; Canheu, A C; Schelp, A O

    2000-06-01

    The ulnar-to-median nerve anastomosis in the forearm is a very rare occurrence, not mentioned in many anatomical text books. We found only 4 cases cited in medical literature. Here we describe 2 new cases, for which diagnosis was suspected when the compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle (APB), obtained by maximal stimulation of the median nerve at the elbow, was lower than that obtained at the wrist. The diagnosis was confirmed by stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, which evoked a compound muscle action potential of the APB with a clear negative initial deflection without volume-conducted potential. PMID:10907604

  9. Paediatric medial epicondyle fracture without elbow dislocation associated with intra-articular ulnar nerve entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Elbashir, Mohamed; Domos, Peter; Latimer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Elbow fractures are not uncommon in children, and some are associated with neurovascular injuries. Having a nerve injury in an elbow fracture without dislocation is rare and was not described in the literature. Here, we have reported probably the first case of an ulnar nerve injury in an elbow fracture without dislocation. A 9-year-old female presented to the emergency department after falling off a monkey bar. She had a painful, swollen and tender right elbow with no history or clinical signs of an elbow dislocation but had complete ulnar nerve palsy. She was managed initially with analgesia and plaster application and was taken directly to the operating theatre. Examination under anaesthesia revealed no elbow joint instability. The ulnar nerve was found entrapped between the trochlea and proximal ulna, intra-articularly. The medial epicondyle was also found avulsed from the humerus, with an incarcerated medial epicondylar fragment in the elbow joint. PMID:26546588

  10. Nerve conduction study among healthy malays. The influence of age, height and body mass index on median, ulnar, common peroneal and sural nerves.

    PubMed

    Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Abdullah, Mohd Rusli; Tharakan, John; Prasad, Atul; Husin, Zabidi Azhar; Hussin, Ahmad Munawir; Tahir, Adnan; Razak, Salmi Abdul

    2006-07-01

    Nerve conduction study is essential in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies and diffuse polyneuropathies. Age, height and body mass index (BMI) can affect nerve velocities as reported by previous studies. We studied the effect of these factors on median, ulnar, common peroneal and sural nerves among healthy Malay subjects. We observed slowing of nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) with increasing age and BMI (except ulnar sensory velocities). No demonstrable trend can be seen across different height groups except in common peroneal nerve. PMID:22589600

  11. Nerve Conduction Study Among Healthy Malays. The Influence of Age, Height and Body Mass Index on Median, Ulnar, Common Peroneal and Sural Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Abdullah, Mohd Rusli; Tharakan, John; Prasad, Atul; Husin, Zabidi Azhar; Hussin, Ahmad Munawir; Tahir, Adnan; Razak, Salmi Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Nerve conduction study is essential in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies and diffuse polyneuropathies. Age, height and body mass index (BMI) can affect nerve velocities as reported by previous studies. We studied the effect of these factors on median, ulnar, common peroneal and sural nerves among healthy Malay subjects. We observed slowing of nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) with increasing age and BMI (except ulnar sensory velocities). No demonstrable trend can be seen across different height groups except in common peroneal nerve. PMID:22589600

  12. Sleeve bridging of the rhesus monkey ulnar nerve with muscular branches of the pronator teres: multiple amplification of axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yu-hui; Zhang, Pei-xun; Wang, Yan-hua; Chen, Bo; Han, Na; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hong-bo; Yin, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-bud regeneration, i.e., multiple amplification, has been shown to exist in peripheral nerve regeneration. Multiple buds grow towards the distal nerve stump during proximal nerve fiber regeneration. Our previous studies have verified the limit and validity of multiple amplification of peripheral nerve regeneration using small gap sleeve bridging of small donor nerves to repair large receptor nerves in rodents. The present study sought to observe multiple amplification of myelinated nerve fiber regeneration in the primate peripheral nerve. Rhesus monkey models of distal ulnar nerve defects were established and repaired using muscular branches of the right forearm pronator teres. Proximal muscular branches of the pronator teres were sutured into the distal ulnar nerve using the small gap sleeve bridging method. At 6 months after suture, two-finger flexion and mild wrist flexion were restored in the ulnar-sided injured limbs of rhesus monkey. Neurophysiological examination showed that motor nerve conduction velocity reached 22.63 6.34 m/s on the affected side of rhesus monkey. Osmium tetroxide staining demonstrated that the number of myelinated nerve fibers was 1,657 652 in the branches of pronator teres of donor, and 2,661 843 in the repaired ulnar nerve. The rate of multiple amplification of regenerating myelinated nerve fibers was 1.61. These data showed that when muscular branches of the pronator teres were used to repair ulnar nerve in primates, effective regeneration was observed in regenerating nerve fibers, and functions of the injured ulnar nerve were restored to a certain extent. Moreover, multiple amplification was subsequently detected in ulnar nerve axons. PMID:25788920

  13. Anatomical and histomorphometric observations on the transfer of the anterior interosseous nerve to the deep branch of the ulnar nerve.

    PubMed

    Schenck, T L; Stewart, J; Lin, S; Aichler, M; Machens, H-G; Giunta, R E

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on the anatomical and histomorphometric features of the transfer of the anterior interosseous nerve to the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. The transfer was carried out in 15 cadaver specimens and is described using relevant anatomical landmarks. Nerve samples of donor and target nerves were histomorphometrically analysed and compared. The superficial and the deep ulnar branches had to be separated from each other for a length of 67 mm (SD 12; range 50-85) to reach the site of coaptation. We identified a suitable site for coaptation lying proximal to the pronator quadratus muscle, 202 mm (SD 15; range 185-230) distal to the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The features of the anterior interosseous nerve included a smaller nerve diameter, smaller cross-sectional area of fascicles, fewer fascicles and axons, but a similar axon density. The histomorphometric inferiority of the anterior interosseous nerve raises a question about whether it should be transferred only to selected parts of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve.Level III. PMID:25261412

  14. Use of a pedicled adipose flap as a sling for anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve.

    PubMed

    Danoff, Jonathan R; Lombardi, Joseph M; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2014-03-01

    In patients with primary cubital tunnel syndrome, we hypothesize that using a vascularized adipose sling to secure the ulnar nerve during anterior subcutaneous transposition will lead to improved patient outcomes. The adipose flap is designed to surround the ulnar nerve with a pliable, vascularized fat envelope, mimicking the natural fatty environment of peripheral nerves. This technique may offer advantages in securing the anteriorly transposed ulnar nerve and reducing instances of postoperative perineural scarring. Patients experience good functional outcomes; most experience resolution of symptoms. PMID:24503232

  15. Anastomosis between the median and ulnar nerve in the forearm. An anatomic study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kazakos, Konstantin J; Smyrnis, Anastasios; Xarchas, Konstantin C; Dimitrakopoulou, Alexandra; Verettas, Dionysios-Alexandros

    2005-02-01

    Anastomosis between the median and ulnar nerve in the forearm has been shown to be of clinical significance. We aimed to determine the presence of median to ulnar nerve communications in the forearm of the Greek population by anatomical studies. At the same time we defined the types and patterns of the anastomoses found and compared them to those reported in similar studies that were retrieved after a wide review of the literature. One hundred and sixty three forearms from 100 cadavers (53 males, 47 females, 25-91 years old) were carefully dissected to observe median and ulnar nerve communication. The anastomosis was found in 10 cadavers; it was bilateral in 4 and unilateral in 6, on the right side in four and on the left side in two. It occurred in 7 of the 53 male cadavers (14%) and in 3 of the 47 females (6.5%). Overall, the anastomosis was found in 14 of the 163 forearms (8.6%). No case of ulnar to median nerve anastomosis in the forearm was found in anatomical examination. PMID:15792204

  16. Ultrasonographic reference sizes of the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots in healthy Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takamichi; Ochi, Kazuhide; Hosomi, Naohisa; Mukai, Tomoya; Ueno, Hiroki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Toshiho; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify, for practical use, ultrasonographic reference values for nerve sizes at multiple sites, including entrapment and non-entrapment sites along the median and ulnar nerves and among the cervical nerve roots. We verified reliable sites and site-based differences between the reference values. In addition, we found associations between the reference nerve sizes and several physical characteristics (gender, dominant hand, age, height, weight, body mass index [BMI] and wrist circumference). Nerves were measured bilaterally at 26 sites or levels in 60 healthy Japanese adults (29 males; age, 35.4 9.7 y; BMI, 22.3 3.6 kg/m(2); wrist circumference, 16.0 1.3 cm on the right side and 15.9 1.2 cm on the left side). The mean reference nerve sizes were 5.6-9.1 mm(2) along the median nerve, 4.1-6.7 mm(2) along the ulnar nerve and 2.14-3.39 mm among the cervical nerve roots. Multifactorial regression analyses revealed that the physical characteristics most strongly associated with nerve size were age, BMI and wrist circumference at the entrapment sites (F= 7.6, p < 0.01, at the pisiform bone level of the carpal tunnel; F= 15.1, p < 0.001, at the level of Guyon's canal), as well as wrist circumference and gender at the non-entrapment sites (F= 70.6, p < 0.001, along the median nerve; F= 24.7, p < 0.001, along the ulnar nerve). Our results suggest that the factors with the greatest influence on nerve size differed between entrapment and non-entrapment sites. Site-based differences in nerve size were determined using one-way analyses of variance (p < 0.001). Intra- and inter-observer reliability was highest for the median nerve, at both the distal wrist crease and mid-humerus; at the arterial split along the ulnar nerve; and at the fifth cervical nerve root level. No systematic error was indicated by Bland-Altman analysis; the coefficients of variation were 5.5%-9.2% for intra-observer reliability and 7.1%-8.7% for inter-observer reliability. PMID:23830101

  17. Distal Ulna Fracture With Delayed Ulnar Nerve Palsy in a Baseball Player.

    PubMed

    Pasque, Charles B; Pearson, Clark; Margo, Bradley; Ethel, Robert

    2016-02-01

    We present a case report of a college baseball player who sustained a blunt-trauma, distal-third ulna fracture from a thrown ball with delayed presentation of ulnar nerve palsy. Even after his ulna fracture had healed, the nerve injury made it difficult for the athlete to control a baseball while throwing, resulting in a delayed return to full baseball activity for 3 to 4 months. He had almost complete nerve recovery by 6 months after his injury and complete nerve recovery by 1 year after his injury. PMID:26866319

  18. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  19. Concomitant Lipoma and Ganglion Causing Ulnar Nerve Compression at the Wrist: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lee Ping; Tan, Jacqueline Siau Woon

    2016-04-01

    We present a rare case of ulnar nerve compression caused by concurrent lumps-a lipoma and a ganglion at the wrist, with no prior report cited in the English literature. This case illustrates the possibility of dual concurrent pathologies causing ulnar neuropathy and the importance of not missing one. PMID:25536205

  20. Anatomical Study of the Ulnar Nerve Variations at High Humeral Level and Their Possible Clinical and Diagnostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Guru, Anitha; Kumar, Naveen; Ravindra Shanthakumar, Swamy; Patil, Jyothsna; Nayak Badagabettu, Satheesha; Aithal Padur, Ashwini; Nelluri, Venu Madhav

    2015-01-01

    Background. Descriptive evaluation of nerve variations plays a pivotal role in the usefulness of clinical or surgical practice, as an anatomical variation often sets a risk of nerve palsy syndrome. Ulnar nerve (UN) is one amongst the major nerves involved in neuropathy. In the present anatomical study, variations related to ulnar nerve have been identified and its potential clinical implications discussed. Materials and Method. We examined 50 upper limb dissected specimens for possible ulnar nerve variations. Careful observation for any aberrant formation and/or communication in relation to UN has been carried out. Results. Four out of 50 limbs (8%) presented with variations related to ulnar nerve. Amongst them, in two cases abnormal communication with neighboring nerve was identified and variation in the formation of UN was noted in remaining two limbs. Conclusion. An unusual relation of UN with its neighboring nerves, thus muscles, and its aberrant formation might jeopardize the normal sensori-motor behavior. Knowledge about anatomical variations of the UN is therefore important for the clinicians in understanding the severity of ulnar nerve neuropathy related complications. PMID:26246909

  1. High origin of dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve and variations in its branching pattern and distribution: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Ulnar nerve is a branch of the brachial plexus. In the front of the forearm, normally near the wrist joint, it gives a dorsal cutaneous branch which supplies the skin of the dorsum of the hand. Case presentation The present case reports a very rare finding, the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve along with the main nerve trunk originated between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, after descending along the medial border of the forearm extensor surface, on the dorsal aspect of the wrist it is divided into three branches, one medial and two lateral. The medial most division received a communicating branch from the superficial ramus of the ulnar nerve and continued as the medial proper digital nerve of the little finger. The lateral two divisions became cutaneous on the medial half of the dorsum of the hand along the medial three digits i.e. radial and ulnar side of little, ring and middle finger. Conclusion The site, extent of injury, variations and the delay in the treatment, significantly influences the outcome of ulnar nerve repair. Thus, an adequate knowledge of all possible variations in the ulnar nerve may be important for clinicians and may help to explain uncommon symptoms. PMID:20062647

  2. [Permanent abduction of the little finger without ulnar nerve palsy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yacoubi, H; Najib, A; Daoudi, A

    2012-10-01

    Wartenberg's sign, or permanent abduction of the little finger, occurs in the context of sequelae of ulnar nerve palsy. Its presence alone is rarely reported in the literature and is due to avulsion of the insertion of the third volar interosseous muscle. Several surgical techniques to correct this sign are reported in the literature. The authors report the case of a Wartenberg's sign without ulnar nerve palsy due to traumatic avulsion of the third volar interosseous muscle that was treated by a transfer of the extensor digiti minimi onto the radial side of the extensor digitorium communis according to technique of Bellan et al. After 1-year follow-up, result was good with no recurrence of any deformities and a normal active extension. PMID:23084653

  3. Oberlin partial ulnar nerve transfer for restoration in obstetric brachial plexus palsy of a newborn: case report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    An 8 month old male infant with Erb's birth palsy was treated with two peripheral nerve transfers. Except for rapid motor reinnervations, elbow flexion was obtained by an Oberlin's partial ulnar nerve transfer, while shoulder abduction was restored by an accessory-to-suprascapular nerve transfer. The initial contraction of the biceps muscle occurred two months after surgery. Forty months after surgery, elbow flexion reached M5 without functional loss of the ulnar nerve. This case demonstrates an excellent result of an Oberlin's nerve transfer for restoration of flexion of the elbow joint in Erb's birth palsy. However, at this time partial ulnar nerve transfer for Erb's birth palsy is an optional procedure; a larger number of cases will need to be studied for it to be widely accepted as a standard procedure for Erb's palsy at birth. PMID:17147774

  4. Ulnar Nerve Entrapment at the Elbow (Cubital Tunnel Syndrome)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... boney ridge of the medial epicondyle. Because this stretching can irritate the nerve, keeping your elbow bent ... from getting caught on the bony ridge and stretching when you bend your elbow. This procedure is ...

  5. Results of ulnar nerve neurotization to biceps brachii muscle in brachial plexus injury

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Marcelo Rosa De; Rabelo, Neylor Teofilo Arajo; Silveira, Clvis Castanho; Petersen, Pedro Arajo; Paula, Emygdio Jos Leomil De; Mattar, Rames

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors influencing the results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of the brachii biceps muscle, aiming at the restoration of elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injury. METHODS: 19 patients, with 18 men and 1 woman, mean age 28.7 years. Eight patients had injury to roots C5-C6 and 11, to roots C5-C6-C7. The average time interval between injury and surgery was 7.5 months. Four patients had cervical fractures associated with brachial plexus injury. The postoperative follow-up was 15.7 months. RESULTS: Eight patients recovered elbow flexion strength MRC grade 4; two, MRC grade 3 and nine, MRC <3. There was no impairment of the previous ulnar nerve function. CONCLUSION: The surgical results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of brachii biceps muscle are dependent on the interval between brachial plexus injury and surgical treatment, the presence of associated fractures of the cervical spine and occipital condyle, residual function of the C8-T1 roots after the injury and the involvement of the C7 root. Signs of reinnervation manifested up to 3 months after surgery showed better results in the long term. Level of Evidence: IV, Case Series. PMID:24453624

  6. Ulnar nerve neuropraxia after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Konczak, Clark R

    2005-01-01

    A case is presented that illustrates and discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis and chiropractic management of a 50-year-old male presenting with a case of ulnar neuropraxia following extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy. Onset is believed to be due to the patient’s arm position in full abduction and external rotation during the lithotripsy procedure. Motor abnormalities related to the ulnar nerve were noted in the absence of distinct sensory findings. Chiropractic treatment focused on relief of the patient’s pain during the course of the condition. Treatment may have helped in the rapid and complete resolution of his symptoms in this case. Poor patient positioning on hard surfaces, for extended periods may place pressure on superficial nerves resulting in nerve injury. In this case, the outcome was excellent, with complete resolution of symptoms less than one week later. The prognosis for this type of neuropraxia is usually good with conservative management. The patient history and chronological clinical course strongly suggest a causal association between the patient’s position during the procedure and the development of the ulnar neuropraxia. PMID:17549150

  7. Adipose Flap Versus Fascial Sling for Anterior Subcutaneous Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve.

    PubMed

    Verveld, Caroline J; Danoff, Jonathan R; Lombardi, Joseph M; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2016-02-01

    Perineural scarring is a major cause of recurrent symptoms after anterior subcutaneous transposition secured with a fascial sling. Use of a vascularized adipose flap to secure the anteriorly transposed ulnar nerve can help reduce nerve adherence and may enhance nerve recovery. In the study reported here, we retrospectively reviewed the long-term outcomes of ulnar nerve anterior subcutaneous transposition secured with either an adipose flap (16 patients) or a fascial sling (17 patients). The 33 patients underwent physical examinations and completed the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) questionnaire, visual analog scales (VASs), and the Modified Bishop Rating Scale (MBRS). There were no significant differences in DASH (P = .673), VAS pain (P = .413), or VAS weakness (P = .362) scores between the adipose flap and fascial sling groups. Physical examinations revealed no significant differences in flexion-extension arc (P = .668) or supination-pronation arc (P = .226) between the operated and nonoperated extremities. Lateral pinch strength and grip strength were comparable. On the MBRS, excellent and good outcomes were reported by 62.5% and 37.5% of the adipose flap patients, respectively, and 59% and 41% of the fascial sling patients. The contribution of perineural scarring to postoperative recurrent ulnar neuropathy is well documented. We think the pedicled adipofascial flap benefits the peripheral nerve by providing a scar tissue barrier and an optimal milieu for vascular regeneration. For all patients in the present study, symptoms improved, though the adipose flap and fascial sling groups were not significantly different in their objective outcomes. Subjective results were slightly better for the adipose flap patients but not significantly so. These findings indicate that, compared with the current standard of care, adipose flaps are more efficacious in securing the anteriorly transposed nerve. PMID:26866320

  8. Schwannoma of the medial cutaneous nerve of the arm: a rare location with concomitant compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Gutkowska, Olga; Martynkiewicz, Jacek; B?k, Micha?; Ha?o?, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a case of rare location of schwannoma in the medial cutaneous nerve of the arm at the level of the axilla. Preliminary diagnostic examination of the tumour was carried out in another hospital by means of open biopsy. In the preoperative period symptoms of ulnar nerve dysfunction (paraesthesias, positive Hoffmann-Tinel sign) dominated the clinical picture. After having performed imaging studies and electromyographic (EMG) examination, the patient was scheduled for an operation. The tumour, measuring 3.5 3.0 1.5 cm, was resected without damage to the fascicular structure. Presence of paraesthesias in the distribution of the medial cutaneous nerve of the arm, which was first noted in the postoperative period, persists in moderate severity until now. As a result of the performed operative treatment, such symptoms as palpable tumour mass, pain, paraesthesias in the ulnar nerve distribution and positive Hoffmann-Tinel sign resolved. On the basis of histopathological examination results the final diagnosis of classical schwannoma was established. PMID:26443319

  9. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the elbow with rdial, median and ulnar nerve compression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, idiopathic proliferative disorder of the synovium. While, PVNS of elbow is extremely rare. We report an 82-year-old female patient with 20-year-history of gradually increased PVNS in her left elbow. The multiple masses were located in anterior, medial and lateral of elbow. Her radial, median and ulnar nerves were compressed by the tumor. We resected tumor of extra-articular part piecemeally and released the compression of nerves. After the surgery, the patient gained a functional recovery. Two years after surgery she had a tumor recurrence, but without any symptoms of nerve compression syndromes. We discussed its clinical diagnosis, radiological features, MRI findings, pathophysiology, and treatment. PMID:26823718

  10. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the elbow with rdial, median and ulnar nerve compression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, idiopathic proliferative disorder of the synovium. While, PVNS of elbow is extremely rare. We report an 82-year-old female patient with 20-year-history of gradually increased PVNS in her left elbow. The multiple masses were located in anterior, medial and lateral of elbow. Her radial, median and ulnar nerves were compressed by the tumor. We resected tumor of extra-articular part piecemeally and released the compression of nerves. After the surgery, the patient gained a functional recovery. Two years after surgery she had a tumor recurrence, but without any symptoms of nerve compression syndromes. We discussed its clinical diagnosis, radiological features, MRI findings, pathophysiology, and treatment. PMID:26823718

  11. A rare cause of ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow area illustrated by six cases: The anconeus epitrochlearis muscle.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J; Camuzard, O; Gauci, M-O; Winter, M

    2015-12-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment is the second most common compressive neuropathy after carpal tunnel syndrome. The accessory anconeus epitrochlearis muscle -present in 4% to 34% of the general population- is a known, but rare cause of ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow. The aim of this article was to expand our knowledge about this condition based on six cases that we encountered at our hospital between 2011 and 2015. Every patient had a typical clinical presentation: hypoesthesia or sensory deficit in the fourth and fifth fingers; potential intrinsics atrophy of the fourth intermetacarpal space; loss of strength and difficulty with fifth finger abduction. Although it can be useful to have the patient undergo ultrasonography or MRI to aid in the diagnosis, only electromyography (EMG) was performed in our patients. EMG revealed clear compression in the ulnar groove, with conduction block and a large drop in nerve conduction velocity. Treatment typically consists of conservative treatment first (splint, analgesics). Surgical treatment should be considered when conservative treatment has failed or the patient presents severe neurological deficits. In all of our patients, the ulnar nerve was surgically released but not transposed. Five of the six patients had completely recovered after 0.5 to 4years follow-up. Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow by the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle is not common, but it must not be ignored. Only ultrasonography, MRI or, preferably, surgical exploration can establish the diagnosis. EMG findings such as reduced motor nerve conduction velocity in a short segment of the ulnar nerve provides evidence of anconeus epitrochlearis-induced neuropathy. PMID:26545312

  12. Development and validation of the patient-rated ulnar nerve evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compression neuropathy at the elbow causes substantial pain and disability. Clinical research on this disorder is hampered by the lack of a specific outcome measure for this problem. A patient-reported outcome measure, The Patient-Rated Ulnar Nerve Evaluation (PRUNE) was developed to assess pain, symptoms and functional disability in patients with ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. Methods An iterative process was used to develop and test items. Content validity was addressed using patient/expert interviews and review; linking of the scale items to International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) codes; and cognitive coding of the items. Psychometric analysis of data collected from 89 patients was evaluated. Patients completed a longer version of the PRUNE at baseline. Item reduction was performed using statistical analyses and patient input to obtain the final 20 item version. Score distribution, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, correlational construct validity, discriminative known group construct validity, and responsiveness to change were evaluated. Results Content analysis indicated items were aligned with subscale concepts of pain and sensory/motor symptoms impairments; specific upper extremity-related tasks; and that the usual function subscale provided a broad view of self-care, household tasks, major life areas and recreation/ leisure. Four subscales were demonstrated by factor analysis (pain, sensory/motor symptoms impairments, specific activity limitations, and usual activity/role restrictions). The PRUNE and its subscales had high reliability coefficients (ICCs > 0.90; 0.98 for total score) and low absolute error. The minimal detectable change was 7.1 points. It was able to discriminate between clinically meaningful subgroups determined by an independent evaluation assessing work status, residual symptoms, motor recovery, sensory recovery and global improvement) p < 0.01. Responsiveness was excellent (SRM = 1.55). Conclusion The PRUNE is a brief, open-access, patient-reported outcome measure for patients with ulnar nerve compression that demonstrates strong measurement properties. PMID:23617407

  13. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve improves neurological function in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Pei-xun; Peng, Zhang; Xue, Feng; Wang, Tian-bing; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    Although several surgical procedures exist for treating cubital tunnel syndrome, the best surgical option remains controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve in patients with moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome and to analyze prognostic factors, we retrospectively reviewed 62 patients (65 elbows) diagnosed with cubital tunnel syndrome who underwent anterior subcutaneous transposition. Preoperatively, the initial severity of the disease was evaluated using the McGowan scale as modified by Goldberg: 18 patients (28%) had grade IIA neuropathy, 20 (31%) had grade IIB, and 27 (42%) had grade III. Postoperatively, according to the Wilson & Krout criteria, treatment outcomes were excellent in 38 patients (58%), good in 16 (25%), fair in 7 (11%), and poor in 4 (6%), with an excellent and good rate of 83%. A negative correlation was found between the preoperative McGowan grade and the postoperative Wilson & Krout score. The patients having fair and poor treatment outcomes had more advanced age, lower nerve conduction velocity, and lower action potential amplitude compared with those having excellent and good treatment outcomes. These results suggest that anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve is effective and safe for the treatment of moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome, and initial severity, advancing age, and electrophysiological parameters can affect treatment outcome. PMID:26692871

  14. A histological analysis of human median and ulnar nerves following implantation of Utah slanted electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Michael B; Wark, Heather A C; Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2016-01-01

    For decades, epineurial electrodes have been used in clinical therapies involving the stimulation of peripheral nerves. However, next generation peripheral nerve interfaces for applications such as neuroprosthetics would benefit from an increased ability to selectively stimulate and record from nerve tissue. This increased selectivity may require the use of more invasive devices, such as the Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA). Previous research with USEAs has described the histological response to the implantation of these devices in cats and rats; however, no such data has been presented in humans. Therefore, we describe here the degree of penetration and foreign body reaction to USEAs after a four-week implantation period in human median and ulnar nerves. We found that current array designs penetrate a relatively small percentage of the available endoneurial tissue in these large nerves. When electrode tips were located within the endoneurial tissue, labels for axons and myelin were found in close proximity to electrodes. Consistent with other reports, we found activated macrophages attached to explanted devices, as well as within the tissue surrounding the implantation site. Despite this inflammatory response, devices were able to successfully record single- or multi-unit action potentials and elicit sensory percepts. However, modifying device design to allow for greater nerve penetration, as well as mitigating the inflammatory response to such devices, would likely increase device performance and should be investigated in future research. PMID:26606449

  15. Chiropractic management of a patient with ulnar nerve compression symptoms: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Illes, Jennifer D.; Johnson, Theodore L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management of a patient with arm and hand numbness and who was suspected to have ulnar nerve compression. Clinical Features A 41-year-old woman presented with hand weakness and numbness along the medial aspect of her right forearm and the 3 most medial fingers. The onset of symptoms presented suddenly, 3 weeks prior, when she woke up in the morning and assumed she had slept wrong. The patients posture showed protracted shoulders and moderate forward head carriage. Orthopedic assessment revealed symptomatic right elevated arm stress test, grip strength asymmetry, and a Tinel sign at the right cubital tunnel. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated using chiropractic care, which consisted of manipulative therapy, myofascial therapy, and elastic therapeutic taping. Active home care included performing postural exercises and education about workstation ergonomics. She demonstrated immediate subjective improvement of her numbness and weakness after the first treatment. Over a series of 11 treatments, her symptoms resolved completely; and she was able to perform work tasks without dysfunction. Conclusion Chiropractic treatment consisting of manipulation, soft tissue mobilizations, exercise, and education of workstation ergonomics appeared to reduce the symptoms of ulnar nerve compression symptoms for this patient. PMID:24294148

  16. Factors Influencing Outcomes after Ulnar Nerve Stability-Based Surgery for Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ho Jung; Oh, Won Taek; Koh, Il Hyun; Kim, Sungmin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Simple decompression of the ulnar nerve has outcomes similar to anterior transposition for cubital tunnel syndrome; however, there is no consensus on the proper technique for patients with an unstable ulnar nerve. We hypothesized that 1) simple decompression or anterior ulnar nerve transposition, depending on nerve stability, would be effective for cubital tunnel syndrome and that 2) there would be determining factors of the clinical outcome at two years. Materials and Methods Forty-one patients with cubital tunnel syndrome underwent simple decompression (n=30) or anterior transposition (n=11) according to an assessment of intra-operative ulnar nerve stability. Clinical outcome was assessed using grip and pinch strength, two-point discrimination, the mean of the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) survey, and the modified Bishop Scale. Results Preoperatively, two patients were rated as mild, another 20 as moderate, and the remaining 19 as severe according to the Dellon Scale. At 2 years after operation, mean grip/pinch strength increased significantly from 19.4/3.2 kg to 31.1/4.1 kg, respectively. Two-point discrimination improved from 6.0 mm to 3.2 mm. The DASH score improved from 31.0 to 14.5. All but one patient scored good or excellent according to the modified Bishop Scale. Correlations were found between the DASH score at two years and age, pre-operative grip strength, and two-point discrimination. Conclusion An ulnar nerve stability-based approach to surgery selection for cubital tunnel syndrome was effective based on 2-year follow-up data. Older age, worse preoperative grip strength, and worse two-point discrimination were associated with worse outcomes at 2 years. PMID:26847300

  17. Pure neuritic leprosy presenting as ulnar nerve neuropathy: a case report of electrodiagnostic, radiographic, and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Payne, Russell; Baccon, Jennifer; Dossett, John; Scollard, David; Byler, Debra; Patel, Akshal; Harbaugh, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Hansen's disease, or leprosy, is a chronic infectious disease with many manifestations. Though still a major health concern and leading cause of peripheral neuropathy in the developing world, it is rare in the United States, with only about 150 cases reported each year. Nevertheless, it is imperative that neurosurgeons consider it in the differential diagnosis of neuropathy. The causative organism is Mycobacterium leprae, which infects and damages Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, leading first to sensory and then to motor deficits. A rare presentation of Hansen's disease is pure neuritic leprosy. It is characterized by nerve involvement without the characteristic cutaneous stigmata. The authors of this report describe a case of pure neuritic leprosy presenting as ulnar nerve neuropathy with corresponding radiographic, electrodiagnostic, and histopathological data. This 11-year-old, otherwise healthy male presented with progressive right-hand weakness and numbness with no cutaneous abnormalities. Physical examination and electrodiagnostic testing revealed findings consistent with a severe ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse thickening and enhancement of the ulnar nerve and narrowing at the cubital tunnel. The patient underwent ulnar nerve decompression with biopsy. Pathology revealed acid-fast organisms within the nerve, which was pathognomonic for Hansen's disease. He was started on antibiotic therapy, and on follow-up he had improved strength and sensation in the ulnar nerve distribution. Pure neuritic leprosy, though rare in the United States, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of those presenting with peripheral neuropathy and a history of travel to leprosy-endemic areas. The long incubation period of M. leprae, the ability of leprosy to mimic other conditions, and the low sensitivity of serological tests make clinical, electrodiagnostic, and radiographic evaluation necessary for diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is imperative to prevent permanent neurological injury. PMID:26047418

  18. Improving the radial nerve neurodynamic test: An observation of tension of the radial, median and ulnar nerves during upper limb positioning.

    PubMed

    Manvell, Joshua J; Manvell, Nicole; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Reid, Susan A

    2015-12-01

    The radial nerve neurodynamic test (ULNT2b), used to implicate symptoms arising from the radial nerve, is proposed to selectively increase strain of the nerve without increasing strain of adjacent tissue, though this has not been established. This study aimed to determine the upper limb position that results in: (1) the greatest tension of the radial nerve and (2) the greatest difference in tension between the radial nerve and the other two major nerves of the upper limb: median and ulnar. Tension (N) of the radial, median and ulnar nerves was measured simultaneously using three buckle force transducers during seven upper limb positions in the axilla of ten embalmed whole body human cadavers (n=20 limbs). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc tests determined differences in tension between nerves and between limb positions. A Composite position consisting of ULNT2b (scapular depression, shoulder internal rotation, elbow extension, forearm pronation, wrist flexion) with the addition of shoulder abduction 40 and extension 25, wrist ulnar deviation and thumb flexion demonstrated significantly greater tension of the radial nerve than any other tested position (mean tension 11.32N; 95% CI 10.25, 12.29, p<0.01), including ULNT2b (2.20N; 1.84, 2.57; p<0.01). Additionally, the Composite position demonstrated the greatest difference in tension between the radial and median (mean difference 4.88N; 95% CI 3.16, 6.61; p<0.01) and radial and ulnar nerves (9.26N, 7.54, 10.99; p<0.01). This position constitutes a biomechanically plausible test to detect neuropathic pain related to the radial nerve. PMID:25892706

  19. Results after simple decompression of the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Kristina; Lukschu, Sandra; Dunda, Sebastian E.; Krapohl, Bjrn Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome represents the second most common compression neuropathy of the upper limb. For more than four decades there has been a controversy about the best surgical treatment modality for cubital tunnel syndrome. In this study the results of 28 patients with simple ulnar nerve decompression are presented. Data analyses refers to clinical examination, personal interview, DASH-questionnaire, and electrophysiological measurements, which were assessed pre- and postoperatively. 28 patients (15 females, 13 males) were included in this study. The average age at time of surgery was 47.78 years (31.6873.10 years). The period from onset of symptoms to surgery ranged from 2 to 24 months (mean 6 months). The mean follow-up was 2.11 years (0.914.16 years). Postoperatively there was a significant decrease in DASH score from 52.6 points to 13.3 points (p<0.001). Also the electrophysiological findings improved significantly: motor nerve conduction velocity increased from 36.0 m/s to 44.4 m/s (p=0.008) and the motor nerve action potential reached 5,470 mV compared to 3,665 mV preoperatively (p=0.018). A significant increase of grip strength from 59% (in comparison to the healthy hand) to 80% was observed (p=0.002). Pain was indicated by means of a visual analog scale from 0 to 100. Preoperatively the median level of pain was 29 and postoperatively it was 0 (p=0.001). The decrease of the two-point-discrimination of the three ulnar finger nerves was also highly significant (p<0.001) from 11.3 mm to 5.0 mm. Significant postoperative improvement was also observed in the clinical examination concerning muscle atrophy (p=0.002), clawing (p=0.008), paresthesia (p=0.004), the sign of Froment (p=0.004), the sign of Hoffmann-Tinel (p=0.021), and clumsiness (p=0.002). Overall nearly 90% of all patients were satisfied with the result of the operation. In 96.4% of all cases, surgery improved the symptoms and in one patient (3.6%) the success was noted as poor because the symptoms remained unchanged. In 35.7% the success was graded as moderate, in 10.7% as good and in 50.0% as very good. PMID:26734540

  20. An anatomical study of the superficial palmar communicating branch between the median and ulnar nerves.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Soames, R; Lamb, C

    2016-02-01

    The palmar communicating branch between the median and ulnar nerves was investigated in 98 hands with the aim of outlining its most common branching patterns and describing its relationship to well-defined anatomical landmarks, including the bistyloid line, wrist crease and flexor retinaculum. Five branching patterns were identified and classified based on their proximal and distal attachments. The palmar communicating branch was found to lie between 26%-79% of the total distance between the metacarpophalangeal joint of the long finger and the wrist crease, and 35%-75% of the total distance between the metacarpophalangeal joint of the long finger and the middle of the bistyloid line. With the aid of the morphometric indices obtained from this study, a risk area where the palmar communicating branch is most likely to be found is outlined. Knowledge of the branching patterns and location of the palmar communicating branch can help clinicians to better assess variations in the patterns of sensation, preserve the nerve during surgical interventions to the palm and better assess post-operative complications involving the branch. PMID:25770900

  1. Simultaneous Bilateral Functional Radiography in Ulnar Collateral Ligament Lesion of the Thumb: An Original Technique.

    PubMed

    Dominguez Gonzalez, Jose Javier; Zorrilla Ribot, Pedro; Perez Riverol, Elba Nieves; Martinez Rodriguez, Ana Sarai

    2015-08-01

    In any thumb injury, particularly one caused by hyperabduction, an ulnar collateral ligament lesion (gamekeeper's or skier's thumb) must be considered. If the diagnosis is suspected, and radiographs show no fracture, comparative radiographs should be obtained in forced valgus. This examination, which uses a stress test to cause joint tilt, is crucial in making an accurate diagnosis and deciding on the most appropriate therapeutic approach. The forced valgus maneuver typically is performed by the examiner, who must stay with the patient in the radiography room and wear radiologic protection. We report on a simple, reliable, reproducible method that allows the patient's thumbs to be compared, under the same force application conditions, on a single radiograph. This technique reduces the patient's and examiner's exposure to x-rays and is well tolerated by the patient. Anesthesia for the thumb is usually not necessary. PMID:26251933

  2. [Ulnar nerve neuropathy in the elbow region: surgical findings and conclusions about the etiologic mechanism and indications for surgery].

    PubMed

    Nigst, H

    1976-01-01

    The operative findings of 191 cases of so-called tardy ulnar neuritis are demonstrated. They may be divided into 2 groups, neuropathies associated with (67 cases) and without dislocation or subluxation of the nerve (124 cases). Cases of ulnar neuritis associated with dislocation of the nerve showing no other pathologic changes indicate that dislocation of the nerve alone may account for clinical signs. The next step is the formation of adhesions followed at a later date by formation of a pseudoneuroma. As this condition is mostly of congenital origin an additional factor is needed for including clinical manifestations such as direct or chronic professional trauma. Not enough importance has been attached to the strong triceps, with large muscle mass reaching far down to the olecranon, which might cause irritation of the nerve by pressing it against the wall of the sulcus or dislocating it over the epicondyle. In cases of neuropathy without dislocation/subluxation there is always a pathological finding even when there is no pseudoneuroma. The m. epitrochleoanconaeus is found in this category (14 cases, 11%). The cubital tunnel syndrom of OSBORNE in a very large sense (all possible causes of compression distal to the sulcus) has been found 28 times. Therapeutic measures aim at taking the nerve away from the causative irritation (anterior transposition) or at erradicating the cause (resection of the epicondyle, section of the arcus tendineus, excision of a tumor etc.). OSBORNE's operation has been performed only thrice. Subluxation or dislocation of the nerve may follow this procedure or the nerve is left more exposed to pressure than before. Deep submuscular transposition is preferred in patients less than 50 years old but other factors may determine the choice between deep and subcutaneous transposition such as the cause of the neuropathy, arthritis of the elbow joint, strength of the flexor muscle mass etc. PMID:186363

  3. A widely displaced Galeazzi-equivalent lesion with median nerve compromise

    PubMed Central

    Galanopoulos, Ilias; Fogg, Quentin; Ashwood, Neil; Fu, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old boy with a right distal radial fracture accompanied by a severely displaced complete distal ulnar physeal separation and associated median nerve compromise. This injury is known as Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in children and is an extremely rare injury associated with growth arrest. Recognition of the lesion can be difficult but wide displacement may be associated with other significant injuries such as neurovascular compromise. Prompt intervention reversed the neurological symptoms. At 10-month postoperation there was neither growth arrest nor loss of motion. Complete separation of the ulna physis remains often because of soft tissue interposition or capsule problems and prompt reduction is recommended in the literature as a priority. PMID:22907852

  4. Median nerve fascicle transfer versus ulnar nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch in C5-C6 and C5-C7 brachial plexus injuries: nonrandomized prospective study of 23 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Alvaro Baik; Paulos, Renata Gregorio; de Resende, Marcelo Rosa; Kiyohara, Leandro Yoshinobu; Sorrenti, Luiz; Wei, Teng Hsiang; Bolliger Neto, Raul; Mattar Jnior, Rames

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe whether the results of the median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps are equivalent to the classical ulnar nerve fascicle transfer, in terms of elbow flexion strength and donor nerve morbidity. Twenty-five consecutive patients were operated between March 2007 and July 2013. The patients were divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n?=?8), the patients received an ulnar nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch. In Group 2 (n?=?15), the patients received a median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch. Two patients with follow-up less than six months were excluded. Both groups were similar regarding age (P?=?0.070), interval of injury (P?=?0.185), and follow-up period (P?=?0.477). Elbow flexion against gravity was achieved in 7 of 8 (87.5%) patients in Group 1, versus 14 of 15 (93.3%) patients in Group 2 (P?=?1.000). The level of injury (C5-C6 or C5-C7) did not affect anti-gravity elbow flexion recovery in both the groups (P?=?1.000). It was concluded that the median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps is as good as the ulnar nerve fascicle transfer, even in C5-C7 injuries. PMID:24753064

  5. The usefulness of terminal latency index of median nerve and f-wave difference between median and ulnar nerves in assessing the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Kang Min; Shin, Kyong Jin; Park, Jinse; Ha, Sam Yeol; Kim, Sung Eun

    2014-04-01

    The calculated electrophysiological parameters, such as terminal latency index (TLI), residual latency, modified F ratio, and F-wave inversion, have been investigated as a diagnostic tool for detection of early stage of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the literature. However, the correlation of these calculated electrophysiological parameters with the clinical severity of CTS has not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of the calculated electrophysiological parameters and clinical severity in patients with CTS. A retrospective study was performed with 212 hands of 106 CTS patients. The CTS hands were classified as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe according to the clinical severity. The distal motor latency and distal motor conduction velocity of median nerve, minimal F-wave latency of median and ulnar nerves, and sensory nerve conduction velocity in the finger-wrist and palm-wrist segment of median nerve (SNCV f-w and SNCV p-w) were obtained in a conventional nerve conduction study. The TLI, residual latency, and modified F ratio of the median nerve and the difference of minimal F-wave latencies between the median and ulnar nerves (F-diff M-U) were calculated. The distal motor latency, residual latency, and F-diff M-U were significantly increased according to the clinical severity of CTS. The motor conduction velocity, SNCV p-w, SNCV f-w, TLI, and modified F ratio were significantly decreased according to the clinical severity of CTS. In analyses of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test, we used the Scheffe test as a post-hoc comparison analysis. The TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w showed a significant difference among all groups of each CTS severity. The sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between asymptomatic and mild, mild and moderate, and moderate and severe CTS groups were calculated by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The cut-off values of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between the asymptomatic and mild CTS groups were, respectively, 0.33 millisecond, 0.3 millisecond, and 40 cm/second. The cut-off values of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between mild and moderate were, respectively, 0.27 millisecond, 2.3 milliseconds, and 34.8 cm/second. The cut-off values of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between moderate and severe CTS groups were, respectively, 0.20 millisecond, 4.2 milliseconds, and 26.4 cm/second. We found that calculated electrophysiological parameters of conventional nerve conduction study could be a good indicator to determine the severity of CTS. PMID:24691235

  6. Gender Differences in Biochemical and Electroneurographic Parameters of Median and Ulnar Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Tiric-Campara, Merita; Tupkovic, Emir; Denislic, Miro; Biscevic, Mirza; Skopljak, Amira; Zunic, Lejla; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Alajbegovic, Azra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article are demonstrated differences in the aspects of the metabolic syndrome (MSy) between genders, as well as the association of MSy and neuropathy. The aim: The aim of our study was that in patients with newly discovered metabolic syndrome of both sexes make comparison of fasting blood glucose levels and after oral glucose tolerance test, as well as neurophysiological parameters of n.medianus and n.ulnaris. Patients and methods: All participants were examined dermatologically. The analysis included the 36 male and 36 female respondents with a newly discovered MSy. Results: The average age of men was 52.75±7.5 (40-65) years and women 52.1±7.7 (38-67) years. The average value of fasting blood glucose in women was 5.86±0.87 (4.5-8) mmol/L, and non significantly higher in men (p=0.0969) as 6.19±0.8 (4.7-8) mmol/L. Average values of blood sugar 120 minutes after oral glucose tolerance test were not significantly different (p=0.7052), and was 5.41±1.63 (3.3-9.7) mmol/L in women and 5.27±1.52 (2.7-9.8) mmol/L in men. Median motor velocity were significantly higher in women for n.medianus on the left (p=0.0024), n.ulnaris on the left (p=0.0081) and n.ulnaris on the right side (p=0.0293), and the median motor terminal latency were significantly longer in n.ulnaris on the left (p=0.0349) and n.ulnaris on the right side (p=0.011). There was no significant difference in the sensory conductivity velocity in n.medianus and n.ulnaris between the groups, but the amplitude with the highest peak of the sensory response was significantly higher in n.medianus on the left (p=0.0269) and n.ulnaris on the left side (p=0.0009) in female patients. Conclusion: The results indicate that there are differences in neurophysiological parameters of the investigated nerves between the genders, and that tested nerve structures in the course of MSy are affected slightly more in men. There were no significant differences in skin changes between genders. PMID:26862246

  7. Surgical outcome for intra- and extrapelvic femoral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Kline, D G

    1995-11-01

    Seventy-eight traumatic neuropathies were seen in 94 patients with femoral nerve lesions; 54 of these were operated on because of persistent complete functional loss and/or pain. The most common mechanism of injury to the femoral nerve was iatrogenic due to inguinal herniorrhaphy, total hip replacement, intraabdominal vascular or gynecological operation, and, less commonly, appendectomy, lumbar sympathectomy, and laparoscopic procedures. Femoral nerve injuries also resulted from penetrating gunshot and stab wounds, laceration by glass, and stretch/contusive injuries associated with pelvic fractures. There were no signs of clinical or electrical recovery in 45 of 78 patients with traumatic nerve injuries. These and other partial injuries associated with pain were explored and evaluated by intraoperative nerve stimulation and recording of nerve action potentials (NAPs). Despite complete loss of nerve function preoperatively, 13 patients had recordable NAPs and underwent neurolysis; each recovered function to at least a Grade 3 level. Twenty-seven patients had sural graft repairs performed with graft lengths varying from 2.5 to 14 cm. Most patients had some nerve regeneration and regained function to Grade 3 to 4 levels by 2 years postoperatively. Four of five patients with suture repairs recovered to Grade 3 or better within 2 years postoperatively. Despite a proximal pelvic level for most of these injuries and, as a result, lengthy graft repairs, recovery of some useful function was the rule rather than the exception. Tumors involved the femoral nerve in 16 patients and included eight neurofibromas, four schwannomas, one neurogenic sarcoma, two ganglion cysts, and one leiomyosarcoma. All tumors were treated surgically and most were removed successfully. PMID:7472543

  8. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  9. PEMF fails to enhance nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush lesion.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Abraho Fontes; Goes, Bruno Teixeira; Menezes, Diego; Gomes, Flvia Carvalho Alcantara; Zugaib, Joo; Stipursky, Joice; Gomes, Joyce R S; Oliveira, Jlia Teixeira; Vannier-Santos, Marcos Andr; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2009-12-01

    The use of electromagnetic fields has been reported to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. This study aimed to identify the effects of a prolonged protocol of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on peripheral nerve regeneration. Thirty-four male Swiss mice (Mus musculus) were divided into PEMF (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups. All animals underwent a unilateral sciatic-crush lesion, and the PEMF group was exposed to a 72-Hz, 2-G electromagnetic field for 30 min, five days a week, for three weeks. Functional analysis was carried out weekly. After three weeks, the animals were euthanized, and histological, morphometric, oxidative stress, and TGF-beta1 analyses were performed. Functional analysis showed no differences between the groups. Histological appearance was similar between PEMF and control nerves. Morphometric assessment showed that the PEMF nerves trended toward decreased regeneration. The levels of free radicals were more pronounced in PEMF nerves, but were not associated with an increase in the content of the TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathway. Prolonged PEMF regimen leads to delayed histological peripheral nerve regeneration and increased oxidative stress but no loss of function recovery. PMID:20021570

  10. Dermatological and immunological conditions due to nerve lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Domenico; Lupoli, Amalia; Caccavale, Stefano; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    Summary Some syndromes are of interest to both neurologists and dermatologists, because cutaneous involvement may harbinger symptoms of a neurological disease. The aim of this review is to clarify this aspect. The skin, because of its relationships with the peripheral sensory nervous system, autonomic nervous system and central nervous system, constitutes a neuroimmunoendocrine organ. The skin contains numerous neuropeptides released from sensory nerves. Neuropeptides play a precise role in cutaneous physiology and pathophysiology, and in certain skin diseases. A complex dysregulation of neuropeptides is a feature of some diseases of both dermatological and neurological interest (e.g. cutaneous and nerve lesions following herpes zoster infection, cutaneous manifestations of carpal tunnel syndrome, trigeminal trophic syndrome). Dermatologists need to know when a patient should be referred to a neurologist and should consider this option in those presenting with syndromes of unclear etiology. PMID:24125557

  11. Ultrasonography for nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Jung; Ahn, Jae Hong; Ryu, Dae Shik; Kang, Chae Hoon; Jung, Seung Mun; Park, Man Soo; Shin, Dong-Rock

    2015-01-01

    Nerve compression syndromes commonly involve the nerves in the upper extremity. High-resolution ultrasonography (US) can satisfactorily assess these nerves and may detect the morphological changes of the nerves. US can also reveal the causes of nerve compression when structural abnormalities or space-occupying lesions are present. The most common US finding of compression neuropathy is nerve swelling proximal to the compression site. This article reviews the normal anatomic location and US appearances of the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. Common nerve compression syndromes in the upper extremity and their US findings are also reviewed. PMID:25682987

  12. [Ulnar-sided wrist pain in sports: TFCC lesions and fractures of the hook of the hamate bone as uncommon diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Plger, M M; Kabir, K; Friedrich, M J; Welle, K; Burger, C

    2015-06-01

    Injuries to the hand and wrist are common sports injuries. The diagnosis and therapy of wrist injuries are becoming more important, especially in increasingly more popular ball-hitting sports, such as golf, tennis and baseball. Ulnar-sided wrist pain is initially often misdiagnosed and treated as tenosynovitis or tendinitis but tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and fractures of the hook of hamate bone, which can also occur in these sports are seldomly diagnosed. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature focussing on TFCC lesions and fractures of the hook of the hamate bone in racquet sports, baseball and golf. A systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed on the occurrence of TFCC lesions and fractures of the hook of the hamate bone. All studies and case reports were included. Because of the rarity of these injuries there were no exclusion criteria concerning the number of cases. Injuries associated with ball-hitting sports, such as TFCC lesions and fractures of hook of the hamate bone are still underrepresented in the current literature on sports injuries. The diagnosis and treatment of these injuries are often delayed and can severely handicap the performance and career of affected professional as well as amateur athletes. PMID:25956726

  13. CD-34 is expressed by a distinctive cell population in peripheral nerve, nerve sheath tumors, and related lesions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S W; Nickoloff, B J

    1993-10-01

    The pattern of CD-34 antigen (human progenitor cell antigen) immunoreactivity was studied within normal nerve, and a variety of nerve sheath and neuroectodermal tumors. Besides normal nerves, 111 soft tissue tumors were studied, including 17 neurofibromas, 10 neurilemomas, 12 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 1 melanocytic schwannoma, 21 fibroblastic lesions, 31 fibrohistiocytic lesions, seven neuroectodermal lesions, and 10 miscellaneous tumors. CD-34-positive dendritic cells were consistently identified within the endoneurium of normal nerve, all neurofibromas, dermatofibrosarcomas, and Antoni B (but not Antoni A) areas of neurilemomas. CD-34 was not expressed in the majority (eight of 10 cases) of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. CD-34 was also lacking in all fibroblastic lesions (nodular fasciitis, fibromatosis, keloid, fibrosarcoma) and in neuroectodermal tumors that are not generally considered to show true nerve sheath differentiation (neurotropic melanoma, clear cell sarcoma, neuroepithelioma). We conclude that CD-34 (or a closely related epitope) defines a normally occurring nerve sheath cell that appears to be cytologically and immunophenotypically distinct from a fibroblast and conventional Schwann cell. The antigen can also be localized to benign nerve sheath tumors, but tends to be lost in malignant ones. The consistent presence of CD-34 within all 13 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans can be used as evidence in support of the view that these lesions are variants of nerve sheath tumors, and distinct from benign fibrous histiocytomas which consistently lack the antigen. Finally, expression of CD-34 by one of three giant cell fibroblastomas reinforces the close relationship between this tumor and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. PMID:7690524

  14. How electrodiagnosis predicts clinical outcome of focal peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lawrence R

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the electrodiagnostic (EDX) prognostic factors for focal traumatic and nontraumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Referring physicians and patients often benefit from general and nerve-specific prognostic information from the EDX consultant. Knowing the probable outcome from a nerve injury allows the referring physician to choose the best treatment options for his/her patients. Nerve injuries are variable in their mechanism, location, and pathophysiology. The general effects of the injuries on nerve and muscle are well known, but more research is needed for nerve-specific information. Several factors currently known to influence prognosis include: nature of the nerve trauma, amount of axon loss, recruitment in muscles supplied by the nerve, the extent of demyelination, and the distance to reinnervate functional muscles. This article reviews these general concepts and also nerve-specific EDX measures that predict outcome after focal neuropathies. PMID:25989907

  15. Low-power laser efficacy in peripheral nerve lesion treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Nacu, Mihaela; Bruckner, Ion I.; Bunila, Daniela; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Ionescu, Elena

    1998-07-01

    In order to establish the low energy laser (LEL) effects on nervous tissue regeneration in clinical practice, we evaluated in double blind, placebo controlled study, the efficacy of LEL in the functional recovery of 46 patients with distal forearm post- traumatic nerve lesion, after surgical suture. The patients were divided into two groups: A-26 patients were treated with LEL; B- 20 patients, as control, were treated with placebo lasers and classical medical and physical therapy. Lasers used were: HeNe, 632.5 nm wavelength, 2 mW power, and GaAlAs diode laser, 880 nm wavelength, pulsed emission with an output power about 3 mW. Before, during and after the treatment, electromyography (EMG) and electroneurography (ENG) were done in order to measure objectively the efficacy of the treatment. We obtained good results after 4 - 5 months at 80.7% patients from group A and about the same results at 70% patients from group B, but after at least 8 months. The good results were noticed concerning the improvement of EMG and ENG registrations and on the involution of pain, inflammations, movements and force of the fingers. Finally we can say that the favorable results were obtained in at least half the time with LEL treatment faster than with classical therapy.

  16. Rodent Facial Nerve Recovery After Selected Lesions and Repair Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Hadlock, Tessa A.; Kowaleski, Jeffrey; Lo, David; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Heaton, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Measuring rodent facial movements is a reliable method for studying recovery from facial nerve manipulation, and for examining the behavioral correlates of aberrant regeneration. We quantitatively compared recovery of vibrissal and ocular function following three types of clinically relevant nerve injury. Methods 178 adult rats underwent facial nerve manipulation and testing. In the experimental groups, the left facial nerve was either crushed, transected and repaired epineurially, or transected and the stumps suture-secured into a tube with a 2 mm gap between them. Facial recovery was measured for the ensuing 1–4 months. Data were analyzed for whisking recovery. Previously developed markers of co-contraction of the upper and midfacial zones (possible synkinesis markers) were also examined. Results Animals in the crush groups recovered nearly normal whisking parameters within 25 days. The distal branch crush group showed improved recovery over the main trunk crush group for several days during early recovery. By week 9, the transection/repair groups showed evidence of recovery that trended further upward throughout the study period. The entubulation groups followed a similar recovery pattern, though they did not maintain significant recovery levels by the study conclusion. Markers of potential synkinesis increased in selected groups following facial nerve injury. Conclusions Rodent vibrissial function recovers in a predictable fashion following manipulation. Generalized co-contraction of the upper and midfacial zones emerges following facial nerve manipulation, possibly related to aberrant regeneration, polyterminal axons, or hypersensitivity of the rodent to sensory stimuli following nerve manipulation. PMID:20048604

  17. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Christopher C.; Altchek, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) insufficiency of the elbow can be a debilitating injury that often prevents athletes from competing effectively. The overhead athlete is particularly susceptible to this injury because the anterior bundle of the UCL is the primary restraint to the valgus stress that is created during the throwing motion. Repetitive trauma from constant overhead or throwing activity can ultimately render the ligament incompetent and cause recurrent pain and instability. Results: The authors currently use a docking technique that provides excellent graft fixation and reduces ulnar nerve related complications. Conclusions: This article details the assessment of the throwing athlete with valgus instability secondary to UCL insufficiency and highlights the technical aspects for reconstruction. The majority of athletes who undergo UCL reconstruction of the elbow can successfully return to their preinjury function. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): A PMID:23016117

  18. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Distal Radius Malunion

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Robin N.; Leversedge, Fraser J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malunion is a common complication of distal radius fractures. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) may be an effective treatment for distal radius malunion when appropriate indications are observed. Methods The use of USO for treatment of distal radius fracture malunion is described for older patients (typically patients >50 years) with dorsal or volar tilt less than 20 degrees and no carpal malalignment or intercarpal or distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) arthritis. Description of Technique Preoperative radiographs are examined to ensure there are no contraindications to ulnar shortening osteotomy. The neutral posteroanterior (PA) radiograph is used to measure ulnar variance and to estimate the amount of ulnar shortening required. An ulnar, mid-sagittal incision is used and the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve is preserved. An USO-specific plating system with cutting jig is used to create parallel oblique osteotomies to facilitate shortening. Intraoperative fluoroscopy and clinical range of motion are checked to ensure adequate shortening and congruous reduction of the ulnar head within the sigmoid notch. Results Previous outcomes evaluation of USO has demonstrated improvement in functional activities, including average flexion-extension and pronosupination motions, and patient reported outcomes. Conclusion The concept and technique of USO are reviewed for the treatment of distal radius malunion when specific indications are observed. Careful attention to detail related to surgical indications and to surgical technique typically will improve range of motion, pain scores, and patient-reported outcomes and will reduce the inherent risks of the procedure, such as ulnar nonunion or the symptoms related to unrecognized joint arthritis. Level of Evidence: Level IV PMID:25097811

  19. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Christopher; Gan, Bing Siang; Grewal, Ruby

    2014-01-01

    Background Ulnar impaction syndrome is a condition in which the ulna impacts on the ulnar carpus. This most commonly occurs when the ulna is longer than the radius, but it can also occur in wrists with ulnar neutral and ulnar negative variance. Materials and Methods In this paper we outline our surgical technique for ulnar shortening osteotomy. A previously published retrospective case series of 28 patients treated at our center is presented. Fifty consecutive patients who underwent ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) for ulnar impaction syndrome were approached for study, and 28 consented to review. Mean preoperative ulnar variance was +2.3 mm, and mean postoperative ulnar variance was –0.8 mm. Mean follow-up time was 21.2 months (8 to 41 months) and ten of 28 were receiving workers' compensation. Mean preoperative pain score (visual analog scale; VAS) was 7.9. Univariate analysis was performed to assess clinical and demographic data. In addition, subgroup analysis of workers' compensation patients and smokers was performed. Description of Technique A longitudinal incision over the subcutaneous border of the ulna is used to expose the ulna between the distal and middle third of the ulna from the ulna styloid. Preoperative posteroanterior (PA) X-rays are reviewed to determine the amount of shortening required, with a goal of creating –2 mm variance postoperatively. A 6-hole dynamic compression plate is predrilled distally prior to performing two oblique osteotomies separated by the desired shortening length. The fragments are reduced, controlling for rotation, and plated using compression. In some cases, a lag screw is employed across the oblique osteotomy site. Results Mean pain scores were significantly reduced postoperatively (VAS 7.9 versus 3.1, P < 0.0001). The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score was 37.2 postoperatively. Flexion, extension, and supination were reduced compared with the contralateral unaffected extremity (84.6%, 85.3%, and 86.9% of normal). Patients receiving workers' compensation and smokers had significantly more pain postoperatively (VAS 5.2 vs. 2.0, P = 0.0002 and VAS 4.4 vs 2.4, P < 0.05, respectively). Eleven of 28 patients required hardware removal for plate irritation, and five of 28 patients had a nonunion. Conclusion We present our surgical technique for ulnar shortening osteotomy. Pain was significantly improved in our population; however, patients receiving workers' compensation and smokers had less improvement in pain and higher disability scores. PMID:25032074

  20. Late ulnar paralysis. Study of seventeen cases.

    PubMed

    Mansat, M; Bonnevialle, P; Fine, X; Guiraud, B; Testut, M F

    1983-01-01

    Seventeen cases of late ulnar paralysis treated by neurolysis-transposition are reported. The clinical characteristics of these paralysis are emphasized. A very prolonged symptom free interval, a rapid onset and a severe involvement. The ulnar transposition was most often done subcutaneously. Cubitus valgus and definite nerve compression proximal to the arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle are almost always present. The results as regards the neuropathy are notable: no patient is completely cured and only half are improved. An anatomical study of the nerve path shows the essential role, in the compression of the nerve, of the muscular arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle which acts in a way similar to the bridge of a violin. Hence, opening it longitudinally is the principal procedure of the neurolysis. This should be routine before the first signs of neuropathy occur in an elbow whose axis is out of alignment as a sequela of a childhood injury. PMID:9336632

  1. Rat Whisker Movement after Facial Nerve Lesion: Evidence for Autonomic Contraction of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, James T.; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Hohman, Marc H.; Knox, Christopher J.; Weinberg, Julie S.; Kleiss, Ingrid J.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervation was from autonomic, cholinergic axons traveling within the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (ION). Rats underwent unilateral facial nerve transection with repair (N=7) or resection without repair (N=11). Post-operative whisking amplitude was measured weekly across 10 weeks, and during intraoperative stimulation of the ION and facial nerves at ≥18 weeks. Whisking was also measured after subsequent ION transection (N=6) or pharmacologic blocking of the autonomic ganglia using hexamethonium (N=3), and after snout cooling intended to elicit a vasodilation reflex (N=3). Whisking recovered more quickly and with greater amplitude in rats that underwent facial nerve repair compared to resection (P<0.05), but individual rats overlapped in whisking amplitude across both groups. In the resected rats, non-facial-nerve mediated whisking was elicited by electrical stimulation of the ION, temporarily diminished following hexamethonium injection, abolished by transection of the ION, and rapidly and significantly (P<0.05) increased by snout cooling. Moreover, fibrillation-related whisker movements decreased in all rats during the initial recovery period (indicative of reinnervation), but re-appeared in the resected rats after undergoing ION transection (indicative of motor denervation). Cholinergic, parasympathetic axons traveling within the ION innervate whisker pad vasculature, and immunohistochemistry for vasoactive intestinal peptide revealed these axons branching extensively over whisker pad muscles and contacting neuromuscular junctions after facial nerve resection. This study provides the first behavioral and anatomical evidence of spontaneous autonomic innervation of skeletal muscle after motor nerve lesion, which not only has implications for interpreting facial nerve reinnervation results, but also calls into question whether autonomic-mediated innervation of striated muscle occurs naturally in other forms of neuropathy. PMID:24480367

  2. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cohen, Mark S.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common surgery performed in professional, collegiate, and high school athletes. Purpose: To report patient demographics, surgical techniques, and outcomes of all UCLRs performed at a single institution from 2004 to 2014. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: All patients who underwent UCLR from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, at a single institution were identified. Charts were reviewed to determine patient age, sex, date of surgery, sport played, athletic level, surgical technique, graft type, and complications. Data were collected prospectively, and patients were contacted via phone calls to obtain the return-to-sport rate, Conway-Jobe score, Andrews-Timmerman score, and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow score. Continuous variable data were reported as weighted means, and categorical variable data were reported as frequencies with percentages. Results: A total of 187 patients (188 elbows) underwent UCLR during the study period (92% male; mean age, 19.6 ± 4.7 years; 78.2% right elbows). There were 165 baseball players (87.8% of all patients), 155 of whom were pitchers (82.5% of all patients). Ninety-seven (51.6%) were college athletes, 68 (36.2%) high school athletes, and 7 (3.7%) professional athletes at the time of surgery. The docking technique was used in 110 (58.5%) patients while the double-docking technique was used in 78 (41.5%). An ipsilateral palmaris longus graft was used in 110 (58.5%) patients while a hamstring autograft was used in 48 (25.5%) patients. The ulnar nerve was subcutaneously transposed in 79 (42%) patients. Clinical follow-up data were available on 85 patients. Mean follow-up was 60 ± 30.8 months. Overall, 94.1% of patients were able to return to sport and had a Conway-Jobe score of good/excellent while 4.3% had a score of fair. The mean KJOC score was 90.4 ± 6.7 and mean Andrews-Timmerman score was 92.5 ± 7.1. Subsequent surgeries were performed in 5.3% of patients. Conclusion: UCLR was performed most commonly on collegiate athletes using an ipsilateral palmaris longus graft. Overall, 94.1% of patients who underwent UCLR were able to return to sport with a mean KJOC score of 90.4 and Andrews-Timmerman Score of 92.5. PMID:26862538

  3. Case report: Loiasis with peripheral nerve involvement and spleen lesions.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Federico; Boussinesq, Michel; Mascarello, Marta; Angheben, Andrea; Gobbo, Maria; Rossanese, Andrea; Corachán, Manuel; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2011-05-01

    Loiasis, which is caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa, affects millions of persons living in the rainforest areas and savannah regions of central Africa. Typical manifestations are calabar swellings and the eyeworm. We report a case of loiasis with unusual clinical complications: a peripheral neuropathy and focal hypo-echogenic lesions of the spleen, which disappeared after treatment with albendazole and ivermectin. The literature reports that L. loa infection can be associated with various manifestations, some of them being serious. More information is needed to better characterize the protean manifestations of the disease in loiasis-endemic areas to evaluate the true incidence of loiasis. PMID:21540382

  4. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy After Distal Radius Fracture Malunion: Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Barbaric, Katarina; Rujevcan, Gordan; Labas, Marko; Delimar, Domagoj; Bicanic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Malunion of distal radius fracture is often complicated with shortening of the radius with disturbed radio- ulnar variance, frequently associated with lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Positive ulnar variance may result in wrist pain located in ulnar part of the joint, limited ulnar deviation and forearm rotation with development of degenerative changes due to the overloading that occurs between the ulnar head and corresponding carpus. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) is the standard procedure for correcting positive ulnar variance. Goal of this procedure is to minimize the symptoms by restoring the neutral radio - ulnar variance. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for ulnar shorthening osteotomy, their advantages and drawbacks. Methods of ulnar shortening osteotomies are divided into intraarticular and extraarticular. Intraarticular method of ulnar shortening can be performed arthroscopically or through open approach. Extraarticular methods include subcapital osteotomy and osteotomy of ulnar diaphysis, which depending on shape can be transverse, oblique, and step cut. All of those osteotomies can be performed along wrist arthroscopy in order to dispose and treat possibly existing triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. At the end we described surgical procedures that can be done in case of ulnar shorthening osteotomy failure. PMID:26157524

  5. Tarsal tunnel syndrome and additional nerve lesions in the same limb.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, G J; Chalk, D E; Feibel, J H

    1993-02-01

    Compression neuropathy in the lower extremity is common. The occurrence of more than one lesion of the nerve in the same limb is less frequent. Thirteen patients with 15 cases of tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with one or more additional lesions of the sciatic nerve or its branches of the same lower extremity are presented. Electrodiagnostic studies confirmed tarsal tunnel syndrome with conduction abnormalities at a number of locations along the sciatic, common peroneal, posterior tibial, or plantar nerves by mechanical impingement, metabolic axonal abnormality, or both. Seven of the 13 patients were treated with tarsal tunnel release. Six cases treated operatively improved significantly. Surgery on a previously operated foot or the existence of diabetes mellitus carried a fair prognosis. The association of back pain with or without previous surgery did not appear to affect the outcome of the tarsal tunnel release. No improvement in symptoms was apparent in the six unoperated patients during the period of the study. Multiple lesions of the nerves of a single extremity may account for the variable success rate of tarsal tunnel release. PMID:8384154

  6. The Physiologic Impact of Unilateral Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) Lesion on Infant Oropharyngeal and Esophageal Performance.

    PubMed

    Gould, Francois D H; Lammers, Andrew R; Ohlemacher, Jocelyn; Ballester, Ashley; Fraley, Luke; Gross, Andrew; German, Rebecca Z

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury in neonates, a complication of patent ductus arteriosus corrective surgery, leads to aspiration and swallowing complications. Severity of symptoms and prognosis for recovery are variable. We transected the RLN unilaterally in an infant mammalian animal model to characterize the degree and variability of dysphagia in a controlled experimental setting. We tested the hypotheses that (1) both airway protection and esophageal function would be compromised by lesion, (2) given our design, variability between multiple post-lesion trials would be minimal, and (3) variability among individuals would be minimal. Individuals' swallowing performance was assessed pre- and post-lesion using high speed VFSS. Aspiration was assessed using the Infant Mammalian Penetration-Aspiration Scale (IMPAS). Esophageal function was assessed using two measures devised for this study. Our results indicate that RLN lesion leads to increased frequency of aspiration, and increased esophageal dysfunction, with significant variation in these basic patterns at all levels. On average, aspiration worsened with time post-lesion. Within a single feeding sequence, the distribution of unsafe swallows varied. Individuals changed post-lesion either by increasing average IMPAS score, or by increasing variation in IMPAS score. Unilateral RLN transection resulted in dysphagia with both compromised airway protection and esophageal function. Despite consistent, experimentally controlled injury, significant variation in response to lesion remained. Aspiration following RLN lesion was due to more than unilateral vocal fold paralysis. We suggest that neurological variation underlies this pattern. PMID:26285799

  7. Intercostal and pectoral nerve transfers to re-innervate the biceps muscle in obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    PubMed

    Pondaag, W; Malessy, M J A

    2014-07-01

    In obstetric brachial plexus lesions with avulsion injury, nerve grafting for biceps muscle re-innervation may not be possible owing to the unavailability of a proximal stump. In such cases, the intercostal nerves or medial pectoral nerve can serve as donor nerves in an end-to-end transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve. The present study reports the results of both techniques from a single institution in a consecutive series of 42 patients between 1995 and 2008. From 1995 to 2000 we always used the intercostal nerve transfer, and from 2001 to 2008 both techniques were used. Biceps muscle force ? Medical Research Council Grade 3 was achieved in 37 of 42 patients after a mean follow-up of 44 months. There was no statistical difference in the results in the medial pectoral nerve transfer group (n = 25) and the intercostal nerve transfer group (n = 17). PMID:23940103

  8. Sonographic tracking of the upper limb peripheral nerves: a pictorial essay and video demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chueh-Hung; Chang, Ke-Vin; zakar, Levent; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Hung, Chen-Yu; Shyu, Shaw-Gang; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has been the most useful imaging tool for musculoskeletal disorders whereby peripheral nerve lesions constitute a substantial portion. High-resolution ultrasound enables elaboration of peripheral nerve morphology and reciprocal anatomy. However, limited literature is available for delineating standard positions and tracking skills. The present article incorporates a series of ultrasound images and videos to demonstrate how to scan the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, and radial nerves. Overall, the authors aim to demonstrate the relevant nerve tracking techniques as regards the upper extremity. PMID:26135374

  9. ATP and NO dually control migration of microglia to nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuanli; Sahley, Christie L; Muller, Kenneth J

    2009-01-01

    Microglia migrate rapidly to lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), presumably in response to chemoattractants including ATP released directly or indirectly by the injury. Previous work on the leech has shown that nitric oxide (NO), generated at the lesion, is both a stop signal for microglia at the lesion and crucial for their directed migration from hundreds of micrometers away within the nerve cord, perhaps mediated by a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In this study, application of 100 microM ATP caused maximal movement of microglia in leech nerve cords. The nucleotides ADP, UTP, and the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog AMP-PNP (adenyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate) also caused movement, whereas AMP, cAMP, and adenosine were without effect. Both movement in ATP and migration after injury were slowed by 50 microM reactive blue 2 (RB2), an antagonist of purinergic receptors, without influencing the direction of movement. This contrasted with the effect of the NO scavenger cPTIO (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-teramethylimidazoline-oxyl-3-oxide), which misdirected movement when applied at 1 mM. The cPTIO reduced cGMP immunoreactivity without changing the immunoreactivity of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), which accompanies increased NOS activity after nerve cord injury, consistent with involvement of sGC. Moreover, the sGC-specific inhibitor LY83583 applied at 50 microM had a similar effect, in agreement with previous results with methylene blue. Taken together, the experiments support the hypothesis that ATP released directly or indirectly by injury activates microglia to move, whereas NO that activates sGC directs migration of microglia to CNS lesions. PMID:19025930

  10. Carotid and cranial nerve reconstruction after removal of cavernous sinus lesions.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, L N; Sen, C N; Lanzino, G; Pomonis, S

    1991-12-01

    During the last 7 years, approximately 170 neoplasms, and 35 vascular lesions involving the cavernous sinus were treated by the first two authors. During the treatment of such lesions, the direct vein graft reconstruction of the internal carotid artery from the petrous to the supraclinoid or infraclinoid ICA was performed in 23 patients. Graft occlusion occurred in 3 patients and in one of these, it was successfully salvaged by placing a long venous graft from the extracranial ICA to the M3 segment of the middle cerebral artery. The latter 3 patients were neurologically normal. One patient with significant atherosclerotic disease suffered the dissection of the distal internal carotid artery with the graft being patent. The suturing technique. This patient eventually died. Two patients with severely compromised collateral circulation suffered minor strokes due to the temporary occlusion of the ICA. This has been avoided in the more recent patients by the adoption of brain protection techniques such as moderate hypothermia, induced hypertension, and barbiturate coma. Low dose heparin therapy during grafting and high dose intravenous steroids prior to the grafting also appear to be beneficial. Direct vein graft reconstruction of the intracavernous carotid artery is a valuable tool during the management of cavernous sinus lesions. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique as well as the pros and cons of other revascularization techniques will be discussed. During microsurgical removal of cavernous sinus lesions, the cranial nerves III-VI were reconstructed by direct resuture or by nerve grafting in 16 patients. In the majority of these patients, recovery of cranial nerve function was observed, which was very encouraging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1803071

  11. Unusual brachial plexus lesion: Hematoma masquerading as a peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    PubMed Central

    Krisht, Khaled M.; Karsy, Michael; Shah, Lubdha M.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Dailey, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) of the brachial plexus have unique radiographic and clinical findings. Patients often present with progressive upper extremity paresthesias, weakness, and pain. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, lesions are isointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, while also demonstrating marked enhancement on MR studies with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. On the basis of their characteristic MR imaging features and rapid clinical progression, two brachial plexus lesions proved to be organizing hematomas rather than MPNST. Methods: A 51-year-old male and a 31-year-old female were both assessed for persistent and worsened left-sided upper extremity pain, paresthesias, and weakness. In both cases, the MR imaging of the brachial plexus demonstrated an extraspinal enhancing lesion located within the left C7–T1 neuroforamina. Results: Although the clinical and radiographic MR features for these 2 patients were consistent with MPNSTs, both lesions proved to be benign organizing hematomas. Conclusions: These two case studies emphasize that brachial plexus hematomas may mimic MPNSTs on MR studies. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is critical for determining the appropriate management options and treatment plans. Delaying the treatment of a highly aggressive nerve sheath tumor can have devastating consequences, whereas many hematomas resolve without surgery. Therefore, if the patient has stable findings on neurological examination and a history of trauma, surgical intervention may be delayed in favor of repeat MR imaging in 2–3 months to re-evaluate the size of the mass. PMID:26904368

  12. [Lesions of the peripheral nerves after surgical treatment of fractures of the distal humerus].

    PubMed

    Avdi?, Dijana; Gavrankapetanovi?, Ismet; Gavrankapetanovi?, Faris

    2003-01-01

    In the work we have examined 44 patients (16 women and 28 men), which the break of distal humerus is saned with operation, using adequate OSM. The average years of women patients was 29 (from 3 to 79), and of male patients 24 (from 1 to 75). After thr operative sanitary breaks distal part of humerus, using adequate OSM (fillo Kurschneri, platho metalico, clavo spiralis), it can come on lesion of perifer nerves of the arm, and mostly of n. radialis. Lesions of n. radialis we have notice on 5 patients. The rehabilitation our patients was made with prevention contraction of shoulder, elbow, hand and fingers using kinesitherapy, hydrotherapy and electrotherapy paralysis musculature with intentional exercises to the reinervation of perifer motor neuron and raising the force of musculus. PMID:12822381

  13. Long-term pain control by direct peripheral-nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nashold, B S; Goldner, J L; Mullen, J B; Bright, D S

    1982-01-01

    In 1970, we began implanting electrodes for prolonged stimulation of injured peripheral nerves to reduce chronic pain. Thirty-eight peripheral nerves in thirty-five patients have been stimulated with electrodes for a period ranging from four to nine years. Nineteen electrode systems were implanted in the upper extremity (eleven on the median nerve, six on the ulnar nerve, one on the median and ulnar nerves, and one on the median and radial nerves), with successful relief of pain in 52..6 per cent of the patients. Sixteen stimulators have been implanted on the sciatic nerve with a success rate for pain relief of 31 per cent. Failures in the lower extremity were found primarily in lesions of the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle. We speculate that the stress of weight-bearing and the anatomical position of the posterior tibial nerve may partially account for this rate of failure. Use of the electrode-implant systems required careful preoperative assessment by an experienced team, meticulous technique, and a mechanical system that tolerates stress. The location and characteristics of the lesion affect the response to electrical stimulation. PMID:6976348

  14. Nerve abscess in primary neuritic leprosy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dheeraj; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Arun Kumar; Jain, Amita; Kohli, Neera; Singh, Shailesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Nerve abscess is an infrequently reported complication of leprosy. We describe a patient with a pure neuritic type of leprosy with multiple nerve abscesses, who presented with tingling and numbness in the medial aspect of his right forearm and hand. Subsequently he developed pain, redness and swelling over the medial side of his right elbow and the flexor aspect of his right wrist. High-resolution ultrasound showed diffuse thickening of the right ulnar nerve with hypoechoic texture housing a cystic lesion with internal debris suggesting an abscess, at the cubital tunnel. Histopathological examination of the pus and tissue obtained from the abscess revealed presence of granulomas with lepra bacilli. The patient responded to surgery and multidrug therapy. In conclusion, the nerve abscess as the first manifestation of leprosy is uncommon and a high index of suspicion is required to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:24171239

  15. Ulnar Neuropathy After Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy: ACase Report.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Seong; Chung, Sun G; Bang, Hyun; Lee, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Keewon

    2015-06-01

    Currently, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is widely used for treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. We report a case of ulnar neuropathy secondary to the application of ESWT. A 48-year-old man was diagnosed with medial epicondylitis and underwent 2 sessions of ESWT. Immediately after the second session, he experienced paresthesia and weakness in the right hand. On physical examination, atrophy of the first dorsal interosseus and weakness of the abductor digiti minimi were observed. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated ulnar neuropathy at the elbow with severe partial axonotmesis. Our case report demonstrates that ESWT might cause or contribute to peripheral nerve injury at the site of application. PMID:25661460

  16. Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Carpal Tunnel Injection Using In-Plane Ulnar Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Park, Yongbum; Park, Ki Deok; Lee, Ju Kang; Lim, Oh Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of symptom improvement and the change of electrophysiological and ultrasonographic findings after sonographically guided local steroid injection using an in-plane ulnar approach in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Seventy-five cases of 44 patients diagnosed with CTS were included and evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks after injection. All patients received injection with 40?mg of triamcinolone mixed with 1?mL of 1% lidocaine into the carpal tunnel using an in-plane Ultrasound (US)-guided ulnar approach, out-plane US-guided approach, and blind injection. For clinical evaluation, we used the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and electrophysiological tests. The ultrasonographic findings were also evaluated with regard to cross-sectional area and the flattening ratio of the median nerve. Subjective symptoms measured by BCTQ and median nerve conduction parameters showed significant improvement at 4 weeks in the in-plane ulnar approach group compared with the out-plane ulnar approach and blind injection. This improvement was still observed at 12 weeks. The flattening ratio and cross-sectional area of the median nerve showed a more significant decrease with the in-plane ulnar approach than with the out-plane ulnar approach and blind injection (P?ulnar approach in the CTS may be more effective than out-plane or blind injection. PMID:25546691

  17. Degeneration of spared axons following partial white matter lesion: implications for optic nerve neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Yoles, E; Schwartz, M

    1998-09-01

    Neuroprotective therapy is a relatively new development in the approach to the treatment of acute and chronic brain damage. Though initially viewed in the framework of acute CNS injuries, the concept was recently extended to include chronic injuries, in which at any given time there are some neurons in an acute phase of degeneration coexisting with others that are healthy, marginally damaged, or dead. The healthy neurons and those that are only marginally damaged are the potential targets for neuroprotection. For the development of neuroprotective therapies, it is essential to employ an animal model in which the damage resulting from secondary degeneration can be quantitatively distinguished from primary degeneration. This is of particular relevance when the site of the damage is in the white matter (nerve fibers) rather than in the gray matter (cell bodies). In the present work we reexamine the concepts of secondary degeneration and neuroprotection in white matter lesions. Using a partial crush injury of the adult rat optic nerve as a model, we were able to assess both primary and secondary nerve damage. We show that neurons whose axons were not damaged or only marginally damaged after an acute insult will eventually degenerate as a consequence of their existence in the degenerative environment produced by the injury. This secondary degeneration does not occur in all of the neurons at once, but affects them in a stepwise fashion related to the severity of the damage inflicted. These findings, which may be applicable to the progression of acute or chronic neuropathy, imply that neuroprotective therapy may have a beneficial effect even if there is a time lag between injury and treatment. PMID:9743562

  18. Neuroprotective Activity of Thioctic Acid in Central Nervous System Lesions Consequent to Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardini, Carla; Nwankwo, Innocent E.; Pacini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS) changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for treating disorders associated with increased oxidative stress. Sciatic nerve CCI was made in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and in normotensive reference cohorts. Rats were untreated or treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with (+/−)-, (+)-, or (−)-thioctic acid. Oxidative stress, astrogliosis, myelin sheets status, and neuronal injury in motor and sensory cerebrocortical areas were assessed. Increase of oxidative stress markers, astrogliosis, and neuronal damage accompanied by a decreased expression of neurofilament were observed in SHR. This phenomenon was more pronounced after CCI. Thioctic acid countered astrogliosis and neuronal damage, (+)-thioctic acid being more active than (+/−)- or (−)-enantiomers. These findings suggest a neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid on CNS lesions consequent to CCI and that the compound may represent a therapeutic option for entrapment neuropathies. PMID:24527432

  19. Effects of catecholaminergic nerve lesion on endometrial development during early pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yulan; Liu, Guanhui; Wang, Zixu; Li, Jing; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-04-01

    Maternal stress is common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. This stress typically activates the sympathetic nervous system which releases catecholamines. This study explored the influence of sympathectomy by using neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on embryo implantation, and investigated the influence mechanism of sympathectomy on reconstruction of endometrial structure during early pregnancy. In the 6-OHDA-treated mice, uterine glands in the endometrium developed poorly, and the gland epithelia were arranged irregularly during early pregnancy. Furthermore, vacuoles, karyopykosis and plasmarrhexis appeared in some gland epithelia. The percentage of uterine glands and the density of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positivity were dramatically decreased, and Fas ligand (FasL) expression was decreased in cells from pregnancy days 5-9 (E5-9) in the treated group. Antioxidant enzyme activity levels in uteri were lower but the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the 6-OHDA mice than those in the control mice at E5-9. Similarly, the number of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) positive cells was significantly increased during early pregnancy following treatment with 6-OHDA. Our results have indicated that peripheral catecholaminergic nerve lesions induced by 6-OHDA cause adverse pregnancy outcomes through disruption of endometrial gland development, which increases oxidative stress and iNOS expression in the endometrium. Thus, catecholaminergic nerves might favourably influence blastocyst implantation, foetal survival and development during early pregnancy by oxidative state regulation and endometrial gland reconstruction. PMID:26554516

  20. [Late ulnar paralysis. Study of a series of 17 cases].

    PubMed

    Mansat, M; Bonnevialle, P; Fine, X; Guiraud, B; Testut, M F

    1984-02-16

    Seventeen cases of late ulnar paralysis treated by neurolysis-transposition are reported. The clinical characteristics of these paralyses are emphasized: very prolonged symptom free interval, rapid onset and severe involvement. Ulnar transposition was most often done subcutaneously. Cubitus valgus and definite nerve compression proximal to the arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle are almost always present. The results as regards the neuropathy are undependable: no patient is completely cured and only half are improved. An anatomical study of the nerve path shows the essential role, in the compression of the nerve, of the muscular arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle which acts in a way similar to the bridge of a violin. Hence, opening it longitudinally is the principal step of neurolysis. This should be routine before the first signs of neuropathy occur in an elbow whose axis is out of alignment as a sequela of a childhood injury. PMID:6322339

  1. Slowed motor conduction in lumbosacral nerve roots in cauda equina lesions: a new diagnostic technique.

    PubMed Central

    Swash, M; Snooks, S J

    1986-01-01

    New techniques have been developed for the electrophysiological assessment of patients with suspected cauda equina lesions using transcutaneous spinal stimulation (500-1500 V: time constant 50 microseconds) to measure motor latencies to the external and sphincter and puborectalis muscles from L1 and L4 vertebral levels. These latencies represent motor conduction in the S3 and S4 motor roots of the cauda equina between these levels. Similarly motor latencies can be recorded from spinal stimulation to the anterior tibial muscles (L4 and L5 motor roots). Transrectal stimulation of the pudendal nerves is used to measure the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency. In 32 control subjects, matched for age and sex, mean motor latencies from L1 and L4 spinal stimulation were 5.5 +/- 0.4 ms and 4.4 +/- 0.4 ms (mean + SD). In the 10 patients with cauda equina disease including ependymoma, spinal stenosis, arachnoiditis and trauma, these latencies were 7.2 +/- 0.8 ms and 4.6 +/- 0.9 ms, a significant increase in the L1 latency. The L1/L4 latency ratios to the puborectalis muscle were 1.36 +/- 0.09 in control subjects and 1.72 +/- 0.13 in cauda equina patients. Pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies were normal in eight of the 10 patients with cauda equina disease. The single fibre EMG fibre density in the external and sphincter muscle (normal, 1.5 +/- 0.16) was increased in patients with cauda equina lesions (1.73 +/- 0.28), but was increased more than two standard deviations from the mean only in three patients. This increase in fibre density was not of diagnostic value since it was also found in two of the four patients with low back pain. Slowing of motor conduction in the cauda equina is thus a useful indication of damage to these intraspinal motor roots. These investigations can be used in the selection of patients for myelography, and to follow progress in patients managed conservatively. Images PMID:3018168

  2. Evidence from Auditory Nerve and Brainstem Evoked Responses for an Organic Brain Lesion in Children with Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student, M.; Sohmer, H.

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve the question as to whether children with autistic traits have an organic nervous system lesion, auditory nerve and brainstem evoked responses were recorded in a group of 15 children (4 to 12 years old) with autistic traits. (Author)

  3. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar-Sided Wrist Pain

    PubMed Central

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Nishizuka, Takanobu; Hirata, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Ryogo

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of ulnar shortening osteotomy is literally to shorten the ulna. It can tighten the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), ulnocarpal ligaments, and interosseous membrane. Nowadays, this method is used to treat ulnar-sided wrist pain, for which we have also started to use a treatment algorithm. The purpose of this study was to review the long-term and clinical results based on our algorithm. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients with ulnocarpal impaction syndrome after a minimum follow-up of 5 years (Group A) and then retrospectively evaluated 66 patients with recalcitrant ulnar wrist pain treated based on our algorithm (Group B). Description of Technique Ulnocarpal abutment was confirmed arthroscopically. The distal ulna was approached through a longitudinal incision between the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi ulnaris. We performed a transverse resection of the ulna fixed with a small locking compression plate. The contralateral side served as the reference for the length of shortening (mean, 2.4 mm; range, 1–5 mm). Disappearance of ulnar abutment was then confirmed again arthroscopically. Results (Group A) Most patients showed good long-term clinical results. About half of the patients showed a bony spur at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ), but the clinical results did not significantly correlate with presence of bony spurs. Radiological parameters wre not related to the presence of bony spurs. (Group B) Twenty-four of the 66 patients investigated prospectively underwent an ulnar shortening osteotomy, with all showing good clinical results at 18 months postoperatively. Conclusions Ulnar shortening osteotomy can change the load of the ulnar side of the wrist and appears useful for ulnar-sided wrist pain in the presence of ulnar impaction. Level of evidence IV PMID:25077045

  4. The Retrograde Ulnar Dorsal Flap: Surgical Technique and Experience as Island Flap in Coverage of Hand Defects.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Amador, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Flaps from the forearm are often used to reconstruct soft-tissue defects in the hand. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap has the advantage that it does not sacrifice a major vascular axis. The anatomic bases of this flap are the proximal and distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery. The distal branch is partially accompanied with the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, and arrives under the abductor digiti quinti muscle making anastomoses with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. The proximal branch reaching the proximal third of the forearm, and anastomose with perforating branches of the ulnar artery. I used this island flap in 12 patients with coverage defects on the hand. The biggest flap was 13×6 cm. Only 1 flap had partial necrosis which did not lead to problems. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap is a flap designed with reverse flow from the distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery, and which does not sacrifice the ulnar artery. The donor defect on the forearm ulnar side had a greater esthetic acceptance. Knowing other distal anastomoses, described by other authors later, dorsal at the base of the fourth interdigital space grant greater security to the retrograde ulnar dorsal flap. It is worth highlighting the importance of preserving the adipofascial tissue around the pedicle. Experience with this flap permits us to state that it is a safe and reproducible flap to cover any defect on the dorsal of the hand as well as the first web space. PMID:26079665

  5. The endogenous cytokine profile and nerve fibre density in mouse ear Leishmania major-induced lesions related to nociceptive thresholds.

    PubMed

    Cangussú, Silvia D; Souza, Carolina C; Castro, Maria Salete A; Vieira, Leda Q; Cunha, Fernando Q; Afonso, Luís Carlos C; Arantes, Rosa Maria E

    2013-02-01

    Several reports have shown that cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions are painless, suggesting that Leishmania infection interferes with pain perception. Comparisons of inflammation-induced hyperalgesia between BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice have been little explored in the literature, and comparative data regarding nociception in leishmaniasis are non-existent. In susceptible BALB/c mice and resistant C57BL/6 mice that were intradermally inoculated with a low dose of Leishmania major in the ear, we investigated the variation in nociception over a 12-wk period post-infection and this variation's association with the structure of nerve fibres and the presence of endogenous cytokines that are classically considered hyper- or hypo-nociceptive. Infected BALB/c mice presented susceptibility and severe lesions. Infected C57BL/6 mice exhibited resistance and healing lesions. The immune response involved pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion, respectively. The infection-induced hypoalgesia in BALB/c mice after wks 9 was accompanied by decreased levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in ear tissue with intact nerves. C57BL/6 mice showed short-lived hyperalgesia in wks 2, which was related to increased local levels of IL-6, KC/CXCL-1, TNF-α and IL-10 and a decrease in nerve density. The increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, KC/CXCL-1 and TNF-α levels during hyperalgesia suggested a role for these mediators in afferent nerve sensitisation, which was secondary to the inflammatory damage of nerve fibres stained by PGP 9.5. In contrast, the mechanisms of hypoalgesia may include the downregulation of cytokines, the preservation of the structure of nerve endings, and as yet uninvestigated unidentified differences in neurotransmitter release or a direct role of the parasites in the context of the progressive and permissive inflammatory response of BALB/c mice. PMID:23206953

  6. Reappraisal of nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Millesi, H

    1981-04-01

    In every case of acute injury involving the nerve, the surgeon must decide whether a primary repair of an elective early secondary repair is the treatment of choice. In a clean-cut nerve without defect, immediate primary repair, using trunk-to-trunk coaptation with epineurial sutures, offers an optimal solution. In the periphery of the median and the ulnar nerves, in which motor and sensory fascicles are already separated, fascicular dissection is performed, and coaptation of fascicle groups should be done. In medical centers with excellent facilities, such nerve repair will give good results even in very severe lesions. This repair can be performed also as a delayed primary procedure. If there is a nerve defect, a primary grafting procedure must be considered. We do not recommend this as a routine procedure because the nerve grafts might be lost if a complication occurs. The decision to perform a planned early secondary repair is an equally good alternative, especially in cases of a nerve defect, severe concomitant injuries, or both. In case of a combined nerve and tendon lesion in the carpal tunnel, the nerve repair can be performed at a later procedure without exposing the repaired flexor tendons, thus avoiding adhesion between tendons and nerves. If a decision is made in favor of an early secondary repair, the two stumps can be approximated by stitches to prevent retraction, if this can be achieved without tension. Approximation under tension in case of a larger defect would damage the two stumps and create an even larger defect. Marking the nerve ends by sutures is not necessary because exploration with always start in normal tissue, exposing the nerves from the proximal or the distal segments. Early secondary repair is performed during the third week, or later if this is demanded by local conditions. When indicated, plastic surgical procedures can eliminate constricting scars and provide an optimal soft tissue environment. After exploration and preparation of the two stumps, the surgeon must decide whether direct suturing or a nerve graft is indicated. If after very limited mobilization and slight flexion the nerve stumps cannot be coapted easily, a nerve graft should be used. The quality of motor recovery decreases steadily after a 6 month delay of repair. Late secondary repairs or reoperation of failure of primary repair should be performed within this time limit, although this does not mean that motor recovery cannot occur after a longer time interval. Useful motor recovery was achieved in certain cases after 18 months or more. Obviously the results might have been better if the time interval had been shorter. If a patient is seen with a nerve lesion after a long time interval, nerve repair is still indicated if sensibility is the main functional objective. In other long-standing cases, the nerve repair is combined with tendon transfer or capsulorrhaphy. After a particularly long time interval or in old patients, only palliative surgery is indicated. PMID:7233326

  7. Stem cell salvage of injured peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Grimoldi, Nadia; Colleoni, Federica; Tiberio, Francesca; Vetrano, Ignazio G; Cappellari, Alberto; Costa, Antonella; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Giordano, Rosaria; Spagnoli, Diego; Pluderi, Mauro; Gatti, Stefano; Morbin, Michela; Gaini, Sergio M; Rebulla, Paolo; Bresolin, Nereo; Torrente, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a collagen tube filled with autologous skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) for bridging long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Here we present a case report describing a compassionate use of this graft for repairing the polyinjured motor and sensory nerves of the upper arms of a patient. Preclinical assessment was performed with collagen/SDSC implantation in rats after sectioning the sciatic nerve. For the patient, during the 3-year follow-up period, functional recovery of injured median and ulnar nerves was assessed by pinch gauge test and static two-point discrimination and touch test with monofilaments, along with electrophysiological and MRI examinations. Preclinical experiments in rats revealed rescue of sciatic nerve and no side effects of patient-derived SDSC transplantation (30 and 180 days of treatment). In the patient treatment, motor and sensory functions of the median nerve demonstrated ongoing recovery postimplantation during the follow-up period. The results indicate that the collagen/SDSC artificial nerve graft could be used for surgical repair of larger defects in major lesions of peripheral nerves, increasing patient quality of life by saving the upper arms from amputation. PMID:24268028

  8. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Atsuya; Souza, Felipe; Vezeridis, Peter S.; Blazar, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. PMID:20012039

  9. De- and regeneration of axons after minor lesions in the rat sciatic nerve. Effects of microneurography electrode penetrations.

    PubMed

    Fried, K; Frisn, J; Mozart, M

    1989-01-01

    The structural effects of microneurography electrode penetrations were examined in the rat sciatic nerve. Such penetrations always produced restricted peri- and endoneurial lesions, resulting in degeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated axons, as well as in demyelination. The regenerative response was vigorous, and the regenerating axons usually formed a separate region of fascicle. However, restitution was not complete after 9 weeks survival, and in some cases not even after 16 weeks. PMID:2465532

  10. Differentiating C8–T1 Radiculopathy from Ulnar Neuropathy: A Survey of 24 Spine Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Stoker, Geoffrey E.; Kim, Han Jo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Questionnaire. Objective To evaluate the ability of spine surgeons to distinguish C8–T1 radiculopathies from ulnar neuropathy. Methods Twenty-four self-rated “experienced” cervical spine surgeons completed a questionnaire with the following items. (1) If the ulnar nerve is cut at the elbow, which of the following would be numb: ulnar forearm, small and ring fingers; only the ulnar forearm; only the small and ring fingers; or none of the above? (2) Which of the following muscles are weak with C8–T1 radiculopathies but intact with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: flexor digiti minimi brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, abductor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, opponens digiti minimi, opponens pollicis, medial lumbricals, lateral lumbricals, dorsal interossei, palmar interossei? Results Fifteen of 24 surgeons (63%) correctly answered the first question—that severing the ulnar nerve results in numbness of the fifth and fourth fingers. None correctly identified all four nonulnar, C8–T1-innervated options in the second question without naming additional muscles. Conclusion The ulnar nerve provides sensation to the fourth and fifth fingers and medial border of the hand. The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve provides sensation to the medial forearm. The ulnar nerve innervates all intrinsic hand muscles, except the abductor and flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, and lateral two lumbricals, which are innervated by C8 and T1 via the median nerve. By examining these five muscles, one can clinically differentiate cubital tunnel syndrome from C8–T1 radiculopathies. Although all participants considered themselves to be experienced cervical spine surgeons, this study reveals inadequate knowledge regarding the clinical manifestations of C8–T1 radiculopathies and cubital tunnel syndrome. PMID:24494175

  11. Relation between the neuronal and hemodynamic response in the lesioned rat spinal cord following peripheral nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubeau, S.; Beaumont, E.; Lesage, F.

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we explore the hemodynamic response in the lesioned rat spinal cord following peripheral nerve stimulation. Oxy and deoxy hemoglobin were measured (using a four color LED multispectral intrinsic optical imaging system) simultaneously with blood flow (laser speckle measurement). Both optical and electrophysiological data are compared spatially and against stimulation strength. When compared with non-lesioned animals, the hemodynamic response is seen to display significant differences exhibiting increased initial dip and decreased blood drain following stimulation. The origin of the difference is observed to be due to the vascular nature of the injury. The distinct hemodynamic responses may have a strong impact on General Linear Model based fMRI studies of spinal cord lesions due to the difficulty in separating vascular effects from neuronal plasticity following injury.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Work-Related Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Weiss, Michael D; Friedman, Andrew S; Allan, Christopher H; Robinson, Larry

    2015-08-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is the second most common entrapment neuropathy after carpal tunnel syndrome and occurs most commonly at the elbow due to mechanical forces that produce traction or ischemia to the nerve. The primary symptom associated with UNE is diminished sensation or dysesthesias in the fourth or fifth digits, often coupled with pain in the proximal medial aspect of the elbow. Treatment may be conservative or surgical, but optimal management remains controversial. Surgery should include exploration of the ulnar nerve throughout its course around the elbow and release of all compressive structures. PMID:26231962

  13. Digital sucking induced trophic ulcers caused by nerve deficit from amniotic constriction band.

    PubMed

    Beidas, Omar; Rayan, Ghazi M; Al-Harthy, A

    2010-08-01

    Two infants presented with amniotic constriction bands (ACB) in the distal third of the forearm. After teeth eruption they developed recurrent skin ulcerations mainly in the distribution of the median nerve from digital sucking. Both patients underwent reconstruction with multiple Z-plasties, followed by neurolysis of the ulnar nerve and sural nerve grafting of the median nerve. This neurological complication presented late in ACB as ulcerative lesions and secondary infection from digital sucking on the insensate digits. Thorough physical examination of the extremities at an early stage in children with ACB is essential to exclude an occult neurological dysfunction. Exploration of peripheral nerves is warranted in cases of deep forearm ACB during their soft tissue reconstruction. PMID:20347623

  14. Effects of distal nerve injuries on dorsal-horn neurons and glia: relationships between lesion size and mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Siegel, S M; Oaklander, A L

    2009-01-23

    Penetrating limb injuries are common and usually heal without long-lasting effects, even when nerves are cut. However, rare nerve-injury patients develop prolonged and disabling chronic pain (neuralgia). When pain severity is disproportionate to severity of the inciting injury, physicians and insurers may suspect exaggeration and limit care or benefits, although the nature of the relationship between lesion-size and the development and persistence of neuralgia remains largely unknown. We compared cellular changes in the spinal dorsal-horn (the initial CNS pain-processing area) after partial or total tibial-nerve axotomies in male Sprague-Dawley rats to determine if these changes are proportional to the numbers of peripheral axons cut. Unoperated rats provided controls. Plantar hind-paw responses to touch, pin, and cold were quantitated bilaterally to identify hyperalgesic rats. We also compared data from nerve-injured rats with or without hyperalgesic responses to mechanical hind-paw stimulation to evaluate concordance between pain behaviors and dorsal-horn cellular changes. Hyperalgesia was no less prevalent or severe after partial than after total axotomy. L(5) spinal-cord sections from rats killed 7 days postoperatively were labeled for markers of primary afferents (substance P calcitonin gene-related peptide isolectin B4, gamma aminobutyric acid, and glial fibrillary acidic protein), then labeled cells were stereologically quantitated in somatotopically defined dorsal-horn regions. Total axotomy reduced markers of primary afferents more than partial axotomy. In contrast, GABA-immunoreactive profiles were similarly reduced after both lesions, and in rats with sensory loss versus hyperalgesia. Numbers of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes increased independently of lesion size and pain status. Small nerve injuries can thus have magnified and disproportionate effects on dorsal-horn neurons and glia, perhaps providing a biological correlate for the disproportionate pain of post-traumatic neuralgias (including complex regional pain syndrome-I) that follow seemingly minor nerve injuries. However, the presence of similar dorsal-horn changes in rats without pain behaviors suggests that not all transcellular responses to axotomy are pain-specific. PMID:18992304

  15. Expression of the protein inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase in the adult rat retina before and after optic nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Gunnar P H; Schott, Michael; Labes, Monika; Bähr, Mathias

    2005-05-20

    The molecular messenger nitric oxide (NO) not only serves a number of physiologic functions, but is also involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. It is produced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzymes. One of the many players regulating NOS activity is the Protein Inhibitor of NOS, PIN. To gain further insight into the mechanisms of NOS regulation and NO-mediated cell death after nerve trauma, we examined PIN expression in a standard model of lesion-induced neurodegeneration, the rat optic nerve transsection model. In both the axotomized retinae and the control retinae PIN expression was predominantly observed in the retinal ganglion cell layer. Optic nerve lesion did neither change the amount of PIN mRNA, as determined by in situ hybridization and real-time RT-PCR, nor did it change the amount of PIN as determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. These results suggest that in our model, NOS activity is not regulated by altered PIN levels, which contributes to our understanding of apoptotic mechanisms in injured neurons. PMID:15893595

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging for anatomical localization of cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei in pontine lesions: initial experiences with 3T-MRI.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Nils H; Ahmadli, Uzeyir; Woernle, Christoph M; Alzarhani, Yahea A; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Kollias, Spyros S

    2014-11-01

    With continuous refinement of neurosurgical techniques and higher resolution in neuroimaging, the management of pontine lesions is constantly improving. Among pontine structures with vital functions that are at risk of being damaged by surgical manipulation, cranial nerves (CN) and cranial nerve nuclei (CNN) such as CN V, VI, and VII are critical. Pre-operative localization of the intrapontine course of CN and CNN should be beneficial for surgical outcomes. Our objective was to accurately localize CN and CNN in patients with intra-axial lesions in the pons using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and estimate its input in surgical planning for avoiding unintended loss of their function during surgery. DTI of the pons obtained pre-operatively on a 3Tesla MR scanner was analyzed prospectively for the accurate localization of CN and CNN V, VI and VII in seven patients with intra-axial lesions in the pons. Anatomical sections in the pons were used to estimate abnormalities on color-coded fractional anisotropy maps. Imaging abnormalities were correlated with CN symptoms before and after surgery. The course of CN and the area of CNN were identified using DTI pre- and post-operatively. Clinical associations between post-operative improvements and the corresponding CN area of the pons were demonstrated. Our results suggest that pre- and post-operative DTI allows identification of key anatomical structures in the pons and enables estimation of their involvement by pathology. It may predict clinical outcome and help us to better understand the involvement of the intrinsic anatomy by pathological processes. PMID:24998855

  17. Deep Sequencing and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lesioned Sciatic Nerves after Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Leilei; Wu, Jiancheng; Zha, Guangbin; Zhou, Songlin; Gu, Xiaosong; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The peripheral nerve system has an intrinsic regenerative capacity in response to traumatic injury. To better understand the molecular events occurring after peripheral nerve injury, in the current study, a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury was used. Injured nerves harvested at 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days post injury were subjected to deep RNA sequencing for examining global gene expression changes. According to the temporally differential expression patterns of a huge number of genes, 3 distinct phases were defined within the post-injury period of 14 days: the acute, sub-acute, and post-acute stages. Each stage showed its own characteristics of gene expression, which were associated with different categories of diseases and biological functions and canonical pathways. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that genes involved in inflammation and immune response were significantly up-regulated in the acute phase, and genes involved in cellular movement, development, and morphology were up-regulated in the sub-acute stage, while the up-regulated genes in the post-acute phase were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, cytoskeleton reorganization, and nerve regeneration. All the data obtained in the current study may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying peripheral nerve regeneration from the perspective of gene regulation, and to identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26629691

  18. Unilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model of Dysphagia and Its Effect on Sucking and Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Fukuhara, Takako; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses relating to the sensory deficit that follows a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion in an infant animal model. We hypothesized that it would result in (1) a higher incidence of aspiration and (2) temporal changes in sucking and swallowing. We ligated the right-side SLN in six 23-week-old female pigs. Using videofluoroscopy, we recorded swallows in the same pre- and post-lesion infant pigs. We analyzed the incidence of aspiration and the duration and latency of suck and swallow cycles. After unilateral SLN lesioning, the incidence of silent aspiration during swallowing increased from 0.7 to 41.5 %. The durations of the suck containing the swallow, the suck immediately following the swallow, and the swallow itself were significantly longer in the post-lesion swallows, although the suck prior to the swallow was not different. The interval between the start of the suck containing a swallow and the subsequent epiglottal movement was longer in the post-lesion swallows. The number of sucks between swallows was significantly greater in post-lesion swallows compared to pre-lesion swallows. Unilateral SLN lesion increased the incidence of aspiration and changed the temporal relationships between sucking and swallowing. The longer transit time and the temporal coordinative dysfunction between suck and swallow cycles may contribute to aspiration. These results suggest that swallow dysfunction and silent aspiration are common and potentially overlooked sequelae of unilateral SLN injury. This validated animal model of aspiration has the potential for further dysphagia studies. PMID:23417250

  19. Ulnar-sided wrist pain in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Nicholas E; Greenberg, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The athlete's wrist, especially those using bats, sticks, racquets, or clubs, is subjected to extremely high torque loads during athletic activities. These loads stress the stabilizing elements of the ulnocarpal and distal radioulnar complexes. Lesions of these regions can lead to painful dysfunction and instabilities that negatively impact athletic performance. This article reviews some of the common ulnar-sided maladies focusing on anatomy, biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:25455400

  20. Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike lesions.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Maria Teresa; Antoniadis, Gregor; Scheuerle, Angelika; Pham, Mirko; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Koenig, Ralph W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup and surgical therapy for peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike lesions are challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging is the standard diagnostic tool in the preoperative workup. However, even with advanced pulse sequences such as diffusion tensor imaging for MR neurography, the ability to differentiate tumor entities based on histological features remains limited. In particular, rare tumor entities different from schwannomas and neurofibromas are difficult to anticipate before surgical exploration and histological confirmation. High-resolution ultrasound (HRU) has become another important tool in the preoperative evaluation of peripheral nerves. Ongoing software and technical developments with transducers of up to 17-18 MHz enable high spatial resolution with tissue-differentiating properties. Unfortunately, high-frequency ultrasound provides low tissue penetration. The authors developed a setting in which intraoperative HRU was used and in which the direct sterile contact between the ultrasound transducer and the surgically exposed nerve pathology was enabled to increase structural resolution and contrast. In a case-guided fashion, the authors report the sonographic characteristics of rare tumor entities shown by intraoperative HRU and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. PMID:26323823

  1. [A significant increase in superficial sensation, a number of years after a peripheral neurologic lesion, using transcutaneous vibratory stimulation].

    PubMed

    Spicher, C; Kohut, G

    1997-01-01

    A patient with sensory changes in the territory of the ulnar nerve due to a partial nerve lesion 19 years previously, was treated by Transcutaneous Vibratory Stimulation. The effectiveness of this treatment was verified by subjective criteria and by the following tests: Moving and Static Two-Point discrimination Test, Light-touch-Deep-pressure (Semmes-Weinstein) Test, Ninhydrin sweat Test and Wrinkle Test. These tests document both a marked improvement in superficial sensitivity and partial regulation of sympathetic nervous system function. PMID:9289003

  2. Functional evaluation of regenerated and misrouted low threshold mechanoreceptors and polymodal nociceptors in the skin of rat hindfeet after crush lesions to the sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Thomas; Povlsen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Tracer studies on motor axons after nerve crush injuries have indicated that misrouting may occur even when the endoneurium is intact. Misrouting of regenerated polymodal nociceptive C-fibres and low threshold mechanoreceptive axons have been studied functionally in 50 rats three months after unilateral crush lesions to the sciatic nerve. Two weeks before evaluation the tibial fascicle (or the peroneal fascicle) above the lesion was cut and tied off. In this way only functional regeneration of misrouted axons was tested. Misrouted low threshold mechanoreceptive axons and polymodal nociceptor C-fibres were found after regeneration in both glabrous and hairy skin. We conclude that functional misdirection of both myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons innervating either glabrous or hairy skin can occur after a crush lesion to a peripheral nerve in rats. PMID:16320400

  3. A new approach to assess function after sciatic nerve lesion in the mouse - adaptation of the sciatic static index.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Abraho Fontes; Gomes, Joyce Rios de Souza; Oliveira, Jlia Teixeria; Santos, Soraia Moreira Garzedim; Vannier-Santos, Marcos Andr; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2007-04-15

    Among the numerous ways of assessing regeneration after peripheral nerve lesions, the analysis of gait is one of the most important, because it shows the recovery of function, which is the ultimate goal of the repair machinery. The sciatic function index was introduced as a method to assess reinnervation after an experimental sciatic nerve lesion, and was adapted to the mouse model. The sciatic static index (SSI), is more simple and practical to perform, and is not so influenced by gait's velocity, but this method has not yet been adapted to the mouse model of sciatic lesion. We used 63 male Swiss mice (Mus musculus) to develop a formula to the sciatic static index in mice (SSIm). The animals were divided on three groups (control, transection and crush). They were evaluated at the preoperative and 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days postoperative by the ink track method (SFI), and by the acquisition of photographs of the plantar aspects of the injured and uninjured hind paws. The parameters evaluated were the 1-5 toe spread (TS), the 2-4 toe spread (ITS) and the distance between the tip of the third toe and the most posterior aspect of the paw (PL), on both methods. After verifying the temporal pattern of function, correlation and reproducibility of the measurements, we performed a multiple regression analysis using SFI values as dependent variable, and the TS, ITS and PL measured with the photo method as independent variables, and found the formula of the SSI for mice (SSIm). The three groups (control, transection and crush) had a characteristic pattern of dysfunction. The parameters measured in the ink and photo method had variable but significant correlations between them (P<0.000), but photo method of measurement showed a better reproducibility. The correlation between SFI and SSIm showed a high correlation coefficient (r=0.892, P<0.000), and demonstrates that SSIm can be used as an alternative method to assess the functional status relative of sciatic nerve activity in mice. PMID:17204334

  4. Triceps-sparing ulnar approach for total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, N; Suenaga, N; Yoshioka, C; Yamane, S

    2015-08-01

    To prevent insufficiency of the triceps after total elbow arthroplasty, we have, since 2008, used a triceps-sparing ulnar approach. This study evaluates the clinical results and post-operative alignment of the prosthesis using this approach. We reviewed 25 elbows in 23 patients. There were five men and 18 women with a mean age of 69 years (54 to 83). There were 18 elbows with rheumatoid arthritis, six with a fracture or pseudoarthrosis and one elbow with osteoarthritis. Post-operative complications included one intra-operative fracture, one elbow with heterotopic ossification, one transient ulnar nerve palsy, and one elbow with skin necrosis, but no elbow was affected by insufficiency of the triceps. Patients were followed for a mean of 42 months (24 to 77). The mean post-operative Japanese Orthopaedic Association Elbow Score was 90.8 (51 to 100) and the mean Mayo Elbow Performance score 93.8 (65 to 100). The mean post-operative flexion/extension of the elbow was 135/-8. The Manual Muscle Testing score of the triceps was 5 in 23 elbows and 2 in two elbows (one patient). The mean alignment of the implants examined by 3D-CT was 2.8 pronation (standard deviation (sd) 5.5), 0.3 valgus (sd 2.7), and 0.7 extension (sd 3.2) for the humeral component, and 9.3 pronation (sd 9.7), 0.3 valgus (sd 4.0), and 8.6 extension (sd 3.1) for the ulnar component. There was no radiolucent line or loosening of the implants on the final radiographs. The triceps-sparing ulnar approach allows satisfactory alignment of the implants, is effective in preventing post-operative triceps insufficiency, and gives satisfactory short-term results. PMID:26224827

  5. An Outcome Study for Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow: A Multicenter Study by the SUN study group

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae W.; Waljee, Jennifer F.; Burns, Patricia B.; Chung, Kevin C.; Gaston, R.Glenn; Haase, Steven C.; Hammert, Warren C.; Lawton, Jeffrey N.; Merrell, Greg A.; Nassab, Paul F.; Yang, Lynda J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many instruments have been developed to measure upper extremity disability, but few have been applied to ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). Objective We measured patient outcomes following ulnar nerve decompression to 1) identify the most appropriate outcomes tools for UNE and 2) describe outcomes following ulnar nerve decompression. Methods Thirty-nine patients from 5 centers were followed prospectively after nerve decompression. Outcomes were measured preoperatively, 6-weeks, 3-months, 6-months, and 12-months postoperatively. Each patient completed the Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (CTQ), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaires. Grip, key-pinch strength, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) and 2-point discrimination (2PD were measured. Construct validity was calculated using Spearman correlation coefficients between questionnaire scores and physical and sensory measures. Responsiveness was assessed by standardized response means. Results Key pinch (p=0.008) and SWM testing of the ulnar ring (p<0.001) and small finger (radial: p=0.004; ulnar: p<0.001) improved following decompression. 2PD improved significantly across the radial (p=0.009) and ulnar (p=0.007) small finger. Improved symptoms and function were noted by the CTQ (Preoperative CTQ symptom score 2.73 vs. 1.90 postoperatively, p<0.001), DASH (p<0.001), and MHQ: function (p<0.001), activities of daily living (p=0.003), work (p=0.006), pain (p<0.001), and satisfaction (p<0.001). All surveys demonstrated strong construct validity, defined by correlation with functional outcomes, but MHQ and CTQ symptom instruments demonstrated the highest responsiveness. Conclusions Patient-reported outcomes improve following ulnar nerve decompression, including pain, function and satisfaction. The MHQ and CTQ are more responsive than the DASH for isolated UNE treated with decompression. PMID:23426153

  6. Effectiveness of ultrasound-guided carpal tunnel injection using in-plane ulnar approach: a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Young; Park, Yongbum; Park, Ki Deok; Lee, Ju Kang; Lim, Oh Kyung

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of symptom improvement and the change of electrophysiological and ultrasonographic findings after sonographically guided local steroid injection using an in-plane ulnar approach in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Seventy-five cases of 44 patients diagnosed with CTS were included and evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks after injection. All patients received injection with 40 mg of triamcinolone mixed with 1 mL of 1% lidocaine into the carpal tunnel using an in-plane Ultrasound (US)-guided ulnar approach, out-plane US-guided approach, and blind injection. For clinical evaluation, we used the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and electrophysiological tests. The ultrasonographic findings were also evaluated with regard to cross-sectional area and the flattening ratio of the median nerve. Subjective symptoms measured by BCTQ and median nerve conduction parameters showed significant improvement at 4 weeks in the in-plane ulnar approach group compared with the out-plane ulnar approach and blind injection. This improvement was still observed at 12 weeks. The flattening ratio and cross-sectional area of the median nerve showed a more significant decrease with the in-plane ulnar approach than with the out-plane ulnar approach and blind injection (P < 0.05). US-guided local steroid injection using an in-plane ulnar approach in the CTS may be more effective than out-plane or blind injection. PMID:25546691

  7. Arthroscopic wafer procedure for ulnar impaction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colantoni, Julie; Chadderdon, Christopher; Gaston, R Glenn

    2014-02-01

    Ulnar impaction syndrome is abutment of the ulna on the lunate and triquetrum that increases stress and load, causing ulnar-sided wrist pain. Typically, ulnar-positive or -neutral variance is seen on a posteroanterior radiograph of the wrist. The management of ulnar impaction syndrome varies from conservative, symptomatic treatment to open procedures to shorten the ulna. Arthroscopic management has become increasingly popular for management of ulnar impaction with ulnar-positive variance of less than 3 mm and concomitant central triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. This method avoids complications associated with open procedures, such as nonunion and symptomatic hardware. The arthroscopic wafer procedure involves debridement of the central triangular fibrocartilage complex tear, along with debridement of the distal pole of the ulna causing the impaction. Debridement of the ulna arthroscopically is taken down to a level at which the patient is ulnar neutral or slightly ulnar negative. Previous studies have shown good results with relief of patient symptoms while avoiding complications seen with open procedures. PMID:24749031

  8. Arthroscopic Wafer Procedure for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Colantoni, Julie; Chadderdon, Christopher; Gaston, R. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar impaction syndrome is abutment of the ulna on the lunate and triquetrum that increases stress and load, causing ulnar-sided wrist pain. Typically, ulnar-positive or -neutral variance is seen on a posteroanterior radiograph of the wrist. The management of ulnar impaction syndrome varies from conservative, symptomatic treatment to open procedures to shorten the ulna. Arthroscopic management has become increasingly popular for management of ulnar impaction with ulnar-positive variance of less than 3 mm and concomitant central triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. This method avoids complications associated with open procedures, such as nonunion and symptomatic hardware. The arthroscopic wafer procedure involves debridement of the central triangular fibrocartilage complex tear, along with debridement of the distal pole of the ulna causing the impaction. Debridement of the ulna arthroscopically is taken down to a level at which the patient is ulnar neutral or slightly ulnar negative. Previous studies have shown good results with relief of patient symptoms while avoiding complications seen with open procedures. PMID:24749031

  9. Endogenous Prostaglandins and Afferent Sensory Nerves in Gastroprotective Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide against Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Surmiak, Marcin; Strzalka, Malgorzata; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Wallace, John L.; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in human physiology, exerting vasodilatory, neuromodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. H2S has been implicated in the mechanism of gastrointestinal integrity but whether this gaseous mediator can affect hemorrhagic lesions induced by stress has been little elucidated. We studied the effect of the H2S precursor L-cysteine, H2S-donor NaHS, the H2S synthesizing enzyme (CSE) activity inhibitor- D,L-propargylglycine (PAG) and the gastric H2S production by CSE/CBS/3-MST activity in water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) ulcerogenesis and the accompanying changes in gastric blood flow (GBF). The role of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sensory afferent nerves releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the mechanism of gastroprotection induced by H2S was examined in capsaicin-denervated rats and those pretreated with capsazepine to inhibit activity of vanilloid receptors (VR-1). Rats were pretreated with vehicle, NaHS, the donor of H2S and or L-cysteine, the H2S precursor, with or without the concurrent treatment with 1) nonselective (indomethacin) and selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) or COX-2 (rofecoxib) inhibitors. The expression of mRNA and protein for COX-1 and COX-2 were analyzed in gastric mucosa pretreated with NaHS with or without PAG. Both NaHS and L-cysteine dose-dependently attenuated severity of WRS-induced gastric lesions and significantly increased GBF. These effects were significantly reduced by pretreatment with PAG and capsaicin denervation. NaHS increased gastric H2S production via CSE/CBS but not 3-MST activity. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity significantly diminished NaHS- and L-cysteine-induced protection and hyperemia. NaHS increased expression of COX-1, COX-2 mRNAs and proteins and raised CGRP mRNA expression. These effects of NaHS on COX-1 and COX-2 protein contents were reversed by PAG and capsaicin denervation. We conclude that H2S exerts gastroprotection against WRS-induced gastric lesions by the mechanism involving enhancement in gastric microcirculation mediated by endogenous PGs, sensory afferent nerves releasing CGRP and the activation of VR-1 receptors. PMID:25774496

  10. Endogenous prostaglandins and afferent sensory nerves in gastroprotective effect of hydrogen sulfide against stress-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Surmiak, Marcin; Strzalka, Malgorzata; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Wallace, John L; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in human physiology, exerting vasodilatory, neuromodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. H2S has been implicated in the mechanism of gastrointestinal integrity but whether this gaseous mediator can affect hemorrhagic lesions induced by stress has been little elucidated. We studied the effect of the H2S precursor L-cysteine, H2S-donor NaHS, the H2S synthesizing enzyme (CSE) activity inhibitor- D,L-propargylglycine (PAG) and the gastric H2S production by CSE/CBS/3-MST activity in water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) ulcerogenesis and the accompanying changes in gastric blood flow (GBF). The role of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sensory afferent nerves releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the mechanism of gastroprotection induced by H2S was examined in capsaicin-denervated rats and those pretreated with capsazepine to inhibit activity of vanilloid receptors (VR-1). Rats were pretreated with vehicle, NaHS, the donor of H2S and or L-cysteine, the H2S precursor, with or without the concurrent treatment with 1) nonselective (indomethacin) and selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) or COX-2 (rofecoxib) inhibitors. The expression of mRNA and protein for COX-1 and COX-2 were analyzed in gastric mucosa pretreated with NaHS with or without PAG. Both NaHS and L-cysteine dose-dependently attenuated severity of WRS-induced gastric lesions and significantly increased GBF. These effects were significantly reduced by pretreatment with PAG and capsaicin denervation. NaHS increased gastric H2S production via CSE/CBS but not 3-MST activity. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity significantly diminished NaHS- and L-cysteine-induced protection and hyperemia. NaHS increased expression of COX-1, COX-2 mRNAs and proteins and raised CGRP mRNA expression. These effects of NaHS on COX-1 and COX-2 protein contents were reversed by PAG and capsaicin denervation. We conclude that H2S exerts gastroprotection against WRS-induced gastric lesions by the mechanism involving enhancement in gastric microcirculation mediated by endogenous PGs, sensory afferent nerves releasing CGRP and the activation of VR-1 receptors. PMID:25774496

  11. Trend of Recovery after Simple Decompression for Treatment of Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Aviram M.; Gaston, R. Glenn; Haase, Steven C.; Hammert, Warren C.; Lawton, Jeffrey N.; Merrell, Greg A.; Nassab, Paul F.; Song, Jae W.; Yang, Lynda J. S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies have investigated long-term outcomes after surgical treatment of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow with simple decompression, no study has evaluated the trend of postoperative recovery. The authors assessed timing of recovery after simple decompression for ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Methods The five-center Surgery of the Ulnar Nerve Study Group prospectively recruited 58 consecutive subjects with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and treated them with simple decompression. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Patient-rated outcomes questionnaires included the Michigan Hand Questionnaire; the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire; and the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Functional tests used were grip strength, key pinch strength, two-point discrimination, and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing. Postoperative improvement was assessed at each time point to establish the trend of recovery in reaching a plateau. Results Significant patient-reported symptomatic and functional recovery occurred over the first 6 weeks postoperatively as represented by improvements in questionnaire scores. Symptomatic recovery occurred earlier than functional recovery as measured by sensory and strength testing and the work domain of the Michigan Hand Questionnaire. Improvement in patient-reported outcomes continued and reached a plateau at 3 months, whereas measured strength and sensory recovery continued over 12 months. Conclusion The greatest clinical improvement after simple decompression for ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, according to questionnaire scores, occurs in the first 6 weeks postoperatively and reaches a plateau by 3 months. PMID:23542274

  12. Lesion-induced increase in nerve growth factor mRNA is mediated by c-fos

    SciTech Connect

    Hengerer, B.; Lindholm, D.; Heumann, R.; Thoenen, H. ); Ruether, U. ); Wagner, E.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Lesion of the sciatic nerve caused a rapid increase in c-fos and c-jun mRNA that was followed about 2 hr later by an increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA. To evaluate whether the initial increase in c-fos mRNA is casually related to the subsequent increase in NGF mRNA, the authors performed experiments with fibroblasts of transgenic mice carrying an exogenous c-fos gene under the control of a metallothionein promoter. In primary cultures of these fibroblasts, CdCl{sub 2} evoked a rapid increase in exogenous c-fos mRNA, followed immediately by an increase in endogenous c-jun mRNA and with a slight delay by an increase in NGF mRNA. In fibroblasts of C3H control mice, CdCl{sub 2} had no effect on the mRNA levels of the protooncogenes c-fos and c-jun or of NGF. Additional evidence for a casual relationship between c-fos induction and the subsequent increase in NGF mRNA was obtained in cotransfection experiments. DNase I footprint experiments demonstrated that a binding site for transcription factor AP-1 in the first intron of the NGF gene was protected following c-fos induction. That this protected AP-1 site indeed was functional in the regulation of NGF expression was verified by deletion experiments and by a point mutation in the corresponding AP-1 binding region in the NGF promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct.

  13. Injury to ulnar collateral ligament of thumb.

    PubMed

    Madan, Simerjit Singh; Pai, Dinker R; Kaur, Avneet; Dixit, Ruchita

    2014-02-01

    Injury of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of thumb can be incapacitating if untreated or not treated properly. This injury is notorious for frequently being missed by inexperienced health care personnel in emergency departments. It has frequently been described in skiers, but also occurs in other sports such as rugby, soccer, handball, basketball, volleyball and even after a handshake. The UCL of the thumb acts as a primary restraint to valgus stress and is injured if hyperabduction and hyperextension forces are applied to the first metacarpophalangeal joint. The diagnosis is best established clinically, though MRI is the imaging modality of choice. Many treatment options exist, surgical treatment being offered depending on various factors, including timing of presentation (acute or chronic), grade (severity of injury), displacement (Stener lesion), location of tear (mid-substance or peripheral), associated or concomitant surrounding tissue injury (bone, volar plate, etc.), and patient-related factors (occupational demands, etc.). This review aims to identify the optimal diagnostic techniques and management options for UCL injury available thus far. PMID:24590986

  14. Long-term vascular, motor, and sensory donor site outcomes after ulnar forearm flap harvest.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emile N; Chaudhry, Arif; Mithani, Suhail K; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel O; Feiner, Jeffrey M; Shaffer, Cynthia K; Call, Diana; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2014-02-01

    Use of the ulnar forearm flap (UFF) is limited by concerns for ulnar nerve injury and impaired perfusion in the donor extremity. Twenty UFFs were performed over a 6-year period. All patients underwent postoperative bilateral upper extremity arterial duplex studies. A subset of postoperative patients (n?=?10) also had bilateral upper extremity sensory and motor evaluations, and functional evaluation via the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH). Motor function was tested by digital and key grip dynamometry. Ulnar nerve sensation was tested by evaluation of one- and two-point perceived pressure thresholds and two-point discrimination using the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (Sensory Management Services, LLC, Baltimore, MD). All UFFs were viable postoperatively. Mean follow-up was 28.8 months for vascular studies and 45.3 months for motor, sensory, and QuickDASH evaluations. Although mid and distal radial artery flow velocities were significantly higher in donor versus control extremities evaluated at less than 1?year postoperatively, there was no significant difference in extremities evaluated at later time points. Digital pressures, grip strength, key pinch strength, and ulnar sensation were equivalent between donor and control extremities. The mean QuickDASH score was 17.4??23.8. The UFF can be harvested reliably and long-term follow-up shows no evidence of impaired vascular, motor, or sensory function in the donor extremity. PMID:24163222

  15. Two applications of end-to-side nerve neurorrhaphy in severe upper-extremity nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Fuat; Peker, Fatih; Celiköz, Bahattin

    2004-01-01

    End-to-side and side-to-side techniques (what we call alternative nerve repair techniques) have been investigated in detail in both experimental and clinical studies. There have not been any large series, but only some case reports describing either successful or disappointing functional results in the recent literature. Two cases presented here were of two extreme examples of nerve injuries that had no chance for direct repair; alternative choices were performed. One was a side-to-side neurorrhaphy between the ulnar and median nerves, and the other was an end-to-side nerve repair of the median and radial nerves to the ulnar nerve. Both patients regained their diminished protective sensation and returned to their occupations. Based on these results and our review of the current literature, we consider alternative nerve repair techniques to be reasonable, prudent, and scientific choices for the treatment of some challenging nerve injury cases. PMID:15378581

  16. Pathological findings on peripheral nerves, lymph nodes, and visceral organs of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Liu, T C; Qiu, J S

    1984-09-01

    Pathological findings in a) 103 autopsies, b) biopsy material of peripheral nerve tissue from 210 tuberculoid patients, and c) inguinal lymph nodes from 106 leprosy cases are presented. Overall, lesions in peripheral nerves were most common in the ulnar (85.7% in the TT type, 98.3% in LL), peroneal (77.8% in TT, 97.9% in LL), median (80% in TT, 90.2% in LL), radial (66.6% in TT, 82% in LL), and the great auricular, tibial and supraorbital nerves. The ratio of bilateral nerve involvement in the same nerve was higher than unilateral involvement (approximately 5:1). Lesions of the peripheral nerve ganglion were seen in the LL type (22 cases, 61.1%) and the TT type (8 cases, 53.3%). These have seldom been mentioned in past literature. Superficial lymph nodes were most commonly affected in all types of leprosy. Lymph nodes in the hepatic and splenic portal areas were sometimes involved in lepromatous or borderline cases. Between the two polar types of leprosy, the lesions in the lymph nodes showed gradual transitions in a spectrum-like pattern which were similar to the changes in the lesions in the skin. In lepromatous leprosy, lesions could be found in 85.3% of the cases in the liver, 41.1% in the spleen, 86.7% in the testes, approximately 50% in the upper respiratory tract (including 36.4% in the nasopharynx), and 34.4% in the adrenal gland. Three cases had ophthalmologic lesions. In borderline leprosy, biphasic lesions of leprosy were found in various internal organs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6541205

  17. Low-energy laser action on median and radial nerve post-traumatic lesion after surgical suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Bunila, Daniela; Crangulescu, Nicolae; Nacu, Mihaela; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Stanciulescu, Viorica; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1996-01-01

    The low energy laser (LEL) biostimulatory effects on nervous tissue regeneration are well known. Thirty two patients with medial and/or radial nerve traumatic forearm lesion after surgical suture were divided into two groups: A-18 patients were treated with LEL; B-14 patients, witness, were treated with placebo lasers and classical medical and physical therapy. Lasers used were: HeNe, 632.5 nm wavelength, 2 mW power, and GaAlAs diode laser, 880 nm wavelength, pulsed emission with an output power 2 mW. Before, during, and after treatment EMG was done in order to measure objectively the efficiency of the treatment. We obtained good results after 4 - 5 months at 14 patients (77.7%) from group A and about the same results at 10 patients (71.3%) from group B, but after at least 8 months the good results were noticed concerning the improvements of EMG registration and on movements and force of the fingers. Finally we can say that the favorable results were obtained in at least twice shorter time with LEL treatment than with classical therapy.

  18. Treatment of thumb ulnar collateral ligament ruptures with the Mitek bone anchor.

    PubMed

    Kozin, S H

    1995-07-01

    Complete thumb ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries usually require primary repair. The ulnar collateral ligament is often torn from its insertion site and reattachment is difficult. Seven patients underwent repair with the Mitek bone anchor (Mitek Surgical Products, Norwood, MA) for complete ulnar collateral ligament disruptions. A Stener lesion was found in four patients. Follow-up examination was at approximately 1 year. All patients regained a stable metacarpophalangeal joint to valgus stress. X-ray films demonstrated accurate placement of the bone anchor with protraction of the metallic wings within cancellous bone. Range of motion revealed a 7% loss of metacarpophalangeal flexion-extension and a 21% loss of interphalangeal motion. Pinch strength in apposition averaged 98% and in opposition 97% of the uninvolved hand. Grip strength was 96% of the contralateral extremity. PMID:7574275

  19. Efficient bridging of 20 mm rat sciatic nerve lesions with a longitudinally micro-structured collagen scaffold.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, A; Boecker, A; Tank, J; Altinova, H; Deumens, R; Dabhi, C; Tolba, R; Weis, J; Brook, G A; Pallua, N; van Neerven, S G A

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of biomaterial nerve guides has been developed that await direct comparative testing with the 'gold-standard' autologous nerve graft in functional repair of peripheral nerve defects. In the present study, 20 mm rat sciatic nerve defects were bridged with either a collagen-based micro-structured nerve guide (Perimaix) or an autologous nerve graft. Axons regenerated well into the Perimaix scaffold and, the majority of these axons grew across the 20 mm defect into the distal nerve segment. In fact, both the total axon number and the number of retrogradely traced somatosensory and motor neurons extending their axons across the implant was similar between Perimaix and autologous nerve graft groups. Implantation of Schwann cell-seeded Perimaix scaffolds provided only a beneficial effect on myelination within the scaffold. Functional recovery supported by the implanted, non-seeded Perimaix scaffold was as good as that observed after the autologous nerve graft, despite the presence of thinner myelin sheaths in the Perimaix implanted nerves. These findings support the potential of the Perimaix collagen scaffold as a future off-the-shelf device for clinical applications in selected cases of traumatic peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26496383

  20. Nerve injuries about the elbow in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M

    2014-09-01

    The athlete's elbow is a remarkable example of motion, strength, and durability. The stress placed on the elbow during sport, including the throwing motion, may lead to soft-tissue ligamentous and nerve injury. The thrower's elbow illustrates one example of possible nerve injury about the elbow in sport, related to chronic repetitive tensile and compressive stresses to the ulnar nerve associated with elbow flexion and valgus position. Besides the throwing athlete, nerve injury from high-energy direct-impact forces may also damage nerves around the elbow in contact sports. Detailed history and physical examination can often make the diagnosis of most upper extremity neuropathies. The clinician must be aware of the possibility of isolated or combined nerve injury as far proximal as the cervical nerve roots, through the brachial plexus, to the peripheral nerve terminal branches. Electrodiagnostic studies are occasionally beneficial for diagnosis with certain nerves. Nonoperative management is often successful in most elbow and upper extremity neuropathies. If conservative treatment fails, then surgical treatment should address all potentially offending structures. In the presence of medial laxity and concurrent ulnar neuritis, the medial ulnar collateral ligament warrants surgical treatment, in addition to transposition of the ulnar nerve. The morbidity of open surgical decompression of nerves in and around the elbow is potentially career threatening in the throwing athlete. This mandates an assessment of the adequacy of the nonsurgical treatment and a thorough preoperative discussion of the risks and benefits of surgery. PMID:25077754

  1. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) positive effects on muscle fiber degeneration and gait recovery after nerve lesion in MDX mice

    PubMed Central

    Simes, Gustavo F; Benitez, Suzana U; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2014-01-01

    Background G-CSF has been shown to decrease inflammatory processes and to act positively on the process of peripheral nerve regeneration during the course of muscular dystrophy. Aims The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of treatment of G-CSF during sciatic nerve regeneration and histological analysis in the soleus muscle in MDX mice. Methods Six-week-old male MDX mice underwent left sciatic nerve crush and were G-CSF treated at 7 days prior to and 21 days after crush. Ten and twenty-one days after surgery, the mice were euthanized, and the sciatic nerves were processed for immunohistochemistry (anti-p75NTR and anti-neurofilament) and transmission electron microscopy. The soleus muscles were dissected out and processed for H&E staining and subsequent morphologic analysis. Motor function analyses were performed at 7 days prior to and 21 days after sciatic crush using the CatWalk system and the sciatic nerve index. Results Both groups treated with G-CSF showed increased p75NTR and neurofilament expression after sciatic crush. G-CSF treatment decreased the number of degenerated and regenerated muscle fibers, thereby increasing the number of normal muscle fibers. Conclusions The reduction in p75NTR and neurofilament indicates a decreased regenerative capacity in MDX mice following a lesion to a peripheral nerve. The reduction in motor function in the crushed group compared with the control groups may reflect the cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration that occur postnatally. Thus, G-CSF treatment increases motor function in MDX mice. Nevertheless, the decrease in baseline motor function in these mice is not reversed completely by G-CSF. PMID:25328849

  2. Ulnar head replacement and related biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sauerbier, Michael; Arsalan-Werner, Annika; Enderle, Elena; Vetter, Miriam; Vonier, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    A stable distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is mandatory for the function and load transmission in the wrist and forearm. Resectional salvage procedures such as the Darrach procedure, Bowers arthroplasty, and Sauv-Kapandji procedure include the potential risk of radioulnar instability and impingement, which can lead to pain and weakness. Soft tissue stabilizing techniques have only limited success rates in solving these problems. In an attempt to stabilize the distal forearm mechanically following ulnar head resection, various endoprostheses have been developed to replace the ulnar head. The prostheses can be used for secondary treatment of failed ulnar head resection, but they can also achieve good results in the primary treatment of osteoarthritis of the DRUJ. Our experience consists of twenty-five patients (follow-up 30 months) with DRUJ osteoarthritis who were treated with an ulnar head prosthesis, with improvement in pain, range of motion, and grip strength. An ulnar head prosthesis should be considered as a treatment option for a painful DRUJ. PMID:24436786

  3. Ulnar Head Replacement and Related Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbier, Michael; Arsalan-Werner, Annika; Enderle, Elena; Vetter, Miriam; Vonier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A stable distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is mandatory for the function and load transmission in the wrist and forearm. Resectional salvage procedures such as the Darrach procedure, Bowers arthroplasty, and Sauvé-Kapandji procedure include the potential risk of radioulnar instability and impingement, which can lead to pain and weakness. Soft tissue stabilizing techniques have only limited success rates in solving these problems. In an attempt to stabilize the distal forearm mechanically following ulnar head resection, various endoprostheses have been developed to replace the ulnar head. The prostheses can be used for secondary treatment of failed ulnar head resection, but they can also achieve good results in the primary treatment of osteoarthritis of the DRUJ. Our experience consists of twenty-five patients (follow-up 30 months) with DRUJ osteoarthritis who were treated with an ulnar head prosthesis, with improvement in pain, range of motion, and grip strength. An ulnar head prosthesis should be considered as a treatment option for a painful DRUJ. PMID:24436786

  4. Clinical research of percutaneous bilateral splanchnic nerve lesion for pain relief in patients with pancreatic cancer under X-ray guidance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Minghui; Yu, Hongli; Sun, Shiyu; Pan, Tao; Wang, Zhengping; Fu, Shukun; Lin, Fuqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to observe the therapeutic effects of percutaneous bilateral splanchnic nerves block in patients with intractable pain due to pancreatic cancer. Methods: twenty-fourpatients (advanced pancreatic cancer) with intractable pain were enrolled in the research. Through approach of the edge of T11 vertebral body with double-needle technique, the researchers carried out the bilateral lesion of the greater and the lesser splanchnic nerve with absolute ethyl alcohol under X-ray guidance. Follow-up was six months. Numerical rating scale (NRS) and quality of life (QOL) were all assessed pre- and post-procedure (1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, 4 m, 5 m, 6 m). The daily morphine consumption was recorded. Results: NRS and daily morphine consumption decreased when compared to pre-procedure while QOL increased. These differences were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). 9 patients suffered from diarrhea temporally and recoveredin one week. Conclusion: Percutaneous bilateral splanchnic nerves lesion under X-ray guidancecan treat intractable pain caused by pancreatic cancer and improve patients’life quality with minor complication. PMID:26884922

  5. Ulnar artery vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ha; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Song, Soon-Young; Seo, Heong Seok; Jun, Jae-Bum

    2009-07-01

    Although digital ulceration frequently occurs in patients with systemic sclerosis, there have been few reports on macrovascular involvement. Macrovascular disease in systemic sclerosis has recently been described. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and brachial angiographic findings of 19 systemic sclerosis patients, who exhibited Raynaud's phenomenon and digital ulceration. We found that ulnar artery involvement is frequent in systemic sclerosis, although the precise mechanism is not known. There was no significant difference in risk factors of macrovascular disease between ulnar artery-involved patients and not-involved subjects. Thirteen patients underwent surgical intervention; five of the 13 patients had vascular graft performed due to ulnar artery involvement. We suggest that angiographic screening and early surgical intervention such as revascularization should be considered in patients with systemic sclerosis who manifest a severe form of Raynaud's phenomenon and/or digital ulceration and especially in patients with diffuse sclerosis. PMID:19363679

  6. Classification and treatment of ulnar styloid nonunion.

    PubMed

    Hauck, R M; Skahen, J; Palmer, A K

    1996-05-01

    Symptomatic nonunion of the ulnar styloid is an uncommon problem that is usually best treated by simple excision of the ulnar styloid fragment. Two types of nonunion of the ulnar styloid are described here on an anatomic basis, and their treatment differs. Type 1 is defined as a nonunion associated with a stable distal radioulnar joint. Type 2 is defined as a nonunion associated with subluxation of the distal radioulnar joint. The postoperative follow-up period for the two types ranged from 4 months to 13 years, with a mean of 5 years 2 months. Eleven type 1 wrists were treated with excision of the fragment, and all patients had satisfactory relief of pain. Nine type 2 wrists required restoration of the anatomy of the traingular fibrocartilage complex. Three of these had large fragments that were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. All three patients were completely relieved of their discomfort. Six other patients underwent excision of the fragment and repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the distal ulna. This group had four excellent, one good, and one fair result. If the distal radioulnar joint is stable on presentation or if its stability is restored, then long-term relief of pain from ulnar styloid nonunion is achieved by treatment of the nonunion. PMID:8724472

  7. Variations in the motor nerve supply of the thenar and hypothenar muscles of the hand.

    PubMed Central

    Ajmani, M L

    1996-01-01

    The distribution pattern of the muscular branch of median and ulnar nerves and motor innervation of the thenar and hypothenar muscles were studied in 68 palmar regions taken from 34 adult cadavers of both sexes aged 40 to 70 y. The structure of the flexor pollicis brevis was examined in all 68 hands. In 13 of the 68 hands an anastomosis was seen between the ulnar and median nerves. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8771405

  8. Osteotomy for sigmoid notch obliquity and ulnar positive variance.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Lisa M; Tham, Stephen K Y

    2014-02-01

    Background?Several causes of ulnar wrist pain have been described. One uncommon cause is ulnar carpal abutment associated with a notable distally facing sigmoid notch (reverse obliquity). Such an abnormality cannot be treated with ulnar shortening alone because it will result in incongruity of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Case Description?A 23-year-old woman presented with ulnar wrist pain aggravated by forearm rotation. Ten years earlier she had sustained a distal radius fracture that was conservatively treated. Examination revealed mild tenderness at the DRUJ and decreased wrist flexion and grip strength on the affected side. Radiographic examination demonstrated 1 cm ulnar positive variance, ulnar styloid nonunion, and a 37 reverse obliquity of the sigmoid notch. The patient was treated with ulnar shortening and rotation sigmoid notch osteotomy to realign the sigmoid notch with the ulnar head. Literature Review?Sigmoid notch incongruity is one of several causes of wrist pain after distal radius fracture. Traditional salvage options for DRUJ arthritis may result in loss of grip strength, painful ulnar shaft instability, or reossification and are not acceptable options in the young patient. Sigmoid notch osteotomy or osteoplasty have been described to correct the shape of the sigmoid notch in the axial plane. Clinical Relevance?We report a coronal plane osteotomy of the sigmoid notch to treat reverse obliquity of the sigmoid notch associated with ulnar carpal abutment. The rotation osteotomy described is particularly useful for patients in whom a salvage procedure is not warranted. PMID:24533247

  9. Posterior tibial and sural nerve somatosensory evoked potentials: a study in spastic paraparesis and spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Aalfs, C M; Koelman, J H; Posthumus Meyjes, F E; Ongerboer de Visser, B W

    1993-12-01

    In two groups of patients posterior tibial nerve (PTN) and sural nerve (SN) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were compared to each other and related to classified neurological signs. Group A consisted of 7 patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) and 8 with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), with solely or primarily motor deficits. Group B consisted of 12 patients with different spinal cord diseases causing variable mixed sensory and motor impairments. Normal values were derived from 39 controls. A clear trend towards more frequently prolonged PTN SEP than SN SEP latencies was found in both groups and appears to make PTN SEPs more useful for clinical application than SN SEPs. No significant differences were found in SEP abnormalities when the two patient groups were compared to each other. No relationships were found between SEP abnormalities and spasticity, weakness or any single sensory modality, making the two SEPs questionable as a quantitative test for neurological deficits in our patients. PMID:7507431

  10. The Ulnar Collateral Ligament Procedure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, James R.; Jost, Patrick W.; Cain, E. Lyle

    2012-01-01

    Context: The ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow (UCL) is frequently injured in throwing athletes, most commonly baseball pitchers. The ligament is reconstructed through bone tunnels using palmaris longus or gracilis autograft. Results: This study highlights the following technique for UCL reconstruction in over 2000 athletes.2 Conclusion: When conservative management fails, ligament reconstruction can allow the athlete to return to their sport.1 PMID:23016118

  11. Lateral Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction: An Analysis of Ulnar Tunnel Locations.

    PubMed

    Anakwenze, Oke A; Khanna, Krishn; Levine, William N; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    We conducted a study to determine precise ulnar tunnel location during lateral ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction to maximize bony bridge and graft construct perpendicularity. Three-dimensional computer models of 15 adult elbows were constructed. These elbow models were manipulated for simulated 4-mm tunnel drilling. The proximal ulna tunnels were placed at the radial head-neck junction and sequentially 0, 5, and 10 mm posterior to the supinator crest. The bony bridges created by these tunnels were measured. Location of the humeral isometric point was determined and marked as the humeral tunnel location. Graft configuration was simulated. Using all the simulated ulna tunnels, we measured the proximal and distal limbs of the graft. In addition, we measured the degree of perpendicularity of the graft limbs. The ulnar tunnel bony bridge was significantly longer with more posterior placement of the proximal tunnel relative to the supinator crest. An increase in degree of perpendicularity of graft to ulnar tunnels was noted with posterior shifts in proximal tunnel location. Posterior placement of the proximal ulna tunnel allows for a larger bony bridge and a more geometrically favorable reconstruction. PMID:26866312

  12. Ulnar drift in rheumatoid arthritis: a review of biomechanical etiology.

    PubMed

    Morco, Stephanie; Bowden, Anton

    2015-02-26

    The objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of biomechanical factors that cause ulnar drift in the hands of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This was done through literature review of published articles on the mechanical etiology of ulnar drift. There are several theories regarding the cause of ulnar drift, however conclusive evidence is still lacking. Current mechanical factors that are postulated to play a role include: failure of the collateral ligaments, intra-articular pressure changes, degenerative changes in the carpal and metacarpal anatomy, muscle hypoxia induced changes in wrist tension, and exacerbating activities of daily living. Although current theories regarding ulnar drift almost universally include an at least partially mechanical rationale, the causes may be multifactorial. Significantly more research is needed to elucidate the relative importance of mechanical factors leading to significant ulnar drift concurrent with advanced rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25614089

  13. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bumer, Philipp; Meinck, Hans-Michael; Schiefer, Johannes; Weiler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Kele, Henrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine lesion sites and spatial lesion patterns in spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Methods: In 20 patients with AINS and 20 age- and sex-matched controls, MRN of median nerve fascicles was performed at 3T with large longitudinal anatomical coverage (upper arm/elbow/forearm): 135 contiguous axial slices (T2-weighted: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 ms, time of acquisition: 15 minutes 48 seconds, in-plane resolution: 0.25 0.25 mm). Lesion classification was performed by visual inspection and by quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal after segmentation of median nerve voxels. Results: In all patients and no controls, T2 lesions of individual fascicles were observed within upper arm median nerve trunk and strictly followed a somatotopic/internal topography: affected were those motor fascicles that will form the anterior interosseous nerve further distally while other fascicles were spared. Predominant lesion focus was at a mean distance of 14.6 5.4 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Discriminative power of quantitative T2 signal analysis and of qualitative lesion rating was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity (p < 0.0001). Fascicular T2 lesion patterns were rated as multifocal (n = 17), monofocal (n = 2), or indeterminate (n = 1) by 2 independent observers with strong agreement (kappa = 0.83). Conclusion: It has been difficult to prove the existence of fascicular/partial nerve lesions in spontaneous neuropathies using clinical and electrophysiologic findings. With MRN, fascicular lesions with strict somatotopic organization were observed in upper arm median nerve trunks of patients with AINS. Our data strongly support that AINS in the majority of cases is not a surgically treatable entrapment neuropathy but a multifocal mononeuropathy selectively involving, within the main trunk of the median nerve, the motor fascicles that continue distally to form the anterior interosseous nerve. PMID:24415574

  14. Assessing nerves in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Garbino, José Antonio; Heise, Carlos Otto; Marques, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy neuropathy is dependent on the patient's immune response and expresses itself as a focal or multifocal neuropathy with asymmetric involvement. Leprosy neuropathy evolves chronically but recurrently develops periods of exacerbation during type 1 or type 2 reactions, leading to acute neuropathy. Nerve enlargement leading to entrapment syndromes is also a common manifestation. Pain may be either of inflammatory or neuropathic origin. A thorough and detailed evaluation is mandatory for adequate patient follow-up, including nerve palpation, pain assessment, graded sensory mapping, muscle power testing, and autonomic evaluation. Nerve conduction studies are a sensitive tool for nerve dysfunction, including new lesions during reaction periods or development of entrapment syndromes. Nerve ultrasonography is also a very promising method for nerve evaluation in leprosy. The authors propose a composite nerve clinical score for nerve function assessment that can be useful for longitudinal evaluation. PMID:26773623

  15. The impact and specificity of nerve perturbation on novel vibrotactile sensory letter learning.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Steven R; Bosse, Jessica; Murphy, Bernadette; Lee, Timothy D

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine if induced radiating paresthesia interferes with (a) acquisition and/or (b) utilization of complex tactile information, and (c) identify whether interference reflects tactile masking or response competition. Radiating ulnar (experiment 1) and median (experiment 2) nerve paresthesia was quantified on ulnar innervated vibrotactile Morse code letter acquisition and recollection tasks. Induced paresthesia differentially impacted letter acquisition and recollection, but only when presented to the same anatomical spatial location. PMID:24844345

  16. Thumb ulnar collateral and radial collateral ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Nicole S; Goldfarb, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Thumb metacarpophalangeal ulnar and radial collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the competitive athlete. Collateral ligament integrity is essential to joint stability, pinch strength, and pain-free motion. Acute rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament is due to a sudden radial deviation force on the abducted thumb and is referred to as skier's thumb. An ulnar-directed force causes injury to the radial collateral ligament. The degree of joint instability on clinical examination allows classification of these injuries and guides management. Surgical repair of acute, complete tears results in good outcomes and allows for return to sporting activity. PMID:25455399

  17. Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

    PubMed

    De Maeseneer, Michel; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Antic, Marijana; Lenchik, Leon; Milants, Annemieke; Vereecke, Evie; Jager, Tjeerd; Shahabpour, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    The high resolution and dynamic capability of ultrasound make it an excellent tool for assessment of superficial structures. The ligaments, tendons, and nerves about the elbow can be fully evaluated with ultrasound. The medial collateral ligament consists of an anterior and posterior band that can easily be identified. The lateral ligament complex consists of the radial collateral ligament, ulnar insertion of the annular ligament, and lateral ulnar collateral ligament, easily identified with specialized probe positioning. The lateral ulnar collateral ligament can best be seen in the cobra position. On ultrasound medial elbow tendons can be followed nearly up to their common insertion. The pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum superficialis can be identified. The laterally located brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus insert on the supracondylar ridge. The other lateral tendons can be followed up to their common insertion on the lateral epicondyle. The extensor digitorum, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris can be differentiated. The distal biceps tendon is commonly bifid. For a complete assessment of the distal biceps tendon specialized views are necessary. These include an anterior axial approach, medial and lateral approach, and cobra position. In the cubital tunnel the ulnar nerve is covered by the ligament of Osborne. Slightly more distally the ulnar nerve courses between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris. An accessory muscle, the anconeus epitrochlearis can cover the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel, and is easily identified on ultrasound. The radial nerve divides in a superficial sensory branch and a deep motor branch. The motor branch, the posterior interosseous nerve, courses under the arcade of Frohse where it enters the supinator muscle. At the level of the dorsal wrist the posterior interosseous nerve is located at the deep aspect of the extensor tendons. The median nerve may be compressed at various sites, including the lacertus fibrosis, between the pronator teres heads, and the sublimis bridge. These compression sites can be identified with ultrasound. PMID:25638576

  18. Vascularized Nerve Grafts and Vascularized Fascia for Upper Extremity Nerve Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulos, Vasileios K.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1976, experimental and clinical studies have suggested the superiority of vascularized nerve grafts. In this study, a 27-year experience of the senior author is presented regarding vascularized nerve grafts and fascia for complex upper extremity nerve reconstruction. The factors influencing outcomes as well as a comparison with conventional nerve grafts is presented. Since 1981, 21 vascularized nerve grafts, other than vascularized ulnar nerve, were used for reconstruction of nerve injuries in the upper extremity. Indications were prolonged denervation time, failure of the previously used conventional nerve grafts, and excessive scar in the recipient site. Injury was in the hand/wrist area (n = 5), in the forearm (n = 4), in the elbow (n = 2), in the arm (n = 4), or in the plexus (n = 6). Vascularized sural (n = 9), saphenous (n = 8), superficial radial (n = 3), and peroneal (superficial and deep) nerves were used. The mean follow-up was 31.4 months. Vascularized nerve grafts for upper extremity injuries provided good to excellent sensory return in severely scarred upper extremities in patients in whom conventional nerve grafts had failed. They have also provided relief of causalgia after painful neuroma resection and motor function recovery in selective cases even for above the elbow injuries. Small diameter vascularized nerve grafts should be considered for bridging long nerve gaps in regions of excessive scar or for reconstructions where conventional nerve grafts have failed. PMID:19381727

  19. Study of Electrophysiological Changes in Sensory Nerves Among Diabetic Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Arsalan; Ahsan, Akif; Goel, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neuropathy is one of the most troublesome complication affecting individuals with diabetes. The resultant loss of function in peripheral nerves causes loss of protective sensations and impairs patient’s ability to perceive incipient or even apparent ulcerations in the feet. Aim This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis of alteration in electrophysiological parameters of nerve before actual manifestations of neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients and to analyse the effect of smoking on Sensory Nerve Conduction Velocity (SNCV) of diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty diagnosed diabetics were taken as cases while 30 healthy non diabetics were taken as control. Case group was divided into diabetic non-smoker and diabetic smoker. Diabetic smoker were further subdivided into light smoker, moderate smoker and heavy smoker according to smoking index. After detailed history and physical examination SNCV of median and ulnar nerve in upper limb and sural nerve in lower limb was performed. Results On comparison of SNCV of median and ulnar nerve of upper limb and sural nerve of lower limb between control and diabetic non-smoker only sural nerve of diabetic non smoker showed significant bilateral decrease. There was significant bilateral decrease in SNCV of median and ulnar nerve of diabetic heavy smoker when compared to control and diabetic non smoker. Similarly, SNCV of sural nerve of diabetic heavy smoker was significantly decreased when compared with control, diabetic non-smoker, diabetic light and moderate smoker. A negative and statistically significant correlation was found between SNCV and smoking index. Conclusion Present study indicates that nerves of lower limbs are more susceptible to diabetic assault as compared to upper limb suggesting that long nerves are commonly affected. Also, apart from duration and severity of diabetes, smoking itself is an independent factor for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26894060

  20. Ulnar collateral ligament injuries in the throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jeremy R; Andrews, James R

    2014-05-01

    Repetitive valgus forces on the throwing elbow place significant stress on that joint. This stress can cause structural damage and injury to the ulnar collateral ligament. Many acute injuries of the throwing elbow are caused by repetitive chronic wear. Although much work has been done on injury prevention in youth who are pitchers, overuse injury in throwing sports constitutes an epidemic. Failing nonsurgical management, ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction is a viable option to return the throwing athlete to competition. PMID:24788447

  1. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck - the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area's topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination. PMID:26674017

  2. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area's topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination. PMID:26674017

  3. Comparison of Surgical Techniques for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Dodson, Christopher C; Ciccotti, Michael G

    2016-03-01

    Several surgical techniques and modifications for ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction have been proposed since this procedure was first performed in 1974. The goal of these techniques has been restoration of stability to the medial elbow with minimal alteration to the surrounding anatomy. Outcome studies and systematic reviews on modified techniques for UCL reconstruction have shown a trend toward increased return to play in patients, particularly overhead athletes. Abandonment of flexor pronator mass detachment in favor of a muscle-splitting or muscle-elevating approach, minimal handling of the ulnar nerve, and the docking technique may result in improved outcomes and decreased complications without diminished performance. Several biomechanical studies have compared the structural properties of these techniques with those of the native UCL. However, a clear, concise surgical algorithm for UCL reconstruction is lacking. Additional studies that use sport-specific outcome measures and performance metrics may better demonstrate the true return to preinjury performance after UCL reconstruction in overhead athletes. PMID:26890035

  4. Evolution of the treatment options of ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Langer, P; Fadale, P; Hulstyn, M

    2006-06-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) insufficiency is potentially a career threatening, or even a career ending, injury, particularly in overhead throwing athletes. The evolution of treating modalities provides afflicted athletes with the opportunity to avoid premature retirement. There have been several clinical and basic science research efforts which have investigated the pathophysiology of UCL disruption, the biomechanics specific to overhead throwing, and the various types of treatment modalities. UCL reconstruction is currently the most commonly performed surgical treatment option. An in depth analysis of the present treatment options, both non-operative and operative, as well as their respective results and biomechanical evaluation, is lacking in the literature to date. This article provides a comprehensive current review and comparative analysis of these modalities. Over the last 30 years there has been an evolution of the original UCL reconstruction. Yet, despite the variability in modifications, such as the docking technique, interference screw fixation, and use of suture anchors, the unifying concepts of UCL reconstruction are that decreased dissection of the flexor-pronator mass and decreased handling of the ulnar nerve leads to improved outcomes. PMID:16488902

  5. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rong; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Ferguson, N Lynn; Lewis, James; Fu, Yitong

    2012-09-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) is a rare, benign lesion of the peripheral nerves most frequently involving the median nerve and its digital branches (80 %). Pathognomonic MR features of FLH such as coaxial-cable-like appearance on axial planes and a spaghetti-like appearance on coronal planes have been described by Marom and Helms, obviating the need for diagnostic biopsy. We present a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve) with associated subcutaneous fat proliferation. PMID:22526881

  6. Effects of Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning on Function of Peripheral Nerves: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Sudheera S.; Pathirana, Kithsiri D.; Buckley, Nick A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Following acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning patients complain of numbness without objective sensory abnormalities or other features of OP induced delayed polyneuropathy. The aim of this study was to measure peripheral nerve function after acute exposure to OP. Methods A cohort study was conducted with age, gender and occupation matched controls. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), amplitude and area of compound muscle action potential (CMAP), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), F- waves and electromyography (EMG) on the deltoid and the first dorsal interosseous muscles on the dominant side were performed, following acute OP poisoning. All neurophysiological assessments except EMG were performed on the controls. Assessments were performed on the day of discharge from the hospital (the first assessment) and six weeks (the second assessment) after the exposure. The controls were assessed only once. Results There were 70 patients (50 males) and 70 controls. Fifty-three patients attended for the second assessment. In the first assessment MNCV of all the motor nerves examined, CMAP amplitude and SNCV of ulnar nerve, median and ulnar F-wave occurrence in the patients were significantly reduced compared to the controls. In the second assessment significant reduction was found in SNCV of both sensory nerves examined, MNCV of ulnar nerve, CMAP amplitude of common peroneal nerve, F-wave occurrence of median and ulnar nerves. No abnormalities were detected in the patients when compared to the standard cut-off values of nerve conduction studies except F-wave occurrence. EMG studies did not show any abnormality. Conclusion There was no strong evidence of irreversible peripheral nerve damage following acute OP poisoning, however further studies are required. PMID:23185328

  7. Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Kenneth M.; Brown, Justin M.; Shah, Sameer B.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial financial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, including a novel internal fixator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps. PMID:25317163

  8. Superficial Ulnar Artery: A Case Report of its Unusual Course

    PubMed Central

    QUADROS, Lydia Shobha; BHAT, Nandini; D'SOUZA, Antony Sylvan

    2015-01-01

    After arising from the brachial artery in the cubital fossa the ulnar artery usually passes deep into the superficial flexor muscles of the forearm. In the lower two-thirds, it typically follows a sub-fascial course. In the present case, during a routine undergraduate course dissection of a cadaver, it was found that the ulnar artery arose normally as a terminal branch of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa, followed a sub-fascial course by lying superficial to the flexor muscles then completed the superficial palmar arch in hand. This artery gave only minute muscular branches in the forearm. Moreover, the main branches that usually arise from the ulnar artery were given off by the radial artery. This type of variation is of importance for both the clinicians and surgeons due to its vulnerability to injuries and of academic interest for anatomists. PMID:26715898

  9. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  10. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  11. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common procedure in both professional and high-level athletes. Purpose: To determine the effect of technique and level of play with UCLR on return to sport (RTS). Hypothesis: When comparing different surgical techniques or preoperative level of sports participation, there is no difference in rate of RTS after UCLR. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines using 3 publicly available free databases. Therapeutic clinical outcome investigations reporting UCLR outcomes with level of evidence 1 through 4 were eligible for inclusion. All study, subject, and surgical technique demographics were analyzed and compared between continents and countries. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and 2-proportion 2-sample z-test calculators with α = .05 were used to compare RTS between level of play and technique. Results: Twenty studies (2019 patients/elbows; mean age, 22.13 ± 4 years; 97% male; mean follow-up, 39.9 ± 16.2 months) were included. The majority of patients were baseball players (94.5%), specifically pitchers (80%). The most common level of play was collegiate (44.6%). Palmaris longus (71.2%) and the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique (65.6%) were the most common graft choice and surgical technique, respectively. There was a pooled 86.2% RTS rate, and 90% of players scored excellent/good on the Conway-Jobe scale. RTS rates were higher among collegiate athletes (95.5%) than either high school (89.4%, P = .023) or professional athletes (86.4%, P < .0001). RTS rates were higher for the docking technique (97.0%, P = .001) and the ASMI technique (93.3%, P = .0034) than the Jobe technique (66.7%). Conclusion: UCLR is performed most commonly in collegiate athletes. Collegiate athletes have the highest RTS rate after UCLR of all levels of competition. The docking and ASMI techniques had higher RTS rates than the Jobe technique. PMID:26740956

  12. Axo-glial dysjunction. A novel structural lesion that accounts for poorly reversible slowing of nerve conduction in the spontaneously diabetic bio-breeding rat.

    PubMed Central

    Sima, A A; Lattimer, S A; Yagihashi, S; Greene, D A

    1986-01-01

    Biochemical abnormalities in peripheral nerve are thought to precede and condition the development of diabetic neuropathy, but metabolic intervention in chronic diabetic neuropathy produces only limited acute clinical response. The residual, metabolically unresponsive neurological deficits have never been rigorously defined in terms of either persistent metabolic derangements or irreversible structural defects because human nerve tissue is rarely accessible for anatomical and biochemical study and experimentally diabetic animals do not develop the structural hallmarks of human diabetic neuropathy. Detailed neuroanatomical-functional-biochemical correlation was therefore undertaken in long-term spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats that functionally and structurally model human diabetic neuropathy. Vigorous insulin replacement in chronically diabetic BB rats essentially normalized both the sural nerve fiber caliber spectrum and the decreased sciatic nerve myo-inositol and (Na,K)-ATPase levels generally associated with conduction slowing in diabetic animals; yet, nerve conduction was only partially restored toward normal. Morphometric analysis revealed a striking disappearance of paranodal axo-glial junctional complexes that was not corrected by insulin replacement. Loss of these strategic junctional complexes, which are thought to limit lateral migration of axolemmal Na channels away from nodes of Ranvier, correlates with and can account for the diminished nodal Na permeability and resultant nodal conduction delay characteristic of chronic diabetic neuropathy in this animal model. Images PMID:3003160

  13. Carpal impaction with the ulnar styloid process: treatment with partial styloid resection.

    PubMed

    Tomaino, M M; Gainer, M; Towers, J D

    2001-06-01

    Carpal impaction with the ulnar styloid process (stylocarpal impaction) occurs less frequently than with the ulnar head (ulnocarpal impaction), and more commonly develops in wrists with negative ulnar variance. Physical examination, radiographic evaluation, and wrist arthroscopy are all helpful in excluding alternative causes of ulnar wrist pain. When an ulnocarpal stress test elicits pain, and radiographs suggest that this is due to carpal impaction with the ulnar styloid, partial resection of the styloid process provides successful treatment, so long as the insertion of the triangular fibrocartilage at the base of the styloid is not disrupted. PMID:11386778

  14. Repair and reconstruction of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Bonnaig, Nicholas S; Throckmorton, Thomas Quin

    2015-01-01

    Lateral ulnar collateral ligament repair and reconstruction are techniques used to treat posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow. The choice to perform repair versus reconstruction is typically dependent on the chronicity of the injury and the quality of tissue available at the time of surgery. PMID:25745910

  15. Effectiveness of interference screw fixation in ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Carl W

    2008-07-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament disruptions of the elbow are increasingly common for athletes involved in overhead sports. One newer reconstructive technique combines the use of a biotenodesis screw for ulnar fixation with the docking procedure for humeral fixation referred to as the DANE procedure. Biomechanical evaluations have determined that the combined procedure has properties similar to previous methods, but few comparative clinical studies have been performed. The current study compares the DANE procedure to a traditional method of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction with a medium range follow-up. Twelve ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions were observed for a minimum of 21 months. Six reconstructions were performed using bone tunnels on the ulna. The other 6 used a biotenodesis interference screw on the ulna. Both groups used the docking procedure on the humerus. Identical rehabilitation phases were followed by both groups. Attention was paid not only to the time to return to play and the level able to be returned to but also to interoperative differences, including tourniquet time. We concluded that the DANE reconstruction is an appropriate and effective method. Results are similar to those achieved with a traditional reconstructive method. The study also demonstrates that tourniquet time and, therefore, operative time is less for the DANE procedure. PMID:19292392

  16. Distal Metaphyseal Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy: Technique, Pearls, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Khouri, Joseph S.; Hammert, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ulnar sided wrist pain is a commonly encountered complaint of the hand surgeon, and ulnar impaction is a common cause. Surgical treatment aims to reduce the force transmitted through the ulna and traditionally includes diaphyseal ulnar shortening osteotomy and the “wafer” procedure. These procedures have known shortcomings. We describe an alternative option known as the distal metaphyseal ulnar shortening osteotomy (DMUSO). Materials and Methods Retrospective review of eight procedures was undertaken to assess radiographic healing, objective measurements of wrist and forearm motion, grip and pinch strength, and subjective measures of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), and Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) at a minimum of 12 months following surgery. Description of Technique A wedge osteotomy is made in the osteochondral region of the distal metaphysis of the ulna, and a headless compression screw is used for fixation. Results Five women and three men underwent DMUSO with average follow up at 13 months; the dominant wrist was affected in 7 of 8 patients. The affected wrist had less motion in all planes, and grip and pinch strength was also less in the affected wrist, but only wrist extension was significantly different from the contralateral side. These findings likely did not have an effect on the clinical outcome. Subjective outcomes included average DASH score of 13 (0–35), PRWE 19 (40–11), and MHQ score of 88 (85–100). Conclusions DMUSO is a viable option for patients with ulnar impaction syndrome. It requires intra-articular exposure of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) but is less invasive then diaphyseal shortening. It permits early and reliable return of joint motion and function while avoiding the potential need for hardware removal by using a buried screw. PMID:25097810

  17. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... myelin sheath covering the nerve) Inflammatory nerve conditions (neuropathies) Additional conditions under which the test may be performed: Alcoholic neuropathy Axillary nerve dysfunction Brachial plexopathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth ...

  18. Tuberculoid leprosy presenting as a racket lesion*

    PubMed Central

    Brando, Letcia Stella Gardini; Marques, Gabriela Franco; Barreto, Jaison Antnio; Coelho, Ana Paula Cota Pinto; Serrano, Ana Paula de Paiva

    2015-01-01

    The "racket" lesion is a rare presentation of tuberculoid leprosy, which consists of a thickened nerve branch emerging from a tuberculoid plaque. It results from centripetal damage to cutaneous nerves caused by granuloma formation. We describe a typical case of tuberculoid leprosy presenting as a "racket" lesion. The lesion persisted after treatment with paucibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:26131879

  19. Evaluation of Nerve Conduction Studies in Obese Children With Insulin Resistance or Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ince, Hülya; Taşdemir, Haydar Ali; Aydin, Murat; Ozyürek, Hamit; Tilki, Hacer Erdem

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate nerve conduction studies in terms of neuropathic characteristics in obese patients who were in prediabetes stage and also to determine the abnormal findings. The study included 69 obese adolescent patients between April 2009 and December 2010. All patients and control group underwent motor (median, ulnar, tibial, and peroneal) and sensory (median, ulnar, sural, and medial plantar) nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. Sensory response amplitude of the medial plantar nerve was significantly lower in the patients with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. To our knowledge, the present study is the first study demonstrating the development of sensory and autonomic neuropathy due to metabolic complications of obesity in adolescent children even in the period without development of diabetes mellitus. We recommend that routine electrophysiological examinations be performed, using medial plantar nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. PMID:25342307

  20. Ulnar dominant hand and forearm: an electrophysiologic approach.

    PubMed

    Abayev, Boris; Ha, Edward; Cruise, Cathy

    2005-09-01

    An ulnar-to-median anastomosis in the forearm is a rare condition, but may be present in any electromyographic case. A thorough approach to this condition is required to avoid misinterpretation of the electrodiagnostic report and confusion during the test. Prior to concluding that an anomaly is present, technical reason should be taken into consideration. The presence of volume-conducted potentials from various nearby muscles may confuse the electromyographer. Therefore, instead of using surface electrodes with unintended supramaximal intensity of stimulation, the needle electrodes may be used (in some cases) to localize specific muscles and to minimize volume-conducted potentials by not utilizing supramaximal stimulation intensity. The authors will discuss ulnar-to-median anastomosis in the forearm. This is the first attempt to put together all the information available in the literature about such an anastomosis. PMID:16148736

  1. Impact of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tear on Posteromedial Elbow Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Anand, Prashanth; Parks, Brent G; Hassan, Sheref E; Osbahr, Daryl C

    2015-07-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency has been shown to result in changes in contact pressure and contact area in the posteromedial elbow. This study used new digital technology to assess the effect of a complete ulnar collateral ligament tear on ulnohumeral contact area, contact pressure, and valgus laxity throughout the throwing motion. Nine elbow cadaveric specimens were tested at 90 and 30 of elbow flexion to simulate the late cocking/early acceleration and deceleration phases of throwing, respectively. A digital sensor was placed in the posteromedial elbow. Each specimen was tested with valgus torque of 2.5 Nm with the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament intact and transected. A camera-based motion analysis system was used to measure valgus inclination of the forearm with the applied torque. At 90 of elbow flexion, mean contact area decreased significantly (107.9 mm(2) intact vs 84.9 mm(2) transected, P=.05) and average maximum contact pressure increased significantly (457.6 kPa intact vs 548.6 kPa transected, P<.001). At 30 of elbow flexion, mean contact area decreased significantly (83.9 mm(2) intact vs 65.8 mm(2) transected, P=.01) and average maximum contact pressure increased nonsignificantly (365.9 kPa intact vs 450.7 kPa transected, P=.08). Valgus laxity increased significantly at elbow flexion of 90 (1.1 intact vs 3.3 transected, P=.01) and 30 (1.0 intact vs 1.7 transected, P=.05). Ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency was associated with significant changes in contact area, contact pressure, and valgus laxity during both relative flexion (late cocking/early acceleration phase) and relative extension (deceleration phase) moments during the throwing motion arc. PMID:26186314

  2. Diagnosis and management of ulnar collateral ligament injuries in throwers.

    PubMed

    Freehill, Michael T; Safran, Marc R

    2011-01-01

    Although ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are reported most commonly in baseball players (especially in pitchers), these also have been observed in other throwing sports including water polo, javelin throw, tennis, and volleyball. This article reviews the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the UCL with associated pathophysiology of UCL injuries of the elbow of the athlete participating in overhead throwing. Evaluation, including pertinent principles in history, physical examination, and imaging modalities, is discussed, along with the management options. PMID:23531973

  3. Osteogenesis from periosteal autografts in ulnar defects in dogs.

    PubMed

    Finley, J M; Wood, M B; Acland, R D

    1979-01-01

    The quantity of new bone formed by revascularized periosteal grafts was compared with that formed by nonvascularized periosteal grafts in ulnar diaphyseal defects in dogs. Although in general the revascularized periosteal grafts produced a greater quantity of bone than their nonvascularized counterparts, this osteogenic behavior was not consistent. The results, however, are sufficiently encouraging to merit further investigation into the free transfer of revascularized periosteal autografts. PMID:16317946

  4. Use of superficial peroneal nerve graft for treating peripheral nerve injuries☆

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, Samuel; da Silva Filho, Paulo Roberto Ferreira; Tietzmann, Alexandre; Hirata, Helton Hiroshi; de Mattos, Carlos Augusto; da Gama, Sérgio Augusto Machado

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical results from treating chronic peripheral nerve injuries using the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft donor source. Methods This was a study on eleven patients with peripheral nerve injuries in the upper limbs that were treated with grafts from the sensitive branch of the superficial peroneal nerve. The mean time interval between the dates of the injury and surgery was 93 days. The ulnar nerve was injured in eight cases and the median nerve in six. There were three cases of injury to both nerves. In the surgery, a longitudinal incision was made on the anterolateral face of the ankle, thus viewing the superficial peroneal nerve, which was located anteriorly to the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Proximally, the deep fascia between the extensor digitorum longus and the peroneal longus muscles was dissected. Next, the motor branch of the short peroneal muscle (one of the branches of the superficial peroneal nerve) was identified. The proximal limit of the sensitive branch was found at this point. Results The average space between the nerve stumps was 3.8 cm. The average length of the grafts was 16.44 cm. The number of segments used was two to four cables. In evaluating the recovery of sensitivity, 27.2% evolved to S2+, 54.5% to S3 and 18.1% to S3+. Regarding motor recovery, 72.7% presented grade 4 and 27.2% grade 3. There was no motor deficit in the donor area. A sensitive deficit in the lateral dorsal region of the ankle and the dorsal region of the foot was observed. None of the patients presented complaints in relation to walking. Conclusions Use of the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft source for treating peripheral nerve injuries is safe and provides good clinical results similar to those from other nerve graft sources. PMID:26962502

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Jambawalikar, Sachin; Baum, Jeremy; Button, Terry; Li, Haifang; Geronimo, Veronica; Gould, Elaine S

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows the directional dependence of water diffusion to be studied. Analysis of the resulting image data allows for the determination of fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as well as allowing three-dimensional visualization of the fiber tract (tractography). We visualized the ulnar nerve of ten healthy volunteers with DTI. We found FA to be 0.752 ?0.067 and the ADC to be 0.960.13??10(-3)mm(2)/s. A nuts-and-bolts description of the physical aspects of DTI is provided as an educational process for readers. PMID:20593175

  6. The AO Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy System Indications and Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Ladislav; Jungwirth-Weinberger, Anna; Campbell, Douglas; Pino, Juan Gonzlez del

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is an established and frequently performed surgical procedure in wrist surgery. The technical aspects of the procedure have continued to develop in recent years, with instruments and implants being developed specifically for this purpose. Ulnar shortening osteotomy is required for different clinical indications and situations. These varying indications demand different amounts of shortening, but all must be precise and accurate. Controversy exists as to how this can best be achieved in terms of the location for osteotomy, the surgical approach and geometry of the osteotomy, as well as which implant to use to provide optimal stability. The goal of all techniques (besides successfully resolving the underlying problem) is to achieve reliable and rapid bone union without compromising early functional rehabilitation and also to avoid hardware complications. The AO Hand Expert Group has developed a specialized instrumentation system with dedicated and specifically designed implants to ensure exact and accurate cutting with precise and rigid stabilization of the ulna. The matched drill guides and double-blade saws allow accurate completion of the planned amount of shortening together with precise coaptation of the osteotomy fragments. The specific ulnar osteotomy LCP (locking compression plate) combines maximum stability with minimum bulk and soft tissue irritation. The features of the implant, its surgical technique, and early results are described. PMID:25077046

  7. Facial nerve neuromas: radiologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Latack, J T; Gabrielsen, T O; Knake, J E; Kemink, J L; Graham, M D; Gebarski, S S; Yang, P J

    1983-12-01

    Eight patients who had facial nerve neuromas were examined, and the radiographic findings are reported. Thin section tomography, high resolution computed tomography, posterior fossa computed tomography, and cerebellopontine angle cisternography using Pantopaque (iophendylate) demonstrated bone erosions and soft tissue masses conforming to the course of the facial nerve. The lesions generally exhibited either a proximal or a distal pattern of nerve involvement. Radiologic imaging frequently permits a correct preoperative diagnosis and accurate definition of the extent of facial nerve neuromas, assessments that are important for proper patient management. PMID:6606188

  8. Heat generation during ulnar osteotomy with microsagittal saw blades.

    PubMed

    Firoozbakhsh, K; Moneim, M S; Mikola, E; Haltom, S

    2003-01-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is a surgical treatment option for patients with symptomatic ulnar positive variance for a variety of reasons. Delayed healing and nonunion of the osteotomized sites have been reported and present problematic complications of this procedure. Studies have shown nonunion rate with transverse cuts ranging from 8-15%. The goal is to achieve parallel cuts, thus maximizing the contacting bony surface area for a better union rate. The senior surgeon attempted using a custom thick blade to insure parallel cuts. The concern is whether the heat generated during such a cut would contribute to non-union. It is our hypothesis that complications with ulnar shortening osteotomy using a thick blade are secondary to excess heat generation. When generated heat surpasses the threshold temperature of bone tissue, the organic matrix is irreversibly damaged and necrosis of the bony ends may occur. The present study measured the heat generation during ulnar osteotomy using different blade thicknesses. Thirty-five fresh turkey femurs, having similar size and cortical thickness of the human ulna, were used. Loading was done at three different speeds of 0.66, 1.0, and 1.5 mm/second corresponding respectively to 30, 20, and 10 seconds for the complete cut. A general linear statistical model was fitted relating temperature rise to three predictive factors: blade thickness, sensor distance, and initial bone temperature. There was a statistically significant relationship between temperature rise and all three predictor variables at the 99% confidence level. There was no statistically significant relationship between temperature rise and the number of cuts with the same blade up to 10 times. Compared with the single microsagital saw blade, the temperature rise for the double thickness blade was 14% higher and for the triple thickness blade was 23% higher. The temperature rise was inversely related to the speed of the cut. The temperature rise for the bone cut in 30 seconds was 1.5 times higher than the temperature rise when the bone was cut in 10 seconds. Complications with ulnar shortening osteotomy may be secondary to excess heat generation. A new thick saw blade design and the use of proper internal/external irrigation may overcome the problem. PMID:14575249

  9. The Clinical Significance of Ulnar Artery Morphology in Artificial Arterial-Venous Fistula for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    AL TALALWAH, Waseem Bader; GETACHEW, Dereje Regassa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ulnar artery is a terminal branch of the brachial artery. The aim of this study is to provide comprehensive data concerning the morphology of the ulnar artery, with clinical implications for surgeons. Methods: The current study includes the dissection of 68 upper limb specimens. It investigates the characteristics of the ulnar artery such as the internal diameter, external diameter, wall thickness, and distance of the ulnar artery origin. Results: In this study, the ulnar artery arose distal to the superior margin of the head of the radius in 82.65% of cases. The angle degree of the ulnar artery with respect to the brachial artery ranges from to 8 to 30. The internal and external diameters of the ulnar artery were found to decrease gradually from proximal to distal in both genders. The external and internal diameters of the ulnar artery are greater in males than in females. In all cases, the external and internal diameters and the thickness of the ulnar artery at three levels were found to be greater in the right ulnar artery than the left. Conclusion: The right ulnar artery may be the appropriate choice for artificial arterial-venous fistula for haemodialysis. Due to its wide diameter, the proximal part of the radial artery is a suitable site for the artificial arterial-venous fistula immediately below the origin prior to its profound course. Therefore, it is an easy access for artificial arterial-venous fistula for surgeons. The radiologists must alert the surgeons for surgical modification in the case of high brachial bifurcation. PMID:26715895

  10. A rare variant of the ulnar artery with important clinical implications: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Variations in the major arteries of the upper limb are estimated to be present in up to one fifth of people, and may have significant clinical implications. Case presentation During routine cadaveric dissection of a 69-year-old fresh female cadaver, a superficial brachioulnar artery with an aberrant path was found bilaterally. The superficial brachioulnar artery originated at midarm level from the brachial artery, pierced the brachial fascia immediately proximal to the elbow, crossed superficial to the muscles that originated from the medial epicondyle, and ran over the pronator teres muscle in a doubling of the antebrachial fascia. It then dipped into the forearm fascia, in the gap between the flexor carpi radialis and the palmaris longus. Subsequently, it ran deep to the palmaris longus muscle belly, and superficially to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, reaching the gap between the latter and the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, where it assumed is usual position lateral to the ulnar nerve. Conclusion As far as the authors could determine, this variant of the superficial brachioulnar artery has only been described twice before in the literature. The existence of such a variant is of particular clinical significance, as these arteries are more susceptible to trauma, and can be easily confused with superficial veins during medical and surgical procedures, potentially leading to iatrogenic distal limb ischemia. PMID:23194303

  11. Peripheral nerve injuries in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J H; Nadler, S F; Krivickas, L S

    1997-12-01

    Peripheral nerves are susceptible to injury in the athlete because of the excessive physiological demands that are made on both the neurological structures and the soft tissues that protect them. The common mechanisms of injury are compression, traction, ischaemia and laceration. Seddon's original classification system for nerve injuries based on neurophysiological changes is the most widely used. Grade 1 nerve injury is a neuropraxic condition, grade 2 is axonal degeneration and grade 3 is nerve transection. Peripheral nerve injuries are more common in the upper extremities than the lower extremities, tend to be sport specific, and often have a biomechanical component. While the more acute and catastrophic neurological injuries are usually obvious, many remain subclinical and are not recognised before neurological damage is permanent. Early detection allows initiation of a proper rehabilitation programme and modification of biomechanics before the nerve injury becomes irreversible. Recognition of nerve injuries requires an understanding of peripheral neuroanatomy, knowledge of common sites of nerve injury and an awareness of the types of peripheral nerve injuries that are common and unique to each sport. The electrodiagnostic exam, usually referred to as the 'EMG', consists of nerve conduction studies and the needle electrode examination. It is used to determine the site and degree of neurological injury and to predict outcome. It should be performed by a neurologist or physiatrist (physician specialising in physical medicine and rehabilitation), trained and skilled in this procedure. Timing is essential if the study is to provide maximal information. Findings such as decreased recruitment after injury and conduction block at the site of injury may be apparent immediately after injury but other findings such as abnormal spontaneous activity may take several weeks to develop. The electrodiagnostic test assists with both diagnosis of the injury and in predicting outcome. Proximal nerve injuries have a poorer prognosis for neurological recovery. The most common peripheral nerve injury in the athlete is the burner syndrome. Though primarily a football injury, burners have been reported in wrestling, hockey, basketball and weight-lifting as a result of acute head, neck and/or shoulder trauma. Most burners are self-limiting, but they occasionally produce permanent neurological deficits. The axillary nerve is commonly injured with shoulder dislocations but is also susceptible to injury by direct compression. The sciatic and common peroneal nerves can be injured by trauma. The suprascapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median and tibial nerves are susceptible to entrapment. The long thoracic and femoral nerves can be injured by severe traction. PMID:9421863

  12. [Anatomical rationale for elevating revascularized ulnar forearm fasciocutaneous flap for head and neck reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Verbo, E V; Petrosyan, A A; Gileva, K S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied in detail features of the blood supply to the tissues of the forearm of the pools ulnar and radial arteries, the technique of line access and the formation of skin-fascial ulnar flap by using a layered dissection with contrast vessels on non fixed human cadavers. Blood supply of the forearm carried out by branches radial and ulnar arteries, which allows to create in this area radial flap and ulnar flap loo. The size of the skin-fascial ulnar flap can reach 3-10 cm in length, 2-6 cm in width, the length of vessel pedicle of the transplant can reach 12 cm. The research studied the characteristics of blood supply of the forearm and the comparative evaluation of tissue perfusion of the radial and ulnar arteries; proved localization forming ulnar flap. Studies have shown that revascularised skin-fascial ulnar flap may be can be an alternative donor material for elimination of soft tissue defects with less traumatization donor area and reduce upper limb function compared with radial flap. PMID:26145472

  13. Piriformis syndrome surgery causing severe sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Justice, Phillip E; Katirji, Bashar; Preston, David C; Grossman, Gerald E

    2012-09-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a controversial entrapment neuropathy in which the sciatic nerve is thought to be compressed by the piriformis muscle. Two patients developed severe left sciatic neuropathy after piriformis muscle release. One had a total sciatic nerve lesion, whereas the second had a predominantly high common peroneal nerve lesion. Follow-up studies showed reinnervation of the hamstrings only. We conclude that piriformis muscle surgery may be hazardous and result in devastating sciatic nerve injury. PMID:22922582

  14. Ulnar Shaft Stress Fracture in a High School Softball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Bigosinski, Krystian; Palmer, Trish; Weber, Kathleen; Evola, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case of a 17-year-old softball pitcher with insidious onset of right forearm pain. On presentation, the patient had tenderness on palpation of the midshaft of the ulna, pain with resisted pronation, and pain with fulcrum-type stressing of the forearm. A bone scan revealed increased uptake in the right ulna, and a subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and numerous small ulnar stress fractures. She was treated with bone stimulation and complete rest and is in the process of returning to pitching. PMID:23015929

  15. Ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the thumb: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Avery, Daniel M; Caggiano, Nicholas M; Matullo, Kristofer S

    2015-04-01

    Injuries to the thumb ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) are common. Failure to address the ensuing laxity of the metacarpophalangeal joint can lead to compromised grip and pinch, pain, and ultimately osteoarthritis. Instability to valgus stress with the lack of a firm end point is a strong indicator of complete rupture of the UCL. Nonoperative treatment is reserved for incomplete ruptures of the thumb UCL. Operative intervention is typically performed for complete ruptures. Repair of acute ruptures and reconstruction for chronic injuries yield excellent results. Complications are rare and most patients show preservation of motion, key pinch, and grip strength. PMID:25771322

  16. Ulnar shaft stress fracture in a high school softball pitcher.

    PubMed

    Bigosinski, Krystian; Palmer, Trish; Weber, Kathleen; Evola, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    This article presents a case of a 17-year-old softball pitcher with insidious onset of right forearm pain. On presentation, the patient had tenderness on palpation of the midshaft of the ulna, pain with resisted pronation, and pain with fulcrum-type stressing of the forearm. A bone scan revealed increased uptake in the right ulna, and a subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and numerous small ulnar stress fractures. She was treated with bone stimulation and complete rest and is in the process of returning to pitching. PMID:23015929

  17. Effects on Spatial Cognition and Nociceptive Behavior Following Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats with Lesion of the Striatal Marginal Division Induced by Kainic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxin; Zhou, Chang; Li, Guoying; Tian, Yinghong; Liu, Jing; Yan, Li; Jiang, Yuyun; Tian, Sumin

    2015-11-01

    Neuropathic pain and cognitive deficit are frequently comorbidity in clinical, but their underlying correlation and mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we utilized a combined rat model including kainic acid (KA) injection into bilateral striatal marginal division and chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI). PET/CT scans revealed that the SUVmax of KA rats was significantly decreased when compared to naive and saline rats. In contrast to the naive and saline rats, KA rats had longer latencies in locating the hidden platform on day 4, 5 in Morris water maze task. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia of KA rats were alleviated following CCI. Immunostaining results showed that substance P was markedly increased within ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn of KA rats after CCI, especially on the post-operative day 14. By means of real-time PCR, the up-regulation of GluR within ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn was observed in all KA and CCI rats. PKC?, IL-6 and NF-?B were up-regulated in both CCI rats when compared to naive and their respective sham rats. These results suggest that cognitive impairment of rats altered the pain behaviors, and these intracellular regulators play crucial roles in the process of neuropathic pain. PMID:26415594

  18. Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: A case series investigating the appropriate diagnosis, management, and post-operative considerations

    PubMed Central

    Woitzik, Erin; deGraauw, Chris; Easter, Brock

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar sided wrist pain is a common site for upper extremity disability. Ulnar impaction syndrome results in a spectrum of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries and associated lunate, triquetrum, and ligamentous damage. Patients commonly present with insidious ulnar sided wrist pain and clicking, and a history of trauma or repetitive axial loading and rotation. In this case series, three patients presented to a sports chiropractor for evaluation and were subsequently diagnosed with ulnar impaction syndrome. Treatment strategies consist of conservative management, arthroscopic debridement or repair, arthroscopic wafer procedure, or ulnar shortening osteotomy. For the athlete, intervention should be individualized and sport-specific, considering athletic priorities, healing potential, return to play, and long-term health concerns. PMID:25550665

  19. Normal threshold values for a monofilament sensory test in sural and radial cutaneous nerves in Indian and Nepali volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Inge; Brandsma, Wim; Post, Erik; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-12-01

    The monofilament test (MFT) is a reliable method to assess sensory nerve function in leprosy and other neuropathies. Assessment of the radial cutaneous and sural nerves, in addition to nerves usually tested, can help improve diagnosis and monitoring of nerve function impairment (NFI). To enable the detection of impairments in leprosy patients, it is essential to know the monofilament threshold of these two nerves in normal subjects. The radial cutaneous, sural, ulnar, median and posterior tibial nerves of 245 volunteers were tested. All nerves were tested at three sites on both left and right sides. Normal monofilament thresholds were calculated per test-site and per nerve. We assessed 490 radial cutaneous and 482 sural nerves. The normal monofilament was 2 g (Filament Index Number (FIN) 4.31) for the radial cutaneous and 4 g (FIN 4.56) for the sural nerve, although heavy manual laborers demonstrated a threshold of 10 g (FIN 5.07) for the sural nerve. For median and ulnar nerves, the 200 mg (FIN 3.61) filament was confirmed as normal while the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filament was normal for the posterior tibial. Age and occupation have an effect on the mean touch sensitivity but do not affect the normal threshold for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves. The normal thresholds for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves are determined as the 2 g (FIN 4.31) and the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filaments, respectively. The addition of the radial cutaneous and sural nerve to sensory nerve assessment may improve the diagnosis of patients with impaired sensory nerve function. PMID:25675652

  20. Functional Recovery Following an End to Side Neurorrhaphy of the Accessory Nerve to the Suprascapular Nerve: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Yee, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The use of end-to-side neurrorhaphy remains a controversial topic in peripheral nerve surgery. The authors report the long-term functional outcome following a modified end-to-side motor reinnervation using the spinal accessory to innervate the suprascapular nerve following a C5 to C6 avulsion injury. Additionally, functional outcomes of an end-to-end neurotization of the triceps branch to the axillary nerve and double fascicular transfer of the ulnar and medial nerve to the biceps and brachialis are presented. Excellent functional recoveries are found in respect to shoulder abduction and flexion and elbow flexion. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11552-009-9242-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19902308

  1. [Suprascapular nerve entrapment].

    PubMed

    Fansa, H; Schneider, W

    2003-03-01

    Isolated compression of the suprascapular nerve is a rare entity, that is seldom considered in differential diagnosis of shoulder pain. Usually atrophy of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles is present, resulting in weakened abduction and external rotation of the shoulder. Mostly the patients do not note the paresis, but complain about a dull and burning pain over the dorsal shoulder region. In a proximal lesion (at level of the superior transverse scapular ligament) electromyography reveals changes in both muscles, while in a distal lesion (spinoglenoidal notch) only the infraspinatus shows a pathology. From 1996 to 2001 we diagnosed an isolated suprascapular entrapment in nine patients. Seven patients were operated: The ligament was removed and the nerve was neurolysed. The average age was 36 years. All patients showed pathological findings in electrophysiological and clinical examination. Five patients had an atrophy of both scapula muscles, two showed only infraspinatus muscle atrophy (one with a ganglion in the distal course of the nerve). Six patients were followed up. All showed an improvement. Pain disappeared and all patients were able to return to work and sport activities. Electrophysiological examination one year after operation revealed normal nerve conduction velocity. The number of motor units, however, showed a reduction by half compared to the healthy side. Lesions without history of trauma are usually caused by repetitive motion or posture. Weight lifting, volley ball and tennis promote the entrapment. Rarely a lesion (either idiopathic or due to external compression) is described for patients who underwent surgery. Patients with a ganglion or a defined cause of compression should be operated, patients who present without a distinct reason for compression should firstly be treated conservatively. Physiotherapy, antiphlogistic medication and avoiding of the pain triggering motion can improve the symptoms. However, if muscle atrophy is evident, an operation is indicated from our experience. PMID:12874724

  2. Cranial Nerve II

    PubMed Central

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    This article contains a brief review of the anatomy of the visual system, a survey of diseases of the retina, optic nerve and lesions of the optic chiasm, and other visual field defects of special interest to the psychiatrist. It also includes a presentation of the corticothalamic mechanisms, differential diagnosis, and various manifestations of visual illusions, and simple and complex visual hallucinations, as well as the differential diagnoses of these various visual phenomena. PMID:19855858

  3. Cranial Nerve II: Vision.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2009-09-01

    This article contains a brief review of the anatomy of the visual system, a survey of diseases of the retina, optic nerve and lesions of the optic chiasm, and other visual field defects of special interest to the psychiatrist. It also includes a presentation of the corticothalamic mechanisms, differential diagnosis, and various manifestations of visual illusions, and simple and complex visual hallucinations, as well as the differential diagnoses of these various visual phenomena. PMID:19855858

  4. Individual finger strength: are the ulnar digits "powerful"?

    PubMed

    MacDermid, Joy C; Lee, Adrian; Richards, Robert S; Roth, James H

    2004-01-01

    This study determined the test-retest reliability of a grip device that measures the contribution of individual fingers to grip strength and described the pattern of contribution in subjects without hand pathology. Subjects repeated a set of three maximal grip efforts on two occasions separated by two to seven days. Intraclass correlation reliability coefficients were high (>0.75) for eight out of ten strength measures. The percentage contributions of the index, middle, ring, and small fingers to grip were approximately 25%, 35%, 25%, and 14%, respectively. Grip and finger strengths were highly correlated. Anthropometric measures of body size or finger length were moderately correlated with strength measures. These data suggest that there is a predictable pattern by which individual fingers contribute to overall grip strength, which is partially related to body size. The ulnar side of the hand contributes to the smaller proportion of overall grip (approximately 60% radial, 40% ulnar). The clinical utility of finger strength measures should be explored. PMID:15273677

  5. Ulnar Mammary syndrome and TBX3: expanding the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Linden, Helen; Williams, Rosy; King, Janet; Blair, Edward; Kini, Usha

    2009-12-01

    We present a patient with features of Ulnar Mammary syndrome (UMS) consisting of bilateral ulnar defects, inverted nipples, short stature with associated growth hormone deficiency, and cryptorchidism. Our patient also had a hypoplastic anterior pituitary and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland, ventricular septal defect (VSD), and cardiac conduction defects consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Although TBX3 is known to be expressed in both the developing heart and the pituitary gland, conduction defects and anatomical pituitary abnormalities have not been previously described in UMS. This may, in part, be due to the fact that these features are not actively sought in individuals with UMS. Because these new findings have important clinical implications, we suggest that clinicians caring for individuals with UMS offer brain imaging, growth hormone testing, and cardiac arrhythmia screening. The diagnosis of UMS was confirmed on mutation analysis of TBX3. The mother of the propositus was also found to carry the same mutation, although she did not show the classical features of UMS. Therefore, our report also supports the variable expressivity of UMS within the same family. PMID:19938096

  6. Cortical plasticity induced by different degrees of peripheral nerve injuries: a rat functional magnetic resonance imaging study under 9.4 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Major peripheral nerve injuries not only result in local deficits but may also cause distal atrophy of target muscles or permanent loss of sensation. Likewise, these injuries have been shown to instigate long-lasting central cortical reorganization. Methods Cortical plasticity changes induced after various types of major peripheral nerve injury using an electrical stimulation technique to the rat upper extremity and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were examined. Studies were completed out immediately after injury (acute stage) and at two weeks (subacute stage) to evaluate time affect on plasticity. Results After right-side median nerve transection, cortical representation of activation of the right-side ulnar nerve expanded intra-hemispherically into the cortical region that had been occupied by the median nerve representation After unilateral transection of both median and ulnar nerves, cortical representation of activation of the radial nerve on the same side of the body also demonstrated intra-hemispheric expansion. However, simultaneous electrical stimulation of the contralateral uninjured median and ulnar nerves resulted in a representation that had expanded both intra- and inter-hemispherically into the cortical region previously occupied by the two transected nerve representations. Conclusions After major peripheral nerve injury, an adjacent nerve, with similar function to the injured nerve, may become significantly over-activated in the cortex when stimulated. This results in intra-hemispheric cortical expansion as the only component of cortical plasticity. When all nerves responsible for a certain function are injured, the same nerves on the contralateral side of the body are affected and become significantly over-activated during a task. Both intra- and inter-hemispheric cortical expansion exist, while the latter dominates cortical plasticity. PMID:23659705

  7. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  8. In vivo nerve-macrophage interactions following peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Allison; Wolman, Marc A.; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Granato, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, the peripheral nervous system has retained its regenerative capacity, enabling severed axons to reconnect with their original synaptic targets. While it is well documented that a favorable environment is critical for nerve regeneration, the complex cellular interactions between injured nerves with cells in their environment, as well as the functional significance of these interactions, have not been determined in vivo and in real time. Here we provide the first minute-by-minute account of cellular interactions between laser transected motor nerves and macrophages in live intact zebrafish. We show that macrophages arrive at the lesion site long before axon fragmentation, much earlier than previously thought. Moreover, we find that axon fragmentation triggers macrophage invasion into the nerve to engulf axonal debris, and that delaying nerve fragmentation in a Wlds model does not alter macrophage recruitment but induces a previously unknown nerve scanning behavior, suggesting that macrophage recruitment and subsequent nerve invasion are controlled by separate mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that macrophage recruitment, thought to be dependent on Schwann cell derived signals, occurs independently of Schwann cells. Thus, live cell imaging defines novel cellular and functional interactions between injured nerves and immune cells. PMID:22423110

  9. Ulnar collateral ligament in the overhead athlete: a current review.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey; Chronister, Justin; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R

    2014-09-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are most commonly reported in baseball players (particularly in pitchers) but have also been observed in other overhead athletes including javelin, softball, tennis, volleyball, water polo, and gymnastics. Partial injuries have been successfully treated with appropriate nonoperative measures but complete tears and chronic injuries have shown less benefit from conservative measures. In these cases, surgical reconstruction has become the treatment modality for overhead athlete who wishes to continue to play. This article discusses the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the UCL as related to the pathophysiology of overhead throwing, as well as the important clinical methods needed to make accurate and timely diagnosis. It also gives an updated review of the current clinical outcomes and complications of surgical reconstruction. PMID:25077747

  10. Current concepts in rehabilitation following ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Wilk, Kevin E; Altchek, David W; Andrews, James R

    2009-07-01

    Injuries to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) in throwing athletes frequently occurs from the repetitive valgus loading of the elbow during the throwing motion, which often results in surgical reconstruction of the UCL requiring a structured postoperative rehabilitation program. Several methods are currently used and recommended for UCL reconstruction using autogenous grafts in an attempt to reproduce the stabilizing function of the native UCL. Rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction of the UCL begins with range of motion and initial protection of the surgical reconstruction, along with resistive exercise for the entire upper extremity kinetic chain. Progressions for resistive exercise are followed that attempt to fully restore strength and local muscular endurance in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers, in addition to the distal upper extremity musculature, to allow for a return to throwing and overhead functional activities. Rehabilitation following UCL reconstruction has produced favorable outcomes, allowing for a return to throwing in competitive environments. PMID:23015887

  11. [Determination of skeletal sex using discriminant analysis of ulnar measurements].

    PubMed

    Introna, F; Dragone, M; Frassanito, P; Colonna, M

    1993-09-01

    Twelve ulnar measurements take on a series of 80 skeletons (40 male, 40 female) of a known Southern Italian population have been used in 9 combinations to produce discriminant functions for skeletal sex determination. The highest percentage of correct sex classification (95%) was obtained by the association of the minimum circumference and the maximal length. Using other four discriminant functions sex is correctly identified in 93.75% of the sample; in addition two of these functions, obtained by the associations of: minimum circumference and distal epiphyseal breadth, height of proximal articular surface, superior breadth and corio-olecranic distance, allowed to have a sex determination even by fragmented ulnae. For each discriminant function proposed, coefficients of discrimination, section points, male and female centroid and the percentage of misclassification are reported. Practical applications of this method will be certainly of aid in sexual identification in case of forensic interest. PMID:8155309

  12. The ''two fleck sign'' for an occult Stener lesion.

    PubMed

    Thirkannad, Sunil; Wolff, Thomas W

    2008-04-01

    We report a case of distal pull-off of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb with two fracture fragments. The more obvious fracture fragment, seen on plain X-ray to be lying adjacent to the expected location of the attachment of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb, was, in fact, unassociated with it and was part of the attachment of the adductor pollicis muscle. A second smaller fleck of bone which was attached to the displaced collateral ligament was only observed on plain X-ray on retrospective review. This second fleck of bone identified that this was a Stener lesion, requiring surgical reattachment of the ligament. Similar cases in the literature are reviewed and the use of MRI in detecting these lesions is discussed. PMID:18443066

  13. Epineurial Window Is More Efficient in Attracting Axons than Simple Coaptation in a Sutureless (Cyanoacrylate-Bound) Model of End-to-Side Nerve Repair in the Rat Upper Limb: Functional and Morphometric Evidences and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Papalia, Igor; Magaudda, Ludovico; Righi, Maria; Ronchi, Giulia; Viano, Nicoletta; Geuna, Stefano; Colonna, Michele Rosario

    2016-01-01

    End-to-side nerve coaptation brings regenerating axons from the donor to the recipient nerve. Several techniques have been used to perform coaptation: microsurgical sutures with and without opening a window into the epi(peri)neurial connective tissue; among these, window techniques have been proven more effective in inducing axonal regeneration. The authors developed a sutureless model of end-to-side coaptation in the rat upper limb. In 19 adult Wistar rats, the median and the ulnar nerves of the left arm were approached from the axillary region, the median nerve transected and the proximal stump sutured to the pectoral muscle to prevent regeneration. Animals were then randomly divided in two experimental groups (7 animals each, 5 animals acting as control): Group 1: the distal stump of the transected median nerve was fixed to the ulnar nerve by applying cyanoacrylate solution; Group 2: a small epineurial window was opened into the epineurium of the ulnar nerve, caring to avoid damage to the nerve fibres; the distal stump of the transected median nerve was then fixed to the ulnar nerve by applying cyanoacrylate solution. The grasping test for functional evaluation was repeated every 10–11 weeks starting from week-15, up to the sacrifice (week 36). At week 36, the animals were sacrificed and the regenerated nerves harvested and processed for morphological investigations (high-resolution light microscopy as well as stereological and morphometrical analysis). This study shows that a) cyanoacrylate in end-to-side coaptation produces scarless axon regeneration without toxic effects; b) axonal regeneration and myelination occur even without opening an epineurial window, but c) the window is related to a larger number of regenerating fibres, especially myelinated and mature, and better functional outcomes. PMID:26872263

  14. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. Results: In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. Conclusions: The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh. PMID:26550216

  15. Ulnar impaction syndrome with different operative methods: a comparative biomechanical study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ya-Dong; Wu, Tao; Tian, Fang-Tao; Shang, Yun-Tao; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Bai, Yan-Bin; Han, Chang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ulnar impaction syndrome seriously impairs wrist and hand function. Three main treatment procedures are available; however, little systematic research on the post-operation changes in wrist biomechanics currently exists. This study aimed to determine the long-term effects of these procedures and the optimal treatment methods for ulnar impaction syndrome. Methods: Twenty-four cases of fresh upper limb specimens were randomized into four groups: (1) the control group, (2) the ulnar-shortening operation group, (3) the Sauv-Kapandji procedure group (distal radioulnar arthrodesis and intentional distal ulnar pseudoarthrosis), and (4) the Darrach procedure group (distal ulna resection). After keeping the wrist in a neutral position, a pressure sensitive film was applied. Starting at 0 N, the load was increased gradually at a speed of 0.1 N/s until reaching 200 N and then maintained for 60 s by the CSS-44020 series biomechanical machine. Then, the pressure sensitive films from each group were measured, and the results were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The mean pressure and force on the ulna in the groups followed a decreasing trend from the control group, Sauv-Kapandji procedure group and ulnar-shortening operation group. The mean pressure of the scaphoid fossa and the force on distal aspect of the radius in the groups followed an increasing trend from the control group, Sauv-Kapandji procedure group, ulnar-shortening operation group and Darrach procedure group. This study found no significant differences in the mean pressure of the scaphoid fossa and the force on distal aspect of the radius between the Sauv-Kapandji procedure group and the ulnar-shortening operation group. The Sauv-Kapandji procedure group showed the greatest mean pressure on lunate fossa. Conclusions: In this comprehensive analysis of wrist biomechanics, the ulnar-shortening operation was superior to the Sauv-Kapandji procedure and Darrach procedure, which adequately maintained the anatomical relationships of the wrist. PMID:26131156

  16. Nerve Blocks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sometimes the needle has to be inserted fairly deep to reach the nerve causing your problem. This ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  17. Flexible adaptation to an artificial recurrent connection from muscle to peripheral nerve in man.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kenji; Sasada, Syusaku; Nishimura, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Controlling a neuroprosthesis requires learning a novel input-output transformation; however, how subjects incorporate this into limb control remains obscure. To elucidate the underling mechanisms, we investigated the motor adaptation process to a novel artificial recurrent connection (ARC) from a muscle to a peripheral nerve in healthy humans. In this paradigm, the ulnar nerve was electrically stimulated in proportion to the activation of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), which is ulnar-innervated and monosynaptically innervated from Ia afferents of the FCU, defined as the "homonymous muscle," or the palmaris longus (PL), which is not innervated by the ulnar nerve and produces similar movement to the FCU, defined as the "synergist muscle." The ARC boosted the activity of the homonymous muscle and wrist joint movement during a visually guided reaching task. Participants could control muscle activity to utilize the ARC for the volitional control of wrist joint movement and then readapt to the absence of the ARC to either input muscle. Participants reduced homonymous muscle recruitment with practice, regardless of the input muscle. However, the adaptation process in the synergist muscle was dependent on the input muscle. The activity of the synergist muscle decreased when the input was the homonymous muscle, whereas it increased when it was the synergist muscle. This reorganization of the neuromotor map, which was maintained as an aftereffect of the ARC, was observed only when the input was the synergist muscle. These findings demonstrate that the ARC induced reorganization of neuromotor map in a targeted and sustainable manner. PMID:26631144

  18. Time course of induction of increased human motor cortex excitability by nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    McKay, Darrin; Brooker, Raylene; Giacomin, Paul; Ridding, Michael; Miles, Timothy

    2002-07-19

    Manipulation of afferent input induces changes in the excitability and organisation of human corticomotor representations. These changes are generally short lived, although can be prolonged by repetition. Here, we charted the time-course of the change of motor cortex excitability induced by electrical stimulation of radial and ulnar nerves. Corticomotor excitability was evaluated by measuring the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials in the first dorsal interosseous muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the optimal cortical area. Measurements were carried out before the start of peripheral nerve stimulation, and then during the peripheral nerve stimulation at 15 min intervals over a period of 2 h. The amplitudes of the motor evoked potentials significantly increased during the 2 h period of peripheral nerve stimulation. Cortical excitability peaked after about 45-60 min stimulation. These clear-cut changes in cortical excitability following peripheral nerve stimulation may reveal some of the mechanisms underlying motor learning and cortical plasticity. PMID:12151785

  19. p75 and TrkA neurotrophin receptors in human skin after spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury, with special reference to sensory corpuscles.

    PubMed

    Lpez, S M; Prez-Prez, M; Mrquez, J M; Naves, F J; Represa, J; Vega, J A

    1998-07-01

    Human skin, including nerves and sensory corpuscles, displays immunoreactivity (IR) for low- (p75) and high-affinity (TrkA-like) receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF), the best characterized member of the family of neurotrophins. This study was designed to analyze the changes induced by spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries in the expression of neurotrophin receptors in digital skin, with special reference to nerves and sensory corpuscles. Skin biopsy samples were obtained from 1) the hand and toes of normal subjects, 2) below the level of the lesion of patients with spinal cord injury affecting dorsal and lateral funiculi, 3) the cutaneous territory of entrapped peripheral nerves (median and ulnar nerves), and 4) the cutaneous territory of sectioned and grafted nerves (median nerve). The pieces were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, cut in serial sections, and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies against human p75 and TrkA proteins. The percentage of sensory corpuscles displaying IR for p75 and TrkA-like, as well as the intensity of IR developed within them, was assessed using quantitative image analysis. Spinal cord severance causes a decrease in p75 IR in Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles, whereas TrkA-like IR did not vary. In other nonnervous tissues (i.e., epidermis, sweat glands), both p75 and TrkA-like IR was diminished or even absent. Similar but more severe changes were encountered in the skin from the territory of entrapped nerves. Finally, in subjects with sectioned-grafted nerves, p75 IR was found close to controls in nerves, reduced in Meissner corpuscles, and absent in the inner core of the Pacinian ones; TrkA-like IR was in the perineurium, a small percentage of Meissner corpuscles (about 7%), and the outer core and capsule of the Pacinan corpuscles. In the nonnervous tissues, p75 IR was practically absent, whereas TrkA-like IR did not change. No changes in the expression of neurotrophin receptors were observed in Merkel cells of the different groups. Present results show the following: 1) expression of nerve p75 IR in human cutaneous sensory corpuscles is sensitive to central deafferentation, to blockade or difficulty in axonal transport, and to disruption of axonal continuity independently of possible restoration of axonal integrity due to grafts; 2) expression of TrkA-like IR in nerves and sensory corpuscles is sensitive only to nerve transection; 3) the corpuscular Schwann-related cells are the only cells involved in the above modifications, the perineurial cells remaining unchanged; 4) the expression of p75 and TrkA-like IR by Merkel cells is independent of normal innervation; 5) an adequate innervation of the skin seems to be necessary for the expression of p75 but not TrkA-like in nonneuronal cells, especially in the epidermis. A role for NGF in the maintenance of epidermis integrity is discussed. PMID:9669765

  20. New sonographic measures of peripheral nerves: a tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve involvement in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Lugo, Helena Barbosa; Furini, Renata Bazan; Marques Jnior, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of peripheral nerves, indexes of the differences between CSAs at the same point (?CSAs) and between tunnel (T) and pre-tunnel (PT) ulnar CSAs (?TPTs) in leprosy patients (LPs) and healthy volunteers (HVs). Seventy-seven LPs and 49 HVs underwent bilateral US at PT and T ulnar points, as well as along the median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves, to calculate the CSAs, ?CSAs and ?TPTs. The CSA values in HVs were lower than those in LPs (p < 0.0001) at the PT (5.67/9.78 mm2) and T (6.50/10.94 mm2) points, as well as at the M (5.85/8.48 mm2) and CF (8.17/14.14 mm2) nerves. The optimum CSA- receiver operating characteristic (ROC) points and sensitivities/specificities were, respectively, 6.85 mm2 and 68-85% for the PT point, 7.35 mm2 and 71-78% for the T point, 6.75 mm2 and 62-75% for the M nerve and 9.55 mm2 and 81-72% for the CF nerve. The ?CSAs of the LPs were greater than those of the HVs at the PT point (4.02/0.85; p = 0.007), T point (3.71/0.98; p = 0.0005) and CF nerve (2.93/1.14; p = 0.015), with no difference found for the M nerve (1.41/0.95; p = 0.17). The optimum ?CSA-ROC points, sensitivities, specificities and p-values were, respectively, 1.35, 49%, 80% and 0.003 at the PT point, 1.55, 55-85% and 0.0006 at the T point, 0.70, 58-50% and 0.73 for the M nerve and 1.25, 54-67% and 0.022 for the CF nerve. The ?TPT in the LPs was greater than that in the HVs (4.43/1.44; p <0.0001). The optimum ?TPT-ROC point was 2.65 (90% sensitivity/41% specificity, p < 0.0001). The ROC analysis of CSAs showed the highest specificity and sensitivity at the PT point and CF nerve, respectively. The PT and T ?CSAs had high specificities (> 80%) and ?TPT had the highest specificity (> 90%). New sonographic peripheral nerve measurements (?CSAs and ?TPT) provide an important methodological improvement in the detection of leprosy neuropathy. PMID:23778664

  1. New sonographic measures of peripheral nerves: a tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve involvement in leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Lugão, Helena Barbosa; Furini, Renata Bazan; Marques, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of peripheral nerves, indexes of the differences between CSAs at the same point (∆CSAs) and between tunnel (T) and pre-tunnel (PT) ulnar CSAs (∆TPTs) in leprosy patients (LPs) and healthy volunteers (HVs). Seventy-seven LPs and 49 HVs underwent bilateral US at PT and T ulnar points, as well as along the median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves, to calculate the CSAs, ∆CSAs and ∆TPTs. The CSA values in HVs were lower than those in LPs (p < 0.0001) at the PT (5.67/9.78 mm2) and T (6.50/10.94 mm2) points, as well as at the M (5.85/8.48 mm2) and CF (8.17/14.14 mm2) nerves. The optimum CSA- receiver operating characteristic (ROC) points and sensitivities/specificities were, respectively, 6.85 mm2 and 68-85% for the PT point, 7.35 mm2 and 71-78% for the T point, 6.75 mm2 and 62-75% for the M nerve and 9.55 mm2 and 81-72% for the CF nerve. The ∆CSAs of the LPs were greater than those of the HVs at the PT point (4.02/0.85; p = 0.007), T point (3.71/0.98; p = 0.0005) and CF nerve (2.93/1.14; p = 0.015), with no difference found for the M nerve (1.41/0.95; p = 0.17). The optimum ∆CSA-ROC points, sensitivities, specificities and p-values were, respectively, 1.35, 49%, 80% and 0.003 at the PT point, 1.55, 55-85% and 0.0006 at the T point, 0.70, 58-50% and 0.73 for the M nerve and 1.25, 54-67% and 0.022 for the CF nerve. The ∆TPT in the LPs was greater than that in the HVs (4.43/1.44; p <0.0001). The optimum ∆TPT-ROC point was 2.65 (90% sensitivity/41% specificity, p < 0.0001). The ROC analysis of CSAs showed the highest specificity and sensitivity at the PT point and CF nerve, respectively. The PT and T ∆CSAs had high specificities (> 80%) and ∆TPT had the highest specificity (> 90%). New sonographic peripheral nerve measurements (∆CSAs and ∆TPT) provide an important methodological improvement in the detection of leprosy neuropathy. PMID:23778664

  2. Optimisation of composite bone plates for ulnar transverse fractures.

    PubMed

    Chakladar, N D; Harper, L T; Parsons, A J

    2016-04-01

    Metallic bone plates are commonly used for arm bone fractures where conservative treatment (casts) cannot provide adequate support and compression at the fracture site. These plates, made of stainless steel or titanium alloys, tend to shield stress transfer at the fracture site and delay the bone healing rate. This study investigates the feasibility of adopting advanced composite materials to overcome stress shielding effects by optimising the geometry and mechanical properties of the plate to match more closely to the bone. An ulnar transverse fracture is characterised and finite element techniques are employed to investigate the feasibility of a composite-plated fractured bone construct over a stainless steel equivalent. Numerical models of intact and fractured bones are analysed and the mechanical behaviour is found to agree with experimental data. The mechanical properties are tailored to produce an optimised composite plate, offering a 25% reduction in length and a 70% reduction in mass. The optimised design may help to reduce stress shielding and increase bone healing rates. PMID:26875147

  3. Ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Ritting, Andrew W; Baldwin, Paul C; Rodner, Craig M

    2010-03-01

    Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is a common entity encountered by the sports physician and orthopedic surgeon. The term "gamekeeper's thumb," which is sometimes used incorrectly to mean any injury to this ligament, refers to a chronic injury to the UCL in which it becomes attenuated through repetitive stress. In contrast, the term "skier's thumb" refers to an acute ligament injury as seen in skiers who fall on an abducted thumb or athletes who sustain a valgus force on an abducted thumb. If the patient allows a clinical examination, valgus stress testing can diagnose a complete UCL rupture when there is no solid endpoint with the thumb held in 30 degrees of MCP flexion and with the thumb held in extension. In cases with complete UCL tears, operative treatment has been shown to produce excellent results and is recommended. If there is a firm endpoint to valgus stress testing, a partial UCL tear is diagnosed and nonoperative treatment usually favored. PMID:20215892

  4. Direct nerve suture and knee immobilization in 90° flexion as a technique for treatment of common peroneal, tibial and sural nerve injuries in complex knee trauma

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Robert; Ciritsis, Bernhard; Giesen, Thomas; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Giovanoli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    There are different ways to treat peripheral nerve injuries with concomitant defects in the lower extremity. One option is a direct nerve suture followed by immobilization of the knee in flexion as it is described for gunshot wounds that lead to lesions of the sciatic nerve and its terminal branches as well as isolated nerve lesions. We used this technique to treat a case of multiple nerve injuries of the lower extremity combined with a complex knee trauma including a lesion of both bones and the posterior capsule. To our knowledge, this technique has not yet been described for such a combined injury in literature. PMID:24968417

  5. Vascular lesions induced by renal nerve ablation as assessed by optical coherence tomography: pre- and post-procedural comparison with the Simplicity catheter system and the EnligHTN multi-electrode renal denervation catheter

    PubMed Central

    Templin, Christian; Jaguszewski, Milosz; Ghadri, Jelena R.; Sudano, Isabella; Gaehwiler, Roman; Hellermann, Jens P.; Schoenenberger-Berzins, Renate; Landmesser, Ulf; Erne, Paul; Noll, Georg; Lscher, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Catheter-based renal nerve ablation (RNA) using radiofrequency energy is a novel treatment for drug-resistant essential hypertension. However, the local endothelial and vascular injury induced by RNA has not been characterized, although this importantly determines the long-term safety of the procedure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables in vivo visualization of morphologic features with a high resolution of 1015 m. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological features of the endothelial and vascular injury induced by RNA using OCT. Methods and results In a prospective observational study, 32 renal arteries of patients with treatment-resistant hypertension underwent OCT before and after RNA. All pre- and post-procedural OCT pullbacks were evaluated regarding vascular changes such as vasospasm, oedema (notches), dissection, and thrombus formation. Thirty-two renal arteries were evaluated, in which automatic pullbacks were obtained before and after RNA. Vasospasm was observed more often after RNA then before the procedure (0 vs. 42%, P < 0.001). A significant decrease in mean renal artery diameter after RNA was documented both with the EnligHTN (4.69 0.73 vs. 4.21 0.87 mm; P < 0.001) and with the Simplicity catheter (5.04 0.66 vs. 4.57 0.88 mm; P < 0.001). Endothelial-intimal oedema was noted in 96% of cases after RNA. The presence of thrombus formations was significantly higher after the RNA then before ablation (67 vs. 18%, P < 0.001). There was one evidence of arterial dissection after RNA with the Simplicity catheter, while endothelial and intimal disruptions were noted in two patients with the EnligHTN catheter. Conclusion Here we show that diffuse renal artery constriction and local tissue damage at the ablation site with oedema and thrombus formation occur after RNA and that OCT visualizes vascular lesions not apparent on angiography. This suggests that dual antiplatelet therapy may be required during RNA. PMID:23620498

  6. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spinal cord. Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... body. There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  7. Medial Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fibromatosis Medial and lateral plantar nerve entrapment is compression of nerve branches at the inner heel (the ... nerve or surgery to free the nerve from compression may help relieve pain. Foot Problems Overview of ...

  8. The effect of ulnar styloid fractures on patient-rated outcomes after volar locking plating of distal radius fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sammer, Douglas M.; Shah, Hriday M.; Shauver, Melissa J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ulnar styloid fractures commonly occur in association with distal radius fractures. Ulnar styloid fractures that involve the insertion of the radioulnar ligaments can result in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability, and the literature suggests that these fractures should be treated with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). However, in the absence of DRUJ instability, the effects of ulnar styloid fractures are not known. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of ulnar styloid fractures without DRUJ instability on patient-rated outcomes after distal radius fracture ORIF. Materials and Methods Between 2003 and 2008, a prospective cohort of distal radius fracture subjects treated with volar locking plating was enrolled. Patients with DRUJ instability treated at the time of distal radius ORIF were excluded. Radiographs were evaluated to identify ulnar styloid fractures, fracture size, amount of displacement, and evidence of healing. Patient-rated outcomes were measured at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery using the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ). Physical examination, including a specific evaluation of the DRUJ, was performed at each postoperative visit. Regression analysis was performed to determine if the presence of an ulnar styloid fracture, the size or displacement of the ulnar styloid fracture, or the healing status of the ulnar styloid fracture (union versus non-union) was predictive of MHQ scores. Results One hundred forty-four patients were enrolled; 88 patients had associated ulnar styloid fractures, and 56 did not. During the collection period, three patients with ulnar styloid fractures had DRUJ instability found intraoperatively and underwent ulnar styloid ORIF. These patients were excluded. The remaining patients with a stable DRUJ after ORIF were included in the study, and maintained DRUJ stability postoperatively. The presence of an ulnar styloid fracture was not found to be an independent predictor of MHQ scores (p=0.55). In addition, neither the size of the ulnar styloid fracture (p=0.18), nor the degree of displacement (p=0.25) was found to be a significant independent predictor of MHQ scores. Furthermore, the healing status of the fracture (union versus non-union) was not predictive of MHQ scores (p=0.95). Conclusion In patients with a stable DRUJ after distal radius ORIF with a volar locking plate, the presence of an ulnar styloid fracture did not affect subjective outcomes as measured by the MHQ. Furthermore, neither the size of the ulnar styloid fracture, the degree of displacement, nor the presence or absence of radiographic union affected subjective outcomes as measured by the MHQ. PMID:19896004

  9. A study of ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Firoozbakhsh, Keikhosrow; Yi, In Sok; Moneim, Moheb S; Umada, Yuji

    2002-10-01

    The current study examined the biomechanical properties of intact and repaired ulnar collateral ligaments of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb to determine a safe rehabilitation protocol after repair. In the first part of the study mechanical properties of the ligament were examined and the induced stress and strain were determined during simulated pinch and grip. In the second part of the study the strength and limitations of ulnar collateral ligament repair using a mini-Mitek bone suture anchor was determined. The biomechanical study was done on 16 fresh-frozen thumbs from male cadavers. Failure load, maximum stress, and Young's modulus of intact ulnar collateral ligament were 294.3 +/- 28.2 N, 11.4 +/- 1.2 MPa, and 37.3 +/- 5.1 MPa, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the low grip force and the ligament strain. There was, however, a significant correlation between the pinch force and the ligament strain. The failure load and joint rigidity of intact ulnar collateral ligaments were significantly higher (3.1 and 2.3 times, respectively) than the mini-Mitek repaired ligaments. The current study suggests that pinch activity during the rehabilitative process after repair or reattachment of the ulnar collateral ligament should be eliminated. Repaired ligaments with mini-Mitek bone suture anchors may be able to do a moderate range of motion during postoperative rehabilitation; however, additional in vivo studies are necessary before any clinical recommendation is made. PMID:12360033

  10. Ulnar aplasia, dysplastic radius and preaxial oligodactyly: Rare longitudinal limb defect in a sporadic male child

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Sajid; Afzal, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Ulnar hypoplasia is a rare longitudinal limb deficiency in which the ulna shows various degrees of deficiency. The condition is normally associated with radial defects, and in severe cases there is a reduction of postaxial/ulnar digits. Ulnar deficiency is an integral part of several syndromic malformations like Weyer's oligodactyly syndrome, limb/pelvis hypoplasia/aplasia syndrome, and ulnar-mammary syndrome. Here, we report an isolated unilateral ulnar deficiency in a boy who was a product of a consanguineous marriage. The subject demonstrated mesomelic shortening of the left arm with reduced zeugopod and autopod, and preaxial absence of two fingers. Additional findings in the affected limb were severe flexion contracture at the elbow joint, reduced and narrow palm, hypoplastic digits, and clinodactyly. Roentgenographic study revealed rudimentary ulna, dysplastic and posteriorly dislocated radius, crowding of carpals, and complete absence of digit rays of the thumb and index finger. Despite this anomaly, the subject could manage his daily life activities well. We present detailed clinical features and differential diagnosis of this rare limb malformation. PMID:24381628

  11. Percutaneous trans-ulnar artery approach for coronary angiography and angioplasty; A case series study

    PubMed Central

    Roghani-Dehkordi, Farshad; Hadizadeh, Mahmood; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary angiography is the gold standard method for diagnosis of coronary heart disease and usually performed by femoral approach that has several complications. To reduce these complications, upper extremity approach is increasingly used and is becoming preferred access site by many interventionists. Although radial approach is relatively well studied, safety, feasibility and risk of applying ulnar approach in not clearly known yet. METHODS We followed 97 patients (man = 56%, mean standard deviation of age = 57 18) who had undergone coronary angiography or angioplasty via ulnar approach for 6-10 months and recorded their outcomes. RESULTS In 97 patients out of 105 ones (92.38%), procedure through ulnar access were successfully done. Unsuccessful puncture (3 patients), wiring (2 patients), passing of sheet (2 patients), and anatomically unsuitable ulnar artery (1 patient) were the reasons of failure. In 94 patients (89.52%), the angiography and angioplasty was done without any complications. Five patients (5.1%) hematoma and 11 patients (11%) experienced low-grade pain that resolved with painkiller. No infection, amputation or need for surgery was reported. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that ulnar access in our patients was a safe and practical approach for coronary angiography or angioplasty, without any major complication. Bearing in mind its high success rate, it can be utilized when a radial artery is not useful for the catheterization and in cases such as prior harvesting of the radial artery (in prior coronary artery bypass grafting). PMID:26715936

  12. Advances of Peripheral Nerve Repair Techniques to Improve Hand Function: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    P, Mafi; S, Hindocha; M, Dhital; M, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Concepts of neuronal damage and repair date back to ancient times. The research in this topic has been growing ever since and numerous nerve repair techniques have evolved throughout the years. Due to our greater understanding of nerve injuries and repair we now distinguish between central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we have chosen to concentrate on peripheral nerve injuries and in particular those involving the hand. There are no reviews bringing together and summarizing the latest research evidence concerning the most up-to-date techniques used to improve hand function. Therefore, by identifying and evaluating all the published literature in this field, we have summarized all the available information about the advances in peripheral nerve techniques used to improve hand function. The most important ones are the use of resorbable poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB), epineural end-to-end suturing, graft repair, nerve transfer, side to side neurorrhaphy and end to side neurorrhaphy between median, radial and ulnar nerves, nerve transplant, nerve repair, external neurolysis and epineural sutures, adjacent neurotization without nerve suturing, Agee endoscopic operation, tourniquet induced anesthesia, toe transfer and meticulous intrinsic repair, free auto nerve grafting, use of distal based neurocutaneous flaps and tubulization. At the same time we found that the patient’s age, tension of repair, time of repair, level of injury and scar formation following surgery affect the prognosis. Despite the thorough findings of this systematic review we suggest that further research in this field is needed. PMID:22431951

  13. Symptomatic phrenic nerve palsy after supraclavicular block in an obese man.

    PubMed

    Erickson, John M; Louis, Dean S; Naughton, Norah N

    2009-05-01

    Regional anesthesia has an expanding role in upper extremity surgery. Brachial plexus blocks offer several advantages including providing effective analgesia, reducing narcotic requirements, and facilitating ambulatory care surgery. Despite the popularity of nerve blocks, the surgeon must not forget the complications associated with regional anesthesia. This article describes a case of symptomatic phrenic nerve palsy after supraclavicular brachial plexus block in an obese man. A 46-year-old obese man underwent a left-sided supraclavicular block in preparation for decompression of Guyon's canal for ulnar mononeuropathy at the wrist. The patient experienced acute-onset dyspnea, chest discomfort, and anxiety, and physical examination demonstrated reduced breath sounds in the left hemithorax. Chest radiographs documented elevation of the left hemidiaphragm consistent with an iatrogenic phrenic nerve palsy. The patient was admitted for 23-hour observation and underwent an uncomplicated ulnar nerve decompression under Bier block anesthesia 1 week later. No long-term sequelae have been identified; however, there was a delay in surgical care, admission to the hospital, and transient pulmonary symptoms. We attribute this complication to significant abdominal obesity causing compromised pulmonary reserve and poor tolerance of transient hemidiaphragmatic paresis. In recent studies, waist circumference and abdominal height were inversely related to pulmonary function. We suspect that the incidence of symptomatic phrenic nerve palsy associated with brachial plexus blocks will increase as the prevalence of obesity increases in this country. PMID:19472948

  14. What are the Risk Factors for Failure after Conservative Treatment of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Elbow in Baseball Players?

    PubMed Central

    Furushima, Kozo; Itoh, Yoshiyasu; Iwabu, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recovery from ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury of the elbow was previously thought to be beyond hope for baseball players. In recent years, however, surgical treatment of UCL injury in baseball players has resulted in a high return-to-play rate. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of rehabilitation as conservative treatment has been re-evaluated; many players can return to play by improving bodily functions and pitching forms without surgery. The factors that are cause adverse effect on conservative treatment and that bring them to surgery remain yet unclear. To identify the factors that affect to the results of conservative treatment, we prospectively compared the patients who were able to return to play with the patients who failed. Methods: From November 2009 to June 2012 (31 months), 295 baseball players were diagnosed with UCL injury at our facility. Of these, players with pain other than that due to UCL injury, those undergone rehabilitation less than 3 months, and those playing for recreation were excluded. 166 patients who have completed rehabilitation (>3 months) and who could be followed up at a competitive sport level were evaluated in this study. Eighty-two players (age, 16.0 2.0 years) returned to competitive play with conservative treatment (succeeded group) and 84 (age, 18.9 3.8 years) underwent to surgical treatment or could not return to competitive play (failed group). Factors for comparison included existence of ossicle in ligament, presence of symptoms of ulnar nerve disturbance during or after pitching, the extent of UCL injury (partial or complete) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), malunion of the medial epicondyle avulsed fragment, DASH sports, etc. They were compared using the statistical software SPSS 20.0. Results: There was an increased risk of negative results in patients with a residual ossicle (relative risk [RR] = 2.6, p<0.01), symptomatic ulnar nerve disorders (RR=2.2, p<0.01), complete UCL injury on MRI findings (RR 4.5, p<0.01) (Tables 1-3), period of pain and DASH score (p<0.01). Complete injury was the most significant factor. Though pitching was stopped for three months, it was a poor return rate of about 33 %. (Table 3) Players with these factors showed a significantly high probability of requiring UCL reconstruction surgery. On the other hand, 82% in players with partial injury could return to play with competitive level. (Table 3). Conclusion: We identified several baseline injuries that may increase the risk of adverse results of conservative treatment in patients with UCL injury in high level baseball players. In UCL injury with a residual ossicle of the ligament-bone junction, repeating sharp pain and remission readily leads to tear of the medial support structure and poor performance. Secondary ulnar nerve symptoms can result from medial instability by UCL injury during extended periods. Thus, these factors were considered to be refractory to conservative treatment. We believe that the results may help in evaluating candidates for surgery for UCL reconstruction.

  15. Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor of the Vagus Nerve in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Yap, Fui; Pratschke, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    A peripheral nerve sheath tumor was diagnosed in a female, neutered Labrador retriever with a 6 mo history of coughing, retching, ptyalism, and left-sided Horner's syndrome. Computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a mass lesion between the carotid artery and esophagus in the mid-cervical region. Exploratory surgery was performed and an 18 cm section of thickened vagus nerve was excised. Histopathological findings and immunochemistry staining confirmed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The tumor showed microscopic signs of malignancy, but there were no macroscopic signs of local extension or distant metastasis. This report documents a peripheral nerve sheath tumor of rare origin in dogs. PMID:26606206

  16. Extratemporal Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumor of Facial Nerve with Coexistent Intratemporal Neurofibroma Mimicking Malignant Intratemporal Extension

    PubMed Central

    Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Saito, Naoko; Sugasawa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    We present an extremely unusual case of an extratemporal facial nerve malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising from preexistent intratemporal neurofibroma, illustrating a difficulty in discriminating between perineural spread of the MPNST and the preexistent intratemporal neurofibroma on preoperative radiographic images. The most interesting point was that preoperative CT scan and MR images led to misinterpretation that MPNST extended proximally along the facial nerve canal. It is important to recognize that the intratemporal perineural spread of neurofibromas and MPNST share common imaging characteristics. This is the first report (to our knowledge) of these 2 lesions coexisting in the facial nerve, leading to misinterpretation on preoperative images. PMID:26347326

  17. Ultrasound assessment on selected peripheral nerve pathologies. Part I: Entrapment neuropathies of the upper limb excluding carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is one of the methods for imaging entrapment neuropathies, post-traumatic changes to nerves, nerve tumors and postoperative complications to nerves. This type of examination is becoming more and more popular, not only for economic reasons, but also due to its value in making accurate diagnosis. It provides a very precise assessment of peripheral nerve trunk pathology both in terms of morphology and localization. During examination there are several options available to the specialist: the making of a dynamic assessment, observation of pain radiation through the application of precise palpation and the comparison of resultant images with the contra lateral limb. Entrapment neuropathies of the upper limb are discussed in this study, with the omission of median nerve neuropathy at the level of the carpal canal, as extensive literature on this subject exists. The following pathologies are presented: pronator teres muscle syndrome, anterior interosseus nerve neuropathy, ulnar nerve groove syndrome and cubital tunnel syndrome, Guyon's canal syndrome, radial nerve neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve neuropathy, Wartenberg's disease, suprascapular nerve neuropathy and thoracic outlet syndrome. Peripheral nerve examination technique has been presented in previous articles presenting information about peripheral nerve anatomy [Journal of Ultrasonography 2012; 12 (49): 120163 Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the example of the median nerve; Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb; Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb]. In this article potential compression sites of particular nerves are discussed, taking into account pathomechanisms of damage, including predisposing anatomical variants (accessory muscles). The parameters of ultrasound assessment have been established echogenicity and echostructure, thickness (edema and related increase in the cross sectional area of the nerve trunk), vascularization and the reciprocal relationship with adjacent tissue. PMID:26674101

  18. Influence of recreational activity and muscle strength on ulnar bending stiffness in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Charette, S.; Zhou, L.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bone bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity [E] x moment of inertia [I]), a measure of bone strength, is related to its mineral content (BMC) and geometry and may be influenced by exercise. We evaluated the relationship of habitual recreational exercise and muscle strength to ulnar EI, width, and BMC in 51 healthy men, 28-61 yr of age. BMC and width were measured by single photon absorptiometry and EI by mechanical resistance tissue analysis. Maximum biceps strength was determined dynamically (1-RM) and grip strength isometrically. Subjects were classified as sedentary (S) (N = 13), moderately (M) (N = 18), or highly active (H) (N = 20) and exercised 0.2 +/- 0.2; 2.2 +/- 1.3; and 6.8 +/- 2.3 h.wk-1 (P < 0.001). H had greater biceps (P < 0.0005) and grip strength (P < 0.05), ulnar BMC (P < 0.05), and ulnar EI (P = 0.01) than M or S, who were similar. Amount of activity correlated with grip and biceps strength (r = 0.47 and 0.49; P < 0.001), but not with bone measurements, whereas muscle strength correlated with both EI and BMC (r = 0.40-0.52, P < 0.005). EI also correlated significantly with both BMC and ulnar width (P < 0.0001). Ulnar width and biceps strength were the only independent predictors of EI (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.0001). We conclude that levels of physical activity sufficient to increase arm strength influence ulnar bending stiffness.

  19. Unexpected motor axons in the distal superficial radial and posterior interosseous nerves: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Okwueze, Martina I; Cardwell, Nancy L; Wolfort, Sean L; Nanney, Lillian B

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of motor variations in the nerves supplying muscles of the first web space was evaluated by a visual dissection and immunohistochemical analysis from 56 cadaver hands. By microscopic visualization, 30% of the superficial radial nerves (SRNs) sent branches into muscles of the first web space. Since these unexpected penetrating branches were expected to be sensory or proprioceptive, markers of sensory and motor axons were used for confirmation. Positive identifications of motor axons (as identified by positive immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase) were made in 30% of SRNs and in 28.5% of posterior interosseous nerves. Classical teachings that the SRNs and PINs are exclusively sensory have been brought into question. Our data are in agreement with the rare clinical finding that motor function occasionally persists following devastating injury to both the ulnar and median nerves. Anatomic prevalence for this variation appears much higher than previous descriptions have indicated. PMID:17708562

  20. [Late results of surgical treatment of acute and chronic instability of the ulnar collateral ligaments].

    PubMed

    Welk, E; Janousek, A; Schiltenwolf, M

    1997-02-01

    A total of 113 patients with acute and chronic instability of the ulnar collateral ligament metacarpal phalangeal (MP) joint of the thumb were treated surgically between 1980 and 1985; 82 patients were followed up after a mean period of 10 years. Of 59 patients with acute injuries, 52 were painfree with full stability of the MP joint; 23 patients with chronic instability and tendon grafting also showed restoration of stability. Nevertheless, the range of motion was reduced severely and opposition of the thumb was impaired. The results of follow-up reveal that acute reattachment of the injured ulnar collateral ligament is more effective. PMID:9156985

  1. Traumatic ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm following a grenade blast: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Belyayev, Leonid; Rich, Norman M; McKay, Patricia; Nesti, Leon; Wind, Gary

    2015-06-01

    Vascular injuries comprised a small percentage of total injuries requiring medevac in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts; however, their impact cannot be overstated. This case highlights an individual who sustained a grenade blast injury leading to hemorrhage, and forearm compartment syndrome. He was initially treated with irrigation and debridement, forearm fasciotomy, and delayed primary closure. The patient developed persistent ulnar neuropathy and hypothenar atrophy despite a normal initial vascular examination. During reconstructive surgery, he was discovered to have a proximal ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm. Upper extremity pseudoaneurysms are a rare sequelae following vascular injury, but have significant consequences for the patient and are identifiable by imaging. PMID:26032392

  2. [Paraganglioma of the vagus nerve].

    PubMed

    Torres-Carranza, E; Infante-Cosso, P; Garca-Perla, A; Belmonte, R; Menndez, J; Gutirrez-Prez, J L

    2006-06-01

    Paragangliomas of the vagus nerve are uncommon vascular benign neoplasms of neuroectodermic origin. Initial clinical manifestation is usually as an asymptomatic cervical mass, although sometimes may cause lower cranial nerve palsies. These paragangliomas seldom associate to high levels of circulating catecholamines. Diagnosis is based on the clinics aided by imaging, where CT and MRI play an important role. Angiography is not only diagnostic, but it also allows preoperative embolization of the mass. Most accepted treatment is surgical removal, even though some paragangliomas are suitable for radiation therapy in very specific patients. In this paper we describe a new case of paraganglioma of the vagus nerve in a cervical location, with hypertensive episodes and high catecholamine-levels. The authors review the literature describing the clinical presentation, the diagnosis and the treatment of this rare lesion. PMID:16855784

  3. Primary-isolated optic nerve sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Yilmazlar, S; Kocaeli, H; Korfali, E

    2004-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic, idiopathic granulomatous disorder with occasionally surprising clinical presentations. A primary involvement of the optic nerve is particularly important due to visual prognosis. We report here a patient with occult sarcoidosis who presented to us with progressive visual loss as the first and primary manifestation of the disease. The patient underwent surgery for histopathological diagnosis and decompression of the optic nerve. This case demonstrated that sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any lesion involving the optic nerve. PMID:14740267

  4. Comminuted fracture of the ulnar carpal bone in a Labrador retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Vedrine, Bertrand

    2013-11-01

    A 4-year-old male Labrador retriever dog was evaluated for acute lameness without weight-bearing in the right forelimb after an 8-meter fall. Radiographs revealed a comminuted fracture of the ulnar carpal bone that required removal of bone fragments. This appears to be the first report of such a condition. PMID:24179242

  5. [Therapy of ulnar collateral-ligament injury at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb].

    PubMed

    VECSEI, V; Holbling, N

    1975-01-01

    We have compared the result of operative treatment with the results of conservative treatment of rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb. We recommend immediate repair. 24 patients were examined: The 11 conservatively treated patients showed an unsatisfactory result as compared with the 13 operated patients, who demonstrated a successful repair with a stable joint and normal painless function. PMID:1240826

  6. Indications and early to mid-term results of ulnar head replacement

    PubMed Central

    Shyamalan, G; Balabanidou, E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the indications and show the early to mid-term results of ulnar head replacement for the treatment of pathological conditions of the distal radioulnar joint. Methods Our study group comprised 52 patients with a mean age of 64 years who had 56 ulnar head replacements. Seven were implanted to salvage an unstable deletive procedure; the rest were for primary treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and trauma. Concomitant procedures along with the ulnar head replacement included wrist arthrodesis, joint replacement and tendon transfers. Results The follow-up duration ranged from 1 year to 11 years (mean: 60 months, median: 60 months). In almost all of the patients, pain improved with a median visual analogue scale score of 2 (mean: 2.2, range: 08) and a median DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score of 12.5 (mean: 17.9, range: 056). Of the 52 patients, 47 reported they would have the same procedure again. Conclusions Ulnar head replacement appears to be a reliable and effective procedure solving several pathological problems of the distal radioulnar joint. We present a large patient group with a short to medium-term follow-up duration. PMID:24025293

  7. Nerve growth factor reduces apoptotic cell death in rat facial motor neurons after facial nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Lian; Yuan, Jing; Ren, Zhong; Jiang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor neurons after induction of a facial nerve lesion, and to compare the effects of different routes of NGF injection on motor neuron survival. Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, China Medical University, Liaoning, China from October 2012 to March 2013. Male Wistar rats (n = 65) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: A) healthy controls; B) facial nerve lesion model + normal saline injection; C) facial nerve lesion model + NGF injection through the stylomastoid foramen; D) facial nerve lesion model + intraperitoneal injection of NGF. Apoptotic cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Expression of caspase-3 and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Injection of NGF significantly reduced cell apoptosis, and also greatly decreased caspase-3 and PUMA expression in injured motor neurons. Group C exhibited better efficacy for preventing cellular apoptosis and decreasing caspase-3 and PUMA expression compared with group D (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that injections of NGF may prevent apoptosis of motor neurons by decreasing caspase-3 and PUMA expression after facial nerve injury in rats. The NGF injected through the stylomastoid foramen demonstrated better protective efficacy than when injected intraperitoneally. PMID:25630785

  8. Successful Bone Healing of Nonunion After Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Smokers Treated With Teriparatide.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Takuya; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Yokoi, Takuya; Shintani, Kosuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2015-08-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is widely performed as the standard surgical treatment for ulnar impaction syndrome and has a high percentage of success for pain relief. However, delayed union and nonunion of the osteotomy site remain the most concerning complications. In particular, smokers have a higher incidence of nonunion, which amounts to 30% of cases. For the treatment of nonunion, secondary surgical interventions such as bone grafting will be necessary but are extremely challenging. Recently, teriparatide (recombinant human parathyroid hormone [PTH 1-34]) administration has been reported in several clinical studies as a noninvasive pharmacological systemic treatment for fracture healing or nonunion. The authors present 2 cases of smokers, a 62-year-old man and a 42-year-old woman, with nonunion after ulnar shortening osteotomy and fixation with 6-hole non-locking plate for ulnar impaction syndrome. For treatment of nonunion, noninvasive therapy with teriparatide (20-g, subcutaneous injection) in addition to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound was underwent. In both cases, partial bone union began to be observed on radiographs after the first 4 weeks of teriparatide administration and successful bone healing without additional surgical interventions was achieved after 10 and 6 months of treatment with teriparatide, respectively. The current case reports showed that non-invasive combination therapy of teriparatide and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound were a possible alternative to surgical intervention. In the future, teriparatide therapy might be applied actively to patients who have risk factors for delayed union, such a heavy smoking habit, and are expected to experience nonunion after ulnar shortening osteotomy. PMID:26270762

  9. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePLUS

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  10. Nerve Impulses in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

  11. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    Neuropathy - femoral nerve; Femoral neuropathy ... Felice, KJ. Focal neuropathies of the femoral, obturator, lateral femoral cutaneous and other nerves of the thigh and pelvis. In: Bromberg MB, Smith ...

  12. The vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator for reconstruction of the inferior alveolar nerve defect.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kenji; Hiroto, Saijo; Morooka, Shin; Kuwabara, Kaoru; Fujioka, Masaki

    2015-03-01

    The sural nerve has been described for nerve reconstruction of the maxillofacial region since it provides many advantages. We report a case of a vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator for immediate reconstruction after the removal of intraosseous neuroma originating in the inferior alveolar nerve. The patient had a neuroma caused by iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. A 4-cm long neuroma existed in the inferior alveolar nerve and was resected. A peroneal perforator was chosen as the pedicle of the vascularized sural nerve graft for the nerve gap. The graft including the skin paddle for monitoring the perfusion supplied by this perforator was transferred to the lesion. The nerve gap between the two stumps of the inferior alveolar nerve was repaired using the 6-cm long vascularized sural nerve. The perforator of the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the branch of the facial artery in a perforator-to-perforator fashion. There was no need to sacrifice any main arteries. The skin paddle with 1 cm × 3 cm in size was inset into the incised medial neck. Perceptual function tests with a Semmes-Weinstein pressure esthesiometer and two-point discrimination in the lower lip and chin at 10 months after surgery showed recovery almost to the level of the normal side. This free vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator may be a good alternative for reconstruction of inferior alveolar nerve defects. PMID:25346479

  13. [Fibrolipoma of the median nerve. A case report].

    PubMed

    Kossoko, H; Allah, C K; Richard Kadio, M; Yo, S; Assi-Dj Bi Dj, V; Gueu, M

    2008-12-01

    The authors report a case of fibrolipoma of the median nerve in a 6-year old boy presenting as macrodactyly with clinodactyly. The causal relationship between the nerve lesion and the deformities is discussed. The difficulties of diagnosis of the condition are presented as are the difficulties of management where a balance has to be struck between conservative treatment and amputation. PMID:18842445

  14. [Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in workers using column sewing machines: case reports and follow-up].

    PubMed

    Agnesi, R; Dal Vecchio, L; Todros, A; Sparta, S; Valentini, F

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen cases of ulnar nerve neuropathy at cubital tunnel level were observed in women aged between 16 and 37 years employed in shoe factories. The women operated column sewing machines resting their elbows on the work table. Past evidence showed that the interval between the beginning of work and onset of neuropathy was generally more than one year but less than that for similar diseases observed in other jobs where arthritis of the elbow played a more important role and the average age was higher. It can therefore be supposed that arthritis in these shoes workers was of less significance, whereas local trauma, which was not prevented by the use of small soft cushions under the elbows (4 out of the 15 subjects had been using them for some time), seemed of greater importance. A period of less than one year (in one case only a few days) was deemed due to the presence of a pre-existing neuropathy of the elbow which had so far been asymptomatic. Cases treated within six months of onset showed marked improvement. However, rapidly worsening symptoms, independent of the degree of damage reached, often led to early treatment with favourable outcome in a short time, while slow and insidious onset brought a longer prognosis. The primary prevention suggested is to instruct workers as to the correct work posture, i.e., avoiding resting the elbows on the work table. As a secondary preventive measure, bearing in mind the need of early diagnosis and treatment, medical check-ups every six months are proposed. PMID:8316145

  15. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, Vessela TZ; Papazov, Sava P; Daskalov, Ivan K

    2003-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium. PMID:14693034

  16. Myelinated sensory and alpha motor axon regeneration in peripheral nerve neuromas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macias, M. Y.; Lehman, C. T.; Sanger, J. R.; Riley, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase (CE) activities was used to analyze sensory and motor axon regeneration, respectively, during neuroma formation in transected and tube-encapsulated peripheral nerves. Median-ulnar and sciatic nerves in the rodent model permitted testing whether a 4 cm greater distance of the motor neuron soma from axotomy site or intrinsic differences between motor and sensory neurons influenced regeneration and neuroma formation 10, 30, and 90 days later. Ventral root radiculotomy confirmed that CE-stained axons were 97% alpha motor axons. Distance significantly delayed axon regeneration. When distance was negligible, sensory axons grew out sooner than motor axons, but motor axons regenerated to a greater quantity. These results indicate regeneration differences between axon subtypes and suggest more extensive branching of motor axons within the neuroma. Thus, both distance from injury site to soma and inherent motor and sensory differences should be considered in peripheral nerve repair strategies.

  17. Treatment of grade III thumb metacarpophalangeal ulnar collateral ligament injuries with early controlled motion using a hinged splint.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Ernest J; Flinn, Sharon; Seitz, William H

    2010-01-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries of the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint are some of the more common injuries to the thumb and are usually treated with immobilization. There are benefits, however, to early active motion for healing ligaments. Therefore, these authors incorporated some of the concepts related to early controlled motion and its role in healing, and created a hinged thumb MCP radial and ulnar deviation restriction splint for use with Grade III UCL injuries. PMID:20142008

  18. Intrasellar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).

    PubMed

    Krayenbhl, N; Heppner, F; Yonekawa, Y; Bernays, R L

    2007-02-01

    Intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and intrasellar schwannomas are rare tumors. We describe a case of an intrasellar schwannoma with progression to a MPNST, a finding that, although very rare, extends the differential diagnosis of intrasellar lesions. PMID:17195046

  19. Suprascapular nerve entrapment at the spinoglenoid notch caused by a ganglion cyst.

    PubMed

    Rachbauer, F; Sterzinger, W; Frischhut, B

    1996-01-01

    A 34-year-old man had right infraspinatus muscle palsy and posterior aching of the shoulder caused by electromyographically confirmed suprascapular nerve entrapment. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at the spinoglenoid notch; this lesion was diagnosed as a ganglion. Operative removal led to immediate pain relief and incomplete recovery of the compressed branches of the suprascapular nerve. PMID:8742880

  20. The Temporal Profiles of Changes in Nerve Excitability Indices in Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hsing-Jung; Chiang, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chih-Chao; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Chao, Chi-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) caused by a mutation in transthyretin (TTR) gene is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder. The aim of this study is to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of FAP. We prospectively recruited 12 pauci-symptomatic carriers, 18 patients who harbor a TTR mutation, p.A97S, and two-age matched control groups. Data of nerve excitability test (NET) from ulnar motor and sensory axons were collected.NET study of ulnar motor axons of patients shows increased threshold and rheobase, reduced threshold elevation during hyperpolarizing threshold electrotonus (TE), and increased refractoriness. In sensory nerve studies, there are increased threshold reduction in depolarizing TE, lower slope of recovery and delayed time to overshoot after hyperpolarizing TE, increased refractoriness and superexcitability in recovery cycle. NET profiles obtained from the ulnar nerve of carriers show the increase of threshold and rheobase, whereas no significant threshold changes in hyperpolarizing TE and superexcitability. The regression models demonstrate that the increase of refractoriness and prolonged relative refractory period are correlated to the disease progression from carriers to patients. The marked increase of refractoriness at short-width stimulus suggests a defect in sodium current which may represent an early, pre-symptomatic pathophysiological change in TTR-FAP. Focal disruption of basal lamina and myelin may further increase the internodal capacity, manifested by the lower slope of recovery and delayed time to overshoot after hyperpolarization TE as well as the increase of superexcitability. NET could therefore make a pragmatic tool for monitoring disease progress from the very early stage of TTR-FAP. PMID:26529114

  1. Ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B)

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Mathew A; Scilley, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    The hypothenar hammer syndrome describes a constellation of symptoms resulting from repetitive trauma to the hypothenar eminence, often due to the use of the hand as a hammer. Sequelae of this syndrome include both true and false aneurysms, as well as thrombosis of the ulnar artery due to its vulnerability to blunt trauma as it exits Guyons canal. Although this is a relatively well-documented phenomenon, an extensive review of the literature revealed that no cases have been described involving a patient with hemophilia. The present case describes a 46-year-old farmer with factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B) presenting with a 5 cm 7 cm pseudoaneurysm of the ulnar artery of the right hand. PMID:19554182

  2. Treatment of late-presenting Monteggia variant with an isolated, simple flexion ulnar osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Ray, Robbie; Gaston, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Radial head dislocation in children is usually associated with complete elbow dislocation or occurs as a part of a Monteggia injury. In patients without an obvious fracture of the ulna, recognizing that plastic deformation of the ulna leads to pathological bowing is a key concept in the management of this injury. Although good results have been published using osteotomy of the ulna to maintain stability after open reduction, we hypothesize that ulnar osteotomy alone may be enough to enable stable enlocation of an irreducible radial head in patients who are identified early. We present two cases of irreducible radial head dislocation, treated with ulnar osteotomy and closed radial head reduction. Both osteotomies united and both patients had an excellent functional outcome with the absence of pain or deformity and early return to function. We explain the surgical technique and compare the outcomes with alternative surgical treatments. PMID:24869904

  3. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, A.S.; Michaelsen, S.M.; Achaval, M.; Ilha, J.; Hermel, E.E.S.; Back, F.P.; Netto, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330?g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group) were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either skilled (reaching for small food pellets) or unskilled (walking on a motorized treadmill) training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05). The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05). These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury. PMID:22584636

  4. Cortical brain mapping of peripheral nerves using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Younghoon R; Jones, Seth R; Pawela, Christopher P; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis S; Schulte, Marie L; Runquist, Matthew L; Yan, Ji-Geng; Hudetz, Anthony G; Jaradeh, Safwan S; Hyde, James S; Matloub, Hani S

    2008-11-01

    The regions of the body have cortical and subcortical representation in proportion to their degree of innervation. The rat forepaw has been studied extensively in recent years using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), typically by stimulation using electrodes directly inserted into the skin of the forepaw. Here we stimulate the nerve directly using surgically implanted electrodes. A major distinction is that stimulation of the skin of the forepaw is mostly sensory, whereas direct nerve stimulation reveals not only the sensory system but also deep brain structures associated with motor activity. In this article, we seek to define both the motor and sensory cortical and subcortical representations associated with the four major nerves of the rodent upper extremity. We electrically stimulated each nerve (median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous) during fMRI acquisition using a 9.4-T Bruker scanner (Bruker BioSpin, Billerica, MA). A current level of 0.5 to 1.0 mA and a frequency of 5 Hz were used while keeping the duration constant. A distinct pattern of cortical activation was found for each nerve that can be correlated with known sensorimotor afferent and efferent pathways to the rat forepaw. This direct nerve stimulation rat model can provide insight into peripheral nerve injury. PMID:18924070

  5. [Peripheral nerve damage in patients with leprosy].

    PubMed

    Grimaud, J

    2012-12-01

    Leprosy is one of the six diseases that the WHO considers as the major threat in developing countries. Damage to nerves can occur before, during, and after treatment and can result in disabilities and long-term disfigurement, which is associated with stigma. Considered exotic and rare in European countries, it is important for neurologists to be able to make the diagnosis of leprosy early in order to rapidly alleviate patient suffering and prevent and reverse nerve damage. Leprosy must be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy, even in the absence of skin lesions and especially when present in a patient from an endemic country. Immune response and mechanisms involved in nerve damage are not clearly understood. There is no predictive test for the extent of nerve damage and no good evidence on the best treatment. PMID:23107882

  6. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597

  7. Acute isolated volar dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Werthel, J-D; Masmejean, E; Silvera, J; Boyer, P; Schlur, C

    2014-10-01

    The acute isolated distal radio-ulnar (DRU) dislocation is a rare traumatic pathology and no consensus concerning its management has been established. This case report describes an acute isolated volar DRU dislocation in a 26-year-old patient. The authors propose, based on this case and after an exhaustive review of the literature, a non-operative management for these isolated and non-complicated dislocations. PMID:24981576

  8. Assessment of Median Nerve Mobility by Ultrasound Dynamic Imaging for Diagnosing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tai-Tzung; Lee, Ming-Ru; Liao, Yin-Yin; Chen, Jiann-Perng; Hsu, Yen-Wei; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by median nerve entrapment at the wrist and the resulting median nerve dysfunction. CTS is diagnosed clinically as the gold standard and confirmed with nerve conduction studies (NCS). Complementing NCS, ultrasound imaging could provide additional anatomical information on pathological and motion changes of the median nerve. The purpose of this study was to estimate the transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements by analyzing ultrasound dynamic images to distinguish between normal subjects and CTS patients. Transverse ultrasound images were acquired, and a speckle-tracking algorithm was used to determine the lateral displacements of the median nerve in radial-ulnar plane in B-mode images utilizing the multilevel block-sum pyramid algorithm and averaging. All of the averaged lateral displacements at separate acquisition times within a single flexion-extension cycle were accumulated to obtain the cumulative lateral displacements, which were curve-fitted with a second-order polynomial function. The fitted curve was regarded as the transverse sliding pattern of the median nerve. The R2 value, curvature, and amplitude of the fitted curves were computed to evaluate the goodness, variation and maximum value of the fit, respectively. Box plots, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm were utilized for statistical analysis. The transverse sliding of the median nerve during finger movements was greater and had a steeper fitted curve in the normal subjects than in the patients with mild or severe CTS. The temporal changes in transverse sliding of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel were found to be correlated with the presence of CTS and its severity. The representative transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements were demonstrated to be useful for quantitatively estimating median nerve dysfunction in CTS patients. PMID:26764488

  9. Assessment of Median Nerve Mobility by Ultrasound Dynamic Imaging for Diagnosing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tai-Tzung; Lee, Ming-Ru; Liao, Yin-Yin; Chen, Jiann-Perng; Hsu, Yen-Wei; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by median nerve entrapment at the wrist and the resulting median nerve dysfunction. CTS is diagnosed clinically as the gold standard and confirmed with nerve conduction studies (NCS). Complementing NCS, ultrasound imaging could provide additional anatomical information on pathological and motion changes of the median nerve. The purpose of this study was to estimate the transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements by analyzing ultrasound dynamic images to distinguish between normal subjects and CTS patients. Transverse ultrasound images were acquired, and a speckle-tracking algorithm was used to determine the lateral displacements of the median nerve in radial-ulnar plane in B-mode images utilizing the multilevel block-sum pyramid algorithm and averaging. All of the averaged lateral displacements at separate acquisition times within a single flexion–extension cycle were accumulated to obtain the cumulative lateral displacements, which were curve-fitted with a second-order polynomial function. The fitted curve was regarded as the transverse sliding pattern of the median nerve. The R2 value, curvature, and amplitude of the fitted curves were computed to evaluate the goodness, variation and maximum value of the fit, respectively. Box plots, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm were utilized for statistical analysis. The transverse sliding of the median nerve during finger movements was greater and had a steeper fitted curve in the normal subjects than in the patients with mild or severe CTS. The temporal changes in transverse sliding of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel were found to be correlated with the presence of CTS and its severity. The representative transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements were demonstrated to be useful for quantitatively estimating median nerve dysfunction in CTS patients. PMID:26764488

  10. Transfixation pinning and casting of radial-ulnar fractures in calves: A review of three cases

    PubMed Central

    St-Jean, Guy; Debowes, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    We reviewed the medical records of three calves with radial-ulnar fractures which were reduced and stabilized by transfixation pinning and casting. Multiple Steinmann pins were placed transversely through proximal and distal fracture fragments and the pin ends were incorporated in fiberglass cast material after fracture reduction. Cast material was placed from proximal to distal radius and served as an external frame to maintain pin position and fracture reduction. At the time of injury, the calves ranged in age from one day to two months and weighed from 37-102 kg. Two fractures were comminuted and one was transverse. All fractures were closed. After surgery, all calves could walk within 24 hours. Radiographic and clinical evidence of fracture healing was present five to seven weeks (mean 6) after surgery. At that time, the pins and cast material were removed. Return to normal function was rapid and judged to be excellent at follow-up evaluation five to nine months later. Advantages of transfixation pinning and casting in management of radial-ulnar fractures include flexibility in pin positioning, adequate maintenance of reduction, early return to weight-bearing status, preservation of joint mobility, and ease of ambulation. The inability to adjust fixation and alignment after cast application is a disadvantage of this technique compared with other external fixators. We concluded that transfixation pinning is a useful means of stabilizing radial-ulnar fractures in pediatric bovine patients. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423985

  11. Workup and Management of Persistent Neuralgia following Nerve Block

    PubMed Central

    Weyker, Paul David; Webb, Christopher Allen-John; Pham, Thoha M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurological injuries following peripheral nerve blocks are a relatively rare yet potentially devastating complication depending on the type of lesion, affected extremity, and duration of symptoms. Medical management continues to be the treatment modality of choice with multimodal nonopioid analgesics as the cornerstone of this therapy. We report the case of a 28-year-old man who developed a clinical common peroneal and lateral sural cutaneous neuropathy following an uncomplicated popliteal sciatic nerve block. Workup with electrodiagnostic studies and magnetic resonance neurography revealed injury to both the femoral and sciatic nerves. Diagnostic studies and potential mechanisms for nerve injury are discussed. PMID:26904304

  12. Plexiform Neurofibroma of the Penis and Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, L Lawson; Cadogan, CAM

    2014-01-01

    A case of plexiform neurofibroma of the penis is presented. It is a rare condition often found in association with congenital neurofibromatosis. This case is unique because of the accompanying lesion of the facial nerve above the right eye, an association not previously reported. The patient was managed effectively by adequate resection of the penile lesion. PMID:25303261

  13. The protective effect of vipera raddei venom on peripheral nerve damage.

    PubMed

    Chavushyan, V A; Gevorkyan, A Zh; Avakyan, Z E; Avetisyan, Z A; Pogosyan, M V; Sarkisyan, Dzh S

    2006-01-01

    Acute experiments were performed on spinal rats to study the protective actions of Vipera raddei venom after section of the sciatic nerve. Individual spike activity was recorded from interneurons and motoneurons in the lumbar segment of the spinal cord, induced by stimulation of the sciatic nerve and the extensor (gastrocnemius) and flexor (peroneus communis) nerves on the lesioned and symmetrical intact sides in controls and after daily injections of venom for four weeks. In animals not treated with Vipera raddei venom, the lesioned side lacked interneuron and motoneuron responses to stimulation of the extensor and flexor nerves of the distal stump, though these were present on stimulation of the contralateral side; responses were the inverse of this on the intact side, due to the failure of the proximal and distal stumps to fuse, as also demonstrated by atrophy of the distal stump of the sciatic nerve and the absence of movement activity in the lesioned limb. Treatment with Vipera raddei venom led to restoration, by four weeks, of interneuron and motoneuron responses on the lesioned side on stimulation of the ipsilateral nerves and on the intact side by stimulation of the contralateral nerves; this is the result of apparent fusion of the proximal and distal stumps of the lesioned nerve. Further evidence for this was hypertrophy of the distal stump and restoration of movement activity in the lesioned limb. These results show that Vipera raddei venom has potential for use in regenerating damaged peripheral nerves. PMID:16328169

  14. Spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve palsy with hourglass-like fascicular constriction within the main trunk of the median nerve.

    PubMed

    Nagano, A; Shibata, K; Tokimura, H; Yamamoto, S; Tajiri, Y

    1996-03-01

    Interfascicular neurolysis was performed in nine patients with spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve palsy. In eight of these patients, an hourglass-like constriction in the fascicles forming the anterior interosseous nerve was found within the main trunk of the median nerve at 2-7.5 cm above the medial epicondyle. The clinical signs and symptoms of these eight patients were similar to those that have been described to isolated neuritis. While the etiology remains unknown, when spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve palsy is suspected to be caused by isolated neuritis, interfascicular neurolysis should be performed to confirm the lesion and to discover whether fascicular constriction is present. PMID:8683060

  15. Optic nerve evoked potentials elicited by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masato; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Itakura, Takeshi; Kodama, Namio

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated whether the optic nerve evoked potential (ONEP) elicited by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve can serve as a reliable intraoperative indicator of visual function. In the experimental study, two silver-ball stimulating electrodes were placed on the dog optic nerve adjacent to the apex of the orbit and one recording electrode was placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm. The nerve was stimulated with 0.1 to 10 mA rectangular pulses. Stable and reproducible ONEPs were obtained. The ONEPs were not influenced by electromyographic potentials and were recorded more clearly on the optic nerve than on the surrounding tissue. Stepwise incremental transection of the thickness of the nerve resulted in incremental amplitude reduction proportional to the transected area. No response was recorded after complete sectioning of the nerve. In the clinical study, recordings were obtained from 15 patients after craniotomy to treat parasellar tumors or cerebral aneurysms. Reproducible ONEPs were recorded intraoperatively from the electrode placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm in 14 of 15 patients. In the remaining patient, the ONEP, recorded only after tumor removal because the optic nerve was stretched and extremely thin, was remarkably small and the patient developed unilateral blindness postoperatively. These experimental and clinical results suggest the possibility of intraoperative monitoring of visual function in patients undergoing craniotomy for the treatment of lesions near the optic nerve. PMID:16041180

  16. Peripheral nerve regeneration after experimental section in ovine radial and tibial nerves using synthetic nerve grafts, including expanded bone marrow mesenchymal cells: morphological and neurophysiological results.

    PubMed

    Casaas, Joaquim; de la Torre, Jaime; Soler, Francesc; Garca, Felix; Rodellar, Clementina; Pumarola, Mart; Climent, Jana; Soler, Robert; Orozco, Llus

    2014-10-01

    The standard treatment of peripherical nerve injuries with substance gap is to introduce the nerve free extremes in a biodegradable tube which, as a biocamera, allows the continuity of the nerve, promote the neuroconduction and save the lesion from the surrounding fibrosis. However, this procedure has not any direct effect on the neuroregeneration nor to resolve high severe lesions. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can derivate "in vitro" in different lineages, including Schwann cells. Different studies have shown MSC can promote the nerve regeneration in rodents, dogs and primates. Moving to the human clinical application requires the procedure standardization, including the optimal cell dose which we have to use. In the sheep model animal we performed a study of 1 cm. nerve section-ressection and repair with a Neurolac biocamera, in whose gap we applied between 30 to 5010(6) MSC from cancellous bone, all of them selected and cultured with GMP procedures. The results were compared with controls (saline serum platelet-rich plasma). We used radial nerve (sensitive) and tibial nerve (motor) from 7 sheep. In the first step we performed the surgical lesion and bone marrow aspiration, and in 3 weeks we performed the surgical repair. 3 sheep were sacrificed in 3 months, and 4 sheep in 6 months. In all surgeries we performed a neurophysiological register. When we obtained the tissue samples, we performed an histological, immunohistiquimical and morphometrical study. The recovery percentage was defined comparing the axonal density from the proximal and distal lesion margins. The 3 months samples results were wrong. In 6 months samples results we observed a significative myelined nervous fibers and conduction increasing, in front of controls, both radial and tibial nerves. These results suggest the MSC application in biodegradable scaffold in nerve injuries promotes good results in terms of regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:25384470

  17. Diabetic neuropathy increases stimulation threshold during popliteal sciatic nerve block†

    PubMed Central

    Heschl, S.; Hallmann, B.; Zilke, T.; Gemes, G.; Schoerghuber, M.; Auer-Grumbach, M.; Quehenberger, F.; Lirk, P.; Hogan, Q.; Rigaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve stimulation is commonly used for nerve localization in regional anaesthesia, but recommended stimulation currents of 0.3–0.5 mA do not reliably produce motor activity in the absence of intraneural needle placement. As this may be particularly true in patients with diabetic neuropathy, we examined the stimulation threshold in patients with and without diabetes. Methods Preoperative evaluation included a neurological exam and electroneurography. During ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block, we measured the current required to produce motor activity for the tibial and common peroneal nerve in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Proximity to the nerve was evaluated post-hoc using ultrasound imaging. Results Average stimulation currents did not differ between diabetic (n=55) and non-diabetic patients (n=52). Although the planned number of patients was not reached, the power goal for the mean stimulation current was met. Subjects with diminished pressure perception showed increased thresholds for the common peroneal nerve (median 1.30 vs. 0.57 mA in subjects with normal perception, P=0.042), as did subjects with decreased pain sensation (1.60 vs. 0.50 mA in subjects with normal sensation, P=0.038). Slowed ulnar nerve conduction velocity predicted elevated mean stimulation current (r=−0.35, P=0.002). Finally, 15 diabetic patients required more than 0.5 mA to evoke a motor response, despite intraneural needle placement (n=4), or required currents ≥2 mA despite needle-nerve contact, vs three such patients (1 intraneural, 2 with ≥2 mA) among non-diabetic patients (P=0.003). Conclusions These findings suggest that stimulation thresholds of 0.3–0.5 mA may not reliably determine close needle-nerve contact during popliteal sciatic nerve block, particularly in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Clinical trial registration NCT01488474 PMID:26994231

  18. Proximal ulnar fractures in adults: a review of 163 cases.

    PubMed

    Niéto, H; Billaud, A; Rochet, S; Lavoinne, N; Loubignac, F; Pietu, G; Baroan, C; Espie, A; Bonnevialle, P; Fabre, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the epidemiological characteristics and the experience of 5 departments of trauma, in France, in the management of fractures of the proximal ulna. 163 patients with fractures of the proximal ulna with a mean age of 49.9 years (range 16-97) were managed. The most common mode of injury was a motor vehicle collision (48%). 18% sustained associated injuries to the ipsilateral limb. Open fractures were present in 42 patients (25%). A total of 109 patients had a fracture of the olecranon, with the Mayo 2A and B types most frequently seen (66%). The patients were invited for clinical examination at a mean duration of 16 months, retrospectively. Validated patient-oriented assessment scores involving the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) and the Broberg and Morrey score were evaluated. All patients had follow-up radiographs. The mean arc of elbow motion was 130° (70-150°). The mean MEPI was 91 (20-100) with good results in 23% and excellent results in 52% of the patients. The mean Broberg and Morrey score was 90 after isolated olecranon fracture, and decreased with the complexity of the lesion. 117 fractures (72%) healed with ulnohumeral congruity. 9 fracture non-unions occurred (6%). Although the fracture of the proximal ulna can be described in several classifications, none of them accommodate it satisfactorily, because of the complexity of the lesion. The coronoid process is the keystone for the stability of the elbow. It forms the anterior buttress with the radial head. Tension band wire fixation is by far the commonest technique of internal fixation used for the treatment of non-comminuted olecranon fractures. Dorsal plate fixation is a useful option by providing improved fixation of complex comminuted fractures and fracture-dislocations. The radiocapitellar joint has to be restored appropriately, preserving the radial head when possible and replacing it with a prosthesis otherwise. The lateral collateral ligament complex is commonly disrupted and usually can be reattached to its origin from the lateral epicondyle. In addition, a brief period of hinged external fixation should be considered. PMID:26528935

  19. Nerve sheath myxoma: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Amoolya; Narasimha, Apaparna; C, Vijaya; Vk, Sundeep

    2015-04-01

    Nerve sheath myxoma defined by Harkin and Reed is an uncommon benign neoplasm with nerve sheath like features. It has several cytological and histological differential diagnoses. One such lesion is neurothekeoma, which can be differentiated using immunohistochemistry. In most of the previous reports nerve sheath myxoma and neurothekeoma were considered synonymous and were often confused for one another. This case report separates the two using immunohistochemistry. Also, the cytological features of nerve sheath myxoma are not well documented in the past. This case report attempts to display the cyto-morphology of nerve sheath myxoma. We report a rare case of nerve sheath myxoma diagnosed on cytological features confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in a 32-year-old lady who presented with an asymptomatic nodule over the left cervical area and discuss its cyto-histological mimics. PMID:26023558

  20. Nerve Sheath Myxoma: Report of A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Amoolya; C, Vijaya; VK, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Nerve sheath myxoma defined by Harkin and Reed is an uncommon benign neoplasm with nerve sheath like features. It has several cytological and histological differential diagnoses. One such lesion is neurothekeoma, which can be differentiated using immunohistochemistry. In most of the previous reports nerve sheath myxoma and neurothekeoma were considered synonymous and were often confused for one another. This case report separates the two using immunohistochemistry. Also, the cytological features of nerve sheath myxoma are not well documented in the past. This case report attempts to display the cyto-morphology of nerve sheath myxoma. We report a rare case of nerve sheath myxoma diagnosed on cytological features confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in a 32-year-old lady who presented with an asymptomatic nodule over the left cervical area and discuss its cyto-histological mimics. PMID:26023558

  1. Crevasse Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goljan, Peter; Devitt, Brian M.; Peixoto, Loureno P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to report on a distinctive pattern of linear femoral head chondral lesions that were observed in 7 patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for the treatment of mixed-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Design: Between 2010 and 2012, 702 patients were treated with hip arthroscopy at our institution for symptomatic FAI. Among those patients, 7 were found to have a unique vertical chondral fissure located on the posterior femoral head. A retrospective review of the preoperative history, physical examination, and radiographic findings in addition to the intraoperative findings and surgical procedures performed was carried out for each patient. Results: All patients were diagnosed with mixed-type FAI by dynamic examination intraoperatively. The femoral head cartilage lesions were noted to be both linear and deep and resembled the appearance of a crevasse. Three of the 7 patients in whom these lesions were identified reported an acute event preceding their pain. Of the other 4 patients, 3 were involved in sports that involved vigorous rotational hip movements: golf, tennis, and wrestling. Notably, none of these lesions were identifiable on preoperative 3-T MRI scans. Conclusions: This series reports on a previously undefined femoral head cartilage lesion. It is hypothesized that increased pathologic translational movements and perching of the femoral head on the posterior rim of the acetabulum create this pattern of chondral damage. Recognition of this pattern of damage on the femoral head is important in the setting of mixed-type FAI. PMID:26069680

  2. Cervicothoracic lesions in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Castellote, A; Vzquez, E; Vera, J; Piqueras, J; Lucaya, J; Garcia-Pea, P; Jimnez, J A

    1999-01-01

    Cervicothoracic lesions are not uncommon in children. All cervicothoracic lesions except superficial lesions extend from the neck to the thorax through the thoracic inlet. Evaluation of this area involves multiple imaging modalities: plain radiography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, MR imaging is the method of choice for assessing the full extents of cervicothoracic lesions and their relationships to neurovascular structures. Cervicothoracic lesions can be classified as congenital lesions, inflammatory lesions, benign tumors, malignant tumors, and traumatic lesions. Lymphangioma is the most common cervicothoracic mass in children; other congenital lesions include hemangioma, thymic cyst, and vascular anomalies. Inflammatory adenopathy reactive to tuberculosis, mononucleosis, tularemia, cat-scratch fever, infection with human immunodeficiency virus, or other upper respiratory tract infections can manifest as cervicothoracic lesions; tuberculous abscesses and abscesses of other origins can also be seen. Lipoma, lipoblastoma, aggressive fibromatosis, and nerve sheath tumors (either isolated lesions or those associated with neurofibromatosis) can also occur as cervicothoracic masses. Malignant cervicothoracic tumors include lymphoma, thyroid carcinoma, neuroblastoma, and chest wall tumors (rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and neuroectodermal tumor). Traumatic cervicothoracic lesions include pneumomediastinum of traumatic origin, traumatic pharyngeal pseudodiverticulum, esophageal foreign-body granuloma, and cervicothoracic hematoma. PMID:10336190

  3. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  4. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  5. Optic Nerve Decompression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this delicate surgery without any cuts to the face. In the following sections, we will review the indications, risks and benefits of endoscopic optic nerve decompression. Indications The reasons for optic nerve decompression usually ...

  6. Measurement of Ulnar Variance in a Regional Subset of Indian PopulationA Pilot Study of 30 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jalan, Divesh; Elhence, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Background The variation of level of distal articulating surface of ulna with respect to distal articulating surface of radius is known as ulnar variance (UV). Positive and negative UV has been implicated in various wrist and hand pathologies. Aim To measure ulnar variance in a regional subset of Indian population and to compare two techniques of measurement of ulnar variance viz. method of perpendiculars and modification of the concentric circles method. Materials and Methods UV was measured in a regional subset of Indian population comprising of 30 subjects. The mean age of patients was 35.9 years. There were 16 males and 14 females in the study group. Antero-posterior (AP) X-rays of wrist in neutral position were taken and UV was measured using method of perpendiculars and the modified circle method. Results The mean UV using method of perpendiculars (UVA) was 0.387 mm and using modified circle method (UVB) was 0.507mm. A higher predominance of positive UV in this regional subset of Indian population was observed. There was no correlation between UV with respect to age and sex. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two methods of measurement utilized in the study. Conclusion The documentation of a negative and positive ulnar variance will help in prophylactic and timely intervention for various wrist pathologies, if required. However, a larger sample size with a longer follow up is required to suggest a correlation of ulnar variance with clinically symptomatic disease. PMID:26500970

  7. Sciatic Nerve Injury Related to Hip Replacement Surgery: Imaging Detection by MR Neurography Despite Susceptibility Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Marcel; Bumer, Philipp; Pedro, Maria; Dombert, Thomas; Staub, Frank; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Sciatic nerve palsy related to hip replacement surgery (HRS) is among the most common causes of sciatic neuropathies. The sciatic nerve may be injured by various different periprocedural mechanisms. The precise localization and extension of the nerve lesion, the determination of nerve continuity, lesion severity, and fascicular lesion distribution are essential for assessing the potential of spontaneous recovery and thereby avoiding delayed or inappropriate therapy. Adequate therapy is in many cases limited to conservative management, but in certain cases early surgical exploration and release of the nerve is indicated. Nerve-conduction-studies and electromyography are essential in the diagnosis of nerve injuries. In postsurgical nerve injuries, additional diagnostic imaging is important as well, in particular to detect or rule out direct mechanical compromise. Especially in the presence of metallic implants, commonly applied diagnostic imaging tests generally fail to adequately visualize nervous tissue. MRI has been deemed problematic due to implant-related artifacts after HRS. In this study, we describe for the first time the spectrum of imaging findings of Magnetic Resonance neurography (MRN) employing pulse sequences relatively insensitive to susceptibility artifacts (susceptibility insensitive MRN, siMRN) in a series of 9 patients with HRS procedure related sciatic nerve palsy. We were able to determine the localization and fascicular distribution of the sciatic nerve lesion in all 9 patients, which clearly showed on imaging predominant involvement of the peroneal more than the tibial division of the sciatic nerve. In 2 patients siMRN revealed direct mechanical compromise of the nerve by surgical material, and in one of these cases indication for surgical release of the sciatic nerve was based on siMRN. Thus, in selected cases of HRS related neuropathies, especially when surgical exploration of the nerve is considered, siMRN, with its potential to largely overcome implant related artifacts, is a useful diagnostic addition to nerve-conduction-studies and electromyography. PMID:24558483

  8. Engineering Peripheral Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Laura; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

    2013-01-01

    Current approaches for treating peripheral nerve injury have resulted in promising, yet insufficient functional recovery compared to the clinical standard of care, autologous nerve grafts. In order to design a construct that can match the regenerative potential of the autograft, all facets of nerve tissue must be incorporated in a combinatorial therapy. Engineered biomaterial scaffolds in the future will have to promote enhanced regeneration and appropriate reinnervation by targeting the highly sensitive response of regenerating nerves to their surrounding microenvironment. PMID:23790730

  9. Reappraisal of timing for exploration of civilian peripheral nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Kline, D G; Hackett, E R

    1975-07-01

    Operative as well as electrophysiologic experience with 213 major nerve injuries over the last 8 years and primate experiments form the basis of this reappraisal. Those lesions in continuity resected (58 of 172) usually had no response to stimulation or nerve action potential (NAP) at 8 weeks or longer after injury but were not necessarily complete lesions on clinical examination or electromyography. Axonal organization and maturity were of such poor quality that functional regeneration would not have resulted. Despite preoperative evidence of an incomplete lesion, operative studies confirmed a complete lesion in 21 instances. In 103 lesions NAP's could be recorded and, where neurolysis was done, recovery was acceptable in 91 percent. Many of these lesions had appeared complete on preoperative evaluation. Nerves transected by glass and repaired primarily had superior electrical and functional recovery to those repaired secondarily, although variations in clinical settings prevented statistical analysis. Experimental work in 20 primates with glass-wounded nerves favored primary repair, for NAP, evoked muscle action potential, and strain gauge studies of muscle power were superior in 14. Lesions in continuity should have exploration delayed until 8 weeks so that physiologic decisions regarding need for resection and repair can be made. Transecting injuries should be explored primarily, those without contusinve element repaired immediately, and those with contusion repaired 3 weeks after injury. PMID:1138400

  10. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  11. Optic Nerve Pit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  12. Multiple schwannomas of the digital nerves and superficial radial nerve: two unusual cases of segmental schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Gutkowska, Olga; Kuli?ski, Sebastian; Urban, Maciej; Ha?o?, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of segmental sporadic schwannomatosis characterized by unusual location of multiple schwannomas in digital nerves (case 1) and the superficial radial nerve (case 2) are described in this paper. In the first of the described cases, 6 tumours located at the base of the middle finger and in its distal portion were excised from both digital nerves. In the second case, 3 tumours located in the proximal 1/3 and halfway down the forearm were removed from the superficial radial nerve. In both cases, symptoms such as palpable tumour mass, pain, paraesthesias, and positive Tinel-Hoffman sign resolved after operative treatment. Final diagnoses were made based on histopathological examination results. In the second of the described cases, the largest of the excised lesions had features enabling diagnosis of a rare tumour type - ancient schwannoma. PMID:26216119

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Pulse-Dose Radiofrequency: Treatment of Neuropathic Pain after Brachial Plexus Lesion and Arm Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Magistroni, Ernesta; Panero, Bernardino; Verna, Valter

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain following brachial plexus injury is a severe sequela that is difficult to treat. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been proved to reduce neuropathic pain after nerve injury, even though the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This case report describes the use of ultrasound-guided PRF to reduce neuropathic pain in a double-level upper extremity nerve injury. A 25-year-old man who sustained a complete left brachial plexus injury with cervical root avulsion came to our attention. Since 2007 the patient has suffered from neuropathic pain (NP) involving the ulnar side of the forearm, the proximal third of the forearm, and the thumb. No pain relief was obtained by means of surgery, rehabilitation, and medications. Ultrasound-guided PRF was performed on the ulnar nerve at the elbow level. The median nerve received a PRF treatment at wrist level. After the treatment, the patient reported a consistent reduction of pain in his hand. We measured a 70% reduction of pain on the VAS scale. PRF treatment allowed our patient to return to work after a period of absence enforced by severe pain. This case showed that PRF is a useful tool when pharmacological therapy is inadequate for pain control in posttraumatic neuropathic pain. PMID:25525439

  14. Prophylactic corticosteroid injection in ulnar wrist pain in distal radius fracture

    PubMed Central

    Saied, Alireza; Heshmati, Afshin; Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Mousavi, Alia Ayatollahi; Arabnejad, Fateme; Pooladsanj, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ulnar sided wrist pain is one of the most common complications of distal radius fractures. The simplest method for decreasing pain for this affliction is corticosteroid injection. The present study was designed to assess the effect of corticosteroid injection in the prevention of ulnar sided wrist pain. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial patients with distal radius fractures scheduled for closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation were divided into control and corticosteroid groups. In the corticosteroid group, the patient received a single betamethasone injection in the dorsoulnar side of the wrist before reduction, while the control group received placebo. The patients were to be followed for at least 6 months. Results: 82 patients were followed for 6 months. At the end of the 3 months followup the difference between the two groups about the number of individuals without ulnar sided wrist pain was statistically significant (P = 0.038), so that less patients in the control group were painless, while this was not the case in the 6 months followup (P = 0.507), but in the both time frames the mean grip power, visual analog pain score and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score showed statistically significant difference between the two groups, so that the corticosteroid groups demonstrated greater power grip and less scores in pain and DASH (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study it seems that prophylactic corticosteroid injection will be associated with a decrease in the severity of wrist pain in patients with acute distal radius fractures. With regard to the decrease in the number of painless individuals, it seems that the decrease is not persistent. Overall the need for a study with longer followup is obvious. PMID:26229158

  15. Water excitation MPRAGE MRI of VII and VIII cranial nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, A.W.; Licata, P.; Knopp, E.A.; Thomasson, D.M.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to compare magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo-water excitation (MPR-AGE-WE) with conventional spin echo (CSE) in the evaluation of the VII and VIII cranial nerves. One hundred three consecutive patients with symptoms referable to the VII/VIII nerves were studied with CSE T1 and MPRAGE-WE following intravenous gadolinium, contrast agent. Each right and left nerve pair was independently evaluated for the presence of an enhancing mass and for visualization of the nerves. On the CSE images, 26 definite and 2 possible lesions were identified, whereas 28 definite and 2 possible abnormalities were seen on the MPRAGE-WE. Four cases were better identified on the MPRAGE-WE and one better seen on the CSE. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0. 19). CSE demonstrated the nerves partially in 23 instances and completely in 6; MPRAGE-WE showed the nerves partially in 35 and completely in 73. This was highly significant (p < 0.001). With equivalent or slightly improved lesion detection and better visualization of the nerves, MPRAGE-WE may replace CSE in studying the VII/VIII nerves. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Controlled nerve ablation with direct current: parameters and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Einat; Prochazka, Arthur

    2014-11-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity) often develops after spinal cord injury or stroke. Chemodenervating agents such as Botulinum toxin A (BtA) and phenol are often used to treat this condition. We have previously shown that the use of direct current (DC) to create controlled lesions of peripheral nerves may provide a means of reducing spastic hypertonus. Here, we explored a range of stimulation parameters that could be used clinically. Nerves were lesioned with DC in chronically implanted animals and the outcome was tracked over many months. In addition, we used DC to ablate nerves in animals with decerebrate rigidity (an animal model of spastic hypertonus) and we explored the possible mechanisms of DC nerve ablation. We found that nerve ablation with DC was effective in reducing hypertonus. Some stimulation paradigms were more likely to be clinically acceptable than others. Furthermore we showed that nerve regeneration occurs in the months following DC nerve ablation and we demonstrated that the ablation procedure is repeatable, much like BtA treatment. Regarding mechanism, our results did not support the hypothesis that DC caused nerve damage by overactivating sodium channels. Rather, the mechanism of damage seems to be related to changes in pH. PMID:24760938

  17. The Lesion Game: a special communication.

    PubMed

    Guiteras, D J

    1989-10-01

    The Lesion Game is a personal computer program that allows the user to view and study muscle innervations and nerve lesions of the brachial plexus. The core of the program is a table that consists of 44 brachial plexus lesions, 50 muscles, and 2 sensations (for brachium and forearm) of the upper extremity, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. After the program randomly selects a lesion, the user attempts to find the lesion in as few guesses (manual muscle tests) as possible. As muscles are selected (muscle tested), the computer searches the table to find the appropriate "strength" of weak or normal, based on the location of the randomly selected lesion. After displaying the strength of the muscle selected, a graphic representation of the strength is shown on a diagram of the brachial plexus. The graphic aspect of the program helps the user to visualize areas of the brachial plexus that may still contain the lesion. While playing the Lesion Game, the user can view a detailed picture of the brachial plexus, view all the possible lesions of the Lesion Game, or view charts of upper extremity innervations. An additional program mode allows beginning users to view and study muscle innervations without having to solve lesions. The program is extremely simple to use because it is entirely mouse-driven. PMID:2550973

  18. Radiocephalic Fistula Complicated by Distal Ischemia: Treatment by Ulnar Artery Dilatation

    SciTech Connect

    Raynaud, Alain; Novelli, Luigi Rovani, Xavier; Carreres, Thierry; Bourquelot, Pierre; Hermelin, Alain; Angel, C.; Beyssen, B.

    2010-02-15

    Hand ischemic steal syndrome due to a forearm arteriovenous fistula is a rare occurrence. However, its frequency is increasing with the rise in numbers of elderly and diabetic patients. This complication, which is more common for proximal than for distal accesses, can be very severe and may cause loss of hand function, damage to fingers, and even amputation of fingers or the hand. Its treatment is difficult and often leads to access loss. We report here a case of severe hand ischemia related to a radiocephalic fistula successfully treated by ulnar artery dilatation.

  19. Point-of-care Ultrasound to Identify Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis: Case of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ken, Jonathan; Khangura, Darshan; Stickles, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is a rare condition of distal ulnar artery injury and thrombosis secondary to repetitive blunt trauma to the hypothenar area. We present a case of HHS for which point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) was used as the initial means of imaging, prompting management and disposition without further imaging studies ordered in the emergency department (ED). This case demonstrates the utility of POCUS to aid the Emergency Physician in the diagnosis and management of patients with extremity vascular issues in the ED, and details a rarely seen clinical entity in the ED. PMID:26265969

  20. Rapid Diagnosis of an Ulnar Fracture with Portable Hand-Held Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Brown, Ross; Diebel, Lawrence N.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Marshburn, Tom; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic fractures are a common injury in operational activities, injuries that often occur in isolated or hostile environments. Clinical ultrasound devices have become more user friendly and lighter allowing them to be easily transported with forward medical teams. The bone-soft tissue interface has a very large acoustic impedance, with a high reflectance that can be used to visualize breaks in contour including fractures. Herein reported is a case of an ulnar fracture that was quickly visualized in the early phase of a multi-system trauma resuscitation with a hand-held ultrasound device. The implications for operational medicine are discussed.

  1. Optic Nerve Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Aijaz; Janecka, Ivo P.; Kapadia, Silloo; Johnson, Bruce L.; McVay, William

    1996-01-01

    The length of the optic nerves is a reflection of normal postnatal cranio-orbital development. Unilateral elongation of an optic nerve has been observed in two patients with orbital and skull base neoplasms. In the first case as compared to the patient's opposite, normal optic nerve, an elongated length of the involved optic nerve of 45 mm was present. The involved optic nerve in the second patient was 10 mm longer than the normal opposite optic nerve. The visual and extraocular function was preserved in the second patient. The first patient had only light perception in the affected eye. In this paper, the embryology, anatomy, and physiology of the optic nerve and its mechanisms of stretch and repair are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 13 PMID:17170975

  2. Neuromagnetic recordings of the human peripheral nerve with planar SQUID gradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, G.; Shahani, U.; Weir, A. I.; Maas, P.; Pegrum, C. M.; Donaldson, G. B.

    1998-08-01

    Magnetic fields produced by a travelling volley in the human ulnar nerve have been successfully measured in a lightly shielded environment. Recordings of the tangential component of the magnetic field were made using a planar second-order gradiometer integrated with a first-order gradiometric superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Devices were fabricated in our clean-room facility at the University of Strathclyde and measurements taken in an eddy-current shielded room at the Wellcome Biomagnetism Unit. We use no additional shielding and no electronic differencing or field-nulling techniques. Evoked magnetic fields of 60 fT peak-to-peak were obtained after 1536 averages but they could be seen easily as early as 512 averages. Measurements were made over four points above the ulnar nerve on the upper arm and from these the conduction velocity was calculated as .

  3. Unusually large quiescent ancient schwannoma of hypoglossal nerve.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Sangeeta P; Wanjari, Panjab V; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Ancient schwannoma is considered as a variant of schwannoma, comprising about 10% of all schwanommas. Schwannoma is a benign neoplasm derived from the nerve sheath of peripheral motor, sensory and sympathetic nerves and from the cranial nerve pairs. It usually presents as a solitary soft-tissue lesion which is slow growing, encapsulated and is often associated with nerve attached peripherally. Diagnosis is often confirmed with the microscopic examination. The long standing schwannoma attributes to degenerative changes and is termed "ancient" schwannoma. Present case is of a 68-year-old female patient who reported with an asymptomatic large swelling below mandible on the left side since last 23 years. The lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia. PMID:24552945

  4. Lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Lipofibromatous hamartoma is a rare tumour of peripheral nerves which is characterised by an excessive infiltration of the epineurium and perineurium by fibroadipose tissue. To the best of our knowledge, only approximately 88 cases are reported in the literature. We report a rare case of lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve causing secondary carpal tunnel syndrome in a 25 year old patient. This patient was treated conservatively with decompression and biopsy and experienced a complete resolution of symptoms post-operatively. Magnetic resonance imaging may be used to diagnose this lesion as it has very distinctive characteristics. Multiple conditions have been associated with this lesion and a greater understanding of these associations may clarify the pathogenesis. The architecture of the tumour makes excision very challenging and the surgical management remains controversial. A review of the literature regarding the etiology, pathogenesis and surgical management of lipofibromatous hamartoma is included. PMID:20920178

  5. Nerve Size in CIDP Varies with Disease Activity and Therapy Response Over Time: A Retrospective Ultrasound Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Pestronk, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Nerves are often enlarged in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We studied changes with treatment over time. Methods We retrospectively compared serial ultrasound measurements of median and ulnar nerve size with clinical and electrodiagnostic evaluations in 23 CIDP subjects. We defined remission as stable clinical improvement on low or decreasing amounts of medication. Results Nerves were normal at last follow-up more often in subjects who achieved remission than those who did not (10/13 vs. 0/10, P=0.0001). Nerves were normal or smaller (>30% reduction) more often in subjects whose grip strength improved or remained strong than those who weakened (12/16 vs. 0/3, P=0.04) and in subjects whose demyelinating electrodiagnostic features resolved than those whose demyelination persisted (7/7 vs. 6/12, P=0.04). Over time, nerve size decreased more in subjects with baseline nerve enlargement who achieved remission than those who did not (?41% vs. 7%, P=0.04). Conclusion In CIDP, enlarged nerves normalized or decreased with remission. PMID:24615614

  6. Influence of blood lead concentration on the nerve conduction velocity in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeng Soo; Park, Jae Ho; Hong, Joong Rock; Gil, Hyo Wook; Yang, Jong Oh; Lee, Eun Young; Hong, Sae Yong

    2006-04-01

    Diseases of the peripheral nervous system are the most prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although increased blood levels of lead in ESRD have been reported, the role of lead remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine the connection of blood lead concentration with peripheral nerve conduction velocity. One hundred ninety-eight healthy subjects (control group) and 68 patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (ESRD group) were enrolled. Nerve conduction was measured within two hours after hemodialysis. Orthodromic sensory nerve action potentials and compound muscle action potentials were recorded on the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. Hemoglobin-corrected blood lead was significantly higher in ESRD patients than in controls (9.1+/-2.8 microgram/dL vs. 5.9+/-2.3 microgram/dL, p<0.001). 32.4% of 68 ESRD patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly related to poorer motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (p<0.001). However, blood lead was not a significant predictor of the nerve conduction velocity (p>0.05). Our result suggested that even though the blood lead levels were high in ESRD, they were not associated with the decline of peripheral nerve function. Diabetes mellitus is a primary independent risk of neuropathy in ESRD patients. PMID:16614516

  7. Influence of Blood Lead Concentration on the Nerve Conduction Velocity in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeng-Soo; Park, Jae-Ho; Hong, Joong-Rock; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of the peripheral nervous system are the most prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although increased blood levels of lead in ESRD have been reported, the role of lead remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine the connection of blood lead concentration with peripheral nerve conduction velocity. One hundred ninety-eight healthy subjects (control group) and 68 patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (ESRD group) were enrolled. Nerve conduction was measured within two hours after hemodialysis. Orthodromic sensory nerve action potentials and compound muscle action potentials were recorded on the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. Hemoglobin-corrected blood lead was significantly higher in ESRD patients than in controls (9.12.8 g/dL vs. 5.92.3 g/dL, p<0.001). 32.4% of 68 ESRD patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly related to poorer motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (p<0.001). However, blood lead was not a significant predictor of the nerve conduction velocity (p>0.05). Our result suggested that even though the blood lead levels were high in ESRD, they were not associated with the decline of peripheral nerve function. Diabetes mellitus is a primary independent risk of neuropathy in ESRD patients. PMID:16614516

  8. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Nath, Devajit; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Thakkar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannoma occurring within the parotid gland is a rare tumour. We report a case of schwannoma within the parotid gland in a young female patient, who underwent ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequent surgical excision of the lesion. The lesion showed hyperintensity on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. There was no adjacent lymphadenopathy. Although hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted MRI could suggest malignant tumours, the characteristic string sign provided the clue for the diagnosis of schwannoma. PMID:25789306

  9. In vitro models for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Geuna, S; Raimondo, S; Fregnan, F; Haastert-Talini, K; Grothe, C

    2016-02-01

    The study of peripheral nerve repair and regeneration is particularly relevant in the light of the high clinical incidence of nerve lesions. However, the clinical outcome after nerve lesions is often far from satisfactory and the functional recovery is almost never complete. Therefore, a number of therapeutic approaches are being investigated, ranging from local delivery of trophic factors and other molecules to bioactive biomaterials and complex nerve prostheses. Translation of the new therapeutic approaches to the patient always requires a final pre-clinical step using invivo animal models. The need to limit as much as possible animal use in biomedical research, however, makes the preliminary use of invitro models mandatory from an ethical point of view. In this article, the different types of invitro models available today for the study of peripheral nerve regeneration have been ranked by adopting a three-step stair model based on their increasing ethical impact: (i) cell line-based models, which raise no ethical concern; (ii) primary cell-based models, which have low ethical impact as animal use, although necessary, is limited; and (iii) organotypic exvivo-based models, which raise moderate ethical concerns as the use of laboratory animals is required although with much lower impact on animal wellbeing in comparison to invivo models of peripheral nerve regeneration. This article aims to help researchers in selecting the best experimental approach for their scientific goals driven by the 'Three Rs' (3Rs) rules (Replacement, Reduction or Refinement of animal use in research) for scientific research. PMID:26309051

  10. Nerve and muscle damage after experimental thrombosis of large artery. Electrophysiology and morphology.

    PubMed

    Korthals, J K; Maki, T; Korthals, M A; Prockop, L D

    1996-03-01

    The effect of the terminal aorta thrombosis on the spinal cord and hind limb nerves and muscles morphology, and the sciatic-tibial motor nerve conduction was studied in cats. The effect of the iliac and femoral artery thrombosis on nerve morphology and conduction was also examined. Aortic thrombosis usually caused severe nerve and muscle lesions while spinal cord was spared. Nerve and muscle damage was strikingly more extensive and severe after aortic thrombosis than ligation. Nerve damage was also seen after the iliac or femoral artery thrombosis but not after ligation of these arteries. The tibial and peroneal nerve segments at the calf level were most vulnerable to ischemic damage. The nerve conduction studies (NCS) localized nerve lesions and indicated severity of the morphologic changes. The nerve conduction changes after arterial thrombosis reached a nadir at more variable time than in other experimental models of peripheral nerve ischemia. The markedly delayed development of maximal nerve dysfunction in some cases, if confirmed in humans, may present a rationale for aggressive medical or surgical intervention even several hours after acute arterial thrombosis. PMID:8815174

  11. [Facial nerve paralysis and mandibular fracture].

    PubMed

    Salonna, I; Fanizzi, P; Quaranta, A

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe three cases of peripheral facial nerve paralysis in patients with a mandibular fracture. In two cases, in which the onset of palsy was uncertain, the facial nerve injury was contralateral to the fractured side. Topodiagnostic tests showed neural damage at the third intrapetrosal portion and at the genicular ganglion. In one of the two patients tomography revealed a fracture line through the anterio-superior wall of the external auditory canal homolateral to the facial palsy. In the third subject palsy set in immediately after the trauma and was ipsilateral to the mandibular fracture; the facial lesion was localized at the genicular ganglion. In the first two cases, functional recovery was spontaneous (40 and 0 days after the trauma respectively). In the third subject, the nerve was decompressed surgically with a complete functional recovery two months later. The functional and clinical findings of these three cases show that a contralateral facial palsy secondary to a mandibular fracture resolves spontaneously while the traumatic displacement of the mandibular condyle may determine a temporal bone fracture sometimes followed by a lesion in the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve. An event such as the latter may delay functional recovery and thus warrant surgery such as in cases of Bell's palsy. PMID:1298156

  12. Laparoscopic approach to intrapelvic nerve entrapments

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Nucelio; Possover, Marc

    2015-01-01

    It is long known that a large portion of the lumbosacral plexus is located intra-abdominally, in the retroperitoneal space. However, most of literature descriptions of lesions on this plexus refer to its extra-abdominal parts whereas its intra-abdominal portions are often neglected. The objective of this review article is to describe the laparoscopic anatomy of intrapelvic nerve bundles, as well as the findings and advances already achieved by Neuropelveology practitioners. PMID:27011825

  13. Non-anatomical reconstruction of lateral ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow after tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Masuo; Kadota, H; Matsunobu, T; Shimada, E; Iwamoto, Y

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of an 80-year-old man with a tumor recurrence on his right arm 6years after initial treatment. The lateral aspect of the elbow joint, involving overlaying skin, muscles, tendons, joint capsule, lateral collateral ligament complex, the lateral 1/3 of the capitellum, and lateral epicondyle of humerus were excised in the tumor resection. Intraoperative assessment revealed multidirectional instability of the elbow, and joint stabilization was needed. Because the lateral epicondyle was resected, graft placement in an anatomical position was impossible to carry out. Therefore, non-anatomical reconstruction of lateral ulnar collateral ligament with palmaris longus tendon graft was performed. The skin was reconstructed using an antegrade pedicled radial forearm flap. For wrist extension reconstruction, the pronator quadratus tendon was transferred to the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. One year after the operation, elbow range of motion was 5-130. The patient remains symptom free. The Mayo elbow performance score is good. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society rating score is excellent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an elbow lateral ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction after tumor resection. PMID:26577898

  14. Ulnar subluxation of the extensor digitorum communis tendon: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Andruss, R. J.; Herndon, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Ulnar subluxation of the extensor digitorum communis tendon at the MCP joint occurs infrequently in the nonrheumatoid patient and is secondary to one of four reported etiologies: traumatic, spontaneous, congenital, or epileptic. If symptomatic, patients may present with pain, swelling, a sensation of the tendon "snapping", "catching", "locking", or the inability to fully extend the MCP joint. Conservative and operative interventions have been recommended as treatment options. In the acute traumatic dislocation (less than ten days post injury), satisfactory results may be obtained with simple splinting with the MCP joint in extension. Patients who have failed conservative management or have a more chronic or degenerative dislocation may require surgical correction. The successful surgical repair must meet two requirements: (1) the tendon must be accurately aligned over the MCP joint to diminish the forces causing the dislocation to occur, and (2) the repair must be able to withstand the ulnar forces incurred during flexion of the joint. Realignment of the extensor tendon and direct repair of the radial sagittal band may be sufficient in acute traumatic, congenital, or spontaneous cases if the tissue is sufficient. In chronic dislocations or in cases with atrophic or degenerative tissue, reconstruction with augmentation of the radial restraints to the extensor hood is advised. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6a and 6b PMID:7820744

  15. Simple cannulation procedure for serial blood sampling through cutaneous ulnar vein in chickens.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Darmel M; Mohan, K; Jayakumar, K; Manafi, Milad; Pavithra, B H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to collect repeated, low-stress blood samples from the ulnar vein of chickens required for pharmacokinetic studies or hormonal assays. The study used 5 apparently healthy, unsexed, commercial broiler chickens about 6 weeks old and weighing 1.7-1.9 kg for serial sampling of blood. The study prepared the birds prior to cannulation and penetrated the catheter through the skin and into the lumen of the ulnar vein. The study successfully carried out serial blood samplings in 4 of 5 cannulated birds. Heparin (10%) solution maintained patency and prevented blood clot formation inside the cannula. However, the study found repeated clotting occurring in 1 bird. Cannula failed to maintain patency; the study could not carry out blood sampling properly, which was attributed to air embolism that might have occurred during catheter manipulation or repeated filling of cannula with heparin solution. The study observed no hematoma or inflammation at the site of cannulation. Owing to the advantages and to facilitate compliance with nonhuman animal welfare, this technique seems simple and efficient, allowing adoption for serial blood collection in chickens. PMID:22233218

  16. Isolated, unilateral, reversible palsy of the hypoglossal nerve.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, S; Lo Bartolo, M L; Nicoletti, A; Reggio, E; Lo Fermo, S; Restivo, D A; Domina, E; Reggio, A

    2000-05-01

    We report three patients with isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy who experienced an excellent outcome. In two patients no cause was found. Our study seems to confirm that the occurrence of benign and idiopathic isolated unilateral palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is more frequent than previously reported. We would like to stress that neuroimaging studies remain mandatory in order to exclude other common causes, such as tumour and spontaneous or traumatic vascular lesions, in which a specific treatment is necessary. PMID:10886321

  17. Spinal nerve root stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Christopher P; Kellner, Michael A; Winfree, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Spinal nerve root stimulation (SNRS) is a neuromodulation technique that is used to treat chronic pain. This modality places stimulator electrode array(s) along the spinal nerve roots, creating stimulation paresthesias within the distribution of the target nerve root(s), thereby treating pain in that same distribution. There are several different forms of spinal nerve root stimulation, depending upon the exact electrode positioning along the nerve roots. SNRS combines the minimally invasive nature, central location, and ease of placement of spinal cord stimulation with the focal targeting of stimulation paresthesias of peripheral nerve stimulation. This hybrid technique may be an effective alternative for patients in whom other forms of neurostimulation are either ineffective or inappropriate. PMID:21422788

  18. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nervesthe cranial nerveslead directly from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. Some of the cranial nerves are ... cranial nerves emerge from the underside of the brain, pass through ... to parts of the head, neck, and trunk. The nerves are named and numbered, ...

  19. Are Human Peripheral Nerves Sensitive to X-Ray Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Scopel, Jonas Francisco; de Souza Queiroz, Luciano; ODowd, Francis Pierce; Jnior, Marcondes Cavalcante Frana; Nucci, Anamarli; Hnnicke, Marcelo Gonalves

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques play an important role in assessing the exact location, cause, and extent of a nerve lesion, thus allowing clinicians to diagnose and manage more effectively a variety of pathological conditions, such as entrapment syndromes, traumatic injuries, and space-occupying lesions. Ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging are becoming useful methods for this purpose, but they still lack spatial resolution. In this regard, recent phase contrast x-ray imaging experiments of peripheral nerve allowed the visualization of each nerve fiber surrounded by its myelin sheath as clearly as optical microscopy. In the present study, we attempted to produce high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of a human sciatic nerve by using synchrotron radiation propagation-based imaging. The images showed high contrast and high spatial resolution, allowing clear identification of each fascicle structure and surrounding connective tissue. The outstanding result is the detection of such structures by phase contrast x-ray tomography of a thick human sciatic nerve section. This may further enable the identification of diverse pathological patterns, such as Wallerian degeneration, hypertrophic neuropathy, inflammatory infiltration, leprosy neuropathy and amyloid deposits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful phase contrast x-ray imaging experiment of a human peripheral nerve sample. Our long-term goal is to develop peripheral nerve imaging methods that could supersede biopsy procedures. PMID:25757086

  20. The Mouse Median Nerve Experimental Model in Regenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Buskbjerg Jager, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Sciatic nerve crush injury in rat animal model is one of the most common experimental models used in regenerative research. However, the availability of transgenic mouse for nerve regeneration studies is constantly increasing and, therefore, the shift from rat model to mouse model is, in some cases, necessary. Moreover, since most of the human nerve lesions occur in the upper limb, it is also advantageous to shift from sciatic nerve to median nerve. In this study we described an experimental model which involves lesions of the median nerve in the mouse. Data showed that the finger flexor muscle contraction strength, assessed to evaluate the motor function recovery, and reached values not different from the control already 20 days after injury. The degree of nerve regeneration evaluated with stereological methods in light microscopy showed that, 25 days after injury, the number of regenerated myelinated fibers was comparable to the control, but they were smaller with a thinner myelin thickness. Stereological analysis made in electron microscopy confirmed these results, although the total number of fibers quantified was significantly higher compared to light microscopy analysis, due to the very small size of some fibers that can be detected only in electron microscopy. PMID:25180190

  1. Simultaneous Quantification of Unmyelinated Nerve Fibers in Sural Nerve and in Skin.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Mathilde; Magy, Laurent; Richard, Laurence; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Mathis, Stphane; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral polyneuropathies are common and their diagnosis may be challenging. We compared the results from sural-nerve and skin biopsies in 33 patients with a polyneuropathy and neuropathic pain examined in our hospital over a 6-year period. The biopsies were all from the same lower limb of each patient. Intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) densities in the skin were determined by fluorescence microscopy; unmyelinated fiber densities in sural-nerve biopsies (UFNB) were determined by electron microscopy. There was no correlation with age or gender in either biopsy type; there was a weak trend to correlation between UFNB density and IENF density, possibly because of the small sample size. The sensitivity of detection of quantitative abnormalities of unmyelinated fibers was better in the skin than in the nerves. Proximal and distal IENF densities were strongly correlated; and counts of UFNB were highly reproducible. Thus, quantification of unmyelinated fibers in sural-nerve and skin biopsies seem to be complementary. Sural-nerve biopsy may be required to confirm a specific diagnosis, to identify lesion mechanisms, and to devise therapeutic strategies, whereas skin biopsy seems to be more efficient in the follow-up of length-dependent polyneuropathies and in the diagnosis of neuropathic pain. PMID:26705410

  2. Results of nerve grafting in radial nerve injuries occurring proximal to the humerus, including those within the posterior cord.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flvio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Results of radial nerve grafting are largely unknown for lesions of the radial nerve that occur proximal to the humerus, including those within the posterior cord. METHODS The authors describe 13 patients with proximal radial nerve injuries who were surgically treated and then followed for at least 24 months. The patients' average age was 26 years and the average time between accident and surgery was 6 months. Sural nerve graft length averaged 12 cm. Recovery was scored according to the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) scale, which ranges from M0 to M5 (normal muscle strength). RESULTS After grafting, all 7 patients with an elbow extension palsy recovered elbow extension, scoring M4. Six of the 13 recovered M4 wrist extension, 6 had M3, and 1 had M2. Thumb and finger extension was scored M4 in 3 patients, M3 in 2, M2 in 2, and M0 in 6. CONCLUSIONS The authors consider levels of strength of M4 for elbow and wrist extension and M3 for thumb and finger extension to be good results. Based on these criteria, overall good results were obtained in only 5 of the 13 patients. In proximal radial nerve lesions, the authors now advocate combining nerve grafts with nerve or tendon transfers to reconstruct wrist, thumb, and finger extension. PMID:26274998

  3. Viral lesion culture (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A viral lesion culture is performed to confirm herpes simplex virus present in a skin lesion. The specimen is collected by scraping the suspected skin lesion or aspirating fluid from the lesion. Results are ...

  4. [Sciatic nerve intraneural perineurioma].

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Benjamin; Poussange, Nicolas; Le Collen, Philippe; Fabre, Thierry; Vital, Anne; Lepreux, Sbastien

    2015-12-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a benign tumor developed from the perineurium and responsible for localized nerve hypertrophy. This uncommon tumor is characterized by a proliferation of perineural cells with a "pseudo-onion bulb" pattern. We report a sciatic nerve intraneural perineurioma in a 39-year-old patient. PMID:26586011

  5. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle of the shoulder may show signs of muscle atrophy . Tests that may be used to check axillary nerve dysfunction include: EMG and nerve conduction tests, will be ... the injury or symptoms start MRI or x-rays of the shoulder

  6. Imaging the hypoglossal nerve.

    PubMed

    Alves, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    The hypoglossal nerve is a pure motor nerve. It provides motor control to the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles thus being essential for normal tongue movement and coordination. In order to design a useful imaging approach and a working differential diagnosis in cases of hypoglossal nerve damage one has to have a good knowledge of the normal anatomy of the nerve trunk and its main branches. A successful imaging evaluation to hypoglossal diseases always requires high resolution studies due to the small size of the structures being studied. MRI is the preferred modality to directly visualize the nerve, while CT is superior in displaying the bony anatomy of the neurovascular foramina of the skull base. Also, while CT is only able to detect nerve pathology by indirect signs, such as bony expansion of the hypoglossal canal, MRI is able to visualize directly the causative pathological process as in the case of small tumors, or infectious/inflammatory processes affecting the nerve. The easiest way to approach the study of the hypoglossal nerve is to divide it in its main segments: intra-axial, cisternal, skull base and extracranial segment, tailoring the imaging technique to each anatomical area while bearing in mind the main disease entities affecting each segment. PMID:20347541

  7. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Sung; Hke, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration. PMID:24618564

  8. Peripheral nerve stimulation: definition.

    PubMed

    Abejn, David; Prez-Cajaraville, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a tremendous evolution in the field of neurostimulation, both from the technological point of view and from development of the new and different indications. In some areas, such as peripheral nerve stimulation, there has been a boom in recent years due to the variations in the surgical technique and the improved results documented by in multiple published papers. All this makes imperative the need to classify and define the different types of stimulation that are used today. The confusion arises when attempting to describe peripheral nerve stimulation and subcutaneous stimulation. Peripheral nerve stimulation, in its pure definition, involves implanting a lead on a nerve, with the aim to produce paresthesia along the entire trajectory of the stimulated nerve. PMID:21422790

  9. Evaluation and treatment of medial ulnar collateral ligament injuries in the throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Nassab, Paul F; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2006-12-01

    Medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are common and are seen most frequently in baseball pitchers. Appropriate recognition, treatment, and rehabilitation are necessary to ensure the best chance for return to preinjury levels of participation. Participation in competitive sports may be disrupted for 6 months to 1 year when treated optimally. Abstinence from play may be prolonged when treatment is delayed or if conservative treatment fails; this delay carries significant consequences to the professional, collegiate, and high school athlete. The orthopedic literature is replete with recommendations for the care of these athletes. These recommendations are generally based on retrospective reviews. The purposes of this paper are 3-fold: to provide background knowledge on this injury, to synthesize the current knowledge on the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletes with medial UCL injuries, and lastly, to provide a treatment algorithm for athletes with UCL injuries. PMID:17135972

  10. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Repair: An Old Idea With a New Wrinkle.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    At our practice, we have successfully treated thousands of overhead athletes with the modified Jobe technique of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) repair. We used this technique regardless of the amount and location of the pathology encountered at the time of surgery. We asked whether the availability of modern anchor and suture technology, vast clinical experience with these injuries and their outcomes, and even biologic additives could be applied to some of these patients to achieve an equal or superior outcome in less time. This led us to create a construct that could be used to not only repair the torn native UCL tissue to bone, but also span the anatomic native ligament from its origin to its insertion. This construct includes an ultra-strong collagen coated tape attached at the anatomic insertions of the ligament using two 3.5-mm nonabsorbable PEEK corkscrew anchors and a suture through the eyelet of one of the anchors. PMID:26991563

  11. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure. PMID:26420473

  12. Painful legs and moving toes: evidence on the site of the lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, P W

    1978-01-01

    A condition of painful legs with moving toes was described in 1971. Further examples of this condition are now reported, showing lesions in the posterior root ganglion, cauda equina, nerve roots, or a peripheral nerve of the lower limb. It is concluded that this syndrome is caused by a lesion of the afferent fibres of the posterior nerve roots. It is likely that this lesion causes frequent spontaneous impulses in the posterior roots which activate local circuits of interneurones and motoneurones and result in co-ordinated movements involving local muscles. Images PMID:215727

  13. Parkinson Disease Affects Peripheral Sensory Nerves in the Pharynx

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Nyirenda, Themba; Adler, Charles H.; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John N.; Samanta, Johan E.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia is very common in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) and often leads to aspiration pneumonia, the most common cause of death in PD. Unfortunately, current therapies are largely ineffective for dysphagia. As pharyngeal sensation normally triggers the swallowing reflex, we examined pharyngeal sensory nerves in PD for Lewy pathology. Sensory nerves supplying the pharynx were excised from autopsied pharynges obtained from patients with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (n = 10) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 4). We examined: the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX); the pharyngeal sensory branch of the vagus nerve (PSB-X); and the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN) innervating the laryngopharynx. Immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated ?-synuclein was used to detect potential Lewy pathology. Axonal ?-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal sensory nerves were identified in all of the PD subjects but not in the controls. The density of ?-synuclein-positive lesions was significantly greater in PD subjects with documented dysphagia compared to those without dysphagia. In addition, ?-synuclein-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the ISLN were much more abundant than those in the IX and PSBX. These findings suggest that pharyngeal sensory nerves are directly affected by the pathologic process of PD. This anatomic pathology may decrease pharyngeal sensation impairing swallowing and airway protective reflexes, thereby contributing to dysphagia and aspiration. PMID:23771215

  14. Nerve growth factor and associated nerve sprouting contribute to local mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of bone injury.

    PubMed

    Yasui, M; Shiraishi, Y; Ozaki, N; Hayashi, K; Hori, K; Ichiyanagi, M; Sugiura, Y

    2012-08-01

    To clarify the mechanism of tenderness after bone injury, we investigated changes in the withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, nerve distribution and nerve growth factor (NGF)-expression in a rat model of bone injury without immobilization for bone injury healing. Rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1) rats incised in the skin and periosteum, followed by drilling a hole in the tibia [bone lesion group (BLG)]; (2) those incised in the skin and periosteum without bone drilling [periosteum lesion group (PLG)]; and (3) those incised in the skin [skin lesion group (SLG)]. Mechanical hyperalgesia continued for 28 days at a lesion in the BLG, 21 days in PLG and 5 days in SLG after treatments, respectively. Endochondral ossification was observed on days 5-28 in BLG and on days 5-21 in PLG. Nerve growth appeared in deep connective tissue (DCT) at day 28 in BLG. Nerve fibres increased in both cutaneous tissue and DCT at day 7 in PLG, but they were not found at day 28. Mechanical hyperalgesia accompanied with endochondral ossification and nerve fibres increasing at the lesion in both BLG and PLG. NGF was expressed in bone-regenerating cells during the bone injury healing. Anti-NGF and trk inhibitor K252a inhibited hyperalgesia in the different time course. This study shows that localized tenderness coincides with the bone healing and involves NGF expression and nerve sprouting after bone injury. The findings present underlying mechanisms and provide pathophysiological relevance of local tenderness to determination of bone fracture and its healing. PMID:22337615

  15. The importance of pelvic nerve fibers in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily J; Fraser, Ian S

    2015-08-01

    Several lines of recent evidence suggest that pelvic innervation is altered in endometriosis-affected women, and there is a strong presumption that nerve fibers demonstrated in eutopic endometrium (of women with endometriosis) and in endometriotic lesions play roles in the generation of chronic pelvic pain. The recent observation of sensory C, sensory A-delta, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers in the functional layer of endometrium of most women affected by endometriosis, but not demonstrated in most women who do not have endometriosis, was a surprise. Nerve fiber densities were also greatly increased in myometrium of women with endometriosis and in endometriotic lesions compared with normal peritoneum. Chronic pelvic pain is complex, and endometriosis is only one condition which contributes to this pain. The relationship between the presence of certain nerve fibers and the potential for local pain generation requires much future research. This paper reviews current knowledge concerning nerve fibers in endometrium, myometrium and endometriotic lesions, and discusses avenues of research that may improve our knowledge and lead to enriched understanding and management of endometriotic pain symptoms. PMID:26314611

  16. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  17. Suprascapular nerve entrapment.

    PubMed

    Cor, L; Azuelos, A; Alexandre, A

    2005-01-01

    It is important to be aware of neuropathy involving the suprascapular nerve. While direct trauma to the suprascapular nerve is the usual cause (direct blow to the base of the neck or posterior shoulder, shoulder dislocation or fracture), the problem may result from overuse injuries (such as repetitive tennis serving or spiking of a volley ball), excessive horizontal adduction, weight lifting, backpacking or no apparent reason. These last three years we have operated 8 cases of suprascapular nerve neurolysis at the level of suprascapular incision, and section of the transverse scapular ligament through the back supraspinal approach. PMID:15830964

  18. The relationship of vitamin B6 status to median nerve function and carpal tunnel syndrome among active industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Franzblau, A; Rock, C L; Werner, R A; Albers, J W; Kelly, M P; Johnston, E C

    1996-05-01

    Case reports and small case series suggest that vitamin B6 deficiency is an important etiologic factor in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This hypothesis has never examined in a randomly selected study population, particularly among active workers. We examined 125 randomly selected active workers from two industrial plants. Each worker completed a self-administered symptom questionnaire and underwent electrodiagnostic testing of the median and ulnar sensory nerves. Laboratory biochemical analyses of vitamin B6 status were also performed using the erythrocyte glutamic pyruvic transaminase assay, and quantification of plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. Measurements of vitamin B6 status were unrelated to self-reported symptoms potentially consistent with CTS, electrophysiologically determined median or ulnar nerve function, and CTS defined on the basis of self-reported symptoms and electrophysiologic measurements. These results suggest that CTS among active industrial workers is unrelated to vitamin B6 status. Furthermore, in our opinion, empiric prescription of vitamin B6 to patients with CTS is unwarranted and potentially hazardous. PMID:8733640

  19. Peroneal Nerve Palsy: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Poage, Chad; Roth, Charles; Scott, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Peroneal nerve palsy is the most common entrapment neuropathy of the lower extremity. Numerous etiologies have been identified; however, compression remains the most common cause. Although injury to the nerve may occur anywhere along its course from the sciatic origin to the terminal branches in the foot and ankle, the most common site of compressive pathology is at the level of the fibular head. The most common presentation is acute complete or partial foot drop. Associated numbness in the foot or leg may be present, as well. Neurodiagnostic studies may be helpful for identifying the site of a lesion and determining the appropriate treatment and prognosis. Management varies based on the etiology or site of compression. Many patients benefit from nonsurgical measures, including activity modification, bracing, physical therapy, and medication. Surgical decompression should be considered for refractory cases and those with compressive masses, acute lacerations, or severe conduction changes. Results of surgical decompression are typically favorable. Tendon and nerve transfers can be used in the setting of failed decompression or for patients with a poor prognosis for nerve recovery. PMID:26700629

  20. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  1. Tibial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and successfully treated. Some people may have a partial or complete loss of movement or sensation. Nerve ... mild to severe) Movement loss in the toes (partial or complete) Repeated or unnoticed injury to the ...

  2. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  3. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  4. [Optic nerve disc drusen].

    PubMed

    Samoil?, O; C?lug?ru, D; C?lug?ru, M; Emese, Kaucsar

    2006-01-01

    Optic nerve head drusen represents a frequent condition, with unknown pathogenesis, mostly asymptomatic. Here, we present a patient with visual impairment, who has reacted well to anti-inflammatory and vasodilator treatment. PMID:16927754

  5. [Nerve injuries and posttraumatic therapy].

    PubMed

    Radtke, C; Vogt, P M

    2014-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are a common clinical problem and can represent a major challenge, especially after trauma. In order to achieve optimal therapy, an early and adequate diagnosis with subsequent therapy is critical for functional preservation and restoration. Especially after complete severance of a peripheral nerve, the surgical techniques for nerve coaptation are an important prerequisite for peripheral nerve regeneration. The importance and necessity of adequate nerve coaptation and nerve transplantation are presented in detail. In addition, the types of primary and secondary nerve reconstruction procedures are described as well as the optimal time point of nerve repair. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the possibilities for diagnosis and intervention after nerve injury, additionally including an algorithm for surgical intervention. Furthermore, possible pitfalls and factors for improving the functional outcome are presented to optimize results with trauma-related nerve injury. PMID:24903504

  6. Schwannoma of Extraocular Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Wasim; Boggan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of schwannoma arising from the third cranial nerve in a thirteen year old male is reported. The patient presented with paresis of the right oculomotor nerve and ipsilateral hemiparesis. The clinical features of this case are discussed and the pertinent medical literature reviewed. ImagesFigure 1p220-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171175

  7. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M. ); Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C. )

    1993-09-20

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. [The pronator teres syndrome. Clinical aspects, pathogenesis and therapy of a non-traumatic median nerve compression syndrome in the space of the elbow joint].

    PubMed

    Bayerl, W; Fischer, K

    1979-01-01

    The proximal compression neuropathy of the median nerve is described by 11 personal cases and a review of literature. The most reliable diagnostic sign is "pronation-pain", discomfort in the forearm localised under the pronator teres, produced by passive supination of the wrist, by active pronation from this position against resistance, okr by local pressure. A nearly constant finding is weakness of grip and paraesthesia or hypaesthesia of the fingers, not always following the normal median nerve distribution. Three different anatomic points of possible compression are described: 1. The supracondylar process of the humerus, or Struthers' ligament, a rare compression mechanism. 2. The passing of the nerve through the two variable heads of the pronator teres muscle. 3. The sharp edged superficialis bridge. Apart from compression of the entire median nerve single branches of the median nerve can be entrapped seperately (the anterior interosseus nerve, the Martin-Gruber-anastomosis to the ulnar nerve) Conservative treatment with immobilisation and local electric interference current application may be satisfactory. If clinical improvement is insufficient, surgical decompression is indicated. PMID:317710

  9. Traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arribas-Garca, Ignacio; Alcal-Galiano, Andrea; Gutirrez, Ramn; Montalvo-Moreno, Juan Jos

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic neuromas are rare entities which characteristically arise subsequently to surgery and are usually accompanied by pain, typically neuralgic. We present an unusual case of an intraosseous traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve following tooth extraction. A 56-year-old man consulted for paresthesias and hyperesthesia in the left mandibular region following extraction of the left mandibular third molar (#38). The panoramic radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion in the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and CT demonstrated the existence of a mass within the canal, producing widening of the same. Nerve-sparing excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the left inferior alveolar nerve. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and there are no signs of recurrence. PMID:18305440

  10. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:18539550

  11. Laryngeal nerve "anastomoses".

    PubMed

    Naidu, L; Lazarus, L; Partab, P; Satyapal, K S

    2014-02-01

    Laryngeal nerves have been observed to communicate with each other and forma variety of patterns. These communications have been studied extensively and have been of particular interest as it may provide an additional form of innervation to the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Variations noted in incidence may help explain the variable position of the vocal folds after vocal fold paralysis. This study aimed to examine the incidence of various neural communications and to determine their contribution to the innervation of the larynx. Fifty adult cadaveric en-bloc laryngeal specimens were studied. Three different types of communications were observed between internal and recurrent laryngeal nerves viz. (1) Galen's anastomosis (81%):in 13%, it was observed to supply the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; (2) thyroarytenoid communication (9%): this was observed to supply the thyroarytenoid muscle in 2% of specimens and (3) arytenoid plexus (28%): in 6%, it supplied a branch to the transverse arytenoid muscle. The only communication between the external and recurrent laryngeal nerves was the communicating nerve (25%). In one left hemi-larynx, the internal laryngeal nerve formed a communication with the external laryngeal nerve, via a thyroid foramen. The neural communications that exist in the larynx have been thought to play a role in laryngeal innervation. The results of this study have shown varying incidences in neural communications. Contributions from these communications have also been noted to various intrinsic laryngeal muscles which may be a possible factor responsible for the variable position of the vocal folds in certain cases of vocal fold paralysis. PMID:24590520

  12. Optic nerve aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lisi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    We report a 55-year-old woman with optic nerve Aspergillosis. Aspergillus is an ubiquitous airborne saprophytic fungus. Inhaled Aspergillus conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms; however, in immunosuppressed patients, they can cause disease. The woman had a past medical history of hypertension and migraines. She presented 1 year prior to death with a new onset headache behind the left eye and later developed blurred vision and scotoma. A left temporal artery biopsy was negative for giant cell arteritis. One month prior to the current admission, she had an MRI showing optic nerve thickening with no other findings. Because of the visual loss and a positive antinuclear antibody test, she was given a trial of high dose steroids and while it significantly improved her headache, her vision did not improve. At autopsy, the left optic nerve at the level of the cavernous sinus and extending into the optic chiasm was enlarged in diameter and there was a 1.3 cm firm nodule surrounding the left optic nerve. Histologically, an abscess surrounded and involved the left optic nerve. Acute angle branching, angioinvasive fungal hyphae were identified on Grocott's methenamine silver stained sections, consistent with Aspergillus spp. No gross or microscopic evidence of systemic vasculitis or infection was identified in the body. The literature on optic nerve Aspergillosis is reviewed. PMID:25861888

  13. Probable trigeminal nerve schwannoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Saunders, J H; Poncelet, L; Clercx, C; Snaps, F R; Flandroy, P; Capasso, P; Dondelinger, R F

    1998-01-01

    A 7-year-old male Husky dog developed atrophy of the right masseter muscle and pruritus of the right side of the face. A myogenic origin was excluded using muscular biopsy. Electrophysiologically, there was involvement of the motor and sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve, suggesting a lesion located between the brainstem and the trigeminal ganglion. On MRI examination, a nodular mass was detected in the right caudal fossa. This mass was characterized by intense enhancement after injection of contrast medium. Because of the progressive clinical signs, electrophysiology, and MRI results, a presumptive diagnosis of a trigeminal nerve schwannoma was made. The animal's condition improved slightly with corticosteroids. The dog underwent euthanasia 3 months after initial presentation. Necropsy was not performed. PMID:9845193

  14. Communications Between the Facial Nerve and the Vestibulocochlear Nerve, the Glossopharyngeal Nerve, and the Cervical Plexus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Song, Ju Sung; Yang, Su Cheol

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to elucidate the communications between the facial nerves or facial nerve and neighboring nerves: the vestibulocochlear nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, and the cervical plexus.In a PubMed search, 832 articles were searched using the terms "facial nerve and communication." Sixty-two abstracts were read and 16 full-text articles were reviewed. Among them, 8 articles were analyzed.The frequency of communication between the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve was the highest (82.3%) and the frequency of communication between the facial nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve was the lowest (20%). The frequency of communication between the facial nerve and the cervical plexus was 65.2 43.5%. The frequency of communication between the cervical branch and the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was 24.7 1.7%.Surgeons should be aware of the nerve communications, which are important during clinical examinations and surgical procedures of the facial nerves such as those communications involved in facial reconstructive surgery, neck dissection, and various nerve transfer procedures. PMID:26413963

  15. [Elevated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    de Careaga, B; Villagmez, G; Pabn, J; Caldern, O; Elo, D; Prez, J; Martnez, M; Patio, F; Ponce, R; Lora, J

    1986-01-01

    Elevated gastric lesions, represent an important group among gastric pathology. To establish its incidence in our experience, we studied the endoscopic reports of two important hospitals in La Paz city: Instituto de Gastroenterologa Boliviano Japons and Hospital Obrero No. 1. In order to make a good endoscopic diagnosis among different elevated lesions we use some parameters like: location, shape, size, diameter, surface of the lesion and surrounding mucosa and characteristics of the falls. 10.472 endoscopic reports were reviewed, 497 elevated gastric lesions were found, 475 corresponded to mucosal lesions (352 benign lesions and 123 malignant lesions), 11 to submucosal and 11 extragastric lesions. PMID:3661077

  16. Retrospective case series of the imaging findings of facial nerve hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yunlong; Jin, Yanfang; Yang, Bentao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to compare high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and thin-section magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of facial nerve hemangioma. The HRCT and MRI characteristics of 17 facial nerve hemangiomas diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients included in the study suffered from a space-occupying lesion of soft tissues at the geniculate ganglion fossa. Affected nerve was compared for size and shape with the contralateral unaffected nerve. HRCT showed irregular expansion and broadening of the facial nerve canal, damage of the bone wall and destruction of adjacent bone, with "point"-like or "needle"-like calcifications in 14 cases. The average CT value was 320.9 141.8 Hu. Fourteen patients had a widened labyrinthine segment; 6/17 had a tympanic segment widening; 2/17 had a greater superficial petrosal nerve canal involvement, and 2/17 had an affected internal auditory canal (IAC) segment. On MRI, all lesions were significantly enhanced due to high blood supply. Using 2D FSE T2WI, the lesion detection rate was 82.4 % (14/17). 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) revealed the lesions in all patients. HRCT showed that the average number of involved segments in the facial nerve canal was 2.41, while MRI revealed an average of 2.70 segments (P < 0.05). HRCT and MR findings of facial nerve hemangioma were typical, revealing irregular masses growing along the facial nerve canal, with calcifications and rich blood supply. Thin-section enhanced MRI was more accurate in lesion detection and assessment compared with HRCT. PMID:25108340

  17. GLIAL RESPONSES AFTER CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Dianna L.

    2013-01-01

    The chorda tympani (CT) nerve innervates lingual taste buds and is susceptible to damage during dental and inner ear procedures. Interruption of the CT results in a disappearance of taste buds, which can be accompanied by taste disturbances. Because the CT usually regenerates to reinnervate taste buds successfully in a few weeks, a persistence of taste disturbances may indicate alterations in central nervous function. Peripheral injury to other sensory nerves leads to glial responses at central terminals, which actively contribute to abnormal sensations arising from nerve damage. Therefore, the current study examined microglial and astrocytic responses in the first central gustatory relay -the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)- after transection of the CT. Damage to the CT resulted in significant microglial responses in terms of morphological reactivity and an increased density of microglial cells from 2-20 days after injury. This increased microglial population primarily resulted from microglial proliferation from 1.5-3 days, which was supplemented by microglial migration within sub-divisions of the nTS between days 2-3. Unlike other nerve injuries, CT injury did not result in recruitment of bone marrow-derived precursors. Astrocytes also reacted in the nTS with increased levels of GFAP by 3 days, although none showed evidence of cell division. GFAP levels remained increased at 30 days by which time microglial responses had resolved. These results show that nerve damage to the CT results in central glial responses, which may participate in long lasting taste alterations following CT lesion. PMID:22315167

  18. MULTICOMPONENT T2 ANALYSIS OF DITHIOCARBAMATE- MEDIATED PERIPHERAL NERVE DEMYELINATION

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Holly L.; Does, Mark D.; Marshall, Vivian; Tonkin, Elizabeth G.; Valentine, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Standard light microscope histological evaluation of peripheral nerve lesions has been used routinely to assess peripheral nerve demyelination; however, the development of magnetic resonance (MR) methodology for assessing peripheral nerve may provide complimentary information, with less expense and in less time than nerve histology methods. In this study, the utility of multicomponent NMR T2 relaxation analysis for assessing myelin injury in toxicology studies was examined using two dithiocarbamates, N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), known to produce myelin injury and elevate copper in the nervous system. T2 analysis was used in conjunction with standard histological methods to assess myelin injury and determine if dithiocarbamate-mediated copper accumulation in peripheral nerve was associated with more severe myelin lesions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered i.p. DEDC for 8 weeks and maintained on either a diet containing normal (13 ppm) or elevated (200 ppm) copper. Another group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was administered oral PDTC and a 200 ppm copper diet, with controls given only the 200 ppm copper diet, for 47 weeks. Following exposures, the morphology of sciatic nerve was evaluated using light microscopy and multicomponent T2 analysis of excised fixed nerves; and copper levels in sciatic nerve were determined using ICP-AES. Light microscopy demonstrated the presence of a primary myelinopathy in dithiocarbamate-exposed rats characterized by intramyelinic edema, demyelination, and secondary axonal degeneration. Both the nerve copper level and number of degenerated axons, as ascertained by ICP-AES and microscopy respectively, were augmented by dietary copper supplementation in conjunction with administration of DEDC or PDTC. T2 analysis revealed a decreased contribution from the shortest T2 component in multicomponent T2 spectra obtained from animals administered DEDC or PDTC, consistent with decreased myelin content; and the decrease of the myelin water component was inversely correlated to the levels of nerve copper and myelin lesion counts. Also, the T2 analysis showed reduced variability compared to histological assessment. These studies support multicomponent T2 analysis as a complementary method to light microscopic evaluations that may also be applicable to in vivo assessments. PMID:17350098

  19. Correlation Analysis of Histomorphometry and Motor Neurography in the Median Nerve Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Theodora; Werdin, Frank; Gruessinger, Hannes; Sinis, Nektarios; Schiefer, Jennifer Lynn; Jaminet, Patrick; Geuna, Stefano; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Standard methods to evaluate the functional regeneration after injury of the rat median nerve are insufficient to identify any further differences of axonal nerve regeneration after restitution of motor recovery is completed. An important complementary method for assessing such differences is a histomorphometric analysis of the distal to lesion nerve fibers. Recently, an electrophysiological method has been proposed as a sensitive method to examine the quality of axonal nerve regeneration. Methods: A linear regression analysis has been performed to correlate histomorphometric and neurographic data originating from 31 rats subjected to neurotmesis and immediate reconstruction of their right median nerve. Results: A significant linear correlation between the velocity of neuromuscular conduction and the total number of nerve fibers (P = .037) as well as between the amplitude of compound muscle action potential and the total number of nerve fibers (P = .026) has been identified. Interestingly, a significant correlation between the velocity of neuromuscular conduction and the square root of the cross-sectional area of the nerve could be found (P = .008). This corresponds to a linear correlation between the velocity of neuromuscular conduction and the radius of the nerve. Conclusion: These results contribute in a better interpretation of morphological predictors of nerve regeneration and verify the previously described electrophysiological assessment in the median nerve rat model as a valid method. PMID:24904711

  20. Injection nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Arindhom; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Devi, Bhagavathula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical profile and outcome of surgery for injection nerve palsies. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with INP who were treated at our institute during May 2000 to May 2009. Clinical, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and operative findings were noted. Intraoperative nerve action potential monitoring was not used in any case. Outcome of patients who were followed was reviewed. Results: INP comprised 92 (11%) of 837 nerve injury patients. Seventy one patients were children less than 16 years. The nerves involved were sciatic in 80 patients, radial in 8, and others in four. Fifty seven patients had power, grade 0/5. ENMG studies revealed absent compound muscle action potential in 64 and absent sensory nerve action potential in 67 patients. Thirty nine (42.3%) of 92 patients underwent surgery. The mean duration since injury in these patients was 5.2 months (3 months to 11 months). All underwent neurolysis. Only 18 patients who underwent surgery had a follow up of more than 3 months. Ten (55.5%) patients had good or fair outcome after surgery. Except for grade of motor deficit prior to surgery, none of the variables were found to significantly affect the outcome. Conclusion: The outcome of INP is generally good and many patients recover spontaneously. The outcome of surgery is dependent on preoperative motor power. PMID:23546341

  1. In vivo assessment of forearm bone mass and ulnar bending stiffness in healthy men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Zhou, L. J.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    The cross-sectional bending stiffness EI of the ulna was measured in vivo by mechanical resistance tissue analysis (MRTA) in 90 men aged 19-89 years. MRTA measures the impedance response of low-frequency vibrations to determine EI, which is a reflection of elastic modulus E and moment of inertia I for the whole ulna. EI was compared to conventional estimates of bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW), and BMC/BW, which were all measured by single-photon absorptiometry. Results obtained from the nondominant ulna indicate that BW increases (r = 0.27, p = 0.01) and ulnar BMC/BW decreases (r = -0.31, p < or = 0.005) with age. Neither BMC nor EI declined with age. The single best predictor of EI was BW (r2 = 0.47, p = 0.0001), and further small but significant contributions were made by BMC (r2 = 0.53, p = 0.0001) and grip strength (r2 = 0.55, p = 0.0001). These results suggest that the resistance of older men to forearm fracture is related to age-associated changes in the moment of inertia achieved by redistributing bone mineral farther from the bending axis. We conclude that the in vivo assessment of bone geometry offers important insights to the comprehensive evaluation of bone strength.

  2. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, James K; Protzman, Nicole M; Malhotra, Amit D

    2015-01-01

    Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity. PMID:26240769

  3. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, James K.; Protzman, Nicole M.; Malhotra, Amit D.

    2015-01-01

    Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity. PMID:26240769

  4. A dynamic simulator to evaluate distal radio-ulnar joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Haugstvedt, J R; Berglund, L J; Neale, P G; Berger, R A

    2001-03-01

    In order to perform cadaveric biomechanical studies of the human forearm and distal radio-ulnar joint, a dynamic simulator has been constructed. The device is based upon a Plexiglas frame, to which the ulna is secured in a vertical orientation and the humerus in a horizontal orientation. The hand is secured in a sliding bar linkage to a stepper-motor that is used to rotate the forearm. The tendons to be loaded are connected to pneumatic actuators that provide agonist and antagonist muscle loading resulting in torque along the forearm axis. The muscle loading profiles and magnitudes are programmable as a function of the pronation-supination position and direction. A magnetic tracking system is used to collect three-dimensional kinematics data of up to four segments, in conjunction with the muscle tendon loads, forearm torque and other prescribed experimental measures. All functions are under PC control using custom software written with LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX). For the DRUJ testing, the validity of the tendon loading protocol to produce physiologic torque/rotation patterns was verified using in vivo data. The relationship of individual muscle forces to forearm torque was determined by a cadaveric study. PMID:11182124

  5. Clinical analysis of a large kindred with the pallister ulnar-mammary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bamshad, M.; Root, S.; Carey, J.C.

    1996-11-11

    The ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies. We present the clinical descriptions of 33 members of a six generation kindred with UMS. The number of affected individuals in this family is more than the sum of all previously reported cases of UMS. The clinical expression of UMS is highly variable. While most patients have limb deficiencies, the range of abnormalities extends from hypoplasia of the terminal phalanx of the 5th digit to complete absence of the ulna and 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits. Moreover, affected individuals may have posterior digital duplications with or without contralateral limb deficiencies. Apocrine gland abnormalities range from diminished axillary perspiration with normal breast development and lactation, to complete absence of the breasts and no axillary perspiration. Dental abnormalities include misplaced or absent teeth. Affected males consistently undergo delayed puberty, and both sexes have diminished to absent axillary hair. Imperforate hymen were seen in some affected women. A gene for UMS was mapped to chromosome area 12q23-q24.1. A mutation in the gene causing UMS can interfere with limb patterning in the proximal/distal, anterior/posterior, and dorsal/ventral axes. This mutation disturbs development of the posterior elements of forearm, wrist, and hand while growth and development of the anterior elements remain normal. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Valgus laxity of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Osbahr, D C; Wickham, M Q; Kirkendall, D T; Speer, K P

    2001-01-01

    In this investigation, we determined the patterns of valgus laxity and acquired valgus laxity of the ulnar collateral ligament in the elbows of collegiate athletes involved in overhead and nonoverhead sports. Acquired valgus laxity of the elbow is defined as the differential amount of stress valgus opening between the dominant and nondominant elbows. Forty-eight asymptomatic male athletes involved in sports that require overhead arm movements (baseball, tennis, and swimming) and 88 asymptomatic male athletes involved in nonoverhead sports (track, lacrosse, fencing, and wrestling) underwent fluoroscan examination of both their elbows with (13 daN) and without (0 N) valgus stress. There were no statistically significant differences in the amount of valgus stress opening or in acquired valgus laxity between the two groups. In fact, 25% (34 of 136) of the athletes showed an acquired valgus laxity of more than 0.5 mm, and 51.5% (70 of 136) had an acquired valgus laxity that was actually negative. There was also no correlation between the number of years played and acquired valgus laxity. Our results show that acquired valgus laxity does not exist in asymptomatic athletes involved in overhead sports, and there is no threshold value of measurement indicative of acquired valgus laxity. PMID:11573912

  7. Promising Technique for Facial Nerve Reconstruction in Extended Parotidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Ithzel Maria; Rodrguez-Valiente, Antonio; Castell, Jose Ramon; Grriz, Carmen; Montero, Oscar Alvarez; Garca-Berrocal, Jose Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant tumors of the parotid gland account scarcely for 5% of all head and neck tumors. Most of these neoplasms have a high tendency for recurrence, local infiltration, perineural extension, and metastasis. Although uncommon, these malignant tumors require complex surgical treatment sometimes involving a total parotidectomy including a complete facial nerve resection. Severe functional and aesthetic facial defects are the result of a complete sacrifice or injury to isolated branches becoming an uncomfortable distress for patients and a major challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Case Report: A case of a 54-year-old, systemically healthy male patient with a 4 month complaint of pain and swelling on the right side of the face is presented. The patient reported a rapid increase in the size of the lesion over the past 2 months. Imaging tests and histopathological analysis reported an adenoid cystic carcinoma. A complete parotidectomy was carried out with an intraoperative notice of facial nerve infiltration requiring a second intervention for nerve and defect reconstruction. A free ALT flap with vascularized nerve grafts was the surgical choice. A 6 month follow-up showed partial facial movement recovery and the facial defect mended. Conclusion: It is of critical importance to restore function to patients with facial nerve injury. Vascularized nerve grafts, in many clinical and experimental studies, have shown to result in better nerve regeneration than conventional non-vascularized nerve grafts. Nevertheless, there are factors that may affect the degree, speed and regeneration rate regarding the free fasciocutaneous flap. In complex head and neck defects following a total parotidectomy, the extended free fasciocutaneous ALT (anterior-lateral thigh) flap with a vascularized nerve graft is ideally suited for the reconstruction of the injured site. Donorsite morbidity is low and additional surgical time is minimal compared with the time of a single ALT flap transfer. PMID:26788494

  8. Effect of Collateral Sprouting on Donor Nerve Function After Nerve Coaptation: A Study of the Brachial Plexus

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Paweł; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Puła, Bartosz; Wrzosek, Marcin; Bocheńska, Aneta; Gosk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the donor nerve from the C7 spinal nerve of the rabbit brachial plexus after a coaptation procedure. Assessment was performed of avulsion of the C5 and C6 spinal nerves treated by coaptation of these nerves to the C7 spinal nerve. Material/Methods After nerve injury, fourteen rabbits were treated by end-to-side coaptation (ETS), and fourteen animals were treated by side-to-side coaptation (STS) on the right brachial plexus. Electrophysiological and histomorphometric analyses and the skin pinch test were used to evaluate the outcomes. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the G-ratio proximal and distal to the coaptation in the ETS group, but the differences in the axon, myelin sheath and fiber diameters were statistically significant. The comparison of the ETS and STS groups distal to the coaptation with the controls demonstrated statistically significant differences in the fiber, axon, and myelin sheath diameters. With respect to the G-ratio, the ETS group exhibited no significant differences relative to the control, whereas the G-ratio in the STS group and the controls differed significantly. In the electrophysiological study, the ETS and STS groups exhibited major changes in the biceps and subscapularis muscles. Conclusions The coaptation procedure affects the histological structure of the nerve donor, but it does not translate into changes in nerve conduction or the sensory function of the limb. The donor nerve lesion in the ETS group is transient and has minimal clinical relevance. PMID:26848925

  9. Effect of Collateral Sprouting on Donor Nerve Function After Nerve Coaptation: A Study of the Brachial Plexus.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Pawel; Kie?bowicz, Zdzis?aw; Dzi?giel, Piotr; Pu?a, Bartosz; Wrzosek, Marcin; Boche?ska, Aneta; Gosk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to evaluate the donor nerve from the C7 spinal nerve of the rabbit brachial plexus after a coaptation procedure. Assessment was performed of avulsion of the C5 and C6 spinal nerves treated by coaptation of these nerves to the C7 spinal nerve. MATERIAL AND METHODS After nerve injury, fourteen rabbits were treated by end-to-side coaptation (ETS), and fourteen animals were treated by side-to-side coaptation (STS) on the right brachial plexus. Electrophysiological and histomorphometric analyses and the skin pinch test were used to evaluate the outcomes. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in the G-ratio proximal and distal to the coaptation in the ETS group, but the differences in the axon, myelin sheath and fiber diameters were statistically significant. The comparison of the ETS and STS groups distal to the coaptation with the controls demonstrated statistically significant differences in the fiber, axon, and myelin sheath diameters. With respect to the G-ratio, the ETS group exhibited no significant differences relative to the control, whereas the G-ratio in the STS group and the controls differed significantly. In the electrophysiological study, the ETS and STS groups exhibited major changes in the biceps and subscapularis muscles. CONCLUSIONS The coaptation procedure affects the histological structure of the nerve donor, but it does not translate into changes in nerve conduction or the sensory function of the limb. The donor nerve lesion in the ETS group is transient and has minimal clinical relevance. PMID:26848925

  10. An Investigation of Modifying Effects of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Metabolism-related Genes on the Relationship between Peripheral Nerve Function and Mercury Levels in Urine and Hair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Werner, Robert; Gillespie, Brenda; Basu, Niladri; Franzblau, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a potent neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding glutathione-related proteins, selenoproteins and metallothioneins may modify the relationship of mercury biomarkers with changes in peripheral nerve function. Dental professionals (n=515) were recruited in 2009 and 2010. Sensory nerve function (onset latency, peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves were recorded. Samples of urine, hair and DNA were collected. Covariates related to demographics, nerve function and elemental and methyl- mercury exposure were also collected. Subjects included 244 dentists (47.4%) and 269 non-dentists (52.2%; mostly dental hygienists and dental assistants). The mean mercury levels in urine (1.06μg/L) and hair (0.51μg/g) were not significantly different from the US general population (0.95 μg/L and 0.47μg/g, respectively). In multivariate linear models predicting nerve function adjusting for covariates, only 3 out of a total of 504 models showed stable and statistically significant interaction of SNPs with mercury biomarkers. Overall, given the possibility of false positives, the results suggested little evidence of effect modification of the SNPs on the relationship between mercury biomarkers with peripheral nerve function at exposure levels that are relevant to the general US population. PMID:22236634

  11. The normal sensibility of the hand declines with age--a proclamation for the use of delta two-point discrimination values for sensibility assessment after nerve reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Schmauss, Daniel; Finck, Tom; Megerle, Kai; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Lohmeyer, Joern A

    2014-09-01

    The scores used to evaluate sensibility after digital nerve reconstruction do not take the patient's age into consideration, although there is evidence that the outcome after digital nerve reconstruction is age-dependent. However, it is not clear if the normal sensibility of the hand is also age-dependent, as the existing studies have major limitations. We evaluated the normal sensibility of the hand in 232 patients using static and moving two-point discrimination (2PD) tests and the Semmes-Weinstein-monofilament test. We found the climax of sensibility in the third decade with age-dependent deterioration afterwards in all three tests. Mean 2PD values of the radial digital nerve of the index finger (N3) showed to be significantly lower than values of the ulnar digital nerve of the small finger (N10). To overcome shortcomings of classification systems that do not consider the patient's age and inter-individual differences, we suggest using the difference of the static 2PD values of the injured to the uninjured contralateral nerve (delta 2PD) for assessment of sensibility after digital nerve reconstruction. PMID:25400078

  12. Peripheral nerve tumours: 30-year experience in the surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Gutkowska, Olga; Mazurek, Piotr; Koszewicz, Magdalena; Zi?kowski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral nerve tumours are relatively rare type of soft tissue tumours. The aim of this work is to present our experience with surgical treatment of this type of lesions. Clinical material consists of 94 patients (56 females, 38 males), in whom 101 tumours deriving from peripheral nervous system were removed. The patients underwent surgical treatment between 1983 and 2012. Tumours occurred mainly in the upper extremity (72 tumours), less often in the lower extremity (25 tumours). Lesions developed in major peripheral nerves (51 tumours) and small nerve branches (50 tumours). The most common symptoms reported before surgery included presence of tumour mass (100 %), positive Hoffmann-Tinel sign (95.6 %) and paraesthesia (93.4 %). Less often sensory deficit (89.1 %) and pain (71.7 %) were observed. Motor deficit was the least common manifestation (41.3 %). Benign tumours prevailed in presented material (94 tumours). In 7 cases, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) was identified. As a result of surgical treatment in the group of tumours deriving from major peripheral nerves, in 87.8 % of the patients, pain relief was achieved; in 84 %, Hoffmann-Tinel sign was negative; and in 79 %, paraesthesia resolved. Sensory function improvement was observed in 51.2 % of the patients while motor function improved in 26.3 % of the patients. None of the patients experienced tumour relapse. In the group of tumours deriving from small nerve branches, 47 patients had no signs of tumour recurrence. One female patient diagnosed with MPNST suffered a relapse. Obtaining satisfactory results of peripheral nerve tumour treatment requires both careful differential diagnosis and well thought-out strategy at every stage of therapeutic management. PMID:25727458

  13. Benign Jaw Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gohel, Anita; Villa, Alessandro; Sakai, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    There are both odontogenic and nonodontogenic benign lesions in the maxilla and mandible. These lesions may have similar imaging features, and the key radiographic features are presented to help the clinician narrow the differential diagnosis and plan patient treatment. Both intraoral and panoramic radiographs and advanced imaging features are useful in assessing the benign lesions of the jaws. The location, margins, internal contents, and effects of the lesions on adjacent structures are important features in diagnosing the lesions. PMID:26614952

  14. A study of the perineurium in peripheral nerve pathology.

    PubMed

    de la Motte, D J; Hall, S M; Allt, G

    1975-12-19

    The response of the perineurium to the following experimental systems was investigated by light and electron microscopy: nerve crush, cold lesion and microinjection of (a) histamine liberator, (b) potassium cyanide, (c) lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC). Where myelin breakdown occurred, lipid globules were seen within Schwann cells, macrophages and also perineurial cells. Where increased vascular permeability occurred, proteinaceous material leaked from endoneurial vessels into the endoneurial space and later appeared between perineurial laminae. It is suggested that the normal homeostatic function of the perineurium is extended in pathology to the removal of protein and lipid debris. In this way the perineurium contributes to the restoration of the normal microenvironment of peripheral nerve fibres. PMID:174382

  15. Optic nerve hypoplasia in children.

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, S. M.; Dutton, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is characterised by a diminished number of optic nerve fibres in the optic nerve(s) and until recently was thought to be rare. It may be associated with a wide range of other congenital abnormalities. Its pathology, clinical features, and the conditions associated with it are reviewed. Neuroendocrine disorders should be actively sought in any infant or child with bilateral ONH. Early recognition of the disorder may in some cases be life saving. Images PMID:2191713

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Re, Michela; Blanco, Javier; Gmez de Segura, Ignacio A

    2016-03-01

    Superficial nerves can be visualized through ultrasonography in the cattle and facilitate local anesthetic disposition around nerve structures. Expected advantages include a higher successful rate of nerve block improving the degree and duration of the block. Among others, conduction nerves of clinical interest in cattle include the paravertebral nerves, nerves of the epidural space, the brachial plexus, and the sciatic and femoral nerves, and nerves of the head. PMID:26922116

  17. Malignant granular cell tumor of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: report of a case with cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, Luca; Magrini, Elisabetta; Consales, Alessandro; Poppi, Massimo; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Dorji, Tsering; Benedetti, Giovanni; Baccarini, Paola

    2002-12-01

    Malignant granular cell tumors (MGCTs) are rare neoplasms of uncertain histogenesis. We report a case of MGCT involving a peripheral nerve with peritoneal and omental dissemination in which cytogenetic findings are available. Our results show that MGCTs share some cytogenetic abnormalities with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), supporting the hypothesis that they may represent histogenetically related lesions. PMID:12514794

  18. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate

  19. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... full recovery. In some cases, there may be partial or complete loss of movement or sensation. Nerve ... Deformity of the hand (rare) Partial or complete loss of hand movement Partial or complete loss of sensation in the fingers Recurrent or unnoticed injury to the ...

  20. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems that may develop: Bladder or kidney infection Diabetes foot ulcers Nerve damage that hides the symptoms of ... and a heart attack Loss of a toe, foot, or leg through amputation, usually because of a bone infection that does not heal

  1. Histomorphometric study of the superficial peroneal nerve in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida, M; Letaief, F; Ben Hamida, C

    1987-01-01

    A histomorphometric analysis of the superficial peroneal nerve was made in 15 cases of leprosy. Thirteen patients presented clinical signs of leprous neuropathy, while the other two showed only cutaneous signs of leprosy. The presence of M. leprae in all the nerves sampled, and the appearance of the histologic lesions, made it possible to confirm the diagnosis of leprosy and to specify the type of leprosy in each case, even in the absence of clinical signs of leprous neuropathy. Correlation of the histomorphometric results with the duration of development of the disease and with the time elapsing before treatment showed, in the beginning stage, a considerable reduction in myelinated and unmyelinated never fibres and a proliferation of Schwann cells, as well as segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration of the teased fibres. When treated early, the evolution of the lepromatous type (LL) appears favourable, with apparent regeneration of the nerve fibres. When treatment is not instituted early, gradual loss of nerve fibres, axonal degeneration of all the teased fibres, proliferation of the Schwann cell processes devoid of axons, and increase in endoneural connective tissue lead to a severe degeneration of the nerve. This unfavorable development appears to progress faster in the absence of treatment or when treatment is irregular. In the borderline lepromatous (BL) and borderline tuberculoid (BT) types, nerve degeneration appears to be more rapid than in the type LL. PMID:3039779

  2. A novel and robust conditioning lesion induced by ethidium bromide

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Edmund R; Ishiko, Nao; Tolentino, Kristine; Doherty, Ernest; Rodriguez, Maria J.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Zou, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the peripheral conditioning lesion remain unsolved. We show here that injection of a chemical demyelinating agent, ethidium bromide, into the sciatic nerve induces a similar set of regeneration-associated genes and promotes a 2.7-fold greater extent of sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord than sciatic nerve crush. We found that more severe peripheral demyelination correlates with more severe functional and electrophysiological deficits, but more robust central regeneration. Ethidium bromide injection does not activate macrophages at the demyelinated sciatic nerve site, as observed after nerve crush, but briefly activates macrophages in the dorsal root ganglion. This study provides a new method for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the conditioning response and suggests that loss of the peripheral myelin may be a major signal to change the intrinsic growth state of adult sensory neurons and promote regeneration. PMID:25541322

  3. Dexamethasone enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  4. Intra-temporal facial nerve centerline segmentation for navigated temporal bone surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voormolen, Eduard H. J.; van Stralen, Marijn; Woerdeman, Peter A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.; Noordmans, Herke J.; Regli, Luca; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan W.; Viergever, Max A.

    2011-03-01

    Approaches through the temporal bone require surgeons to drill away bone to expose a target skull base lesion while evading vital structures contained within it, such as the sigmoid sinus, jugular bulb, and facial nerve. We hypothesize that an augmented neuronavigation system that continuously calculates the distance to these structures and warns if the surgeon drills too close, will aid in making safe surgical approaches. Contemporary image guidance systems are lacking an automated method to segment the inhomogeneous and complexly curved facial nerve. Therefore, we developed a segmentation method to delineate the intra-temporal facial nerve centerline from clinically available temporal bone CT images semi-automatically. Our method requires the user to provide the start- and end-point of the facial nerve in a patient's CT scan, after which it iteratively matches an active appearance model based on the shape and texture of forty facial nerves. Its performance was evaluated on 20 patients by comparison to our gold standard: manually segmented facial nerve centerlines. Our segmentation method delineates facial nerve centerlines with a maximum error along its whole trajectory of 0.40+/-0.20 mm (mean+/-standard deviation). These results demonstrate that our model-based segmentation method can robustly segment facial nerve centerlines. Next, we can investigate whether integration of this automated facial nerve delineation with a distance calculating neuronavigation interface results in a system that can adequately warn surgeons during temporal bone drilling, and effectively diminishes risks of iatrogenic facial nerve palsy.

  5. Segmental thoracic lipomatosis of nerve with nerve territory overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Mark A; Amrami, Kimberly K; Howe, B Matthew; Spinner, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Lipomatosis of nerve (LN), or fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of fibrofatty enlargement of the peripheral nerves. It is associated with bony and soft tissue overgrowth in approximately one-third to two-thirds of cases. It most commonly affects the median nerve at the carpal tunnel or digital nerves in the hands and feet. The authors describe a patient with previously diagnosed hemihypertrophy of the trunk who had a history of large thoracic lipomas resected during infancy, a thoracic hump due to adipose proliferation within the thoracic paraspinal musculature, and scoliotic deformity. She had fatty infiltration in the thoracic spinal nerves on MRI, identical to findings pathognomonic of LN at better-known sites. Enlargement of the transverse processes at those levels and thickened ribs were also found. This case appears to be directly analogous to other instances of LN with overgrowth, except that this case involved axial nerves rather than the typical appendicular nerves. PMID:24506247

  6. Concomitant Ulnar Styloid Fracture and Distal Radius Fracture Portend Poorer Outcome.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Omri; Marcano, Alejandro; Paksima, Nader; Egol, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the effect of ulnar styloid fractures (USFs) on concomitant distal radius fractures (DRFs) is mixed. We conducted a study to determine if associated ipsilateral USFs affect outcomes of DRFs. We retrospectively evaluated 315 DRFs treated (184 operatively, 131 nonoperatively) over a 7-year period. Concomitant USFs were identified. Mean follow-up was 12 months. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) outcome scores, and grip strength and wrist range of motion data, were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with Student t test and analysis of variance. Incidence of concomitant USF and DRF was higher (P < .0002) in the operative group (64.6%) than in the nonoperative group (39.1%). Patients with USFs had worse mean (SD) pain score, 1.80 (2.43) versus 0.80 (1.55) (P = .0001), DASH score, 17.03 (18.94) versus 9.21 (14.06) (P = .001), and SF-36 score, 77.16 (17.69) versus 82.68 (16.10) (P = .022). In the operative group, patients with USFs had more pain and poorer DASH Functional scores than patients without USFs. Results were similar in the nonoperative group. There was no difference in healing time between intra-articular and extra-articular fractures or between presence and absence of USFs. Concomitant occurrence of USFs and DRFs-which is associated with worse pain scores and lower functioning compared with USFs without DRFs-should prompt clinicians to counsel patients about delayed recovery. PMID:26761916

  7. Stress Sonography of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Elbow in Professional Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Ciccotti, Michael G.; Atanda, Alfred; Nazarian, Levon N.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Holmes, Laurens; Cohen, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Background An injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow is potentially career threatening for elite baseball pitchers. Stress ultrasound (US) of the elbow allows for evaluation of both the UCL and the ulnohumeral joint space at rest and with stress. Hypothesis Stress US can identify morphological and functional UCL changes and may predict the risk of a UCL injury in elite pitchers. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 368 asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers underwent preseason stress US of their dominant and non-dominant elbows over a 10-year period (2002-2012). Stress US examinations were performed in 30 of flexion at rest and with 150 N of valgus stress by a single musculoskeletal radiologist. Ligament thickness, ulnohumeral joint space width, and ligament abnormalities (hypoechoic foci and calcifications) were documented. Results There were 736 stress US studies. The mean UCL thickness in the dominant elbow (6.15 mm) was significantly greater than that in the nondominant elbow (4.82 mm) (P < .0001). The mean stressed ulnohumeral joint space width in the dominant elbow (4.56 mm) was significantly greater than that in the nondominant elbow (3.72 mm) (P < .02). In the dominant arm, hypoechoic foci and calcifications were both significantly more prevalent (28.0% vs 3.5% and 24.9% vs 1.6%, respectively; P < .001). In the 12 players who incurred a UCL injury, there were nonsignificant (P > .05) increases in baseline ligament thickness, ulnohumeral joint space gapping with stress, and incidence of hypoechoic foci and calcifications. More than 1 stress US examination was performed in 131 players, with a mean increase of 0.78 mm in joint space gapping with subsequent evaluations. Conclusion Stress US indicates that the UCL in the dominant elbow of elite pitchers is thicker, is more likely to have hypoechoic foci and/or calcifications, and has increased laxity with valgus stress over time. PMID:24473498

  8. The Effect of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction on Pitch Velocity in Major League Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Lansdown, Drew A.; Feeley, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary restraint to valgus load, and injury is commonly encountered as a result of overuse in throwing athletes. Reconstruction of this ligament has allowed for a high rate of return to sport for elite pitchers. Public perception of this procedure has resulted in a commonly held belief of increased throwing velocity following UCL reconstruction. Hypothesis: Fastball velocity for Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers is significantly decreased following UCL reconstruction. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 129 pitchers were identified as undergoing UCL reconstruction from publicly available reports, and a final group of 80 MLB pitchers were included for analysis. Statistics were collected, including pitch velocity, pitch selection, and performance outcomes. Pre- and postoperative statistics were compared using paired t tests to allow for evaluation of each pitcher relative to his baseline velocity and performance. Results: Mean fastball velocity was significantly decreased following UCL reconstruction, with a presurgical mean velocity of 91.3 mph and postoperative velocity of 90.6 mph (P = .003). The greatest observed difference was in pitchers older than 35 years, with fastball velocity decreasing from 91.7 to 88.8 mph (P = .0048). Pitchers threw fewer fastballs after reconstruction. Pitch velocity for curveballs, changeups, and sliders did not change significantly after UCL reconstruction. Additionally, pitchers threw fewer innings and pitches following reconstruction and produced fewer wins above replacement relative to their preinjury state. Conclusion: Contrary to popular opinion, fastball velocity for MLB pitchers is significantly decreased following UCL reconstruction, which should reinforce the importance of preventing overuse injuries. PMID:26535301

  9. Comparison of results after surgical repair of acute and chronic ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Ba?ar, H; Ba?ar, B; Kaplan, T; Erol, B; Tetik, C

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to demonstrate that successful outcomes can be achieved with the new technique presented here for chronic ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury of the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, as well as with K-wire pinning for acute UCL injury. We followed 19 patients who suffered an UCL rupture (mean follow-up: 14.264.65 months) and 32 patients who presented with UCL avulsion fracture (mean follow-up: 16.817.54 months). We used a free tendon graft for UCL reconstruction in the UCL rupture group. Both ends of the graft were stabilized with bioabsorbable suture anchors, which were used as biotenodesis interference screws. Closed reduction and K-wire fixation was used in UCL avulsion fracture group. There were no statistically significant differences between operated and contralateral healthy thumb MCP joint in both groups in the grip strength, tip pinch strength, flexion, extension, ulnar deviation, and radial deviation movements at final follow-up. Grip strength, tip pinch strength, ulnar deviation and radial deviation were significantly better in the avulsion group than the rupture group. All patients regained full stability at the MCP joint in avulsion group; 16 patients regained full stability and 3 patients presented with mild laxity (less than 10 laxity) in rupture group. Glickel grading scale used as a functional score was excellent for 30 patients and good for 2 patients in avulsion group; it was excellent for 17 patients and good for 2 patients in rupture group. Our study shows that closed reduction and percutaneous K-wire fixation of acute displaced large UCL avulsion fracture is a simple technique and achieves adequate stability of UCL. For UCL rupture, free tendon reconstruction with bioabsorbable suture anchors provides adequate stability and stable fixation within the tunnels. PMID:25458468

  10. Measurement of ulnar variance and radial inclination on X-rays of healed distal radius fractures. With the axis of the distal radius or ulna?

    PubMed

    Thuysbaert, Gilles; Ringburg, Akkie; Petronilia, Steven; Vanden Berghe, Alex; Hollevoet, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    Ulnar variance and radial inclination are radiological parameters frequently used to evaluate displacement of distal radius fractures. In most studies measurements are based on the long central axis of the distal radius, although the axis of the distal ulna can also be used. The purpose of this study was to determine which axis is more reliable. Four observers performed measurements on standard anteroposterior digital wrist X-rays of 20 patients taken 1 and 2 months after sustaining an extra-articular distal radius fracture. Intraobserver reliability was similar with both methods. No difference was found in interobserver reliability between both methods for ulnar variance, but for radial inclination it was better with the axis through the radius. Measurements on two X-rays of the same wrist taken at a different moment were similar with both methods. It can be concluded that the central axis of the distal radius can remain the basis to determine ulnar variance and radial inclination. PMID:26280972

  11. Active skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response in the hand following nerve injury and repair in human upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Aidong; Liu, Dan; Gu, Chen; Gu, Xiaosong; Gu, Jianhui; Hu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous vasoconstriction/vasodilatation occurs in response to whole body and local cooling/heating, and the vasomotor activities play a pivotal role in thermal control of the human body. The mechanisms underlying regulation of skin blood flow involve both neurogenic and humeral/local chemical influence, contributing to the initial response to thermal stimuli and the prolonged phase of response, respectively. Previous studies have suggested the impairment of cutaneous thermal regulation after nerve injury. However, the evidence regarding how the skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response evolve after nerve injury and repair remains limited. Here we observed, by utilizing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging, baseline skin perfusion and perfusion change in response to thermal stimuli after median and ulnar nerve injury, and the results showed that baseline perfusion in autonomous skin area profoundly decreased and active rewarming after clod stress dramatically diminished before sensory recovery of the skin became detectable. In addition, baseline cutaneous perfusion was recovered as the skin regained touch sensation, and exhibited positive correlation to touch sensibility of the skin. These data indicate that both active perfusion and thermoregulatory response of the skin are markedly compromised during skin denervation and can be recovered by re-innervation. This suggests the importance of timely repair of injured nerve, especially in the practice of replantation. PMID:26529641

  12. Mesenchymal breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Schickman, R; Leibman, A J; Handa, P; Kornmehl, A; Abadi, M

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal breast lesions encompass a variety of breast diseases. Many of these lesions are rare with only a few case reports in the literature. This article reviews the imaging findings of selected mesenchymal breast lesions, their clinical presentations and method of diagnosis. Mesenchymal lesions are diverse and include haemangioma, granular cell tumour, myofibroblastoma, fibromatosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. It is important for radiologists to be aware of these lesions as some of them may have malignant potential or demonstrate imaging features that overlap with other malignant lesions. PMID:25638601

  13. SIDELINE ASSESSMENT AND RETURN‐TO‐PLAY DECISION‐MAKING FOR AN ACUTE ELBOW ULNAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT SPRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Throwing athletes are at high risk for elbow injuries. The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow, in particular, must resist large valgus forces during the throwing motion. An acute UCL sprain requires the sports medicine professional on the sidelines to thoroughly assess the injury and reach a return‐to‐play decision in a timely manner. A sports medicine professional who makes an accurate diagnosis, reaches a correct return‐to‐play decision, and initiates early treatment gives the athlete the best chance for a rapid, successful return to their sport. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23593559

  14. Skin lesion aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a skin lesion (sore). ... A needle is put into skin sore or skin abscess , which may contain fluid or pus. The fluid may be examined under a microscope. A sample of ...

  15. Bone Lesions and Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms » Bone Damage Bone Lesions and Damage Bone lesions from multiple myeloma ... evaluate bone damage in myeloma patients. Causes of bone destruction in myeloma Normally, osteoclasts function with bone- ...

  16. Chemotherapy-induced bone marrow nerve injury impairs hematopoietic regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Daniel; Scheiermann, Christoph; Chow, Andrew; Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Barrick, Colleen; Tessarollo, Lino; Frenette, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs challenge hematopoietic tissues to regenerate, but commonly produce long-term sequelae. Deficits in hematopoietic stem or stromal cell function have been described, but the mechanisms mediating chemotherapy-induced hematopoietic dysfunction remain unclear. Administration of multiple cycles of cisplatin chemotherapy causes significant sensory neuropathy. Here, we demonstrate that chemotherapy-induced nerve injury in the bone marrow is a critical lesion impairing hematopoietic regeneration. We show using various pharmacological and genetic models that the selective loss of adrenergic innervation in the BM alters its regeneration following genotoxic insult. Sympathetic nerves in the marrow promote the survival of stem cell niche constituents that initiate recovery. Neuroprotection by deletion of Trp53 in sympathetic neurons or neuro-regeneration using 4-methylcatechol or glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) administration can restore hematopoietic recovery. Thus, these results shed light on the potential benefit of adrenergic nerve protection to shield hematopoietic niches from injury. PMID:23644514

  17. Reproducible mouse sciatic nerve crush and subsequent assessment of regeneration by whole mount muscle analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauder, Andrew R; Ferguson, Toby A

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is widely studied both for its relevance to human disease and to understand the robust regenerative response mounted by PNS neurons thereby possibly illuminating the failures of CNS regeneration(1). Sciatic nerve crush (axonotmesis) is one of the most common models of peripheral nerve injury in rodents(2). Crushing interrupts all axons but Schwann cell basal laminae are preserved so that regeneration is optimal(3,4). This allows the investigator to study precisely the ability of a growing axon to interact with both the Schwann cell and basal laminae(4). Rats have generally been the preferred animal models for experimental nerve crush. They are widely available and their lesioned sciatic nerve provides a reasonable approximation of human nerve lesions(5,4). Though smaller in size than rat nerve, the mouse nerve has many similar qualities. Most importantly though, mouse models are increasingly valuable because of the wide availability of transgenic lines now allows for a detailed dissection of the individual molecules critical for nerve regeneration(6, 7). Prior investigators have used multiple methods to produce a nerve crush or injury including simple angled forceps, chilled forceps, hemostatic forceps, vascular clamps, and investigator-designed clamps(8,9,10,11,12). Investigators have also used various methods of marking the injury site including suture, carbon particles and fluorescent beads(13,14,1). We describe our method to obtain a reproducibly complete sciatic nerve crush with accurate and persistent marking of the crush-site using a fine hemostatic forceps and subsequent carbon crush-site marking. As part of our description of the sciatic nerve crush procedure we have also included a relatively simple method of muscle whole mount we use to subsequently quantify regeneration. PMID:22395197

  18. Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patients history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management. PMID:23314937

  19. Malignant nerve-sheath neoplasms in neurofibromatosis: distinction from benign tumors by using imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Huntrakoon, M.; Wetzel, L.H.

    1987-11-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve-sheath neoplasms frequently complicate neurofibromatosis causing pain, enlarging masses, or neurologic deficits. However, similar findings sometimes also occur with benign nerve neoplasms. Our study was done retrospectively to determine if imaging techniques can differentiate malignant from benign nerve tumors in neurofibromatosis. Eight patients with symptomatic neoplasms (three benign, five malignant) were studied by CT in eight, MR in six, and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy in seven. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga occurred in all five malignant lesions but not in two benign neoplasms studied. On CT or MR, all eight lesions, including three benign neoplasms, showed inhomogeneities. Of five lesions with irregular, infiltrative margins on CT or MR, four were malignant and one was benign. Of three lesions with smooth margins, one was malignant and two were benign. One malignant neoplasm caused irregular bone destruction. Accordingly, CT and MR could not generally distinguish malignant from benign lesions with certainty. However, both CT and MR provided structural delineation to help surgical planning for both types of lesion. /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy appears promising as a screening technique to identify lesions with malignant degeneration in patients with neurofibromatosis. Any area of abnormal radiogallium uptake suggests malignancy warranting further evaluation by CT or MR. Biopsy of any questionable lesion is essential.

  20. Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

  1. Epidermal nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Engelstad, JaNean K.; Taylor, Sean W.; Witt, Lawrence V.; Hoebing, Belinda J.; Herrmann, David N.; Klein, Christopher J.; Johnson, David M.; Davies, Jenny L.; Carter, Rickey E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Our first objective was to explore the value of estimating 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs)/mm for number of sections to be evaluated and for confidently judging normality or abnormality. Our second objective was to introduce a new continuous measure combining nerve conduction and ENFs/mm. Methods: The 95% CI studies were performed on 1, 12, 13 - - - 110 serial skip sections of 3-mm punch biopsies of leg and thigh of 67 healthy subjects and 23 patients with diabetes mellitus. Results: Variability of differences of ENFs/mm counts (and 95% CIs) from evaluation of 1, 12, 13 - - - 19 compared with 110 serial skip sections decreased progressively without a break point with increasing numbers of sections evaluated. Estimating 95% CIs as sections are evaluated can be used to judge how many sections are needed for adequate evaluation, i.e., only a few when counts and 95% CIs are well within the range of normality or abnormality and more when values are borderline. Also provided is a methodology to combine results of nerve conduction and ENFs/mm as continuous measures of normality or abnormality. Conclusion: Estimating 95% CIs of ENFs/mm is useful to judge how many sections should be evaluated to confidently declare counts to be normal or abnormal. Also introduced is a continuous measure of both large-fiber (nerve conduction) and small-fiber (ENFs/mm) normal structures/functions spanning the range of normality and abnormality for use in therapeutic trials. PMID:23100396

  2. Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Masquerading as Optic Neuritis.

    PubMed

    Alroughani, R; Behbehani, R

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuritis is a common presentation of demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis. It typically presents with acute painful monocular vision loss, whereas chronic optic neuropathy can be caused by compressive lesions along the anterior visual pathway, genetic, toxic, or nutritional causes. We report an unusual presentation mimicking optic neuritis, which was subsequently diagnosed as optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM). Misinterpretation of white matter lesions on MRI of brain and the failure to image the optic nerves at the time of acute loss of vision led to the misdiagnosis of optic neuritis in this case. A comprehensive accurate history and ordering the appropriate imaging modality remain paramount in diagnosing progressive visual deterioration. PMID:26904329

  3. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-01-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeons clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as plexiform neurofibroma and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST). PMID:26500915

  4. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Deger, Ayse Nur; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-09-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeon's clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as "plexiform neurofibroma" and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST). PMID:26500915

  5. Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Masquerading as Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Alroughani, R.; Behbehani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuritis is a common presentation of demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis. It typically presents with acute painful monocular vision loss, whereas chronic optic neuropathy can be caused by compressive lesions along the anterior visual pathway, genetic, toxic, or nutritional causes. We report an unusual presentation mimicking optic neuritis, which was subsequently diagnosed as optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM). Misinterpretation of white matter lesions on MRI of brain and the failure to image the optic nerves at the time of acute loss of vision led to the misdiagnosis of optic neuritis in this case. A comprehensive accurate history and ordering the appropriate imaging modality remain paramount in diagnosing progressive visual deterioration. PMID:26904329

  6. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  7. Optic nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Savleen; Jain, Sparshi; Sodhi, Harsimrat B S; Rastogi, Anju; Kamlesh

    2013-05-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65%) than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED). PMID:24082663

  8. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Savleen; Jain, Sparshi; Sodhi, Harsimrat B. S.; Rastogi, Anju; Kamlesh

    2013-01-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65%) than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED). PMID:24082663

  9. Nerve grafting in the repair of complicated peripheral nerve trauma.

    PubMed

    Walton, R; Finseth, F

    1977-10-01

    Peripheral nerve trauma has been a challenge to surgeons, with significant advances in the surgery of repair occurring in major wars. The standard method of treatment involving wide mobilization and end-to-end suture to close traumatic gaps in peripheral nerves has not produced consistently acceptable results, particularly with large gaps. However, with the recent development of microsurgical techniques and instrumentation, the method of interfascicular nerve grafting has been applied to selected patients with trauma problems of the peripheral nerve, by resecting and autogenous nerve grafting at staggered levels to distribute scar formation, followed by plaster immobilization for 3 weeks. Ten patients are reported, with motor nerve recovery ranging from M2 to M4 and sensory recovery, S2-S4 (See Table I), based on Seddon's classification (11). PMID:909120

  10. Temporary Mental Nerve Paresthesia Originating from Periapical Infection

    PubMed Central

    Genc Sen, Ozgur; Kaplan, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Many systemic and local factors can cause paresthesia, and it is rarely caused by infections of dental origin. This report presents a case of mental nerve paresthesia caused by endodontic infection of a mandibular left second premolar. Resolution of the paresthesia began two weeks after conventional root canal treatment associated with antibiotic therapy and was completed in eight weeks. One year follow-up radiograph indicated complete healing of the radiolucent periapical lesion. The tooth was asymptomatic and functional. PMID:26345692

  11. Modified technique for correction of isolated radial head dislocation without apparent ulnar bowing: a retrospective case study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lei; Li, Yan-Hui; Sun, Da-Hui; Zhu, Dong; Ning, Shu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is currently no general consensus on the optimal treatment of chronic radial head dislocation. Material and Methods: Considering that the annular ligament is important in maintaining elbow stability, we developed a modified method for annular ligament reconstruction in pediatric cases of radial head dislocation without ulnar bowing. We retrospectively investigated the therapeutic outcomes of this technique in a series of cases. We used our modified technique for the treatment of five patients between January 2006 and January 2012. The average age of the patients at the time of injury was 9 years (range, 6-14 years), and the patients were followed up for 1 to 3 years. Results: The perioperative and follow-up data of the patients were examined. All five surgical procedures were completed uneventfully and had been tolerated well by the patients, with minimal complications. Remarkable improvement was noted in all the cases at the end of the follow-up period. Conclusions: Our modified technique for annular ligament reconstruction was effective in achieving good reduction of the radial head dislocation with minimal complications in pediatric cases of isolated radial head dislocation without apparent ulnar bowing. PMID:26770420

  12. Echographic correlation of optic nerve sheath size and cerebrospinal fluid pressure.

    PubMed

    Galetta, S; Byrne, S F; Smith, J L

    1989-06-01

    A 23-year-old obese woman presented with papilledema. Computed tomography showed no intracranial mass lesions and lumbar puncture revealed an increased opening pressure, confirming the diagnosis of pseudo-tumor cerebri. Standardized echography of the optic nerves was performed immediately before and after lumbar puncture. A marked reduction of cerebrospinal fluid pressure correlated with a decrease in the subarachnoid fluid of the optic nerve sheath. PMID:2526162

  13. Risk Stratification for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury in Major League Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Kriz, Peter K.; Hall, Amber M.; Zurakowski, David; Fadale, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury has become increasingly common in Major League Baseball (MLB) players in recent years. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in preinjury fastball velocity between MLB pitchers with tears and matched controls without UCL injury. Pitchers with injuries are throwing harder and getting injured earlier in their MLB careers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, a total of 170 documented UCL injuries (156 pitchers, 14 position players) occurred in MLB. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of any player who tore his UCL in MLB during this time frame. There were 130 regular-season tears (April-September). From this group, 118 players who pitched more than 100 innings prior to tear were matched to subjects with no tear and were compared using a logistic regression analysis. A subgroup of “early tear” players who threw less than 100 career innings (n = 37) was also identified and compared with the larger tear group using a logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 130 tears that occurred during the regular season, a significantly larger number (62%) occurred in the first 3 months (P = .011). The rate of UCL tears per MLB player (P = .001) was statistically significant. In the group of 118 matched tears, the mean fastball velocity was greater in the tear group (91.7 mph) compared with the control group (91.0 mph; P = .014). Furthermore, relief pitchers made up a greater percentage of the early tear group (<100 innings) compared with the later tear group (P = .011). Sixteen of the 170 UCL tears (9.4%) were recurrent tears, with 5 of 16 experiencing both tear and retear within the past 4 years. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in the mean fastball velocity of pitchers who injure their UCL. Small increases in pitcher fastball velocity are a main contribution to the increased rate of tear in MLB. In addition, there has been an increased incidence of injury in the first 3 months of the season. Finally, early tears are more likely to occur in relief pitchers than starters. PMID:26848482

  14. Histopathological features of bone regeneration in a canine segmental ulnar defect model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today, finding an ideal biomaterial to treat the large bone defects, delayed unions and non-unions remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeions and researchers. Several studies have been carried out on the subject of bone regeneration, each having its own advantages. The present study has been designed in vivo to evaluate the effects of cellular auto-transplantation of tail vertebrae on healing of experimental critical bone defect in a dog model. Methods Six indigenous breeds of dog with 32??3.6kg average weight from both sexes (5 males and 1 female) received bilateral critical-sized ulnar segmental defects. After determining the health condition, divided to 2 groups: The Group I were kept as control I (n?=?1) while in Group II (experimental group; n?=?5) bioactive bone implants were inserted. The defects were implanted with either autogeneic coccygeal bone grafts in dogs with 3-4cm diaphyseal defects in the ulna. Defects were stabilized with internal plate fixation, and the control defects were not stabilized. Animals were euthanized at 16weeks and analyzed by histopathology. Results Histological evaluation of this new bone at sixteen weeks postoperatively revealed primarily lamellar bone, with the formation of new cortices and normal-appearing marrow elements. And also reformation cortical compartment and reconstitution of marrow space were observed at the graft-host interface together with graft resorption and necrosis responses. Finally, our data were consistent with the osteoconducting function of the tail autograft. Conclusions Our results suggested that the tail vertebrae autograft seemed to be a new source of autogenous cortical bone in order to supporting segmental long bone defects in dogs. Furthermore, cellular autotransplantation was found to be a successful replacement for the tail vertebrae allograft bone at 3-4cm segmental defects in the canine mid- ulna. Clinical application using graft expanders or bone autotransplantation should be used carefully and requires further investigation. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2028232688119271. PMID:24636669

  15. Does Geographic Location Matter on the Prevalence of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Zaremski, Jason L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Donlan, Robert M.; Brisbane, Sonya Tang; Farmer, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant amount of research in the prevention of throwing injuries. However, one area of research that is lacking is geographic location of play. Warm climates may permit year-round play and increased exposure to throwing arm injury risk. Hypotheses: (1) Pitchers from southern institutions would have greater rates of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCL-R) compared with pitchers from northern institutions. (2) Pitchers originating from high school teams in warm weather states would have a greater risk of undergoing UCL-R while in college. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This study was completed by reviewing publicly obtained records of male collegiate baseball players during the 2008 through 2014 seasons. Data were accessed through online search engines, online baseball media guides, and school websites. Results: A total of 5315 player-years and 2575 pitcher-years were identified. Fifty-eight UCL-R cases were found in collegiate pitchers, 40 of which occurred in the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and 18 in the Big Ten. More injuries (36/58) occurred in pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states as compared with northern states (22/58), regardless of location of collegiate participation (χ2 = 28.8, P < .05). The injury rate for pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states was 25.3 per 1000 player-years versus 19.1 per 1000 player-years in northern states, with a risk ratio of 1.32 (χ2 = 0.89, P = .35). The injury rate for the SEC versus Big Ten pitchers was 13.3 per 1000 player-years versus 7.8 per 1000 player-years, with a risk ratio of 1.71 (χ2 = 1.45, P = .23). Conclusion: There is a greater likelihood of undergoing UCL-R in the SEC compared with the Big Ten. There is also an increased risk for UCL-R for pitchers who played high school baseball in southern states versus northern states, irrespective of collegiate play location. Clinical Relevance: Pitchers originating from high schools in a warm weather climate may be more likely to undergo UCL-R. PMID:26740953

  16. Nerve Regenerative Effects of GABA-B Ligands in a Model of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Erica; Pajardi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the peripheral somatosensory system. It may be associated with allodynia and increased pain sensitivity. Few studies correlated neuropathic pain with nerve morphology and myelin proteins expression. Our aim was to test if neuropathic pain is related to nerve degeneration, speculating whether the modulation of peripheral GABA-B receptors may promote nerve regeneration and decrease neuropathic pain. We used the partial sciatic ligation- (PSL-) induced neuropathic model. The biochemical, morphological, and behavioural outcomes of sciatic nerve were analysed following GABA-B ligands treatments. Simultaneous 7-days coadministration of baclofen (10 mg/kg) and CGP56433 (3 mg/kg) alters tactile hypersensitivity. Concomitantly, specific changes of peripheral nerve morphology, nerve structure, and myelin proteins (P0 and PMP22) expression were observed. Nerve macrophage recruitment decreased and step coordination was improved. The PSL-induced changes in nociception correlate with altered nerve morphology and myelin protein expression. Peripheral synergic effects, via GABA-B receptor activation, promote nerve regeneration and likely ameliorate neuropathic pain. PMID:25165701

  17. Nerve regenerative effects of GABA-B ligands in a model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Magnaghi, Valerio; Castelnovo, Luca Franco; Faroni, Alessandro; Cavalli, Erica; Caffino, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Procacci, Patrizia; Pajardi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the peripheral somatosensory system. It may be associated with allodynia and increased pain sensitivity. Few studies correlated neuropathic pain with nerve morphology and myelin proteins expression. Our aim was to test if neuropathic pain is related to nerve degeneration, speculating whether the modulation of peripheral GABA-B receptors may promote nerve regeneration and decrease neuropathic pain. We used the partial sciatic ligation- (PSL-) induced neuropathic model. The biochemical, morphological, and behavioural outcomes of sciatic nerve were analysed following GABA-B ligands treatments. Simultaneous 7-days coadministration of baclofen (10 mg/kg) and CGP56433 (3 mg/kg) alters tactile hypersensitivity. Concomitantly, specific changes of peripheral nerve morphology, nerve structure, and myelin proteins (P0 and PMP22) expression were observed. Nerve macrophage recruitment decreased and step coordination was improved. The PSL-induced changes in nociception correlate with altered nerve morphology and myelin protein expression. Peripheral synergic effects, via GABA-B receptor activation, promote nerve regeneration and likely ameliorate neuropathic pain. PMID:25165701

  18. Multiple myeloma presenting with unilateral abducens and trigeminal nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Sushrut S; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Petrous apex masses can manifest with neurologic symptoms due to their involvement of various structures, including cranial nerves (CN) V and VI. The differential diagnosis of petrous masses is broad and includes a variety of both non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. We report a rare case of multiple myeloma confined to the right petrous apex, presenting with ipsilateral abducens and trigeminal nerve palsies. A 63-year-old woman presented with a 6-8week history of facial numbness and a 2week history of diplopia, with examination showing right-sided facial hypoesthesia in the CN V1-V3 region and right-sided lateral rectus palsy. MRI of the brain showed a solitary 2.0cm lesion confined to the right petrous apex involving the right cavernous internal carotid artery and Meckel's cave. A transnasal biopsy showed a proliferation of plasmacytoid cells, which showed diffuse immunoreactivity with antibodies to CD138 and kappa, consistent with a plasma cell dyscrasia. A bone scan subsequently revealed multiple lytic bone lesions involving the skull, left humerus, bilateral femurs and possibly the L4 vertebral body. Bone marrow biopsy and serum laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis of kappa-type multiple myeloma. Although rare, multiple myeloma may initially present with petrous involvement and associated cranial nerve deficits. PMID:26602603

  19. Median nerve mononeuropathy in spondylotic cervical myelopathy: double crush syndrome?

    PubMed

    Bednarik, J; Kadanka, Z; Vohnka, S

    1999-07-01

    We studied the association between spondylotic cervical myelopathy (SCM) and median nerve mononeuropathy (MNM) and examined the validity of the double-crush hypothesis. Sixty consecutive patients with clinically overt spondylotic cervical myelopathy were examined by means of nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials; the frequency of the electrophysiological signs of focal MNM at the wrist was compared with that of a control group comprising 100 sex- and age-matched patients. Electrophysiological signs of MNM were found in 20 myelopathic patients (33%) in comparison with an 11% prevalence in the control group (P<0.05). The signs of motor anterior horn cell lesion at the C8-Th1 level and concomitant motor axonal MNM ipsilaterally were found in three hands, while the signs of sensory axonal loss at C6-7 segments due to ganglionic or postganglionic sensory lesion outside the wrist and concomitant sensory axonal MNM were present in one hand. While demonstrating a statistically significant association between SCM and MNM, we found no evidence of an etiological relationship between these two conditions. Electrophysiological signs of MNM fail anatomical (segmental level and side) and pathophysiological (axonal type of lesion) requirements of the double-crush hypothesis in most of patients with concomitant SCM and MNM. PMID:10463354

  20. Nerve Agent Toxicity and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Holstege, Christopher P; Dobmeier, Stephen G

    2005-03-01

    The clinical syndrome of nerve agent toxicity varies widely, ranging from the classic cholinergic syndrome to flaccid paralysis and status epilepticus. All nerve agents are capable of producing marked neuropathology. Seizure control is strongly associated with protection against acute lethality and brain pathology. The mainstays of therapy of nerve agent poisoned patients are atropine, pralidoxime, and benzodiazepines. Fosphenytoin provides little therapeutic anticonvulsant effectiveness for nerve agent-induced status epilepticus. Tachycardia is not a contraindication to treatment with atropine in nerve agent toxicity. Atropine should be administered to alleviate respiratory distress, symptomatic bradycardia, and as an adjunct to benzodiazepines and pralidoxime to alleviate seizure activity. In significant nerve agent toxicity, a continuous pralidoxime infusion may be considered. PMID:15676112

  1. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed. PMID:25851889

  2. Effects of laser therapy in peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sene, Giovana Almeida Leito; Sousa, Fausto Fernandes de Almeida; Fazan, Valria Sassoli; Barbieri, Cludio Henrique

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of dose of low power lasertherapy (AsGaAl, 830 nm) on the regeneration of the fibular nerve of rats after a crush injury was evaluated by means of the functional gait analysis and histomorphometric parameters. METHODS: Controlled crush injury of the right common fibular nerve, immediately followed by increasing doses (G1: no irradiation; G2: simulated; G3: 5 J/cm2; G4: 10 J/cm2; G5: 20 J/cm2) laser irradiation directly on the lesion site for 21 consecutive days. Functional gait analysis was carried out at weekly intervals by measuring the peroneal/fibular functional index (PFI). The animals were killed on the 21st postoperative day for removal of the fibular nerve, which was prepared for the histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: The PFI progressively increased during the observation period in all groups, without significant differences between them (p>0.05). The transverse nerve area was significantly wider in group 2 than in groups 3 and 4, while fiber density was significantly greater in group 4 than in all remaining groups. CONCLUSION: The low power AsGaAl laser irradiation did not accelerate nerve recovery with any of the doses used. Level of Evidence I, Therapeutic Studies Investigating the Results of Treatment. PMID:24453680

  3. Relationship of estimated dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish with peripheral nerve function after adjusting for mercury exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Werner, Robert; Gillespie, Brenda; Basu, Niladri; Franzblau, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Objectives We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals. Methods We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates. Results The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05?g/L) and hair (0.49?g/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve. Conclusions In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam. PMID:23538138

  4. Using the nerve stimulator for peripheral or plexus nerve blocks.

    PubMed

    Urmey, W F

    2006-06-01

    Conventional methodology for nerve location utilizes anatomical landmarks followed by invasive exploration with a needle to a suitable endpoint. An appropriate endpoint can be either anatomical in nature (e.g. transaterial technique) or functional (paresthesia or motor response to electrical stimulation). Ability to electrically stimulate a peripheral nerve or plexus depends upon many variables, including; 1) conductive area at the electrode, 2) electrical impedance, 3) electrode-to-nerve distance, 4) current flow (amperage), and 5) pulse duration. Electrode conductive area follows the equation R = rhoL/A, where R = electrical resistance, p = tissue resistivity, L = electrode-to-nerve distance, and A = electrode conductive area. Therefore resistance varies to the inverse of the electrode's conductive area. Tissue electrical impedance varies as a function of the tissue composition. In general, tissues with higher lipid content have higher impedances. Modern electrical nerve stimulators are designed to keep current constant, in spite of varying impedance. The electrode-to-nerve distance has the most influence on the ability to elicit a motor response to electrical stimulation. This is governed by Coulomb's law: E = K(Q/r2) where E = required stimulating charge, K= constant, Q = minimal required stimulating current, and r = electrode-to-nerve distance. Therefore, ability to stimulate the nerve at low amperage (e.g. < 0.5 mA), indicates an extremely close position to the nerve. Similarly, increasing current flow (amperage) increases the ability to stimulate the nerve at a distance. Increasing pulse duration increases the flow of electrons during a current pulse at any given amperage. Therefore, reducing pulse duration to very short times (e.g. 0.1 or 0.05 ms) diminishes current dispersion, requiring the needle tip to be extremely close to the nerve to elicit a motor response. The above parameters can be varied optimally to enhance successful nerve location and subsequent blockade. Unlike imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, electrical nerve stimulation depends upon nerve conduction. Similarly, percutaneous electrode guidance (PEG) makes use of the above variables to allow prelocation of the nerve by transcutaneous stimulation. PMID:16682917

  5. Nerve-pulse interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

  6. Time course profiling of the retinal transcriptome after optic nerve transection and optic nerve crush

    PubMed Central

    Prez-Marn, Maria Cruz; Lnngren, Ulrika; Sobrado, Paloma; Conesa, Ana; Cnovas, Isabel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Miralles-Imperial, Jaime; Hallbk, Finn; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A time-course analysis of gene regulation in the adult rat retina after intraorbital nerve crush (IONC) and intraorbital nerve transection (IONT). Methods RNA was extracted from adult rat retinas undergoing either IONT or IONC at increasing times post-lesion. Affymetrix RAE230.2 arrays were hybridized and analyzed. Statistically regulated genes were annotated and functionally clustered. Arrays were validated by means of quantative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) on ten regulated genes at two times post-lesion. Western blotting and immunohistofluorescence for four pro-apoptotic proteins were performed on nave and injured retinas. Finally, custom signaling maps for IONT- and IONC-induced death response were generated (MetaCore, Genego Inc.). Results Here we show that over time, 3,219 sequences were regulated after IONT and 1,996 after IONC. Out of the total of regulated sequences, 1,078 were commonly regulated by both injuries. Interestingly, while IONT mainly triggers a gene upregulation-sustained over time, IONC causes a transitory downregulation. Functional clustering identified the regulation of high interest biologic processes, most importantly cell death wherein apoptosis was the most significant cluster. Ten death-related genes upregulated by both injuries were used for array validation by means of qRTPCR. In addition, western blotting and immunohistofluorescence of total and active Caspase 3 (Casp3), tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 associated death domain (TRADD), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1a (TNFR1a), and c-fos were performed to confirm their protein regulation and expression pattern in nave and injured retinas. These analyses demonstrated that for these genes, protein regulation followed transcriptional regulation and that these pro-apoptotic proteins were expressed by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). MetaCore-based death-signaling maps show that several apoptotic cascades were regulated in the retina following optic nerve injury and highlight the similarities and differences between IONT and IONC in cell death profiling. Conclusions This comprehensive time course retinal transcriptome study comparing IONT and IONC lesions provides a unique valuable tool to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying optic nerve injury and to design neuroprotective protocols. PMID:18552980

  7. Magnetic nerve stimulation without interlinkage between nerve and magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, S.; Harada, K.; Ji, C.; Oomura, Y.

    1984-09-01

    A new method of magnetic stimulation of nerves is proposed. Nerves are located on a core aperture outside the core which is implanted in the body. Nerves can be stimulated by the secondary currents which flow in the body fluids around the core when the magnetic flux in the core is changed. One of the advantages in this method is to be able to avoid the interlinkage between the core and nerves. The equivalent resistance of tissues around the core is calculated, and current density for nerve excitation is estimated. The validity of the new method is demonstrated by experiments using frog nerve-muscle preparations. The results show that the nerve can be excited by a change of magnetic flux which generates an EMF of 0.8-volts peak amplitude and 0.8-ms duration in a monitor wire. The current density in the vicinity of the core aperture for nerve excitation is 3.2 mA/cm/sup 2/.

  8. Sympathetic Nerve Fibers in Human Cervical and Thoracic Vagus Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Atsuko; Green, Hunter R.; Lee, Thomas D.; Hong, LongSheng; Tan, Jian; Vinters, Harry V.; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Fishbein, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vagus nerve stimulation therapy (VNS) has been used for chronic heart failure (CHF), and is believed to improve imbalance of autonomic control by increasing parasympathetic activity. Although it is known that there is neural communication between the VN and the cervical sympathetic trunk, there are few data regarding the quantity and/or distribution of the sympathetic components within the VN. Objective To examine the sympathetic component within human VN and correlate these with the presence of cardiac and neurologic diseases. Methods We performed immunohistochemistry on 31 human cervical and thoracic VNs (total 104 VNs) from autopsies and we reviewed the patients records. We correlated the quantity of sympathetic nerve fibers within the VNs with cardiovascular and neurologic disease states. Results All 104 VNs contain TH positive (sympathetic) nerve fibers; the mean TH positive areas were 5.47% in right cervical, 3.97% in left cervical, 5.11% in right thoracic, and 4.20% in left thoracic VN. The distribution of TH positive nerve fibers varied from case to case: central, peripheral, or scattered throughout nerve bundles. No statistically significant differences in nerve morphology were seen between diseases in which VNS is considered effective (depression and CHF), and other cardiovascular diseases, or neurodegenerative disease. Conclusion Human VNs contain sympathetic nerve fibers. The sympathetic component within the VN could play a role in physiologic effects reported with VNS. The recognition of sympathetic nerve fibers in the VNs may lead to better understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of VNS. PMID:24768897

  9. Parallel Changes in Structural and Functional Measures of Optic Nerve Myelination after Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Walt, Anneke; Kolbe, Scott; Mitchell, Peter; Wang, Yejun; Butzkueven, Helmut; Egan, Gary; Yiannikas, Con; Graham, Stuart; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Klistorner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual evoked potential (VEP) latency prolongation and optic nerve lesion length after acute optic neuritis (ON) corresponds to the degree of demyelination, while subsequent recovery of latency may represent optic nerve remyelination. We aimed to investigate the relationship between multifocal VEP (mfVEP) latency and optic nerve lesion length after acute ON. Methods Thirty acute ON patients were studied at 1,3,6 and 12 months using mfVEP and at 1 and 12 months with optic nerve MRI. LogMAR and low contrast visual acuity were documented. By one month, the mfVEP amplitude had recovered sufficiently for latency to be measured in 23 (76.7%) patients with seven patients having no recordable mfVEP in more than 66% of segments in at least one test. Only data from these 23 patients was analysed further. Results Both latency and lesion length showed significant recovery during the follow-up period. Lesion length and mfVEP latency were highly correlated at 1 (r = 0.94, p = <0.0001) and 12 months (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Both measures demonstrated a similar trend of recovery. Speed of latency recovery was faster in the early follow-up period while lesion length shortening remained relatively constant. At 1 month, latency delay was worse by 1.76ms for additional 1mm of lesion length while at 12 months, 1mm of lesion length accounted for 1.94ms of latency delay. Conclusion A strong association between two putative measures of demyelination in early and chronic ON was found. Parallel recovery of both measures could reflect optic nerve remyelination. PMID:26020925

  10. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  11. Nerve Injuries of the Upper Extremity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body. A nerve is like a telephone cable wrapped in insulation. An outer layer of tissue ... nerve, just like the insulation surrounding a telephone cable (see Figure 1). A nerve contains millions of ...

  12. Benign pigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Goldberg, David J

    2011-01-01

    Benign pigmented lesions are a frequent complaint in dermatological patients, especially those seeking advice and therapy in a laser or cosmetic practice. Significant advances in laser technology over the last decades now allow us to effectively and safely treat various benign pigmented lesions. However, a thorough understanding of the biology of the lesion to be treated, the physical properties of the lasers to be used, and laser-tissue interactions is crucial for a successful and safe treatment. This chapter will give an overview of the types of benign pigmented lesions that can be treated with lasers and the specific lasers used to treat them. PMID:21865801

  13. `L'acropathie ulcro-mutilante familiale' with involvement of the distal mixed nerves and long bones fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jui?, A.; Radoevi?, Z.; Gr?evi?, N.; Hlavka, V.; Petri?evi?-Migi?, R.; Hartl-Prpi?, V.

    1973-01-01

    Two siblings are described with mutilating lesions of the feet and hands, with sensory disturbances and muscle amyotrophy. The motor and afferent nerve conduction velocities were at the lower limit of normal. The nerve action potentials disappeared, first with percutaneous stimulation of the fingers and later with more proximal direct nerve stimulation. Early in the course of the illness indolent fracture of different long bones appeared in both cases. Histology revealed severe loss of nerve fibres, especially of the thin nonmyelinated ones. Excessive proliferation of Schwann sheaths and endoneurium exceeded the amount of the usual reparation for loss of nerve fibres and could be considered as a specific feature. Obliterative vasculopathy also belongs to the picture of changes in the nerves, skin, and bones. Images PMID:4125962

  14. The Effects of Ulnar Collateral Reconstruction on Major League Pitching Performance

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Robert A.; Steffes, Matt; Zhuo, David; Bey, Michael J.; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A tremendous stress is placed on the elbow while pitching a baseball. Due to these stresses, Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers are at increased risk for Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) injuries. Previous studies have been limited in sample size, but have shown most players return to previous uninjured statistical levels after undergoing UCL reconstruction. We sought the largest cohort of MLB pitchers who have undergone UCL reconstruction and hypothesized that MLB pitchers do not return to their pre-injury statistical level after undergoing UCL reconstruction. Methods: The statistics for 168 major league pitchers, who threw at least one season at the Major League level and subsequently underwent UCL reconstruction, were reviewed. Statistical data including earned run average (ERA), walks and hits per innings pitched (WHIP), win percentage, innings pitched, and salary were compared for the 3 years before and 3 years after undergoing UCL reconstruction. This data was compared to 178 age matched controlled MLB pitchers. All data was analyzed to determine the effects of UCL injury/reconstruction on pitching performance. Risk factors for reconstruction were analyzed using a multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) model Results: Of the pitchers undergoing UCL reconstruction surgery 87% returned to the Major League Level. Of the pitchers that returned, they had a statistically significant decline in their ERA (P=0.001), WHIP (P=0.011), Innings Pitched (0.026), compared to pre-reconstruction performance. Reconstructed pitchers had a statistically significant decline in their pitching statistical performance in the season before their surgery (ERA p=0.014, WHIP p=0.036, Innings pitched p<0.001, Win Percentage p=0.004). Approximately 60% of pitchers requiring UCL reconstruction had surgery with in the first 5 years of being in the Major Leagues. Compared to age matched controls, the reconstructed pitchers had statistically more major league experience at the same age suggesting that arm stress from earlier Major League experience contributed to injury. This was validated by a multivariable GEE model that examined risk factors showing an increase in MLB experience being a risk factor for requiring surgery (p<0.001). Conclusion: This is the largest cohort of MLB pitchers, to date, that have undergone UCL reconstruction. Its results suggest that UCL reconstructive surgery does a tremendous job in allowing players to return to their same level of sport. This study is the first to describe a decline in pitching performance after undergoing reconstruction. It also found that there is a statistically significant decline in pitching performance the year before reconstructive surgery and this decline was found to be a risk factor for requiring surgery. We also found that there is an increased risk of players requiring surgery if they enter the Major Leagues at a younger age.

  15. Return to Play after Nonsurgical Treatment of Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Gregory M.; Genuario, James; Noonan, Thomas J.; Kinkartz, Jason D.; Githens, Thomas; Murayama, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Injury to the elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is relatively common in pitchers. In the 70's reconstructive surgery was developed as a viable option to a potentially career ending injury. Multiple studies have demonstrated return to play (RTP) rates of 74-83% after reconstruction. Studies of RTP after nonoperative treatment in throwing athletes are limited, reporting 42%. There are no studies reporting RTP rates with nonoperative treatment of professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to identify professional baseball players' ability to return to play after UCL injuries based on nonoperative vs. operative treatment, MRI grade, and player position. Methods: A retrospective review of a single professional baseball organization (6 minor league teams and 1 Major league team) between 2006 & 2011 revealed 72 medial elbow injuries. MRI was performed on all players. UCL injuries were diagnosed in 45 players by physical exam & MRI. Players were treated with rehabilitation, surgery or both. Success was RTP for >1 season. Rates of RTP and return to the same level of play or higher (RTSP) were calculated and correlated with MRI grade, location, and player position. MRI grading used was: 1 intact ligament +/- edema, 2 partial tearing, 3 complete tear, and 4 chronic healed injury. Results: Overall 91% of 45 players had RTP, and 87% had RTSP. Fifteen were treated surgically and 30 nonoperatively with rehab. Of players treated surgically, 73% had RTSP, whereas 93% of nonoperatively treated players had RTSP (p-value 0.07). All players with grade III tears had surgery. Of surgically treated players, none had grade I injuries, 13% had grade II injuries, 53% had grade III injuries, and 33% had grade IV injuries. Of nonoperatively treated players, 13% had grade I injuries, 23% had grade II injuries, none had grade III injuries, and 60% had grade IV injuries. Of all grade II and grade IV injuries, 78% were treated nonoperatively and all but 1 player in each group (treated nonoperatively) had successful RTSP. Of the players treated for grade III tears, 50% had RTSP, whereas 92% of players treated for incomplete (grades I, II and IV) injuries had RTSP (p-value 0.01), regardless of treatment. When considering RTP rather than RTSP for complete vs. incomplete injuries, the rates improved to 75% and 95% (p-value 0.13) respectively. All grade I injuries, 86% of grade II injuries and 91% of grade IV injuries had RTSP. Of the 45 players with UCL injuries, 33 were pitchers. Among pitchers treated surgically RTP was 86% and RTSP was 71%. Nonoperatively treated pitchers RTP and RTSP was the same, 95%. Among the pitchers, 24% had grade III injuries whereas none of the positional players had grade III injuries. Ten of 11 positional players treated nonoperatively had RTSP. One positional player was treated operatively and had RTSP. Conclusion: Professional baseball players treated nonoperatively for UCL injuries have a much higher RTP rate than previously published among throwing athletes. Pitchers are more likely to develop UCL injuries than positional players and are more likely to have complete tears leading to surgical treatment. Incomplete UCL injuries are more likely to lead to nonoperative treatment and a higher RTSP than complete tears. RTP and RTSP occurs at a higher rates for non-pitchers than pitchers. MRI grade of UCL injuries can help predict the potential for RTP and need for surgery.

  16. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,

  17. Nerve welding by Ar+ laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dong-Ji; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Deng, Zue-Xing; Xu, Gue-Xiang

    1998-11-01

    The comparative study of sciatic nerve microepincutral anastomoses with Ar+ laser and conventional suture techniques was made on rats. Total tests included electrophysiological and histopathological studies. The result of the experiment showed that nerve welding with laser is better than conventional suture techniques.

  18. Reduced nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in kinin B1 receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Juliano; Beirith, Alessandra; Mori, Marcelo A S; Arajo, Ronaldo C; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, Joo B; Calixto, Joo B

    2005-03-01

    Injury to peripheral nerves often results in a persistent neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. Nerve injury is accompanied by a local inflammatory reaction in which nerve-associated and immune cells release several pronociceptive mediators. Kinin B1 receptors are rarely expressed in nontraumatized tissues, but they can be expressed after tissue injury. Because B1 receptors mediate chronic inflammatory painful processes, we studied their participation in neuropathic pain using receptor gene-deleted mice. In the absence of neuropathy, we found no difference in the paw-withdrawal responses to thermal or mechanical stimulation between B1 receptor knock-out mice and 129/J wild-type mice. Partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in the wild-type mouse produced a profound and long-lasting decrease in thermal and mechanical thresholds in the paw ipsilateral to nerve lesion. Threshold changed neither in the sham-operated animals nor in the paw contralateral to lesion. Ablation of the gene for the B1 receptor resulted in a significant reduction in early stages of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Furthermore, systemic treatment with the B1 selective receptor antagonist des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin reduced the established mechanical allodynia observed 7-28 d after nerve lesion in wild-type mice. Partial sciatic nerve ligation induced an upregulation in B1 receptor mRNA in ipsilateral paw, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord of wild-type mice. Together, kinin B1 receptor activation seems to be essential to neuropathic pain development, suggesting that an oral-selective B1 receptor antagonist might have therapeutic potential in the management of chronic pain. PMID:15745967

  19. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Faroni, Alessandro; Smith, Richard JP; Reid, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients alongside high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacrificing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to provide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacrifice of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of regeneration in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts. PMID:25221589

  20. Peripheral nerve blocks for distal extremity surgery.

    PubMed

    Offierski, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral nerve block is well suited for distal extremity surgery. Blocking the nerves at the distal extremity is easily done. It does not require ultrasound or stimulators to identify the nerve. Blocking nerves in the distal extremity is safe with low risk of toxicity. The effect of the nerve block is limited to the distribution of the nerve. The distal nerves in the lower extremity are sensory branches of the sciatic nerve. This provides a sensory block only. This has the advantage of allowing the patient to actively contract tendons in the foot and ambulate more quickly after surgery. PMID:24093651

  1. Vagus nerve stimulation delivered during motor rehabilitation improves recovery in a rat model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Khodaparast, Navid; Hays, Seth A; Sloan, Andrew M; Fayyaz, Tabbassum; Hulsey, Daniel R; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Neural plasticity is widely believed to support functional recovery following brain damage. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with different forelimb movements causes long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex that is specific to the paired movement. We tested the hypothesis that repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with upper forelimb movements would improve recovery of motor function in a rat model of stroke. Rats were separated into 3 groups: vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitation (rehab), vagus nerve stimulation after rehab, and rehab alone. Animals underwent 4 training stages: shaping (motor skill learning), prelesion training, postlesion training, and therapeutic training. Rats were given a unilateral ischemic lesion within motor cortex and implanted with a left vagus nerve cuff. Animals were allowed 1 week of recovery before postlesion baseline training. During the therapeutic training stage, rats received vagus nerve stimulation paired with each successful trial. All 17 trained rats demonstrated significant contralateral forelimb impairment when performing a bradykinesia assessment task. Forelimb function was recovered completely to prelesion levels when vagus nerve stimulation was delivered during rehab training. Alternatively, intensive rehab training alone (without stimulation) failed to restore function to prelesion levels. Delivering the same amount of stimulation after rehab training did not yield improvements compared with rehab alone. These results demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation repeatedly paired with successful forelimb movements can improve recovery after motor cortex ischemia and may be a viable option for stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24553102

  2. Ethanol Ablation of a Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Presenting as a Small Bowel Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chin, Matthew; Chen, Chien-Lin; Chang, Kenneth; Lee, John; Samarasena, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol has historically been used as an ablative agent for a variety of lesions. One of the more common applications of this technique is celiac plexus neurolysis; however, recent reports have suggested a role for the endoscopic alcohol ablation of a variety of solid and cystic lesions. We report a novel case of endoscopic ethanol ablation of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor presenting as a small bowel obstruction. PMID:26504873

  3. Ethanol Ablation of a Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Presenting as a Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Chang, Kenneth; Lee, John; Samarasena, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has historically been used as an ablative agent for a variety of lesions. One of the more common applications of this technique is celiac plexus neurolysis; however, recent reports have suggested a role for the endoscopic alcohol ablation of a variety of solid and cystic lesions. We report a novel case of endoscopic ethanol ablation of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor presenting as a small bowel obstruction. PMID:26504873

  4. Differential anti-neuropathic pain effects of tetrodotoxin in sciatic nerve- versus infraorbital nerve-ligated rats--behavioral, pharmacological and immunohistochemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Valrie; Viguier, Florent; Ioannidi, Myrto; Bernard, Jean-Franois; Latrmolire, Alban; Michot, Benot; Vela, Jos-Miguel; Buschmann, Helmut; Hamon, Michel; Bourgoin, Sylvie

    2010-02-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels are expressed in primary sensory neurons where they control excitability and participate in the generation and propagation of action potentials. Peripheral nerve injury-induced alterations in both tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels have been proposed to contribute to neuropathic pain caused by such lesion. We herein investigated whether the blockade of TTX-sensitive channels could reduce pain-related behaviors and evoked c-Fos immunoreactivity in rats with neuropathic pain produced by chronic unilateral constriction injury to either the sciatic nerve or the infraorbital nerve. Acute as well as subchronic administration of TTX (1-6 mug/kg s.c.) was found to suppress for up to 3 h allodynia and hyperalgesia in sciatic nerve-ligated rats. In contrast, TTX was only moderately effective in rats with ligated infraorbital nerve. In sciatic nerve-ligated rats, TTX administration prevented the increased c-Fos immunoreactivity occurring in the dorsal horn of the lumbar cord and some supraspinal areas in response to light mechanical stimulation of the nerve-injured hindpaw. The anti-allodynia/antihyperalgesia caused by TTX in these neuropathic rats was promoted by combined treatment with naloxone (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) but unaffected by the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist F11648 (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) and the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan (0.5 mg/kg i.v.). In contrast, the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of TTX were significantly attenuated by co-administration of morphine (3 mg/kg s.c.) or the cholecystokinin(2)-receptor antagonist CI-1015 (0.1 mg/kg i.p.). These results indicate that TTX alleviates pain-related behaviors in sciatic nerve-lesioned rats through mechanisms that involve complex interactions with opioidergic systems. PMID:19747496

  5. Cartilaginous lesions of bone.

    PubMed

    Unni, K K

    2001-01-01

    Cartilaginous lesions of the skeleton are very unusual. It is extremely important to correlate the roentgenographic features, the clinical features, and the histological features to arrive at a definite diagnosis. Most cartilaginous lesions are benign or of low-grade malignancy. However, there are some subtypes of chondrosarcoma that behave in a highly aggressive fashion. PMID:11845358

  6. In vivo detection of nerve injury in familial amyloid polyneuropathy by magnetic resonance neurography.

    PubMed

    Kollmer, Jennifer; Hund, Ernst; Hornung, Benjamin; Hegenbart, Ute; Schnland, Stefan O; Kimmich, Christoph; Kristen, Arnt V; Purrucker, Jan; Rcken, Christoph; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko

    2015-03-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy is a rare, autosomal-dominant inherited multisystem disorder usually manifesting with a rapidly progressive, axonal, distally-symmetric polyneuropathy. The detection of nerve injury by nerve conduction studies is limited, due to preferential involvement of small-fibres in early stages. We investigated whether lower limb nerve-injury can be detected, localized and quantified in vivo by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. We prospectively included 20 patients (12 male and eight female patients, mean age 47.9 years, range 26-66) with confirmed mutation in the transthyretin gene: 13 with symptomatic polyneuropathy and seven asymptomatic gene carriers. A large age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy volunteers served as controls (20 male and 20 female, mean age 48.1 years, range 30-73). All patients received detailed neurological and electrophysiological examinations and were scored using the Neuropathy Impairment Score-Lower Limbs, Neuropathy Deficit and Neuropathy Symptom Score. Magnetic resonance neurography (3 T) was performed with large longitudinal coverage from proximal thigh to ankle-level and separately for each leg (140 axial slices/leg) by using axial T2-weighted (repetition time/echo time = 5970/55 ms) and dual echo (repetition time 5210 ms, echo times 12 and 73 ms) turbo spin echo 2D sequences with spectral fat saturation. A 3D T2-weighted inversion-recovery sequence (repetition time/echo time 3000/202 ms) was acquired for imaging of the spinal nerves and lumbar plexus (50 axial slice reformations). Precise manual segmentation of the spinal/sciatic/tibial/common peroneal nerves was performed on each slice. Histogram-based normalization of nerve-voxel signal intensities was performed using the age- and sex-matched control group as normative reference. Nerve-voxels were subsequently classified as lesion-voxels if a threshold of >1.2 (normalized signal-intensity) was exceeded. At distal thigh level, where a predominant nerve-lesion-voxel burden was observed, signal quantification was performed by calculating proton spin density and T2-relaxation time as microstructural markers of nerve tissue integrity. The total number of nerve-lesion voxels (cumulated from proximal-to-distal) was significantly higher in symptomatic patients (20 405 1586) versus asymptomatic gene carriers (12 294 3199; P = 0.036) and versus controls (6536 467; P < 0.0001). It was also higher in asymptomatic carriers compared to controls (P = 0.043). The number of nerve-lesion voxels was significantly higher at thigh level compared to more distal levels (lower leg/ankle) of the lower extremities (f-value = 279.22, P < 0.0001). Further signal-quantification at this proximal site (thigh level) revealed a significant increase of proton-density (P < 0.0001) and T2-relaxation-time (P = 0.0011) in symptomatic patients, whereas asymptomatic gene-carriers presented with a significant increase of proton-density only. Lower limb nerve injury could be detected and quantified in vivo on microstructural level by magnetic resonance neurography in symptomatic familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and also in yet asymptomatic gene carriers, in whom imaging detection precedes clinical and electrophysiological manifestation. Although symptoms start and prevail distally, the focus of predominant nerve injury and injury progression was found proximally at thigh level with strong and unambiguous lesion-contrast. Imaging of proximal nerve lesions, which are difficult to detect by nerve conduction studies, may have future implications also for other distally-symmetric polyneuropathies. PMID:25526974

  7. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  8. Intraoperative Electrophysiologic Monitoring of Ocular Motor Nerves Under Conditions of Partial Neuromuscular Blockade During Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Ohnishi, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Takanori; Shimizu, Kiyoshi; Karasawa, Jun; Furuya, Hitoshi

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility and usefulness of intraoperative electromyographic monitoring of the oculomotor nerve (CN III), trochlear nerve (CN IV), and abducens nerve (CN IV) were evaluated under conditions of partial neuromuscular blockade in 21 patients undergoing skill base surgery. Intracranial electrical stimulation of each nerve was performed, and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were reconded from the inferior or superior rectus muscle, the superior oblique muscle, and the lateral rectus muscle for monitoring of CN III, IV, and VI, respectively. Partial neuromuscular blockade was achieved by controlled infusion of vecuronium titrated to eliminate about 90% of the twitch response of the abductor pollicis brevis to electrical stimulation of the median nerve. A total of 30 cranial nerves were stimulated intraoperatively. Of these, 29 were successfully monitored (19 CN III, 6 CN IV, 4 CN VI). A relationship was found between intraoperative findings of cranial nerve monitoring, such as disappearance of response and increase in latency and stimulus threshold during manipulation of a lesion, and the presence of postoperative nerve deficits. We conclude that intraoperative electromyographic monitoring of ocular motor nerves is feasible during partial neuromuscular blockade, and that partial neuromuscular blockade does not affect the relationship between findings of intraoperative monitoring and postoperative nerve function. PMID:17170948

  9. Tourniquet-Related Iatrogenic Femoral Nerve Palsy after Knee Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mingo-Robinet, Juan; Castaeda-Cabrero, Carlos; Alvarez, Vicente; Len Alonso-Corts, Jos Miguel; Monge-Casares, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Tourniquet-induced nerve injuries have been reported in the literature, but even if electromyography abnormalities in knee surgery are frequent, only two cases of permanent femoral nerve palsies have been reported, both after prolonged tourniquet time. We report a case of tourniquet-related permanent femoral nerve palsy after knee surgery. Case Report. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent surgical treatment of a patella fracture. Tourniquet was inflated to 310?mmHg for 45 minutes. After surgery, patient complained about paralysis of the quadriceps femoris with inability to extend the knee. Electromyography and nerve conduction study showed a severe axonal neuropathy of the left femoral nerve, without clinical remission after several months. Discussion. Even if complications are not rare, safe duration and pressure for tourniquet use remain a controversy. Nevertheless, subtle clinical lesions of the femoral nerve or even subclinical lesions only detectable by nerve conduction and EMG activity are frequent, so persistent neurologic dysfunction, even if rare, may be an underreported complication of tourniquet application. Elderly persons with muscle atrophy and flaccid, loose skin might be in risk for iatrogenic nerve injury secondary to tourniquet. PMID:24371536

  10. A longitudinal study of pain, personality, and brain plasticity following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ruma; Anastakis, Dimitri J; Katz, Joel; Davis, Karen D

    2016-03-01

    We do not know precisely why pain develops and becomes chronic after peripheral nerve injury (PNI), but it is likely due to biological and psychological factors. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (1) high Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) scores at the time of injury and repair are associated with pain and cold sensitivity after 1-year recovery and (2) insula gray matter changes reflect the course of injury and improvements over time. Ten patients with complete median and/or ulnar nerve transections and surgical repair were tested ∼3 weeks after surgical nerve repair (time 1) and ∼1 year later for 6 of the 10 patients (time 2). Patients and 10 age-/sex-matched healthy controls completed questionnaires that assessed pain (patients) and personality and underwent quantitative sensory testing and 3T MRI to assess cortical thickness. In patients, pain intensity and neuropathic pain correlated with pain catastrophizing. Time 1 pain catastrophizing trended toward predicting cold pain thresholds at time 2, and at time 1 cortical thickness of the right insula was reduced. At time 2, chronic pain was related to the time 1 pain-PCS relationship and cold sensitivity, pain catastrophizing correlated with cold pain threshold, and insula thickness reversed to control levels. This study highlights the interplay between personality, sensory function, and pain in patients following PNI and repair. The PCS-pain association suggests that a focus on affective or negative components of pain could render patients vulnerable to chronic pain. Cold sensitivity and structural insula changes may reflect altered thermosensory or sensorimotor awareness representations. PMID:26588697

  11. Spinal Tuberculosis Resembling Neoplastic Lesions on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculous spondylitis is one of the commonest forms of skeletal tuberculosis in developing countries like India causing significant morbidity due to compression of spinal cord and adjacent nerve roots. Diagnosis and intervention at early stage can prevent permanent damage such as spinal deformity and neurological deficits. Aim The purpose of this study was to demonstrate atypical MRI features in cases of tubercular spondylitis resembling neoplastic lesions and to stress that tuberculous spondylitis should be one of the differential diagnoses in any spinal pathology especially in developing countries. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study done in the patients diagnosed as tuberculous spondylitis on 0.2 T Siemens MRI between June 2011 and December 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in India. Total 529 cases of tubercular spinal lesions were diagnosed. Out of which only 59 patients showed atypical features on MR imaging which resembled neoplastic lesions were included in the study. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology, histopathology, serology and corroborative findings. Results Lumbo-sacral region involvement (30.5%) is the commonest in our study followed by dorsal and cervical region. Multiple level lesions are seen in 14 cases (23.7%). All the 59 (100%) cases show no involvement of intervetebral disc. Posterior appendage involvement seen in 32 cases (54.2%). Soft tissue component seen in Intraspinal (37.2%) and paraspinal (45.7%) compartments. Cord compression seen in 19 cases (32.2%), out which only 7 cases (11.8%) shows cord oedema. Conclusion On MRI, tubercular spondylitis may have variable pictures on imaging. For any spinal and paraspinal lesions, we should also consider the possibility of tubercular aetiology along with other. Since early diagnosis avoids unnecessary delay in the treatment thereby reducing morbidity and possible complications. PMID:26675162

  12. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the distal phalanx of the fifth toe: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kunisada, Makoto; Goto, Hajimu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yamashita, Junji; Funasaka, Yoko; Nishigori, Chikako; Fujii, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) involving bone is rare. We report a case of MPNST of the fifth toe. The lesion was located in the distal phalanx of the right fifth toe and extended into surrounding subcutaneous tissues. Findings on magnetic resonance imaging and histological features of the case are described and the literature is briefly reviewed. PMID:24778799

  13. Mechanisms of insulin action on sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Anderson, Erling A.; Johnson, Alan Kim; Mark, Allyn L.

    1996-01-01

    Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of arterial hypertension. Although insulin may elevate arterial pressure, in part, through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the sites and mechanisms of insulin-induced sympathetic excitation remain uncertain. While sympathoexcitation during insulin may be mediated by the baroreflex, or by modulation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve endings, it has been shown repeatedly that insulin increases sympathetic outflow by actions on the central nervous system. Previous studies employing norepinephrine turnover have suggested that insulin causes sympathoexcitation by acting in the hypothalamus. Recent experiments from our laboratory involving direct measurements of regional sympathetic nerve activity have provided further evidence that insulin acts in the central nervous system. For example, administration of insulin into the third cerebralventricle increased lumbar but not renal or adrenal sympathetic nerve activity in normotensive rats. Interestingly, this pattern of regional sympathetic nerve responses to central neural administration of insulin is similar to that seen with systemic administration of insulin. Further, lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle hypothalamic (AV3V) region abolished increases in sympathetic activity to systemic administration of insulin with euglycemic clamp, suggesting that AV3V-related structures are critical for insulin-induced elevations in sympathetic outflow.

  14. MRI diagnosis of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve and associated macrodystrophia lipomatosa.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang

    2010-09-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon congenital disorder, which is characterized by disproportionate hyperplasia of adipose tissue infiltrating along the perineurium, the epineurium and the affected nerve trajectory. We present a case of combined fibrolipomatous hamartoma and macrodystrophia lipomatosa of the median nerve. The involved sites included the left palm, wrist and forearm. Part of the patient's middle finger had been amputated due to previous macrodystrophia lipomatosa; however, the lesion continued to enlarge and was accompanied by numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a typical fibrolipomatous hamartoma with high signal intensity of fat on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, characteristic coaxial cable appearance on axial images, and spaghetti appearance on sagittal images. A similar skipped lesion at the median nerve of the middle forearm was also noted. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been reported in the English literature. PMID:20875626

  15. Case Report: Intraneural Intracanalicular Ganglion Cyst of the Hypoglossal Nerve Treated by Extradural Transcondylar Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin-Freiert, Arzu; Fugleholm, Kre; Poulsgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an intraneural ganglion cyst of the hypoglossal canal. The patient presented with unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a small lesion in the hypoglossal canal with no contrast enhancement and high signal on T2-weighted imaging. The lesion was assumed to be a cystic schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve. Stereotactic irradiation was considered, but in accordance with the patient's wishes, surgical exploration was performed. This revealed that, rather than a schwannoma, the patient had an intraneural ganglion cyst, retrospectively contraindicating irradiation as an option. This case illustrates a very rare location of an intraneural ganglion cyst in the hypoglossal nerve. To our knowledge there are no previous reports of an intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the hypoglossal canal. PMID:26251801

  16. Morphological features of nerves in skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Wendelschafer-Crabb, G; Kennedy, W R; Walk, D

    2006-03-15

    Skin biopsy is an effective test for diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. The most commonly reported indication of abnormality in a skin biopsy is reduction of epidermal nerve density. Morphological changes of epidermal nerves and the underlying subepidermal nerve plexus provide added evidence for the presence of neuropathy. We determined the prevalence of epidermal axon swellings, dermal axon swellings, and a unique type of epidermal nerve that we call a crawler, in a group of normal subjects, diabetic subjects, and patients with idiopathic small fiber neuropathy. Other morphologic features examined include thinning of the subepidermal nerve plexus, sprouts at nerve terminals, encapsulated endings, and immunoreactive basal cells. PMID:16448669

  17. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supply (as occurs in diabetes), drugs, and toxins. Did You Know... Some cranial nerve disorders interfere with ... depends on the cause. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  18. Ion Channels in Nerve Membranes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenstein, Gerald

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research that indicates that nerve membranes, which play a key role in the conduction of impulses, are traversed by protein channels with ion pathways opened and closed by the membrane electric field. (Author/MLH)

  19. Diabetes and nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... damage the nerves and cause a complication called neuropathy. This generally begins as loss of sensation in the toes, and possibly fingers. Eventually, the neuropathy can move up the person's legs or arms.

  20. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  1. Cystic lesion around the hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Nakai, Sho; Goto, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Yuichi; Shimaoka, Yasunori; Yamanaka, Issei; Sairyo, Koichi; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a narrative review of cystic lesions around the hip and primarily consists of 5 sections: Radiological examination, prevalence, pathogenesis, symptoms, and treatment. Cystic lesions around the hip are usually asymptomatic but may be observed incidentally on imaging examinations, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Some cysts may enlarge because of various pathological factors, such as trauma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or total hip arthroplasty (THA), and may become symptomatic because of compression of surrounding structures, including the femoral, obturator, or sciatic nerves, external iliac or common femoral artery, femoral or external iliac vein, sigmoid colon, cecum, small bowel, ureters, and bladder. Treatment for symptomatic cystic lesions around the hip joint includes rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, needle aspiration, and surgical excision. Furthermore, when these cysts are associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and THA, primary or revision THA surgery will be necessary concurrent with cyst excision. Knowledge of the characteristic clinical appearance of cystic masses around the hip will be useful for determining specific diagnoses and treatments. PMID:26495246

  2. Neuromodulation of the Suprascapular Nerve.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Erkan; van Eijk, Tess; Henssen, Dylan; Arnts, Inge; Steegers, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intractable shoulder pain (CISP) is defined as shoulder pain which is present for longer than 6 months and does not respond to standard treatments like medication, physical therapy, rehabilitation, selective nerve blocks and local infiltrations, or orthopedic procedures. The etiology of CISP may be very diverse, varying from many orthopedic conditions to non-orthopedic conditions. The fact that the suprascapular nerve is one of the most important nerves supplying the shoulder region makes this nerve an interesting target in treating patients suffering shoulder pain. Invasive treatment options are peripheral nerve blocks, temporary electrical stimulation, and neurostimulation. To our best knowledge, thus far there are only a few reports describing the technique of permanent neurostimulation of the suprascapular nerve. In this article we present a patient suffering shoulder pain after she underwent surgery for cervical stenosis. After a step by step treatment protocol was done, we finally offered her trial stimulation of the suprascapular nerve. A single quad lead was implanted via a posterior approach under fluoroscopic and ultrasound guidance. Two weeks after successful stimulation, we implanted a permanent neuromodulation system. Permanent neurostimulation of the suprascapular nerve and its end branches may be a new interesting target in treating patients suffering shoulder pain due to various etiologies. In our patient the follow-up period is 9 months with an excellent result in pain relief, we observed no complications thus far, especially no dislocation or breakage of the lead. In this report, literature on this subject is reviewed, and our technique is well documented with additional anatomical illustrations. PMID:26752491

  3. Multiple Osteolytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Several systemic diseases initially present with various oral manifestations. Investigation of these oral symptoms may at times lead to the diagnosis of grave underlying life-threatening conditions. We present one such case, where the patient manifested with gross enlargement of the mandible, along with lesions in the lower limbs. These lesions were the initial manifestation and on further investigations the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:24516769

  4. Peripheral nerve injuries treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijun; Liu, Zhigang; Pan, Yuemei; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zhixin; Lu, Laijin

    2014-04-01

    Patients with peripheral nerve injuries, especially severe injury, often face poor nerve regeneration and incompletely functional recovery, even after surgical nerve repair. Current researches have extensively focused on the new approaches for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. This review summarizes treatments of peripheral nerve injures, from conventional suturing method, to conduit coaptation with stem cell and growth factor, and review the developments of research and clinical application of these therapies. PMID:24037713

  5. Optic Nerve Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Paul; Kokemüller, Horst; Tavassol, Frank; Lindhorst, Daniel; Lemound, Juliana; Essig, Harald; Rücker, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Orbital and anterior skull base surgery is generally performed close to the prechiasmatic visual pathway, and clear strategies for detecting and handling visual pathway damage are essential. To overcome the common problem of a missed clinical examination because of an uncooperative or unresponsive patient, flash visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms should be used. These electrophysiologic examination techniques can provide evidence of intact, pathologic, or absent conductivity of the visual pathway when clinical assessment is not feasible. Visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms are thus essential diagnostic procedures not only for primary diagnosis but also for intraoperative evaluation. A decision for or against treatment of a visual pathway injury has to be made as fast as possible due to the enormous importance of the time elapsed with such injuries; this can be achieved additionally using multislice spiral computed tomography. The first-line conservative treatment of choice for such injuries is megadose methylprednisolone therapy. Surgery is used to decompress the orbital compartment by exposure of the intracanalicular part of the optic nerve in the case of optic canal compression. Modern craniomaxillofacial surgery requires detailed consideration of the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic visual pathway damage with the ultimate goal of preserving visual acuity. PMID:24436741

  6. An unusual presentation of whiplash injury: long thoracic and spinal accessory nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Omar, N.; Srinivasan, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Whiplash injuries from motor vehicle accidents are very common. The usual presentation and course of this condition normally results in resolution of symptoms within a few weeks. Brachial plexus traction injuries without any bone or joint lesion of the cervical spine have been reported before. We report a case where a gentleman was involved in a rear end vehicle collision, sustained a whiplash injury and was later found to have a long thoracic nerve palsy and spinal accessory nerve palsy. Although isolated injuries of both nerves following a whiplash injury have been reported, combined injury of the two nerves following a whiplash injury is very uncommon and is being reported for the first time. PMID:17587067

  7. [Unusual manifestation of zoster sine herpete as unilateral caudal cranial nerve syndrome].

    PubMed

    Terborg, C; Frster, G; Sliwka, U

    2001-12-01

    Multiple lower cranial nerve palsies are a rare complication following varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation, especially if typical herpetic eruptions are lacking. We report a case of a 45-year-old, immunocompetent male with unilateral involvement of the cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, and XI without skin lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies revealed mononuclear pleocytosis with intrathecal antibody synthesis against VZV, while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not detect VZV or HSV (herpes simplex virus). The patient almost completely recovered after aciclovir administration. VZV reactivation without rash (zoster sine herpete) may lead to multiple cranial nerve palsies. PCR is a useful tool to detect VZV-DNA in CSF, but negative results do not exclude a reactivation. In case of multiple cranial nerve palsies of unknown etiology with mononuclear pleocytosis in CSF tumors of the skull base, meningitis tuberculosis, and meningeosis have to be excluded, and antiviral therapy should be discussed. PMID:11789442

  8. Overview of pediatric peripheral facial nerve paralysis: analysis of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    zkale, Yasemin; Erol, ?lknur; Sayg?, Semra; Y?lmaz, ?smail

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral facial nerve paralysis in children might be an alarming sign of serious disease such as malignancy, systemic disease, congenital anomalies, trauma, infection, middle ear surgery, and hypertension. The cases of 40 consecutive children and adolescents who were diagnosed with peripheral facial nerve paralysis at Baskent University Adana Hospital Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology Unit between January 2010 and January 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. We determined that the most common cause was Bell palsy, followed by infection, tumor lesion, and suspected chemotherapy toxicity. We noted that younger patients had generally poorer outcome than older patients regardless of disease etiology. Peripheral facial nerve paralysis has been reported in many countries in America and Europe; however, knowledge about its clinical features, microbiology, neuroimaging, and treatment in Turkey is incomplete. The present study demonstrated that Bell palsy and infection were the most common etiologies of peripheral facial nerve paralysis. PMID:24810082

  9. Colorectal Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most of subepithelial lesion (SEL) being identified was accidentally discovered as small bulging lesion covered with normal mucosa from endoscopic screening. The type of treatment and prognosis vary depending on the type of tumor, it would be crucial to perform an accurate differential diagnosis. Since the differentiation of SEL relied on the indirect findings observed from the mucosal surface using an endoscopy only in the past, it was able to confirm the presence of lesion only but difficult to identify complex detailed nature of the lesion. However, after the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was introduced, it became possible to identify extrinsic compression, and size of intramural tumors, internal properties and contour so that it gets possible to have differential diagnosis of lesions and prediction on the lesion whether it is malignant or benign. In addition, the use of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and EUS-guided core biopsy made it possible to make histological differential diagnosis. This study intended to investigate endoscopic and EUS findings, histological diagnosis, treatment regimen and impression of colorectal SELs. PMID:26240803

  10. Recurrent largngeal nerve paralysis: a laryngographic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Agha, F.P.

    1983-07-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is a relatively common entity, usually resulting from a pathologic process of the vagus nerve or its recurrent larynegeal branch. It is rarely caused by intralargngeal lesions. Four teen patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP) were evaluated by laryngography, computed tomography (CT), or both. In the evaluation of the paramedian cord, CT was limited in its ability to differentiate between tumor or RLNP as the cause of the fixed cord, but it yielded more information than laryngography on the structural abnormalities of the larynx and pre-epiglottic and paralaryngeal spaces. Laryngography revealed distinct features of RLNP and is the procedure of choice for evaluation of functional abnormalities of the larynx until further experience with faster CT scanners and dynamic scanning of the larynx is gained.

  11. Intrathoracic Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor: Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Features

    PubMed Central

    Ralli, Megha; Singh, Sunita; Hasija, Sonia; Verma, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare nerve sheath tumor derived from Schwann cells or pleuripotent cells of neural crest. Neurogenic tumors make about 10-20% of all mediastinal tumors. Incidence of MPNST is 0.001% in general population and 0.16% in patients with neurofibromatosis I (NF I). We report a case of 60 year female presenting with progressive cough and breathlessness for 2 years. The CECT revealed multiple focal enhancing lesions along inferior mediastinal pleural surface and along lateral pleural surface. A thoracotomy and tumor excision was done and MPNST was diagnosed on microscopy and immunohistochemistry. This case highlights that this unusual tumor may involve lung parenchyma. So this possibility should be kept in mind in patients with intrathoracic mass. PMID:26516330

  12. Roundworm-associated median nerve compression: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jose M; Ramirez, Miguel A; Essilfie, Anthony; Taylor, Cristina E; Stearns, Harry C; Mollano, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Human dirofilariasis is a rare zoonotic infection caused by the bite of a blood-feeding mosquito infected with a filarial nematode (roundworm). these infections can manifest as stationary or migratory subcutaneous or conjunctival nodules. We report an unusual case of Dirofilaria tenuis (D.tenuis) infection that developed into a space- occupying lesion in the wrist leading to median nerve compression pathology in an otherwise healthy young woman. We also comment on the natural history of the disease and report the outcome after surgical excision. To our knowledge, we are the first to report a case of median nerve compression caused by a growing subcutaneous nodule from a D.tenuis infection. PMID:24027489

  13. The Clinical Outcome of Anatomical Reattachment of the TFCC to the Ulnar Fovea using an ECU Half-Slip and an Interference Screw.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Obara, Y

    2015-10-01

    We developed an original reattachment technique using a half-slip of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon with a very small titanium interference screw for chronic foveal avulsion of the TFCC. The clinical outcome of 66 wrists with foveal detachment of the TFCC treated by this procedure was examined.A distally based ECU half-slip was harvested, inserted into the TFCC, sutured to the remnant of the TFCC, and pulled out through a 2.5-mm bone tunnel at the centre of the fovea. The ECU half-slip was subsequently anchored to the ulnar fovea with a small titanium interference screw. We evaluated 66 wrists of 65 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Ulnar variance was neutral in 47 wrists, negative in 5 and positive in 14 wrists. Causes of injury were falls in 34 patients, traffic accidents in 12, sports activities in 9, labour in 2 and unknown in 8 patients. In the positive variance wrists, ulnar shortening was performed before the reattachment. The clinical outcome was evaluated using our original DRUJ evaluating system.Preoperatively, severe wrist pain was reported in 50 wrists and moderate pain in 16 wrists. Severe no-endpoint DRUJ instability was noted in 65 wrists, while 1 wrist demonstrated moderate DRUJ instability. Only 2 wrists had supination loss by 20 degrees. At the final follow-up, no pain was felt in 55 wrists, mild pain in 3 wrists, and 8 patients had moderate pain. One wrist exhibited a 30-degree loss of supination. The DRUJ was stable in 55 wrists, mildly unstable in 3, moderately unstable in 4 and severely unstable in 4 wrists. There were 50 excellent, 9 good, 3 fair and 4 poor results.The technique of anatomical reattachment of the TFCC to the ulnar fovea using an ECU half-slip tendon is effective for chronic foveal avulsion of the TFCC with severe DRUJ instability. PMID:26291393

  14. Stature estimation based on radial and ulnar lengths using three-dimensional images from multidetector computed tomography in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate correlations between cadaver stature (CS) and radial and ulnar lengths based on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images, and to develop modern regression equations for estimating CS in a Japanese population. Measurements were performed on 245 Japanese subjects (123 males and 122 females) who underwent postmortem CT between May 2011 and December 2013. A 3D reconstructed image was used for assessment. The linear distances of the left radial (LR) and right radial (RR) lengths were measured as a straight-line distance from the most anteroproximal point of the head to the most distal end of the styloid process. The linear distances of the left ulnar (LU) and right ulnar (RU) lengths were measured as a straight-line distance from the most posteroproximal point of the olecranon to the most distal end of the styloid process. The correlation between CS and each parameter (LR, LU, RR, and RU) was assessed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and regression analysis was performed for stature estimation. There were significant correlations between CS and each parameter regardless of sex, indicating that the radial and ulnar lengths measured on 3D CT images can be predictive of stature estimation. Simple regression equations for stature estimation calculated from LR provided the lowest standard error of estimation (SEE) (all subjects, SEE=4.18 cm; males, SEE=4.09 cm; females, SEE=4.21 cm). In addition, multiple regression equations were more accurate and reliable than the single linear regression equations. PMID:24650584

  15. About a case of missed diagnosis of a post-traumatic aneurysm in the ulnar artery. Medical-legal aspects in respect to the professional liability.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Virginia; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Bolino, Giorgio; Sciacca, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the left hand from a late diagnosed post-traumatic ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm. We report the case of 27 years old boy with a tipping and cutting wound on his left wrist, generating an ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm, that was late diagnosed, and therefore complicated by a compartment syndrome in the wrist. Immediately after the trauma the subject went to the emergency room where the severity of the injury was undestimated; in fact, it was sutured and medicated, without further investigation. When he went to the same hospital for the second time, symptoms (pulsatile mass, redness and irritation of the skin) were interpreted as an infectious process and treated in an incongruous way. Then, when he went to another hospital in which imaging studies (ultrasound) were performed, the pseudo- aneurysm of the ulnar artery was diagnosed and surgically treated. The delay in diagnosis led to a compartment syndrome that is still appreciable as a sensory-motor deficit of the hand, especially of the fourth and fifth finger. This pseudo- aneurysm complication and its debilitating outcomes are known in literature, so the diagnostic delay makes the sanitary staff guilty of the suffered damage. PMID:24394807

  16. Post-thyroidectomy dysphonia in patients with bilateral resection of the superior laryngeal nerve: a comparative spectrographic study.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Castiello, F; Vitullo, F; DE Rosa, M; Ciammetti, G; Croce, A

    2011-08-01

    The most serious complications of total thyroidectomy, in cases of widespread and invasive diseases, are mainly hypoparathyroidism and laryngeal inferior nerve palsy. Lesions of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve instead, although less obvious than the those caused by the recurrent laryngeal nerve lesions, have been taken less into consideration. The frequency of this lesion varies from 14% to 20% of cases, although in reality it is underestimated; in fact, on the one hand it is difficult to assess this, and on the other, post-thyroidectomy dysphonia is often considered inevitable. In the present retrospective research, 15 thyroidectomized patients (4 male, 11 female), have been subjected to qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the voice. Of these, 7 had a nerve lesion, while 8 did not. All the patients received a self-evaluation voice questionnaire (VHI). In all cases, a videolaryngostroboscopy has been carried out and the voice acoustic features examined through a spectrographic analysis. The results showed that removal of the thyroid, at the end of a 12-month post-surgery period, still causes an impact on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the vocal function, whether the superior larynx nerve was injured or not. The majority of the patients, in both groups, reported that their voice had worsened in quality and durability. Hence, we have shown that the patients with upper larynx nerve lesion have an alteration of F0, show a lower energy level and a modified spectrographic quality compared to patients without injury. This low voice is often considered by patients as a normal consequence of thyroid surgery. The present research confirms that the attempt to identify and protect the superior laryngeal nerve is essential to prevent post-thyroidectomy dysphonia, but this is not sufficient to obtain the best results because of the existence of muscular and psychogenic factors that reduce the still voice capacity of the patient. PMID:22065652

  17. The transcriptional landscape of dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiying; Xue, Chengbin; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Ruirui; Wang, Yaxian; Wang, Yongjun; Yu, Bin; Liu, Jie; Ding, Fei; Yang, Yuming; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, transcriptional responses are orchestrated to regulate the expression of numerous genes in the lesioned nerve, thus activating the intrinsic regeneration program. To better understand the molecular regulation of peripheral nerve regeneration, we aimed at investigating the transcriptional landscape of dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) after sciatic nerve transection in rats. The cDNA microarray analysis was used to identify thousands of genes that were differentially expressed at different time points post nerve injury (PNI). The results from Euclidean distance matrix, principal component analysis, and hierarchical clustering indicated that 2 nodal transitions in temporal gene expressions could segregate 3 distinct transcriptional phases within the period of 14 d PNI. The 3 phases were designated as “a stress response phase”, “a pre-regeneration phase”, and “a regeneration phase”, respectively, by referring to morphological observation of post-nerve-injury changes. The gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed the distinct features of biological process, cellular component, and molecular function at each transcriptional phase. Moreover, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis suggested that differentially expressed genes, mainly transcription factors and genes associated with neurite/axon growth, might be integrated into regulatory networks to mediate the regulation of peripheral nerve regeneration in a highly cooperative manner. PMID:26576491

  18. A rare localization of neurothekeomas of radial nerve: A case report.

    PubMed

    Di Sante, L; Camerota, F; Celletti, C; Ioppolo, F; Santilli, V; David, E

    2015-01-01

    Neurothekeoma is a very rare benign connective tissue tumour that presumably derived from nerve sheath cells. We described the case of a rare localization of neurothekeoma in the upper limb with a strange presentation. A 49 years-old woman presented to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division of the Umberto I Hospital referring an intensive pain associated to paresthesias at the left forearm lasting from six months. The patient had a history of epicondylitis confirmed with an elbow RMN showing an increased thickness of the tendon insertions on the epicondiloidea region of the elbow. Rehabilitative and physical therapy has been done without symptoms remission. An ultrasound evaluation showed an oval formation well circumscribed in the context of the radial nerve. It was easy to demonstrate the relevance of the radial nerve, following it from the arch of Frohse until the humeral sulcus of the radial nerve. A MRI that showed a mass, mildly hypointense on T1- weighted sequences and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, with nonhomogeneous enhancement post-contrast, attributable to expansionary pathology of the radial nerve. A biopsy was done and the lesion was described as a benign tumor of nerve sheath, i.e., a Neurothekeoma of the radial nerve. Patients was surgically treated, the tumor has been removed and she referred the resolution of symptomatology. PMID:26794820

  19. Spontaneous Age-related Changes of Peripheral Nerves in Cattle: Morphological and Biochemical Studies.

    PubMed

    Biasibetti, E; Bisanzio, D; Mioletti, S; Amedeo, S; Iuliano, A; Bianco, P; Capucchio, M T

    2016-04-01

    Peripheral nerve function is significantly affected by ageing. During ageing process, multiple changes occur on tissue cells and extracellular matrix. The aim of this work was to study the ageing-associated changes of peripheral nerves in adult and old regularly slaughtered cattle compared with young calves, and correlate them to the features reported in humans and laboratory animals. Samples of axial dorsal metacarpal nerves from 44 cows were collected immediately after slaughtering. Each nerve was dissected and divided into two fragments: one used for morphological evaluation (n = 43) and the other one for biochemical analysis (n = 31). Axonal degeneration, demyelination, thickness of perineurium and endoneurium and increase of mast cells were the most important features detected. The mean amount of glycosaminoglycan quantitative content recorded in the samples increased with the age. Axonal degeneration, demyelination and thickness of endoneurium were positively and significantly correlated with biochemistry. The presence of changes affecting the different elements of the peripheral nerves, similar to that reported in humans and in laboratory species, the easy availability of the nerve tissue in this species, the considerable size of the samples and the life conditions more similar to humans than to laboratory animals, allows the authors to consider cattle as a potential good model for the comparative study of spontaneous ageing nerve lesions. PMID:25823666

  20. Neuromuscular hamartoma of the sciatic nerve: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sandi; Grandhi, Ramesh; Wong, Ricky; Hamilton, Ronald; Greene, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular hamartomas are rare benign tumors with mature skeletal elements mixed with mature neural elements. They present typically as solitary lesions in childhood and have been reported to be associated with cranial nerves or large peripheral nerves such as the brachial plexus, median nerve, and sciatic nerve. To date, eight cases of sciatic nerve neuromuscular hamartomas have been reported. We present a case along with an outline for the natural history of the disease with a review of the literature of the reported cases dating back to 1895. Case Description: An 11-year-old boy presented with progressive right lower extremity pain and atrophy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large right sciatic nerve mass, and electromyography demonstrated evidence of ongoing denervation and reinnervation. Initial computed tomography-guided biopsy was unrevealing and subsequent open biopsy was consistent with neuromuscular choristoma. Conclusion: Neuromuscular choristomas represent a rare disease. Symptoms of foot deformity, leg size discrepancy, and pain merit a complete work-up including spinal and peripheral nerve etiologies. PMID:23493803

  1. Electrophysiological evaluation of nerve function in inferior alveolar nerve injury: relationship between nerve action potentials and histomorphometric observations.

    PubMed

    Murayama, M; Sasaki, K; Shibahara, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury by determining degrees of nerve disturbance using the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV). Crush and partial and complete nerve amputation injuries were applied to the IAN of rabbits, then SNAPs and histomorphometric observations were recorded at 1, 5, and 10 weeks. For crush injury, most nerves were smaller in diameter at 5 weeks than at 1 week, however after 10 weeks, extensive nerve regeneration was observed. The SNAP showed a decrease in SCV at weeks 1 and 5, followed by an increase at week 10. For partial nerve amputation, small to medium-sized nerve fibres were observed at weeks 1 and 5, then larger nerves were seen at week 10. Minimal changes in SCV were observed at weeks 1 and 5, however SCV increased at week 10. For complete nerve amputation, nerve fibres were sparse at week 1, but gradual nerve regeneration was observed at weeks 5 and 10. SNAPs were detectable from week 10, however the SCV was extremely low. This study showed SCV to be an effective factor in the evaluation of nerve injury and regeneration. PMID:26433750

  2. From nerve net to nerve ring, nerve cord and brain - evolution of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev; Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Marlow, Heather

    2015-12-17

    The puzzle of how complex nervous systems emerged remains unsolved. Comparative studies of neurodevelopment in cnidarians and bilaterians suggest that this process began with distinct integration centres that evolved on opposite ends of an initial nerve net. The 'apical nervous system' controlled general body physiology, and the 'blastoporal nervous system' coordinated feeding movements and locomotion. We propose that expansion, integration and fusion of these centres gave rise to the bilaterian nerve cord and brain. PMID:26675821

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Flexion and Extension of the Thumb and Fingers on the Position and Cross-Sectional Area of the Median Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Toge, Yasushi; Nishimura, Yukihide; Basford, Jeffrey R.; Nogawa, Takako; Yamanaka, Midori; Nakamura, Takeshi; Yoshida, Munehito; Nagano, Akira; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the separate effects of thumb and finger extension/flexion on median nerve position and cross-sectional area. Methods Ultrasonography was used to assess median nerve transverse position and cross-sectional area within the carpal tunnel at rest and its movement during volitional flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Both wrists of 165 normal subjects (11 men, 4 women, mean age, 28.6, range, 22 to 38) were studied. Results Thumb flexion resulted in transverse movement of the median nerve in radial direction (1.2±0.6 mm), whereas flexion of the fingers produced transverse movement in ulnar direction, which was most pronounced during flexion of the index and middle fingers (3.2±0.9 and 3.1±1.0 mm, respectively). Lesser but still statistically significant movements were noted with flexion of the ring finger (2.0±0.8 mm) and little finger (1.2±0.5 mm). Flexion of the thumb or individual fingers did not change median nerve cross-sectional area (8.5±1.1 mm2). Conclusions Volitional flexion of the thumb and individual fingers, particularly the index and middle fingers, produced significant transverse movement of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel but did not alter the cross-sectional area of the nerve. The importance of these findings on the understanding of the pathogenesis of the carpal tunnel syndrome and its treatment remains to be investigated. PMID:24367601

  4. Asymmetric Nerve Enlargement: A Characteristic of Leprosy Neuropathy Demonstrated by Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Marques Jr., Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurological involvement occurs throughout the leprosy clinical spectrum and is responsible for the most feared consequences of the disease. Ultrasonography (US) provides objective measurements of nerve thickening and asymmetry. We examined leprosy patients before beginning multi-drug therapy aiming to describe differences in US measurements between classification groups and between patients with and without reactions. Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven paucibacillary (PB) and 85 multibacillary (MB) patients underwent nerve US. Twenty-seven patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2 and/or acute neuritis) prior to US. The ulnar (at the cubital tunnel–Ut–and proximal to the tunnel–Upt), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves were scanned to measure cross-sectional areas (CSAs) in mm2 and to calculate the asymmetry indexes ΔCSA (absolute difference between right and left CSAs) and ΔUtpt (absolute difference between Upt and Ut CSAs). MB patients showed greater (p<0.05) CSAs than PB at Ut (13.88±11.4/9.53±6.14) and M (10.41±5.4/6.36±0.84). ΔCSAs and ΔUtpt were similar between PB and MB. The CSAs, ΔCSAs and ΔUtpt were similar between PB patients with reactions compared to PB patients without reactions. MB patients with reactions showed significantly greater CSAs (Upt, Ut and M), ΔCSAs (Upt and Ut) and ΔUtpt compared to MB patients without reactions. PB and MB showed similar frequencies of abnormal US measurements. Patients with reactions had higher frequency of nerve thickening and similar frequency of asymmetry to those without reactions. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to investigate differences in nerve involvement among leprosy classification groups using US before treatment. The magnitude of thickening was greater in MB and in patients with reactions. Asymmetry indexes were greater in patients with reactions and did not significantly differ between PB and MB, demonstrating that asymmetry is a characteristic of leprosy neuropathy regardless of its classification. PMID:26646143

  5. Consequences and adaptation in daily life – patients’ experiences three decades after a nerve injury sustained in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To explore the patients’ experiences during the three decades following repair of a nerve injury in the forearm and its consequences for daily life. Strategies that were used to facilitate adaptation were also investigated. Methods Fifteen participants with a complete median and/or ulnar nerve injury repaired in the ages from 13–20 years were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The median follow-up time was 31 years (range 23–40). The participants were asked to describe the past and present symptoms of the injured hand, the consequences of the injury for daily life, personal qualities and support from others. In addition, they were asked to describe strategies used to facilitate adaptation. The interviews were subjected to content analysis. Results The nerve injury lead to sensory and motor deficits in the injured hand, as well as sensitivity to cold and secondary back problems. Emotional reactions to trauma and symptoms related to post-traumatic stress disorder were described, as well as how they managed to cope with such reactions. There was a noticeable impact on education, leisure, professional or domestic life for some, while others could continue by changing e.g. their performance pattern. The participants’ life roles and relations were also affected. Both emotion- and problem-based strategies were used to manage challenges in daily life. Conclusions The present qualitative study can help us to provide the patient with honest and realistic information about what to expect after a nerve injury at forearm level, without eliminating hope. Emotional reactions to trauma should be identified and dealt with. In addition, health-care professionals can promote a variety of coping mechanisms to facilitate daily living for the injured patients. PMID:23968274

  6. Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huawei; Wen, Weisheng; Hu, Min; Bi, Wenting; Chen, Lijie; Liu, Sanxia; Chen, Peng; Tan, Xinying

    2013-01-01

    Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as well as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups than in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups. physiological analysis revealed that the nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were significantly higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. Moreover, histological observation illustrated that the di-ameter, number, alignment and myelin sheath thickness of myelinated nerves derived from rabbits were higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. These findings indicate that chitosan nerve conduits bined with microspheres for sustained release of nerve growth factor can significantly improve facial nerve defect repair in rabbits. PMID:25206635

  7. Surgical outcomes of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot wounds in adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The management of brachial plexus injuries due to gunshot wounds is a surgical challenge. Better surgical strategies based on clinical and electrophysiological patterns are needed. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors which may influence the surgical technique and outcome of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries. Methods Two hundred and sixty five patients who had brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries were included in this study. All of them were male with a mean age of 22 years. Twenty-three patients were improved with conservative treatment while the others underwent surgical treatment. The patients were classified and managed according to the locations, clinical and electrophysiological findings, and coexisting lesions. Results The wounding agent was shrapnel in 106 patients and bullet in 159 patients. Surgical procedures were performed from 6 weeks to 10 months after the injury. The majority of the lesions were repaired within 4 months were improved successfully. Good results were obtained in upper trunk and lateral cord lesions. The outcome was satisfactory if the nerve was intact and only compressed by fibrosis or the nerve was in-contunuity with neuroma or fibrosis. Conclusion Appropriate surgical techniques help the recovery from the lesions, especially in patients with complete functional loss. Intraoperative nerve status and the type of surgery significantly affect the final clinical outcome of the patients. PMID:19627573

  8. Rehabilitation of the trigeminal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Bumm, Klaus; Waldfahrer, Frank

    2005-01-01

    When it comes to restoring impaired neural function by means of surgical reconstruction, sensory nerves have always been in the role of the neglected child when compared with motor nerves. Especially in the head and neck area, with its either sensory, motor or mixed cranial nerves, an impaired sensory function can cause severe medical conditions. When performing surgery in the head and neck area, sustaining neural function must not only be highest priority for motor but also for sensory nerves. In cases with obvious neural damage to sensory nerves, an immediate neural repair, if necessary with neural interposition grafts, is desirable. Also in cases with traumatic trigeminal damage, an immediate neural repair ought to be considered, especially since reconstructive measures at a later time mostly require for interposition grafts. In terms of the trigeminal neuralgia, commonly thought to arise from neurovascular brainstem compression, a pharmaceutical treatment is considered as the state of the art in terms of conservative therapy. A neurovascular decompression of the trigeminal root can be an alternative in some cases when surgical treatment is sought after. Besides the above mentioned therapeutic options, alternative treatments are available. PMID:22073060

  9. Neuropathic Pain: Sensory Nerve Injury or Motor Nerve Injury?

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Guo; Pang, Rui-Ping; Zhou, Li-Jun; Wei, Xu-Hong; Zang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury often induces chronic neuropathic pain. Peripheral nerve is consisted of sensory fibers and motor fibers, it is questioned injury to which type of fibers is responsible for generation of neuropathic pain? Because neuropathic pain is sensory disorder, it is generally believed that the disease should be induced by injury to sensory fibers. In recent years, however, emergent evidence shows that motor fiber injury but not sensory fiber injury is necessary and sufficient for induction of neuropathic pain. Motor fiber injury leads to neuropathic pain by upregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in pain pathway. PMID:26900063

  10. Facial-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis using laser nerve welding.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Sun Goo; Kim, Dae Joong

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare laser nerve welding to microsurgical suturing of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis (HFA), and a result of immediate to delayed repair, and to evaluate the effect of laser nerve welding on HFA for reanimation of facial palsy. The first group of five rats underwent immediate HFA by microsurgical suturing and the second group of five rats by CO2 laser welding. The third group of five rats underwent delayed HFA by microsurgical suturing, and the fourth group of five rats by laser nerve welding. The fifth group of five rats served as controls, with intact hypoglossal and facial nerve. In all rats of the four different treatment groups, cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the anastomosis site on the postoperative 6th week and in the normal hypoglossal nerve in the five rats of the control group. Neurons labeled CTb of hypoglossal nuclei were positive immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. In the immediate HFA groups, CTb-positive neurons were 751 +/- 247 in the laser welding group (n = 5) and 888 +/- 60 in the microsurgical suturing group (n = 5). There was no significant difference (P = 0.117). In the delayed HFA groups, CTb-positive neurons were 749 +/- 54 in the laser welding group (n = 5) and 590 +/- 169 in the microsurgical suturing group (n = 5). The difference was not significant (P = 0.116). There was no significant difference between immediate and delayed anastomosis in the laser welding group (P = 0.600), but there was significance between immediate and delayed anastomosis in the microsurgical suturing group (P = 0.009). Injected CTb in intact hypoglossal neurons (n = 5) were labeled 1,003 +/- 52. No dehiscence in the laser welding site of nerve anastomosis was seen at the time of re-exploration for injection of CTb in all 10 rats. This study shows that the regeneration of anastomosed hypoglossal-facial nerve was affected similarly by laser welding and microsurgical suturing, and more effective, especially in delayed repair. PMID:16877915

  11. RESIDENTS CASE REPORT: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS IN A HIGH SCHOOL BASEBALL PITCHER FOLLOWING ULNAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (UCL) RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Craig; Conway, John

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Accurate diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in an outpatient setting is difficult; however, proper screening and prompt referral can be lifesaving. The purpose of this case report is to present the unusual findings of a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) in an otherwise healthy young male following an upper extremity surgery. Case Description: An 18 year-old male high school baseball pitcher presented to the clinic for his four month follow up visit after Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) reconstruction surgery. Patient complained of a recent groin strain and calf strain following baseball conditioning, that upon examination demonstrated signs and symptoms consistent with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Outcomes: Following emergent referral the patient was diagnosed with multiple emboli and was treated with Lovenox and Coumadin. Discussion: Lower extremity DVT is a serious and potentially life threatening disorder. Physical therapists need to be vigilant in their subjective and objective examination of any patient that presents with lower extremity pain and swelling. This case report presents the unlikely findings of a DVT in a young, healthy, male high school baseball pitcher after surgical repair of the UCL. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:24175133

  12. DIAGNOSIS OF AN ULNAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT TEAR USING MUSCULOSKELETAL ULTRASOUND IN A COLLEGIATE BASEBALL PITCHER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Konin, Jeff G.; Nofsinger, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a comparative diagnostic approach between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and musculoskeletal ultrasound for detecting UCL trauma of the elbow in a collegiate baseball pitcher. Background: A 19 year-old male baseball pitcher with no previous history of an elbow injury presented with left medial elbow pain after experiencing a popping sensation during a bull pen throwing session. Patient initially demonstrated palpable tenderness directly over the UCL and a positive milking maneuver. Minimal swelling and no observable discoloration were noted upon examination. Diagnostic ultrasound was utilized to assess the elbow anatomical structures. The differential diagnosis included medial epicondylitis, flexor pronator muscle strain, ulnar collateral ligament tear Treatment: Initial treatment was conservative while preparing for a ligament reconstruction. Goals included pain control, restoration of range of motion, and reduction of inflammation. Uniqueness: Accurate diagnosis of UCL disruption was made using dynamic diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound despite a negative MRI. The ability to accurately identify the injury contributed to the timeliness of the appropriate surgical intervention and the facilitation of a timely and successful rehabilitation program. Conclusions: Dynamic musculoskeletal ultrasound may offer an effective option for diagnosing UCL tears of the elbow. Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound is an affordable, accessible, and portable option that provides a clinician with real-time information and accurate observations in the hands of a skilled operator. Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound may play an increased role as a diagnostic tool in the sports medicine community. PMID:21655381

  13. Relationship Between the Medial Elbow Adduction Moment During Pitching and Ulnar Collateral Ligament Appearance During Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Murthy, Naveen S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medial elbow distraction during pitching as the primary mechanism contributing to adaptations in ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) appearance during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation has not been established. Hypothesis Uninjured high school–aged pitchers with unilateral adaptations of the UCL exhibit a higher peak internal elbow adduction moment than those without UCL adaptations. Study Design Cohort study (Prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Twenty uninjured, asymptomatic high school–aged pitchers underwent bilateral elbow MRI examinations. Three-dimensional motion analysis testing was performed to collect throwing arm biomechanics as participants pitched from an indoor mound. Nonparametric tests were performed to compare peak internal elbow adduction moment in uninjured participants with and without adaptations in UCL appearance and to determine the nature of the relationship between the peak internal adduction moment and UCL appearance. Results Uninjured participants with UCL thickening exhibited a higher peak internal elbow adduction moment of 53.3 ± 6.8 N·m compared with uninjured participants without adaptations in UCL appearance, 38.8 ± 10.9 N·m (P = .05), as higher moments were correlated with ligament thickening (correlation coefficient, 0.45) (P = .02). Conclusion This study establishes the association between medial elbow distraction captured by the internal adduction moment during pitching and UCL adaptations visible during MRI evaluation. PMID:21335342

  14. Intraventricular mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Sobel, D.F.; Kelley, W.M.; Norman, D.

    1984-11-01

    Determining the precise etiology of an intraventricular mass can be a difficult diagnostic problem. CT and angiographic findings were reviewed in a series of 73 patients who had intraventricular masses. The histologic diagnosis can be suggested preoperatively by an analysis of the frequency of lesions occurring at a given ventricular location, lesion density before and after administration of contrast material, age, and sex of the patient, morphologic appearance of the mass, and presence or absence of hydrocephalus. Angiography is useful when meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma, or arteriovenous malformation are considered.

  15. Important anatomical relationships of the posterior interosseous nerve in the distal forearm for surgical planning: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Arpit; Krishnan, Balamurali; Soames, Roger; Wigderowitz, Carlos A

    2014-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the terminal branch of the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) and its relationship to the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) is essential in facilitating regional anesthetic blocks and planning surgical exposures for wrist surgery and arthrodesis of wrist and proximal row carpectomy. This cadaveric study focused on the anatomy and course of the PIN and its anatomical relationships at the distal forearm. Thirty embalmed cadaver forearms were dissected using microsurgical techniques. A structured pro forma was used to collect data. The PIN was consistently found in the fourth extensor compartment in all specimens. The last motor branch was given off 46.9??8.4?mm (mean??standard deviation) from the most proximal part of the ulnar head. The AIN was found lying consistently on the anterior aspect of the interosseous membrane, being on average 2.8??0.2?mm (mean??standard deviation) from the PIN. This knowledge will facilitate the planning of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures associated with the wrist. PMID:24533249

  16. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in a sow.

    PubMed

    Resende, Talita P; Pereira, Carlos E R; Vannucci, Fabio A; Araujo, Fernando S; dos Santos, Jos Lcio; Cassali, Geovanni D; Damasceno, Karine A; Guedes, Roberto M C

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lung lesions in swine are frequently due to abscesses or granulomatous pneumonia. Although tumours are rarely reported in modern pig farming, they should be considered as a differential diagnosis when nodular lung lesions are found. A first-parity sow exhibiting respiratory signs was euthanized. Several whitish firm nodules, not encapsulated, ranging in diameter from 0.5 to 5cm were present in all lung lobes. Microscopically, the nodules were composed of dense neoplastic cells, mainly in Antoni types A and B patterns, infiltrative and with development of emboli. All neoplastic cells stained positively by immunohistochemistry for vimentin and S-100 protein, with variable immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and stained negative for cytokeratin. Based on the gross, histological and immunohistochemical features, the tumor was diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. PMID:26407677

  17. Nerve agent intoxication: Recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Collombet, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-15

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3 months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. - Highlights: > This review focuses on neuropathophysiology following nerve agent poisoning in mice. > Extensive data on long-term neuropathology and related inflammation are provided here. > Delayed self-repair attempts encountered in lesioned rodent brains are also described. > Cell therapy is considered as a valuable treatment against nerve agent intoxication.

  18. Embryonic anastomosis between hypoglossal nerves.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Vzquez, J F; Mrida-Velasco, J R; Verdugo-Lpez, S; Sanz-Casado, J V; Jimnez-Collado, J

    2009-12-01

    This article presents two cases of anastomosis of hypoglossal nerves in the suprahyoid region in human embryos of CR length 10.75 and 17.5 mm. This variation was studied in two human specimens at this stage of development and compared with the normal arrangement of the hypoglossal nerves in embryos at the same stage. The anastomotic branches were of similar caliber to the main trunks. In both cases the anastomosis was located dorsal to the origin of the geniohyoid muscles and caudal to the genioglossus muscles, lying transversally over the cranial face of the body of the hyoid bone anlage. The anastomosis formed a suprahyoid nerve chiasm on the midline in the embryo of 10.75 mm CR length. PMID:19330282

  19. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  20. Magnetic stimulation of curved nerves.

    PubMed

    Rotem, A; Moses, E

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic stimulation of nerves is attracting increased attention recently, as it has been found to be useful in therapy of neural disorders in humans. In an effort to explain the mechanisms of magnetic stimulation, we focus in this paper on the dependence of magnetic stimulation on neuronal morphology and in particular on the importance of curvature of axonal bundles. Using the theory of passive membrane dynamics, we predict the threshold power (the minimum stimulation power required to initiate an action potential) of specific axonal morphologies. In the experimental section, we show that magnetic stimulation of the frog sciatic nerve follows our theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the voltage length constant of the nerve can be measured based on these results alone. PMID:16532767