Sample records for ultimate ph phu

  1. The in vitro digestibility of beef varies with its inherent ultimate pH.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Wu, Guojie; Frost, Deborah A; Clerens, Stefan; Knowles, Scott O

    2014-11-01

    Animal carcasses and cuts of meat are usually differentiated and valued according to size and compositional attributes. An underappreciated variable of red meat is its inherent ultimate pH (pHu) value, which affects organoleptic and processing characteristics. This study tests the hypothesis that high pHu aged meat would be more digestible than low pHu unaged (fresh) meat. Longissimus dorsi muscles collected from 59 bull carcasses had pHu values of 5.6-6.9. These were aged for 21 days at -1.5 °C, then raw and cooked (72 °C) samples were enzymatically digested at 37 °C with pepsin (pH 1.9 for 90 min) followed by pancreatin (pH 8.0 for an additional 120 min) to simulate conditions in the stomach and small intestine, respectively. Meat proteins and peptides in the digests were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. Regardless of pHu, ageing or cooking, most sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin, with concomitant release of products identified by LC-MS/MS as mainly myosin-1, -2 and -7, ?-actinin-2 or -3 and tropomyosin beta and alpha chains. These products were resistant to further digestion for the entire 210 min duration of the incubation. In terms of rate and extent of digestibility of these resistant products, high pHu > low pHu (P < 0.001), whereas aged > unaged (P < 0.003), with the effect of cooking dependent on pHu and varying somewhat by protein. Overall, the digestibility of meat samples increased with increasing pHu (P < 0.001). Beef meat was highly digestible but could be further differentiated on the basis of its pHu and the ease of digestibility of proteins. Specific carcasses or cuts could be targeted to consumer groups in order to provide benefits and add value. PMID:25066932

  2. The effects of the ultimate pH of meat on tenderness changes during ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Watanabe; C. C. Daly; C. E. Devine

    1996-01-01

    A range of ultimate pH (pHu) values, from 5.4 to 7.2, was produced in the m. longissimus thoracicum et lumborum (LD) of 55 sheep by subcutaneous injections of adrenaline, or by injection and subsequent exercise.The rate constant of ageing for each of 47 animals was calculated from shear force measurements, taken at intervals for up to 5 days from the

  3. Effect of ultimate pH on the physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of turkey breast muscle showing normal rate of postmortem pH fall.

    PubMed

    El Rammouz, R; Babilé, R; Fernandez, X

    2004-10-01

    This experiment aimed to study the effect of ultimate pH (pH(u)) on the biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of turkey breast muscle with normal rate of postmortem pH fall. Five hundred turkey toms (12 wk old, 10 kg live weight) were randomly chosen from a commercial flock. At 24 h postmortem, 64 birds were randomly selected within the subgroup showing pH higher than 6.0 at 20 min postmortem and pH(u) lower than 6.1. These pH levels were used to exclude pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and dark, firm, and dry (DFD) meat, respectively. The pH(u) was significantly correlated with luminance (L*; r = -0.37) and yellowness (b*; r = -0.36) at 24 h postmortem, drip losses (r = -0.56 to -0.62), thawing loss (r = -0.47), 80% compression (r = -0.29), yield of curing and cooking (r = 0.37), glycolytic potential at slaughter (r = -0.44) and lactate at 24 h postmortem (r = -0.47). Significant correlations were found between drip losses and compression test on cooked meat (r = 0.27 to 0.34). Cooking loss was correlated with WB shear force (r = 0.32). These results show that when PSE defects are excluded, the intensities of the correlations between pH(u) and meat quality traits are lower than those usually reported. The present data also indicate that the level of glycogen at time of slaughter poorly explains the variability in pH(u). Thus, further research is needed to identify the mechanisms explaining pH(u) variation in poultry muscle. PMID:15510564

  4. Breed differences in the biochemical determinism of ultimate pH in breast muscles of broiler chickens--a key role of AMP deaminase?

    PubMed

    El Rammouz, R; Berri, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Babilé, R; Fernandez, X

    2004-08-01

    The biochemical determinism of ultimate pH (pHu) was studied in the pectoralis muscle of broiler chickens. Thirty birds of 3 genetic types (a fast-growing standard (FG), a slow-growing French "Label Rouge" (SG), and a heavy line type (HL)) were kept under conventional breeding methods until the usual marketing age (6, 12, and 6 wk for FG, SG, and HL birds, respectively). The birds were divided into 3 different antemortem treatment groups: minimum stress, shackling for a longer time (2 min), and heat stress (exposure to 35 degrees C for 3.5 h and shackling for 2 min before stunning). The birds were slaughtered on the same day. The pHu differed (P < 0.001) among the 3 genetic types, ranking as follows: FG (5.95+/-0.01) > HL (5.85+/-0.02) > SG (5.73+/-0.02). In SG and HL birds, pHu was strongly correlated with muscle glycogen content at slaughter (r = -0.74 and -0.82; P < 0.01 respectively), whereas this correlation was weak in FG birds. Regardless of genetic type, neither buffering capacity nor lactate accumulation significantly contributed to pHu variations (P > 0.05). The activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPd) was significantly higher in FG chickens (0.98+/-0.31; P < 0.05) than in HL and SG birds (0.46+/-0.24 and 0.34+/-0.18, respectively). Significant correlations were found between AMPd activity, pHu, and glycolytic potential (GP) at slaughter (r = 0.34 and -.29; P < 0.01, respectively). Further research is needed to study in more detail the role of AMPd in the determinism of pHu, particularly in fast-growing broilers. PMID:15339023

  5. Influence of ultimate pH and storage temperatures on qualitative components of packaged pork chops

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of ultimate pH and storage temperatures on qualitative components of packaged pork chops of ultimate pH and storage temperatures on the quality of blister-packed pork chops. After a one-day storage. In meats with a low ultimate pH (pH

  6. Functional and rheological properties of proteins in frozen turkey breast meat with different ultimate pH.

    PubMed

    Chan, J T Y; Omana, D A; Betti, M

    2011-05-01

    Functional and rheological properties of proteins from frozen turkey breast meat with different ultimate pH at 24 h postmortem (pH(24)) have been studied. Sixteen breast fillets from Hybrid Tom turkeys were initially selected based on lightness (L*) values for each color group (pale, normal, and dark), with a total of 48 breast fillets. Further selection of 8 breast samples was made within each class of meat according to the pH(24). The average L* and pH values of the samples were within the following range: pale (L* >52; pH ?5.7), normal (46 < L* < 52; 5.9 < pH <6.1), and dark (L* <46; pH ?6.3), referred to as low, normal, and high pH meat, respectively. Ultimate pH did not cause major changes in the emulsifying and foaming properties of the extracted sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. An SDS-PAGE profile of proteins from low and normal pH meat was similar, which revealed that the extent of protein denaturation was the same. Low pH meat had the lowest water-holding capacity compared with normal and high pH meat as shown by the increase in cooking loss, which can be explained by factors other than protein denaturation. Gel strength analysis and folding test revealed that gel-forming ability was better for high pH meat compared with low and normal pH meat.Dynamic viscoelastic behavior showed that myosin denaturation temperature was independent of pH(24). Normal and high pH meat had similar hardness, springiness, and chewiness values as revealed by texture profile analysis. The results from this study indicate that high pH meat had similar or better functional properties than normal pH meat. Therefore, high pH meat is suitable for further processed products, whereas low pH meat may need additional treatment or ingredient formulations to improve its functionality. PMID:21489962

  7. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Lee; J. S. Watkins

    1996-01-01

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive

  8. Time variations of the ionosphere at the northern tropical crest of ionization at Phu Thuy, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Pham Thi Thu; C. Amory-Mazaudier; M. Le Huy

    2011-01-01

    This study is the first which gives the climatology of the ionosphere at the northern tropical crest of ionization in the Asian sector. We use the data from Phu Thuy station, in Vietnam, through three solar cycles (20, 21 and 22), showing the complete morphology of ionosphere parameters by analyzing long term variation, solar cycle variation and geomagnetic activity effects,

  9. Differential contributions of the outer membrane receptors PhuR and HasR to heme acquisition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron D; Wilks, Angela

    2015-03-20

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes two outer membrane receptors, PhuR (Pseudomonas heme uptake) and HasR (heme assimilation system). The HasR and PhuR receptors have distinct heme coordinating ligands and substrate specificities. HasR is encoded in an operon with a secreted hemophore, HasAp. In contrast the non-hemophore-dependent PhuR is encoded within an operon along with proteins required for heme translocation into the cytoplasm. Herein we report on the contributions of the HasR and PhuR receptors to heme uptake and utilization. Employing bacterial genetics and isotopic [(13)C]heme labeling studies we have shown both PhuR and HasR are required for optimal heme utilization. However, the unique His-Tyr-ligated PhuR plays a major role in the acquisition of heme. In contrast the HasR receptor plays a primary role in the sensing of extracellular heme and a supplementary role in heme uptake. We propose PhuR and HasR represent non-redundant heme receptors, capable of accessing heme across a wide range of physiological conditions on colonization of the host. PMID:25616666

  10. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. W. Fyhn; Lars H. Nielsen; Lars O. Boldreel; Le D. Thang; Jørgen Bojesen-Koefoed; Henrik I. Petersen; Nguyen T. Huyen; Nguyen A. Duc; Nguyen T. Dau; Anders Mathiesen; Ian Reid; Dang T. Huong; Hoang A. Tuan; Le V. Hien; Hans P. Nytoft; Ioannis Abatzis

    2009-01-01

    Seismic stratigraphic and structural analyses of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam, based on 2-D seismic data, indicate that the initial rifting began during the latest Cretaceous? or Palaeogene controlled by left-lateral transtension along the East Vietnam Boundary Fault Zone (EVBFZ) and northwest–southeast directed extension east of the EVBFZ. Rifting stopped due to transpression during middle Oligocene times

  11. Rice-Freshwater Prawn Integrated Culture in Tan Phu Thanh Village, Chau Thanh A district, Can Tho Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Vu Nam; Vo Thanh Toan; Tran Thi; Thanh Hien; Pham Minh Duc

    Trials of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in rice field and garden ditch is being conducted at JIRCAS project research site, Tan Phu Thanh village, Chau Thanh A, Can Tho province. It includes three rice-prawn farms and one garden ditch prawn farm. Juvenile prawns of 0,045 g\\/prawn in average were stocked at a density of 2 prawn\\/m2 in rice-prawn farms,

  12. Registration of "Ultimate" Zoysiagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultimate’ (Reg. No. ________, PI 652947) zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) was developed at the Everglades Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Belle Glade, FL and initially approved for release in 2004. A plant patent was submitted in mid-2005 and presently awaits exami...

  13. The Ultimate PE Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerny, Eleanor; Wojehowski, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article features the Ultimate PE Challenge. The idea had been born when the fifth-grade teachers complained that teaching physical geography was boring, and the technology instructor simultaneously noticed a climbing wall in the gym. "Could physical education simulate the geographic characteristics and obstacles of North America?" This…

  14. The Ultimate Flag Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

    This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

  15. The Ultimate Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The sport of Ultimate has grown from parking lot fun to international competition in its 35 year existence. As in many sports, the team that scores is subsequently on defense. Thus the probability that a team will score next is dependent on which team has scored most recently. Unlike in many other sports, teams switch ends after each score. Thus…

  16. Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Daugherty, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor is a reactor that eliminates the traditional safety concerns of nuclear fission reactors. The US reactor has an insignificant source term and no reasonable criticality accident. Furthermore, the negligible residual after-heat in the reactor renders its shutdown capability comparable or superior to conventional power sources. Fission products are continuously removed at the rate they are produced. The reactor is operated with no excess criticality, hence no criticality accident is reasonably possible. The reactor is controlled safely by its negative temperature coeffiient. The reactor maintains criticality by an internal breeding ratio that is trimmed to be exactly one. The US reactor requires a fluid fuel and on-line, continuous fuel processing. Molten salt fuel was selected for its low vapor pressure at high temperature; adequate solubility of uranium and thorium as fluorides; good compatibility with structural materials; absence of irradiation damage; high negative temperature coefficient and amply developed technology and experience.

  17. Ultimate Cognition à la Gödel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Schmidhuber

    2009-01-01

    All life is problem solving,'' said Popper. To deal with arbitrary problems in arbitrary environments, an ultimate cognitive agent should use its limited hardware in the ''best'' and ''most efficient'' possible way. Can we formally nail down this informal statement, and derive a mathematically rigorous blueprint of ultimate cognition? Yes, we can, using Kurt Godel's celebrated self-reference trick of 1931

  18. Ultimate sensitivity of heterodyne spectrometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Boucher; R. Bocquet; W. Chen; J. Burie

    1993-01-01

    Low noise heterodyne receivers are now used in a large variety of instruments such as radiotelescopes, far infrared laser side bands spectrometers, supersonic nozzle beams Fourier transform spectrometers, lidars or plasmas diagnostics devices. Numerous papers have been devoted to the analysis of heterodyne receivers in the attempt to reach ultimate performances. These previous papers usually retain the restrictive hypothesis of

  19. Ultimate. H user to an

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    requireme 3 Windows 4 Macs tha http://sup ING WINDO WS UPGRAD crosoft Campu 7 Ultimate. Th However, a ful con nd/archive/200 m/enus/windo 986 and Windows 7 to discounted ion media for W dia, as the prod of s nstallation from ING WINDO creation of a ne stalling Windo full installation nd an upgrade f the installatio

  20. Intramural Sports Ultimate Disc "Hat"

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Intramural Sports Ultimate Disc "Hat" Tournament Summer 2014 Intramural Sports Calendar of Events on the day of the tournament, teams will be drawn out of a hat and mixed for play. Sports and Special or Faculty/Staff/Affiliates with a Recreational Sports Membership are eligible to participate. http://oregonstate.edu/recsports/intramural-sports

  1. Ultimate characteristics of brittle rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Stavrogin; E. D. Pevzner; B. G. Tarasov

    1981-01-01

    Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a A new procedure is presented for obtaining a complete stress-strain diagram in the case of uniaxial compression, which includes\\u000a the ultimate region, for brittle rocks. The rigidity of the press operated is 2107 kgf\\/cm.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Brittle rocks manifest strong break-up beyond the maximum bearing capacity, which leads to an increase of 2–15% in volume\\u000a in comparison with the

  2. Ultimate Cognition a` la Godel Jurgen Schmidhuber

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    , and derive a mathematically rigorous blueprint of ultimate cognition? Yes, we can, using Kurt Go¨delUltimate Cognition a` la Go¨del Ju¨rgen Schmidhuber Published online: 5 March 2009 � Springer's celebrated self-reference trick of 1931 in a new way. Go¨del exhibited the limits of mathematics

  3. Atomic Clocks Ultimate Clocks, W. Wayt Gibbs

    E-print Network

    Safronova, Marianna

    Atomic Clocks Ultimate Clocks, W. Wayt Gibbs Scientific American Time 306, 60-67 (19 January 2012-75 (22 January 2014) An Atomic Clock with 10­18 Instability N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland Science 24 September 2010: 1630-1633. Two Atomic Clocks Ticking as One Bruce

  4. The Ultimate Buzz Kill Mosquito Control

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    : egg, larva, pupa, and adult. 2. Mosquitoes lay groups of eggs on the surface of water or at the base larvae. Unused swimming pools should be drained and kept dry during the mosquito season. Larval ControlThe Ultimate Buzz Kill Mosquito Control Biology Lesson 1. All mosquitoes pass through 4 life stages

  5. Ultimate Isotope Precision for Carbonates Thermo Scientific

    E-print Network

    Lachniet, Matthew S.

    precision of carbonates · Two independent reaction lines with acid dosing valves for high sample throughputUltimate Isotope Precision for Carbonates Thermo Scientific KIEL IV Carbonate Device Part of Thermo phosphorolysis are removed from the CO2 gas phase under high vacuum in the first trap. Prior to transfer

  6. Probing the Ultimate Limits of Plasmonic Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Ciracì, C.; Hill, R. T.; Mock, J. J.; Urzhumov, Y.; Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.; Maier, S. A.; Pendry, J. B.; Chilkoti, A.; Smith, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Metals support surface plasmons at optical wavelengths and have the ability to localize light to sub-wavelength regions. The field enhancements that occur in these regions set the ultimate limitations on a wide range of nonlinear and quantum optical phenomena. Here we show that the dominant limiting factor is not the resistive loss of the metal, but the intrinsic nonlocality of its dielectric response. A semi-classical model of the electronic response of a metal places strict bounds on the ultimate field enhancement. We demonstrate the accuracy of this model by studying the optical scattering from gold nanoparticles spaced a few angstroms from a gold film. The bounds derived from the models and experiments impose limitations on all nanophotonic systems. PMID:22936772

  7. Ultimate Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander G.; van Gils, Dennis P. M.; Grossmann, Siegfried; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    The flow structure of strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with Reynolds numbers up to Rei=2×106 of the inner cylinder is experimentally examined with high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV). The wind Reynolds numbers Rew of the turbulent Taylor-vortex flow is found to scale as Rew?Ta1/2, exactly as predicted by Grossmann and Lohse [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-6631 23, 045108 (2011).10.1063/1.3582362] for the ultimate turbulence regime, in which the boundary layers are turbulent. The dimensionless angular velocity flux has an effective scaling of Nu??Ta0.38, also in correspondence with turbulence in the ultimate regime. The scaling of Nu? is confirmed by local angular velocity flux measurements extracted from high-speed PIV measurements: though the flux shows huge fluctuations, its spatial and temporal average nicely agrees with the result from the global torque measurements.

  8. Ultimate permeation across atomically thin porous graphene.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Kemal; Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M; Droudian, Amirhossein; Gasser, Patrick; Shorubalko, Ivan; Kye, Jeong-Il; Lee, Changho; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2014-04-18

    A two-dimensional (2D) porous layer can make an ideal membrane for separation of chemical mixtures because its infinitesimal thickness promises ultimate permeation. Graphene--with great mechanical strength, chemical stability, and inherent impermeability--offers a unique 2D system with which to realize this membrane and study the mass transport, if perforated precisely. We report highly efficient mass transfer across physically perforated double-layer graphene, having up to a few million pores with narrowly distributed diameters between less than 10 nanometers and 1 micrometer. The measured transport rates are in agreement with predictions of 2D transport theories. Attributed to its atomic thicknesses, these porous graphene membranes show permeances of gas, liquid, and water vapor far in excess of those shown by finite-thickness membranes, highlighting the ultimate permeation these 2D membranes can provide. PMID:24744372

  9. Methods of ultimate carbonaceous BOD determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; McKenzie, S.W.; Cherry, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted to provide an accurate and practical technique for determining the concentration of ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and the rate at which this demand is exerted. The three methods evaluated were carbon derived, nitrification adjusted, and nitrification inhibited. The studies indicate that comparable concentrations and reaction rates can be determined from either non-nitrified samples using no chemical nitrifying inhibitor, or from partially nitrified samples using the chemical inhibitors, 1-allyl-2 thiourea or nitrapyrin, and that the combined use of time-series analysis and Lee's graphical method provide a reliable and accurate technique for determining ultimate biochemical oxygen demand concentration and reaction rate in 5 to 7 days.

  10. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  11. Is space the ultimate high ground?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Gregory J.; Stallings, Francis P.

    2011-06-01

    Military experts often refer to space as the ultimate high ground under the premise that placing systems in orbit provides advantages consistent with the military doctrine of high ground. Although space provides the ultimate "observation post", it has none of the other advantages traditionally associated with high ground. Army Field Manual (FM) 34-130 states the other advantages of holding key terrain: commanding avenues of approach, overcoming obstacles, and affording cover and concealment as additional benefits of high ground. Yet systems in orbit incur none of these additional advantages. Finally, international restrictions and reciprocity concerns limit the employment of weapons in space nullifying many of the unique capability advantages that would otherwise support the "high ground" aspect of space. As the ultimate observation post, satellites provide a large quantity of vital data to military decision makers. This massive amount of data needs to have as much context as possible to convert this data to useful knowledge. To use space assets optimally, the military needs to learn from the past and make space and cyber products distributed and tactical. It is absolutely essential to distribute the right information to the lowest level (tactical elements) of the organization or the "boots on the ground" in a timely manner.

  12. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  13. Ultimate biodegradation of dialkyl phthalate ester plasticizers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.L.; Sinko, C.J.; Winkelmann, D.A.; Peterson, D.R.; Parkerton, T.F. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc., East Millstone, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Phthalate Esters (PEs) are primarily used as plasticizers in the polymer industry to impart the desired degree of flexibility to plastic products. The single isomer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is the most common plasticizer. However, other commercially important PE plasticizers possess branched alkyl chains of a mixed isomeric nature. The purpose of this study was to compare the ultimate biodegradability of mixed isomer PEs dihexyl (DHP), diisoheptyl (DIHP), diisononyl (DINP), diisodecyl (DIDP), and diisoundecyl (DIUP) phthalate to DEHP using the standardized OECD test (301 F) which is based on mannometric respirometry. Ultimate biodegradation results after 28 days under unacclimated conditions at 25 C were as follows: DHP (80 {+-} 10%), DIHP (82 {+-} 13%), DEHP (63 {+-} 18%), DINP (70 {+-} 11%), DIDP (67 {+-} 13%), DUP (57 {+-} 14%). These data confirm the readily biodegradable nature of DEHP and mixed isomer PEs reported in previous studies and provide additional data to contradict the misperception that PEs are environmentally persistent. The influence of alkyl chain structure on the rate and extent of biodegradation observed in this and other biodegradation studies are discussed.

  14. Probabilistic metrology defeats ultimate deterministic bound

    E-print Network

    J. Calsamiglia; B. Gendra; R. Munoz-Tapia; E. Bagan

    2014-07-25

    Quantum-enhanced measurements exploit quantum mechanical effects to provide ultra-precise estimates of physical variables for use in advanced technologies, such as frequency calibration of atomic clocks, gravitational waves detection, and biosensing. Quantum metrology studies the fundamental limits in the estimation precision given a certain amount of resources (e.g. the number of probe systems) and restrictions (e.g. limited interaction time, or coping with unavoidable presence of noise). Here we show that, even in the presence of noise, probabilistic measurement strategies (which have a certain probability of failure or abstention) can provide, upon a heralded successful outcome, estimates with a precision that violates the deterministic bounds. This establishes a new ultimate quantum metrology limit. For probe systems subject to local dephasing, we quantify such precision limit as a function of the probability of failure that can be tolerated. We show that the possibility of abstaining can substantially set back the detrimental effects of noise.

  15. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale.

  16. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, R.M. (URS Consultants, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Manrique, M.A. (ABB Impell Corp., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Samaddar, S.K. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-08-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented.

  17. The Phenix ultimate natural convection test

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthe, P. [CEA, DER, SESI, F-13108, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pialla, D.; Tenchine, D. [CEA, DEN, STMF, F-38054, Grenoble (France); Vasile, A. [CEA, DER, SESI, F-13108, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rochwerger, D. [CEA, DEN, DEIM, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2012-07-01

    The French sodium cooled fast reactor Phenix was shut down in 2009 after 35 years of operation. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests were performed by the CEA during 9 months. Several topics were involved such as thermal hydraulics, core physics and fuel behaviour. Among these ultimate experiments, two thermal hydraulic tests were performed: an asymmetrical test consisting in a trip of one secondary pump and a natural convection test in the primary circuit. Recognizing the unique opportunity offered by these Phenix ultimate tests, IAEA decided in 2007 to launch a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to benchmarking analyses with system codes on the Phenix natural convection test. One objective of the natural convection test in Phenix reactor is the assessment of the CATHARE system code for safety studies on future and advanced sodium cooled fast reactors. The aim of this paper is to describe this test, which was performed on June 22-23, 2009, and the associated benchmark specifications for the CRP work. The paper reminds briefly the Phenix reactor with the main physical parameters and the instrumentation used during the natural convection test. After that, the test scenario is described: - initial state at a power of 120 MWth, - test beginning resulting from a manual dry out of the two steam generators, - manual scram, - manual trip on the three primary pumps without back-up by pony motors, - setting and development of natural convection in the primary circuit, in a first phase without significant heat sink in the secondary circuits and in a second phase with significant heat sink in the secondary circuits, by opening the casing of steam generators to create an efficient heat sink, by air natural circulation in the steam generators casing. The benchmark case ends after this second phase, which corresponds to the experimental test duration of nearly 7 hours. The paper presents also the benchmark specifications data supplied by the CEA to all participants of this CRP in order to perform calculations (core, primary circuit, primary pumps, IHX, shutdown system, operating parameters, test scenario and real test conditions). Finally, main test results and analyses are presented including the evolution of the core and of the heat exchangers inlet and outlet temperatures, and some local temperature measurements. The natural convection has been easily set up in the pool type reactor Phenix with different boundary conditions at the secondary side, with or without heat sink. The data obtained during this unique test represent some very useful and precious results for the development of SFR in a wide range of thematic such as numerical methods dedicated to thermal-hydraulics safety analyses (system codes, CFD codes and coupling system and CFD codes) and instrumentation. (authors)

  18. Dection of strand breaks in ?X 174 RFI and PM2 DNA reacted with ultimate and proximate carcinogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Thielmann

    1977-01-01

    Supercoiled DNA duplexes of phages fX 174 and PM2 were treated in aqueous solution at neutral pH with ultimate and proximate carcinogens. Subsequently, the carcinogen-treated phage DNAs were subjected to velocity sedimentation in neutral and alkaline sucrose to quantitate introduction of single strand breaks.

  19. "Got Disc?" The "Ultimate" Experience in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Darst, Paul W.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    A quality physical education program is one in which students are exposed to and can participate in a variety of sports and activities. One activity that is increasing in popularity in and outside of physical education is the game of "Ultimate." Opportunities to play Ultimate are increasing rapidly in intramural programs and community and…

  20. An Approximate Solution for Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N Queues

    E-print Network

    Begin, Thomas

    An Approximate Solution for Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N Queues Alexandre Brandwajn Baskin School approximation to assess the steady-state probabilities of the number of customers in Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N for the Ph/Ph/1/N queue. The phase-type distributions considered are assumed to be acyclic. Our method

  1. Meta-analysis genomewide association of pork quality traits: ultimate pH and shear force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is common practice to perform genome-wide association analysis (GWA) using a genomic evaluation model of a single population. Joint analysis of several populations is more difficult. An alternative to joint analysis could be the meta-analysis (MA) of several GWA from independent genomic evaluatio...

  2. Ultimate Limits to Resource Efficiency in Photonic Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    We review resource-efficiency metrics for transferring classical information with photon, present an overview of the ultimate limits to photon and dimensional efficiency permitted by quantum mechanics, as well as that acheived with structured transmitter-receiver pairs.

  3. James M. Cherry, Ph.D. (Video)

    Cancer.gov

    View this video on YouTube. James M. Cherry, Ph.D. details his educational journey from football player to biology major and, ultimately, a career in molecular biology. Dr. Cherry serves as scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations,

  4. Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade

    E-print Network

    -87-550-3634-5 DTU BYG R-205- ISBN=9788778772831 Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy & Department Department: Division of Wind Energy Risø-PhD-34(EN) Submission date May 2008 Abstract The present PhD project National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy Technical University of Denmark P.O.Box 49 DK-4000 Roskilde

  5. A Universal Scripting Framework Lambda: the ultimate ``little language''

    E-print Network

    Shivers, Olin

    A Universal Scripting Framework or Lambda: the ultimate ``little language'' Olin Shivers MIT AI Lab, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA Abstract. The ``little languages'' approach to systems programming is flawed programming tools are built around the idea of ``little languages''---small inter­ preters implementing

  6. The Ultimate Sampling Dilemma in Experience-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations and 2 experiments demonstrate the ultimate sampling dilemma, which constitutes a serious obstacle to inductive inferences in a probabilistic world. Participants were asked to take the role of a manager who is to make purchasing decisions based on positive versus negative feedback about 3 providers in 2 different product…

  7. Dulye Leadership Experience The Ultimate Professional Development Experience

    E-print Network

    Crowston, Kevin

    Dulye Leadership Experience The Ultimate Professional Development Experience: Dulye Leadership Experience Do YOU have what it takes to join the team? Find out more at dle.dulye.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DulyeLeadershipExperience Twitter: DLE4SU #12;Dulye Leadership Experience Program Overview Dulye Leadership Experience The Dulye

  8. The scaling attractor and ultimate dynamics for Smoluchowski's coagulation equations

    E-print Network

    The scaling attractor and ultimate dynamics for Smoluchowski's coagulation equations Govind Menon1's coagulation equation for the three simplest rate kernels K(x, y) = 2, x + y and xy. In another work, we (dust and gel). Keywords: dynamic scaling, agglomeration, coagulation, coalescence, infi- nite

  9. Wilderness Education: The Ultimate Commitment to Quality Wilderness Stewardship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory F. Hansen; Tom Carlson

    The effective planning, implementation, and monitoring of a wilderness education program will ultimately produce mea- surable results that can be instrumental in achieving wilderness management goals and objectives. This paper will provide a simple step-by-step overview of how to develop and maintain a successful wilderness education program through planning, implementation, and monitoring. It may also serve to help build \\

  10. Welcome to Hawaii The Ultimate Global Gathering Place

    E-print Network

    Park, Seong-Ook

    Aloha Welcome to Hawaii The Ultimate Global Gathering Place On behalf of Professor Mike Jensen to the beautiful Islands of Hawaii. Besides the beauty of the State, we are delighted to offer you an informative. The tropical Islands of Hawaii offer ample opportunities to relax and unwind. Possibly more than any place else

  11. Open MRI at UConn Experience ultimate comfort and today's

    E-print Network

    Holsinger, Kent

    #12;Open MRI at UConn Experience ultimate comfort and today's most precise technologies with the new open MRI at UConn Health Center. Located on the first floor of UConn's state-of-the-art Medical Arts and Research Building, our open MRI offers advanced features, allowing for faster 263 Farmington

  12. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary...

  13. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary...

  14. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary...

  15. Landau damping: the mechanics model and its ultimate entropy gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannay, J. H.; Kluge, Michel

    2011-02-01

    Classical mechanics has only been invoked to account for Landau damping in a rather half-hearted way, alongside plasma perturbation theory. In particular this invocation is essential for the study of the saturation, or post-linear (or 'nonlinear') regime of the damping initiated by Dawson and O'Neill. By embracing mechanics wholeheartedly here, with its attendant phase space, one can access results, old and new, cleanly and directly, and with one fewer numerical integration for the post-linear regime. By using a summation technique familiar in semiclassical quantum mechanics (Poisson summation), the one remaining numerical integration can be much improved in accuracy. Also accessible from mechanics is the ultimate entropy gain. Though zero for any finite time (in the absence of coarse graining), the entropy gain is ultimately non-zero (at infinite time the required coarse graining is zero). It is calculated analytically by using the appropriate asymptotics, hitherto not fully exploited.

  16. Preventing ultimate harm as the justification for biomoral modification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-06-01

    Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, the point at which worthwhile life is forever impossible on the planet. These risks can be mitigated, they say, by enhancing moral psychology in novel ways. Persson and Savulescu argue that some parents should modify the underlying biogenetics of their children's moral psychology, if such measures were safe and effective, but they admit these interventions may not decouple humanity from Ultimate Harm. Neither are these modifications the only options, they concede, for addressing risks to humanity. Even with these concessions, saving humanity from itself is a fairly poor reason to modify the moral psychology of children. In most ways, adults would be better candidates, morally speaking, for modifications of psychology. Even then, there is no direct link between morally enhanced human beings and the hoped-for effect of better protection from Ultimate Harm. Asserting a general duty of all to contribute to the avoidance of Ultimate Harm is a better moral strategy than intervening in the moral psychology of some, even though meeting that duty may involve substantial interference with the free exercise of one's interests. PMID:25186171

  17. Sugar fatty acid ester surfactants: Structure and ultimate aerobic biodegradability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene J. A. Baker; Barry Matthews; Hector Suares; Irena Krodkiewska; D. Neil Furlong; Franz Grieser; Calum I. Drummond

    2000-01-01

    Ultimate aerobic biodegradabilities of an array of sugar ester surfactants were determined by International Standards Organisation\\u000a method 7827, “Water Quality—Evaluation in an Aqueous Medium of the Aerobic Biodegradability of Organic Compounds, Method by\\u000a Dissolved Organic Carbon” (1984). The surfactants were nonionic sugar esters with different-sized sugar head groups (formed\\u000a from glucose, sucrose, or raffinose) and different lengths and numbers of

  18. Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Roberts; F. Couny; H. Sabert; B. J. Mangan; D. P. Williams; L. Farr; M. W. Mason; A. Tomlinson; T. A. Birks; J. C. Knight; P. St. J. Russell

    2005-01-01

    Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres have excited interest as potential ultra-low loss telecommunications fibres because light propagates mainly in air instead of solid glass. We propose that the ultimate limit to the attenuation of such fibres is determined by surface roughness due to frozenin capillary waves. This is confirmed by measurements of the surface roughness in a HC-PCF, the angular distribution

  19. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  20. Some Physics Constraints on Ultimate Achievement in Track and Field

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff Frohlich

    2009-02-06

    World records in track and field have improved remarkably throughout the last 100 years; however, in several events physics places quite strict limitations on ultimate performance. For example, analysis suggests that records in broad jump and pole vault have approached their optimum possible values. Physical constraints are more subtle for events such as javelin, high jump, and the distance races, and thus there may be opportunities for “breakthroughs” in current records. Considering that there is enormous cultural interest and economic expenditure on sports, for most events the level of scientific analysis isn’t very high. This presents a research opportunity for fans who are engineers or physicists.

  1. Logarithmic temperature profiles in the ultimate regime of thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-12-01

    We report on the theory of logarithmic temperature profiles in very strongly developed thermal convection in the geometry of a Rayleigh-Bénard cell with aspect ratio (defined by cell width divided by cell height) ? = 1, and discuss the degree of agreement with the recently measured profiles in the ultimate state of very large Rayleigh number flow. The parameters of the log-profile are calculated and compared with the measured ones. Their physical interpretation as well as their dependence on the radial position are discussed.

  2. pH inactivation of phosphofructokinase arrests postmortem glycolysis.

    PubMed

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Scheffler, Tracy L; Wachet, Céline; Gerrard, David E

    2014-12-01

    Fresh meat quality development is influenced by pH decline that results from muscle glycolyzing energy substrates postmortem. The exact reason why glycolysis stops in the presence of residual glycogen remains unclear. We hypothesized that a critical glycolytic enzyme loses activity near the ultimate pH of meat. Porcine longissimus muscle samples were subjected to an in vitro system that mimics postmortem anaerobic metabolism at buffered pH values (7.0, 6.5, 6.0, 5.5 or 5.0). At pH7.0, 6.5, and 6.0, glycogenolysis and glycolysis proceeded normally while pH5.5 stopped lactate formation. Additional experimentation indicated that phosphofructokinase lost activity at pH5.5 while all other glycolytic enzymes remained active. A similar inactivation of phosphofructokinase was observed when using chicken and beef muscle. Elevated temperature hastened pH decline and phosphofructokinase activity loss. Thus, pH inactivates phosphofructokinase and arrests postmortem glycolysis, which may explain the similar ultimate pH across meat of different species. PMID:25179446

  3. What is the Ultimate Goal in Acid-Base Regulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Alagesan, Murali; Prakash, E. Sankaranarayanan

    2007-01-01

    It is common to see chapters on acid-base physiology state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial PCO [subscript 2] (Pa[subscript CO[subscript 2

  4. What is the Ultimate Goal in Acid-base Regulation?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Selvakumar Balakrishnan (Postgraduate Medical Education and Research Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Institute)

    2007-03-01

    Chapters on acid-base physiology often state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial PCO2 or plasma HCO3. A hypothetical situation in which the PaCO2 of arterial plasma is 80 mmHg and the plasma HCO3 concentration is 48 mM is presented and analyzed to get over this misconception.

  5. Detection of strand breaks in phiX 174 RFI and PM2 DNA reacted with ultimate and proximate carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, H W

    1977-10-01

    Supercoiled DNA duplexes of phages phiX 174 and PM2 were treated in aqueous solution at neutral pH with ultimate and proximate carcinogens. Subsequently, the carcinogen-treated phage DNAs were subjected to velocity sedimentation in neutral and alkaline sucrose to quantitative introduction of single strand breaks. Reaction of phage DNA with the ultimate carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNOUr), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNOUr), 7-bromomethyl-benza[a]-anthracene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene [(Ac)2ONFln] and K-region oxides for short periods followed by sedimentation in neutral sucrose gradients led to very few breaks. Incubation with the proximate carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 7-methyl-, and 7,12-dimethyl-benza[a]anthracene did not result in breaks. However, when the phage DNAs were reacted with the ultimate carcinogens under the same conditions but subsequently alkali-denatured and sedimented in alkaline sucrose gradients, single strand breaks were readily introduced. Incubation with the proximate carcinogens followed by alkali denaturation and sedimentation in alkaline sucrose showed that only 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene and, to a minor extent, 7-methyl-benz[]anthracene caused alkali-inducible breaks. The ability of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine to effect breakdown of superhelical phage DNA in alkali was found enhanced in the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine. PMID:145749

  6. Ultimate Decoherence Border for Matter-Wave Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lamine, Brahim; Herve, Remy; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, case74, Campus Jussieu, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2006-02-10

    Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves are intrinsic fluctuations of spacetime which lead to an unavoidable decoherence mechanism. This mechanism manifests itself as a degradation of the contrast of quantum interferences. It defines an ultimate decoherence border for matter-wave interferometry using larger and larger molecules. We give a quantitative characterization of this border in terms of figures involving the gravitational environment as well as the sensitivity of the interferometer to gravitational waves. The known level of gravitational noise determines the maximal size of the molecular probe for which interferences may remain observable. We discuss the relevance of this result in the context of ongoing progresses towards more and more sensitive matter-wave interferometry.

  7. On the triggering of the Ultimate Regime of convection

    E-print Network

    Roche, Philippe-E; Kaiser, Robert; Salort, Julien; 10.1088/1367-2630/12/8/085014

    2012-01-01

    Rayleigh-B\\'enard cells are one of the simplest systems to explore the laws of natural convection in the highly turbulent limit. However, at very high Rayleigh numbers (Ra > 1E12) and for Prandtl numbers of order one, experiments fall into two categories: some evidence a steep enhancement of the heat transfer while others do not. The origin of this apparent disagreement is presently unexplained. This puzzling situation motivated a systematic study of the triggering of the regime with an enhanced heat transfer, originally named the "Ultimate Regime" of convection. High accuracy heat transfer measurements have been conducted in convection cells with various aspect ratios and different specificities, such as altered boundary conditions or obstacles inserted in the flow. The two control parameters, the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers have been varied independently to disentangle their relative influence. Among other results, it is found that i) most experiments reaching very high $Ra$ are not in disagreement if smal...

  8. Helium separation via porous silicene based ultimate membrane.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2013-10-01

    Helium purification has become more important for increasing demands in scientific and industrial applications. In this work, we demonstrated that the porous silicene can be used as an effective ultimate membrane for helium purification on the basis of first-principles calculations. Prinstine silicene monolayer is impermeable to helium gas with a high penetration energy barrier (1.66 eV). However, porous silicene with either Stone-Wales (SW) or divacancy (555,777 or 585) defect presents a surmountable barrier for helium (0.33 to 0.78 eV) but formidable for Ne, Ar, and other gas molecules. In particular, the porous silicene with divacancy defects shows high selectivity for He/Ne and He/Ar, superior to graphene, polyphenylene, and traditional membranes. PMID:23917262

  9. Ultimate boundedness stability and controllability of hereditary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chukwu, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    By generalizing the Liapunov-Yoshizawa techniques, necessary and sufficient conditions are given for uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of a rather general class of nonlinear differential equations of neutral type. Among the applications treated by the methods are the Lienard equation of neutral type and hereditary systems of Lurie type. The absolute stability of this later equation is also investigated. A certain existence result of a solution of a neutral functional differential inclusion with two point boundary values is applied to study the exact function space controllability of a nonlinear neutral functional differential control system. A geometric growth condition is used to characterize both the function space and Euclidean controllability of another nonlinear delay system which has a compact and convex control set. This yields conditions under which perturbed nonlinear delay controllable systems are controllable.

  10. The development of high cooling power and low ultimate temperature superfluid Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashok B.

    The superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR) is a recuperative Stirling cycle refrigerator which provides cooling to below 2 K by using a liquid 3He-4He mixture as the working fluid. In 1990, Kotsubo and Swift demonstrated the first SSR, and by 1995, Brisson and Swift had developed an experimental prototype capable of reaching a low temperature of 296 mK. The goal of this thesis was to improve these capabilities by developing a better understanding of the SSR and building SSR's with higher cooling powers and lower ultimate temperatures. This thesis contains four main parts. In the first part, a numerical analysis demonstrates that the optimal design and ultimate performance of a recuperative Stirling refrigerator is fundamentally different from that of a standard regenerative Stirling refrigerator due to a mass flow imbalance within the recuperator. The analysis also shows that high efficiency recuperators remain a key to SSR performance. Due to a quantum effect called Kapitza resistance, the only realistic and economical method of creating higher efficiency recuperators for use with an SSR is to construct the heat exchangers from very thin (12 ?m - 25 ?m thick) plastic films. The second part of this thesis involves the design and construction of these recuperators. This research resulted in Kapton heat exchangers which are leaktight to superfluid helium and capable of surviving repeated thermal cycling. In the third part of this thesis, two different single stage SSR's are operated to test whether the plastic recuperators would actually improve SSR performance. Operating from a high temperature of 1.0 K and with 1.5% and 3.0% 3He-4He mixtures, these SSR's achieved a low temperature of 291 mK and delivered net cooling powers of 3705 ?W at 750 mK, 977 ?W at 500 mK, and 409 ?W at 400 mK. Finally, this thesis describes the operation of three versions of a two stage SSR. Unfortunately, due to experimental difficulties, the merits of a two stage SSR were not demonstrated and further work is still required. However, despite these difficulties, one of the two stage SSR's was able to reach an ultimate low temperature of 248 mK from a high temperature of 1.03 K. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  11. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10...by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section...relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims relating to kerosene...

  12. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10...by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section...relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims relating to kerosene...

  13. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10...by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section...relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims relating to kerosene...

  14. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10...by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section...relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims relating to kerosene...

  15. 7 CFR 4280.29 - Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project. 4280.29 Section 4280...Programs § 4280.29 Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project. (a) For REDL loans,...

  16. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we have made significant progress with the design of PEP-X, a USR that would inhabit the decommissioned PEP-II tunnel at SLAC. The enlargement of the dynamic aperture is largely a result of the cancellations of the 4th-order resonances in the 3rd-order achromats and the effective use of lattice optimization programs. In this paper, we will show those cancellations of the 4th-order resonances using an analytical approach based on the exponential Lie operators and the Poisson brackets. Wherever possible, our analytical results will be compared with their numerical counterparts. Using the derived formulae, we will construct 4th-order geometric achromats and use them as modules for the lattice of the PEP-X USR, noting that only geometric terms are canceled to the 4th order.

  17. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

    2014-08-01

    Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely overlooked, and that a better knowledge of the cost/benefit balance of behavioural variability is crucial for our understanding of the evolution of the mechanisms underlying the social organization of insect societies. We conclude by highlighting what we believe to be promising but little-explored avenues for future research on how within-colony variability has evolved and is maintained. We emphasize the need for comparative studies and point out that, so far, most studies on interindividual variability have focused on variability in individual response thresholds, while the significance of variability in other parameters of individual response, such as probability and intensity of the response, has been largely overlooked. We propose that these parameters have important consequences for the colony response. Much more research is needed to understand if and how interindividual variability is modulated in order to benefit division of labour, homeostasis and ultimately colony fitness in social insects. PMID:24341677

  18. CATHARE calculations of Phenix ultimate natural convection test

    SciTech Connect

    Pialla, D.; Tenchine, D. [CEA, DEN, DM2S/STMF, Grenoble, F-17 rue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Gauthe, P. [CEA, DEN, DER/SESI, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vasile, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    The Phenix Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) started operation in 1973 and it was stopped in 2009. Before the reactor was definitively shutdown, in order to collect experimental data for code assessments in the frame of Generation IV an intensive program of ultimate tests was set up. Among these ultimate experiments, two thermal hydraulic tests were performed: an asymmetrical test consisting in a trip on one secondary pump and a natural convection test in the primary circuit. The natural convection test has been used for an international benchmark on system codes in the frame of the IAEA. The CATHARE code - initially developed for water cooled reactors and now extended for safety analyses for other kinds of reactors, including Sodium Fast Reactor - was used by CEA for this benchmark. The paper reminds briefly the Phenix reactor with the main physical parameters and the instrumentation used during the natural convection test. Main test results are also briefly reminded including the evolution of the core and the heat exchangers inlet and outlet temperatures, and some local temperature measurements. The main developments to perform CATHARE SFR computations and the strategy of system code assessment are presented. Then the CATHARE modelling of Phenix reactor is depicted and the various assumptions are pointed out. CATHARE encountered no problem to predict the initial nominal state. Afterwards, the whole transient scenario is calculated and CATHARE calculations are compared to the Phenix measurements. The global trend is rather well predicted by the CATHARE code. Nevertheless, due to complex flow phenomena occurring in large plena and components, the system code encountered physical limitations, leading to remaining discrepancies between code prediction and plant data. Various sensitivity calculations are presented and they bring partial answers. Additional analyses are in progress to understand more deeply the complex 3D phenomena involved during the different phases of the natural convection test. Additional work for coupling CATHARE system code and TRIO-U CFD code is in progress and will bring useful information to better understand the physical phenomena involved during the natural convection test and to improve system modeling for future SFR safety analysis. (authors)

  19. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0203] Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory...guide (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This...GDC) that are applicable to the ultimate heat sink (UHS) features of plant...

  20. Macromolecular deterioration as the ultimate constraint on human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Truscott, Roger John Willis

    2011-09-01

    A number of tissues and organs in the human body contain abundant proteins that are long-lived. This includes the heart, lung, brain, bone and connective tissues. It is proposed that the accumulation of modifications to such long-lived proteins over a period of decades alters the properties of the organs and tissues in which they reside. Such insidious processes may affect human health, fitness and ultimately may limit our lifespan. The human lens, which contains proteins that do not turnover, is used to illustrate the impact of these gradual deleterious modifications. On the basis of data derived from the lens, it is postulated that the intrinsic instability of certain amino acid residues, which leads to truncation, racemisation and deamidation, is primarily responsible for the age-related deterioration of such proteins. Since these post-translational modifications accumulate over a period of many years, they can only be studied using organisms that have lifespans measured in decades. One conclusion is that there may be important aspects of human aging that can be studied only using long-lived animals. PMID:21272671

  1. Ultimate compression strength and probabilistic analysis of stiffened plates

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Y. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction and Earth Sciences; Das, P.K.; Faulkner, D. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Stiffened plates are common structural elements in bridges, ships and offshore structures. In the paper a formulation for predicting the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate is proposed by incorporating Guedes Soares` formula, which gives the best prediction for unstiffened plates according to the calibration carried out recently by the authors, into Faulkner`s method. The proposed algorithm is then calibrated by using a considerable amount of experimental and numerical data. It is observed that: (1) the proposed method shows better prediction than Faulkner`s original method if only the experimental data (63 samples) are included in the calibration, the bias and cov of the model uncertainty of the proposed method are 0.992 and 0.099 respectively, while they are 1.039 and 0.143 for Faulkner`s original method, and the skewness of the proposed method is small; (2) on the whole, including experimental and numerical data, the results of the proposed method only have more or less the same accuracy as those of original Faulkner`s method with better bias and skewness, but slightly larger scatters than the original Faulkner`s method. In addition, the reliability analyses of stiffened plates are carried out by using AFOSM, SORM and Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the accuracy of the first- and second-order methods. It is found that the difference between the two methods is so small that the values obtained from AFOSM are acceptable in practice, considering the nominal nature of the reliability index.

  2. The Ultimate Future of Artificial Life: Towards Artificial Cosmogenesis

    E-print Network

    Vidal, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This philosophical paper tries to tackle the question of what could be the ultimate future of ALife from a cosmic viewpoint. We first argue that the natural direction of ALife is a simulation of an entire universe. Two new challenges naturally arise. The first is to simulate open-ended evolution at all levels in a single simulation; i.e. not only in biology, but also to link it up a level below (physical evolution) and a level above (cultural evolution). The second challenge is to probe what would happen if we would "replay the tape of the universe". Assuming that intelligent life would indeed simulate an entire universe, this leads to two tentative hypotheses. Following the soft-ALife program, some authors argued that we could be in a simulation run by an intelligent entity. Following the hard/wet-ALife program, this would lead to an artificial cosmogenesis. This last direction is argued with a careful speculative philosophical approach, emphasizing the imperative to find a solution to the heat death problem...

  3. The ultimate band compression factor in gradient elution chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The equations predicting the ultimate time band compression factor, G = (t{sub R}-t{sub F})/t{sub p} in linear gradient elution chromatography, for an infinitely narrow injection (injection time t{sub p} {yields} 0) were derived for an ideal-model column (dispersionless chromatography, H = 0) assuming the Linear Solvent Strength Model for the retention behavior of the analyte. Numerical solutions can readily be obtained when the LSSM model does not apply. The results can be generalized to any retained organic modifier (k'{sub A}) in the mobile phase. The stronger the retention of the organic modifier, the more effective the band compression. Dispersion in real chromatographic column (H {ne} 0) affects the limits that can be reached in linear gradients but poorly in step gradients. Examples based on a conventional HETP of about 12 {micro}m using a 5 {micro}m particle packed column reveal that the best time compression factor that could be expected is twice the one predicted with an ideal column.

  4. Ultimate VHF Broadband Interferometer Zen KAWASAKI and Manabu AKITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Z.; Akita, M.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRGOU) has been developing an interferometer for thunderstorm monitoring during these two decades. When LRGOU initiated this project, many related scientists claimed that LRGOU's system was a time of arrival and it must be a sophisticated TOA system. However the key technology of the system were broad band and digital data processing, and it is named the VHF broad band digital interferometer (BDITF), because the phase difference of Fourier components played the very important role. Then the BDITF finally has been realized as a quasi-real time lightning monitoring system, and LRGOU has been operating their BDITFs around Osaka area. Since the BDITF captures the VHF impulses associated with lightning discharges by amplitude triggering, it occasionally misses one of the bi-directional leader progressions because of relatively small amplitude VHF impulses mainly emitted by positive leader tips. All of high density of VHF pulses associated with recoil leaders may not be recorded. Then the ordinary BDITF is able to be accepted as the practical operational system, but from the aspect of science it has been sioriously expected to be improved its performance. To overcome the difficulty New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMIMT) and LRGOU have started the joint project, and a continuous recording system for digital signals is adopted [M. Stock et al, and M Akita et al,]. The field campaigns have been conducting in New Mexico and in Japan, and successful observations are accomplished. The algorithm to identify individual VHF pulses associated with lightning discharges from back ground noise and/or artificial noise, the dispersion of phase differences for all Fourier components is examined. In case by of small dispersion it is concluded that analyzed VHF pulse has high possibility to be emitted by lightning discharges. This interpretation means that the recorded VHF pulse shape might maintain without deformation during propagation, like electromagnetic wave propagation in non-dispersive medium. This procedure presented exciting results of lightning channel imaging, and the bi-directional leader propagation can be visualized in terms of azimuth and elevation as a function of time. Moreover all of the VHF radiation process for an entire lightning flash from initiation to termination can be imaged, and it is concluded that the system might be an ultimate broad band digital interferometer. The authors would like to show their appreciation to Paul Krehbiel, NMIMT, who gave a chance and suggestion of a continuous recording scheme for BDITF. M. Stock et al. : Continuous Broadband Digital Interferometry of Lightning using a Generalized Cross Correlation Algorithm M. Akita et al. : Data Processing Procedure 1 using Distribution of Slopes of Phase Differences for Broadband VHF Interferometer

  5. Understanding pH

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    The first site related to pH is from the Horiba corporate Web site entitled the Story of pH (1). Visitors can learn what pH is and how it's measured, explore various facts about pH, and read several anecdotes such as "Is the Rain in Our Cities Acidic." The site contains simple text, attractive graphics, and a well-designed layout making it fun and easy for anyone to explore. The second site from the Miami Museum of Science is called the pH Factor (2) kids activity page. This interactive and extensive site contains lessons on testing items for pH, tasting acids and bases, an interactive meter to find the pH of common household items, and much more. Next, is the pH and Water Quality (3) page, which is part of the State of Kentucky Division of Water Web site. The site provides a table of the effects of pH on fish and aquatic life and gives a short description of the most significant environmental impacts of pH. Trout for example, can tolerate a pH range between 4.1 and 9.5 while Mosquito larvae can survive within the 3.3 and 4.7 range. The fourth site from Gardengate Magazine.com is entitled More Soil Stuff: Soil pH (4). Described is the pH range of most soil types, requirements of certain plants, how to test soil for pH, and how to adjust it using sulfur and limestone. Seaworld.org maintains the Understanding the pH Cycle within the Aquarium (5) lesson plan site. The stated objective of the activity is to have students define pH, explain how it affects a tank's water quality, and test the pH level in a classroom aquarium. Although an aquarium is obviously needed, the activity offers a unique and fun way for kids to learn about this basic chemistry concept. About.com offers the next site, which is an interactive pH calculator called pH (6). Users simply enter a pH to get the concentration of Hydrogen ions or, conversely, the Hydrogen ion concentration to get the pH. Another tool to learn about pH and Hydrogen ions is called Acids and Alkalis--the pH Scale (7). Provided by Purchon.com, the interactive pH scale illustrates how the ion concentration changes with pH, common acids associated with each, and whether it is a weak or strong acid or alkali. The last site maintained by the National Park Service is called Acid Rain Lesson Plan: Activity 1 The pH Scale (8). Kids will be able to describe the pH scale and its components, explain why a pH measurement must be accurate, and explain why small changes in pH are important. Everything needed to complete the activity is provided, including a materials list, complete instructions, thinking questions, as well as links for further information.

  6. Natural gas ultimate recovery growth modeling by plays in the Gulf Coast Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene Miryong

    Estimates of ultimate recovery, the sum of the proved reserves and cumulative production up to a specific time, are initially conservative due to the lack of understanding of the geological, engineering, and production characteristics of the reservoir or field. Ultimate recovery tends on average to increase substantially over time and drilling due to better understanding of the reservoir or field and application of advanced technologies. In recent years, natural gas ultimate recovery growth has become a major component of total U.S. annual natural gas reserve additions. Although there is a wide range in ultimate recovery growth potential by play and that potential is a function of the drilling and technology applied, current ultimate recovery growth studies are gross, averaging wide ranges, aggregated by broad provinces, and calculated solely as a function of time. An assessment on a play basis is the key to understanding the future role of natural gas ultimate recovery growth in the Gulf Coast Basin. Ultimate recovery growth varies according to plays because of different geological, engineering, and production characteristics and amenability to advanced recovery technology. Natural gas ultimate recovery growth in Texas Railroad Commission (TX RRC) District 4 was initially analyzed on the basis of its role as a major natural gas producing district in the Gulf Coast Basin where significant technological advancements have been routinely applied. Significant ultimate recovery growth and future potential was observed for the total 520 major natural gas fields of TX RRC District 4. However, important ultimate recovery growth data were masked by such total, aggregated analysis. Play analysis revealed important ultimate recovery growth trends and characteristics. Plays WX-2, WX-4, and VK-1 revealed significant future ultimate recovery growth potential. These plays are comprised of relatively recently discovered fields, especially play WX-2. Deeper reservoir depths of these plays have induced high structural complexities due to fault compartmentalization, reservoirs designated as tight gas/low-permeability, and high initial reservoir pressures.

  7. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday PH 1110 PH 1110

    E-print Network

    Weekes, Suzanne L.

    Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday PH 1110 PH 1110 Muhammad Muhammad CS 1101 CS 1101 CS 1101 Mairaj Mairaj Mairaj Ph 1111 Ph 1111 PH 1111 Zhen Zhen Zhen CH 1010 CH 1010 Elisabeth Elisabeth MA 1023 MA 1021 MA 1023 MA 1021 Kushi Han Li Murtaza Jeffrey MA 1021 MA 1023 PH 1110 Han Li Murtaza Muhammad

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book: entropy. It is physicists who can benefit most from discarding mathematics and seeking intuitive understanding. It is often too easy to put the numbers into a formula, with little real comprehension of the underlying physics. For layman or physicist the book is hard work. It is not a volume to be read from cover to cover; each section needs to be considered and digested, with frequent turning backwards (or sometimes forwards) to other pages. Even then the outcome may leave questions that can only be answered by access to an academic library to look up some of the copious references to original papers (which, of course, do not eschew mathematics or make concessions to conceptual difficulties). Unfortunately the book is marred by an impression of haste and lack of care, leading to errors that should not have reached the final print. For example, a graph of increase of population with generation number is shown as and stated to be a straight line. It should be exponential. This sort of thing undermines confidence in the whole text. High temperature superconductivity may have a revolutionary effect on electrical machines in the future, but for the time being magnets for magnetic resonance imaging machines and the like still use the old superconductors. Amusing anecdotes make for interesting reading, but the one about Faraday is garbled: he had nothing to do with frogs' legs (that was Galvani), and the quip about taxing electricity one day, if not apocryphal, was made either to Peel or to Gladstone, not to the King. In at least one case a topic mentioned in the index and glossary does not appear on the stated page in the text, apparently having been cut out at a late stage. Personally I did not find the book satisfying, but others will differ. Especially when dealing with intuitive appreciation, what is straightforward to one person may be utterly opaque to another. Making physics comprehensible and conveying its fascination is a daunting and often thankless task, but a very necessary one. The more it is attempted by those with a command of the subject, the more likely i

  9. Prediction of ultimate earthquake resistance of gravity-load designed RC buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Benavent-Climent; H Akiyama; F López-Almansa; L. G Pujades

    2004-01-01

    This research investigates the ultimate earthquake resistance of typical gravity-load designed (GLD) RC moment resisting frames, in terms of ultimate energy absorption\\/dissipation capacity (UEAC). Inelastic response analyses of six frames, based on the realistic hysteretic behaviour of RC members, are carried out. It is demonstrated that the UEAC of this type of frames is approximately one half of the demand

  10. Experimental study on ultimate bearing capacity of perfobond rib shear connectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenhai Wang; Qiao Li; Canhui Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the influencing factors of the ultimate bearing capacity of perfobond rib shear connectors. Three types of failure modes for perfobond rib shear connectors with perforated rebar are summarized from previous experiments, and the shear failure of perforated rebar completely contributes to the ultimate bearing capacity. 33 specimens of perfobond rib shear connectors were tested in the static

  11. Optimal Stock Selling/Buying Strategy with reference to the Ultimate Average*

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Optimal Stock Selling/Buying Strategy with reference to the Ultimate Average* Min Dai and Yifei are concerned with the optimal decision to sell or buy a stock in a given period with reference to the ultimate) strategy. We provide a partial di®erential equation approach to characterize the free boundary (or

  12. Ultimate Controlling Structures and Firm Value: Evidence from the Chinese Listed Companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Wang; Xing Xiao

    Using data on ultimate controlling structures of Chinese listed companies, we identify three issues in this article: (1) how common is the listed companies held by the state ultimately? (2) how does the state maintain the control of these companies? (3) the impacts of different controlling structures on firm value. It's found that more than 70% of Chinese listed companies

  13. Primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of mineral base oils and their relationships with oil viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Haus; O. Boissel; G.-A. Junter

    2004-01-01

    We have determined the primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of a series of paraffinic base oils representative of the main classes that are used for the production of lubricating oils, such as engine, industrial, and marine oils. Primary and ultimate biodegrability (B) data were determined using the CEC test and the modified Sturm test (OECD 301B), respectively. There was a strong

  14. Maintained ship hull xcgirxcder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Hu; Weicheng Cui; Preben Terndrup Pedersen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plates are analyzed by an FE method. Based on FE analysis results, some empirical formulae

  15. pH i regulation in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cells: Role of sodium-dependent and sodium-independent chloride-bicarbonate exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kramhøft; E. K. Hoffmann; L. O. Simonsen

    1994-01-01

    pH\\u000ai\\u000a recovery in acid-loaded Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and pH\\u000ai\\u000a maintenance at steady-state were studied using the fluorescent probe BCECF.Both in nominally HCO\\u000a3\\u000a–\\u000a-free media and at 25 mm HCO\\u000a3\\u000a–\\u000a, the measured pH\\u000ai\\u000a (7.26 and 7.82, respectively) was significantly more alkaline than the pH\\u000ai\\u000a. value calculated assuming the transmembrane HCO

  16. pH Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to teach students about the acidity levels of liquids and other substances around their school so they understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students will create mixtures of water samples, soil samples, plants and other natural materials to better understand the importance of pH levels.

  17. Japanese quail meat quality: characteristics, heritabilities, and genetic correlations with some slaughter traits.

    PubMed

    Narinc, Dogan; Aksoy, Tulin; Karaman, Emre; Aygun, Ali; Firat, Mehmet Ziya; Uslu, Mustafa Kemal

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with some slaughter traits [BW, breast yield (BRY), and abdominal fat yield (AFY)]. In total, 1,093 pedigreed quail were slaughtered at 35 d of age to measure BRY, AFY, and breast meat quality traits [ultimate pH (pHU), Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color parameters (L*, lightness; a*, redness; and b*, yellowness), thawing and cooking loss (TL and CL, respectively), and Warner-Bratzler shear value (WB)]. The average pHU, L*, a*, and b* were determined to be 5.94, 43.09, 19.24, and 7.74, respectively. In addition, a very high WB average (7.75 kg) indicated the firmness of breast meat. High heritabilities were estimated for BW, BRY, and AFY (0.51, 0.49, and 0.35). Genetic correlations of BW between BRY and AFY were found to be high (0.32 and 0.58). On the other hand, the moderate negative relationship between BRY and AFY (-0.24) implies that selection for breast yield should not increase abdominal fat. The pHU was found to be the most heritable trait (0.64), whereas the other meat quality traits showed heritabilities in the range of 0.39 to 0.48. Contrary to chickens, the genetic correlation between pHU and L* was low. The pHU exhibited a negative and high correlation with BW and AFY, whereas L* showed a positive but smaller relationship with these traits. Moreover, pHU exhibited high negative correlations (-0.43 and -0.62) with TL and WB, whereas L* showed a moderate relationship (0.24) with CL. This genetic study confirmed that the multi-trait selection could be used to improve meat quality traits. Further, the ultimate pH of breast meat is a relevant selection criterion due to its strong relationships with either water-holding capacity and texture or low abdominal fatness. PMID:23776259

  18. A new method to characterize the complex mineralogy of ultimate wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forestier, L. Le; Brown, W.L. [CRPG-CNRS, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Libourel, G. [CRPG-CNRS, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); [Universite Henri Poincare, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1995-12-31

    Ultimate wastes, resulting from the incineration of municipal solid wastes, contain high amounts of toxic elements that require stabilization before storage. However, whatever the stabilization processed involved, characterization of their crystal chemistry is essential. In this paper, the authors present a method which allows the determination of the mineralogy of ultimate wastes in detail. They present here an example of results from an ultimate waste, resulting from electrofiltration of fumes. This method is based on grain size and density separations coupled with X-ray diffraction, ICP-ES, ICP-MS, wet chemical methods and electron microprobe analyses. Despite the complexity of this waste, they show that it is possible, not only to determine its mineralogy, but also to give the modal proportions of each phase, and to provide some insights into the crystal chemistry of the main pollutants of this ultimate waste product.

  19. Ultimate capacity of suction caisson in normally and lightly overconsolidated clays

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Partha Pratim

    2005-08-29

    is to numerically predict the ultimate capacity of suction caissons in normally consolidated and lightly overconsolidated clays. Representative soil profile from the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are taken and analyzed for suction caissons with length over...

  20. 75 FR 11922 - Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth Staffing Companies), and Aerotek, Cromwell, CT; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with section 223 of...

  1. METHODS/MATERIALS MATRIX OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES FOR SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous substances. Disposal methods studied include incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, fixation, biological treatment, and chemical treatment. Applications of ...

  2. Analysis of Ultimate Energy Consumption by Sector in Islamic Republic of Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. FARAHMANDPOUR; I. NASSERI; H. HOURI JAFARI

    Total ultimate energy consumption in Iran was 1033.32 MBOE in 2006, and increased at an average annual rate of 6% in 1996-2006. Household and commercial sector has been the main consumer sector (418.47 MBOE) and the fastest-growing sector (7.2%) that followed by transport (264.65 MBOE; 7%), industry (238.86 MBOE; 5.3%) and Agriculture (37.39 MBOE; 2.1%). Iran's ultimate energy consumption pattern

  3. Ultimate ownership, investor protection and firm valuation: evidence for Asian countries non-financial firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hela Ben Hamida; Chokri Mamoghli

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the causal relationship between ultimate shareholder's cash-flow rights and firm valuation performance for some Asian countries. More precisely, we test the incentive effect hypothesis. Using data for 1,740 publicly listed non-financial firms from eight Asian countries for 1996, we find that firm value increases with cash-flow rights of the ultimate shareholder. This result is consistent

  4. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bauer

    2002-01-01

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and

  5. PH urine test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine is tested for acidity or alkalinity (pH) because certain medications are more effective in acidic or alkaline environments. Medications for urinary tract infections are more effective when the urine ...

  6. Ultimate flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, D.

    1995-09-01

    As a result of massive restructuring and streamlining since the privatization of British Gas in 1986, the company runs one of the biggest integrated energy networks in the world, from the exploration for new reserves, through transmission and power generation, to t he delivery of gas to homes and businesses in Great Britain and, increasingly, overseas. Nevertheless, despite shedding 10,000 employees, British Gas has lost, and continues to lose, its share of the local non-domestic supply market. Because of fierce competition, the company`s hold on this British sector dropped from 50 to 40 percent in 1994 alone. Further, the company is facing tough competition fro other developers on the international scene. But the company has been highly successful in developing gas exploration and production initiatives, notably through exploration initiatives in Tunisia, the United ARab Emirates, and in the former Soviet Union.

  7. pH1N1 - a comparative analysis of public health responses in Ontario to the influenza outbreak, public health and primary care: lessons learned and policy suggestions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ontario’s 36 Public Health Units (PHUs) were responsible for implementing the H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Plans (PIPs) to address the first pandemic influenza virus in over 40 years. It was the first under conditions which permitted mass immunization. This is therefore the first opportunity to learn and document what worked well, and did not work well, in Ontario’s response to pH1N1, and to make recommendations based on experience. Methods Our objectives were to: describe the PIP models, obtain perceptions on outcomes, lessons learned and to solicit policy suggestions for improvement. We conducted a 3-phase comparative analysis study comprised of semi-structured key informant interviews with local Medical Officers of Health (n?=?29 of 36), and Primary Care Physicians (n?=?20) and in Phase 3 with provincial Chief-Medical Officers of Health (n?=?6) and a provincial Medical Organization. Phase 2 data came from a Pan-Ontario symposium (n?=?44) comprised leaders representing: Public Health, Primary Care, Provincial and Federal Government. Results PIPs varied resulting in diverse experiences and lessons learned. This was in part due to different PHU characteristics that included: degree of planning, PHU and Primary Care capacity, population, geographic and relationships with Primary Care. Main lessons learned were: 1) Planning should be more comprehensive and operationalized at all levels. 2) Improve national and provincial communication strategies and eliminate contradictory messages from different sources. 3) An integrated community-wide response may be the best approach to decrease the impact of a pandemic. 4) The best Mass Immunization models can be quickly implemented and have high immunization rates. They should be flexible and allow for incremental responses that are based upon: i) pandemic severity, ii) local health system, population and geographic characteristics, iii) immunization objectives, and iv) vaccine supply. Conclusion “We were very lucky that pH1N1 was not more severe.” Consensus existed for more detailed planning and the inclusion of multiple health system and community stakeholders. PIPs should be flexible, allow for incremental responses and have important decisions (E.g., under which conditions Public Health, Primary Care, Pharmacists or others act as vaccine delivery agents.) made prior to a crisis. PMID:23890226

  8. arXiv:astro-ph/0009259v219Sep2000 How the Sun Shines

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    arXiv:astro-ph/0009259v219Sep2000 How the Sun Shines John N. Bahcall What makes the sun shine? How does the sun produce the vast amount of energy necessary to support life on earth? These questions 1833 Treatise on Astronomy: The sun's rays are the ultimate source of almost every motion which takes

  9. Ph.D. Manual PH.D. PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Ph.D. Manual 1 PH.D. PROGRAM IN SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY Manual of Policies and Procedures College://www.lehigh.edu/education/sp/phd_sp.html Approved: May 1985 Last Revision: July 2010 #12;Ph.D. Manual 2 Table of Contents Program Philosophy..................................................................................... 3 Differentiation of Ph.D. & Ed.S. Programs................................................... 8

  10. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  11. Residual ultimate strength of a very large crude carrier considering probabilistic damage extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Joonmo; Nam, Ji-Myung; Tayyar, Tansel

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides the prediction of ultimate longitudinal strengths of the hull girders of a very large crude carrier considering probabilistic damage extent due to collision and grounding accidents based on IMO Guidelines (2003). The probabilistic density functions of damage extent are expressed as a function of non-dimensional damage variables. The accumulated probabilistic levels of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% are taken into account for the estimation of damage extent. The ultimate strengths have been calculated using the in-house software called Ultimate Moment Analysis of Damaged Ships which is based on the progressive collapse method, with a new convergence criterion of force vector equilibrium. Damage indices are provided for several probable heeling angles from 0° (sagging) to 180° (hogging) due to collision- and grounding-induced structural failures and consequent flooding of compartments. This paper proves from the residual strength analyses that the second moment of area of a damage section can be a reliable index for the estimation of the residual ultimate strength. A simple polynomial formula is also proposed based on minimum residual ultimate strengths.

  12. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    PubMed

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. PMID:23928074

  13. Intra-Beam Scattering, Impedance, and Instabilities in Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    We have investigated collective effects in an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances in both planes, using PEP-X as an example. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, a 4.5 GeV ring running round beams at 200 mA in 3300 bunches, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current. The Touschek lifetime is 11 hours. Impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. We have investigated collective effects in PEP-X, an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances (at one angstrom wavelength) in both planes. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current of 200 mA, assuming round beams. The Touschek lifetime is quite large in PEP-X, 11.6 hours, and - near the operating point - increases with decreasing emittance. It is, however, a very sensitive function of momentum acceptance. In an ultimate ring like PEP-X impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. Before ultimate PEP-X can be realized, the question of how to run a machine with round beams needs serious study. For example, in this report we assumed that the vertical emittance is coupling dominated. It may turn out that using vertical dispersion is a preferable way to generate round beams. The choice will affect IBS and the Touschek effect.

  14. Space simulation ultimate pressure lowered two decades by removal of diffusion pump oil contaminants during operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The complex problem why large space simulation chambers do not realize the true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance have been identified and some advances in vacuum/distillation/fractionation technology have been achieved which resulted in a two decade or more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effect of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and reclaiming contaminated oil by high vacuum molecular distillation are described.

  15. Fiber/matrix interfacial bond ultimate and fatigue strength characterization in a 37 C dry environment

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, R.A., JR.; Black, J.; Miller, B. (Clemson University, SC (United States) Textile Research Institute, Princeton, Il (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate and fatigue strengths of the fiber/matrix interfacial bond of four fiber/matrix combinations (fiber: carbon, polyaramid; matrix: polysulfone, polycarbonate) have been quantitatively investigated in a dry 37 C environment using a microbond single fiber pull-out test method. Fatigue testing was conducted at 1 Hz using a sinusoidally varying applied load. Each sample type exhibited a linear relationship between peak applied interfacial shear stress and the logarithm of fatigue life. Interfacial bond fatigue behavior is apparently significantly influenced by both matrix viscoelastic behavior and fiber/matrix interfacial bond ultimate strength. 29 refs.

  16. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  17. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Langry, Kevin C. (Tracy, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  18. After Surgery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Viê?t) Home Care Instructions After Surgery H??ng D?n Ch?m Sóc T?i Nhà sau khi Ph?u Thu?t - Tiê?ng ... Health Information Translations Your Hospital Care After Surgery Ch?m Sóc ? B?nh Vi?n sau khi Ph?u Thu?t - ...

  19. High heels and polished floors: The ultimate challenge in research on slip-resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Manning; C. Jones

    1995-01-01

    The walking traction test was put to the ultimate test by measuring the coefficient of friction (cof) of six pairs of women's shoes including one with a flat profiled rubber sole and no separate heel and five with a range of raised heels (high heels), on a variety of dry and wet floors. The effect of applying three types of

  20. Ultimate capacity evaluation of reinforced concrete slabs using yield line analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mertz

    1995-01-01

    Yield line theory offers a simplified nonlinear analytical method that can determine the ultimate bending capacity of flat reinforced concrete planes subject to distributed and concentrated loads. Alternately, yield line theory, combined with hinge rotation limits can determine the energy absorption capacity of plates subject to impulsive and impact loads. This method is especially useful in evaluating existing structures that

  1. Fundamental noise sources that limit the ultimate resolution of fiber optic sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjell Blotekjaer

    1998-01-01

    It is a commonly encountered statement that shot-noise is the most fundamental and ultimately limiting noise source in any photonic device, because all other noise sources can in principle be reduced to insignificant values. However, this perspective is often of little value, since in practice it is impossible to eliminate other, more trivial, noise sources. It is useful to classify

  2. Edeline et al. Eel continental dispersal Proximate and ultimate control of eel continental

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Edeline et al. Eel continental dispersal Chapter 18 Proximate and ultimate control of eel,version1-29Nov2011 Author manuscript, published in "Spawning Migration of the European Eel Reproduction;Edeline et al. Eel continental dispersal INTRODUCTION Eels Anguilla spp. are fishes belonging

  3. Response of post-tensioned concrete beams with unbonded tendons including serviceability and ultimate state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Vu; A. Castel; R. François

    2010-01-01

    The model proposed in this paper calculates the structural response of post-tensioned prestressed beams with unbonded tendons, including both the deflections under service loading, before or after cracking, and the ultimate bearing capacity. Both monotonic and repeated load effects are considered. The originality of the model appears in the calculation of prestressed concrete serviceability after cracking, based on a non-linear

  4. Ultimate pressure capacity analysis of a post-tensioned reinforced concrete nuclear reactor containment building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Dooley; R. W. Macek; S. Sadik

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a three dimensional nonlinear structural analysis of a post-tensioned reinforced concrete nuclear reactor containment building. The objective of the analysis was to develop and demonstrate modeling techniques appropriate for determining the global ultimate internal pressure capacity of this type of containment. The structural model developed for the ADINA computer code employed nonlinear material models with truss, shell

  5. Ultimate boundedness control for uncertain discrete-time systems via set-induced Lyapunov functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Blanchini

    1994-01-01

    In this note, linear discrete-time systems affected by both parameter and input uncertainties are considered. The problem of the synthesis of a feedback control, assuring that the system state is ultimately bounded within a given compact set containing the origin with an assigned rate of convergence, is investigated. It is shown that the problem has a solution if and only

  6. ULTIMATE BEHAVIOR OF HEAVY STEEL SECTION WELDED SPLICES AND DESIGN IMPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Michel

    ULTIMATE BEHAVIOR OF HEAVY STEEL SECTION WELDED SPLICES AND DESIGN IMPLICATIONS By Michel Bruneau,' Associate Member, ASCE, and Stephen A. Mahin,2 Member, ASCE ABSTRACT: Full- and partial-penetration butt-welded splices of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) group four and five rolled steel sections

  7. Prediction of local ultimate strain and toughness of trabecular bone tissue by Raman material composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Roberto; Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r = 0.65-0.94). Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters. PMID:25695083

  8. diffusional rewelding of the damage, thus pro-viding the ultimate biomimetic property of

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    diffusional rewelding of the damage, thus pro- viding the ultimate biomimetic property of self healing. Thermodynamic compatibility of the pair of two-phase alloys requires a four- phase equilibrium of mechanical concepts that uses a TiNi-reinforced Sn alloy composite prototype to demonstrate both macroscopic

  9. Influence of anisotropic damage on ultimate load of plane strain problems for foundation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Sun; Xi Hong Zhao; Kwang Wei Lo

    2003-01-01

    The solutions of ultimate load problems are derived by the slip line method coupling the anisotropic damage under plane strain condition. Application is made to flat obtuse-angle wedge. Bearing capacity for the flat obtuse-angle wedge is obtained. Influences of anisotropic damage on bearing capacity factors of shallow and deep foundations, earth pressure of retaining wall are analyzed in this paper.

  10. bleaching may ultimately help reef corals to survive the recurrent and increasingly

    E-print Network

    Pretoria, University of

    bleaching may ultimately help reef corals to survive the recurrent and increasingly severe warming events projected by current climate models of the next half-century3 . Bleaching is an ecological gamble in that it sacrifices short-term benefits for long-term advantage. This counters conventional wisdom that bleaching

  11. Ultimate Government Control Structures and Firm Value: Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Wang; Xing Xiao

    We show that 70% of Chinese listed companies are ultimately controlled by government agencies, thereby indicating that state ownership remains widespread in China's stock markets. Three questions are considered that are related to government control structures and their impact on firm value: (1) how do government agencies maintain their control of listed companies; (2) what are the impacts of different

  12. The Ultimate Flag Games Curriculum: An Answer to a Participation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie

    2011-01-01

    In response to a lack of active participation by students in physical education, the Ultimate Flag Games curriculum was created and has thrived in the decades since its inception. The curriculum has been successful at the middle school, high school, and higher education levels. This article introduced the curriculum, different games, and rules and…

  13. Ultimate strength of carbon nanotubes: A theoretical study Qingzhong Zhao, Marco Buongiorno Nardelli, and J. Bernholc

    E-print Network

    than armchair tubes with same diameter.9,10 Different orientations of the carbon bonds with respect, the behavior of nanotubes under large tensile strain strongly depends on their symmetry and diameter7 important in addressing the problem of strength of carbon nanotubes, do not clearly determine the ultimate

  14. An experimental analysis of harmful algaezooplankton interactions and the ultimate defense

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    An experimental analysis of harmful algae­zooplankton interactions and the ultimate defense Emily J characterized as a harmful algal bloom (HAB) species by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commis- sion alga. Behavioral observations revealed no significant effects of P. parvum on daphniid feeding

  15. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... to stay in the hospital for the esophageal pH monitoring. ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how ...

  16. The pH scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-05-26

    Some animals tolerate broad changes in pH well while others do not. Human activities can create acid rain. Acid rain can change the pH of the environment and destroy entire ecosystems and habitats. For an ecosystem to function properly, its pH must be able to accommodate all of the organisms living in it.

  17. A survey of present and future treatment of ultimate wastes in the primary aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Teissier-duCros, A.R. [Gean Overseas/Bossard, Decatur, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation is to survey production of ultimate waste in the primary aluminum industry and to discuss in which directions will the industry go and which kind of opportunities these trends have created for the waste industry. When considering any waste generated by this industry, one can therefore be sure of one thing: production will increase, and so will waste generation unless some major technological changes take place which would either recycle waste, or find a use for ultimate waste, and prevent waste generation in the first place. Conventional scrubbing of industrial fumes is largely applied and converts polluting gases into sludges and ashes. Plasma processing has found some initial applications here.

  18. Ultimate kinematic characteristics of rail electromagnetic launchers with metal armatures in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevich, S. V.; Shvetsov, G. A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulation of the Joule heating of the armature and rails in rail launchers of metal bodies with one or two augmenting rails generating an external magnetic field. The ultimate projectile velocity is calculated under the assumption that the Joule heating of the armature and rails during acceleration does not exceed the melting temperature of the materials of which they are made. It is shown that, with an appropriate choice of the position of the coils generating the augmenting magnetic field with respect to the launcher channel and the current magnitude in them, the heat load on the rails and armature in electromagnetic launchers of solids can be substantially reduced and the ultimate kinematic characteristics of these launchers in crisis-free regimes can be considerably increased.

  19. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-Li; Feng, Ji-Cai; Chen, Ke

    2015-06-01

    This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  20. Ultimate strength assessment of a tanker hull based on experimentally developed master curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingcai; Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2013-06-01

    A geometrically similar scaling was made from small-scale specimen to full-scale stiffened panels and then their collapse behaviour is investigated. It is considered that the stiffened panel compressive ultimate strength test was designed according to geometrical scaling laws so that the output of the test could be used as representative of the stiffened panels of the compressive zone of a tanker hull subjected to vertical bending moment. The ultimate strength of a tanker hull is analysed by a FE analysis using the experimentally developed master stress-strain curves which are obtained by the beam tension test and the compressive test of the stiffened panel, and are then compared with the result achieved by the progressive collapse method.

  1. Ultimate sensitivity of precision measurements with Gaussian quantum light : a multi-modal approach

    E-print Network

    Olivier Pinel; Julien Fade; Daniel Braun; Pu Jian; Nicolas Treps; Claude Fabre

    2011-10-07

    Multimode Gaussian quantum light, which includes multimode squeezed and multipartite quadrature entangled light, is a very general and powerful quantum resource with promising applications in quantum information processing and metrology. In this paper, we determine the ultimate sensitivity in the estimation of any parameter when the information about this parameter is encoded in such light, irrespective of the information extraction protocol used in the estimation and of the measured observable. In addition we show that an appropriate homodyne detection scheme allows us to reach this ultimate sensitivity. We show that, for a given set of available quantum resources, the most economical way to maximize the sensitivity is to put the most squeezed state available in a well-de ned light mode. This implies that it is not possible to take advantage of the existence of squeezed fluctuations in other modes, nor of quantum correlations and entanglement between diff erent modes.

  2. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  3. Downy woodpecker pair bond maintenance in winter: Proximate and ultimate mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Scott Kellam

    2003-01-01

    In most birds, the pair bond relationship during the reproductive period is ubiquitous and often necessary for reproductive success. However, trade-offs between the costs and benefits of pair bond maintenance (PBM) make this relationship more variable in the non-breeding season. I determined some of the proximate and ultimate factors that could contribute to inter- and intra-specific variation observed in avian

  4. Ultimate-state scaling in a shell model for homogeneous turbulent convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Ko, T. C.

    2008-09-01

    An interesting question in turbulent convection is how the heat transport depends on the strength of thermal forcing in the limit of very large thermal forcing. Kraichnan predicted [Phys. Fluids 5, 1374 (1962)] that for fluids with low Prandtl number (Pr), the heat transport measured by the Nusselt number (Nu) would depend on the strength of thermal forcing measured by the Rayleigh number (Ra) as N?Ra1/2 with logarithmic corrections at very high Ra. According to Kraichnan, the shear boundary layers play a crucial role in giving rise to this so-called ultimate-state scaling. A similar scaling result is predicted by the Grossmann-Lohse theory [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)], but with the assumption that the ultimate state is a bulk-dominated state in which both the average kinetic and thermal dissipation rates are dominated by contributions from the bulk of the flow with the boundary layers either broken down or playing no role in the heat transport. In this paper, we study the dependence of Nu and the Reynolds number (Re) measuring the root-mean-squared velocity fluctuations on Ra and Pr, for low Pr, using a shell model for homogeneous turbulent convection where buoyancy is acting directly on most of the scales. We find that N?Ra1/2Pr1/2 and R?Ra1/2Pr-1/2 , which resemble the ultimate-state scaling behavior for fluids with low Pr, and show that the presence of a drag acting on the large scales is crucial in giving rise to such scaling. As a large-scale drag cannot exist by itself in the bulk of turbulent thermal convection, our results indicate that if buoyancy acts on most of the scales in the bulk of turbulent convection at very high Ra, then the ultimate state cannot be bulk dominated.

  5. Results from large scale ultimate strength tests of K-braced jacket frame structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phase 2 of the JIP Frames Project included four large scale collapse tests of K-braced frames in which both gap and overlap K joints were the critical components. The results are presented in this paper. The local failure modes differed from typical isolated component tests, yet were representative of structural damage observed following Hurricane Andrew. The frame test results therefore provide important insight to the ultimate response of offshore jacket structures.

  6. Prototype impact tests on ultimate impact resistance of PC rock-sheds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kishi; H. Konno; K Ikeda; K. G Matsuoka

    2002-01-01

    To confirm the ultimate impact-resistant capacity of Prestressed Concrete (PC) rock-sheds constructed over the highways in Japan, prototype impact tests are conducted by using two types of PC rock-shed frames: inverted L frame and fully rigid frame. The two types are of equal dimensions: span length=10.1m, upper flange width=150cm, column height=4.65m. The impact tests are performed by iteratively and freely

  7. Ultimate-state scaling in a shell model for homogeneous turbulent convection.

    PubMed

    Ching, Emily S C; Ko, T C

    2008-09-01

    An interesting question in turbulent convection is how the heat transport depends on the strength of thermal forcing in the limit of very large thermal forcing. Kraichnan predicted [Phys. Fluids 5, 1374 (1962)] that for fluids with low Prandtl number (Pr), the heat transport measured by the Nusselt number (Nu) would depend on the strength of thermal forcing measured by the Rayleigh number (Ra) as Nu approximately Ra(1/2) with logarithmic corrections at very high Ra. According to Kraichnan, the shear boundary layers play a crucial role in giving rise to this so-called ultimate-state scaling. A similar scaling result is predicted by the Grossmann-Lohse theory [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)], but with the assumption that the ultimate state is a bulk-dominated state in which both the average kinetic and thermal dissipation rates are dominated by contributions from the bulk of the flow with the boundary layers either broken down or playing no role in the heat transport. In this paper, we study the dependence of Nu and the Reynolds number (Re) measuring the root-mean-squared velocity fluctuations on Ra and Pr, for low Pr, using a shell model for homogeneous turbulent convection where buoyancy is acting directly on most of the scales. We find that Nu approximately Ra(1/2)Pr(1/2) and Re approximately Ra(1/2)Pr(-1/2) , which resemble the ultimate-state scaling behavior for fluids with low Pr, and show that the presence of a drag acting on the large scales is crucial in giving rise to such scaling. As a large-scale drag cannot exist by itself in the bulk of turbulent thermal convection, our results indicate that if buoyancy acts on most of the scales in the bulk of turbulent convection at very high Ra, then the ultimate state cannot be bulk dominated. PMID:18851145

  8. Ultimate Accuracy for the nand Flash Program Algorithm Due to the Electron Injection Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Monzio Compagnoni; Alessandro S. Spinelli; Riccardo Gusmeroli; Silvia Beltrami; Andrea Ghetti; Angelo Visconti

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the ultimate accuracy of the NAND flash program algorithm that is determined by the statistical injection of electrons from the substrate to the floating gate. The granular nature of the electron flow during a constant-current Fowler-Nordheim program operation is shown to spread the programmed threshold-voltage distribution of the array cells. The electron injection statistics displays a Poissonian

  9. Harmonious Balance as the Ultimate Reality in Artistic and Philosophical Interpretation of the Taiji Diagram

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-I Dow

    In an attempt to decipher and understand the ultimate reality and enable our lives to have realistic guidance, it appears\\u000a at present, thanks to the advancement of quantum mechanics, that the universe is evolving through a two-fold process. This\\u000a two-fold basic structure interacts in complementary contradiction and allows for a harmonious balance, which assures the existence\\u000a of and change in

  10. The ultimate safe (US) Reactor: A concept for the third millenium

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor is based on a novel safety concept. Fission products in the reactor are allowed to accumulate only to a level at which they would constitute a harmless source term. Removal of fission products also removes the decay heat - the driving force for the source term. The reactor has no excess criticality and is controlled by the reactivity temperature coefficient. Safety is inherent and passive. Waste is removed from the site promptly.

  11. Computational Study of the Ultimate Scaling Limits of CNT Tunneling Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Poli; Susanna Reggiani; Antonio Gnudi; Elena Gnani; Giorgio Baccarani

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate scaling limits of p-i-n carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are investigated through numerical simulations based on a quantum-mechanical transport within the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, based on an energy-dependent effective mass, including inelastic phonon scattering. Starting from the projected specifications of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors for the low-operating-power double-gate MOSFETs, the effect of variations of oxide thickness,

  12. arXiv:astro-ph/0408456v21Dec2004 Measuring Dark Energy Clustering with CMB-Galaxy Correlations

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wayne

    arXiv:astro-ph/0408456v21Dec2004 Measuring Dark Energy Clustering with CMB-Galaxy Correlations opportunity to study the dynamics of the dark energy through its large scale clustering properties. Ultimately 3% changes in the gravitational potential or total density fluctuation due to dark energy clustering

  13. Searching for conditions to form stable protein oligomers with amyloid-like characteristics: The unexplored basic pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basir Ahmad; Julia Winkelmann; Bruno Tiribilli; Fabrizio Chiti

    2010-01-01

    Conversion of peptides and proteins from their native states into amyloid fibrillar aggregates is the hallmark of a number of pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease and amyloidosis. Evidence is accumulating that soluble oligomers, as opposed to mature fibrils, mediate cellular dysfunction, ultimately leading to disease onset. In this study, we have explored the ability of alkaline pH solutions, which have

  14. Simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Zeng, Mao-Mao; Zheng, Zong-Ping; He, Zhi-Yong; Tao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Ya-Hui; Chen, Jie

    2014-12-01

    A novel method allowing simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors (phenylalanine, tyrosine, creatine, creatinine, glucose) has been developed as a robust kinetic study tool by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A direct hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction was applied to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all seven analytes, with the mean recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% at two concentration levels. Then, an Atlantis dC18 column selected from four different chromatographic columns was ultimately used to separate these compounds within 15 min. The limits of detection range of allseven analytes were calculated as 0.14-325.00 ?g L(-1). The intra- and interday precision of the proposed method were less than 15.4 and 19.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to depict the kinetic profiles of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors in pork model, reducing the analysis time and cost in the kinetic study. PMID:25407701

  15. Effects of reservoir geometry and permeability anisotropy on ultimate gas recovery in Devonian Shale reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Starnes, Lee McKennon

    1989-01-01

    reservoir pressure of 600 psi 3. Dry gas with a specific gravity of 0. 65 4. Gas produced from a single well at a constant bottornhole pressure of 100 psi 5. Well life of 50 years 6. Well spacings of 20, 40, 80, and 160 acres 7. Formation depth of 2000...EFFECTS OF RESERVOIR GEOMETRY AND PERMEABILITY ANISOTROPY ON ULTIMATE GAS RECOVERY IN DEVONIAN SHALE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by LEE McKENNON STARNES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  16. Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Scalise; Daniele Rinaldi; Fabrizio Davì; Nicola Paone

    2011-01-01

    Scintillating crystals are employed in high energy physics, in medical imaging, diagnostic and security. Two mechanical properties of lutetium–yttrium oxyorthosilicate cerium-doped Lu2(1?x)Y2xSiO5:Ce with x=0.1 (LYSO) crystals have been measured: the ultimate tensile stress (?UTS) and the Young elastic modulus (E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results account for an elastic–brittle stress–strain relation,

  17. Editorial Selected papers from the 15th Ultimate Integration on Silicon (ULIS) conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.

    2015-06-01

    This special issue includes selected papers, based on the presentations at the 15th Ultimate Integration on Silicon (ULIS) conference. ULIS is an annual conference that regroups the European research community working on advanced silicon devices and nano devices. It has been held annually since 1999. The aim of the ULIS Conference is to provide an open forum for the presentation and discussion of recent research in technology, physics, modelling, simulation and characterization of advanced nanoscale silicon and silicon compatible devices in the More Moore, More than Moore and Beyond CMOS domains.

  18. 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba-Son [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jen-Fin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Perng, Dung-Ching, E-mail: dcperng@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Electrical Engineering Department, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750?°C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750?°C. At 800?°C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

  19. X-ray clues on the ultimate fate of compact radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2005-10-01

    Are compact radio galaxies intrinsically X-ray weak? Do they otherwise live in dense environments? If the latter is true, does the nuclear gas affect the jet evolution in radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)? In order to answer these questions, we propose to observe within the XMM-Newton AO5 a radio-selected complete sample of Giga-Hertz Peaked (GPS) galaxies. We request 9 objects, for a total allocation time of 210 ks. The proposed observations will provide clues on the nature of compact radio sources, and on the ultimate fate of small-scale radio structure evolution.

  20. X-ray clues on the ultimate fate of compact radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2006-10-01

    Are compact radio galaxies intrinsically X-ray weak? Do they otherwise live in dense environments? If the latter is true, does the nuclear gas affect the jet evolution in radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)? In order to answer these questions, we propose to complete within the XMM-Newton AO6 a radio-selected complete sample of Giga-Hertz Peaked (GPS) galaxies. We request 7 objects, for a total allocation time of 170 ks. The proposed observations will provide clues on the nature of compact radio sources, and on the ultimate fate of small-scale radio structure evolution.

  1. Optimal estimation of losses at the ultimate quantum limit with non-Gaussian states

    E-print Network

    G. Adesso; F. Dell'Anno; S. De Siena; F. Illuminati; L. A. M. Souza

    2009-04-23

    We address the estimation of the loss parameter of a bosonic channel probed by arbitrary signals. Unlike the optimal Gaussian probes, which can attain the ultimate bound on precision asymptotically either for very small or very large losses, we prove that Fock states at any fixed photon number saturate the bound unconditionally for any value of the loss. In the relevant regime of low-energy probes, we demonstrate that superpositions of the first low-lying Fock states yield an absolute improvement over any Gaussian probe. Such few-photon states can be recast quite generally as truncations of de-Gaussified photon-subtracted states.

  2. Engineering Ultimate Self-Protection in Autonomic Agents for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) will push space exploration missions to the limit. Future missions will be required to be self-managing as well as self-directed, in order to meet the challenges of human and robotic space exploration. We discuss security and self protection in autonomic agent based-systems, and propose the ultimate self-protection mechanism for such systems-self-destruction. Like other metaphors in Autonomic Computing, this is inspired by biological systems, and is the analog of biological apoptosis. Finally, we discus the role it might play in future NASA space exploration missions.

  3. Modeling source-drain tunneling in ultimately scaled III-V transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2015-06-01

    Intraband source-drain tunneling is predicted to limit leakage current in sub-10 nm field-effect transistors (FETs). We use non-equilibrium Green's function simulations to study this effect in III-V multigate FETs and derive simple, accurate intraband tunneling formulas suitable for use in compact models or semiclassical device simulators. Band nonparabolicity effects are shown to be quantitatively important and incorporated using band gap scaling. We also supply a general subthreshold electrostatic model including source and drain depletion effects for analytical modeling. Our results enable rapid modeling and simulation of ultimately scaled III-V FETs for device evaluation and optimization.

  4. Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 physics at the graduate level 4. understand observational astronomy techniques 5. understand astrophysics strong background of knowledge and expertise in physics and astronomy #12;2. Curriculum Alignment

  5. Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universitt Leipzig 1650

    E-print Network

    Matta, Abraham "Ibrahim"

    Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universität Leipzig 1650 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Dr. jur. Universität Altdorf 1666 Johann Bernoulli, Ph.D. 1694 Leonhard Euler, Ph.D. Universität Basel 1726 Joseph Louis Lagrange, Ph.D. Simeon Denis Poisson, Ph.D. Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, Ph

  6. Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Kazama, Hokto

    Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Atsushi MIYAWAKI, M.D., Ph.D. Tadaharu TSUMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Shin OHKOUCHI Masao ITO, M.D., Ph.D. Shun-ichi AMARI, D.Eng. Susumu TONEGAWA, Ph Committee Senior Advisor Charles YOKOYAMA, Ph.D. Neural Circuit Function Developmental Gene Regulation

  7. Cyclic pitch control for the reduction of ultimate loads on wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Croce, A.; Riboldi, C. E. D.; Salvetti, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we study the use of individual blade pitch control as a way to reduce ultimate loads. This load alleviation strategy exploits the fact that cyclic pitching of the blades induces in general a reduction of the average loading of a wind turbine, at least for some components as the main bearing, the yaw bearing, or the tower. When ultimate loads are generated during shutdowns, the effect of the use of cyclic pitch results in reduced peak loads. In fact, as the machine starts from a less stressed condition, the response to an extreme gust or other event will result in reduced loading on its components. This form of load mitigation can be seen as a preventative load mitigation strategy: the effect on load reduction is obtained without the need to detect and react to an extreme event, but by simply unloading the machine so that, in case an extreme event happens, the result will be less severe. The effect of peak load mitigation by preventative cyclic pitch is investigated with reference to a multi-MW wind turbine, by using high-fidelity aeroelastic simulations in a variety of operating conditions.

  8. Ultimate osmosis engineered by the pore geometry and functionalization of carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  9. A numerical model for ultimate soil resistance to an untrenched pipeline under ocean currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fu-ping; Han, Xi-ting; Yan, Shu-ming

    2012-06-01

    One of the main concerns for pipeline on-bottom stability design is to properly predict ultimate soil resistance in severe ocean environments. A plane-strain finite element model is proposed to investigate the ultimate soil resistance to the partially-embedded pipeline under the action of ocean currents. Two typical end-constraints of the submarine pipelines are examined, i.e. freely-laid pipes and anti-rolling pipes. The proposed numerical model is verified with the existing mechanical-actuator experiments. The magnitude of lateral-soil-resistance coefficient for the examined anti-rolling pipes is much larger than that for the freely-laid pipes, indicating that the end-constraint condition significantly affects the lateral stability of the untrenched pipeline under ocean currents. The parametric study indicates that, the variation of lateral-soil-resistance coefficient with the dimensionless submerged weight of pipe is affected greatly by the angle of internal friction of soil, the pipe-soil friction coefficient, etc.

  10. Formulation of reduction rate for ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panel induced by opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-li; Lee, Joo-sung

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate the characteristics of ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panels with opening and also to fit the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experimental data on longitudinally stiffened steel plates with and without opening subjected to the uniform axial in-pane load which is carried out to study the buckling and post-buckling up to the final failure are chosen. Also, a nonlinear finite element method capable of efficiently analyzing the large elasto-plastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels is developed and used for simulation. The feasibility of the present simulation process is confirmed by a good agreement with the experimental results. More case studies are developed employing the simulation process to analyze the influence of various design variables on the reduction rate of ultimate strength of stiffened panel induced by opening. Based on the computed results, two design formulae are fitted and the accuracy of design formulae is studied. Furthermore, the viability of the design formulae for practical engineering is proved.

  11. The n-of-1 clinical trial: the ultimate strategy for individualizing medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Elizabeth O; Patay, Bradley; Diamant, Joel; Issell, Brian; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    N-of-1 or single subject clinical trials consider an individual patient as the sole unit of observation in a study investigating the efficacy or side-effect profiles of different interventions. The ultimate goal of an n-of-1 trial is to determine the optimal or best intervention for an individual patient using objective data-driven criteria. Such trials can leverage study design and statistical techniques associated with standard population-based clinical trials, including randomization, washout and crossover periods, as well as placebo controls. Despite their obvious appeal and wide use in educational settings, n-of-1 trials have been used sparingly in medical and general clinical settings. We briefly review the history, motivation and design of n-of-1 trials and emphasize the great utility of modern wireless medical monitoring devices in their execution. We ultimately argue that n-of-1 trials demand serious attention among the health research and clinical care communities given the contemporary focus on individualized medicine. PMID:21695041

  12. Approaching Ultimate Intrinsic SNR in a Uniform Spherical Sample with Finite Arrays of Loop Coils

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Manushka V.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated to what degree and at what rate the ultimate intrinsic (UI) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be approached using finite radiofrequency detector arrays. We used full-wave electromagnetic field simulations based on dyadic Green’s functions to compare the SNR of arrays of loops surrounding a uniform sphere with the ultimate intrinsic SNR (UISNR), for increasing numbers of elements over a range of magnetic field strengths, voxel positions, sphere sizes, and acceleration factors. We evaluated the effect of coil conductor losses and the performance of a variety of distinct geometrical arrangements such as “helmet” and “open-pole” configurations in multiple imaging planes. Our results indicate that UISNR at the center is rapidly approached with encircling arrays and performance is substantially lower near the surface, where a quadrature detection configuration tailored to voxel position is optimal. Coil noise is negligible at high field, where sample noise dominates. Central SNR for practical array configurations such as the helmet is similar to that of close-packed arrangements. The observed trends can provide physical insights to improve coil design.

  13. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa. PMID:23569295

  14. Experimental evaluation of the post-ultimate strength behavior of a ship's hull girder in waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weijun; Iijima, Kazuhiro; Wada, Ryota; Fujikubo, Masahiko

    2012-03-01

    Experimental investigations into the collapse behavior of a box-shape hull girder subjected to extreme wave-induced loads are presented. The experiment was performed using a scaled model in a tank. In the middle of the scaled model, sacrificial specimens with circular pillar and trough shapes which respectively show different bending moment-displacement characteristics were mounted to compare the dynamic collapse characteristics of the hull girder in waves. The specimens were designed by using finite element (FE)-analysis. Prior to the tank tests, static four-point-bending tests were conducted to detect the load-carrying capacity of the hull girder. It was shown that the load-carrying capacity of a ship including reduction of the capacity after the ultimate strength can be reproduced experimentally by employing the trough type specimens. Tank tests using these specimens were performed under a focused wave in which the hull girder collapses under once and repetitive focused waves. It was shown from the multiple collapse tests that the increase rate of collapse becomes higher once the load-carrying capacity enters the reduction path while the increase rate is lower before reaching the ultimate strength.

  15. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  16. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Chen Guang; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2014-09-01

    In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR), Common Structural Rules (CSR), and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH) are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS), and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM). To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  17. Ultimate Osmosis Engineered by the Pore Geometry and Functionalization of Carbon Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  18. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  19. PhEDEx Data Service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky Egeland; Tony Wildish; Chih-Hao Huang

    2010-01-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the \\

  20. Ultimate capacity of post-installed anchor bolt under static shear, tension and the combined shear and tension loads

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Kitada, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Div.; Maruyama, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan); Arai, K. [Toshiba Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the ultimate load capacities of typical post-installed anchor bolts under static tension, shear and combined tension and shear (combination) loads. The static loading test applying tension, shear, and combination loads was carried out on post-installed anchor bolts, such as resin-anchor bolt, and two types of mechanical anchor bolt: undercut type and sleeve-expansion type. Based on the test results, the equations currently used to calculate the ultimate allowable loading capacity of post-installed anchor bolts were investigated to establish the confidence level. Particular attention was paid to the ultimate load carrying capacities for combination loads.

  1. 75 FR 80536 - Procedures for the Surrender of Unwanted Controlled Substances by Ultimate Users; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...invites all interested persons, including ultimate users, pharmacies, law enforcement, reverse distributors, and other third...agencies; publicly owned treatment works; DEA-registered pharmacies; DEA- registered manufacturers, distributors, and...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...AND DOCUMENTATION Pt. 748, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 748—BIS-711, Statement by...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...AND DOCUMENTATION Pt. 748, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 748—BIS-711, Statement by...

  4. Secret Plans Tab by Eagles Of Death Metal, www.Ultimate-Guitar.Com SECRET PLANS -Eagles of Death Metal

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    Secret Plans Tab by Eagles Of Death Metal, www.Ultimate-Guitar.Com ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECRET PLANS - Eagles of Death Metal 4] (What I want!) And that's it! Another simple but great song by the Eagles of Death Metal. #12;

  5. PhDAHP1 is required for floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Petunia × hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid'.

    PubMed

    Langer, Kelly M; Jones, Correy R; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Rushing, Gabrielle V; Kim, Joo Young; Clark, David G; Colquhoun, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis consists of numerous enzymatic and regulatory processes. The initial enzymatic step bridging primary metabolism to secondary metabolism is the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) carried out via 3-DEOXY-D-ARABINO-HEPTULOSONATE-7-PHOSPHATE (DAHP) synthase. Here, identified, cloned, localized, and functionally characterized were two DAHP synthases from the model plant species Petunia × hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD). Full-length transcript sequences for PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 were identified and cloned using cDNA SMART libraries constructed from pooled MD corolla and leaf total RNA. Predicted amino acid sequence of PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins were 76% and 80% identical to AtDAHP1 and AtDAHP2 from Arabidopsis, respectively. PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to relatively highest levels in petal limb and tube tissues, while PhDAHP2 accumulated to highest levels in leaf and stem tissues. Through floral development, PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to highest levels during open flower stages, and PhDAHP2 transcript remained constitutive throughout. Radiolabeled PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins localized to plastids, however, PhDAHP2 localization appeared less efficient. PhDAHP1 RNAi knockdown petunia lines were reduced in total FVBP emission compared to MD, while PhDAHP2 RNAi lines emitted 'wildtype' FVBP levels. These results demonstrate that PhDAHP1 is the principal DAHP synthase protein responsible for the coupling of metabolites from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism, and the ultimate biosynthesis of FVBPs in the MD flower. PMID:24815009

  6. Modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes potentially suitable for intracellular pH measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghini, Giacomo; Puleo, Gian Luigi; Trono, Cosimo; Giannetti, Ambra; Luconi, Lapo; Bianchini, Claudio; Giambastiani, Giuliano; Baldini, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) have been studied as macromolecular carriers for pH indicators to be used inside cells. The activation of carboxylic groups with thionyl chloride (SOCl2) followed by the reaction with a family of fluorescein ethylen glycol derivatives led to dyes covalently anchored to the MWCNT surface. Such a functionalization was found to preserve wholly the fluorescence properties of the dye ultimately providing higher water solubility to the modified macromolecular systems. Moreover, the use of a polyether spacer between the dye and the MWCNT surface preserved from undesired florescence quenching effects. The pH dependence of the modified nanotubes was investigated interrogating a solution of MWCNTs, the pH of which was adjusted in the range 4-9 pH units by adding drops of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Light from LED was suitably filtered at 480 nm with a high pass-band filter and coupled to an optical fiber which illuminates the solution containing the fluorescein-functionalised MWCNTs. An optical fiber, at 90° with respect to the LED illumination, is connected with a Hamamtsu spectrum analyzer for the recording of the fluorescence spectra. The modified MWCNTs exhibited linear pH dependence in the range between 6 and 8 pH units with a sensitivity less than 0.1 pH units.

  7. Methods for ultimate limit state assessment of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures: Part II stiffened panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeom Kee Paik; Bong Ju Kim; Jung Kwan Seo

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is Part II of a series of three papers on methods useful for the ultimate limit state assessment of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures. In contrast to Part I [Paik et al., 2007a. Methods for ultimate limit state assessment of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures: Part I unstiffened plates, Ocean Engineering, doi:10.1016\\/j.oceaneng.2007.08.004] that deals with unstiffened plates,

  8. Residual ultimate strength of steel plates with longitudinal cracks under axial compression—Nonlinear finite element method investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to numerically examine the residual ultimate strength characteristics of steel plates with longitudinal cracks under axial compressive actions. The present paper is a sequel to the author's previous paper [Paik, J.K., 2008. Residual ultimate strength of steel plates with longitudinal cracks under axial compression—Experiments. Ocean Engineering 35, 1775–1783]. In contrast to the

  9. [Pilot scale research on impacts of leachate recirculation on its ultimate treatment].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhou; Jiang, Jian-guo; Huang, Zhong-lin; Feng, Xiang-ming; Zhou, Sheng-yong; Yang, Guo-dong

    2006-06-01

    Two pilot scale simulated columns, with and without leachate recirculation, were erected to study impacts of leachate recirculation of traditional anaerobic bioreactor landfill on leachate ultimate treatment methods. The results indicate that recirculation can remove organic pollutants visibly, but it isn't effective to inbiodegradable components, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. After recircualted for 44 weeks, test column has a BODs removal ratio of 98.5%. BOD5/COD value of outflow is only 0.07. BOD5/TN and BOD5/TP are 0.13 and 11 respectively, which are much lower than the adequate value for anaerobic microorganisms. It's difficult to treat this kind of leachate by traditional biological methods. When a bioreactor landfill is being designed, leachate characteristics after recirculated should be well considered and adequate leachate treatment, landfill and recirculation schemes should be chosen to take full advantage of waste stack decontamination effects. PMID:16921969

  10. An Ultimate Stereocontrol in Asymmetric Synthesis of Optically Pure Fully Aromatic Helicenes.

    PubMed

    Šámal, Michal; Chercheja, Serghei; Rybá?ek, Ji?í; Vacek Chocholoušová, Jana; Vacek, Jaroslav; Bednárová, Lucie; Šaman, David; Stará, Irena G; Starý, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    The role of the helicity of small molecules in enantioselective catalysis, molecular recognition, self-assembly, material science, biology, and nanoscience is much less understood than that of point-, axial-, or planar-chiral molecules. To uncover the envisaged potential of helically chiral polyaromatics represented by iconic helicenes, their availability in an optically pure form through asymmetric synthesis is urgently needed. We provide a solution to this problem present since the birth of helicene chemistry in 1956 by developing a general synthetic methodology for the preparation of uniformly enantiopure fully aromatic [5]-, [6]-, and [7]helicenes and their functionalized derivatives. [2 + 2 + 2] Cycloisomerization of chiral triynes combined with asymmetric transformation of the first kind (ultimately controlled by the 1,3-allylic-type strain) is central to this endeavor. The point-to-helical chirality transfer utilizing a traceless chiral auxiliary features a remarkable resistance to diverse structural perturbations. PMID:25928194

  11. The fiber-optic gyroscope, a century after Sagnac's experiment: The ultimate rotation-sensing technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Hervé C.

    2014-12-01

    Taking advantage of the development of optical-fiber communication technologies, the fiber-optic gyroscope (often abbreviated FOG) started to be investigated in the mid-1970s, opening the way for a fully solid-state rotation sensor. It was firstly seen as dedicated to medium-grade applications (1 ° / h range), but today, it reaches strategic-grade performance (10-4 ° / h range) and surpasses its well-established competitor, the ring-laser gyroscope, in terms of bias noise and long-term stability. Further progresses remain possible, the challenge being the ultimate inertial navigation performance of one nautical mile per month corresponding to a long-term bias stability of 10-5 ° / h. This paper is also the opportunity to recall the historical context of Sagnac's experiment, the origin of all optical gyros. xml:lang="fr"

  12. Search for the "ultimate state" in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    PubMed

    Funfschilling, Denis; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    Measurements of the Nusselt number Nu and of temperature variations DeltaTb in the bulk fluid are reported for turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a cylindrical sample. They cover the Rayleigh-number range 10(9) less than or similar to Ra less than or similar to 3x10(14) using He (Prandtl number Pr=0.67), N2 (Pr=0.72) and SF6 (Pr=0.79 to 0.84) at pressures up to 15 bars and near-ambient temperatures. The sample had a height L=2.24 m and diameter D=1.12 m and was located in a new High-Pressure Convection Facility (HPCF) at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen, Germany. The data do not show the transition to an "ultimate regime" reported by Chavanne et al. and are consistent with the measurements of Niemela et al. PMID:19659152

  13. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  14. Flexibility in reproductive timing in human females: integrating ultimate and proximate explanations

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    From an ultimate perspective, the age of onset of female reproduction should be sensitive to variation in mortality rates, and variation in the productivity of non-reproductive activities. In accordance with this prediction, most of the cross-national variation in women's age at first birth can be explained by differences in female life expectancies and incomes. The within-country variation in England shows a similar pattern: women have children younger in neighbourhoods where the expectation of healthy life is shorter and incomes are lower. I consider the proximate mechanisms likely to be involved in producing locally appropriate reproductive decisions. There is evidence suggesting that developmental induction, social learning and contextual evocation may all play a role. PMID:21199840

  15. Xenobiology: A new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biologists try to engineer useful biological systems that do not exist in nature. One of their goals is to design an orthogonal chromosome different from DNA and RNA, termed XNA for xeno nucleic acids. XNA exhibits a variety of structural chemical changes relative to its natural counterparts. These changes make this novel information-storing biopolymer “invisible” to natural biological systems. The lack of cognition to the natural world, however, is seen as an opportunity to implement a genetic firewall that impedes exchange of genetic information with the natural world, which means it could be the ultimate biosafety tool. Here I discuss, why it is necessary to go ahead designing xenobiological systems like XNA and its XNA binding proteins; what the biosafety specifications should look like for this genetic enclave; which steps should be carried out to boot up the first XNA life form; and what it means for the society at large. PMID:20217844

  16. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  17. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  18. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  19. Lattice Design for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; /SLAC; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC expertise in designing and operating high current storage rings and the availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel present an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the SPEAR3 storage ring in the future. The PEP-X 'baseline' design, with 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. As a next step, a so-called 'ultimate' PEP-X lattice, reducing the emittance to 11 pm-rad at zero current, has been designed. This emittance approaches the diffraction limited photon emittance for multi-keV photons, providing near maximum photon brightness and high coherence. It is achieved by using 7-bend achromat cells in the ring arcs and a 90-m damping wiggler in one of the 6 long straight sections. Details of the lattice design, dynamic aperture, and calculations of the intra-beam scattering effect and Touschek lifetime at a nominal 0.2 A current are presented. Accelerator-based light sources are in high demand for many experimental applications. The availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel at SLAC presents an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the existing SPEAR3 light source in the future. The PEP-X study started in 2008, and the 'baseline' design, yielding 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. This relatively conservative design can be built using existing technology. However, for a long term future, it is natural to investigate a more aggressive, so-called 'ultimate' ring design. The goal is to reduce the electron emittance in both x and y planes to near the diffraction limited photon emittance of 8 pm-rad at hard X-ray photon wavelength of 0.1 nm. This would provide a near maximum photon brightness and significant increase in photon coherence. This study was motivated by the advances in low emittance design at MAX-IV. The latter was used as a starting point for the PEP-X arc lattice, however new features were included into the design for better tuning capabilities and compensation of non-linear optics effects. Further emittance reduction is achieved with a 90-m damping wiggler. Finally, intra-beam scattering (IBS) and Touschek lifetime effects were estimated and cross-checked using various codes.

  20. A novel pathway to the ultimate mutagens of aromatic amino and nitro compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, D. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (West Germany))

    1990-08-01

    Photolysis of arylazides in aqueous media was recently found to generate presumed nitrenium ions, species which are generally considered as the ultimate mutagens/carcinogens derived from arylamines and nitroarenes. the primary photolysis products of arylazides, the arylnitrenes, can possibly react as electrophiles themselves, or they can be protonated and thus form the electrophilic nitrenium ions. Numerous arylazides and aryldiazides can be photoactivated to short-lived mutagens detectable in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Structure-activity comparisons between arylazides and the matching arylamines and nitroarenes show correlations; e.g., phenyl azide and methyl-substituted phenyl azides are not mutagenic or only weakly mutagenic like aniline, nitrogenzene, and their methyl homologues, whereas 4-azidodiphenyl, 2-azidofluorene, 1-azidopyrene, azido-IQ, and azido-isoIQ are increasingly mutagenic in that order, like the matching amino and nitrogen compounds. It is hypothesized on the basis of these data that the nitrene/nitrenium ion is the reactive intermediate common to the three mutagenic pathways and that the reaction of the nitrene/nitrenium ion with DNA is rate limiting for the overall mutagenic process in Salmonella. The photochemical generation from arylazides of the reactive species, the nitrene/nitrenium ions, opens new perspectives for the understanding of the genotoxic activity of arylamines and nitroarenes in general and, specifically, of the food mutagens/carcinogens of the IQ type.

  1. Ultimate thin vertical p–n junction composed of two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Min; Lee, Daeyeong; Qu, Deshun; Liu, Xiaochi; Ryu, Jungjin; Seabaugh, Alan; Yoo, Won Jong

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional crystals are currently receiving significant attention because of their great potential to be an ultrathin body for efficient electrostatic modulation, which enables to overcome the limitations of silicon technology. Here we report that, as a key building block for two-dimensional semiconductor devices, vertical p–n junctions are fabricated in ultrathin MoS2 by introducing AuCl3 and benzyl viologen dopants. Unlike usual unipolar MoS2, the MoS2 p–n junctions show ambipolar carrier transport, current rectification via modulation of potential barrier in films thicker than 8?nm and reversed current rectification via tunnelling in films thinner than 8?nm. The ultimate thinness of the vertical p–n homogeneous junctions in MoS2 is experimentally found to be 3?nm, and the chemical doping depth is found to be 1.5?nm. The ultrathin MoS2 p–n junctions present a significant potential of the two-dimensional crystals for flexible, transparent, high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25800613

  2. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  3. Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Daniele; Davì, Fabrizio; Paone, Nicola

    2011-10-01

    Scintillating crystals are employed in high energy physics, in medical imaging, diagnostic and security. Two mechanical properties of lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate cerium-doped Lu 2(1- x) Y 2 xSiO 5:Ce with x=0.1 (LYSO) crystals have been measured: the ultimate tensile stress ( ?UTS) and the Young elastic modulus ( E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results account for an elastic-brittle stress-strain relation, which depends heavily on the specimen preparation and the material defects. ?UTS along the [0 1 0] tensile direction ranges within 68.14 and 115.61 MPa, which, in the lowest case, is more than twice with respect to those measured for PbWO 4 (PWO), exhibiting a marked difference between the annealed and the not-annealed samples. The mean elastic modulus ( E), along the same direction, is E=1.80×10 11 (±2.15×10 10) N/m 2, with lower dispersion respect to UTS data. This type of analysis and study can be included into quality control procedures of crystals, based on samples taken out of production; such procedures can be established for industrial processing of crystals aimed to the high energy physics (calorimeters) and medical imaging (PET, etc.) applications.

  4. Correlation between the ultimate elongations of rapidly expanding rings and stretching metal jets

    SciTech Connect

    Gourdin, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    The recent work of Duffy and Golaski and Lichtenberger demonstrated that the initial metallurgical condition of a material can significantly affect its performance when used as a shaped-charge liner. Duffy and Golaski showed that the penetration of copper shaped charges increases by 10--20% when the grain size of the liner is reduced from 150 to 25 {mu}m and the uniformity of the microstructure is improved. Lichtenberger confirmed this behavior in liners made from oxygen-free electronic (OFE) grade copper and also showed that the purity of the liner material can produce similar effects. These observations suggest that some characteristic of the liner material itself can be correlated with shaped-charge performance. Such a characteristic, along with a corresponding laboratory test procedure, would be very useful as a means of identifying promising candidate materials prior to the expensive testing of prototype munitions. Lichtenberger has suggested that the recrystallization temperature'' is one such characteristic, and he has successfully demonstrated a correlation with jet behavior. In this paper, I suggest that the ultimate elongation of specimen rings expanded by means of the electromagnetic launch technique is another material characteristic that appears to correlate with the breakup behavior of stretching metal jets. I briefly discuss in general terms why such a correlation may exist and then offer some limited experimental evidence for it.

  5. The ultimate technology: the end of technology and the task of nature.

    PubMed

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound reassessment of nature and technology. Aristotle clearly separates these two domains of being in his definition, but in doing so, he also connects them to one another in a highly influential way. Following this line of thought, the article finally offers an original perspective involving renewed respect for the perpetual self-unfolding nature of living technology. PMID:23889743

  6. Ultimate thin vertical p–n junction composed of two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Min; Lee, Daeyeong; Qu, Deshun; Liu, Xiaochi; Ryu, Jungjin; Seabaugh, Alan; Yoo, Won Jong

    2015-03-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional crystals are currently receiving significant attention because of their great potential to be an ultrathin body for efficient electrostatic modulation, which enables to overcome the limitations of silicon technology. Here we report that, as a key building block for two-dimensional semiconductor devices, vertical p–n junctions are fabricated in ultrathin MoS2 by introducing AuCl3 and benzyl viologen dopants. Unlike usual unipolar MoS2, the MoS2 p–n junctions show ambipolar carrier transport, current rectification via modulation of potential barrier in films thicker than 8?nm and reversed current rectification via tunnelling in films thinner than 8?nm. The ultimate thinness of the vertical p–n homogeneous junctions in MoS2 is experimentally found to be 3?nm, and the chemical doping depth is found to be 1.5?nm. The ultrathin MoS2 p–n junctions present a significant potential of the two-dimensional crystals for flexible, transparent, high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  7. Ultimate linewidth reduction of a semiconductor laser frequency-stabilized to a Fabry-Pérot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Bahoura, Messaoud; Clairon, André

    2003-11-01

    We report a theoretical dynamical analysis on effect of semiconductor laser phase noise on the achievable linewidth when locked to a Fabry-Pérot cavity fringe using a modulation-demodulation frequency stabilization technique such as the commonly used Pound-Drever-Hall frequency locking scheme. We show that, in the optical domain, the modulation-demodulation operation produces, in the presence of semiconductor laser phase noise, two kinds of excess noise, which could be much above the shot noise limit, namely, conversion noise (PM-to-AM) and intermodulation noise. We show that, in typical stabilization conditions, the ultimate semiconductor laser linewidth reduction can be severely limited by the intermodulation excess noise. The modulation-demodulation operation produces the undesirable nonlinear intermodulation effect through which the phase noise spectral components of the semiconductor laser, in the vicinity of even multiples of the modulation frequency, are downconverted into the bandpass of the frequency control loop. This adds a spurious signal, at the modulation frequency, to the error signal and limits the performance of the locked semiconductor laser. This effect, reported initially in the microwave domain using the quasistatic approximation, can be considerably reduced by a convenient choice of the modulation frequency. PMID:14682624

  8. A novel pathway to the ultimate mutagens of aromatic amino and nitro compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Wild, D

    1990-01-01

    Photolysis of arylazides in aqueous media was recently found to generate presumed nitrenium ions, species which are generally considered as the ultimate mutagens/carcinogens derived from arylamines and nitroarenes. The primary photolysis products of arylazides, the arylnitrenes, can possibly react as electrophiles themselves, or they can be protonated and thus form the electrophilic nitrenium ions. Numerous arylazides and aryldiazides can be photoactivated to short-lived mutagens detectable in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Structure-activity comparisons between arylazides and the matching arylamines and nitroarenes show correlations; e.g., phenyl azide and methyl-substituted phenyl azides are not mutagenic or only weakly mutagenic like aniline, nitrobenzene, and their methyl homologues, whereas 4-azidodiphenyl, 2-azidofluorene, 1-azidopyrene, azido-IQ, and azido-isoIQ are increasingly mutagenic in that order, like the matching amino and nitro compounds. It is hypothesized on the basis of these data that the nitrene/nitrenium ion is the reactive intermediate common to the three mutagenic pathways and that the reaction of the nitrene/nitrenium ion with DNA is rate limiting for the overall mutagenic process in Salmonella. The photochemical generation from arylazides of the reactive species, the nitrene/nitrenium ions, opens new perspectives for the understanding of the genotoxic activity of arylamines and nitroarenes in general and, specifically, of the food mutagens/carcinogens of the IQ type. PMID:2272323

  9. The ultimate constant of head and neck oncology—the physician-patient relationship.

    PubMed

    Day, Terry A

    2014-12-01

    Head and neck surgeons have the unique opportunity to engage with humans in life and death situations. We are confronting cancer, cure, failure, self-image, and most of all, a bond with the patient and family. We would like to view our expertise in head and neck surgery and the world of caring for our patients much like a Brigadoon. However, we daily are confronted with ever-changing and evolving approaches to health care that do not involve the physician or the patient. What kind of world is healthcare without a physician-patient interaction? Yes, there is the government-supported electronic medical record, which is here to stay (until our electrical and/or wired network fails). Yes, there is new technology, including robotic surgery and telemedicine and efforts to link these to our cell phones and applications, making care and expertise more available across long distances. And yes, there exist goals to extend care beyond the physician to other health care professions as the buffer between the physician and the patient, sometimes to reduce cost and sometimes to make care more ubiquitous. However, an Internet search will show that most say that the only constant in healthcare is change. I propose that the ultimate constant in healthcare is the physician-patient relationship. PMID:25068431

  10. The Binary Pulsar Is Not the Ultimate Test for the Theory of Gravity

    E-print Network

    M. Novello; V. A. De Lorenci

    1997-04-08

    General relativity can be formulated either as in its original geometrical version (Einstein, 1915) or as a field theory (Feynman, 1962). In the Feynman presentation of Einstein theory an hypothesis concerning the interaction of gravity to gravity, which was hidden in the original version, becomes explicit. This is nothing but the assumed extension of the validity of the equivalence principle not only for matter-gravity interaction, but also for gravity-gravity. Recently we have presented a field theory of gravity (from here on called the NDL theory) which does not contain such a hypothesis. We have shown that, for this theory, both the cosmological structure and the PPN approximation for the solar tests are satisfied. The proposal of this paper is to go one step further and to show that NDL theory is able to solve the problem of radiation emission by a binary pulsar in the same degree of accuracy as it was done in the GR theory. In the post-Newtonian order of approximation we show that the quadrupole formula of this theory is equal to the corresponding one in general relativity. Thus, the unique actual observable distinction of these theories concerns the velocity of gravitational waves, which becomes then the true ultimate test for gravity theory.

  11. PEP-X: An Ultimate Storage Ring Based on Fourth-Order Geometric Achromats

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; Bane, Karl; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    We have designed an 'ultimate' storage ring for the PEP-X light source that achieves the diffraction limited emittances (at 1.5 {angstrom}) of 12 pm-rad in both horizontal and vertical planes with a 4.5-GeV beam. These emittances include the contribution of intrabeam scattering at a nominal current of 200 mA in 3300 bunches. This quality beam in conjunction with a conventional 4-m undulator in a straight section can generate synchrotron radiation having a spectral brightness above 10{sup 22} [photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW] at a 10 keV photon energy. The high coherence at the diffraction limit makes PEP-X competitive with 4th generation light sources based on an energy recovery linac. In addition, the beam lifetime is several hours and the dynamic aperture is large enough to allow off-axis injection. The alignment and stability tolerances, though challenging, are achievable. A ring with all these properties is only possible because of several major advances in mitigating the effects of nonlinear resonances.

  12. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  13. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat quality traits. Several QTL regions were identified that are worthy of further characterization. Some QTLs may in fact co-localize, suggesting pleiotropic effects for some chromosomal regions. PMID:17559654

  14. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-01

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner. PMID:25597802

  15. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  16. PhET: Masses & Springs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.

  17. Development of adaptive seismic isolators for ultimate seismic protection of civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Yancheng; Li, Weihua; Samali, Bijan

    2013-04-01

    Base isolation is the most popular seismic protection technique for civil engineering structures. However, research has revealed that the traditional base isolation system due to its passive nature is vulnerable to two kinds of earthquakes, i.e. the near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. A great deal of effort has been dedicated to improve the performance of the traditional base isolation system for these two types of earthquakes. This paper presents a recent research breakthrough on the development of a novel adaptive seismic isolation system as the quest for ultimate protection for civil structures, utilizing the field-dependent property of the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). A novel adaptive seismic isolator was developed as the key element to form smart seismic isolation system. The novel isolator contains unique laminated structure of steel and MR elastomer layers, which enable its large-scale civil engineering applications, and a solenoid to provide sufficient and uniform magnetic field for energizing the field-dependent property of MR elastomers. With the controllable shear modulus/damping of the MR elastomer, the developed adaptive seismic isolator possesses a controllable lateral stiffness while maintaining adequate vertical loading capacity. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the development of the adaptive seismic isolator is present including designs, analysis and testing of two prototypical adaptive seismic isolators utilizing two different MRE materials. Experimental results show that the first prototypical MRE seismic isolator can provide stiffness increase up to 37.49%, while the second prototypical MRE seismic isolator provides amazing increase of lateral stiffness up to1630%. Such range of increase of the controllable stiffness of the seismic isolator makes it highly practical for developing new adaptive base isolation system utilizing either semi-active or smart passive controls.

  18. Consequences of EEG electrode position error on ultimate beamformer source reconstruction performance.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Sarang S; Rampp, Stefan; Willomitzer, Florian; Ettl, Svenja

    2014-01-01

    Inaccuracy of EEG electrode coordinates forms an error term in forward model generation and ultimate source reconstruction performance. This error arises from the combination of both intrinsic measurement noise of the digitization apparatus and manual coregistration error when selecting corresponding points on anatomical MRI volumes. A common assumption is that such an error would lead only to displacement of localized sources. Here, we measured electrode positions on a 3D-printed full-scale replica head, using three different techniques: a fringe projection 3D scanner, a novel "Flying Triangulation" 3D sensor, and a traditional electromagnetic digitizer. Using highly accurate fringe projection data as ground truth, the Flying Triangulation sensor had a mean error of 1.5 mm while the electromagnetic digitizer had a mean error of 6.8 mm. Then, again using the fringe projection as ground truth, individual EEG simulations were generated, with source locations across the brain space and a range of sensor noise levels. The simulated datasets were then processed using a beamformer in conjunction with the electrode coordinates registered with the Flying Triangulation and electromagnetic digitizer methods. The beamformer's output SNR was severely degraded with the digitizer-based positions but less severely with the Flying Triangulation coordinates. Therefore, the seemingly innocuous error in electrode registration may result in substantial degradation of beamformer performance, with output SNR penalties up to several decibels. In the case of low-SNR signals such as deeper brain structures or gamma band sources, this implies that sensor coregistration accuracy could make the difference between successful detection of such activity or complete failure to resolve the source. PMID:24653671

  19. Consequences of EEG electrode position error on ultimate beamformer source reconstruction performance

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Sarang S.; Rampp, Stefan; Willomitzer, Florian; Ettl, Svenja

    2014-01-01

    Inaccuracy of EEG electrode coordinates forms an error term in forward model generation and ultimate source reconstruction performance. This error arises from the combination of both intrinsic measurement noise of the digitization apparatus and manual coregistration error when selecting corresponding points on anatomical MRI volumes. A common assumption is that such an error would lead only to displacement of localized sources. Here, we measured electrode positions on a 3D-printed full-scale replica head, using three different techniques: a fringe projection 3D scanner, a novel “Flying Triangulation” 3D sensor, and a traditional electromagnetic digitizer. Using highly accurate fringe projection data as ground truth, the Flying Triangulation sensor had a mean error of 1.5 mm while the electromagnetic digitizer had a mean error of 6.8 mm. Then, again using the fringe projection as ground truth, individual EEG simulations were generated, with source locations across the brain space and a range of sensor noise levels. The simulated datasets were then processed using a beamformer in conjunction with the electrode coordinates registered with the Flying Triangulation and electromagnetic digitizer methods. The beamformer's output SNR was severely degraded with the digitizer-based positions but less severely with the Flying Triangulation coordinates. Therefore, the seemingly innocuous error in electrode registration may result in substantial degradation of beamformer performance, with output SNR penalties up to several decibels. In the case of low-SNR signals such as deeper brain structures or gamma band sources, this implies that sensor coregistration accuracy could make the difference between successful detection of such activity or complete failure to resolve the source. PMID:24653671

  20. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM.

    SciTech Connect

    DEGRASSI,G.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,C.; SUZUKI,K.; NAMITA,Y.

    2003-08-17

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper.

  1. Effects of abiotic factors (temperature, pH, heavy metals) on activities of glycosidases in invertebrate animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. L. Golovanova

    2011-01-01

    Differences in amylolytical activity have been established in the whole body of some invertebrate animals (larvae of chironomids\\u000a Chironomus plumosus, pond snail Limnaea stagnalis, orb snail Planorbis corneus, faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata, and zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha-potential objects of nutrition of fish benthophages under separate and combined actions of temperature (0, 10 or 20°C), pH\\u000a (5.0, 7.4 or 8.3), and

  2. Ph.D. Requirements Fall, 2009 and Forward Approved Ph.D. Training Requirements

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    Ph.D. Requirements Fall, 2009 and Forward 1 Approved Ph.D. Training Requirements Requirements effective for Ph.D. programs enrolling students in Fall 2009 and forward Critical Outcomes of a Research-Oriented Ph.D. Program In terms of an overall vision of the Curry Ph.D. graduate, the aims include student

  3. Cari Kitahara, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kitahara earned her Ph.D. in cancer epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She joined the Radiation Epidemiology Branch in 2008 as a predoctoral fellow and became a research fellow in 2011. In 2015, she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator.

  4. 26 CFR 48.6427-9 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and State use).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered...Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-9 Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered...certain registered ultimate vendors of taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the...

  5. The ‘ultimate objective’ of the framework convention on climate change requires a new approach in climate change research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Swart; Pier Vellinga

    1994-01-01

    In the Framework Convention on Climate Change an ‘ultimate objective’ is formulated that calls for stabilization of the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that would allow ecosystems to adapt naturally, safeguard food supply and enable sustainable development to proceed in a sustainable manner. This paper addresses the possible contribution of science to translate this rather

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Consignee. Enter the requested information and sign the statement in ink. (For a definition of ultimate consignee, see § 748.5...part.) Block 7: Purchaser. This form must be signed in ink by the Purchaser, if the Purchaser is not the same as the...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Consignee. Enter the requested information and sign the statement in ink. (For a definition of ultimate consignee, see § 748.5...part.) Block 7: Purchaser. This form must be signed in ink by the Purchaser, if the Purchaser is not the same as the...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Consignee. Enter the requested information and sign the statement in ink. (For a definition of ultimate consignee, see § 748.5...part.) Block 7: Purchaser. This form must be signed in ink by the Purchaser, if the Purchaser is not the same as the...

  9. Proximate and ultimate aspects of phenotypic plasticity in timing of great tit breeding in a heterogeneous environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruedi G. Nager; Arie J. van Noordwijk

    1995-01-01

    Using the theoretical framework of phenotypic plasticity, we studied the timing of breeding in great tits (Parus major), combining proximate questions about its physiological causation and ultimate questions about its fitness consequences. The plasticity observed in the timing of breeding can be explained either as an adaptation to the best time for rearing young or as determined by changing environmental

  10. The Utilization of Spin Polarized Photoelectron Spectroscopy as a Probe of Electron Correlation with an Ultimate Goal of Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, James; Yu, Sung; Chung, Brandon; Morton, Simon; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, George

    2008-02-11

    We are developing the technique of spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of electron correlation with the ultimate goal of resolving the Pu electronic structure controversy. Over the last several years, we have demonstrated the utility of spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy for determining the fine details of the electronic structure in complex systems such as those shown in the paper.

  11. The Utilization of Spin Polarized Photoelectron Spectroscopy as a Probe of Electron Correlation with an Ultimate Goal of Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Morton, S A; Komesu, T; Waddill, G D

    2008-02-07

    We are developing the technique of spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of electron correlation with the ultimate goal of resolving the Pu electronic structure controversy. Over the last several years, we have demonstrated the utility of spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy for determining the fine details of the electronic structure in complex systems such as those shown in this report.

  12. Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2012-07-01

    Abstract The world is currently aiming to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is considered carbon neutral because the carbon dioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle. Increasing the use of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes, including thermochemical (direct combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation), or chemical (esterification) technologies. There are lot challenges in using biomass for energy applications. To name few low bulk density, high moisture content, irregular size and shape, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value. In commercial scale operation large quantities of biomass are needed and this will create problems associated with storage and transportation. Furthermore, grinding raw biomass with high moisture content is very challenging as there are no specific equipments and can increase the costs and in some cases it becomes highly impossible. All of these drawbacks led to development of some pretreatment techniques to make biomass more suitable for fuel applications. One of the promising techniques is torrefaction. Torrefaction is heating the biomass in an inert environment or reduced environment. During torrefaction biomass losses moisture, becomes more brittle and with increased energy density values. There are different techniques used for torrefaction of biomass. Fixed bed, bubbling sand bed and moving bed are the most common ones used. The use of microwaves for torrefaction purposes has not been explored. In the present study we looked into the torrefaction of biomass using the regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

  13. The pH of antiseptic cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

  14. Reynolds numbers and the elliptic approximation near the ultimate state of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaozhou; van Gils, Dennis P. M.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter

    2015-06-01

    We report results of Reynolds-number measurements, based on multi-point temperature measurements and the elliptic approximation (EA) of He and Zhang (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 055303), Zhao and He (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 046316) for turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC) over the Rayleigh-number range {10}11? {\\text{}}{Ra}? 2× {10}14 and for a Prandtl number Pr ? 0.8. The sample was a right-circular cylinder with the diameter D and the height L both equal to 112 cm. The Reynolds numbers ReU and ReV were obtained from the mean-flow velocity U and the root-mean-square fluctuation velocity V, respectively. Both were measured approximately at the mid-height of the sample and near (but not too near) the side wall close to a maximum of ReU. A detailed examination, based on several experimental tests, of the applicability of the EA to turbulent RBC in our parameter range is provided. The main contribution to ReU came from a large-scale circulation in the form of a single convection roll with the preferred azimuthal orientation of its down flow nearly coinciding with the location of the measurement probes. First we measured time sequences of ReU(t) and ReV(t) from short (10 s) segments which moved along much longer sequences of many hours. The corresponding probability distributions of ReU(t) and ReV(t) had single peaks and thus did not reveal significant flow reversals. The two averaged Reynolds numbers determined from the entire data sequences were of comparable size. For {\\text{}}{Ra}\\lt {\\text{}}{{Ra}}1*? 2× {10}13 both ReU and ReV could be described by a power-law dependence on Ra with an exponent ? close to 0.44. This exponent is consistent with several other measurements for the classical RBC state at smaller Ra and larger Pr and with the Grossmann–Lohse (GL) prediction for ReU (Grossmann and Lohse 2000 J. Fluid. Mech. 407 27; Grossmann and Lohse 2001 86 3316; Grossmann and Lohse 2002 66 016305) but disagrees with the prediction \\zeta ? 0.33 by GL (Grossmann and Lohse 2004 Phys. Fluids 16 4462) for ReV. At {\\text{}}{Ra}={\\text{}}{{Ra}}2*? 7× {10}13 the dependence of ReV on Ra changed, and for larger Ra {\\text{}}{{Re}}V? {\\text{}}{{Ra}}0.50+/- 0.02, consistent with the prediction for ReU (Grossmann and Lohse 2000 J. Fluid. Mech. 407 27; Grossmann and Lohse Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001 86 3316; Grossmann and Lohse Phys. Rev. E 2002 66 016305; Grossmann and Lohse 2012 Phys. Fluids 24 125103) in the ultimate state of RBC.

  15. Stella Koutros, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Koutros received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology from Yale University. She completed her doctoral work through the Yale-NCI partnership training program in cancer epidemiology, conducting research in the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch (OEEB). In 2008, upon completion of her doctorate she became a fellow in OEEB; she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator in 2015.

  16. Towards a characterization of a motive whose ultimate goal is to increase the welfare of the world: Quixoteism.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Sergio; Oceja, Luis

    2011-05-01

    We use the term Quixoteism to refer to a new social motive. The characterization of this motive deals with two aspects: the definition of the ultimate goal (i.e., to increase the welfare of the world) and the proposal of a process that activates it (i.e., a transcendental-change orientation). Three studies were conducted to test this characterization. In Study 1 we developed an empirical measure of the transcendental-change orientation. The participants in Studies 2 and 3 were presented with a need situation. Results showed that the centrality of such an orientation was directly related to an interpretation consistent with the ultimate goal of Quixoteism (Study 2), and that its salience increases the likelihood of performing a high-cost prosocial behavior (Study 3). PMID:21568172

  17. Defining and Teaching pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Richard F.

    2007-07-01

    The 1909 definition of pH given in most general chemistry textbooks conflicts with the modern, operationally-defined pH scale that underlies laboratory measurement and relates to activities. At an elementary level, pH and the algebra of equilibria can be simply and correctly taught, without logarithms, in terms of the latter scale.

  18. Oxidative enzymes, the ultimate regulator: implications for factors affecting their efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2013-11-01

    Soil enzymes influence the distribution of organic matter (OM) and play a decisive role in the retention of OM in soil ecosystems. The present study was conducted to assess the role of oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes in OM decomposition under dry and submerged moisture conditions and to examine factors affecting their activity in Red and Brown soils. An incubation experiment of 6 mo duration was performed in a randomized complete block design with 10 treatments in triplicates. Rice straw (RS) and green manure (GM) were used at three rates (0, 5, and 25 mg g soil, expressed as control [CK], RS1, RS2, GM1, and GM2, respectively). The soils were maintained at two water levels: 25% (W1) and 200% (W2). All soil chemical properties and enzymatic activities were measured by standard methods. We found that the activities of soil phenol oxidase and catalase in the Brown soil were 2- and 1.5-fold higher than in the Red soil, respectively. This led to high OM decomposition, resulting in 1.23- and 1.2-fold higher carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization and 1.23- and 1.21-fold more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in the Brown soil. In contrast, low oxidative enzyme activities in the Red soil decreased C and N mineralization, DOC, DON, reducing sugars (2.58-fold), and amino acids (2.22-fold) but increased the phenolic compounds (1.36-fold). The hydrolytic enzymes (i.e., urease and neutral phosphatase) showed significant correlation ( < 0.01) to amino acids and reducing sugars but showed no correlation to phenolic compounds and soil organic matter (SOM). Conversely, oxidative enzymes (i.e., phenol oxidase and catalase) showed significant correlation ( < 0.01) to phenolic compounds, amino acids, reducing sugars, and SOM. Our results suggest that oxidative enzymes are key components of the pathways involved in the breakdown of organic compounds and OM in soils and consequently act as an "enzymatic latch." We observed that soil water and pH have significant ( < 0.01) effects on soil enzyme activity. PMID:25602418

  19. Laser spark ignition of premixed methane-air mixtures: parameter measurements and determination of key factors for ultimate ignition results.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Smith, Benjamin W; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present an experimental investigation of the parameters of the laser spark ignition of premixed methane-air mixtures and the determination of the key factors for the ultimate ignition result. Ignition is achieved in a mesh honeycomb burner using the 1064 nm output of a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd : YAG) laser. All pertinent laser ignition parameters, including the minimum ignition energy, the ignition time and blow out time, and the effects that the variation of experimental conditions, such as the spark energy, ignition position, equivalence ratio (ER), and flow rate, have on these parameters have been addressed systematically. To identify the key factors for the ultimate result of laser ignition, several parameters of the ignition processes are measured simultaneously, with an emphasis given to the temporal behavior of the hydroxyl (OH) radicals in relation to the data regarding the spark energy and the local ER. A clear finding of the study is that successful ignition events are always related to higher OH radical photon emissions, considered to be proportional to the concentration level of the OH radicals present, thus indicating a direct link between the OH level at early times (on a microsecond scale) and the ultimate result of laser ignition. Two-dimensional correlation plots of the spark energy, local ER, and OH radical photon count at early times with the ultimate results of laser ignition indicate that the spark energy and local ER do not play a critical role in determining the success or failure of the ignition and that the OH concentration in the early time range is the key factor in determining the final fate of laser ignition. Finally, on the basis of the results obtained here and in the existing literature, some considerations of the mechanism of laser ignition are presented. PMID:25226251

  20. Stability and performance of silica-based alkyl bonded-phase HPLC column packings with pH > 8 mobile phases

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, J.J. [Rockland Technologies, Inc., Newport, DE (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Certain HPLC separations are best performed with high pH (pH >8) mobile phases where basic compounds may not be fully protonated. However, the traditional recommendation for silica-based HPLC column packings is that they not be used with mobile phases above pH 8 because of rapid packed-bed degradation by solubility of the silica support. Studies now have shown that packings with certain types of silica supports and bonded phases can be employed successfully for routine separations with mobile phases of at least pH 9. Column packing lifetime with higher pH mobile phases also can be extended by proper choice of buffer type. Silica support solubility (and ultimate column life) is significantly influenced by the nature of both the anions and cations used in the mobile phase buffer. Even at pH 7, some alkyl bonded phase packings show poor lifetime with higher concentrations of certain buffers, especially at elevated temperatures. Column temperature and buffer concentration also greatly affect silica support solubility and ultimate column lifetime. Findings from this study should assist in the development of more rugged HPLC methods for routine applications.

  1. Unlocking a caged lysosomal protein from a polymeric nanogel with a pH trigger.

    PubMed

    Molla, Mijanur Rahaman; Marcinko, Tyler; Prasad, Priyaa; Deming, Derrick; Garman, Scott C; Thayumanavan, S

    2014-11-10

    A polymeric nanogel has been used to sequester and turn off a lysosomal protein, acid ?-glucosidase (GAA). The nanogel contains a ?-thiopropionate cross-linker, which endows the nanogel with pH-sensitivity. While encapsulation of the enzyme fully turns off its activity, approximately 75% of the activity is recovered upon reducing the pH to 5.0. The recovered activity is ascribed to pH-induced degradation of the ?-thiopropionate cross-linker causing the swelling of the nanogel and ultimately causing the release of the enzyme. We envision that strategies for sequestering protein molecules and releasing them at lysosomal pH might open up new directions for therapeutic treatment of lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:25291086

  2. Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. Natalie J. Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Hull, Elaine

    Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. 1 10-26-08 Natalie J. Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. Current Address University Tallahassee, FL 32306-1051 #12;Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. 2 1993 - 2000 Assistant in Clinical. Boulder, CO #12;Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. 3 *denotes FSU graduate student. Publications 1. *Sawyer, K

  3. Soils - Part 4: Soil pH

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Soil pH is defined and its implications for crop production are described in this lesson. How are soil pH and buffer pH determined? How are these assessments used in lime recommendations? The factors that influence pH variations in soils, the chemistry involved in changing the pH of a soil, and the benefits associated with liming acid soils will be discussed.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  4. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  5. The pH Factor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Miami Museum of Science's learning site, The pH Factor, gives teachers a fun and interactive way to teach elementary and middle school students some basics of science. Material is divided into seven learning areas: excite, explore, explain, expand, extend, exchange, and examine. Each contains an interactive screen that can be used directly in the classroom and lesson plans that correspond with each subject. For example, the excite area contains the "tasting tongue" that, when clicked, shows the location on the tongue where you taste bitter or sour things. The site's teaching style is based on the proposition that learners need to build their own understanding of new ideas. The unique material that is offered on this site provides educators with an excellent alternative for teaching these sometimes difficult concepts to grade school students.

  6. Optical Replacement of pH Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aliasgar Sohanghpurwala; Govind Rao; Yordan Kostov

    2009-01-01

    The development of a noninvasive, self-contained optical pH sensor probe intended as a direct replacement for a pH electrode is presented. It uses a fluorescent excitation-ratiometric pH sensing dye in a patch. The patch is excited by light emitting diodes of differing wavelengths which are controlled by a microcontroller (MCU). The emission levels are measured by analog circuitry and their

  7. Middle School and pH?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Herricks

    2007-02-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. As a result, the grade-appropriate, hands-on laboratory, "Creating the pH Scale" was developed to help students grasp the fundamentals of pH.

  8. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Caldeira; Michael E. Wickett

    2003-01-01

    ocean 1 with potentially adverse consequences for marine biota 2-4 . We quantify pH changes that may result from continued release of fossil-fuel CO 2 to the atmosphere, and compare these with pH changes inferred from geological and historical records. We conclude that releasing fossil-fuel CO 2 to the atmosphere over several centuries may result in ocean pH changes greater

  9. Epidemiologic determinants of vaginal pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat García-Closas; Rolando Herrero; Concepción Bratti; Allan Hildesheim; Mark E. Sherman; Lidia Ana Morera; Mark Schiffman

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and factors related to cervical cancer. Study Design: In a population-based sample of 9161 women from Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica women were categorized into 2 groups, those with vaginal pH in the reference range (4.0-4.5) and those with elevated vaginal pH (5.0-5.5). Odds ratios were used to

  10. pH of estuarine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The emf measurements for the TRIS buffer in seawater have been used to define buffer solutions that can be used to determine the pH on a free or total proton scale for estuarine waters. The pH is related to the stoichiometric dissociation constant (K*) of TRISH/sup +/, the concentration of buffer (m/sub TRIS/) and salinity (S). An electrode system with liquid junction was used to measure these buffers to compare the various pH scales.

  11. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J. (San Jose, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  12. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  13. pH jump induced ?-helix folding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donten, M. L.; Hamm, P.

    2013-03-01

    pH can be used to impact the folding equilibrium of peptides and proteins. This fact is utilized, similarly to temperature jumps, in pH jump experiments employing laser time-resolved spectroscopy to study the function and structural dynamics of these molecules. Here the application of pH jumps in folding experiments was investigated. Experiments with poly-L-glutamic acid alpha-helix formation shown the critical aspects of pH jump experiments and yielded direct information about the folding kinetics monitored with the amide I IR band.

  14. Effect of External pH on the Internal pH of Chlorella saccharophila1

    PubMed Central

    Gehl, Katharina A.; Colman, Brian

    1985-01-01

    The overall internal pH of the acid-tolerant green alga, Chlorella saccharophila, was determined in the light and in the dark by the distribution of 5,5-dimethyl-2-[14C]oxazolidine-2,4-dione ([14C]DMO) or [14C]benzoic acid ([14C]BA) between the cells and the surrounding medium. [14C]DMO was used at external pH of 5.0 to 7.5 while [14C]BA was used in the range pH 3.0 to pH 5.5. Neither compound was metabolized by the algal cells and intracellular binding was minimal. The internal pH of the algae obtained with the two compounds at external pH values of 5.0 and 5.5 were in good agreement. The internal pH of C. saccharophila remained relatively constant at pH 7.3 over the external pH range of pH 5.0 to 7.5. Below pH 5.0, however, there was a gradual decrease in the internal pH to 6.4 at an external pH of 3.0. The maintenance of a constant internal pH requires energy and the downward drift of internal pH with a drop in external pH may be a mechanism to conserve energy and allow growth at acid pH. PMID:16664162

  15. CARLOS FERNANDEZ-PELLO. PH.D., MS AND UNDERGRAD STUDENTS Ph.D. Program

    E-print Network

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    , Ph.D. Spring 1991. Current Employment, SAIC, Ca Elisabeth R. Cantwell, Ph.D. Spring 1992. Current Carol E. Buchholz, Ms Spring 1987 Jennifer L. Newhall, Ms Spring 1988 Lisa Gavin. Ms Spring 1989 Robert

  16. Water Droplet Erosion Behavior of High-Power Diode Laser Treated 17Cr4Ni PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.

    2014-05-01

    This article deals with water droplet erosion (WDE) behavior of high-power diode laser (HPDL) treated 17Cr4Ni PH stainless steel. After HPDL treatment, the water droplet erosion resistance (WDER) of 17Cr4Ni PH stainless steel has not improved. The main reason is the surface hardness, which has not improved after HPDL treatment though the microstructure has become much finer. On the other hand, precipitation hardening of the alloy at 490°C for 3 h has resulted in improved WDER more than twice. This is because of its increased microhardness and improved modified ultimate resilience (MUR), and formation of fine grained microstructure. The WDER has been correlated with MUR, a single mechanical property, based upon microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, and Young's modulus. WDERs of HPDL treated, untreated, and precipitation hardened 17Cr4Ni PH stainless steel samples were determined using a WDE test facility as per ASTM G73-1978. The WDE damage mechanism, compared on the basis of MUR and scanning electron micrographs, is discussed and reported in this article.

  17. Administration Noma Bennett Anderson, PhD

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    Administration Dean Noma Bennett Anderson, PhD Assistant Deans Faculty and Academic Affairs RebeccaD Department of Physical Therapy Chair and Program Director CarolCountLikens,PT,PhD,MBA Department of Physician Assistant Studies Chair & Director Johnna Tanner, MSPAS, PA

  18. Glossary of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) Terms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and tongue. Back to top of page -D - Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) : Formation a blood clot in the veins deep in the body, most typically in the lower ... Programs Patients and Caregivers PHA Classroom Live e-Learning Events Recordings About PH Living with PH Caregivers ...

  19. CURRICULUM VITAE Naveen Chikthimmah, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    /550 Food Processing, (3 cr.); SP 12, SP 13 UW STOUT BIO 406/606 Food Microbiology (lab course) (3 cr.); SPCURRICULUM VITAE Naveen Chikthimmah, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Stout Department of Food State University, M.S. in Food Science, 2000 The Pennsylvania State University, Ph.D. in Food Science

  20. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the ... Urine with a pH less than 5.3 is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different ...

  1. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  2. CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

  3. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  4. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American…

  5. Nursing PhD 2010 Edition

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Nursing PhD Handbook 2010 Edition 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E5 Phone: (306) 966-8239 Fax: (306) 966-6703 Email: grad.nursing@usask.ca #12;Welcome to the College of Nursing Graduate Program & Continuing Nursing Education #12;PhD Manual 2 Table of Contents General Information

  6. Approximate Min-Power Strong Connectivity G. Calinescu

    E-print Network

    Calinescu, Gruia

    is given by pH(u) = maxuvE(H) c(uv), and corresponds to the energy consumption required for wireless node u to transmit to all nodes v with uv E(H). The power of H is given by p(H) = uV pH(u). Power Assignment seeks with a simple idea inspired by Byrka, Grandoni, Rothvoß, and Sanit`a (2010). The proof also shows that a natural

  7. Layer- and direction-specific material properties, extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of human abdominal aorta and aneurysm: a uniaxial extension study

    E-print Network

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Huang, Yuan; Sutcliffe, Michael P. F.; Brown, Adam J.; Jing, Zaiping; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Lu, Qingsheng

    2015-04-24

    of extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of the tissue are important if rupture is to be modelled. Tissue pieces from 11 abdomen aortic aneurysm (AAA) from patients scheduled for elective surgery and from 8 normal aortic artery (NAA) from...

  8. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hendee, Shonn P. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrscheib, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nunez, David (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, M. Kathleen (Cedar Crest, NM); Franke, James E. (Franklin, TN); Kemeny, Gabor J. (Madison, WI)

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  9. Effect of initial heating of the jet-forming layer of shaped-charge liners on the ultimate elongation of jet elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Markelov

    2000-01-01

    The functional dependence of the coefficient of ultimate elongation on the temperature of initial heating of the jet-forming\\u000a layer of shaped-charge liners is obtained. It is established that heating of the shaped-charge liner material before initiation\\u000a increases the ultimate elongation and, hence, the effectiveness of penetration of plastically fractured, high-gradient, shaped-charge\\u000a jets.

  10. Ultimate Limit of Biaxial Tensile Strain and N-Type Doping for Realizing an Efficient Low-Threshold Ge Laser

    E-print Network

    Sukhdeo, David S; Saraswat, Krishna C; Birendra,; Dutt,; Nam, Donguk

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate how the threshold of a Ge-on-Si laser can be minimized and how the slope efficiency can be maximized in presence of both biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping. Our finding shows that there exist ultimate limits beyond which point no further benefit can be realized through increased tensile strain or n-type doping. Here were quantify these limits, showing that the optimal design for minimizing threshold involves about 3.7% biaxial tensile strain and 2x1018 cm-3 n-type doping, whereas the optimal design for maximum slope efficiency involves about 2.3% biaxial tensile strain with 1x1019 cm-3 n-type doping. Increasing the strain and/or doping beyond these limits will degrade the threshold or slope efficiency, respectively.

  11. Towards the Artsutanov's dream of the space elevator: The ultimate design of a 35 GPa strong tether thanks to graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we have evaluated the strength of a graphene/nanotube bundle considering the two possible failure mechanisms, i.e. intrinsic fracture or sliding. We have accordingly proposed smart strengthening strategies, such as a flaw tolerant design and the nanotube self-collapse. The flaw tolerant design reduces the required strength whereas the self-collapse can increase the achievable strength. Only by coupling these complementary, and possibly other e.g. self-healing, smart strategies, the Artsutanov's dream of the space elevator could be realized. The ultimate design of a 35 GPa strong tether is thus proposed for the first time in this paper, thanks to graphene bundles and the numerous previous investigations performed by the author. Graphene bundles and composites, in which sliding is the current weakest link, are demonstrated to be two times stronger than their nanotube counterparts.

  12. Acidified seawater impacts sea urchin larvae pH regulatory systems relevant for calcification

    PubMed Central

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y.; Melzner, Frank; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Dorey, Narimane; Himmerkus, Nina; Holtmann, Wiebke C.; Dupont, Sam T.; Thorndyke, Michael C.; Bleich, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Calcifying echinoid larvae respond to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry with reduced growth and developmental delay. To date, no information exists on how ocean acidification acts on pH homeostasis in echinoderm larvae. Understanding acid–base regulatory capacities is important because intracellular formation and maintenance of the calcium carbonate skeleton is dependent on pH homeostasis. Using H+-selective microelectrodes and the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, we conducted in vivo measurements of extracellular and intracellular pH (pHe and pHi) in echinoderm larvae. We exposed pluteus larvae to a range of seawater CO2 conditions and demonstrated that the extracellular compartment surrounding the calcifying primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) conforms to the surrounding seawater with respect to pH during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. Using FITC dextran conjugates, we demonstrate that sea urchin larvae have a leaky integument. PMCs and spicules are therefore directly exposed to strong changes in pHe whenever seawater pH changes. However, measurements of pHi demonstrated that PMCs are able to fully compensate an induced intracellular acidosis. This was highly dependent on Na+ and HCO3?, suggesting a bicarbonate buffer mechanism involving secondary active Na+-dependent membrane transport proteins. We suggest that, under ocean acidification, maintained pHi enables calcification to proceed despite decreased pHe. However, this probably causes enhanced costs. Increased costs for calcification or cellular homeostasis can be one of the main factors leading to modifications in energy partitioning, which then impacts growth and, ultimately, results in increased mortality of echinoid larvae during the pelagic life stage. PMID:23077257

  13. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rines, Kenneth [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Diaferio, Antonaldo, E-mail: kenneth.rines@wwu.edu, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a {Lambda}CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 < z < 0.3. The survey includes 22,680 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,145 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster, we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for {approx}200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a {Lambda}CDM universe) is on average (1.99 {+-} 0.11)M{sub 200}, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M{sub 200} and in L{sub X} demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  14. Dose-dependent effects of an immune challenge at both ultimate and proximate levels in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-05-01

    Immune responses are highly dynamic. The magnitude and efficiency of an immune response to a pathogen can change markedly across individuals, and such changes may be influenced by variance in a range of intrinsic (e.g. age, genotype, sex) and external (e.g. abiotic stress, pathogen identity, strain) factors. Life history theory predicts that up-regulation of the immune system will come at a physiological cost, and studies have confirmed that increased investment in immunity can reduce reproductive output and survival. Furthermore, males and females often have divergent reproductive strategies, and this might drive the evolution of sex-specific life history trade-offs involving immunity, and sexual dimorphism in immune responses per se. Here, we employ an experiment design to elucidate dose-dependent and sex-specific responses to exposure to a nonpathogenic immune elicitor at two scales--the 'ultimate' life history and the underlying 'proximate' immune level in Drosophila melanogaster. We found dose-dependent effects of immune challenges on both male and female components of reproductive success, but not on survival, as well as a response in antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that even in the absence of the direct pathogenic effects that are associated with actual disease, individual life histories respond to a perceived immune challenge--but with the magnitude of this response being contingent on the initial dose of exposure. Furthermore, the results indicate that immune responses at the ultimate life history level may indeed reflect underlying processes that occur at the proximate level. PMID:24731072

  15. Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Debut, Martine; Berri, Cécile M; Sellier, Nadine; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Jégo, Yves; Beaumont, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3) were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu), color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP) at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43). There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg) with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97), suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76), it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58), and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84). Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line. PMID:18706119

  16. Preventing the ultimate disaster.

    PubMed

    1982-04-10

    The International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War is cited as the most effective medium for the worldwide transmission of the concerns of the medical profession regarding the buildup of nuclear weapons. The Second Congress of this group, held in Cambridge, England, on 3 April 1982, is briefly described. The Congress was largely devoted to the possible effects of nuclear war in Europe. Over 200 physicians from thirty-five countries participated. PMID:6122060

  17. The ultimate steganalysis benchmark?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D. Ker

    2007-01-01

    We present a new benchmark for binary steganalysis meth- ods, based on the asymptotic information (in the entropic sense) it gives about the presence of hidden data. The the- oretical foundation is quite unlike ad hoc performance mea- sures found in steganalysis literature that are based on false positive and negative rates. It is argued that this new met- ric

  18. Ultimate Cary Grant Pages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maintained and developed by Debbie Dunlap, a devoted fan, this site pays homage to Cary Grant (whose real name was the slightly less marquee-friendly, Archibald Leach), one of Hollywood's leading men during the 20th century. The site provides a host of material about Grant, his films, and his life, including a filmography, movie reviews, a photo gallery, a sound gallery, and links to old radio shows in which Cary Grant appeared. The sound gallery is an excellent part of the site, as visitors can listen to audio clips from Grant vehicles like North by Northwest, Arsenic and Old Lace, and Charade. Visitors will learn quite a bit about Cary Grant from the site, including the fact that he never won an Academy Award for his acting, although he was awarded an honorary Oscar in 1970 for his life's work.

  19. The ultimate signature identifier?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amarjot Singh; Akash Choubey; Sreedhar Bandaru; Lalit Mohan; Mohit Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Biometric identification is the need of hour, as automatic recognition systems are such biometric techniques to look upon. Accurate automatic recognition systems are important for a wide range of applications such as banks, restricted areas, government classified areas etc. As traditional identity recognition methods such as pins, passwords etc suffer from some fattle flaws and are unable to satisfy the

  20. The ultimate high tide

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, R.G. (Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Tallahassee (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible coastal impacts of a rise in sea level. Control measures that are available to coastal communities are emphasized, including pumping of seawater into the ground, replenishing beach sand, protection or moving of potable-water intakes, elevating roadways, and building dikes. Economics will determine which, if any, measures are reasonable at a particular site. There is an upward trend in the mean CO{sub 2} concentration and predictions about the greenhouse effect are creating a rising tide of concern.

  1. pH. Training Module 5.305.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with pH, measurement of pH with a pH meter and maintenance of pH meter electrodes. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers the definition of pH, types of electrodes and…

  2. Unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodged into the pyriform sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akash; Kramer, Elisabeth; Chokhavatia, Sita

    2015-01-01

    We report an unexpected, previously unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodgement. During Bravo pH testing of a 44-year-old man with gastroesophageal reflux disease, we were unable to endoscopically visualize the capsule attached to the esophageal wall after deployment. After multiple attempts to detect the capsule, it was visualized in the left pyriform sinus. As there was significant risk for pulmonary dislodgement, ENT and pulmonary physicians were immediately consulted to review options for safe removal. Ultimately, ENT successfully retrieved the capsule with a foreign body removal forceps. The Bravo pH test is generally a well-tolerated diagnostic tool used to confirm the presence of abnormal esophageal acid reflux. While few complications have been reported, technical difficulties can occur, including poor data reception, misplacement, and early dislodgement. Rarely, more serious complications can occur, ranging from esophageal wall trauma to capsule aspiration. Gastroenterologists performing this procedure should be aware of the low, but non-trivial, risk of complications. PMID:25992198

  3. Unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodged into the pyriform sinus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akash; Kramer, Elisabeth; Chokhavatia, Sita

    2015-05-16

    We report an unexpected, previously unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodgement. During Bravo pH testing of a 44-year-old man with gastroesophageal reflux disease, we were unable to endoscopically visualize the capsule attached to the esophageal wall after deployment. After multiple attempts to detect the capsule, it was visualized in the left pyriform sinus. As there was significant risk for pulmonary dislodgement, ENT and pulmonary physicians were immediately consulted to review options for safe removal. Ultimately, ENT successfully retrieved the capsule with a foreign body removal forceps. The Bravo pH test is generally a well-tolerated diagnostic tool used to confirm the presence of abnormal esophageal acid reflux. While few complications have been reported, technical difficulties can occur, including poor data reception, misplacement, and early dislodgement. Rarely, more serious complications can occur, ranging from esophageal wall trauma to capsule aspiration. Gastroenterologists performing this procedure should be aware of the low, but non-trivial, risk of complications. PMID:25992198

  4. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-10-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, an imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. In this paper, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of a commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (SNARF-5F carboxylic acid) in tissue phantoms. We demonstrated that PAM is capable of pH imaging in absolute values at tissue depths of up to 2.0 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  5. AUTOMNE 2013 PhD EN COMMUNICATION

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    AUTOMNE 2013 PhD EN COMMUNICATION LUNDI MARDI MERCREDI JEUDI VENDREDI 9:00 À 12 Forum Doctoral Prof : Thierry Bardini Et Gaby Hsab UQAM Communication organisationnelle William Buxton (hors campus) Séminaire spécialisé : Médias mobiles et communication : approches

  6. Dr. Julie Beth Zimmerman, PhD,

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Dr. Julie Beth Zimmerman, PhD, Associate Professor, Acting Director are common. Dr. Julie Beth Zimmerman is an Associate Professor of Green treatment technologies for the developing world. Dr. Zimmerman previously served

  7. Embarking on a PhD.

    PubMed

    Hill, Myfanwy

    2015-06-13

    To PhD or not to PhD? That was never really a question for Myfanwy Hill, who knew it was part of her career path before she started at Bristol vet school. Although the twists and turns en route were challenging at times, she is now settled in Cambridge and beginning her research in the Department of Clinical Neuroscience. Myfanwy will be sharing her experiences with Vet Record Careers. PMID:26067026

  8. Measurement of soil pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Schofield; A. Wormald Taylor

    1955-01-01

    A number of experimental results are presented which show the variation of the pH values of several soils when samples of each are shaken with CaClâ solutions of different concentrations. These results are then interpreted on the basis of the ratio law-derived from the Gouy theory of the electrical double layer - and it is shown that the pH values

  9. IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: LightFoot PhD A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV Overhead Lines with Non-Ideal

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: LightFoot PhD ­ A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV.swingler@hw.ac.uk Abstract LightFoot PhD ­ A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV Overhead Lines with Non-Ideal Tower to the understanding of the effect of lightning strikes on an overhead transmission line in terms of its electrical

  10. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by core-shell WO3/BiVO4 nanorods with ultimate water splitting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pihosh, Yuriy; Turkevych, Ivan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Uemura, Jin; Kazoe, Yutaka; Kosar, Sonya; Makita, Kikuo; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Takuya; Fujita, Daisuke; Tosa, Masahiro; Kondo, Michio; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic water splitting requires effective generation, separation and transfer of photo-induced charge carriers that can hardly be achieved simultaneously in a single material. Here we show that the effectiveness of each process can be separately maximized in a nanostructured heterojunction with extremely thin absorber layer. We demonstrate this concept on WO3/BiVO4+CoPi core-shell nanostructured photoanode that achieves near theoretical water splitting efficiency. BiVO4 is characterized by a high recombination rate of photogenerated carriers that have much shorter diffusion length than the thickness required for sufficient light absorption. This issue can be resolved by the combination of BiVO4 with more conductive WO3 nanorods in a form of core-shell heterojunction, where the BiVO4 absorber layer is thinner than the carrier diffusion length while it's optical thickness is reestablished by light trapping in high aspect ratio nanostructures. Our photoanode demonstrates ultimate water splitting photocurrent of 6.72?mA?cm(-2) under 1 sun illumination at 1.23?VRHE that corresponds to ~90% of the theoretically possible value for BiVO4. We also demonstrate a self-biased operation of the photoanode in tandem with a double-junction GaAs/InGaAsP photovoltaic cell with stable water splitting photocurrent of 6.56?mA?cm(-2) that corresponds to the solar to hydrogen generation efficiency of 8.1%. PMID:26053164

  11. Development of FRP composite structural biomaterials: ultimate strength of the fiber/matrix interfacial bond in in vivo simulated environments.

    PubMed

    Latour, R A; Black, J

    1992-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are being developed as alternatives to metals for structural orthopedic implant applications. FRP composite fracture behavior and environmental interactions are distinctly different from those which occur in metals. These differences must be accounted for in the design and evaluation of implant performance. Fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength in a FRP composite is known to strongly influence fracture behavior. The interfacial bond strength of four candidate fiber/matrix combinations (carbon fiber/polycarbonate, carbon fiber/polysulfone, polyaramid fiber/polycarbonate, polyaramid fiber/polysulfone) were investigated at 37 degrees C in dry and in vivo simulated (saline, exudate) environments. Ultimate bond strength was measured by a single fiber-microdroplet pull-out test. Dry bond strengths were significantly decreased following exposure to either saline or exudate with bond strength loss being approximately equal in both the saline and exudate. Bond strength loss is attributed to the diffusion of water and/or salt ions into the sample and their interaction with interfacial bonding. Because bond degradation is dependent upon diffusion, diffusional equilibrium must be obtained in composite test samples before the full effect of the test environment upon composite mechanical behavior can be determined. PMID:1512281

  12. Competition between electronic Kerr and free carrier effects in an ultimate-fast optically switched semiconductor microcavity

    E-print Network

    Yüce, E; Claudon, J; Dupuy, E; Boller, K J; Gérard, J M; Vos, W L

    2012-01-01

    We have performed ultrafast pump-probe experiments on a GaAs-AlAs microcavity with a resonance near 1300 nm in the "original" telecom band. We concentrate on ultimate-fast optical switching of the cavity resonance that is measured as a function of pump-pulse energy. We observe that at low pump-pulse energies the switching of the cavity resonance is governed by the instantaneous electronic Kerr effect and is achieved within 300 fs. At high pump-pulse energies the index change induced by free carriers generated in the GaAs start to compete with the electronic Kerr effect and reduce the resonance frequency shift. We have developed an analytic model which predicts this competition in agreement with the experimental data. Our model includes a new term in the intensity-dependent refractive index that considers the effect of the probe pulse intensity, which is resonantly enhanced by the cavity. We calculate the effect of the resonantly enhanced probe light on the refractive index change induced by the electronic Ker...

  13. Observation of millimeter-wave oscillations from resonant tunneling diodes and some theoretical considerations of ultimate frequency limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Le, H. Q.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of oscillation frequencies up to 56 GHz in resonant tunneling structures are discussed in relation to calculations by several authors of the ultimate frequency limits of these devices. It is found that calculations relying on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation give limits well below the observed oscillation frequencies. Two other techniques for calculating the upper frequency limit were found to give more reasonable results. One method employs the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation obtained by Kundrotas and Dargys (1986); the other uses the energy width of the transmission function for electrons through the double-barrier structure. This last technique is believed to be the most accurate since it is based on general results for the lifetime of any resonant state. It gives frequency limits on the order of 1 THz for two recently fabricated structures. It appears that the primary limitation of the oscillation frequency for double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes is imposed by intrinsic device circuit parameters and by the transit time of the depletion layer rather than by time delays encountered in the double-barrier region.

  14. Imaging-Genetics in Dyslexia: Connecting risk genetic variants to brain neuroimaging and ultimately to reading impairments

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, John D.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is a common pediatric disorder that affects 5-17% of schoolchildren in the United States. It is marked by unexpected difficulties in fluent reading despite adequate intelligence, opportunity, and instruction. Classically, neuropsychologists have studied dyslexia using a variety of neurocognitive batteries to gain insight into the specific deficits and impairments in affected children. Since dyslexia is a complex genetic trait with high heritability, analyses conditioned on performance on these neurocognitive batteries have been used to try to identify associated genes. This has led to some successes in identifying contributing genes, although much of the heritability remains unexplained. Additionally, the lack of relevant human brain tissue for analysis and the challenges of modeling a uniquely human trait in animals are barriers to advancing our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology. In vivo imaging technologies, however, present new opportunities to examine dyslexia and reading skills in a clearly relevant context in human subjects. Recent investigations have started to integrate these imaging data with genetic data in attempts to gain a more complete and complex understanding of reading processes. In addition to bridging the gap from genetic risk variant to a discernible neuroimaging phenotype and ultimately to the clinical impairments in reading performance, the use of neuroimaging phenotypes will reveal novel risk genes and variants. In this article, we briefly discuss the genetic and imaging investigations and take an in-depth look at the recent imaging-genetics investigations of dyslexia. PMID:23916419

  15. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by core-shell WO3/BiVO4 nanorods with ultimate water splitting efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pihosh, Yuriy; Turkevych, Ivan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Uemura, Jin; Kazoe, Yutaka; Kosar, Sonya; Makita, Kikuo; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Takuya; Fujita, Daisuke; Tosa, Masahiro; Kondo, Michio; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic water splitting requires effective generation, separation and transfer of photo-induced charge carriers that can hardly be achieved simultaneously in a single material. Here we show that the effectiveness of each process can be separately maximized in a nanostructured heterojunction with extremely thin absorber layer. We demonstrate this concept on WO3/BiVO4+CoPi core-shell nanostructured photoanode that achieves near theoretical water splitting efficiency. BiVO4 is characterized by a high recombination rate of photogenerated carriers that have much shorter diffusion length than the thickness required for sufficient light absorption. This issue can be resolved by the combination of BiVO4 with more conductive WO3 nanorods in a form of core-shell heterojunction, where the BiVO4 absorber layer is thinner than the carrier diffusion length while it’s optical thickness is reestablished by light trapping in high aspect ratio nanostructures. Our photoanode demonstrates ultimate water splitting photocurrent of 6.72?mA?cm?2 under 1 sun illumination at 1.23?VRHE that corresponds to ~90% of the theoretically possible value for BiVO4. We also demonstrate a self-biased operation of the photoanode in tandem with a double-junction GaAs/InGaAsP photovoltaic cell with stable water splitting photocurrent of 6.56?mA?cm?2 that corresponds to the solar to hydrogen generation efficiency of 8.1%. PMID:26053164

  16. Calculation of calorific values of coals from ultimate analyses: theoretical basis and geochemical implications. Final report. Part 8

    SciTech Connect

    Given, P.H.; Weldon, D.; Zoeller, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The various formulae for calculating calorific values for coals from ultimate analyses depend essentially on a propositon due to Dulong, that the heat of combustion of an organic compound is nearly equal to the heats of combustion of the elements in it, multiplied by their percentage content in the compound in question. This proposition assumes that the enthalpy of decomposition is negligible compared with the heat of combustion. The various published formulae, such as that due to Mott and Spooner, include empirical adjustments to allow for the fact that the enthalpy of formation or decomposition of no organic compound is zero (except rarely by chance). A new equation is proposed, which excludes empirical correction terms but includes a term explicitly related to the enthalpy of decomposition. As expected from the behavior of known compounds, this enthalpy varies with rank, but it also varies at the same level of rank with the geological history of the sample: rank is not the only source of variance in coal properties. The new equation is at least as effective in predicting calorific values for a set of 992 coals as equivalent equations derived for 6 subsets of the coals. On the whole, the distributions of differences between observed and calculated calorific values are skewed to only a small extent. About 86% of the differences lie between -300 and +300 Btu/lb (+- 700 kJ/kg). 10 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  17. MRF with adjustable pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2011-10-01

    Deterministic final polishing of high precision optics using sub-aperture processing with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is an accepted practice throughout the world. A wide variety of materials can be successfully worked with aqueous (pH 10), magnetorheological (MR) fluids, using magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) and either ceria or nanodiamond nonmagnetic abrasives. Polycrystalline materials like zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) are difficult to polish at pH 10 with MRF, due to their grain size and the relatively low stiffness of the MR fluid lap. If microns of material are removed, the grain structure of the material begins to appear. In 2005, Kozhinova et al. (Appl. Opt. 44 4671-4677) demonstrated that lowering pH could improve MRF of ZnS. However, magnetic CI particle corrosion rendered their low pH approach unstable and unsuitable for commercial implementation. In 2009, Shafrir et al. described a sol-gel coating process for manufacturing a zirconia-coated CI particle that protects the magnetic core from aqueous corrosion (Appl. Opt .48 6797-6810). The coating process produces free nanozirconia polishing abrasives during the coating procedure, thereby creating an MR polishing powder that is "self-charged" with the polishing abrasive. By simply adding water, it was possible to polish optical glasses and ceramics with good stability at pH 8 for three weeks. The development of a corrosion resistant, MR polishing powder, opens up the possibility for polishing additional materials, wherein the pH may be adjusted to optimize effectiveness. In this paper we describe the CI coating process, the characterization of the coated powder, and procedures for making stable MR fluids with adjustable pH, giving polishing results for a variety of optical glasses and crystalline ceramics.

  18. Low pH myoglobin photoproducts.

    PubMed

    Sage, J T; Morikis, D; Li, P; Champion, P M

    1992-04-01

    Recently, there has been interest in determining the conditions under which the iron-histidine bond ruptures in myoglobin at low pH, so that the effect of proximal heme ligation can be studied. A 220-cm-1 Raman mode, assigned to iron-histidine stretching, is clearly visible after photolysis of aqueous MbCO samples below pH4 at room temperature (Sage et al. Biochemistry. 30:1237-1247). In contrast, Iben et al. (Biophys. J. 59:908-919) do not observe this mode upon photolysis of a pH3 MbCO sample in a glycerol/water glass at low temperature. In order to account for both the low temperature and the room temperature experiments, Iben et al. suggest a scheme involving an unusual protonation state of the proximal histidine. Here, we discuss some inconsistencies in their explanation of the room temperature results and offer instead a simple modification of an earlier model. In addition, circular dichroism data are presented that indicate partial unfolding of MbCO in aqueous solution below pH4, and raise questions about the claim of Iben et al. that MbCO remains folded in 75% glycerol at pH3. PMID:1581497

  19. Spin-orbit coupling and the ultimate limit for spin-polarized tunneling from half-metallic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2014-03-01

    Half-metallic materials, i.e. metals that have free carriers only in one spin channel, should act as ideal materials for spin-polarized transport applications. In magnetic tunnel junctions with identical half-metallic electrodes, for example, there would in principle be zero tunneling transmission (infinite resistance) when the magnetization of the electrodes are aligned anti-parallel, making the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio infinite. In practice, however, it is thought that this idealized case can only hope to work at zero temperature and when the electrodes are in a truly mono-domain configuration: effects which are generally very difficult to minimize. Also, however, one factor that can never be suppressed is the mixing of the spin-polarized carriers induced by spin-orbit-coupling (SOC). We will present results of density functional calculations on idealized magnetic tunnel junctions with La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) electrodes and SrTiO3 (STO) tunneling barrier. In the absence of SOC, LSMO is predicted to be a half-metal having Fermi-level density of states only for majority spins, and an electronic gap for the minority spin-channel. Indeed, transport calculations based on a generalized scattering approach predict an infinite TMR effect in LSMO/STO/LSMO junctions. The inclusion of SOC into the calculations, however, opens a channel for transmission through the barrier in the anti-parallel magnetic configuration leading to a large, yet finite, TMR ratio. With all other spin-flip mechanisms suppressed, this represents the ultimate limit for TMR in idealized junctions.

  20. NATHANIEL GOLDBERG, PH.D. Department of Philosophy PH: 540-458-8338

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    OF SPECIALIZATION Epistemology, Modern Philosophy, Philosophy of Language AREAS OF COMPETENCE Logic, Metaphysics Functionalist?," Philosophical Writings 26 (2004): 47­69 "McTaggart on Time," Logic and Logical Philosophy 13NATHANIEL GOLDBERG, PH.D. Department of Philosophy PH: 540-458-8338 Baker Hall 216 FX: 540

  1. Andrew A. Shapiro, Ph.D. Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Andrew A. Shapiro, Ph.D. EDUCATION Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering University of California-SiO2." M.S. Materials Science and Engineering University of California, Los Angeles, 1989 Thesis Materials Science and Engineering 2000- 2005 Lecturer - Materials Science and Engineering 1998- 2000 Co

  2. PhD in Management The PhD program in Management is

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    ) Information Systems. With globalization and technological progress, supply chain management and global and IS or with high-quality faculty in entrepreneurship and strategic management as well as organizational behaviorPhD in Management The PhD program in Management is designed to provide advanced education

  3. College of Education PhD in Education

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    1 College of Education PhD in Education Exceptional Education Track Handbook A guide for doctoral students pursuing the PhD in Exceptional Education Lisa Dieker, PhD Wilfred Wienke, PhD Project LEAD ­ Leadership in Exceptional Education Advancing Diversity #12;2 Manuscript Preparation (2008) Kimberly Pawling

  4. PH DEPENDENT TOXICITY OF FIVE METALS TO THREE MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH of natural marine systems is relatively stable; this may explain why metal toxicity changes with pH have not been well documented. However, changes in metal toxicity with pH in marine waters are of concern in toxicity testing. During porewater toxicity testing pH can chang...

  5. Microbiology Ph.D. Admissions Data -Fall 2012 Entering Class

    E-print Network

    Microbiology Ph.D. Admissions Data - Fall 2012 Entering Class Admissions data for Biological and Biomedical Sciences can be found here. Ph.D. Degree Information Number of registered students, Fall 2012 19 Number of degrees awarded 2011-2012 4 Median years to Ph.D. 5.7 Percent of students awarded Ph.D. 94

  6. Recommended Soil pH and Lime Requirement Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Eckert; J. Thomas Sims

    Soil pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the H+ activity (moles per liter) in the soil solution. As the activity of H+ in the soil solution increases, the soil pH value decreases. Soils with pH values below pH 7 are referred to as \\

  7. Fiber-Optic pH Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, A. Balaji; Radhakrishnan, T. K.

    The new enhancement in the determination of pH using optical fiber system is described here. This work uses the membrane made of cellulose acetate membrane for reagent immobilization and congo red (pKa 3.7) and neutral red (pKa 7.2) as pH indicators. An effective covalent chemical binding procedure is used to immobilize the indicatorsE The response time, reversibility, linear range, reproducibility, and long-term stability of fiber optic sensor with congo red as well as neutral red have been determined. The linear range measured for the sensor based on the congo red and neutral red is 4.2-6.3 and 4.1-9.0, respectively. The response time of sensor membrane is measured by varying the substance pH values between 11.0 and 2.0.

  8. PhET Teacher Activities: Hooke's Law

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-25

    This two-hour activity for high school physics was created to accompany the PhET simulation Masses & Springs. In the first lesson, students will use the simulation to explore how displacement of a spring is mathematically related to the load applied to it. In the next day's exploration, learners analyze the energy of a mass oscillating on a spring by observing distribution and transfer of kinetic, elastic potential, and gravitational potential energy. Materials include learning goals, explicit directions for use of the simulation, homework problems, and answer key. The spring motion simulation (which is required to complete this activity) is available from PhET at: Masses & Springs. This lesson is part of the PhET (Physics Education Technology Project), a large collection of free interactive science simulations.

  9. Network Optimization with Dynamic Traffic Information and Tolling LEURENT Fabien, NGUYEN Thai Phu

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    to to dynamic traffic information service, congestion pricing with various tolling strategies like no demand management tools In a road network, the congestion delays include the recurrent delays due to exceed demand, determined by the flow pattern and the laws of traffic, and the non-recurrent congestion

  10. REPAIRING PEOPLE TRAJECTORIES BASED ON POINT Duc-Phu CHAU(1)(2)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Filter combined with optimization techniques for data association in order to filter and robustly manage, using particle filters to estimate the object states based on joint probabilistic data association filters. In [6], the authors also propose to use particle filters that are quite flexible as they can

  11. PhEt - Physics Education Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhEt is a free website of over sixty interactive simulations that provides opportunities for students to learn physics and chemistry through exploration and virtual labs. A browsable teacher-contributed collection of homework assignments, lectures, activities, and concept questions is available. Additional contributions designed to be used in conjunction with the PhET simulations may be submitted. Simulations can be run in three different ways: on line, by downloading one or more simulations at a time, or by a download of the entire website to your computer. Many simulations have been translated into different languages.

  12. AU FEBRUARY 2012 Open House: The AU Ph. D.

    E-print Network

    AU FEBRUARY 2012 1 OPEN house Open House: The AU Ph. D. House Magazine By Alejandra Zaragoza Scherman Page 2 The AU PhD House Activity Group By Zsuzsanna Sukosd Page 3 The AU PhD House Activity Group By Gitte Haahr-Andersen Page 6 The AU PhD World: Talent Development By Kristian Thorn Page 7/8 The Ph

  13. The Added Value of a PhD in Medicine--PhD Students' Perceptions of Acquired Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Henrika; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Lonka, Kristi; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    PhD in the field of medicine is more common than in any other domain. Many medical doctors are driven towards PhD, but also students with other backgrounds (usually MSc) are conducting a PhD in medical schools. Higher education has invested a lot in developing generic and research competences. Still little is known about how PhD students…

  14. Negli ultimi tempi si fa un gran parlare di HTML5 (e CSS3)... Sono solo le ultime versioni degli standard HTML (e CSS) o c'

    E-print Network

    Goy, Anna

    1 Negli ultimi tempi si fa un gran parlare di HTML5 (e CSS3)... Sono solo le ultime versioni degli standard HTML (e CSS) o c'è qualcosa di più?!? HTML5 è una specifica di HTML che ha introdotto nel HTML5 - I HTML5 è una specifica di HTML che ha introdotto nel linguaggio funzionalità che vanno ben oltre il

  15. Influence of the Kingak Shale ultimate shelf margin on frontal structures of the Brooks Range in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stier, Natalie E.; Connors, Christopher D.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) includes several southward-offlapping depositional sequences that culminate in an ultimate shelf margin, which preserves the depositional profile in southern NPRA. The Kingak Shale thins abruptly southward across the ultimate shelf margin and grades into condensed shale, which is intercalated with underlying condensed shale and chert of the Upper Triassic Shublik Formation and overlying condensed shale of the Lower Cretaceous pebble shale unit and the gamma-ray zone (GRZ) of the Hue Shale. This composite of condensed shale forms a thin (?300-meter) and mechanically weak section between much thicker and mechanically stronger units, including the Sadlerochit and Lisburne Groups below and the sandstone-prone foredeep wedge of the Torok Formation above. Seismic interpretation indicates that the composite condensed section acted as the major detachment during an Early Tertiary phase of deformation in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range and that thrust faults step up northward to the top of the Kingak, or to other surfaces within the Kingak or the overlying Torok. The main structural style is imbricate fault-bend folding, although fault-propagation folding is evident locally, and large-displacement thrust faults incorporate backthrusting to form structural wedges. The Kingak ultimate shelf margin served as a ramp to localize several thrust faults, and the spatial relationship between the ultimate shelf margin and thrust vergence is inferred to have controlled many structures in southern NPRA. For example, the obliqueness of the Carbon Creek anticline relative to other structures in the foothills is the result of northward-verging thrust faults impinging obliquely on the Kingak ultimate shelf margin in southwestern NPRA.

  16. CURRICULUM VITAE Anne Brunet, PhD

    E-print Network

    Brunet, Anne

    . 1992-1997 Ph.D., University of Nice, France. Dr. Jacques Pouysségur's laboratory 1998-2003 Post-doctoral of Copenhagen 1998-2003 Post-doctoral fellow, Dr. Michael Greenberg's laboratory, Harvard Medical School 2004-term fellowship 1997 EMBO long-term post-doctoral fellowship 1998-2000 Human Frontier Science Program post-doctoral

  17. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  18. Ph.D. Program in Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Ph.D. Program in Machine Learning Student Handbook Revised 7/20/12 #12;Page 2 Table Machine Learning Journal Club...................................................................................................17 #12;Page 3 Introduction The field of machine learning is concerned with the question of how

  19. CURRICULUM VITAE Youfan Hu, Ph. D.

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    CURRICULUM VITAE Youfan Hu, Ph. D. Research Scientist Working with Prof. Zhong Lin Wang School. F. Hu, C. Xu, Y. Zhang, L. Ling, R. L. Snyder, Z. L. Wang, "Nanogenerator for Energy Harvesting From (2011). 2. Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, C. Xu, L. Ling, R. L. Snyder, Z. L. Wang, "Self-powered System

  20. Bioengineering Laboratory MAEDA, Mizuo (Ph.D)

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    on a nanoparticle hybridizes with its complementary DNA, the resulting double-stranded (ds) DNA-functionalized nanoparticles aggregate promptly above a salt concentration. We have studied this non-crosslinking aggregation Bioengineering Laboratory MAEDA, Mizuo (Ph.D) DNA DNA DNA DNA SNPs DNA 1. DNA

  1. Ph.D. PSYCHOLOGY Application Checklist

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Ph.D. PSYCHOLOGY Application Checklist IMPORTANT NOTES 1. Please submit all Application Materials.D. in Psychology must have both a Bachelors and Masters degree, at least one of which must be in Psychology (Maximum 10 pages). GRE Test Scores: Applicants who do not have a Master's degree in Psychology must submit

  2. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  3. PhD Dissertation Multilingual and Crosslingual

    E-print Network

    de Gispert, Adrià

    the parameters of the acoustic model from a acoustic template database. It has been shown that this methodologyPhD Dissertation Multilingual and Crosslingual Acoustic Modelling for Automatic Speech Recognition studies the definition, and validation of multilingual and crosslingual acoustic models for automatic

  4. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in…

  5. Profile of Ph.Ds in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zur-Muehlen, Max

    A profile of the socio-economic characteristics of the permanent residents of Canada holding an earned doctorate is presented. In 1973, there were 27,410 Canadian residents who had obtained an earned doctorate. (Holders of such professional doctoral degrees as Doctor of Medicine are excluded from this study.) Only 9 percent of the Ph.Ds were…

  6. Curriculum Vitae Andrs Guerra, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    ://inside.mines.edu/~aguerra/ ______________________________________________________________________________ EDUCATION Ph.D., Engineering Systems (Civil Specialty), Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2008 M.S., Engineering Systems (Civil Specialty), Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2004 B.S., Engineering (Civil Systems." Invited seminar at the University of Chile, Mining Engineering Department, November 2007

  7. OpenPh - Numerical Physics Library

    E-print Network

    Milescu, George; Pop, Florin

    2011-01-01

    Numerical physics has gained a lot of importance in the last decade, its efficiency being motivated and sustained by the growth of computational power. This paper presents a concept that is to be developed in the next few years: OpenPh. OpenPh is a numerical physics library that makes use of the advantages of both open source software and MATLAB programming. Its aim is to deliver the instruments for providing numerical and graphical solutions for various physics problems. It has a modular structure, allowing the user to add new modules to the existing ones and to create its own modules according to its needs, being virtually unlimited extendable. The modules of OpenPh are implemented using MATLAB engine because it is the best solution used in engineering and science, providing a wide range of optimized methods to accomplish even the toughest jobs. Current version of OpenPh includes two modules, the first one providing tools for quantum physics and the second one for mechanics. The quantum physics module deals...

  8. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  9. Debra Gilchrist, Ph.D. Pierce College

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    by an institution · Respect for diverse learning styles · Educationally effective institutions channel studentDebra Gilchrist, Ph.D. Pierce College Lakewood, Washington CUNY Assessment Conference 2014 of the project. In some cases, the differences are substantial. PILR - Pre-College Information Literacy Research

  10. Comments on quant-ph/0609176

    E-print Network

    XiaoDi Wu

    2007-01-08

    In this note, we show the mistake which has been made in quant-ph/0609176. Further more, we provide a sketch of proof to show the impossibility of the effort of such kind toward improving the efficiency of Grover's Algorithm.

  11. BRANDI BLESSETT, Ph.D. Assistant Professor

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    /2003 ­ 8/2004 Physical Education and Health Teacher Academy for Business and Technology, Dearborn Heights.Blessett@ucf.edu EDUCATION 8/2006 ­ 12/2011 Ph.D. of Urban Policy. Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA. Dissertation title African American Mobility" 8/2004 ­ 12/2005 Masters of Educational Leadership. Wayne State University

  12. Curriculum Vitae Christopher Dehon, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    .P.H. Functioned as the sole therapist responsible for piloting a new treatment for PTSD in young children and their mothers following trauma. Treatment addressed both the classic symptoms of PTSD and parent training for externalizing problems that were comorbid with children's symptoms of PTSD. Analyzed the overall effectiveness

  13. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  14. Bioengineering Laboratory MAEDA, Mizuo (Ph.D)

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    DNA DNA (3) DNA DNA DNA DNA i-motif G-quartet DNA i-motif pH DNA DNA (CNT) #12;21 DNA (SWNT) DNA have been applied for DNA biosensor, affinity electrophoresis, SNPs-responsive diagnostic nanoparticle-linked nanoparticle (Maeda, Takarada, Fujita, Pan, Ooi, Katafuchi, Kobayashi N.) Single-strand DNA-linked nanoparticle

  15. IHS-Ph.D. Program 2010-2011 Interdisciplinary Health Sciences PhD Program

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    to this application. 3. Attach an up-to-date Curriculum Vitae. #12; ____________________________________________________ Date admitted to IHS PhD program ______________________ (semester/year) Primary Advisor ____________________________ Date _________________ Please use separate pages to complete the following section. 1. Construct

  16. Dissolution of hematite nanoparticle aggregates: influence of primary particle size, dissolution mechanism, and solution pH.

    PubMed

    Lanzl, Caylyn A; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Cwiertny, David M

    2012-11-13

    The size-dependent dissolution of nanoscale hematite (8 and 40 nm ?-Fe(2)O(3)) was examined across a broad range of pH (pH 1-7) and mechanisms including proton- and ligand- (oxalate-) promoted dissolution and dark (ascorbic acid) and photochemical (oxalate) reductive dissolution. Empirical relationships between dissolution rate and pH revealed that suspensions of 8 nm hematite exhibit between 3.3- and 10-fold greater reactivity per unit mass than suspensions of 40 nm particles across all dissolution modes and pH, including circumneutral. Complementary suspension characterization (i.e., sedimentation studies and dynamic light scattering) indicated extensive aggregation, with steady-state aggregate sizes increasing with pH but being roughly equivalent for both primary particles. Thus, while the reactivity difference between 8 and 40 nm suspensions is generally greater than expected from specific surface areas measured via N(2)-BET or estimated from primary particle geometry, loss of reactive surface area during aggregation limits the certainty of such comparisons. We propose that the relative reactivity of 8 and 40 nm hematite suspensions is best explained by differences in the fraction of aggregate surface area that is reactive. This scenario is consistent with TEM images revealing uniform dissolution of aggregated 8 nm particles, whereas 40 nm particles within aggregates undergo preferential etching at edges and structural defects. Ultimately, we show that comparably sized hematite aggregates can exhibit vastly different dissolution activity depending on the nature of the primary nanoparticles from which they are constructed, a result with wide-ranging implications for iron redox cycling. PMID:23078147

  17. Highlights From PhUn Week 2007

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-02-01

    This is an article from The Physiologist. "More than 100 APS physiologists volunteered their time in reaching out to more than 3000 students last November during Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn Week), the APS member-based annual outreach program to local area K-12 schools (http://www.PhUnWeek.org). APS members partnered with more than 70 teachers and science educators from across the nation to develop engaging classroom or campus presentations for students at all grade levels, from day care through twelfth grades. The following vignettes are only a few samples of the excitement and fun generated by the focus on the physiology of health and exercise during the first week in November. All events with the primary APS member and lead teacher coordinators are listed in Table 1.".

  18. Thiosquaramides: pH switchable anion transporters†

    PubMed Central

    Busschaert, Nathalie; Elmes, Robert B. P.; Czech, Dawid D.; Wu, Xin; Kirby, Isabelle L.; Peck, Evan M.; Hendzel, Kevin D.; Shaw, Scott K.; Chan, Bun; Smith, Bradley D.; Jolliffe, Katrina A.; Gale, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of anions across cellular membranes is an important biological function governed by specialised proteins. In recent years, many small molecules have emerged that mimick the anion transport behaviour of these proteins, but only a few of these synthetic molecules also display the gating/switching behaviour seen in biological systems. A small series of thiosquaramides was synthesised and their pH-dependent chloride binding and anion transport behaviour was investigated using 1H NMR titrations, single crystal X-ray diffraction and a variety of vesicle-based techniques. Spectrophotometric titrations and DFT calculations revealed that the thiosquaramides are significantly more acidic than their oxosquaramide analogues, with pKa values between 4.0 and 9.0. This led to the observation that at pH 7.2 the anion transport ability of the thiosquaramides is fully switched OFF due to deprotonation of the receptor, but is completely switched ON at lower pH.

  19. Kondo effect in real metals Ph. Nozires

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    193 Kondo effect in real metals Ph. Nozières Institut Laue-Langevin, 156X, 38042 Grenoble Cedex découplages, et leur interaction avec les singularités Kondo. Dans la mesure où un modèle de liquide de Fermi Kondo et sur l'universalité. Abstract. 2014 Starting from the most general form of the Anderson

  20. Not Your Father's Ph.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Brandon G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the author, a devoted blogger, confronts his fear that his virtual life is damaging his career prospects in academe. As a new Ph.D. in religious studies, the author has every reason to believe he will find a tenure-track job. He has read the numbers and know that, on average, job candidates spend two to five years in…

  1. Ambulatory esophageal pH testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Patrick Shoenut; Clifford S. Yaffe

    1996-01-01

    Over a 30-month period, 867 esophageal pH studies were conducted in a Canadian teaching hospital; of these, 315 tests were recorded in patients who were first-time referrals having no chest or upper gastrointestinal surgery and taking no medication that would affect the results. Patients were referred by gastroenterologists, general surgeons, ENT surgeons, thoracic surgeons, and a miscellaneous group. Patients were

  2. Highlights From PhUn Week 2009

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-04-01

    This is an article from The Physiologist highlighting Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week 2009, which was held the first week of November and reached nearly 10,000 students from kindergarten through twelfth grade. "Forty events across the nation were coordinated by more than 250 APS members and scientists who volunteered their expertise and time to work with close to 170 teachers and science educators across 24 states and Puerto Rico."

  3. Polyaniline based optical pH sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich-W. Grummt; Adam Pron; Malgorzata Zagorska; S. Lefrant

    1997-01-01

    Thin layers of polyaniline are suitable to measure optically the pH in the range of 2–12 in the near infrared region. The deposition of such layers is strongly facilitated by the use of solution-processable polyaniline. Previously unconsidered hysteresis effects are observed in the titration curves. Testing the sensor layers over a period of 300h and up to 500 titration cycles

  4. Early molecular response to posttransplantation imatinib determines outcome in MRD+ Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL).

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Barbara; Pfeifer, Heike; Stadler, Michael; Bornhaüser, Martin; Bug, Gesine; Scheuring, Urban J; Brück, Patrick; Stelljes, Matthias; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Basara, Nadezda; Perz, Jolanta; Bunjes, Donald; Ledderose, Georg; Mahlberg, Rolf; Binckebanck, Anja; Gschaidmeier, Harald; Hoelzer, Dieter; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2005-07-15

    In adult Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL), minimal residual disease (MRD) after stem cell transplantation (SCT) is associated with a relapse probability exceeding 90%. Starting imatinib in the setting of MRD may decrease this high relapse rate. In this prospective multicenter study, 27 Ph+ ALL patients received imatinib upon detection of MRD after SCT. Bcr-abl transcripts became undetectable in 14 (52%) of 27 patients, after a median of 1.5 months (0.9-3.7 months) ((early)CR(mol)). All patients who achieved an (early)CR(mol) remained in remission for the duration of imatinib treatment; 3 patients relapsed after imatinib was discontinued. Failure to achieve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity shortly after starting imatinib predicted relapse, which occurred in 12 (92%) of 13 patients after a median of 3 months. Disease-free survival (DFS) in (early)CR(mol) patients is 91% +/- 9% and 54% +/- 21% after 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared with 8% +/- 7% after 12 months in patients remaining MRD+ (P < .001). In conclusion, approximately half of patients with Ph+ ALL receiving imatinib for MRD positivity after SCT experience prolonged DFS, which can be anticipated by the rapid achievement of a molecular complete remission (CR). Continued detection of bcr-abl transcripts after 2 to 3 months on imatinib identifies patients who will ultimately experience relapse and in whom additional or alternative antileukemic treatment should be initiated. PMID:15817679

  5. Illinois Institute of Technology Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Illinois Institute of Technology Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program Program Handbook 2013 - 2014 (6 Training (Ph.D., Adelphi University, 1974) Cognitive models of depression, seasonal affective disorder

  6. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH...

  7. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH...

  8. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH...

  9. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH...

  10. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH...

  11. Updated 1-12 Jill Dahlburg, PH.D.

    E-print Network

    Updated 1-12 Jill Dahlburg, PH.D. Superintendent of the Space Science Division Naval Research Laboratory Jill Dahlburg, Ph.D., is the Superintendent of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Space Science

  12. Policy Manual Ph.D. in Public Administration

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Policy Manual Ph.D. in Public Administration School of Public .................................................................................................................. 14 #12;- 2 - 1. OVERVIEW The School of Public Administration at Florida Atlantic University offers a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Public Administration with concentrations in: · Administrative

  13. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    E-print Network

    Glein, Christopher; Waite, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to obtain a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model indicates that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ~11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by clays and carbonates on the ocean floor. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecule...

  14. STM Studies of Mn12-Ph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaves, K.; Kim, K.; Iwaya, K.; Hitosugi, T.; Zhao, H.; Dunbar, K. R.; Katzgraber, H. G.; Teizer, W.

    2013-03-01

    Mn12-Ph displays tunneling of quantized magnetization below 3K. In other Mn12 ligand variants this magnetic behavior can alter the electronic behavior of the molecule making them good candidates for a molecular logic gate or q-bit. Mn12O12(C6H5COO)16 (referred to as Mn12-Ph) has a Mn12 core with 16 Phenyl ligands and is deposited via spray injection onto surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and other surfaces. We report Mn12-Ph in isolation, resembling single molecules with metallic core atoms and organic outer ligands. The local tunneling current observed within the molecular structure shows a strong bias voltage dependence, which is distinct from that of the surface. Further, evidence of internal inhomogeneity in the local density of states has been observed with high spatial resolution, and this inhomogeneity appears to be due to localized metallic behavior. These results facilitate magneto-metric studies of single molecule magnets in isolation. As compared to bulk crystal studies, our experiments allow the specific investigation of atomic sites in individual molecules.

  15. PhET Teacher Activities: Modeling Isotopes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-18

    This lesson plan was created specifically to accompany the PhET simulation "Isotopes and Atomic Mass". It provides explicit guidance for modeling atoms and their variant isotopes. As students add neutrons to the nuclear model, they can see a relationship between the stability of the atom and its abundance in nature. The model makes it easy to visualize that atoms of one element always have the same number of protons, but can have various numbers of neutrons. It will help students differentiate Atomic Number (number of protons in the nucleus) from Mass Number (the number of protons and neutrons. The isotope simulation, which must be open and displayed to complete this activity, is available from PhET at: Isotopes and Atomic Mass. This lesson is part of PhET (Physics Education Technology Project), a large collection of free interactive simulations for science education.

  16. On the Cost of Generating PH-distributed Random Numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Reinecke; Katinka Wolter

    Abstract—Phase-type (PH) distributions are proven to be very powerful tools in modelling and analysis of a wide range of phenomena,in computer systems. The use of these distributions in simulation studies requires efficient methods for generating PH-distributed random numbers. In this work, we consider the cost of PH-distributed random-number,generation. I. I NTRODUCTION Phase-type distributions (PH) distributions have been widely used in

  17. Novel CCD-based pH imaging sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sawada; S. Mimura; K. Tomita; T. Nakanishi; H. Tanabe; M. Ishida; T. Ando

    1999-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel pH imaging sensor based on the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) technology. This device consists of pH sensing parts, which sense pH value and transform a pH value to electric charges, and conventional CCD parts, which transfer the electric charges to read out circuit. A thin Si3N4 film which acts as the hydrogen ion-sensitive membrane

  18. Pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Carl O.; Herman, Janet S.

    1991-02-01

    Previous studies of pyrite oxidation kinetics have concentrated primarily on the reaction at low pH, where Fe(III) has been assumed to be the dominant oxidant. Studies at circumneutral pH, necessitated by effective pH buffering in some pyrite oxidation systems, have often implicitly assumed that the dominant oxidant must be dissolved oxygen (DO), owing to the diminished solubility of Fe(III). In fact, Fe(III)(aq) is an effective pyrite oxidant at circumneutral pH, but the reaction cannot be sustained in the absence of DO. The purpose of this experimental study was to ascertain the relative roles of Fe(III) and DO in pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH. The rate of pyrite oxidation was first-order with respect to the ratio of surface area to solution volume. Direct determinations of both Fe(II) (aq)> and Fe(III) (aq) demonstrated a dramatic loss of Fe(II) from the solution phase in excess of the loss for which oxidation alone could account. Based on rate data, we have concluded that Fe(II) is adsorbed onto the pyrite surface. Furthermore, Fe(II) is preferred as an adsorbate to Fe(III), which we attribute to both electrostatic and acid-base selectivity. We also found that the rate of pyrite oxidation by either Fe(III) (aq) or DO is reduced in the presence of aqueous Fe(II), which leads us to conclude that, under most natural conditions, neither Fe(III) (aq) nor DO directly attacks the pyrite surface. The present evidence suggests a mechanism for pyrite oxidation that involves adsorbed Fe( II ) giving up electrons to DO and the resulting Fe(III) rapidly accepting electrons from the pyrite. The adsorbed Fe is, thus, cyclically oxidized and reduced, while it acts as a conduit for electrons traveling from pyrite to DO. Oxygen is transferred from the hydration sphere of the adsorbed Fe to pyrite S. The cycle of adsorbed Fe oxidation and reduction and the successive addition of oxygen to pyrite S continues until a stable sulfoxy species dissociates from the surface. Prior work has shown that sulfoxy species of lower oxidation state than sulfate (e.g., thiosulfate or polythionate) may accumulate in solution under some circumstances but not under the conditions of the experiments reported here. In these experiments, the rate of sulfate accumulation in solution is proportional to the rate of pyrite oxidation.

  19. INFLUENCE OF PH AND REDOX CONDITIONS ON COPPER LEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaching behavior of metals from a mineral processing waste at varying pH and redox conditions was studies. Effect of combinations of pH and Eh on leaching of copper is described. Leaching of copper was found to be dependent on both pH and Eh. Higher concentrations of Cu were ...

  20. The Dept. of Hematology/Oncology is seeking a PhD student positionPhD student positionPhD student positionPhD student position

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    The Dept. of Hematology/Oncology is seeking a PhD student positionPhD student positionPhD student of Hematology and Oncology, University Medicine Göttin- gen, Germany (Prof. Frauke Alves). The position is part.03.2013: Dr. Jeannine Mißbach-Güntner Hematology-Oncology D-37099 Göttingen Tel.: +49 (0)551/39-6991 E-Mail: j

  1. Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring using a wireless system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E Pandolfino; Joel E Richter; Tina Ours; Jason M Guardino; Jennifer Chapman; Peter J Kahrilas

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesLimitations of catheter-based esophageal pH monitoring are discomfort, inconvenience, and interference with normal activity. An alternative to conventional pH monitoring is the wireless Medtronic Bravo pH System. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, performance, and tolerability of this system.

  2. Ph.D. Program Handbook Industrial & Systems Engineering Department

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Ph.D. Program Handbook Industrial & Systems Engineering Department Wayne State University 4815-8833 http://www.ise.wayne.edu Last Revision: December 17, 2010 Table of Contents Ph.D. Admissions.................................................................................................... 2 General Instructions for Applying to the Ph.D. Program

  3. EFFECTS OF pH ON ELECTROFLOTATION OF SPHALERITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. LLERENA; J. C. K. HO; D. L. PIRON

    1996-01-01

    Electroflotation studies on sphalerite fine particles, conducted under careful pH control using buffer electrolytes, reveal that for either H2 or 02 electrolytic gases there exists an optimum pH range at which electroflotation is most effective. This can be explained by the observed dependence of electrolytic gas bubble size on the pH of the electrolyte.

  4. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  5. Investigating pH of common household substances

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is a classroom lab where students test common household liquids for pH level on the pH continuum, 1-14. They compare and contrast everyday use of the liquids, and how this relates to the liquids' pH property.

  6. AG Cellular Biophysics and Translational Cardiology 1 PhD student1 PhD student1 PhD student1 PhD student----StructureStructureStructureStructure----functionfunctionfunctionfunction

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    AG Cellular Biophysics and Translational Cardiology is seeking 1 PhD student1 PhD student1 Ph research in the field of translational cardiology. Background:Background:Background:Background: changes and Translational Cardiology, Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumonology, D-37099 Göttingen Tel.: +49 (0)551/39-10574 Fax

  7. PhD Students' Work Conditions and Study Environment in University- and Industry-Based PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmos, A.; Kofoed, L. B.; Du, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, new models of funding and training PhD students have been established in Denmark in order to integrate industry into the entire PhD education. Several programmes have been conducted where it is possible to co-finance PhD scholarships or to become an employee as an industrial PhD in a company. An important question is what…

  8. Combined effect of acetic acid, pH and ethanol on intracellular pH of fermenting yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Pampulha; M. C. Loureiro-Dias

    1989-01-01

    The internal pH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGC 3507 III (a respiratory-deficient mutant) was measured by the distribution of [14C]propionic acid, when the yeast was fermenting glucose at pH 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 in the presence of several concentrations of acetic acid and ethanol. Good correlation was obtained between fermentation rates and internal pH. For all external pH values tested, the

  9. pH distributions in spontaneous and isotransplanted rat tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Kallinowski, F.; Vaupel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous mammary tumours of the rat with various degrees of malignancy exhibit similar tissue pH distributions. The mean pH (+/- s.d.) of dysplasia is 7.05 +/- 0.20. In benign tumours the mean pH is 6.95 +/- 0.19 and in malignant tumours it is 6.94 +/- 0.19. In contrast, tumours with the same degree of malignancy but different histologies show different pH distributions. Benign tumours with a higher percentage of fibrous tissue exhibit less acidic pH values than those with larger portions of epithelial cells (delta pH = 0.38 pH units). The pH distribution in the benign tumours is independent of the tumour wet weight up to stages of very advanced growth. In the malignant tumours, a trend towards more acidic pH values is observed as the tumour mass enlarges. However, in tissue areas within a malignant tumour with gross, long-established necrosis the pH distribution is shifted towards more alkaline pH values. The pH distributions in spontaneous rat tumours are not significantly different from those obtained in isotransplanted Yoshida sarcomas (6.87 +/- 0.21). In the Yoshida sarcomas, mean pH values do not correlate with tumour size. However, a pH gradient from the rim to the centre of the tumours is found which coincides with the development of small, disseminated necroses in the tumour centre. It is concluded that pathology-related variations of tumour pH may be more important than the mode of tumour origin or the degree of malignancy. PMID:3179183

  10. EFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) are acidic. These secretions primarily from the mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands of young worker adultsEFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY PRODUCED BY CAGED HONEY Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA SUMMARY There were no significant differences in the pH of worker jelly

  11. Roadmap: Public Health Pre-Medicine Bachelor of Science in Public Health [PH-BSPH-PH-PMD

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    and faculty advisor PH 30033 Public Health Policy and Decision-Making 3 See note 2 on page 2 Semester FiveRoadmap: Public Health ­ Pre-Medicine ­Bachelor of Science in Public Health [PH-BSPH-PH-PMD] College of Public Health Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 3 | Last Updated: 24-Apr-13/LNHD This roadmap

  12. Roadmap: Public Health-Allied Health-Bachelor of Science in Public Health [PH-BSPH-PH-AHLT

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    and Control of Diseases 3 See note 1 on page 2 PH 30033 Public Health Policy and Decision-Making 3 SeeRoadmap: Public Health-Allied Health-Bachelor of Science in Public Health [PH-BSPH-PH-AHLT] College of Public Health Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 24-Apr-13/LNHD This roadmap

  13. Line positions and intensities of the phosphine (PH3) Pentad near 4.5 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Brown, Linda R.; Benner, D. Chris; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2014-04-01

    In order to improve the spectroscopic database for remote sensing of the giant planets, line positions and intensities are determined for the five bands (2?2, ?2 + ?4, 2?4, ?1 and ?3) that comprise the Pentad of PH3 between 1950 and 2450 cm-1. Knowledge of PH3 spectral line parameters in this region is important for the exploration of dynamics and chemistry on Saturn, (using existing Cassini/VIMS observations) and future near-IR data of Jupiter from Juno and ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). For this study, spectra of pure PH3 from two Fourier transform spectrometers were obtained: (a) five high-resolution (0.00223 cm-1), high signal-to-noise (?1800) spectra recorded at room temperature (298.2 K) with the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, Washington and (b) four high-resolution (at 0.0115 cm-1 resolution), high signal-to-noise (?700) spectra recorded at room temperature in the region 1800-5200 cm-1 using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. Individual line parameters above 2150 cm-1 were retrieved by simultaneous multispectrum fittings of all five Bruker spectra, while retrievals with the four Kitt Peak spectra were done in the 1938-2168 cm-1 range spectrum by spectrum and averaged. In all, positions and intensities were obtained for more than 4400 lines. These included 53 A+A- split pairs of transitions (arising due to vibration-rotation interactions (Coriolis-type interaction) between the ?3 and ?1 fundamental bands) for K? = 3, 6, and 9. Over 3400 positions and 1750 intensities of these lines were ultimately identified as relatively unblended and modeled up to J = 14 and K = 12 with rms values of 0.00133 cm-1 and 7.7%, respectively. The PH3 line parameters (observed positions and measured intensities with known quantum assignments) and Hamiltonian constants are reported. Comparisons with other recent studies are discussed.

  14. Line positions and intensities of the phosphine (PH3) Pentad near 4.5 ?m

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, V. Malathy; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Brown, Linda R.; Benner, D. C.; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2014-04-01

    In order to improve the spectroscopic database for remote sensing of the giant planets, line positions and intensities are determined for the five bands (2?2, ?2 + ?4, 2?4, ?1 and ?3) that comprise the Pentad of PH3 between 1950 and 2450 cm?1. Knowledge of PH3 spectral line parameters in this region is important for the exploration of dynamics and chemistry on Saturn, (using existing Cassini/VIMS observations) and future near-IR data of Jupiter from Juno and ESA’s Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). For this study, spectra of pure PH3 from two Fourier transform spectrometers were obtained: (a) five high-resolution (0.00223 cm?1), high signal-to-noise (?1800) spectra recorded at room temperature (298.2 K) with the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, Washington and (b) four high-resolution (at 0.0115 cm?1 resolution), high signal-to-noise (?700) spectra recorded at room temperature in the region 1800–5200 cm?1 using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. Individual line parameters above 2150 cm?1 were retrieved by simultaneous multispectrum fittings of all five Bruker spectra, while retrievals with the four Kitt Peak spectra were done in the 1938–2168 cm?1 range spectrum by spectrum and averaged. In all, positions and intensities were obtained for more than 4400 lines. These included 53 A+A? split pairs of transitions (arising due to vibration–rotation interactions (Coriolis-type interaction) between the ?3 and ?1 fundamental bands) for K? = 3, 6, and 9. Over 3400 positions and 1750 intensities of these lines were ultimately identified as relatively unblended and modeled up to J = 14 and K = 12 with rms values of 0.00133 cm?1 and 7.7%, respectively. The PH3 line parameters (observed positions and measured intensities with known quantum assignments) and Hamiltonian constants are reported. Comparisons with other recent studies are discussed.

  15. Microtubule assembly and disassembly at alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Regula, CS; Pfeiffer; Berlin, RD

    1981-01-01

    Although it is now apparent that the intracellular pH may rise considerably above neutrality under physiological conditions, information on the effect of alkaline pH on microtubule assembly and disassembly is still quite fragmentay. We have studied the assembly/disassembly of bovine brain microtubule protein at alkaline pH in vitro. When microtubules are assembled to a new steady state at pH less than 7 and pH is then made more alkaline, they undergo a rapid disassembly to a new steady state. This disassembly is reversed by acidification. The degree of disassembly is determined largely by the pH- dependence of the critical concentration, which increases five to eight times, from pH 7 to 8. A fraction of assembly-incompetent tubulin is identified that increases with pH, but its incompetency is largely reversed with acidification. Measurements of microtubule lengths are used to indicate that disassembly occurs by uniform shortening of microtubules. A comparison of shortening by alkalinization with dilution suggests that the intrinsic rate of disassembly is accelerated by increasing pH. The capacity for initiating assembly is progressively lost with incubation at alkaline pH (although some protection is afforded by sulfhydryl-reducing agents). However, direct assembly from depolymerized mixtures is possible at least up to pH 8.3, and the steady state achieved at these alkaline pH values is stable. Such preparations are readily disassembled by cold and podophyllotoxin (PLN). Disassembly induced by PLN is also markedly enhanced at alkaline pH, suggesting a corresponding enhancement of “treadmilling.” The implications of physiological events leading to alkaline shifts of pH for microtubule assembly/disassembly are discussed, particularly in the light of recent hypotheses regarding treadmilling and its role in controlling the distribution of microtubules in vivo. PMID:7228899

  16. Integrating individual-based indices of contaminant effects. How multiple sublethal effects may ultimately reduce amphibian recruitment from a contaminated breeding site.

    PubMed

    Rowe, C L; Hopkins, W A; Congdon, J D

    2001-11-29

    Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana ) that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element-contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR). These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modifications to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance) costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage) in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological) may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of contaminants for long periods of time, research focused on one or few sublethal responses could substantially underestimate overall effects on individuals. We suggest that investigators adopt a more integrated perspective on contaminant-induced biological changes so that studies of individual-based effects can be better integrated into analyses of mechanisms of population change. PMID:12805772

  17. Career Outcomes for Astronomy Ph.D. Graduates of the University of Texas at Austin: The Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen years ago I conducted a survey of the career trajectories and outcomes of 78 individuals who earned Ph.D.s from the Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin during the period 1984-1995 (Dinerstein, H. 1996, AAS, 189.0501). In the current poster I extend these statistics up to the present, adding 68 Ph.D. recipients from 1996-2010. This is a sufficiently large sample to search for secular trends such as possible changes in duration of the postdoctoral stage, redistribution of demographics among different kinds of long-term positions, and the emergence of new categories of astronomy-related employment. The picture is less discouraging than one might expect. As of 2010, about 75% of the Texas graduates 7 - 14 years past the Ph.D. are still doing astronomy, and most of those in non-astronomical careers left the field by choice (and often have had considerable success in their alternate careers). Of those 6 years or less past the Ph.D., 50% were in postdoctoral positions and less than 10% had left astronomy. Recent reconsiderations of the employment market (Metcalfe, T.S. 2008, PASP, 120, 229; Seth, A. 2009, Astro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Position Paper No. 51) make the point that a typical astronomer who ultimately achieves a permanent position will have held two or three prior temporary positions; this was equally true three decades ago. There has been notable growth nationwide in the number of astronomers employed as faculty at small liberal arts colleges and other undergraduate-centered institutions, a trend that to some degree was anticipated by the University of Texas cohort, which included a number of students for whom this was their personal goal. In a world where job certainty is no longer so prevalent, motivated and resourceful astronomers are finding ways to remain active members of our community.

  18. The pH of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. C.; Bishop, J. L.; Edwards, J. O.

    1993-01-01

    The Viking labeled release (LR) experiments provided data that can be used to determine the acid-base characteristics of the regolith. Constraints on the acid-base properties and redox potentials of the Martian surface material would provide additional information for determining what reactions are possible and defining formation conditions for the regolith. Calculations devised to determine the pH of Mars must include the amount of soluble acid species or base species present in the LR regolith sample and the solubility product of the carbonate with the limiting solubility. This analysis shows that CaCO3, either as calcite or aragonite, has the correct K(sub sp) to have produced the Viking LR successive injection reabsorption effects. Thus CaCO3 or another MeCO3 with very similar solubility characteristics must have been present on Mars. A small amount of soluble acid, but no more than 4 micro-mol per sample, could also have been present. It is concluded that the pH of the regolith is 7.2 +/- 0.1.

  19. Nanomechanical DNA Origami pH Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Yamanaka, Yusei; Tamaki, Takuya; Kaino, Masafumi; Ohya, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule pH sensors have been developed by utilizing molecular imaging of pH-responsive shape transition of nanomechanical DNA origami devices with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Short DNA fragments that can form i-motifs were introduced to nanomechanical DNA origami devices with pliers-like shape (DNA Origami Pliers), which consist of two levers of 170-nm long and 20-nm wide connected at a Holliday-junction fulcrum. DNA Origami Pliers can be observed as in three distinct forms; cross, antiparallel and parallel forms, and cross form is the dominant species when no additional interaction is introduced to DNA Origami Pliers. Introduction of nine pairs of 12-mer sequence (5?-AACCCCAACCCC-3?), which dimerize into i-motif quadruplexes upon protonation of cytosine, drives transition of DNA Origami Pliers from open cross form into closed parallel form under acidic conditions. Such pH-dependent transition was clearly imaged on mica in molecular resolution by AFM, showing potential application of the system to single-molecular pH sensors. PMID:25325338

  20. In vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA oligomer covalent complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1994-12-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine compound formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures. PhIP damages DNA by forming covalent complexes with DNA carcinogen. In an effort to understand how the binding of PhIP to DNA may cause cancer, it is important to characterize the structures of PhIP-damaged DNA molecules. Our HPLC data support fluorescence and {sup 32}P Post-labeling studies which indicate the formation of several species of 2{prime}deoxyguanosine-(dG) or oligodeoxynucleotide-PhIP adducts. The reaction of PhIP with dG resulted in a reddish precipitate that was likely the major adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) adduct, with a more polar adduct fraction remaining in the supernatant. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the adducts in the supernatant revealed the existence of species of much shorter retention times than the dG-C8-PhIP adduct, confirming that these species are more polar than dG-C8-PhIP. At least four adducts were formed in the reaction of PhIP with DNA oligomer. HPLC analysis of the PhIP-DNA oligomer supernatant after butanol extractions revealed four unresolved peaks which spectra had maximum wavelengths between 340 and 360 nm. Though adduct peaks were not completely resolved, there was {approximately}3 minutes interval between the DNA oligomer peak and the adduct peaks. Furthermore, fluorescence emission data of the DNA oligomer-PhIP adduct solution show heterogeneous binding. The more polar PhIP adducts were fraction-collected and their structures will be solved by nuclear magnetic resonance or x-ray crystallography.

  1. DCEG Award Recipients - Ashley Felix, PhD and Qian Xiao, PhD, MPH

    Cancer.gov

    May 28, 2015 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove Room TE 406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Title:  The sequence of genetic mutations in endometrial hyperplasia and invasive carcinoma Ashley Felix, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Cancer Prevention Fellow, Hormonal and Reproductive

  2. Elementary PhUn Fair - PhUn Week Poster Session EB 2012

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pauline Schork (Clinton High School)

    2012-04-22

    Approximately 40 high school students, enrolled in the Clinton High School Human Anatomy & Physiology course, organized and hosted a community PhUn Fair. During a week early in the semester, students researched various human physiological systems. The following week, students developed and planned learning stations based on their research. Students received input and feedback from a visiting physiologist, their instructor, and their peers. The culminating event was the PhUn Fair, during which more than 100 second-graders spent an afternoon rotating through eight active learning stations taught by the high school students. All learning stations introduced a different physiological concept through inquiry-based activities. The PhUn Fair concluded with a question and answer period with the visiting physiologist. While the high school students conducted the research and planning during the two weeks prior to the PhUn Fair, initial organization was conducted by the authors during the APS Frontiers in Physiology Fellowship summer research experience. P. Schork was supported by 2011 The American Physiological Society Frontiers in Physiology Fellowship.

  3. Ph.D.s awarded (1997-98 thru 2006-07) 54 Computational Bio & Bioinformatics

    E-print Network

    Ph.D.s awarded (1997-98 thru 2006-07) 54 Computational Bio & Bioinformatics Ph.D. Admissions Data - Fall 2012 Entering Class Admissions data for Biological and Biomedical Sciences can be found here. Ph Median years to Ph.D. 5.7 Percent of students awarded Ph.D. 100% Notes: Median years to Ph.D. for degrees

  4. Key role of work hardening in superconductivity/superfluidity, heat conductivity and ultimate strain increase, evolution, cancer, aging and other phase transitions

    E-print Network

    V. P. Kisel

    2009-05-27

    The shear/laminar flow of liquids/gas/plasma/biological cells (BC), etc. is equivalent to dislocation-like shear of solids. The turbulent flow is the next stage of deformation/ multiplication of dislocation-like defects and their ordering in sub-grains and grain-boundaries, then grains slip-rotation in the direction approximately perpendicular to the shear flow. It is shown that phase transitions are governed by unified deformation hardening/softening under hydrostatic pressure, particle irradiation and impurity (isotope) chemical pressure, hard confining conditions and cooling, etc. thus changing electric, magnetic, ferroelectric, thermal, optical properties.1-2 Dislocation-like work hardening, DWH, is determined by non-monotonous properties of dislocation double edge-cross-jog slip, and ultrastrong DWH gives the lowest drag for any dislocation-like plasticity at phase transitions. This provides the same micromechanisms of the ultimate stage of conventional deformation (superfluidity) of ordinary liquids, i.e., water, kerosene and glycerin, liquid and solid He, quasi-particle condensates. The key role of DWH is confirmed for superconductivity, integer and fractional quantum Hall effects and the enhancement of ultimate strain and diffusion under deformation down to nanostructures, etc. Phase transformations in biological cells (explosive events of diversity and population of species and diseases - for example, locust and plaque bacteria, evolution, aging and cancer,2 bursts in the development of human intellectual possibilities (languages, culture, arts and sciences, history, etc.) depend on the same deformation effects in biological evolution.

  5. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  6. Ian Douglass Coulter, PhD

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on Dr. Ian Coulter’s accomplishments from the time he became Executive Vice-President of CMCC in 1981, until he ended his presidency with a year’s administrative leave in 1990. Annual planning initiatives, pedagogy, scholarship, conflicts, and the quest for university affiliation are discussed as well as his legacy to the College and the chiropractic profession. The term “adventurous” was first attributed to Coulter by Oswald Hall, PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto who had worked closely with Coulter in a major investigation of the chiropractic profession from 1976 to 1979. Throughout this article the author tries to capture the spirit of daring, innovation and intellect that permeated Coulter’s presidency, enthralling his advocates and confounding his detractors. PMID:17549218

  7. Regulation of intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Boron, Walter F

    2004-12-01

    The approach that most animal cells employ to regulate intracellular pH (pH(i)) is not too different conceptually from the way a sophisticated system might regulate the temperature of a house. Just as the heat capacity (C) of a house minimizes sudden temperature (T) shifts caused by acute cold and heat loads, the buffering power (beta) of a cell minimizes sudden pH(i) shifts caused by acute acid and alkali loads. However, increasing C (or beta) only minimizes T (or pH(i)) changes; it does not eliminate the changes, return T (or pH(i)) to normal, or shift steady-state T (or pH(i)). Whereas a house may have a furnace to raise T, a cell generally has more than one acid-extruding transporter (which exports acid and/or imports alkali) to raise pH(i). Whereas an air conditioner lowers T, a cell generally has more than one acid-loading transporter to lower pH(i). Just as a house might respond to graded decreases (or increases) in T by producing graded increases in heat (or cold) output, cells respond to graded decreases (or increases) in pH(i) with graded increases (or decreases) in acid-extrusion (or acid-loading) rate. Steady-state T (or pH(i)) can change only in response to a change in chronic cold (or acid) loading or chronic heat (or alkali) loading as produced, for example, by a change in environmental T (or pH) or a change in the kinetics of the furnace (or acid extrudes) or air conditioner (or acid loaders). Finally, just as a temperature-control system might benefit from environmental sensors that provide clues about cold and heat loading, at least some cells seem to have extracellular CO(2) or extracellular HCO(3)(-) sensors that modulate acid-base transport. PMID:15545345

  8. Sulfate reduction at low pH in organic wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. C. Lopes

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to investigate the operational window of dissimilatory sulfate reduction at low pH (6, 5 and 4) during the acidification of organic wastewaters. High sulfate reduction efficiencies at low pH are desirable for a more sustainable operation of acidification reactors in a two-phase wastewater treatment system, as pH control requires less

  9. Cellular mechanisms of pH tolerance in Rhizobium loti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Correa; A. J. Barneix

    1997-01-01

    Seven strains of Rhizobium loti were tested for acid tolerance in yeast-extract mannitol (YEM) broth at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 8.0. The strains that grew at pH 4.0 showed the slowest generation time when grown at pH above 7.0 and also produced the most acid. The acid tolerance was related to the composition and structure of the membrane.

  10. Cytoplasmic ph and free mg2+ in lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Rink; R. Y. TSIEN; T. POZZAN

    1982-01-01

    Measurements have been made of cytoplasmic pH, (pHi) and free Mg ~÷ concentra- tion, ((Mg2+)~), in pig and mouse lymphocytes, pH~ was measured in four ways: by a digitonin null-point technique; by direct measurement of the pH of freeze-thawed cell pellets; from the 31p nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of intracellular inorganic phosphate; and by the use of a newly

  11. Estimation of uncertainty in routine pH measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo Leito; Liisi Strauss; Eve Koort; Viljar Pihl

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for estimation of measurement uncertainty of routine pH measurement (pH meter with two-point calibration, with\\u000a or without automatic temperature compensation, combination glass electrode) based on the ISO method is presented. It is based\\u000a on a mathematical model of pH measurement that involves nine input parameters. Altogether 14 components of uncertainty are\\u000a identified and quantified. No single uncertainty estimate

  12. Notes on the Measurement of pH Values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R M Carranza; R B Rebak

    2005-01-01

    The original definition of pH is: pH = -log a{sub H}. Where a{sub H} is the (relative) hydrogen ion activity. However, a single ion activity cannot be measured. Activities of individual ionic species are necessarily conventional. The pH number, of course, has in itself little absolute significance. As the negative of the logarithm of a product of a concentration (c

  13. Palmer Taylor PhD David Adler Pharm.D.

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Palmer Taylor PhD David Adler Pharm.D. William Gerwick, PhD Brad Moore, PhD SPPS 218 and SPPS 219, Lepirudin, Coumarins, Inandiones T. Kim/ Mesri/ Hsu/ II Adler GG 1467-1488 Disorders t-PA, Stepto/ Davies/ Hsiao/ IVTrivedi/ Adler GG 1613-45 Eichhorn Molinski Foye 855-876 M2/2/2009 8a-10a SPPS 1120

  14. Mechanical Properties of a pH Sensitive Hydrogel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Johnson; D. J. Niedermaier; J. Moorthy

    2002-01-01

    An experimental protocol was developed to determine the basic mechanical properties of a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)) hydrogel at various levels of pH equilibrium. An Instron micromechanical testing machine was modified such that tensile tests could be carried out in temperature controlled pH solution. Values of Young's modulus were measured for a range of pH values from 2 to 12 and

  15. The pH of Soils in Avocado Orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. C. Haas

    pH determinations made at the 1-5 soil-water ratio are of value in ascertaining the hydrolytic properties of the soils. They thus serve to indicate how high the pH values may rise when the soil moisture becomes excessive and interferes with soil aeration and nutrient availability. When the soil moisture is controlled, the pH values that affect the nutrition of the

  16. Soil pH and species diversity in coastal dunes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Isermann

    2005-01-01

    Soil pH was measured at two different spatial scales in coastal dunes on Norderney, North Sea, and in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Baltic Sea, Germany. Relationships between the variability in soil pH, species richness and species diversity are presented. Species richness and diversity were highest in grey dunes, where soil pH was at intermediate levels; both variables were lower in yellow and brown

  17. Microscale pH regulation by splitting water

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Li-Jing; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple, flexible approach for pH regulation in micro-chambers by injecting controllable amounts of protons and hydroxide ions via field-enhanced dissociation of water molecules. Under a DC voltage bias, the polymeric bipolar membranes integrated in microfluidics devices generate and separate H+ and OH? ions without gas production or contaminant generation resulting from electron-transfer reactions. Robust local on-chip pH and pH gradients are sustained with no need of additional acidic?basic solutions that dilute analyte concentrations. The method could provide a better strategy for pH control in microfluidics. PMID:22121407

  18. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  19. Liposomal vincristine for relapsed or refractory Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Priyanka; Hess, Rosemary; Weiss, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies that arise from clonal proliferation of immature lymphoid cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and other organs. There are approximately 3000 new adult cases diagnosed every year in the United States with a 5-year overall survival ranging from 22% to 50%. Most adult patients with ALL who achieve a complete response will ultimately relapse and for this subset of patients the only hope of curative therapy is successful re-induction to achieve a complete response followed by allogeneic transplant. Conventional vincristine has been used in all phases of ALL therapy but its efficacy is limited by cumulative toxicity, typically neuropathic in nature. Historically, the dose of conventional vincristine has been capped at 2 mg to avoid severe neurotoxicity. Liposomal vincristine [as vincristine sulfate liposomal injection (VSLI)] constitutes encapsulating vincristine in a sphingomyelin/cholesterol envelope. This process is thought to enhance drug delivery to the target tissues, decrease neurotoxicity by reducing the percentage of free drug in the plasma and therefore results in increased efficacy with acceptable toxicity. Results from recent trials using VSLI in the setting of relapsed/refractory Ph-negative ALL have been encouraging. VSLI as salvage monotherapy has been successful in inducing complete responses in a minority of adults with relapsed/refractory ALL so that they can be bridged to stem-cell transplantation. Rigorous post-approval testing needs to be conducted to clarify its utility in the clinic. PMID:24490021

  20. Italia-Netherland PhD Program: the I.O. PhD Research Program.

    PubMed

    Bellissima, Valentina; Borghesi, Alessandro; Bozzetti, Valentina; Dessì, Angelica; Fabiano, Adele; Risso, Francesco M; Salvo, Vincenzo; Satriano, Angela; Silvagni, Davide; Varrica, Alessandro; van Bel, Frank; Visser, Gerard H A; Vles, Hans Js; Zimmermann, Luc J I; Gavilanes, Antonio D W; Gazzolo, Diego

    2011-10-01

    In the framework of long-term scientific collaboration among the founder members coming from Holland and Italy there was a growing consensus to activate a philosophical doctorate (PhD) program, involving young Italian researchers in the field of perinatal medicine, neonatology and pediatrics. The aims were to promote excellence in research, offering to young Italian physicians the opportunity to maturate an International research experience leading to PhD degree, and to promote human and technological improvement energies in perinatal, neonatal and pediatrics research. Thus, an official collaboration among the Dutch Universities from Maastricht and Utrecht and the Italian Children's Hospital from Alessandria, has been activated on March 1st 2010, finalized to the PhD program. The experimental phase included the selection of projects and relative candidates after an interview-selection focusing on their scientific attitudes and the availability on their research projects. Candidates' selection started on May 2010 and on September 29th ten projects and candidates have been approved by the scientific commission. Research topics included: perinatal asphyxia, aging and the origin of adulthood neurodegenerative disease, neuroprotective strategies, biochemical pulmonology, intrauterine growth retardation and perinatal teratology. To date, all projects have been approved by local Ethics Committee from the University/Hospital of origin of the candidates. Five manuscripts have been published and/or submitted to international Journals regarding pneumology, perinatal asphyxia and teratology, whilst about 60-70% of data regarding clinical studies have already been collected. PMID:21878061

  1. [Dyspnoea in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) - a Survey in Spezialized German PH Centres].

    PubMed

    Ewert, R; Wilkens, H; Skowasch, D; Reppel, M; Bollmann, T; Halank, M; Held, M; Klose, H; Gall, H; Lange, T J; Opitz, C F; Seyfarth, H-J; Winkler, J

    2015-06-01

    Dyspnoea is the predominant symptom in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) at diagnosis. However, since dyspnoea is nonspecific and often occurs in a number of common diseases, the presence of PH can easily be underdiagnosed.In addition, this symptom underlies a high variability in the subjective perception, therefore further diagnostic procedures are often delayed by the patients.A survey of the incidence and severity of dyspnoea in 372 patients with PAH was conducted by questionnaire in German centres. Age, sex distribution and the range of comorbidities corresponded to the findings of national and international registries.Approximately 99?% of patients reported the presence of dyspnoea on exertion, even at low loads.Remarkably, in 13?% of patients dyspnoea occurs as a paroxysmal symptom, which may lead to the differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma. In addition, the patients who were being followed in specialized PH centres reported an increase in dyspnoea during the last year.The results of the survey on the incidence of dyspnoea in patients with PAH are consistent with the findings of international studies. PMID:25962567

  2. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na+/K+-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na+/K+-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility. PMID:26173069

  3. pH induced contrast in viscoelasticity imaging of biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Yapp, R D; Insana, M F

    2009-01-01

    Understanding contrast mechanisms and identifying discriminating features is at the heart of diagnostic imaging development. This report focuses on how pH influences the viscoelastic properties of biopolymers to better understand the effects of extracellular pH on breast tumour elasticity imaging. Extracellular pH is known to decrease as much as 1 pH unit in breast tumours, thus creating a dangerous environment that increases cellular mutatation rates and therapeutic resistance. We used a gelatin hydrogel phantom to isolate the effects of pH on a polymer network with similarities to the extracellular matrix in breast stroma. Using compressive unconfined creep and stress relaxation measurements, we systematically measured the viscoelastic features sensitive to pH by way of time domain models and complex modulus analysis. These results are used to determine the sensitivity of quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging to pH. We found a strong elastic response of the polymer network to pH, such that the matrix stiffness decreases as pH was reduced, however the viscous response of the medium to pH was negligible. While physiological features of breast stroma such as proteoglycans and vascular networks are not included in our hydrogel model, observations in this study provide insight into viscoelastic features specific to pH changes in the collagenous stromal network. These observations suggest that the large contrast common in breast tumours with desmoplasia may be reduced under acidic conditions, and that viscoelastic features are unlikely to improve discriminability. PMID:19174599

  4. Notes on the Measurement of pH Values

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Rebak, R B

    2005-05-05

    The original definition of pH is: pH = -log a{sub H}. Where a{sub H} is the (relative) hydrogen ion activity. However, a single ion activity cannot be measured. Activities of individual ionic species are necessarily conventional. The pH number, of course, has in itself little absolute significance. As the negative of the logarithm of a product of a concentration (c or m) and an activity coefficient (y or {gamma}), it acquires its magnitude from the numerical scale adopted for the latter. Experimental pH measurements are nonetheless widely applied to the determination of thermodynamic equilibrium data such as pK values, on the assumption that they represent -log a{sub H} (or paH). The single ion activity coefficient approaches unity as the ionic strength goes to zero, so that activity becomes m or c and paH becomes pmH or pcH. pH is therefore defined operationally in terms of the operation or method used to measure it, that is, by means of a cell called an operational cell. The cell is standardized by solutions of assigned pH value (Reference Value pH Standard, Primary pH Standards and Operational Standards). Such standard reference solutions are buffer solutions whose pH values are assigned from measurements on cells with or without liquid junction. It must be emphasized that the definition of pH scale is quite different from the measurement of pH with glass-reference electrode-pH meter assemblies, where several standards are used in order to take into account possible deficiencies in the electrode and meter performance.

  5. Mapping Soil pH Buffering Capacity of Selected Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, A. R.; Kissel, D. E.; Chen, F.; West, L. T.; Adkins, W.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity, since it varies spatially within crop production fields, may be used to define sampling zones to assess lime requirement, or for modeling changes in soil pH when acid forming fertilizers or manures are added to a field. Our objective was to develop a procedure to map this soil property. One hundred thirty six soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) from three Georgia Coastal Plain fields were titrated with calcium hydroxide to characterize differences in pH buffering capacity of the soils. Since the relationship between soil pH and added calcium hydroxide was approximately linear for all samples up to pH 6.5, the slope values of these linear relationships for all soils were regressed on the organic C and clay contents of the 136 soil samples using multiple linear regression. The equation that fit the data best was b (slope of pH vs. lime added) = 0.00029 - 0.00003 * % clay + 0.00135 * % O/C, r(exp 2) = 0.68. This equation was applied within geographic information system (GIS) software to create maps of soil pH buffering capacity for the three fields. When the mapped values of the pH buffering capacity were compared with measured values for a total of 18 locations in the three fields, there was good general agreement. A regression of directly measured pH buffering capacities on mapped pH buffering capacities at the field locations for these samples gave an r(exp 2) of 0.88 with a slope of 1.04 for a group of soils that varied approximately tenfold in their pH buffering capacities.

  6. Ginger E. Carney, Ph.D. Curriculum vitae

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Carney 1 Ginger E. Carney, Ph.D. Curriculum vitae Address: Tel: (979) 845-6587 Texas A&M University 77843-3258 http://www.bio.tamu.edu/FACMENU/FACULTY/CarneyG.php Education: Post-doctoral: Aug. 1998, metamorphosis, and adult female reproduction. Advisor: Michael Bender, Ph.D. B.S.: Genetics, Magna cum laude

  7. PARTICIPANT LIST Susan G. Amara, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Blumenstein, LL.B., M.B.A. President CHDI Management/CHDI Foundation 350 Seventh Avenue, Suite 601 New York. Darnell, M.D., Ph.D. Investigator Howard Hughes Medical Institute The Rockefeller University 1230 York Avenue New York, NY 10065 Phone: 212-327-7474 E-mail: darnelr@mail.rockefeller.edu Ed Dudek, Ph

  8. CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN

    E-print Network

    CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MICROGRAMS PER concentrations, calcium concentrations, arsenic concentrations and pH after 100,000 years of simulated ground-water flow and reaction. View is from the northwest looking to the southeast. CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN p

  9. Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a microscale pH titration technique that utilizes an automatic pipet. A small aliquot (1-5 mL) of the analyte solution is titrated with repeated additions of titrant, and the pH is determined after each delivery. The equivalence point is determined graphically by either the second derivative method or a Gran plot. The pipet can be…

  10. 1 | P a g e Ph.D. Innovation Initiative

    E-print Network

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    that emphasized original work and scholarly publication. Because of Gilman, Johns Hopkins became the model upon to reexamine and reinvigorate Ph.D. education. We need to be sure we are preparing students for the challenges for a Symposium on the Future of Ph.D. Education, organized by the Doctor of Philosophy Board. Participants heard

  11. Factors associated with ruminal pH at herd level.

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Linhart, N; Neidl, A; Reimann, A

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with ruminal pH at herd level. Four hundred and thirty-two cows of a Thuringian dairy herd were sampled before claw trimming using a rumen fluid scoop. Volume and pH of the rumen sample were measured, and lactation number, percentage of concentrates in the ration, days in milk (DIM), time of day, and daily milk yield were recorded. Rumen sampling was successful in 99.8% of the cows. The average sample volume was 25 mL. Rumen sample pH decreased with increasing percentage of concentrates in the ration. Ruminal pH decreased from calving to 77 DIM, and grew subsequently to 330 DIM. During the day, rumen pH followed a sinus curve, with maxima in the morning (0915 h) and afternoon (1533 h), and a minimum around noon (1227 h). Ruminal pH decreased with increasing daily milk yield. Lactation number interacted with daily milk yield on rumen pH. The percentage of concentrates in the ration, DIM, time of day, and daily milk yield were significant factors affecting ruminal pH at the herd level. PMID:22818470

  12. Stanford University Department of Genetics Ph.D. Program

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    1 Stanford University Department of Genetics Ph.D. Program Outcome of Qualifying Exam This certifies that ______ took the Qualifying Exam in the Department of Genetics Ph.D. Program Exam Committee must be given to the Graduate Program Director & Administrator. Specific work (list

  13. Teaching Ph.D.'s How to Reach Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Marc Aronson, a lecturer in the School of Communication and Information at Rutgers University at New Brunswick and a historian who writes books for young adults, recently suggested that all Ph.D. candidates be required to take a course he calls "Communications." The goal would be to teach Ph.D.'s--both would-be academics and those who will pursue…

  14. Variation in the pH of faeces in disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Madanagopalan; S. Arumugan Nadar; R. Subramaniam

    1970-01-01

    Although it is highly unlikely that a disease can be definitively diagnosed from a study of the pH of the faeces alone, the present study has helped to dispel the past belief that the pH of faeces in acute amoebic dysentery is more likely to be acidic. Culture for other pathogenic organisms has not been done in the present series

  15. Julia D. Buckner, Ph.D. Department of Psychology

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    April 2011 Julia D. Buckner, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Louisiana State University 236 Audubon@lsu.edu EDUCATION 2007-2008 Predoctoral Clinical Psychology Fellow, Division of Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine 2008 Ph.D., Clinical Psychology, Florida State University 2005

  16. PhDstudentinvestigatesimpact of baby boomers' retirement InsideyourChronicle

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    1 PhDstudentinvestigatesimpact of baby boomers' retirement InsideyourChronicle 2. Fees set for 2010 the challenge the baby boomers' retirement poses for many organisations. Psychology PhD student Annette Dunham at the impact the upcoming retirement of the baby boomer generation (born 1946 to 1964) will have on knowledge

  17. P.H. Diamond CMTFO and CASS, UCSD, USA

    E-print Network

    Diamond, Patrick H.

    P.H. Diamond CMTFO and CASS, UCSD, USA WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Korea 2014 US-TTF Theory of Cross-Phase Evolution and its Impact on ELM Dynamics #12;P.H. Diamond CMTFO and CASS, UCSD, USA WCI

  18. Earth & Space Science PhDs, Class of 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudy, Nicholas; Henly, Megan; Migdalski, Chet

    This study documents the employment patterns and demographic characteristics of recent PhDs in earth and space science. It summarizes the latest annual survey of recent earth and space science PhDs conducted by the American Geological Institute, the American Geophysical Union, and the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of…

  19. Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley

    E-print Network

    Sjölander, Kimmen

    Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley Ph.D. Degree Program The Graduate Group in Infectious Diseases and Immunity provides the opportunity for the study of the biology of infectious agents of infectious diseases. The degree program is unique in emphasizing integrated, multidisciplinary training

  20. Ris-PhD-23(EN) Approaches to systems biology

    E-print Network

    Risø-PhD-23(EN) Approaches to systems biology Four methods to study single-cell gene expression Laboratory Title: Approaches to systems biology -- Four methods to study single-cell gene expression, cell fulfilment of the requirements for the Ph.D. degree at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

  1. PhDs in Australia, from the Beginning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    The Australian PhD is a relatively recent phenomenon, the first three being awarded in 1948. Before that, most Australian scholars typically went to Britain (predominantly) or the USA to undertake their doctoral studies. The aim of this research note is to provide a brief statistical history of the Australian PhD, noting changes over time between…

  2. Rethinking PhD Learning Incorporating Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shacham, Miri; Od-Cohen, Yehudit

    2009-01-01

    This paper grows from research which focuses on the learning characteristics of PhD students, incorporating communities of practice both during their studies and beyond completion of their PhD, and drawing on theories of adult learning and lifelong learning. It shows how professional discourse enhances academic discourse through student engagement…

  3. Putting transferable Ph.D. skills to work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryclaire Peterson

    2009-01-01

    The doctoral education process has typically brought about many misconceptions regarding the practicality of the Ph.D. degree. The Ph.D., by definition, requires mastery of a specific subject and expansion of the existing body of knowledge. Many professionals believe this small scope of research and contribution is far less practical for the upcoming engineer as compared to four equivalent years in

  4. PhD-student position in Limnology/Aquatic Biogeochemistry

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    PhD-student position in Limnology/Aquatic Biogeochemistry: Published: 2014-09-30 Uppsala University and a turnover of SEK 5,900 million. PhD-student position in Limnology/Aquatic Biogeochemistry: role of inland, with a focus on aquatic biogeochemistry/aquatic ecology/limnology/water and environmental engineering or other

  5. Mary Beth Leigh, PhD Associate Professor of Microbiology

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Mary Beth Leigh, PhD Associate Professor of Microbiology Institute of Arctic Biology, University mbleigh@alaska.edu Education · Ph.D. Microbiology (2003) University of Oklahoma, Co-advisors: John S · Associate Professor of Microbiology, Institute of Arctic Biology, Department of Biology and Wildlife

  6. A Renaissance in Engineering PhD Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akay, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of engineering PhD education and its relationship to innovation and technology, and the need to reconsider how we educate PhD engineers. Much of the effort on engineering education in the last two decades focused on undergraduate education with a few exceptions that relate to master degree programs. Doctoral education…

  7. Predicting Computer Science Ph.D. Completion: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, G. W.; Hughes, W. E., Jr.; Etzkorn, L. H.; Weisskopf, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of indicators that can be used to predict whether a student will succeed in a Computer Science Ph.D. program. The analysis was conducted by studying the records of 75 students who have been in the Computer Science Ph.D. program of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Seventy-seven variables were…

  8. Research Collaboration and Commercialization: The PhD Candidate Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Lawrence; Kenny, Breda

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores PhD students' perceptions of their entrepreneurial and commercial capabilities, their attitude towards university supports and the extent to which they engage in external collaboration. The study concentrated on current PhD researchers at one university in Ireland as a unit of analysis and provides encouraging evidence from the…

  9. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  10. Telescoping MATLAB for DSP Applications PhD Thesis Defense

    E-print Network

    Chauhan, Arun

    Telescoping MATLAB for DSP Applications PhD Thesis Defense Arun Chauhan Computer Science, Rice for DSP Applications July 10, 2003 #12;Two True Stories · the world of Digital Signal Processing PhD Thesis Defense: Telescoping MATLAB for DSP Applications July 10, 2003 #12;Two True Stories · the world

  11. The Importance of Having a Ph.D., Career Advice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presentation on the importance of having a PhD to motivate Initiative to Maximize Student Diversity Program (IMSD) undergrads towards conducting research, pursuing careers in the biomedical field, applying to grad school, and getting a Ph.D., based upon ARS scientist's experiences as a student, a ...

  12. MS/PhD Population Health Graduate Program

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    MS/PhD Population Health Graduate Program CURRENT UW-MADISON GRADUATE STUDENTS APPLYING FOR THE POPULATION HEALTH PROGRAM A current graduate student at UW-Madison can apply for the MS or PhD graduate program in Population Health Sciences. Your first step is to contact the Graduate Program Coordinator

  13. JEROME P. LYNCH, Ph.D. Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    for civil engineering systems. § John F. Ullrich Education Excellence Award, College of Engineering, UnivJEROME P. LYNCH, Ph.D. Curriculum Vitae Professor Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 2003 Ph.D. in Civil and Environmental Engineering ­ Structures, August 2002 M.S. in Civil

  14. Juan S. Munoz, Ph.D. Vice Provost

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    .D. Student Disability Services Elizabeth Massengale, Ph.D. Parent & Family Relations Susan Peterson Student Media Amy Murphy, Ph.D. Center for Campus Life Tara Miller, Ed.D. Transition & Engagement Patrick Hughes for Active Learning & Undergraduate Engagement Mary Norman Tech Transfer Acceleration Program Wes Condray

  15. Functional Properties and Utilization of High pH Beef 

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Lyda G.

    2010-10-12

    Two Texas fed beef and cow/bull packing plants were surveyed for high pH beef carcasses as well as the evaluation of functional properties of high pH beef in whole muscle beef jerky, frankfurters, and snack stick production. An estimated 42% of cow...

  16. Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM is a postdoctoral Cancer Prevention Fellow in the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention. She comes to BGCRG with a PhD from Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing. She also completed a graduate certificate in Health Disparities and Health Inequality at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  17. CV Marianne Espeland Marianne Espeland, PhD

    E-print Network

    Espeland, Marianne

    CV Marianne Espeland Marianne Espeland, PhD Museum of Comparative Zoology, Room 401c, Harvard@fas.harvard.edu Current position Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary biology. Postdoctoral fellow Education Oct. 2010 Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in systematic zoology

  18. Heteromorphism 18ph+ : with or without reproductive consequences ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Tabet; J. M. Dupont; A. Lebbar; M. H. Couturier-Turpin; G. Feldmann; D. Rabineau

    2001-01-01

    Heteromorphism or chromosomal variants are usually attributed to structural variations in constitutive heterochromatin. In the case of chromosome 18, 25 cases of 18ph+ have been reported to date. Using the Primed In Situ Labelling technique (PRINS) to study 2 new cases of 18ph+, we have been able to confirm their molecular nature and assuming a mechanism of formation. Although such chromosomal

  19. Industrial Engineering-BS ,PhD option in Engineering

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    I Industrial Engineering- BS ,PhD option in Engineering Industrial & Management Engineering - BS MS Applied Mathematics - BS optionin Mathematics Applied Mechanics PhD option in Engineering Applied; teaching "minor, Art History minor Art.History - BA option in Art; minor B Bio-resources`Engineering - BS

  20. EPSRC Mathematics CASE PhD Studentship Aston University

    E-print Network

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    EPSRC Mathematics CASE PhD Studentship Aston University School of Engineering & Applied Science Industrial CASE PhD Studentship in Mathematics, supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research and advanced information services. The information-rate of modern fibre systems is limited by a combination

  1. OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES Ph. D. PROPOSAL DEFENSE

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES Ph. D. PROPOSAL DEFENSE REPORT Banner SPACMNT Ph.D. Proposal Defense Chair or the Doctoral Program Director immediately after the proposal defense and submitted Preliminary Title of Dissertation Date of Proposal Defense DISSERTATION PROPOSAL COMMITTEE INFORMATION

  2. A PH-INDUCED STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN BROMEGRASS MOSAIC VIRUS.

    PubMed

    INCARDONA, N L; KAESBERG, P

    1964-01-01

    Bromegrass mosaic virus undergoes a reversible decrease in its sedimentation coefficient when the pH is raised above pH 6.7. At pH 6 the sedimentation coefficient is 87 S, at pH 7 it is 79 S. Intrinsic viscosities determined at pH 6 and 7 are 3.64 and 5.5 x 10(-2) dl/gm. Diffusion coefficients are 1.56 x 10(-7) cm(2)/sec. and 1.44 x 10(-7) cm(2)/sec., respectively. Radii of gyration, measured by x-ray scattering, are 106 and 128 A. However, appropriate combination of sedimentation, diffusion, and viscosity coefficients at pH 6 and 7 yield the same molecular weight. Also, the zero-angle value of x-ray-scattered intensity, which is a function of molecular weight, is the same at the two pH's. These results suggest that bromegrass mosaic virus particles undergo a pH-induced change in structure. This change causes, among other things, an increase in the susceptibility of the particles to degradation by pancreatic ribonuclease. The shape of the titration curve between pH 6.3 and 6.9 is anomalous. PMID:14104069

  3. Ris-PhD-Report Production, Characterization and Stability of

    E-print Network

    Risø-PhD-Report Production, Characterization and Stability of Organic Solar Cell Devices PhD Thesis and the operating principle of organic photovoltaic devices with the further discussion of issues and challenges Suren Ashot Gevorgyan #12;#12;RISØ DTU Production, Characterization and Stability of Polymer Solar Cell

  4. Presenting AI to Non PhDBound Students Frank Klassner

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Presenting AI to Non PhD­Bound Students Frank Klassner Computer Science Department University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 klassner@cs.umass.edu Introduction Graduate students are often introduced to AI career. After they earn their PhD's and become fac­ ulty at computer science departments, this view of AI

  5. PhD Information Session Prof. L. Robin Keller

    E-print Network

    Kheradvar, Arash

    PhD Information Session Prof. L. Robin Keller Director, Ph.D. Program #12;Paths to a Doctorate -After undergraduate degree -After MBA or other Masters degree -Work experience not required Some quantitative -but qualitative also critical · Highly intense- not a "super MBA" · Useful to have background

  6. The ultimate structure of matter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topic in high energy physics: the particle zoo; the strong and the weak; the particle explosion; deep inside the nucleon; the search for unity; physics in collision; the standard model; particles and the cosmos; and practical benefits.

  7. Are Zeros Your Ultimate Weapon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2004-01-01

    Grading is one of a teacher's greatest challenges and most important professional responsibilities. However, few teachers have any formal training in grading methods, and most teachers have limited knowledge about the effectiveness of various grading practices. As a consequence, when teachers develop their grading policies, they typically reflect…

  8. Black Holes: The Ultimate Abyss

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee Ann Hennig

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the mystery of black holes, discussing the three basic sizes and how the characteristics of each type make them different from other black holes. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  9. MITEsâ??The Ultimate Parasites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Josefa González (Stanford University; Department of Biology)

    2009-09-11

    Transposable elements (TEs) are fragments of DNA that can jump from one genome position to another, often producing extra copies of themselves in the process. Yang et al. show how a special type of TEs, called miniature inverted repeat transposable elements or MITEs, transpose and accumulate in the genome.

  10. Creating the Ultimate Research Assistant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Hoskinson

    2005-01-01

    Looks at the custom tool developed by the author that leverages the Google Web search API (or a similar search service) to discover a list of Web pages matching a given topic; identify and extract trends and patterns from these Web pages' text; and transform those trends and patterns into an understandable, useful, and well-organized information resource. The tool accomplishes

  11. De Finetti's ultimate Krzysztof Burdzy

    E-print Network

    Burdzy, Krzysztof "Chris"

    , randomly ordered Name Principal philosopher What is the nature of probability? Logical Rudolf Carnap Weak and decision B is strictly preferable to decision A" is irrational. Highest level of abstraction Elimination of irrational decision strategies No indication of how to order "rational" strategies Real axioms are more

  12. Johnson's home the 'ultimate environment'

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    A superinsulated house built in North Dakota is described. The design features cellulose and batt insulation in the attic (R-60) and polyurethane foam in the walls (R-28). Styrofoam insulation is used on the foundation and house walls with caulking to seal any leaks. Other features include: 1) a continuous vapor barrier of 4 mil polyethylene film, 2) an air-to-air heat exchanger, 3) an energy-efficient gas furnace and hot water heater, 4) energy-saving devices and appliances and 5) triple-pane windows. The heating bill for the first full winter month in the house was $32. Design concepts for superinsulation of houses are described. (JMT)

  13. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  14. Robotics: The Ultimate Mind Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition is a national contest that immerses high school students into the world of mathematics, science, and technology. Students get a hands-on, inside look at the world of engineering and technology. (JOW)

  15. PhET Simulation: The Greenhouse Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This simulation explores how greenhouse gases affect Earth's climate. Students can view levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases present during Earth's last Ice Age, in the year 1750, today, or some time in the future.....and observe how the Earth's temperature changes. Levels of 4 greenhouse gases are displayed: water, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Add cloud cover to the simulation and observe the resulting temperature changes. Choose the tab "Glass Layers" to see what happens in an ideal greenhouse model. In the third simulation, students can adjust levels of atmospheric gases, then shoot infrared and visible photons from a photon emitter. How do the gases influence photon absorption? See Related Materials for a comprehensive student guide that explains how to use the "Greenhouse Effect" simulation to conduct a lab experiment. The experimental question: Which atmospheric gas is the best absorber of infrared photons? This item is part of a growing collection of simulations by the Physics Education Technology Project (PhET). Simulations were designed using principles from physics education research and refined based on student interviews and classroom observations.

  16. PH sensors based on iridium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarlov, M.J.; Huang, P.H.; Kreider, K.G. (Center for Chemical Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (US))

    1988-01-01

    Iridium oxide shows considerable promise as a high temperature pH sensing material. It is being currently considered for measurement of hot geological brines in connection with nuclear waste disposal. The use of a sputtered thin film of iridium oxide may also lead to much smaller and less costly ionic sensor than those based on the glass electrode. The authors report on recent research which has concentrated on evaluating the long time stability and repeatability of the sputtered electrodes and developing an understanding of the hydroxylation of the oxide. The interaction of IrO/sub 2/ with water apparently affects its formal potential as an electrode. The understanding of this interaction may also help develop a determination of the mechanism for its Nernstian behavior. The electrochemical behavior and surface analysis of IrO/sub 2/ is, however, limited by the cleanliness of the surface and particular effort has been focussed on this problem. They investigate methods for producing both clear, hydroxyl-free and model, hydroxylated IrO/sub 2/ surfaces.

  17. Regulation of intracellular pH by glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Kathagen, Nadine; Prehm, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The intracellular pH is regulated by a delicate balance of ion distribution across the plasma membrane and the physico-chemical properties of intra- and extracellular components. We analyzed the effects of glycosaminoglycans on the intracellular pH of fibroblasts by using the fluorescent pH indicator BCECF-AM. Addition of hyaluronan, hyaluronan oligosaccharides, chondroitin sulfate, or heparin to the culture medium of fibroblasts caused intracellular acidification from pH 7.2 to 6.7 in a concentration dependent manner. High molecular weight hyaluronan acidified more than hyaluronan oligosaccharides at the same concentrations. Hyaluronidase treatment or inhibition of hyaluronan export with xanthohumol led to intracellular alkalization. These observations indicated that extracellular glycosaminoglycans participate in intracellular pH regulation. The mechanism was explained by Donnan effects and molecular crowding. PMID:23558851

  18. ['Sandwich PhD': considerations for a successful experience abroad].

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Marina de Goes; Bueno, Mariana; Gastaldo, Denise; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko; Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos

    2013-03-01

    International PhD internship, named "Sandwich PhD" in Brazil is an opportunity to improve research abilities, to become known in academic area and to establish and/or increase work opportunities in an international context. In this article, we describe key factors regarding the planning and development of the "Sandwich PhD" as experienced by professors and students involved in the collaboration between the School of Nursing, University of São Paulo and Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Canada. We also present the participation of PhD students' network as an alternative to the "Sandwich PhD". An international experience, when well-planned and developed correctly, promotes students' personal and professional development and favors the internationalization of Brazilian graduate programs and research groups. PMID:23781743

  19. MERIT Award Recipient: Stephen P. Goff, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    The Goff laboratory is interested in the replication of a simple retrovirus, the Moloney murine leukemia virus, and the interaction of the virus with the host. The ultimate goal of the research is to determine the roles of each of the viral proteins in the complex viral life cycle, and to identify the impact of these proteins on host cellular machinery.

  20. Signal-dependent membrane targeting by pleckstrin homology (PH) domains.

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, M A; Ferguson, K M

    2000-01-01

    Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains are small protein modules of around 120 amino acids found in many proteins involved in cell signalling, cytoskeletal rearrangement and other processes. Although several different protein ligands have been proposed for PH domains, their only clearly demonstrated physiological function to date is to bind membrane phosphoinositides. The PH domain from phospholipase C-delta(1) binds specifically to PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and its headgroup, and has become a valuable tool for studying cellular PtdIns(4,5)P(2) functions. More recent developments have demonstrated that a subset of PH domains recognizes the products of agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Fusion of these PH domains to green fluorescent protein has allowed dramatic demonstrations of their independent ability to drive signal-dependent recruitment of their host proteins to the plasma membrane. We discuss the structural basis for this 3-phosphoinoistide recognition and the role that it plays in cellular signalling. PH domains that bind specifically to phosphoinositides comprise only a minority (perhaps 15%) of those known, raising questions as to the physiological role of the remaining 85% of PH domains. Most (if not all) PH domains bind weakly and non-specifically to phosphoinositides. Studies of dynamin-1 have indicated that oligomerization of its PH domain may be important in driving membrane association. We discuss the possibility that membrane targeting by PH domains with low affinity for phosphoinositides could be driven by alteration of their oligomeric state and thus the avidity of their membrane binding. PMID:10926821

  1. Alteration of bacterial surface electrostatic potential and pH upon adhesion to a solid surface and impacts to cellular bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yongsuk; Brown, Derick G

    2010-04-01

    In our previous study [Hong Y, Brown DG (2009) Appl Environ Microbiol 75(8):2346-2353], the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level of adhered bacteria was observed to be 2-5 times higher than that of planktonic bacteria. Consequently, the proton motive force (Delta p) of adhered bacteria was approximately 15% greater than that of planktonic bacteria. It was hypothesized that the cell surface pH changes upon adhesion due to the charge-regulated nature of the bacterial cell surface and that this change in surface pH can propagate to the cytoplasmic membrane and alter Delta p. In the current study, we developed and applied a charge regulation model to bacterial adhesion and demonstrated that the charge nature of the adhering surface can have a significant effect on the cell surface pH and ultimately the affect the ATP levels of adhered bacteria. The results indicated that the negatively charged glass surface can result in a two-unit drop in cell surface pH, whereas adhesion to a positively charged amine surface can result in a two-unit rise in pH. The working hypothesis indicates that the negatively charged surface should enhance Delta p and increase cellular ATP, while the positively charged surface should decrease Delta p and decrease ATP, and these results of the hypothesis are directly supported by prior experimental results with both negatively and positively charged surfaces. Overall, these results suggest that the nature of charge on the solid surface can have an impact on the proton motive force and cellular ATP levels. PMID:19953670

  2. Roadmap: Public Health Pre-Medicine Bachelor of Science in Public Health [PH-BSPH-PH-PMD

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    Public Health Policy and Decision-Making 3 Semester Five: [14 Credit Hours] BSCI 30030 Human PhysiologyRoadmap: Public Health ­ Pre-Medicine ­Bachelor of Science in Public Health [PH-BSPH-PH-PMD] College of Public Health Catalog Year: 2012­2013 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 11-Jun-12/LNHD This roadmap

  3. Roadmap: Public Health-Allied Health-Bachelor of Science in Public Health [PH-BSPH-PH-AHLT

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    30033 Public Health Policy and Decision-Making 3 Kent Core Requirement 3 See Kent Core Summary on pageRoadmap: Public Health-Allied Health-Bachelor of Science in Public Health [PH-BSPH-PH-AHLT] College of Public Health Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 10-Apr-12/LNHD This roadmap

  4. Soil Acidity and Liming pH is a measure of soil acidity

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Soil Acidity and Liming #12;Soil pH · pH is a measure of soil acidity · Definition: ­Acid soil has excess hydrogen ions (H+) in soil solution · pH = 1/ (-log[H+]) · Agricultural soils = 5 - 8 · "Ideal or potential acidity · pH buffering: ability of the soil to resist pH change; increases with increasing cation

  5. Nanochannel pH gradient electrofocusing of proteins.

    PubMed

    Startsev, Michael A; Inglis, David W; Baker, Mark S; Goldys, Ewa M

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate matrix-free pH gradient electrofocusing of proteins within an 85 nm deep nanochannel. In contrast to conventional isoelectric focusing where the fluid does not move, this pH gradient method traps protein molecules flowing through a channel by balancing electric forces due to pH-dependent protein charge and viscous drag forces caused by electro-osmosis. The nanoscale depth of the device and the low voltage used limit convection relative to diffusion, thus producing a stable focused band of protein. R-Phycoerythrin (RPE) and Dylight labeled streptavidin (Dyl-Strep) were focused within a nanochannel using applied voltages between 0.4 and 1.6 V. Concentration enhancement factors of over 380 have been achieved within 5 min. Varying the buffer pH (between 2.7 and 7.2) at the boundaries of the nanochannel affected the shape of the focused bands. For RPE, a pH span of 4.5 (pH 2.7 to 7.2) yielded the narrowest peak while a span of 2.4 (pH 2.7 to 5.1) produced a significantly wider peak. Such matrix-free nanofluidic devices with pH gradient electrofocusing may enable on-chip integration of orthogonal separation techniques with mass spectrometry offering labor savings and enhanced performance. PMID:23819922

  6. What is the pH at ice surfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, S. N.; Donaldson, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite its importance, the effective pH of sea-ice surfaces is not well known. Studying the pH of ice surfaces represents a significant experimental challenge. We studied the pH at the surface of frozen aqueous samples was studied using glancing-angle Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), a surface-sensitive spectroscopic technique. The fluorescent molecules acridine and harmine were used as pH-sensitive probes: the neutral and cationic forms give rise to fluorescence maxima at different wavelengths, and thus the relative intensities of the neutral and cationic features in the fluorescence spectra can be used to infer local pH. We present results from a study in which we probed pH at the surface of frozen water samples a) whose pre-freezing pH was adjusted using HNO3, HCl or NaOH and b) before and after the deposition of gas-phase HCl to the ice surface. Our results suggests that protons are not enhanced at the ice surface. We also present preliminary results from our studies of the pH at the surface of frozen sea-water samples. This study has important implications for understanding pH-sensitive heterogeneous processes occurring on ice, particularly bromide activation, which is thought to occur on frozen sea-water surfaces and may be proton-mediated.

  7. Measuring pH in low ionic strength glacial meltwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagshaw, Elizabeth; Beaton, Alex; Wadham, Jemma; Mowlem, Matt; Tranter, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    pH is a fundamental indicator of the biogeochemical status of natural waters, but it remains challenging to measure reliably in the field. Glacial meltwaters are particularly problematic since they have low ionic strength, and pH values range from less than neutral (<7) to extremely high: pH 11 is not uncommon in supraglacial ecosystems and bulk runoff frequently exceeds pH 9 in the height of summer. Meltwaters are also at disequilibrium with the atmosphere, and so immediate measurement is necessary to capture the true pH of the system. Varying flow rates and changing temperature can affect pH, so these parameters and their impacts on the measurement technology in question must be quantified. There are three primary approaches to measuring pH in natural waters: potentiometric, spectrophotometric and fluorescent. We discuss their applicability to glacial systems, via a series of comprehensive laboratory tests at low temperatures and low ionic strengths. The Honeywell Durafet system, a potentiometric ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) sensor which has been successfully demonstrated in long-term ocean monitoring, was the most effective in tests. We present the results of a 60 day deployment of the sensor in glacial outflows from the Greenland ice sheet, and demonstrate its superiority to traditional monitoring solutions.

  8. Ph.D.s awarded (1997-98 thru 2006-07) 13 Ph.D. Admissions Data -Fall 2012 Entering Class

    E-print Network

    Ph.D.s awarded (1997-98 thru 2006-07) 13 Management Ph.D. Admissions Data - Fall 2012 Entering Class Number of applicants 437 Number of students enrolled 11 Ph.D. Degree Information Number of registered students, Fall 2012 38 Number of degrees awarded 2011-2012 2 Median years to Ph.D. 5.3 Percent

  9. Ph.D.s awarded (1997-98 thru 2006-07) 20 Ph.D. Admissions Data -Fall 2012 Entering Class

    E-print Network

    Ph.D.s awarded (1997-98 thru 2006-07) 20 Physics Ph.D. Admissions Data - Fall 2012 Entering Class Number of applicants 352 Number of students enrolled 19 Ph.D. Degree Information Number of registered students, Fall 2012 106 Number of degrees awarded 2011-2012 16 Median years to Ph.D. 6.3 Percent

  10. M.D./PH.D. ROTATION INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS: M.D./Ph.D. students are required to complete a minimum of two

    E-print Network

    M.D./PH.D. ROTATION INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS: M.D./Ph.D. students are required to complete will rank order the laboratory choices for his/her Ph.D. thesis research after assuring the mutual agreement select their lab by October 1 of the second year. PROCEDURE: M.D./Ph.D. students will contact and meet

  11. Ph.D.s awarded (1997-98 thru 2006-07) 24 Ph.D. Admissions Data -Fall 2012 Entering Class

    E-print Network

    Ph.D.s awarded (1997-98 thru 2006-07) 24 Chemistry Ph.D. Admissions Data - Fall 2012 Entering Class Number of applicants 306 Number of students enrolled 32 Ph.D. Degree Information Number of registered students, Fall 2012 143 Number of degrees awarded 2011-2012 22 Median years to Ph.D. 5.3 Percent

  12. Regulation of elongation factor-2 kinase by pH.

    PubMed

    Dorovkov, Maxim V; Pavur, Karen S; Petrov, Alexey N; Ryazanov, Alexey G

    2002-11-12

    Elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates eEF-2 and that can regulate the rate of protein synthesis at the elongation stage. Here we report that a slight decrease in pH, within the range observed in vivo, leads to a dramatic activation of eEF-2K. The activity of eEF-2K in mouse liver extracts, as well as the activity of purified recombinant human eEF-2K, is low at pH 7.2-7.4 and is increased by severalfold when the pH drops to 6.6-6.8. eEF-2K requires calmodulin for activity at neutral as well as acidic pH. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the pH does not affect the K(M) for ATP or eEF-2 and activation of eEF-2K at acidic pH is due to an increase in V(max). To analyze the potential role of eEF-2K in regulating protein synthesis by pH, we constructed a mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses eEF-2K in a tetracycline-regulated manner. Overexpression of eEF-2K led to a decreased rate of protein synthesis at acidic pH, but not at neutral pH. Our results suggest that pH-dependent activation of eEF-2K may play a role in the global inhibition of protein synthesis during tissue acidosis, which accompanies such processes as hypoxia and ischemia. PMID:12416990

  13. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH. PMID:25715032

  14. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25°C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor implanted inside the esophagus. Our pH electrode can monitor the pH changes of gastric juice in real time when the reflux happening in the esophagus. Our micro flexible pH sensor performed clear responses in each distinct pH reflux episode quickly and accurately comparing with the other commercial pH monitoring system. For the food freshness monitoring applications, we used the flexible pH sensor as a freshness indicator to monitor the pH changing profile during the food spoilage procedure. The sensor was then embedded with radio frequency identification (RFID) based passive telemetry enabling remote monitoring of food freshness. In the result, our pH-wireless RFID system presented 633Hz/pH of the sensitivity in the frequency calibration. The calibration of stability and dynamical response of the RFID system were also demonstrated before the test on food freshness monitoring. Finally, a white fish meat for long term spoilage procedure monitoring was applied and tested by using our wireless IrOx pH sensing system. Our RFID pH sensing module is able to monitor, collect and transmit the pH information continuously for 18 hours during the food spoilage procedure. In this dissertation, a micro size of IrOx/AgCl pH sensor was fabricated on a flexible substrate. The physical properties of the IrO x thin film was verified in the work. The different sensing capability such as the sensitivity, stability, reversibility, response time, repeatability, selectivity, and temperature dependence was then demonstrated in this work. After the different in-vitro tests, the pH sensor were embedded with our passive RFID circuitry for the in-vivo GERD diagnosis and food freshness monitoring application. Our wireless pH sensing system was able to deliver the accurate and quick pH sensing data wirelessly. In conclusion, our deformable IrOx pH electrodes have been demonstrated with the advantages of accommodating and conforming sensors in small spaces or curved surfaces. This miniature IrOx pH sensor can respond to distinct potentials of the various pH levels as traditional glass electr

  15. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, John H. (Los Alamos, NM); Campillo, Anthony J. (Los Alamos, NM); Shapiro, Stanley L. (Los Alamos, NM); Winn, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution by irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  16. Heteromorphism 18ph+ : with or without reproductive consequences?

    PubMed

    Tabet, A C; Dupont, J M; Lebbar, A; Couturier-Turpin, M H; Feldmann, G; Rabineau, D

    2001-01-01

    Heteromorphism or chromosomal variants are usually attributed to structural variations in constitutive heterochromatin. In the case of chromosome 18, 25 cases of 18ph+ have been reported to date. Using the Primed In Situ Labelling technique (PRINS) to study 2 new cases of 18ph+, we have been able to confirm their molecular nature and assuming a mechanism of formation. Although such chromosomal variants are usually thought to have no adverse clinical consequence, a review of the literature shows that many cases were diagnosed because of recurrent abortion, malformed or mentally retarded children suggesting the possible relationship between 18ph+ and such clinical outcomes. PMID:11694226

  17. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer...Devices § 868.1170 Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer...

  18. Heat transport by turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection for Pr ~= 0 . 8 and 4 ×1011 < Ra < 2 ×1014 : ultimate-state transition for aspect ratio ? = 1.00

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gils, Dennis P. M.; He, Xiaozhou; Funfschilling, Denis; Ahlers, Guenter; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2012-11-01

    We report experimental results for heat transport by Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in a cylindrical sample with aspect ratio ? ? D / L = 1 . 00 (D = 1 . 12 m is the diameter and L = 1 . 12 m is the height) over the range 4 ×1011 < Ra < 2 ×1014 at Pr ~= 0 . 8 . For Ra < Ra1* ~= 2 ×1013 we find Nu =N0 Ra?eff with ?eff = 0.321 +/- 0.002 and N0 = 0 . 0776 , consistent with classical turbulent RBC in a system with laminar boundary layers (BLs) below the top and above the bottom plate and with the prediction of Grossmann and Lohse(1). For Ra > Ra1* the data rise above the classical-state power-law and show greater scatter. In analogy to similar behavior observed for ? = 0 . 50 (2), we interpret this phenomenon as the onset of the transition to the ultimate state. Within our resolution this onset occurs at nearly the same value of Ra1* as it does for ? = 0 . 50 . Supported by the Max Planck Society, the Volkswagen Stiftung, the DFD Sonderforschungsbereich SFB963, and NSF grant DMR11-58514.

  19. ASSESSING AND FORECASTING, BY PLAY, NATURAL GAS ULTIMATE RECOVERY GROWTH AND QUANTIFYING THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST BASIN AND EAST TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Fisher; Eugene M. Kim

    2000-12-01

    A detailed natural gas ultimate recovery growth (URG) analysis of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas has been undertaken. The key to such analysis was determined to be the disaggregation of the resource base to the play level. A play is defined as a conceptual geologic unit having one or more reservoirs that can be genetically related on the basis of depositional origin of the reservoir, structural or trap style, source rocks and hydrocarbon generation, migration mechanism, seals for entrapment, and type of hydrocarbon produced. Plays are the geologically homogeneous subdivision of the universe of petroleum pools within a basin. Therefore, individual plays have unique geological features that can be used as a conceptual model that incorporates geologic processes and depositional environments to explain the distribution of petroleum. Play disaggregation revealed important URG trends for the major natural gas fields in the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas. Although significant growth and future potential were observed for the major fields, important URG trends were masked by total, aggregated analysis based on a broad geological province. When disaggregated by plays, significant growth and future potential were displayed for plays that were associated with relatively recently discovered fields, deeper reservoir depths, high structural complexities due to fault compartmentalization, reservoirs designated as tight gas/low-permeability, and high initial reservoir pressures. Continued technology applications and advancements are crucial in achieving URG potential in these plays.

  20. Steam turbine: Alternative emergency drive for the secure removal of residual heat from the core of light water reactors in ultimate emergency situation

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dos Santos, R. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear CNEN/IEN, Cidade Universitaria, Rua Helio de Almeida, 75 - Ilha do Fundiao, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores / CNPq (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In 2011 the nuclear power generation has suffered an extreme probation. That could be the meaning of what happened in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants. In those plants, an earthquake of 8.9 on the Richter scale was recorded. The quake intensity was above the trip point of shutting down the plants. Since heat still continued to be generated, the procedure to cooling the reactor was started. One hour after the earthquake, a tsunami rocked the Fukushima shore, degrading all cooling system of plants. Since the earthquake time, the plant had lost external electricity, impacting the pumping working, drive by electric engine. When operable, the BWR plants responded the management of steam. However, the lack of electricity had degraded the plant maneuvers. In this paper we have presented a scheme to use the steam as an alternative drive to maintain operable the cooling system of nuclear power plant. This scheme adds more reliability and robustness to the cooling systems. Additionally, we purposed a solution to the cooling in case of lacking water for the condenser system. In our approach, steam driven turbines substitute electric engines in the ultimate emergency cooling system. (authors)

  1. Rheological and thermal study of the curing process of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin: application to the optimization of the ultimate thermomechanical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomo, B.; Habas-Ulloa, A.; Pignolet, P.; Quentin, N.; Fellmann, D.; Habas, J. P.

    2013-02-01

    The curing process of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin was defined using different experimental techniques to obtain a material with optimal mechanical and electrical behaviour and with the ultimate objective of its application in the production of polymer-based insulator for railway transportation. The temperature domain characteristic of the crosslinking was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. However, thermogravimetric analyses of the reactive species supported that a low curing temperature had to be chosen during the initial crosslinking stage. Then, kinetic viscoelastic experiments were performed to identify the time and temperature conditions necessary to observe the gelation and vitrification of the reactive mixture. To fulfil higher requirements of productivity and performances, a two-step thermal cycle was defined and optimized by investigating the influence of different curing schedules on the glass transition temperature of the crosslinked material. The effects of the curing profile on the dielectric strength of the material were also investigated. Good correlations between the different techniques were observed and explained in terms of structure-property relationships.

  2. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

  3. The Training and Work of Ph.D. Physical Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Schweitzer, A. E.

    2003-05-01

    Doctoral education has often been viewed as the pinnacle of the formal education system. How useful is doctoral training in one's later career? In an NSF-funded project, we set out to perform a study of the training, careers, and work activities of Ph.D. physical scientists. The study included both in-depth interviews and a survey sent out to a sample of Ph.D. holders 4-8 years after graduation. Come and find out the results of this study: What skills are most Ph.D. physical scientists using? What should graduate programs be teaching? Are Ph.D.'s who are working in their specific field of training happier than their counterparts working different jobs? What skills and preparation lead to future job satisfaction, perhaps the most important indicator of the "success" of graduate education? A preprint and further details can be found at the project web site at: spot.colorado.edu/ phdcarer.

  4. Admission Guidelines 2015 MS-Ph.D Integrated Degree Program

    E-print Network

    Kim, Min H.

    13. Measures when abandoning the MS-Ph.D Integrated Degree Program p 8 = Table of Contents = #12;- 1 2. Submission of Documents Deadline : Hand-Over Delivery(registered mail included) by July 30, 2014

  5. CURRICULUM VITAE Reed Frederick Noss, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Scholar in Conservation) 1992-1996. Science Director, The Wildlands Project, Tucson, AZ 1989CURRICULUM VITAE Reed Frederick Noss, Ph.D. Naturalist, Ecologist, and Conservation Biologist; conservation planning; climate change ecology; ornithology; landscape and community ecology; forest, grassland

  6. Ph.D. Positions in "ICT for Sustainable Energy Management"

    E-print Network

    Teschner, Matthias

    informatics, electrical engineering, industrial engineering, or related fields Interest in energy management Ph.D. Positions in "ICT for Sustainable Energy Management" Key words: distributed information systems, smart grids, renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy storage, power systems, green computing

  7. Faculty of Medicine PhD Program in Experimental Medicine

    E-print Network

    Tübingen, Universität

    Faculty of Medicine PhD Program in Experimental Medicine Form 4 Suggestions Members of the Doctoral (Universitätsprofessor) at the Faculty of Medicine. As further doctoral committee members professors, junior professors

  8. PhD Dissertation International Doctorate School in Information and

    E-print Network

    PhD Dissertation International Doctorate School in Information and Communication Technologies DISI - University of Trento Implicit Culture Framework for behavior transfer. Definition, implementation belong to different communities: business communities, Web 2.0 communities, religious communities

  9. Learning Outcomes Assessment Report for Mathematics (PhD)

    E-print Network

    2010-03-22

    The Department offers the Bachelor of Science, Master of Science and Doctor of ... Discussions at the level of the Graduate Education Policy and Curriculum ... Completion of written PhD qualifier exams and Advanced Topics oral exam.

  10. Ris-PhD-1(EN) Optically Stimulated Luminescence

    E-print Network

    Risø-PhD-1(EN) Optically Stimulated Luminescence Techniques in Retrospective Dosimetry using Single Roskilde Denmark February 2004 #12;Optically Stimulated Luminescence Techniques in Retrospective Dosimetry.): This work investigates the possibility of applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective

  11. pH Paper (ChemPages Lab)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    pH Paper: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". The approximate pH of a solution can be determined by placing a drop of the solution on a piece of indicator paper. Two types of pH paper are commonly used: litmus paper and universal (Alkacid) paper. The type of pH paper used is dependent on the type of measurement and degree of accuracy required. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

  12. PhET Teacher Ideas & Activities: Wave Clicker Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-03-23

    This page contains a set of 67 concept (clicker) questions with answer key on the topic of waves, available for free download in Power Point or pdf format. It is a PhET Gold Star award-winning resource, developed for use with PhET interactive simulations on waves. Concept questions are intended to introduce a topic and probe students' existing beliefs prior to formal instruction. Students discuss their viewpoints, then "vote" on the correct response to the concept question. The use of concept questions has been extensively tested by physics education researchers and correlated with improved learner outcomes. The clicker questions were created specifically to supplement the following PhET simulations: Fourier: Making Waves, Sound, Wave on a String, Wave Interference, Geometric Optics, and Resonance. This resource is part of a set of teacher-created materials developed to supplement the PhET collection of interactive physics simulations.

  13. PhD Program in Bioengineering and Curriculum Humanoid Robotics

    E-print Network

    Robbiano, Lorenzo

    1 PhD Program in Bioengineering and Robotics Curriculum Humanoid Robotics Research themes 1. EVENT-DRIVEN VISION SENSORS FOR HUMANOID ROBOTS .........................................................2 2. EVENT. ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS FOR THE ICUB ROBOT THROUGH RAPID PROTOTYPING ......................5 5. MACHINE LEARNING

  14. CURRICULUM VITAE Gedeon O. Dek, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Kirsh, David

    Development Program 2005 ­ Assistant Professor, University of California, San Diego Dept. of Cognitive Science & Human Development Program 1999 ­ 2005 Assistant Professor, Vanderbilt University Department of Psychology and Human Development 1995 ­ 1999 Educational History Ph.D. University of Minnesota (Child

  15. Ethan M. Lange, Ph.D. Associate Professor

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    -966-3356 Office: 5111 Genetics Medicine Building Education Ph.D., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor-wide variation between Malawians and African ancestry HapMap populations. Journal of Human Genetics 55:366-374

  16. CURRICULUM VITAE James A. Bednar, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Bednar, Jim

    ). Phonetic Encoding, Verbal Working Memory, and the Role of Broca's Area. Ph.D. thesis, School of Informatics Institute of Mental Health (Human Brain Project) grant #1R01-MH66991, Computational Modeling of Cortical

  17. Chengci Chen, Ph.D. Professor of Agronomy (Cropping Systems)

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Chengci Chen, Ph.D. Professor of Agronomy (Cropping Systems) Central Agricultural Research Center Society of Agronomy, Chair, 2014- 2015 Agronomy Journal Associate Editor The Crop Journal Associate Editor

  18. Gareth Phoenix, Ph.D. The University of Sheffield

    E-print Network

    Gareth Phoenix, Ph.D. The University of Sheffield Department of Animal and Plant Sciences Friday satellites The Arctic is warming more than most other regions of the globe. The potential for considerable

  19. Claire Connolly Knox, Ph.D. School of Public Administration

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Claire Connolly Knox, Ph.D. School of Public Administration College of Health and Public Affairs Doctorate of Philosophy, Public Administration Dissertation Title: Competing paradigms for analyzing policy Theory August 2005 Master's of Public Administration and Policy, Environmental Management (Certificate

  20. PhET Teacher Ideas: Build An Atom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-13

    This is a lesson plan developed specifically to accompany the PhET simulation Build An Atom. Created by a PhET "Gold-Star" teacher, the lesson contains a complete student guide in printable pdf format, and pre-lab/post-lab assessments. By following the student guide, learners will be able to create models of stable and unstable atoms, identify elements and their position on the periodic table, and determine if a model depicts a neutral atom or an ion. The atom builder simulation, which must be open and displayed to complete this activity, is available from PhET at: Build An Atom. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET).