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Sample records for ultimate ph phu

  1. Early on-line classification of beef carcasses based on ultimate pH by near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marlon M; Rosenvold, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Prediction of ultimate pH (measured 48 h post mortem; pH(u)) in beef from Visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra collected 20 to 40 min post mortem was assessed. Spectra were collected from carcasses (cows: n = 86, bulls: n = 170, steers: n = 363, and heifers: n = 38) in a commercial hot boning abattoir under routine conditions. Partial Least Squares (PLS) models showed limited accuracy with RMSE for validation equal to 0.26, 0.20 and 0.36 for the All-animals, Non-bulls and Bulls models, respectively. The pH(u)-PLS-predicted values were used to segregate carcasses as normal (pH(u)<5.8) or high (pH(u) ? 5.8) showing better performance, by correctly classifying at least 90% of high pH(u) carcasses. The Non-bulls model was equivalent to the current technology used in the abattoir to classify carcasses based on pH(u). Thus near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used for on-line classification of beef carcasses based on pH(u). PMID:24211544

  2. Small heat shock proteins and toughness in intermediate pHu beef.

    PubMed

    Lomiwes, D; Farouk, M M; Frost, D A; Dobbie, P M; Young, O A

    2013-11-01

    Bull M. longissimus dorsi (n=94) categorised into high (n=28), intermediate (n=14) and low (n=52) ultimate pH (pHu) were aged at -1.5C for 28days. Shear force was higher and more variable (p<0.05) in intermediate pHu samples during ageing. Titin, filamin and desmin degradation was also less extensive in intermediate pHu samples compared to the other two pH categories. The extent of the decline of HSP20, HSP27 and ??-crystallin concentrations during post mortem ageing was pHu related such that high pHu meat maintained the highest concentration of small heat shock proteins followed by intermediate and low pHu meat. ?-Calpain autolysis was slowest in intermediate pHu and cathepsin B activities remained consistently low during ageing in this group (p<0.05). Meat toughness in the intermediate pHu group may be attributed to the combination of a larger pool of sHSP with a sub-optimal cathepsin B activity and intermediary ?-calpain activities. PMID:23793082

  3. Impact of divergent selection for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle on biochemical, histological, and sensorial attributes of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, N; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Baza, E; Chabault, M; Chartrin, P; Bordeau, T; Cailleau-Audouin, E; Meteau, K; Berri, C

    2015-09-01

    The impact of divergent selection based on the ultimate pH (pHu) of pectoralis major (P. major) muscle on the chemical, biochemical, and histological profiles of the muscle and sensorial quality of meat was investigated in broiler chickens. The protein, lipid, DM, glycogen and lactate content, glycolytic potential, proteolysis, lipid and protein oxidation index, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillary density, and collagen surface were determined on the breast P. major muscle of 6-wk-old broilers issued from the high-pHu (pHu+) and low-pHu (pHu-) lines. Sensory attributes were also evaluated on the breast (roasted or grilled) and thigh (roasted) meat of the 2 lines. Protein, lipid, and DM content of P. major muscle were not affected by selection ( > 0.05). However, the P. major muscle of the pHu+ line was characterized by lower residual glycogen (-16%; ? 0.001) and lactate (-14%; ? 0.001) content and lower glycolytic potential (-14%; ? 0.001) compared with the pHu- line. Although the average cross-sectional area of muscle fibers and surface occupied by collagen were similar ( > 0.05) in both lines, fewer capillaries per fiber (-15%; ? 0.05) were observed in the pHu+ line. The pHu+ line was also characterized by lower lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance index: -23%; ? 0.05) but protein oxidation and proteolysis index were not different ( > 0.05) between the 2 lines. At the sensory level, selection on breast muscle pHu mainly affected the texture of grilled and roast breast meat, which was judged significantly more tender ( ? 0.001) in the pHu+ line, and the acid taste, which was less pronounced in the roasted breast meat of the pHu+ line ( ? 0.002). This study highlighted that selection based on pHu does not affect the chemical composition and structure of breast meat. However, by modifying muscle blood supply and glycogen turnover, it affects meat acidity and oxidant status, both of which are likely to contribute to the large differences in texture observed between the 2 lines. PMID:26440351

  4. Excess glycogen does not resolve high ultimate pH of oxidative muscle.

    PubMed

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Oliver, Emily M; Apaoblaza, Ariel; Scheffler, Tracy L; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen content can impact the extent of postmortem pH decline. Compared to glycolytic muscles, oxidative muscles contain lower glycogen levels antemortem which may contribute to the higher ultimate pH. In an effort to explore further the participation of glycogen in postmortem metabolism, we postulated that increasing the availability of glycogen would drive additional pH decline in oxidative muscles to equivalent pH values similar to the ultimate pH of glycolytic muscles. Glycolysis and pH declines were compared in porcine longissimus lumborum (glycolytic) and masseter (oxidative) muscles using an in vitro system in the presence of excess glycogen. The ultimate pH of the system containing longissimus lumborum reached a value similar to that observed in intact muscle. The pH decline of the system containing masseter samples stopped prematurely resulting in a higher ultimate pH which was similar to that of intact masseter muscle. To investigate further, we titrated powdered longissimus lumborum and masseter samples in the reaction buffer. As the percentage of glycolytic sample increased, the ultimate pH decreased. These data show that oxidative muscle produces meat with a high ultimate pH regardless of glycogen content and suggest that inherent muscle factors associated with glycolytic muscle control the extent of pH decline in pig muscles. PMID:26766296

  5. A genome-wide analysis of the ultimate pH in swine.

    PubMed

    Chung, H Y; Lee, K T; Jang, G W; Choi, J G; Hong, J G; Kim, T H

    2015-01-01

    Meat pH is an important factor influencing meat quality traits in swine. This study evaluated a large number of genetic variants that covered all of the swine chromosomal regions. Approximately 68,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), found on Illumina Porcine SNP chips, were tested for associations with meat pH values. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) found that 19 SNPs on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 were significantly associated with pH. Two major candidate genomic regions were defined: a 1.08-Mb region (at nucleotide 30118313 to 31207050) contained 10 significant SNPs, based on an effect value of 5.0; and a 2.7-Mb genomic region (at nucleotide 73293076 to 76023681) contained 9 significant SNPs. Three putative genes - PKHD1L1, VCPIP1, and LOC102166532 - were identified by GWAS near significant SNPs. These genes may account for variations in pH levels. Three pseudogenes and two non-coding RNAs were also detected by GWAS analysis. Estimations of expected and observed P values for pH revealed significant departures from the null hypothesis. A total of 9 haplotype blocks (HB) were constructed: HBs 1, 3, and 5 showed significant effects on pH24 and pH45, whereas an association was not confirmed between pH24 and HBs 4, 6, and 8. Findings from this study indicate that the three genes identified may influence pH of pig meat. PMID:26634535

  6. Antibacterial activities of PHU - AgNO3 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzaru, Carmen; Danciu, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Mihailovici, Maria-Sultana

    2009-05-01

    Objective was to characterize the antibacterial action for six combination of PHU-AgNO3 synthesized in "Petru Poni" Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania. The advantages of Ag nanoparticles are durability, heat resistant, low toxicity. Silver is known for its antibacterial qualities for a long time and has been used in medicine in topical treatment.

  7. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  8. Ultimate Frisbee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ed; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Ultimate Frisbee is a highly competitive noncontact sport similar to football or soccer, played by two teams of seven or more members. Various aspects of the game are described, including: (1) equipment; (2) playing field; and (3) the rules and scoring system. (JN)

  9. Implications of river morphology response to Dien Bien Phu fault in NW Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Lam, D.

    2007-12-01

    In northern Vietnam, most rivers are flowing southeastward sub- or parallel to the valley of Red River and characterized by long but narrow catchments. The Dien Bien Phu fault is associated with the most seismically active zone in Vietnam and situated in the potential eastern boundary of the rotating southeastern Tibetan block. It cuts the Da River, the largest tributary of Red River in northwest Vietnam and has distorted the drainage basin resulting in complex river patterns. To assess the river morphology response to active Dien Bien Phu fault, we use 1/50,000 topographic data and ASTER images to map the precise river courses and digital elevation model data of SRTM to retrieve and analyze the river profiles. From the mapping results, the N-S striking fault results in three conspicuous north-trending river valleys coincided with the different fault segments to facilitate the measurement and reconstruction of the offsets along the fault. Further combining the longitudinal profile analysis we obtain ca. 10 km offsets by deflected river as the largest left-lateral displacement recorded along the active fault. The restored results show the downstream paleochannel of the Da River had been abandoned and becomes two small tributaries in opposite flow directions at present due to differential crustal uplift. Also the present crisscross valley at the junction of the Da River and the fault is resulted from the capture by another river which has been also deflected by the neotectonics. Based on our observations on river response, the Dien Bien Phu fault is a sinistral dominant fault with an uplift occurring in its eastern block. Furthermore the active Dien Bien Phu fault does not cut through the Red River northward indicating the western block of the fault can not be regarded as a single rigid block. There should be possible to find NW-SE trending faults paralleling to Red River to accommodate the deformation of the western block of the fault.

  10. Implications of river morphology response to Dien Bien Phu fault in NW Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Lam, D.

    2004-12-01

    In northern Vietnam, most rivers are flowing southeastward sub- or parallel to the valley of Red River and characterized by long but narrow catchments. The Dien Bien Phu fault is associated with the most seismically active zone in Vietnam and situated in the potential eastern boundary of the rotating southeastern Tibetan block. It cuts the Da River, the largest tributary of Red River in northwest Vietnam and has distorted the drainage basin resulting in complex river patterns. To assess the river morphology response to active Dien Bien Phu fault, we use 1/50,000 topographic data and ASTER images to map the precise river courses and digital elevation model data of SRTM to retrieve and analyze the river profiles. From the mapping results, the N-S striking fault results in three conspicuous north-trending river valleys coincided with the different fault segments to facilitate the measurement and reconstruction of the offsets along the fault. Further combining the longitudinal profile analysis we obtain ca. 10 km offsets by deflected river as the largest left-lateral displacement recorded along the active fault. The restored results show the downstream paleochannel of the Da River had been abandoned and becomes two small tributaries in opposite flow directions at present due to differential crustal uplift. Also the present crisscross valley at the junction of the Da River and the fault is resulted from the capture by another river which has been also deflected by the neotectonics. Based on our observations on river response, the Dien Bien Phu fault is a sinistral dominant fault with an uplift occurring in its eastern block. Furthermore the active Dien Bien Phu fault does not cut through the Red River northward indicating the western block of the fault can not be regarded as a single rigid block. There should be possible to find NW-SE trending faults paralleling to Red River to accommodate the deformation of the western block of the fault.

  11. Insight of the reactivated Dien Bien Phu fault, northwest Vietnam: Implication of the kinematics in north Indochina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Yue-Gau; Lm, Don.

    2010-05-01

    As one of the most conspicuous fault systems in the Indochina, the NNE-trending Dien Bien Phu fault zone extends over a distance of 150 km from Yunnan, China through the NW Vietnam into Laos and may dextrally displaces the Paleozoic-Triassic granitoids and Song Ma suture, performing a great geological discontinuity. Detailed active fault mapping, compiled from stereographic aerial photos, topographic maps, ASTER satellite imageries, and field reconnaissance, along the Dien Bien Phu fault reveals information about the fault geometry, the magnitude and distribution of displacement along the fault, and the relationship between river offset and activity of fault. The modern Dien Bien Phu fault is complex, including step-overs and branches, and is dominated by left-lateral strike-slip displacement. Numerous multiple offsets along the fault can be detected and reconstructed, and the largest sinistral displacement on the Dien Bien Phu fault is probably ca. 12.5 km. Since sinistral motion is likely to have initiated around 5 Ma, the most reasonable Pliocene to present-day average slip rate on the Dien Bien Phu fault is at an order of 2.5 mm/yr. There are several basins developed along the fault and the strongest evidence for an extensional component of displacement is along the southern part of the fault where the basin developed by a half graben with growing strata. Based on the combined Global Positioning System velocity fields observed from northwest Vietnam and south China, about 2 to 3 mm/yr left-lateral slip is measured across the Dien Bien Phu fault, implying the order of ~10 mm/yr left-lateral slip of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojang fault is transferred southward to Dien Bien Phu fault but with an abrupt decrease in magnitude. Further the western block of Dien Bien Phu fault represents more significant E-W extensional behavior as non-rigid block with internal deformation. Results of this study suggest the modern Dien Bien Phu fault performs as a reactivated fault, yet different slip sense, and acts as an eastern boundary of the crustal deformation in north Indochina. However, the present-day kinematics in north Indochina may be dominated by E-W extension and be accommodated by internal distributed deformation different from the crustal fragment defined by Xianshuihe-Xiaojang fault with a clockwise rotating around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis.

  12. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H. ); Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  13. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  14. Spectroscopic Determination of Distinct Heme Ligands in Outer-Membrane Receptors PhuR and HasR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Modi, Anuja R.; Sun, Shengfang; Dawson, John H.; Wilks, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes two outer membrane receptors, PhuR (Pseudomonas heme uptake) and HasR (heme assimilation system). The HasR receptor acquires heme through interaction with a secreted hemophore, HasAp. The non-hemophore-dependent PhuR is encoded along with proteins required for heme translocation into the cytoplasm. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of the HasR and PhuR receptors. Absorption and MCD spectroscopy confirmed that, similar to other Gram-negative OM receptors, HasR coordinates heme through the conserved N-terminal plug His-221 and His-624 of the surface-exposed FRAP-loop. In contrast, PhuR showed distinct absorption and MCD spectra consistent with coordination through a Tyr residue. Sequence alignment of PhuR with all known Gram-negative OM heme receptors revealed a lack of a conserved His within the FRAP loop but two Tyr residues at positions 519 and 529. Site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopic characterization confirmed Tyr-519 and the N-terminal plug His-124 provide the heme ligands in PhuR. We propose that PhuR and HasR represent nonredundant heme receptors capable of sensing and accessing heme across a wide range of physiological conditions on colonization and infection of the host. PMID:25849630

  15. The Ultimate Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The sport of Ultimate has grown from parking lot fun to international competition in its 35 year existence. As in many sports, the team that scores is subsequently on defense. Thus the probability that a team will score next is dependent on which team has scored most recently. Unlike in many other sports, teams switch ends after each score. Thus

  16. The Ultimate Fizz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckscher, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Many recipes for elementary science activities suggest making carbon dioxide from baking soda and vinegar; however, they often do not give exact measurements of the ingredients. The author was able to turn this "drawback" into a plus by challenging her fifth-grade students to find the "ultimate fizz"--i.,e., "What amount of baking soda added to a

  17. The Ultimate Fizz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckscher, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Many recipes for elementary science activities suggest making carbon dioxide from baking soda and vinegar; however, they often do not give exact measurements of the ingredients. The author was able to turn this "drawback" into a plus by challenging her fifth-grade students to find the "ultimate fizz"--i.,e., "What amount of baking soda added to a…

  18. Information: The Ultimate Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscomb, Lewis M.

    1979-01-01

    A 100-year scenario of the future of information technology. To achieve inexpensive, high-speed, and small computers, new techniques are likely to replace silicon technology. The ultimate computer might be biological and patterned on DNA. Future computers will require information rather than store it. Light wave communication will broaden

  19. The Ultimate Flag Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

    This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

  20. Ultimate injuries: a survey.

    PubMed Central

    Marfleet, P

    1991-01-01

    Injuries sustained while playing Ultimate at six tournaments between 1986 and 1990 were recorded. Thigh muscle strains, ankle ligament sprains and skin abrasions/friction burns were the most frequent injuries. Factors contributing to injury include pitch state, player fitness and preparation, clothing, 'lay-out' technique, tournament organization and squad size. Reducing excessive playing time, improved preparation by the player, sensible use of protective clothing, and care with pitch selection should all lead to a reduction in the number of injuries. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1810621

  1. Pliocene-to-present morphotectonics of the Dien Bien Phu fault in northwest Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Yue-Gau; Lm, Don ?nh

    2012-11-01

    The north- to northeast-trending Dien Bien Phu fault (DBPF) zone appears to the south of the Red River fault (RRF) zone, sharing the spatial alignment of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault (XXF) and extending over a distance of 150 km from Yunnan, China, through northwest Vietnam into Laos. Although the DBPF is one of the most conspicuous active fault systems in Indochina, it is less studied than the RRF and XXF, and its quantified kinematics remain mostly unknown. Our detailed modern fault trace mapping, compiled from topographic maps, stereographic aerial photos, ASTER satellite imageries, and field reconnaissance reveals new information on the fault geometry, the slip magnitude and distribution along the fault, and the relationship between river-channel offset and fault activity. The geometry of the modern DBPF is complex, consisting of single strands and stepovers. Abundant geomorphic expressions along the DBPF illustrate that the modern fault is dominated by sinistral motion and the present left-lateral component of motion is also clearly demonstrated by the existence of numerous rivers offsets. Multiple offsets of geomorphic features along the fault are recognized and reconstructed, and the largest sinistral displacement on the DBPF is ca. 12.5 km based on drainage network restoration. Because sinistral motion likely initiated approximately 5 Ma, the most probable Pliocene-to-present average slip rate on the DBPF is on the order of 2.5 mm/yr. Based on the slip rate, the DBPF could generate an earthquake with a magnitude greater than Mw 7 and a recurrence interval of 500 to 1000 yr. The combined GPS velocity fields observed from northwest Vietnam and south China reveal approximately 2 to 3 mm/yr left-lateral slip across the DBPF, and significant east-west extension exists in the western crustal block of DBPF. Although the boundary fault system of the active crust rotation around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (i.e., XXF) does not cut the RRF, the Pliocene-to-present activity along the DBPF favors the possibility that the tectonic shear has been transmitted across the RRF and taken up on the DBPF. The results of this study suggest that the modern DBPF zone acts as a reactivated fault, with a different slip sense from its previous phase, and plays a role as an eastern boundary of the crustal deformation in northern Indochina.

  2. Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Daugherty, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor is a reactor that eliminates the traditional safety concerns of nuclear fission reactors. The US reactor has an insignificant source term and no reasonable criticality accident. Furthermore, the negligible residual after-heat in the reactor renders its shutdown capability comparable or superior to conventional power sources. Fission products are continuously removed at the rate they are produced. The reactor is operated with no excess criticality, hence no criticality accident is reasonably possible. The reactor is controlled safely by its negative temperature coeffiient. The reactor maintains criticality by an internal breeding ratio that is trimmed to be exactly one. The US reactor requires a fluid fuel and on-line, continuous fuel processing. Molten salt fuel was selected for its low vapor pressure at high temperature; adequate solubility of uranium and thorium as fluorides; good compatibility with structural materials; absence of irradiation damage; high negative temperature coefficient and amply developed technology and experience.

  3. Crustal contamination of Late Neogene basalts in the Dien Bien Phu Basin, NW Vietnam: Some insights from petrological and geochronological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszowska, Ewa; Wolska, Anna; Zuchiewicz, Witold; Cuong, Nguyen Quoc; Pcskay, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    Early Pliocene (Zanclean) basalts in the Dien Bien Phu pull-apart basin in NW Vietnam, associated with the presently sinistral Dien Bien Phu Fault Zone, have been dated by the K-Ar method at 4.4-4.9 and 5.4-5.2 Ma. Rapid migration of basaltic magma to the surface in the Dien Bien Phu Fault Zone may be due to Pliocene transtension of the crust in this region, resulting from asthenospheric upwelling induced by lateral displacement of the mantle. The basalts are moderately phyric ( < 10%) and consist of olivine (hyalosiderite), plagioclase (bytownite-labradorite) and orthopyroxene (bytownite-labradorite) phenocrysts, and a fine-grained crystalline matrix (olivine-hortonolite, plagioclase-labradorite, clinopyroxene-pigeonite and augite, K-feldspar). The presence of Fe-rich olivine and orthopyroxene phenocrysts indicates that the basalts are SiO 2-saturated/oversaturated olivine tholeiites which formed under water-undersaturated conditions. The Dien Bien Phu basalts contain both mantle-derived (pyroxenites, dunites, gabbros) and crustal (sillimanite/mullite + Mg-Fe spinel), wallrock xenoliths, indicative of crustal contamination during the ascent of the basaltic magma. The basalts show selective enrichment in some mobile elements (K, Rb, Sr and Th), a feature considered to be a result of metasomatism. These rocks, classified on the basis of their normative composition as quartz tholeiites, could represent primary olivine tholeiites/basalts, in which the geochemical signatures were modified by the processes of contamination.

  4. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate

  5. The Ultimate Alternative. A Curriculum for Teaching Ultimate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporali, John Martin

    1988-01-01

    A curriculum for teaching Ultimate, a cardiovascular frisbee disc sport alternative to traditional ball sports, is presented, covering cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills at three different levels. (CB)

  6. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate…

  7. Quaternary basin formation along the Dien Bien Phu fault zone and its neotectonic implication of northwestern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Chung, L.; Li, P.; Lam, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Dien Bien Phu (DBP) fault zone is one of the most conspicuous fault systems in the Indochina, extending over a distance of 150 km from Yunnan, China through the NW Vietnam into Laos. Recent Global Positioning system (GPS) data in China yielded that the present clockwise rotation of the southeastern Tibet block geologically corresponds to a region of left-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Xianshuihe-Xiaojang fault and Dien Bien Phu fault, which appear to have accommodated clockwise rotation; whereas other GPS data from the network of Southeast Asia proposed that Indochina constitutes a stable tectonic block moving approximately east with respect to Eurasia. Although above GPS data show insignificant differential motion along DBP fault, active sinistral slip can be identified by clear geomorphic features, focal solutions and seismicity distribution in a NNE-striking zone parallel to the fault zone. Mapping of surface fault traces along the DBP fault zone using field outcrops, geophysical data, and geomorphologic features recognized by the aerial photos, SRTM, ASTER imageries and derived digital elevation models shows that virtually all active faults are reactivated structures sub-parallel to chronostratigraphic boundary. Along the DBF fault, three larger basins have been developed by different kinematics from north to south. The northern one at Chan Nua is rhomboidal in shape with a dimension of 2.5 km?.5 km, which can be defined as a pull-apart basin resulted by the strike-slip motion of the DBP fault. The fault configuration associated with the central one changes to two parallel sinistral and sinistral-normal faults forming a narrow subsiding weak zone (10 km?.5 km) filled with Quaternary deposits. The southern one is, however, created by that the main DBP fault bends the strike from NNE to NE where branches out a sinistral- normal fault with N-striking controlling a half-graben basin (17 km? km) filled with Quaternary deposits about 200 m in depth above the late Neogene olivine basalt. The late Neogene basalt of age ca. 5 Ma seems being at least displaced 10 km by the branched sinistral-normal fault, giving a rate of ca. 2 mm/yr by left-lateral strike-slip since volcanic eruption. For the southern two basins, normal faulting has been confirmed occurring along their east margin, implying the NW-striking fault systems, i.e. Son La and Song Ma faults, in northwestern Vietnam are active. Although the proposed mechanisms of above-mentioned basins are still tentative, the DBP fault zone is undoubtedly undergoing extensional tectonic environment in rigid Indochina block. Further studies on basin depositional history and age determination are needed for the purpose of establishing the dynamic model of each basin and recognizing the neotectonic behavior of DBP fault.

  8. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  9. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  10. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  11. GPS measurements of horizontal deformation across the Lai Chau-Dien Bien (Dien Bien Phu) fault, in Northwest of Vietnam, 2002-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, C. C.; Yun, H.-S.; Cho, J.-M.

    2006-05-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from Feb. 2002 through Mar. 2004 were used to estimate the recent crustal movement along the Lai Chau - Dien Bien (Dien Bien Phu) fault (LC-DBF) system in the Northwest of Vietnam. Four GPS campaign data were processed to estimate ITRF2000 and local horizontal velocities, as well as extensive and compressive strain rates across the LC-DBF. ITRF2000 velocities are consistent with east-southeastward movement of Sundaland i.e. Indochina. Local velocities did not reveal much left-lateral strike-slip of the fault system and the derived strain rates were insignificantly different from zero at 95% confidence.

  12. Morphotectonics of the Dien Bien Phu fault, northwest Vietnam and its implications for present-day kinematics in northern Indochina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Lam, D.

    2011-12-01

    The north- to northeast-trending Dien Bien Phu fault (DBPF) zone is one of the most conspicuous fault systems in Indochina, extending over a distance of 150 km from Yunnan, China through northwest Vietnam into Laos, and dextrally displaces the northwest-trending Song Ma suture, and Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata, acting as a great geological discontinuity. Detailed mapping, compiled from topographic maps, stereographic aerial photos, ASTER satellite imageries, and field reconnaissance discovers new information on the fault geometry, the slip magnitude and distribution along the fault, and the relationship between river-channel offset and fault activity. The geometry of the modern DBPF is complex, consisting of step-overs and strands, and is currently dominated by left-lateral strike-slip displacement. Numerous multiple offsets along the fault are recognized and reconstructed, and the largest sinistral displacement on the DBPF is ca. 12.5 km. Since sinistral motion is likely to have initiated around 5 Ma, the most probable Pliocene to present average slip rate on the DBPF is on the order of 2.5 mm/yr. Based on the combined Global Positioning system velocity fields observed from northwest Vietnam and south China, about 2 to 3 mm/yr left-lateral slip is measured across the DBPF, indicating the left-lateral slip rate of ~10 mm/yr of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault (XSHF-XJF) has been transferred to DBPF but with an drastic decrease in magnitude. Furthermore, northern Indochina located at the western side of DBPF represents more significant east-west extension, implying the non-rigid block with internal deformation. Results of this study suggest that the modern DBPF zone performs as a reactivated fault, with a different slip sense from its previous phase, and plays a role as an eastern boundary of the crustal deformation in northern Indochina. However, the present-day kinematics in northern Indochina may be dominated by east-west extension and be accommodated by internal distributed deformation different from the crustal fragment defined by XSHF-XJF zone with a clockwise rotation around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis.

  13. Fibrosis: ultimate and proximate causes

    PubMed Central

    Thannickal, Victor J.; Zhou, Yong; Gaggar, Amit; Duncan, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrotic disorders account for an increasing burden of disease-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although numerous risk factors have been recognized, the etiologies of many of these clinical syndromes have not been identified, and they are often termed idiopathic or cryptogenic. Here, we provide an evolutionary perspective on fibrosis aimed at elucidating its etiopathogenesis. By asking the ultimate question of why this process evolved in multicellular organisms, we hope to uncover proximate explanations for how it causes disease in humans. We posit that physiological fibrosis-like reactions evolved as an essential process in host defense against pathogens and in normal wound healing. Based on this premise, we reason that pathological fibrosis is related to one or more of the following: unidentified infectious or noninfectious antigens, autoimmunity, impaired regenerative responses, and the antagonistically pleiotropic action of genes involved in wound healing or development. The importance of genetic susceptibility, epigenetics, aging, and the modern-day environment are highlighted. Consideration of both ultimate and proximate causation goes beyond philosophical cogitations, as it will better inform pathobiological mechanisms of disease and aid in the prevention and treatment of fibrotic diseases. PMID:25365073

  14. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes. PMID:26250010

  15. Methods of ultimate carbonaceous BOD determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; McKenzie, S.W.; Cherry, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted to provide an accurate and practical technique for determining the concentration of ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and the rate at which this demand is exerted. The three methods evaluated were carbon derived, nitrification adjusted, and nitrification inhibited. The studies indicate that comparable concentrations and reaction rates can be determined from either non-nitrified samples using no chemical nitrifying inhibitor, or from partially nitrified samples using the chemical inhibitors, 1-allyl-2 thiourea or nitrapyrin, and that the combined use of time-series analysis and Lee's graphical method provide a reliable and accurate technique for determining ultimate biochemical oxygen demand concentration and reaction rate in 5 to 7 days.

  16. Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cirac, C; Hill, R T; Mock, J J; Urzhumov, Y; Fernndez-Domnguez, A I; Maier, S A; Pendry, J B; Chilkoti, A; Smith, D R

    2012-08-31

    Metals support surface plasmons at optical wavelengths and have the ability to localize light to subwavelength regions. The field enhancements that occur in these regions set the ultimate limitations on a wide range of nonlinear and quantum optical phenomena. We found that the dominant limiting factor is not the resistive loss of the metal, but rather the intrinsic nonlocality of its dielectric response. A semiclassical model of the electronic response of a metal places strict bounds on the ultimate field enhancement. To demonstrate the accuracy of this model, we studied optical scattering from gold nanoparticles spaced a few angstroms from a gold film. The bounds derived from the models and experiments impose limitations on all nanophotonic systems. PMID:22936772

  17. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, T.R.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  18. Ultimate lateral capacity of piles in clay

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.M.; Murff, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents the results of centrifuge tests and analyses performed to determine the influence of cyclic lateral loading on the ultimate lateral resistance of foundation piles in normally consolidated clay soil. The work was motivated by the need for an appropriate method for estimating lateral soil resistance in order to assess the foundation reserve strength ratio (RSR) of fixed offshore platforms. In the absence of test data, industry practice has been to use the fully degraded cyclic resistance from the working stress design criteria recommended in API RP2A for cyclically loaded piles. It was suspected that this working stress approach substantially underestimates the ultimate lateral soil resistance available. The data reported herein demonstrate that while the cyclic criteria are appropriate for working stress analyses, they are extremely conservative for ultimate strength analyses. It is recommended that the non-degraded, static clay criteria be used to obtain soil resistances for use in RSR calculations. Since the data were obtained in kaolin, caution should be used when dealing with highly sensitive or fissured soils; in those cases additional study may be warranted. The data reported herein show that when the pile displaces into undisturbed soil, the ultimate resistance that can be mobilized is, to a large extent, regained. The most significant implication of this finding is for platforms whose foundation reserve strength is controlled by lateral pile resistance. Platforms most favorably affected by the conclusions of this study are older, shallow water template-type jackets with unbattered piles. Using the criteria recommended herein, the computed foundation RSR of such platforms is raised about 30 percent over that computed using cyclic criteria.

  19. Ultimate computing. Biomolecular consciousness and nano Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hameroff, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The book advances the premise that the cytoskeleton is the cell's nervous system, the biological controller/computer. If indeed cytoskeletal dynamics in the nanoscale (billionth meter, billionth second) are the texture of intracellular information processing, emerging ''NanoTechnologies'' (scanning tunneling microscopy, Feynman machines, von Neumann replicators, etc.) should enable direct monitoring, decoding and interfacing between biological and technological information devices. This in turn could result in important biomedical applications and perhaps a merger of mind and machine: Ultimate Computing.

  20. SNPs detection in DHPS-WDR83 overlapping genes mapping on porcine chromosome 2 in a QTL region for meat pH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pH is an important parameter influencing technological quality of pig meat, a trait affected by environmental and genetic factors. Several quantitative trait loci associated to meat pH are described on PigQTL database but only two genes influencing this parameter have been so far detected: Ryanodine receptor 1 and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit. To search for genes influencing meat pH we analyzed genomic regions with quantitative effect on this trait in order to detect SNPs to use for an association study. Results The expressed sequences mapping on porcine chromosomes 1, 2, 3 in regions associated to pork pH were searched in silico to find SNPs. 356 out of 617 detected SNPs were used to genotype Italian Large White pigs and to perform an association analysis with meat pH values recorded in semimembranosus muscle at about 1 hour (pH1) and 24 hours (pHu) post mortem. The results of the analysis showed that 5 markers mapping on chromosomes 1 or 3 were associated with pH1 and 10 markers mapping on chromosomes 1 or 2 were associated with pHu. After False Discovery Rate correction only one SNP mapping on chromosome 2 was confirmed to be associated to pHu. This polymorphism was located in the 3UTR of two partly overlapping genes, Deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) and WD repeat domain 83 (WDR83). The overlapping of the 3UTRs allows the co-regulation of mRNAs stability by a cis-natural antisense transcript method of regulation. DHPS catalyzes the first step in hypusine formation, a unique amino acid formed by the posttranslational modification of the protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A in a specific lysine residue. WDR83 has an important role in the modulation of a cascade of genes involved in cellular hypoxia defense by intensifying the glycolytic pathway and, theoretically, the meat pH value. Conclusions The involvement of the SNP detected in the DHPS/WDR83 genes on meat pH phenotypic variability and their functional role are suggestive of molecular and biological processes related to glycolysis increase during post-mortem phase. This finding, after validation, can be applied to identify new biomarkers to be used to improve pig meat quality. PMID:24103193

  1. Is space the ultimate high ground?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Gregory J.; Stallings, Francis P.

    2011-06-01

    Military experts often refer to space as the ultimate high ground under the premise that placing systems in orbit provides advantages consistent with the military doctrine of high ground. Although space provides the ultimate "observation post", it has none of the other advantages traditionally associated with high ground. Army Field Manual (FM) 34-130 states the other advantages of holding key terrain: commanding avenues of approach, overcoming obstacles, and affording cover and concealment as additional benefits of high ground. Yet systems in orbit incur none of these additional advantages. Finally, international restrictions and reciprocity concerns limit the employment of weapons in space nullifying many of the unique capability advantages that would otherwise support the "high ground" aspect of space. As the ultimate observation post, satellites provide a large quantity of vital data to military decision makers. This massive amount of data needs to have as much context as possible to convert this data to useful knowledge. To use space assets optimally, the military needs to learn from the past and make space and cyber products distributed and tactical. It is absolutely essential to distribute the right information to the lowest level (tactical elements) of the organization or the "boots on the ground" in a timely manner.

  2. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  3. Physical Demands in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 382 m and 657 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate Frisbee athletes played a game in which activity profile using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Game HRmean and HRpeak were 82 2% and 99 1% of maximum heart rate, respectively. Total game distance was 4.70 0.47 km, of which 0.63 0.14 km was high-intensity running and 0.21 0.11 km was sprinting. In the second half, 10% less (p ? 0.05) ground was covered with high-intensity running compared with the first half (0.28 0.08 km vs. 0.31 0.07 km). Less (43-47%; p ? 0.05) high-intensity running was performed in the third 9-minute period of each half compared with the first two 9-minute periods of the same half. Players performed 17.4 5.7 sprints during the match. Yo-Yo IR2 performance correlated to the amount of high-intensity running in the last 9 minutes of both halves (r = 0.69, p ? 0.05), whereas Yo-Yo IR1 performance correlated with total sprint distance (r = 0.74, p ? 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance. PMID:26595132

  4. The ultimate efficiency of photosensitive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    These systems have in common two important but not independent features: they can produce a storable fuel, and they are sensitive only to radiant energy with a characteristic absorption spectrum. General analyses of the conversion efficiencies were made using the operational characteristics of each particular system. An efficiency analysis of a generalized system consisting of a blackbody source, a radiant energy converter having a threshold energy and operating temperature, and a reservoir is reported. This analysis is based upon the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and leads to a determination of the limiting or ultimate efficiency for an energy conversion system having a characteristic threshold.

  5. Ultimate biodegradation of dialkyl phthalate ester plasticizers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.L.; Sinko, C.J.; Winkelmann, D.A.; Peterson, D.R.; Parkerton, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    Phthalate Esters (PEs) are primarily used as plasticizers in the polymer industry to impart the desired degree of flexibility to plastic products. The single isomer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is the most common plasticizer. However, other commercially important PE plasticizers possess branched alkyl chains of a mixed isomeric nature. The purpose of this study was to compare the ultimate biodegradability of mixed isomer PEs dihexyl (DHP), diisoheptyl (DIHP), diisononyl (DINP), diisodecyl (DIDP), and diisoundecyl (DIUP) phthalate to DEHP using the standardized OECD test (301 F) which is based on mannometric respirometry. Ultimate biodegradation results after 28 days under unacclimated conditions at 25 C were as follows: DHP (80 {+-} 10%), DIHP (82 {+-} 13%), DEHP (63 {+-} 18%), DINP (70 {+-} 11%), DIDP (67 {+-} 13%), DUP (57 {+-} 14%). These data confirm the readily biodegradable nature of DEHP and mixed isomer PEs reported in previous studies and provide additional data to contradict the misperception that PEs are environmentally persistent. The influence of alkyl chain structure on the rate and extent of biodegradation observed in this and other biodegradation studies are discussed.

  6. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  7. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale.

  8. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  9. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, R.M. ); Manrique, M.A. ); Samaddar, S.K. )

    1993-08-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented.

  10. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. PMID:26359938

  11. The effect of electrical stimulation on post mortem myofibrillar protein degradation and small heat shock protein kinetics in bull beef.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Castillo, C J; Lomiwes, D; Wu, G; Frost, D; Farouk, M M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of electrical stimulation and ultimate pH (pHu) on shear force, myofibrillar protein degradation and small heat shock protein (sHSP) concentrations in M. longissimus lumborum (LL). The LL from both sides of carcasses (n=15) was excised with low voltage electrical stimulation (ES) applied to an LL muscle from one side, while the opposing LL muscle was not stimulated (NS). Muscles were categorised into low (pHu<5.8), intermediate (5.8?pHu<6.2) and high pHu (pHu?6.2) and aged for up to 28days post mortem at -1.5C. High pHu meat tenderised faster which corresponded with the faster degradation of titin and desmin in this group compared with low and intermediate pHu meat. Electrical stimulation significantly affected the variable levels of ??-crystallin and HSP20 with higher concentrations of these sHSP in ES muscles at later ageing timepoints compared with NS muscles. PMID:26624792

  12. Meta-analysis genomewide association of pork quality traits: ultimate pH and shear force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is common practice to perform genome-wide association analysis (GWA) using a genomic evaluation model of a single population. Joint analysis of several populations is more difficult. An alternative to joint analysis could be the meta-analysis (MA) of several GWA from independent genomic evaluatio...

  13. The Phenix ultimate natural convection test

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthe, P.; Pialla, D.; Tenchine, D.; Vasile, A.; Rochwerger, D.

    2012-07-01

    The French sodium cooled fast reactor Phenix was shut down in 2009 after 35 years of operation. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests were performed by the CEA during 9 months. Several topics were involved such as thermal hydraulics, core physics and fuel behaviour. Among these ultimate experiments, two thermal hydraulic tests were performed: an asymmetrical test consisting in a trip of one secondary pump and a natural convection test in the primary circuit. Recognizing the unique opportunity offered by these Phenix ultimate tests, IAEA decided in 2007 to launch a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to benchmarking analyses with system codes on the Phenix natural convection test. One objective of the natural convection test in Phenix reactor is the assessment of the CATHARE system code for safety studies on future and advanced sodium cooled fast reactors. The aim of this paper is to describe this test, which was performed on June 22-23, 2009, and the associated benchmark specifications for the CRP work. The paper reminds briefly the Phenix reactor with the main physical parameters and the instrumentation used during the natural convection test. After that, the test scenario is described: - initial state at a power of 120 MWth, - test beginning resulting from a manual dry out of the two steam generators, - manual scram, - manual trip on the three primary pumps without back-up by pony motors, - setting and development of natural convection in the primary circuit, in a first phase without significant heat sink in the secondary circuits and in a second phase with significant heat sink in the secondary circuits, by opening the casing of steam generators to create an efficient heat sink, by air natural circulation in the steam generators casing. The benchmark case ends after this second phase, which corresponds to the experimental test duration of nearly 7 hours. The paper presents also the benchmark specifications data supplied by the CEA to all participants of this CRP in order to perform calculations (core, primary circuit, primary pumps, IHX, shutdown system, operating parameters, test scenario and real test conditions). Finally, main test results and analyses are presented including the evolution of the core and of the heat exchangers inlet and outlet temperatures, and some local temperature measurements. The natural convection has been easily set up in the pool type reactor Phenix with different boundary conditions at the secondary side, with or without heat sink. The data obtained during this unique test represent some very useful and precious results for the development of SFR in a wide range of thematic such as numerical methods dedicated to thermal-hydraulics safety analyses (system codes, CFD codes and coupling system and CFD codes) and instrumentation. (authors)

  14. Olympus: The Ultimate Summit for Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Darrell; Holt, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High above the world-class observatories that dot Hawaii's dormant Mauna Kea volcano, floating farther yet over the hostile and nearly inaccessible peaks of Mt. Everest, lies a summit waiting to be conquered. Here above the clouds and city lights and over 99.7% of the atmosphere is a platform on the edge of space, home to a broad range of astronomy and physics experiments. Today, balloons are lifting experiments longer, higher and more inexpensively than ever before, and returning them safely to Earth for reuse. Week-long flights at altitudes of approximately 35 kilometers carrying payloads in excess of several tons are the norm. NASA now plans to extend this platform and create a new generation of balloons capable of staying afloat with such cargo for 100 days and ultimately 1,000 days. What do some scientists hope to accomplish with 100 or even 1,000 days at the edge of space? To name but a few proposals on the table: Jupiter-size planet searches, large-aperture solar astronomy, large-aperture infrared astronomy, cosmic-ray investigations, long-duration Earth science missions, and hard x-ray imaging experiments. Olympus defines a new era in scientific ballooning. Advances in material science and trajectory control are enabling revolutionary capabilities. Very large scientific payloads can now be reliably launched and retrieved for reflight at a range of altitudes. Balloon flight still remains a fraction of the cost of a rocket launch. The ultra long duration balloon, with its 100-day maiden flight planned for 2001, provides a long-term facility in a near-space environment for many types of science. This is a stratospheric mountaintop well worth the climb.

  15. Ultimate Limits to Thermally Assisted Magnetic Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Terry

    2004-03-01

    The application of thermal energy to enable recording on extremely high anisotropy magnetic media appears to be a viable means of extending the density of stored information. The central physical issue facing the technology is what gain can be realized in writability along with long- term data stability using imaginable media materials. We reasonably expect the material properties M(T) and H_k(T) to determine this, since a stability metric for media with characteristic magnetization switching unit volume V is MVH_k/2kT. This matter is controversial owing to still open questions related to thermomagnetic recording with temperature elevation above the Curie point and optimal cooling rates. There are indications that multi-component magnetic media may offer advantages in achieving performance goals. Beyond the physical issues lie engineering matters related to the correct system architecture to yield a practical storage device to meet future customer expectations. Here one must address a detailed means of delivering localized heating to the magnetic medium to perform efficient recording. To date, magnetic recording devices have been highly mechanical systems, so it is natural to inquire how a need for an aggressively heated head-medium interface could impact the evolution of future systems. Eventually elements of thermally assisted recording could be combined with patterned media approaches such as self-organized magnetic arrays to push toward ultimate limits where the thermal instability of bits overtakes engineered media materials. Finally, a practical recording system cannot be realized unless a means of finding, following, and reading the smallest bits with a usable signal-to-noise ratio exists - engineering issues separate from an ability to reliably record those bits.

  16. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Westerkamp, Christian; Claen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called walk-around flower. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. As bees are very inventive, however, bilabiate constructions will not represent the ultimate response to bees. PMID:17652341

  17. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  18. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  19. James M. Cherry, Ph.D. (Video)

    Cancer.gov

    View this video on YouTube. James M. Cherry, Ph.D. details his educational journey from football player to biology major and, ultimately, a career in molecular biology. Dr. Cherry serves as scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations,

  20. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Doctors Who Treat PH Referral to ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Doctors Who Treat PH Referral to ...

  1. Proximate and ultimate causes of punishment and strong reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-02-01

    While admirable, Guala's discussion of reciprocity suffers from a confusion between proximate causes (psychological mechanisms triggering behaviour) and ultimate causes (evolved function of those psychological mechanisms). Because much work on "strong reciprocity" commits this error, I clarify the difference between proximate and ultimate causes of cooperation and punishment. I also caution against hasty rejections of "wide readings" of experimental evidence. PMID:22289305

  2. "Got Disc?" The "Ultimate" Experience in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Darst, Paul W.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    A quality physical education program is one in which students are exposed to and can participate in a variety of sports and activities. One activity that is increasing in popularity in and outside of physical education is the game of "Ultimate." Opportunities to play Ultimate are increasing rapidly in intramural programs and community and

  3. Ultimate Limits to Resource Efficiency in Photonic Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    We review resource-efficiency metrics for transferring classical information with photon, present an overview of the ultimate limits to photon and dimensional efficiency permitted by quantum mechanics, as well as that acheived with structured transmitter-receiver pairs.

  4. INFORMATION THEORY: 'Ultimate PC' Would Be a Hot Little Number.

    PubMed

    Seife, C

    2000-09-01

    A physicist has used the laws of thermodynamics, information, relativity, and quantum mechanics to figure out the ultimate physical limits on the speed of a computer. His calculations show that, in principle, a kilogram of matter in a liter-sized container could be an "ultimate laptop" more than a trillion trillion trillion times as powerful as today's fastest supercomputer--if it could be turned into a black hole. PMID:17839510

  5. Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) static ultimate load structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted on the jettisonable metallic shroud used on the Titan/Centaur launch vehicle to verify its structural capabilities and to evaluate its structural interaction with the Centaur stage. A flight configured shroud and the interfacing Titan/Centaur structural assemblies were subjected to tests consisting of combinations of applied axial and shear loads to design ultimate values, including a set of tests on thermal conditions and two dynamic response tests to verify the analytical stiffness model. The strength capabilities were demonstrated at ultimate (125 percent of design limit) loads. It was also verified that the spring rate of the flight configured shroud-to-Centaur forward structural deflections of the specimen became nonlinear, as expected, above limit load values. This test series qualification program verified that the Titan/Centaur shroud and the Centaur and Titan interface components are qualified structurally at design ultimate loads.

  6. Ultimately straightened spiral springs for reinforcing thermally shrinking polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharenko, V. V.; Loboda, P. I.; Goncharenko, M. V.; Tkachenko, A. O.; Heilmeier, M.

    2012-07-01

    Ultimately straightened spiral springs designed for reinforcing thermally shrinking polymer composites are considered from the viewpoint of their operation properties. The dependence of the degree of contraction of such springs (i.e., of the degree of thermal shrinkage of the composites) primarily on the spring index is determined. It is found that the method of ultimate extension of spiral springs allows one to determine the boundary deformation corresponding to the elasticity limit of the material of a spring wire with a high degree of accuracy.

  7. Ultimate strength of composite laminates with free-edge delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onohara, Kaoru; Kunoo, Kazuo; Ono, Kousei

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents experimental and analytical studies of ultimate strength of (30(2)/-30(2)/90)(s) carbon/epoxy laminates with free-edge delamination under uniaxial tension. We performed tensile tests for laminates with Telflon inserted on interfaces to simulate initial free-edge delamination. The experiment reveals that extensional stiffness of the laminate decreases by the initiation of the delamination, and that strength of the laminate without delamination is smaller than that of the laminates with delamination. Generalized quasi-3D finite element analysis, which employs energy release rate and maximum stress criteria, predicts the ultimate strength of the laminates with sufficient accuracy.

  8. Immediate and Ultimate Functions of Physical Activity Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    Play has been difficult to define because it is an aspect of many activities rather than of just a specific kind of activity. Classic theorists such as Piaget and Vygotsky emphasized representational play as play in its purist form, but both immediate and ultimate functions of play can be discerned in simple physical activity play. (Author)

  9. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section 3594.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods ...

  10. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section 3594.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods ...

  11. 78 FR 40625 - Reporting Ultimate Payees of Political Committee Disbursements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... 11 CFR Part 104 Reporting Ultimate Payees of Political Committee Disbursements AGENCY: Federal... clarifying its interpretation of the regulatory requirement that political committees ] report the full name... purpose of such payments, in three situations: A political committee reimburses an individual who...

  12. The Ultimate Sampling Dilemma in Experience-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations and 2 experiments demonstrate the ultimate sampling dilemma, which constitutes a serious obstacle to inductive inferences in a probabilistic world. Participants were asked to take the role of a manager who is to make purchasing decisions based on positive versus negative feedback about 3 providers in 2 different product

  13. Aligning Performance: The Ultimate Goal of Our Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes performance alignment--ensuring that all things work together in an organization to achieve its external goals--as the ultimate goal of the human performance technologist's profession. Discusses the three areas where performance is in business, three dimensions of performance alignment, and how to achieve performance alignment. (AEF)

  14. 37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING STEPPED TOWERS, AND WITH PYLONS CAPPED BY LANTERNS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. On pulsed REB ultimate current in plasma waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Rukhadze, A.A.; Rybak, P.V.; Tarakanov, V.P.

    1994-12-31

    Numerical simulation was carried out to study the effect of induced fields (collisionless nondissipative and normal collisional skin effects) on the ultimate current instantaneous value of a pulsed relativistic electron beam (REB) injected into a plasma waveguide. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. 7 CFR 4274.308 - Eligibility requirements-Ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.308 Eligibility requirements—Ultimate recipients. (a... legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary. Also, the intermediary and its...

  17. 7 CFR 4274.308 - Eligibility requirements-Ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.308 Eligibility requirements—Ultimate recipients. (a... legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary. Also, the intermediary and its...

  18. 7 CFR 4274.308 - Eligibility requirements-Ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.308 Eligibility requirements—Ultimate recipients. (a... legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary. Also, the intermediary and its...

  19. 7 CFR 4274.308 - Eligibility requirements-Ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.308 Eligibility requirements—Ultimate recipients. (a... legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary. Also, the intermediary and its...

  20. 7 CFR 4274.308 - Eligibility requirements-Ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.308 Eligibility requirements—Ultimate recipients. (a... legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary. Also, the intermediary and its...

  1. Ultimate classical communication rates of quantum optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, V.; Garca-Patrn, R.; Cerf, N. J.; Holevo, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Optical channels, such as fibres or free-space links, are ubiquitous in today's telecommunication networks. They rely on the electromagnetic field associated with photons to carry information from one point to another in space. A complete physical model of these channels must necessarily take quantum effects into account to determine their ultimate performances. Single-mode, phase-insensitive bosonic Gaussian channels have been extensively studied over past decades, given their importance for practical applications. In spite of this, a long-standing unsolved conjecture on the optimality of Gaussian encodings has prevented finding their classical communication capacity. Here, this conjecture is solved by proving that the vacuum state achieves the minimum output entropy of these channels. This establishes the ultimate achievable bit rate under an energy constraint, as well as the long awaited proof that the single-letter classical capacity of these channels is additive.

  2. Shear wall ultimate drift limits for PRA applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Farrar, C.R.; Goldman, A.

    1995-03-01

    Drift limits for reinforced concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the technical literature for appropriate experimental data. Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures (exclusive of containments) and concerns regarding their response during seismic loading, data are obtained from pertinent references where the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which the loading is cyclic. Lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of these statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  3. Preventing ultimate harm as the justification for biomoral modification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-06-01

    Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, the point at which worthwhile life is forever impossible on the planet. These risks can be mitigated, they say, by enhancing moral psychology in novel ways. Persson and Savulescu argue that some parents should modify the underlying biogenetics of their children's moral psychology, if such measures were safe and effective, but they admit these interventions may not decouple humanity from Ultimate Harm. Neither are these modifications the only options, they concede, for addressing risks to humanity. Even with these concessions, saving humanity from itself is a fairly poor reason to modify the moral psychology of children. In most ways, adults would be better candidates, morally speaking, for modifications of psychology. Even then, there is no direct link between morally enhanced human beings and the hoped-for effect of better protection from Ultimate Harm. Asserting a general duty of all to contribute to the avoidance of Ultimate Harm is a better moral strategy than intervening in the moral psychology of some, even though meeting that duty may involve substantial interference with the free exercise of one's interests. PMID:25186171

  4. Ultimate capacity of multi-planar double X-joints

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, C.Y.; Soh, C.K.; Soh, A.K.; Fung, T.C.; Chiew, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    The ultimate capacity of the axially loaded multi-planar double X-joints have been evaluated using the finite element method. A comprehensive study has been done on different combinations of axial loading applied to 20 multi-planar double X-joints. For all the joints analyzed, the in-plane braces were subjected to compressive loadings but the load acting on the out-of-plane braces were varied between compressive load, tensile load and no load. The ultimate capacities of the multi-planar joints, with various braces to chord diameter ratio ({beta}) and radius of chord to thickness ratio ({gamma}), are compared to those of the corresponding uniplanar joints. The variation of the ratio between the strength of the multi-planar joint and that of the corresponding uniplanar joint (thereafter called strength ratio) is found to be significant. The strength ratios derived from the AWS code are also compared to those obtained from the numerical analysis by the present authors, and the AWS code is found to be less accurate in predicting multi-planar effects for certain load cases. Moreover, significant discrepancies are found between the ultimate capacities of the multi-planar double X-joints obtained by the present authors and those predicted by the API code.

  5. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  6. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Doctors Who Treat PH Referral to ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Doctors Who Treat PH Referral to ...

  7. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on educating and empowering women in these enclaves. Women are in charge of birth spacing and all aspects of management of energy, food, water and the local environment, more so than men, in most countries. PMID:12284190

  8. What is the Ultimate Goal in Acid-Base Regulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Alagesan, Murali; Prakash, E. Sankaranarayanan

    2007-01-01

    It is common to see chapters on acid-base physiology state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial PCO [subscript 2] (Pa[subscript CO[subscript 2

  9. Ultimate admissible dynamic strains in closed cylindrical vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemirovskii, Yu. V.

    2010-07-01

    A problem of determining the ultimate dynamic state of multilayer closed cylindrical vessels in emergency situations, such as explosive loading by high-intensity internal pressure, is considered. Elastic strains are assumed to be negligibly small as compared to plastic strains; therefore, the problem solution is constructed on the basis of the model of a rigid-plastic material with linear hardening. It is demonstrated that the solution of the dynamic deformation problem considered reduces to integration of a system of two ordinary equations for the functions of displacements of the inner surface of the vessel and of the massive non-deformable cover of the vessel.

  10. The ultimate quantum limits on the accuracy of measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    1992-01-01

    A quantum generalization of rate-distortion theory from standard communication and information theory is developed for application to determining the ultimate performance limit of measurement systems in physics. For the estimation of a real or a phase parameter, it is shown that the root-mean-square error obtained in a measurement with a single-mode photon level N cannot do better than approximately N exp -1, while approximately exp(-N) may be obtained for multi-mode fields with the same photon level N. Possible ways to achieve the remarkable exponential performance are indicated.

  11. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  12. Some Physics Constraints on Ultimate Achievement in Track and Field

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2009-02-06

    World records in track and field have improved remarkably throughout the last 100 years; however, in several events physics places quite strict limitations on ultimate performance. For example, analysis suggests that records in broad jump and pole vault have approached their optimum possible values. Physical constraints are more subtle for events such as javelin, high jump, and the distance races, and thus there may be opportunities for breakthroughs in current records. Considering that there is enormous cultural interest and economic expenditure on sports, for most events the level of scientific analysis isnt very high. This presents a research opportunity for fans who are engineers or physicists.

  13. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology.

    PubMed

    Alessi, G

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner saw behavior as a product of three levels of evolution. J. R. Kantor and Gregory Bateson noted similar relations. This article describes and applies basic evolutionary concepts to each level: (a) phylogenic, (b) ontogenic, and (c) cultural evolution. Each level is analyzed in terms of (a) units of selection, (b) variety of units required for the selection process, (c) selection pressures, (d) interactions among levels, and (e) implications for understanding and predicting behavior. Distinguishing between models of proximate and ultimate causation, as in biology, may help clarify research problems posed by, and facilitate better communication among, psychologists. PMID:1482003

  14. Ultimate drivers of native biodiversity change in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Norton, David A; Reid, Nick; Young, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to address land degradation and biodiversity loss while maintaining the production of plant and animal products is a key global challenge. Biodiversity decline as a result of vegetation clearance, cultivation, grazing, pesticide and herbicide application, and plantation establishment, amongst other factors, has been widely documented in agricultural ecosystems. In this paper we identify six ultimate drivers that underlie these proximate factors and hence determine what native biodiversity occurs in modern agricultural landscapes; (1) historical legacies; (2) environmental change; (3) economy; (4) social values and awareness; (5) technology and knowledge; and (6) policy and regulation. While historical legacies and environmental change affect native biodiversity directly, all six indirectly affect biodiversity by influencing the decisions that land managers make about the way they use their land and water resources. Understanding these drivers is essential in developing strategies for sustaining native biodiversity in agricultural landscapes into the future. PMID:26834971

  15. Ultimate Spectrum of Solar/Stellar Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-08-01

    We reconstruct an ultimate spectrum of solar/stellar cosmic rays (SCR) in a given point in the heliosphere (stellar sphere) basing on maximal value of magnetic field strenght in active region and its characteristic linear dimension. An accelerator of given dimensions and magnetic field strengh may accelarate to a finite energy for a given time (a maximal energy of SCR). We will use spectrum of SCR proposed by Syrovatsky (1961) for relativistic and non-relativistic energies normaliszing it to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity at maximal SCR energy. Maximal values of SCR flux propagating in the heliosphere are determined by equilibrium between pressure of interplanetary magnrtic field and dynamic pressure of SCR (Frier&Webber, 1963). The obtained spectra would be applied to explain the extreme solar particle event occurred in about 775 AD basing on the tree-ring chronology (Miyake et al., 2012).

  16. Plug nozzles: The ultimate customer driven propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aukerman, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applying the plug cluster nozzle concept to the propulsion system for a typical lunar excursion vehicle. Primary attention for the design criteria is given to user defined factors such as reliability, low volume, and ease of propulsion system development. Total thrust and specific impulse are held constant in the study while other parameters are explored to minimize the design chamber pressure. A brief history of the plug nozzle concept is included to point out the advanced level of technology of the concept and the feasibility of exploiting the variables considered in this study. The plug cluster concept looks very promising as a candidate for consideration for the ultimate customer driven propulsion system.

  17. Ultimate photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures with critical film thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Cong; Jin Kuijuan; Zhao Ruiqiang; Lu Huibin; Guo Haizhong; Ge Chen; He Meng; Wang Can; Yang Guozhen

    2011-05-02

    One order larger photovoltage is obtained with critical thicknesses of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} films in both kinds of heterostructures of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (0.8 wt % Nb-doped) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/Si fabricated at various oxygen pressures. Our self-consistent calculation reveals that the critical thickness of the La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} film with the ultimate value of photovoltage is just the thickness of the depletion layer of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} in both heterojunctions, respectively.

  18. Helium separation via porous silicene based ultimate membrane.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2013-10-01

    Helium purification has become more important for increasing demands in scientific and industrial applications. In this work, we demonstrated that the porous silicene can be used as an effective ultimate membrane for helium purification on the basis of first-principles calculations. Prinstine silicene monolayer is impermeable to helium gas with a high penetration energy barrier (1.66 eV). However, porous silicene with either Stone-Wales (SW) or divacancy (555,777 or 585) defect presents a surmountable barrier for helium (0.33 to 0.78 eV) but formidable for Ne, Ar, and other gas molecules. In particular, the porous silicene with divacancy defects shows high selectivity for He/Ne and He/Ar, superior to graphene, polyphenylene, and traditional membranes. PMID:23917262

  19. Atmospheric effects and ultimate ranging accuracy for lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Douglas G.; Prochazka, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of next generation lunar laser retroreflectors is planned in the near future. With proper robotic deployment, these will support single shot single photo-electron ranging accuracy at the 100 micron level or better. There are available technologies for the support at this accuracy by advanced ground stations, however, the major question is the ultimate limit imposed on the ranging accuracy due to the changing timing delays due to turbulence and horizontal gradients in the earth's atmosphere. In particular, there are questions of the delay and temporal broadening of a very narrow laser pulse. Theoretical and experimental results will be discussed that address estimates of the magnitudes of these effects and the issue of precision vs. accuracy.

  20. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we have made significant progress with the design of PEP-X, a USR that would inhabit the decommissioned PEP-II tunnel at SLAC. The enlargement of the dynamic aperture is largely a result of the cancellations of the 4th-order resonances in the 3rd-order achromats and the effective use of lattice optimization programs. In this paper, we will show those cancellations of the 4th-order resonances using an analytical approach based on the exponential Lie operators and the Poisson brackets. Wherever possible, our analytical results will be compared with their numerical counterparts. Using the derived formulae, we will construct 4th-order geometric achromats and use them as modules for the lattice of the PEP-X USR, noting that only geometric terms are canceled to the 4th order.

  1. CATHARE calculations of Phenix ultimate natural convection test

    SciTech Connect

    Pialla, D.; Tenchine, D.

    2012-07-01

    The Phenix Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) started operation in 1973 and it was stopped in 2009. Before the reactor was definitively shutdown, in order to collect experimental data for code assessments in the frame of Generation IV an intensive program of ultimate tests was set up. Among these ultimate experiments, two thermal hydraulic tests were performed: an asymmetrical test consisting in a trip on one secondary pump and a natural convection test in the primary circuit. The natural convection test has been used for an international benchmark on system codes in the frame of the IAEA. The CATHARE code - initially developed for water cooled reactors and now extended for safety analyses for other kinds of reactors, including Sodium Fast Reactor - was used by CEA for this benchmark. The paper reminds briefly the Phenix reactor with the main physical parameters and the instrumentation used during the natural convection test. Main test results are also briefly reminded including the evolution of the core and the heat exchangers inlet and outlet temperatures, and some local temperature measurements. The main developments to perform CATHARE SFR computations and the strategy of system code assessment are presented. Then the CATHARE modelling of Phenix reactor is depicted and the various assumptions are pointed out. CATHARE encountered no problem to predict the initial nominal state. Afterwards, the whole transient scenario is calculated and CATHARE calculations are compared to the Phenix measurements. The global trend is rather well predicted by the CATHARE code. Nevertheless, due to complex flow phenomena occurring in large plena and components, the system code encountered physical limitations, leading to remaining discrepancies between code prediction and plant data. Various sensitivity calculations are presented and they bring partial answers. Additional analyses are in progress to understand more deeply the complex 3D phenomena involved during the different phases of the natural convection test. Additional work for coupling CATHARE system code and TRIO-U CFD code is in progress and will bring useful information to better understand the physical phenomena involved during the natural convection test and to improve system modeling for future SFR safety analysis. (authors)

  2. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  3. Ph.D. shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role, reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research. The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

  4. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Langry, Kevin C. (Tracy, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  5. On the ultimate x-ray detector for angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slump, Cornelis H.; Kauffman, Joost A.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of our research is to describe the ultimate X-ray detector for angiography. Angiography is a well established X-ray imaging technique for the examination of blood vessels. Contrast agent is injected followed by X-ray exposures and possible obstructions in the blood vessels can be visualized. Standard angiography primarily inspects for possible occlusions and views the vessels as rigid pipes. However, due to the beating heart the flow in arteries is pulsatile. Healthy arteries are not rigid tubes but adapt to various pressure and flow conditions. Our interest is in the (small) response of the artery on the pulse flow. If the arteries responses elastically on the pulse flow, we can expect that it is still healthy. So the detection of artery diameter variations is of interest for the detection of atherosclerosis in an early stage. In this contribution we specify and test a model X-ray detector for its abilities to record the responses of arteries on pulsatile propagating flow distributions. Under normal physiological conditions vessels respond with a temporal increase in arterial internal cross-sectional area of order 10%. This pulse flow propagates along the arteries in response of the left ventricle ejections. We show results of the detection of simulated vessel distensabilities for the model detector and discuss salient parameters features.

  6. Digital exchange of graphic arts material: the ultimate challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, David Q.

    1996-01-01

    The digital exchange of graphic arts material -- particularly advertising material for publications -- in an open standardized environment represents the ultimate challenge for electronic data exchange. To meet the needs of publication advertising, the graphic arts industry must be able to transmit advertisements in an open environment where there are many senders and many receivers of the material. The material being transmitted consists of combinations of pictorial material, text, and line art with these elements superimposed on top of each other and/or interrelated in complex ways. The business relationships established by the traditional workflow environment, the combination of aesthetic and technical requirements, and the large base of existing hardware and software play a major role in limiting the options available. Existing first- and second-generation standards are focused on the CEPS environment, which operates on and stores data as raster files. The revolution in personal computer hardware and software, and the acceptance of these tools by the graphic arts community, dictates that standards must also be created and implemented for this world of vector/raster-based systems. The requirements for digital distribution of advertising material for publications, the existing graphic arts standards base, and the anticipation of future standards developments in response to these needs are explored.

  7. The ultimate band compression factor in gradient elution chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2008-01-01

    The equations predicting the ultimate time band compression factor, G = (t{sub R}-t{sub F})/t{sub p} in linear gradient elution chromatography, for an infinitely narrow injection (injection time t{sub p} {yields} 0) were derived for an ideal-model column (dispersionless chromatography, H = 0) assuming the Linear Solvent Strength Model for the retention behavior of the analyte. Numerical solutions can readily be obtained when the LSSM model does not apply. The results can be generalized to any retained organic modifier (k'{sub A}) in the mobile phase. The stronger the retention of the organic modifier, the more effective the band compression. Dispersion in real chromatographic column (H {ne} 0) affects the limits that can be reached in linear gradients but poorly in step gradients. Examples based on a conventional HETP of about 12 {micro}m using a 5 {micro}m particle packed column reveal that the best time compression factor that could be expected is twice the one predicted with an ideal column.

  8. Launching GUPPI: the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuPlain, Ron; Ransom, Scott; Demorest, Paul; Brandt, Patrick; Ford, John; Shelton, Amy L.

    2008-08-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is launching the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), a prototype flexible digital signal processor designed for pulsar observations with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). GUPPI uses field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware and design tools developed by the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California, Berkeley. The NRAO has been concurrently developing GUPPI software and hardware using minimal software resources. The software handles instrument monitor and control, data acquisition, and hardware interfacing. GUPPI is currently an expert-only spectrometer, but supports future integration with the full GBT production system. The NRAO was able to take advantage of the unique flexibility of the CASPER FPGA hardware platform, develop hardware and software in parallel, and build a suite of software tools for monitoring, controlling, and acquiring data with a new instrument over a short timeline of just a few months. The NRAO interacts regularly with CASPER and its users, and GUPPI stands as an example of what reconfigurable computing and open-source development can do for radio astronomy. GUPPI is modular for portability, and the NRAO provides the results of development as an open-source resource.

  9. The development of high cooling power and low ultimate temperature superfluid Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashok B.

    The superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR) is a recuperative Stirling cycle refrigerator which provides cooling to below 2 K by using a liquid 3He-4He mixture as the working fluid. In 1990, Kotsubo and Swift demonstrated the first SSR, and by 1995, Brisson and Swift had developed an experimental prototype capable of reaching a low temperature of 296 mK. The goal of this thesis was to improve these capabilities by developing a better understanding of the SSR and building SSR's with higher cooling powers and lower ultimate temperatures. This thesis contains four main parts. In the first part, a numerical analysis demonstrates that the optimal design and ultimate performance of a recuperative Stirling refrigerator is fundamentally different from that of a standard regenerative Stirling refrigerator due to a mass flow imbalance within the recuperator. The analysis also shows that high efficiency recuperators remain a key to SSR performance. Due to a quantum effect called Kapitza resistance, the only realistic and economical method of creating higher efficiency recuperators for use with an SSR is to construct the heat exchangers from very thin (12 ?m - 25 ?m thick) plastic films. The second part of this thesis involves the design and construction of these recuperators. This research resulted in Kapton heat exchangers which are leaktight to superfluid helium and capable of surviving repeated thermal cycling. In the third part of this thesis, two different single stage SSR's are operated to test whether the plastic recuperators would actually improve SSR performance. Operating from a high temperature of 1.0 K and with 1.5% and 3.0% 3He-4He mixtures, these SSR's achieved a low temperature of 291 mK and delivered net cooling powers of 3705 ?W at 750 mK, 977 ?W at 500 mK, and 409 ?W at 400 mK. Finally, this thesis describes the operation of three versions of a two stage SSR. Unfortunately, due to experimental difficulties, the merits of a two stage SSR were not demonstrated and further work is still required. However, despite these difficulties, one of the two stage SSR's was able to reach an ultimate low temperature of 248 mK from a high temperature of 1.03 K. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultimate limits to thermally assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Terry W.

    2005-02-01

    The application of thermal energy to enable recording on extremely high anisotropy magnetic media appears to be a viable means of extending the density of stored information. The central physical issue facing the technology is what gain can be realized in writability along with long-term data stability using imaginable media materials. We reasonably expect the material properties M(T) and Hk(T) to determine this, since a stability metric for media with characteristic magnetization switching unit volume V is MV Hk/2kBT. This matter is controversial owing to still open questions related to thermomagnetic recording with temperature elevation above the Curie point and optimal cooling rates. There are indications that multi-component magnetic media may offer advantages in achieving performance goals. Beyond the physical issues lie engineering matters related to the correct system architecture to yield a practical storage device to meet future customer expectations. Here one must address a detailed means of delivering localized heating to the magnetic medium to perform efficient recording. To date, magnetic recording devices have been highly mechanical systems, so it is natural to inquire how a need for an aggressively heated head-medium interface could impact the evolution of future systems. Eventually elements of thermally assisted recording could be combined with patterned media approaches such as self-organized magnetic arrays to push toward ultimate limits where the thermal instability of bits overtakes engineered media materials. Finally, a practical recording system cannot be realized unless a means of finding, following, and reading the smallest bits with a usable signal-to-noise ratio existsengineering issues separate from an ability to reliably record those bits. This paper is based on an invited presentation of the same title given at the meeting of the American Physical Society, 22-26 March 2004, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  11. [The relationships of Zhang Jing-yue's three theories of the Supreme Ultimate].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chun-Peng

    2007-07-01

    Under the influence of Supreme Ultimate of Neo-Confucianism, Zhang Jing-yue put forward the three theories of the Supreme Ultimate, viz., Supreme Ultimate of the Primordial Qi, Supreme Ultimate of the Heart, and Supreme Ultimate of the Vital Gate. These three theories were of trinity relationship, forming the basic frame of Jingyue's system of medical theories. Among them, the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Primordial Qi was the foundation of natural concept in his medical theories, the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Vital Gate was the teleology of his medical theories, and the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Heart, as a cognitive method, was the methodology of his medical theories. Jing-yue' s medical theories were constructed on these three corner-stays, which was a tremendous leap forward in the development of traditional Chinese medicine and Neo-Confucianism. PMID:18453202

  12. Understanding Early Post-Mortem Biochemical Processes Underlying Meat Color and pH Decline in the Longissimus thoracis Muscle of Young Blond d'Aquitaine Bulls Using Protein Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, E M Claudia; Micol, Didier; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Hocquette, Jean-François; Picard, Brigitte

    2015-08-01

    Many studies on color biochemistry and protein biomarkers were undertaken in post-mortem beef muscles after ≥24 hours. The present study was conducted on Longissimus thoracis muscles of 21 Blond d'Aquitaine young bulls to evaluate the relationships between protein biomarkers present during the early post-mortem and known to be related to tenderness and pH decline and color development. pH values at 45 min, 3 h, and 30 h post-mortem were correlated with three, seven, and six biomarkers, respectively. L*a*b* color coordinates 24 h post-mortem were correlated with nine, five, and eight protein biomarkers, respectively. Regression models included Hsp proteins and explained between 47 and 59% of the variability between individuals in pH and between 47 and 65% of the variability in L*a*b* color coordinates. Proteins correlated with pH and/or color coordinates were involved in apoptosis or had antioxidative or chaperone activities. The main results include the negative correlations between pH45 min, pH3 h, and pHu and Prdx6, which may be explained by the antioxidative and phospholipase activities of this biomarker. Similarly, inducible Hsp70-1A/B and μ-calpain were correlated with L*a*b* coordinates, due to the protective action of Hsp70-1A/B on the proteolytic activities of μ-calpain on structural proteins. Correlations existed further between MDH1, ENO3, and LDH-B and pH decline and color stability probably due to the involvement of these enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and, thus, the energy status of the cell. The present results show that research using protein indicators may increase the understanding of early post-mortem biological mechanisms involved in pH and beef color development. PMID:26160326

  13. Ultimate VHF Broadband Interferometer Zen KAWASAKI and Manabu AKITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Z.; Akita, M.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRGOU) has been developing an interferometer for thunderstorm monitoring during these two decades. When LRGOU initiated this project, many related scientists claimed that LRGOU's system was a time of arrival and it must be a sophisticated TOA system. However the key technology of the system were broad band and digital data processing, and it is named the VHF broad band digital interferometer (BDITF), because the phase difference of Fourier components played the very important role. Then the BDITF finally has been realized as a quasi-real time lightning monitoring system, and LRGOU has been operating their BDITFs around Osaka area. Since the BDITF captures the VHF impulses associated with lightning discharges by amplitude triggering, it occasionally misses one of the bi-directional leader progressions because of relatively small amplitude VHF impulses mainly emitted by positive leader tips. All of high density of VHF pulses associated with recoil leaders may not be recorded. Then the ordinary BDITF is able to be accepted as the practical operational system, but from the aspect of science it has been sioriously expected to be improved its performance. To overcome the difficulty New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMIMT) and LRGOU have started the joint project, and a continuous recording system for digital signals is adopted [M. Stock et al, and M Akita et al,]. The field campaigns have been conducting in New Mexico and in Japan, and successful observations are accomplished. The algorithm to identify individual VHF pulses associated with lightning discharges from back ground noise and/or artificial noise, the dispersion of phase differences for all Fourier components is examined. In case by of small dispersion it is concluded that analyzed VHF pulse has high possibility to be emitted by lightning discharges. This interpretation means that the recorded VHF pulse shape might maintain without deformation during propagation, like electromagnetic wave propagation in non-dispersive medium. This procedure presented exciting results of lightning channel imaging, and the bi-directional leader propagation can be visualized in terms of azimuth and elevation as a function of time. Moreover all of the VHF radiation process for an entire lightning flash from initiation to termination can be imaged, and it is concluded that the system might be an ultimate broad band digital interferometer. The authors would like to show their appreciation to Paul Krehbiel, NMIMT, who gave a chance and suggestion of a continuous recording scheme for BDITF. M. Stock et al. : Continuous Broadband Digital Interferometry of Lightning using a Generalized Cross Correlation Algorithm M. Akita et al. : Data Processing Procedure 1 using Distribution of Slopes of Phase Differences for Broadband VHF Interferometer

  14. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  15. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... criteria (GDC) that are applicable to the ultimate heat sink (UHS) features of plant systems. DATES: Submit... COMMISSION Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink...

  16. Urine pH test

    MedlinePLUS

    pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... provider may order this test to check for changes in your body's ... stones can form, depending on the acidity level of your urine.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book: entropy. It is physicists who can benefit most from discarding mathematics and seeking intuitive understanding. It is often too easy to put the numbers into a formula, with little real comprehension of the underlying physics. For layman or physicist the book is hard work. It is not a volume to be read from cover to cover; each section needs to be considered and digested, with frequent turning backwards (or sometimes forwards) to other pages. Even then the outcome may leave questions that can only be answered by access to an academic library to look up some of the copious references to original papers (which, of course, do not eschew mathematics or make concessions to conceptual difficulties). Unfortunately the book is marred by an impression of haste and lack of care, leading to errors that should not have reached the final print. For example, a graph of increase of population with generation number is shown as and stated to be a straight line. It should be exponential. This sort of thing undermines confidence in the whole text. High temperature superconductivity may have a revolutionary effect on electrical machines in the future, but for the time being magnets for magnetic resonance imaging machines and the like still use the old superconductors. Amusing anecdotes make for interesting reading, but the one about Faraday is garbled: he had nothing to do with frogs' legs (that was Galvani), and the quip about taxing electricity one day, if not apocryphal, was made either to Peel or to Gladstone, not to the King. In at least one case a topic mentioned in the index and glossary does not appear on the stated page in the text, apparently having been cut out at a late stage. Personally I did not find the book satisfying, but others will differ. Especially when dealing with intuitive appreciation, what is straightforward to one person may be utterly opaque to another. Making physics comprehensible and conveying its fascination is a daunting and often thankless task, but a very necessary one. The more it is attempted by those with a command of the subject, the more likely it is to be achieved.

  18. Effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on ultimate strength of shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on the ultimate strength and stress displacement properties of the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) was determined. The LI-900 Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tiles mounted on the .41 cm thick Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) were investigated. Substructure deformations reduce the ultimate strength of the SIP/tile TPS and increase the scatter in the ultimate strength data. Substructure deformations that occur unsymmetric to the tile can cause the tile to rotate when subjected to a uniform applied load. Load eccentricity reduces SIP/tile TPS ultimate strength and causes tile rotation.

  19. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers. 123.9 Section 123.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT AND TEMPORARY IMPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES 123.9 Country of ultimate destination and approval...

  20. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-powered highway vehicle or diesel-powered train. (2) A registered ultimate vendor (blocked pump) is a... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims... for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes are made by registered ultimate...

  1. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-powered highway vehicle or diesel-powered train. (2) A registered ultimate vendor (blocked pump) is a... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims... for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes are made by registered ultimate...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.29 - Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Recipient Project. 4280.29 Section 4280.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... required for the Ultimate Recipient Project. (a) For REDL loans, either the Ultimate Recipient or the Intermediary must provide supplemental funds for the Project equal to at least 20 percent of the loan to...

  3. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... (75 FR 60133) on September 29, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period. No comments were received... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported...

  4. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.361 Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients. (a) An intermediary may use revolved funds to make loans to ultimate recipients without obtaining...

  5. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.361 Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients. (a) An intermediary may use revolved funds to make loans to ultimate recipients without obtaining...

  6. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.361 Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients. (a) An intermediary may use revolved funds to make loans to ultimate recipients without obtaining...

  7. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.361 Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients. (a) An intermediary may use revolved funds to make loans to ultimate recipients without obtaining...

  8. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.361 Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients. (a) An intermediary may use revolved funds to make loans to ultimate recipients without obtaining...

  9. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  10. Photoionization study of PH: PH/sub 2/ revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Cho, H.

    1989-01-01

    The photoion yield curve of PH/sup +/ (PH) is presented, from threshold to 1040 A. The adiabatic ionization potential of PH is 10.149 +- 0.008 eV. Extensive autoionization structure is observed and analyzed. It is attributed to several Rydberg series, whose mutual convergence limit is 11.852 +- 0.002 eV, and corresponds to the onset of PH/sup +/ (a /sup 4/..sigma../sup -/). The photoion yield curve of AsH/sup +/ (AsH) is juxtaposed, and shown to have a similar pattern. A new photoion yield curve of PH/sup +//sub 2/ (PH/sub 2/) is shown, where the source of PH/sub 2/ is the H+PH/sub 3/ reaction. The new results corroborate the earlier data (based on the pyrolysis of benzylphosphine) regarding the adiabatic ionization potential of PH/sub 2/ to form X /sup 1/A/sub 1/, and the presence of broad autoionizing structure. They also display less scatter, and enable one to estimate the onset for a-italic-tilde /sup 3/B/sub 1/ to be about 0.70 eV above X /sup 1/A/sub 1/. From the analogous behavior of the AsH/sup +//sub 2/ (AsH/sub 2/) curve, the a /sup 3/B/sub 1/--X /sup 1/A/sub 1/ splitting in AsH/sup +//sub 2/ is estimated to be 0.58--0.68 eV.

  11. The Responsive Ph.D.: Innovations in U.S. Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbuch, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Woodrow Wilson Foundation does not like to write reports. Typically, Woodrow Wilson translates ideas into academic practices. This said, having engaged 14 (and ultimately 20) graduate schools to work on the Responsive Ph.D.--as the authors called their initiative--it is time to report on what they have accomplished, and on what they have…

  12. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Doctors Who Treat PH Referral to ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Doctors Who Treat PH Referral to ...

  13. METHYLATED ASIII COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC METABOLITES OF INORGANIC ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    METHYLATED Asm COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC METABOLITES OF INORGANIC ARSENIC.

    The methylation of inorganic arsenic has typically been viewed as a detoxification process. Genotoxicity tests have generally shown that arsenite has greater mutagenic p...

  14. METHODS/MATERIALS MATRIX OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES FOR SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous substances. Disposal methods studied include incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, fixation, biological treatment, and chemical treatment. Applications of ...

  15. 78 FR 72972 - Application of Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...: The Department of Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC, fit, willing, and able, and awarding it commuter...

  16. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  17. On the function of the ultimate legs of some Scolopendridae (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kronmüller, Christian; Lewis, John G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The function of the variously shaped ultimate legs of Scolopendridae is briefly reviewed. Their function in Scolopendra heros Girard, 1853, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815, Scolopendra morsitans (Linnaeus, 1758), Scolopendra galapagoensis Bollman, 1889, Scolopendra hainanum Kronmüller, 2012, Scolopendra spinosissima Kraepelin, 1903 Cormocephalus aurantiipes (Newport, 1844) and Ethmostigmus trigonopodus (Leach, 1817), in which they are least specialised has been investigated. Specimens were tapped with forceps on different parts of the trunk to simulate the attack of a predator. When tapped on the first third of the trunk (near the head), the centipedes attacked the forceps with their forcipules. When tapped on the last third or the ultimate legs, they adopted a warning position, raising the ultimate legs to display the ventral and medial prefemoral spines as well as the spined coxopleural processes. In some cases the centipedes attacked the forceps with the claws of the ultimate legs by chopping down on them after lifting the legs high into the warning position. When tapped in the mid part of the trunk, the centipedes curled sideways to reach the forceps with their forcipules and ultimate legs simultaneously. Scolopendra galapagoensis not only lifted the ultimate legs into the warning position but also the last 3-4 pairs of locomotory legs, presenting their distodorsal prefemoral spines. This resembles the warning posture of some spiders. In addition to their function in warning behaviour, defensive stabbing, ritualised meeting reactions and during courtship behaviour, the ultimate legs may in addition act as hooks and perhaps be involved in species recognition. No evidence was found that the ultimate legs are used to catch prey, nor of prey or predators being held between the prefemora. PMID:26257548

  18. Voltammetric pH Nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Magdalena; Kurel, Malgorzata; Jedraszko, Justyna; Toczydlowska, Diana; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin; Nogala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale pH evaluation is a prerequisite for understanding the processes and phenomena occurring at solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas interfaces, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, extraction, partitioning, and corrosion. Research on the homogeneous processes within small volumes such as intracellular fluids, microdroplets, and microfluidic chips also requires nanometer scale pH assessment. Due to the opacity of numerous systems, optical methods are useless and, if applicable, require addition of a pH-sensitive dye. Potentiometric probes suffer from many drawbacks such as potential drift and lack of selectivity. Here, we present a voltammetric nanosensor for reliable pH assessment between pH 2 and 12 with high spatial resolution. It consists of a pyrolytic carbon nanoelectrode obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) inside a quartz nanopipette. The carbon is modified by adsorption of syringaldazine from its ethanolic solution. It exhibits a stable quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram with nearly Nernstian dependency of midpeak potentials (-54 mV/pH). This sensor was applied as a probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in order to map pH over a platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME), generating hydroxide ions (OH(-)) by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a diffusion-controlled rate in aerated phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the alkalization of the electrolyte close to the oxygen reducing electrode, showing the insufficient buffer capacity of PBS to maintain a stable pH at the given conditions. PMID:26516786

  19. In Vitro Colonization of the Muscle Extracellular Matrix Components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: The Influence of Growth Medium, Temperature and pH on Initial Adhesion and Induction of Biofilm Formation by Collagens I and III

    PubMed Central

    Chagnot, Caroline; Agus, Allison; Renier, Sandra; Peyrin, Frédéric; Talon, Régine; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-α2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed. PMID:23516631

  20. In vitro colonization of the muscle extracellular matrix components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: the influence of growth medium, temperature and pH on initial adhesion and induction of biofilm formation by collagens I and III.

    PubMed

    Chagnot, Caroline; Agus, Allison; Renier, Sandra; Peyrin, Frédéric; Talon, Régine; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-α2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed. PMID:23516631

  1. Ultimate pier and contraction scour prediction in cohesive soils at selected bridges in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, Timothy D.; Over, Thomas M.; Domanski, Marian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Scour Rate In COhesive Soils-Erosion Function Apparatus (SRICOS-EFA) method includes an ultimate scour prediction that is the equilibrium maximum pier and contraction scour of cohesive soils over time. The purpose of this report is to present the results of testing the ultimate pier and contraction scour methods for cohesive soils on 30 bridge sites in Illinois. Comparison of the ultimate cohesive and noncohesive methods, along with the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) cohesive soil reduction-factor method and measured scour are presented. Also, results of the comparison of historic IDOT laboratory and field values of unconfined compressive strength of soils (Qu) are presented. The unconfined compressive strength is used in both ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor methods, and knowing how the values from field methods compare to the laboratory methods is critical to the informed application of the methods. On average, the non-cohesive method results predict the highest amount of scour, followed by the reduction-factor method results; and the ultimate cohesive method results predict the lowest amount of scour. The 100-year scour predicted for the ultimate cohesive, noncohesive, and reduction-factor methods for each bridge site and soil are always larger than observed scour in this study, except 12% of predicted values that are all within 0.4 ft of the observed scour. The ultimate cohesive scour prediction is smaller than the non-cohesive scour prediction method for 78% of bridge sites and soils. Seventy-six percent of the ultimate cohesive predictions show a 45% or greater reduction from the non-cohesive predictions that are over 10 ft. Comparing the ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor 100-year scour predictions methods for each bridge site and soil, the scour predicted by the ultimate cohesive scour prediction method is less than the reduction-factor 100-year scour prediction method for 51% of bridge sites and soils. Critical shear stress remains a needed parameter in the ultimate scour prediction for cohesive soils. The unconfined soil compressive strength measured by IDOT in the laboratory was found to provide a good prediction of critical shear stress, as measured by using the erosion function apparatus in a previous study. Because laboratory Qu analyses are time-consuming and expensive, the ability of field-measured Rimac data to estimate unconfined soil strength in the critical shear–soil strength relation was tested. A regression analysis was completed using a historic IDOT dataset containing 366 data pairs of laboratory Qu and field Rimac measurements from common sites with cohesive soils. The resulting equations provide a point prediction of Qu, given any Rimac value with the 90% confidence interval. The prediction equations are not significantly different from the identity Qu = Rimac. The alternative predictions of ultimate cohesive scour presented in this study assume Qu will be estimated using Rimac measurements that include computed uncertainty. In particular, the ultimate cohesive predicted scour is greater than observed scour for the entire 90% confidence interval range for predicting Qu at the bridges and soils used in this study, with the exception of the six predicted values that are all within 0.6 ft of the observed scour.

  2. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  3. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Zeng, Mao-Mao; Zheng, Zong-Ping; He, Zhi-Yong; Tao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Ya-Hui; Chen, Jie

    2014-12-01

    A novel method allowing simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors (phenylalanine, tyrosine, creatine, creatinine, glucose) has been developed as a robust kinetic study tool by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A direct hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction was applied to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all seven analytes, with the mean recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% at two concentration levels. Then, an Atlantis dC18 column selected from four different chromatographic columns was ultimately used to separate these compounds within 15 min. The limits of detection range of allseven analytes were calculated as 0.14-325.00 ?g L(-1). The intra- and interday precision of the proposed method were less than 15.4 and 19.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to depict the kinetic profiles of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors in pork model, reducing the analysis time and cost in the kinetic study. PMID:25407701

  5. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    PubMed

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. PMID:23928074

  6. Cause and effect in biology revisited: is Mayr's proximate-ultimate dichotomy still useful?

    PubMed

    Laland, Kevin N; Sterelny, Kim; Odling-Smee, John; Hoppitt, William; Uller, Tobias

    2011-12-16

    Fifty years ago, Ernst Mayr published a hugely influential paper on the nature of causation in biology, in which he distinguished between proximate and ultimate causes. Mayr equated proximate causation with immediate factors (for example, physiology) and ultimate causation with evolutionary explanations (for example, natural selection). He argued that proximate and ultimate causes addressed different questions and were not alternatives. Mayr's account of causation remains widely accepted today, with both positive and negative ramifications. Several current debates in biology (for example, over evolution and development, niche construction, cooperation, and the evolution of language) are linked by a common axis of acceptance/rejection of Mayr's model of causation. We argue that Mayr's formulation has acted to stabilize the dominant evolutionary paradigm against change but may now hamper progress in the biological sciences. PMID:22174243

  7. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding.

    PubMed

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10-20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  8. Intra-Beam Scattering, Impedance, and Instabilities in Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    We have investigated collective effects in an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances in both planes, using PEP-X as an example. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, a 4.5 GeV ring running round beams at 200 mA in 3300 bunches, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current. The Touschek lifetime is 11 hours. Impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. We have investigated collective effects in PEP-X, an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances (at one angstrom wavelength) in both planes. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current of 200 mA, assuming round beams. The Touschek lifetime is quite large in PEP-X, 11.6 hours, and - near the operating point - increases with decreasing emittance. It is, however, a very sensitive function of momentum acceptance. In an ultimate ring like PEP-X impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. Before ultimate PEP-X can be realized, the question of how to run a machine with round beams needs serious study. For example, in this report we assumed that the vertical emittance is coupling dominated. It may turn out that using vertical dispersion is a preferable way to generate round beams. The choice will affect IBS and the Touschek effect.

  9. Making pH Tangible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

  10. Cari Kitahara, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kitahara earned her Ph.D. in cancer epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She joined the Radiation Epidemiology Branch in 2008 as a predoctoral fellow and became a research fellow in 2011. In 2015, she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator.

  11. Space simulation ultimate pressure lowered two decades by removal of diffusion pump oil contaminants during operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The complex problem why large space simulation chambers do not realize the true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance have been identified and some advances in vacuum/distillation/fractionation technology have been achieved which resulted in a two decade or more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effect of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and reclaiming contaminated oil by high vacuum molecular distillation are described.

  12. Influence of the chord bending on the ultimate capacity of RHS-T joint

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y.; Wardenier, J.

    1995-12-31

    Using FE technique, an extensive parameter study is carried out in order to investigate the influence of the chord bending moment on the ultimate axial load capacity of T-joint in RHS. By separating the effect of chord bending moment from the effect of concentrated load, failure of T-Joint in RHS can be described in a clear manner. Using the regression analysis, an interaction formula between the ultimate axial load capacity and the chord bending moment has been obtained which will form a basis for the investigation into the behavior of multiplanar T-joints and the behavior of multiplanar X-joints in RHS.

  13. Capturing Hydrolysis Products in the Solid State: Effects of pH on Uranyl Squarates under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Clare E.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2010-10-04

    We investigate the relationship between hydrolysis prior to crystallization and its subsequent manifestation in the solid state through a study of uranyl squarates as a function of pH. We report the synthesis and characterization of two new uranyl squarates and discuss the expression of hydrolysis in these products, wherein increasing solution pH results in polymerization from uranyl monomers to trimers and ultimately chains.

  14. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  15. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  16. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Explosives found at 27 CFR parts 447, 478, and 479, which are unaffected by the Defense Trade Cooperation... ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES 123.9 Country of ultimate destination... the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls must be obtained before reselling,...

  17. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... issued by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives found at 27 CFR parts 447, 478, and 479... Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) items; and (3) The person reexporting the defense article... ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES 123.9 Country of ultimate...

  18. Age of Onset and Nativelike L2 Ultimate Attainment of Morphosyntactic and Phonetic Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamsson, Niclas

    2012-01-01

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result…

  19. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were

  20. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... 48.6427-9; claims relating to kerosene sold from a blocked pump for nontaxable uses are made by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pump) under 48.6427-10; and other claims relating to kerosene used...

  1. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... 48.6427-9; claims relating to kerosene sold from a blocked pump for nontaxable uses are made by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pump) under 48.6427-10; and other claims relating to kerosene used...

  2. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  3. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280.21 Section 4280.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs...

  4. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...As part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act......

  5. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...As part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of......

  6. Age of Onset and Nativelike L2 Ultimate Attainment of Morphosyntactic and Phonetic Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamsson, Niclas

    2012-01-01

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result

  7. 26 CFR 48.6427-8 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-8 Diesel fuel and... purchasers of taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by...

  8. 26 CFR 48.6427-8 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-8 Diesel fuel and... purchasers of taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by...

  9. 26 CFR 48.6427-8 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-8 Diesel fuel and... purchasers of taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by...

  10. 26 CFR 48.6427-8 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-8 Diesel fuel and... purchasers of taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by...

  11. The Ultimate Flag Games Curriculum: An Answer to a Participation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie

    2011-01-01

    In response to a lack of active participation by students in physical education, the Ultimate Flag Games curriculum was created and has thrived in the decades since its inception. The curriculum has been successful at the middle school, high school, and higher education levels. This article introduced the curriculum, different games, and rules and…

  12. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15 Section 4280.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds...

  13. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15 Section 4280.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds...

  14. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15 Section 4280.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds...

  15. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15 Section 4280.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds...

  16. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15 Section 4280.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds...

  17. The Ultimate Flag Games Curriculum: An Answer to a Participation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie

    2011-01-01

    In response to a lack of active participation by students in physical education, the Ultimate Flag Games curriculum was created and has thrived in the decades since its inception. The curriculum has been successful at the middle school, high school, and higher education levels. This article introduced the curriculum, different games, and rules and

  18. The Starting Age and Ultimate Attainment of English Learning in the Palestinian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwaik, Raghad; Shehadeh, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    The starting age of foreign language learning has been a controversial issue since the second half of the 20th century. Despite this long time, definite answers have not been found regarding the different aspects of the age issue, i.e., its influence on rate, route and ultimate attainment. Many researchers have explored the influence of age on the…

  19. 19 CFR 142.17a - One consolidated entry summary for multiple ultimate consignees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false One consolidated entry summary for multiple... Documentation § 142.17a One consolidated entry summary for multiple ultimate consignees. (a) Applicability. The... merchandise arriving by different land carriers is included on one entry summary, necessary...

  20. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r = 0.65–0.94). Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters. PMID:25695083

  1. Proposed ultimate capacity equations for CHS KK-joints under anti-symmetrical loads

    SciTech Connect

    Makino, Y.; Kurobane, Y.; Wilmshurst, S.R.; Lee, M.M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Double K-joints (called KK-joints hereafter) sustain anti-symmetrical load when trusses are under horizontal loads acting perpendicular to their spanning direction. Although ten unstiffened CHS KK-joint specimens under anti-symmetrical loads were tested by Makino et al. (1993 and 1994), more data is needed to fully understand their ultimate behavior as well as to derive an ultimate capacity formula. In this study, F.E. analyses were performed to fill the gap in the data. From the test and the analysis results, it can be seen that the ultimate capacities of the joints are governed by local deflection of the chord walls followed by crack extension along the weld toes. Positions where cracks initiate are divided into two large groups depending on the transverse gap length between the both braces on the chord wall. An ultimate capacity formula was proposed based on both tests and F.E. analysis results. This formula is a simple extension of an existing formula for uni-planar K-joints.

  2. Student's Ultimate Career Coursework, Employment, & Student Services Handbook. "SUCCESS Handbook" Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foothill-De Anza Community Coll. District, Cupertino, CA. Occupational Training Inst.

    The Student's Ultimate Career Coursework, Employment and Student Services (SUCCESS) Handbook project was undertaken to identify student support services available through the California Community Colleges (CCC), increase student retention among special needs vocational education students, and identify common barriers to employment. The project

  3. Ultimate Stresses Developed by 24S-T Sheet in Incomplete Diagonal Tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1941-01-01

    Tests were made on 18 shear panels of 24S-T aluminum alloy to verify the dependence of the ultimate stress on the degree of development of the diagonal-tension field. Tests were made on two thicknesses of sheet with the sheet either clamped between the flange angle or riveted to the outside of the angles.

  4. Ultimate biochemical oxygen demand in semi-intensively managed shrimp pond waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent studies were conducted to quantified ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (UBOD) and the corresponding decomposition rate constant for production pond (average 21.5 ha each) waters and effluents on six semi-intensively managed marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in Honduras. S...

  5. Adjudicating pathological criminal incapacity within a climate of ultimate issue barriers: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Geert Philip

    2015-01-01

    Mental health experts are increasingly being utilised by the criminal justice system to provide assistance to courts during the assessment of issues falling beyond the knowledge and/or experience of the courts. A particular domain where the assistance of qualified psychiatrists and psychologists is becoming essential is where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity falls to be assessed. Mental health professionals testifying during trials where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity is raised will present opinion evidence which is one of the exceptions to the rule of inadmissibility of opinion evidence. Mental health professionals providing their opinion evidence are, however, prohibited from expressing opinions on so-called "ultimate issues" upon which only the court may ultimately rule upon. The latter rule is also commonly known in practice as the "ultimate issue" rule which presents multifaceted challenges in respect of the application of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. In this article, the author assesses the application of the ultimate issue rule with reference to the defence of pathological criminal incapacity as it operates within the South African criminal law context. A comparative analysis is also provided with reference to the rule as it operates in the United States of America and more specifically Federal Rule 704. It is concluded that the ultimate issue rule unnecessarily restricts testimony provided by mental health professionals as such placing a barrier on such evidence. As such, it is argued that the rule is superfluous as it remains within the discretion of the trier of fact to decide as to what weight to attach to such evidence. PMID:25681851

  6. Stella Koutros, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Koutros received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology from Yale University. She completed her doctoral work through the Yale-NCI partnership training program in cancer epidemiology, conducting research in the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch (OEEB). In 2008, upon completion of her doctorate she became a fellow in OEEB; she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator in 2015.

  7. The Methods Behind PH WINS.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers-a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  8. The Methods Behind PH WINS

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers—a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  9. Getting Just Deserts or Seeing the Silver Lining: The Relation between Judgments of Immanent and Ultimate Justice

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Annelie J.; Callan, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    People can perceive misfortunes as caused by previous bad deeds (immanent justice reasoning) or resulting in ultimate compensation (ultimate justice reasoning). Across two studies, we investigated the relation between these types of justice reasoning and identified the processes (perceptions of deservingness) that underlie them for both others (Study 1) and the self (Study 2). Study 1 demonstrated that observers engaged in more ultimate (vs. immanent) justice reasoning for a good victim and greater immanent (vs. ultimate) justice reasoning for a bad victim. In Study 2, participants' construals of their bad breaks varied as a function of their self-worth, with greater ultimate (immanent) justice reasoning for participants with higher (lower) self-esteem. Across both studies, perceived deservingness of bad breaks or perceived deservingness of ultimate compensation mediated immanent and ultimate justice reasoning respectively. PMID:25036011

  10. Getting "just deserts" or seeing the "silver lining": the relation between judgments of immanent and ultimate justice.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Annelie J; Callan, Mitchell J

    2014-01-01

    People can perceive misfortunes as caused by previous bad deeds (immanent justice reasoning) or resulting in ultimate compensation (ultimate justice reasoning). Across two studies, we investigated the relation between these types of justice reasoning and identified the processes (perceptions of deservingness) that underlie them for both others (Study 1) and the self (Study 2). Study 1 demonstrated that observers engaged in more ultimate (vs. immanent) justice reasoning for a "good" victim and greater immanent (vs. ultimate) justice reasoning for a "bad" victim. In Study 2, participants' construals of their bad breaks varied as a function of their self-worth, with greater ultimate (immanent) justice reasoning for participants with higher (lower) self-esteem. Across both studies, perceived deservingness of bad breaks or perceived deservingness of ultimate compensation mediated immanent and ultimate justice reasoning respectively. PMID:25036011

  11. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  12. Analysis of Various Pumping Methods With Respect to the Lowest Achievable Ultimate Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati; Rao Myneni, Ganapati; Favale, Anthony; Poelker, Benard; Stutzman, Marcy

    2003-06-01

    Jefferson Labzs CEBAF Accelerator Facility uses most of the currently available vacuum pumping systems for its successful operations.These vacuum systems include turbo, ion, NEG and cryo pumps.The theoretical lowest pressure obtainable with these pumps is different and also the effective pumping speeds of all these pumps at lowest pressures are likely to vary depending on the prevailing conditions. Consequently, the ultimate pressure of a given vacuum system pumped by each of the above mentioned pumps could be expected to vary under the same operating conditions. In this paper the results of the analysis of above pumps with respect to their lowest achievable ultimate pressures are presented.z This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  13. Ultimate limits to quantum metrology and the meaning of the Heisenberg limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwierz, Marcin; Prez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Kok, Pieter

    2012-04-01

    For the last 20 years, the question of what are the fundamental capabilities of quantum precision measurements has sparked a lively debate throughout the scientific community. Typically, the ultimate limits in quantum metrology are associated with the notion of the Heisenberg limit expressed in terms of the physical resources used in the measurement procedure. Over the years, a variety of different physical resources were introduced, leading to a confusion about the meaning of the Heisenberg limit. Here, we review the mainstream definitions of the relevant resources and introduce the universal resource count, that is, the expectation value of the generator (above its ground state) of translations in the parameter we wish to estimate, that applies to all measurement strategies. This leads to the ultimate formulation of the Heisenberg limit for quantum metrology. We prove that this limit holds for the generators of translations with an upper-bounded spectrum.

  14. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-Li; Feng, Ji-Cai; Chen, Ke

    2015-06-01

    This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  15. Physiological and Fatigue Responses Associated With Male and Mixed-Gender Ultimate Frisbee Game Play.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Kean, Crystal O; Humphries, Brendan J; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the physiological and fatigue responses associated with indoor Ultimate Frisbee game play, compare exercise intensities attained to current activity guidelines, and compare responses between male and mixed-gender game formats. A between-subjects (game format) repeated-measures (time points) observational experimental design was used. Subjects competed in male (n = 10; age: 26.3 7.6 years) or mixed-gender (males: n = 4; 28.5 5.7 years; females: n = 6; 28.3 8.1 years) indoor Ultimate Frisbee game play. Games consisted of 10-minute halves, with heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration ([BLa]), rating of perceived exertion, and 5-m and 20-m sprint times measured. Durations spent in HR-derived intensity zones and sprint decrements were calculated across games. Mixed-gender game play produced significantly (p ? 0.05) higher relative HR (94.3 5.1% vs. 89.6 4.8% HRmax) and [BLa] (8.31 2.22 mmolL vs. 4.68 1.89 mmolL) than male game play. Significantly (p ? 0.05) longer durations were spent at vigorous (male: 60.2 26.1%; mixed-gender: 36.8 34.8%) and near-maximal (male: 31.6 27.6%; mixed-gender: 58.6 37.7%) exercise intensities than moderate (3.9-7.2%), light (0.7-1.0%), and very light (0-0.1%) intensities in both formats. Limited physiological and sprint fatigue was apparent across games. Subjects primarily performed at vigorous and near-maximal intensities during Ultimate Frisbee. The greater physiological demands encountered during mixed-gender game play might be attributed to underlying gender-mediated cardiovascular differences. These findings support the efficacy of Ultimate Frisbee as a prescriptive exercise tool for health benefit. PMID:26313576

  16. Ultimate-state scaling in a shell model for homogeneous turbulent convection.

    PubMed

    Ching, Emily S C; Ko, T C

    2008-09-01

    An interesting question in turbulent convection is how the heat transport depends on the strength of thermal forcing in the limit of very large thermal forcing. Kraichnan predicted [Phys. Fluids 5, 1374 (1962)] that for fluids with low Prandtl number (Pr), the heat transport measured by the Nusselt number (Nu) would depend on the strength of thermal forcing measured by the Rayleigh number (Ra) as Nu approximately Ra(1/2) with logarithmic corrections at very high Ra. According to Kraichnan, the shear boundary layers play a crucial role in giving rise to this so-called ultimate-state scaling. A similar scaling result is predicted by the Grossmann-Lohse theory [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)], but with the assumption that the ultimate state is a bulk-dominated state in which both the average kinetic and thermal dissipation rates are dominated by contributions from the bulk of the flow with the boundary layers either broken down or playing no role in the heat transport. In this paper, we study the dependence of Nu and the Reynolds number (Re) measuring the root-mean-squared velocity fluctuations on Ra and Pr, for low Pr, using a shell model for homogeneous turbulent convection where buoyancy is acting directly on most of the scales. We find that Nu approximately Ra(1/2)Pr(1/2) and Re approximately Ra(1/2)Pr(-1/2) , which resemble the ultimate-state scaling behavior for fluids with low Pr, and show that the presence of a drag acting on the large scales is crucial in giving rise to such scaling. As a large-scale drag cannot exist by itself in the bulk of turbulent thermal convection, our results indicate that if buoyancy acts on most of the scales in the bulk of turbulent convection at very high Ra, then the ultimate state cannot be bulk dominated. PMID:18851145

  17. Results from large scale ultimate strength tests of K-braced jacket frame structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phase 2 of the JIP Frames Project included four large scale collapse tests of K-braced frames in which both gap and overlap K joints were the critical components. The results are presented in this paper. The local failure modes differed from typical isolated component tests, yet were representative of structural damage observed following Hurricane Andrew. The frame test results therefore provide important insight to the ultimate response of offshore jacket structures.

  18. Multiple proximate and ultimate causes of natal dispersal in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in vertebrates vary, and relative importance of these causes is poorly understood. Among populations, inter- and intrasexual social cues for dispersal are thought to reduce inbreeding and local mate competition, respectively, and specific emigration cue may affect dispersal distance, such that inbreeding avoidance dispersal tends to be farther than dispersal to reduce local competition. To investigate potential occurrence of multiple proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal within populations, we radio-marked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. Natal dispersal probability and distance were monitored over a 3-year period when large-scale management changes reduced density of adult females and increased density of adult males. Most dispersal (95-97%) occurred during two 12-week periods: spring, when yearling males still closely associate with related females, and prior to fall breeding season, when yearling males closely associate with other breeding-age males. Following changes to sex and age structure that reduced potential for inbreeding and increased potential for mate competition, annual dispersal probability did not change; however, probability of spring dispersal decreased, whereas probability of fall dispersal increased. Spring dispersal distances were greater than fall dispersal distances, suggesting that adaptive inbreeding avoidance dispersal requires greater distance than mate competition dispersal where opposite-sex relatives are philopatric and populations are not patchily distributed. Both inbreeding avoidance and mate competition are important ultimate causes of dispersal of white-tailed deer, but ultimate motivations for dispersal are proximately cued by different social mechanisms and elicit different responses in dispersers.

  19. An investigation into geometry and microstructural effects upon the ultimate tensile strengths of butt welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical theory was evaluated empirically. This theory predicts weld ultimate tensile strength based on material properties and fusion line angles, mismatch, peaking, and weld widths. Welds were made on 1/4 and 1/2 in. aluminum 2219-T87, their geometries were measured, they were tensile tested, and these results were compared to theoretical predictions. Statistical analysis of results was performed to evaluate correlation of theory to results for many different categories of weld geometries.

  20. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D; Wilkinson, Martin G; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A E; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening. PMID:25798136

  1. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D.; Wilkinson, Martin G.; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A. E.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening. PMID:25798136

  2. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding

    PubMed Central

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10–20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  3. The pH of antiseptic cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

  4. Broiler meat quality: effect of selection for increased carcass quality and estimates of genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Le Bihan-Duval, E; Millet, N; Remignon, H

    1999-06-01

    Ultimate pH (pHu), color measurements, and water holding capacity of the chicken Pectoralis major muscle were compared between birds of an experimental line selected for 13 generations for increased BW and breast meat yield and reduced abdominal fat percentage and its control line. Ultimate pH differed slightly between lines after selection, with values of 5.78 +/- 0.10 and 5.68 +/- 0.12 in the selected and control birds, respectively. Drip loss was significantly lower in the selected birds. Although selection did not modify lightness L*, it led to paler meat, as redness a* and yellowness b* were significantly lower in the selected line than in the control line. Ultimate pH of the meat was related to lightness and drip loss (with mean correlations over both lines of -0.59 and -0.40, respectively). Storage of the meat resulted in similar color variation in both lines, with a significant increase in a* and b* until 3 d postslaughter and in L* after 6 d postslaughter. Estimates of the genetic parameters of the criteria of meat quality were calculated in the selected line. The estimates suggested that there is a predominant role of genetics in the control of these traits, with heritability estimates of 0.49 +/- 0.11 for pHu, 0.75 +/- 0.08 for L*, 0.81 +/- 0.04 for a*, and 0.64 +/- 0.06 for b*. A significant negative genetic correlation (-0.65) was found between pHu and L*. The genetic correlation between a* and b* measurements was estimated at 0.72. PMID:10438124

  5. Defining and Teaching pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Richard F.

    2007-07-01

    The 1909 definition of pH given in most general chemistry textbooks conflicts with the modern, operationally-defined pH scale that underlies laboratory measurement and relates to activities. At an elementary level, pH and the algebra of equilibria can be simply and correctly taught, without logarithms, in terms of the latter scale.

  6. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH

  7. Proximate and ultimate causes of signal diversity in the electric fish Gymnotus.

    PubMed

    Crampton, W G R; Rodrguez-Cattneo, A; Lovejoy, N R; Caputi, A A

    2013-07-01

    A complete understanding of animal signal evolution necessitates analyses of both the proximate (e.g. anatomical and physiological) mechanisms of signal generation and reception, and the ultimate (i.e. evolutionary) mechanisms underlying adaptation and diversification. Here we summarize the results of a synthetic study of electric diversity in the species-rich neotropical electric fish genus Gymnotus. Our study integrates two research directions. The first examines the proximate causes of diversity in the electric organ discharge (EOD) - which is the carrier of both the communication and electrolocation signal of electric fishes - via descriptions of the intrinsic properties of electrocytes, electrocyte innervation, electric organ anatomy and the neural coordination of the discharge (among other parameters). The second seeks to understand the ultimate causes of signal diversity - via a continent-wide survey of species diversity, species-level phylogenetic reconstructions and field-recorded head-to-tail EOD (ht-EOD) waveforms (a common procedure for characterizing the communication component of electric fish EODs). At the proximate level, a comparative morpho-functional survey of electric organ anatomy and the electromotive force pattern of the EOD for 11 species (representing most major clades) revealed four distinct groups of species, each corresponding to a discrete area of the phylogeny of the genus and to a distinct type of ht-EOD waveform. At the ultimate level, our analyses (which emphasize the ht-EOD) allowed us to conclude that selective forces from the abiotic environment have had minimal impact on the communication component of the EOD. In contrast, selective forces of a biotic nature - imposed by electroreceptive predators, reproductive interference from heterospecific congeners, and sexual selection - may be important sources of diversifying selection on Gymnotus signals. PMID:23761477

  8. Prediction of pork quality with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): 1. Feasibility and robustness of NIRS measurements at laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Kapper, C; Klont, R E; Verdonk, J M A J; Urlings, H A P

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to study prediction of pork quality by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology in the laboratory. A total of 131 commercial pork loin samples were measured with NIRS. Predictive equations were developed for drip loss %, colour L*, a*, b* and pH ultimate (pHu). Equations with R(2)>0.70 and residual prediction deviation (RPD)?1.9 were considered as applicable to predict pork quality. For drip loss% the prediction equation was developed (R(2) 0.73, RPD 1.9) and 76% of those grouped superior and inferior samples were predicted within the groups. For colour L*, test-set samples were predicted with R(2) 0.75, RPD 2.0, colour a* R(2) 0.51, RPD 1.4, colour b* R(2) 0.55, RPD 1.5 and pHu R(2) 0.36, RPD 1.3. It is concluded that NIRS prediction equations could be developed to predict drip loss% and L*, of pork samples. NIRS equations for colour a*, b* and pHu were not applicable for the prediction of pork quality on commercially slaughtered pigs. PMID:22410119

  9. Assembly of Customized TAL Effectors Through Advanced ULtiMATE System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjiao; Guo, Shengjie; Yuan, Pengfei; Wei, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have been widely applied in gene targeting. Here we describe an advanced ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation-Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector) system that utilizes USER fusion technique and archive of 512 tetramer templates to achieve highly efficient construction of TALEs, which takes only half a day to accomplish the assembly of any given TALE construct. This system is also suitable for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions. PMID:26443213

  10. Engineering Ultimate Self-Protection in Autonomic Agents for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) will push space exploration missions to the limit. Future missions will be required to be self-managing as well as self-directed, in order to meet the challenges of human and robotic space exploration. We discuss security and self protection in autonomic agent based-systems, and propose the ultimate self-protection mechanism for such systems-self-destruction. Like other metaphors in Autonomic Computing, this is inspired by biological systems, and is the analog of biological apoptosis. Finally, we discus the role it might play in future NASA space exploration missions.

  11. PhDAHP1 is required for floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Petunia hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid'.

    PubMed

    Langer, Kelly M; Jones, Correy R; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Rushing, Gabrielle V; Kim, Joo Young; Clark, David G; Colquhoun, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis consists of numerous enzymatic and regulatory processes. The initial enzymatic step bridging primary metabolism to secondary metabolism is the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) carried out via 3-DEOXY-D-ARABINO-HEPTULOSONATE-7-PHOSPHATE (DAHP) synthase. Here, identified, cloned, localized, and functionally characterized were two DAHP synthases from the model plant species Petunia hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD). Full-length transcript sequences for PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 were identified and cloned using cDNA SMART libraries constructed from pooled MD corolla and leaf total RNA. Predicted amino acid sequence of PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins were 76% and 80% identical to AtDAHP1 and AtDAHP2 from Arabidopsis, respectively. PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to relatively highest levels in petal limb and tube tissues, while PhDAHP2 accumulated to highest levels in leaf and stem tissues. Through floral development, PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to highest levels during open flower stages, and PhDAHP2 transcript remained constitutive throughout. Radiolabeled PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins localized to plastids, however, PhDAHP2 localization appeared less efficient. PhDAHP1 RNAi knockdown petunia lines were reduced in total FVBP emission compared to MD, while PhDAHP2 RNAi lines emitted 'wildtype' FVBP levels. These results demonstrate that PhDAHP1 is the principal DAHP synthase protein responsible for the coupling of metabolites from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism, and the ultimate biosynthesis of FVBPs in the MD flower. PMID:24815009

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Pt. 748, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 748—BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Pt. 748, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 748—BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Pt. 748, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 748—BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Pt. 748, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 748—BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Pt. 748, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 748—BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and...

  17. Approaching Ultimate Intrinsic SNR in a Uniform Spherical Sample with Finite Arrays of Loop Coils

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Manushka V.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated to what degree and at what rate the ultimate intrinsic (UI) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be approached using finite radiofrequency detector arrays. We used full-wave electromagnetic field simulations based on dyadic Greens functions to compare the SNR of arrays of loops surrounding a uniform sphere with the ultimate intrinsic SNR (UISNR), for increasing numbers of elements over a range of magnetic field strengths, voxel positions, sphere sizes, and acceleration factors. We evaluated the effect of coil conductor losses and the performance of a variety of distinct geometrical arrangements such as helmet and open-pole configurations in multiple imaging planes. Our results indicate that UISNR at the center is rapidly approached with encircling arrays and performance is substantially lower near the surface, where a quadrature detection configuration tailored to voxel position is optimal. Coil noise is negligible at high field, where sample noise dominates. Central SNR for practical array configurations such as the helmet is similar to that of close-packed arrangements. The observed trends can provide physical insights to improve coil design. PMID:26097442

  18. Ultimate osmosis engineered by the pore geometry and functionalization of carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  19. ULtiMATE System for Rapid Assembly of Customized TAL Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dingqiao; Sheng, Ying; Zhu, Shiyou; Yu, Yuezhou; Gao, Xiang; Wei, Wensheng

    2013-01-01

    Engineered TAL-effector nucleases (TALENs) and TALE-based constructs have become powerful tools for eukaryotic genome editing. Although many methods have been reported, it remains a challenge for the assembly of designer-based TALE repeats in a fast, precise and cost-effective manner. We present an ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector) system for speedy and accurate assembly of customized TALE constructs. This method takes advantage of uracil-specific excision reagent (USER) to create multiple distinct sticky ends between any neighboring DNA fragments for specific ligation. With pre-assembled templates, multiple TALE DNA-binding domains could be efficiently assembled in order within hours with minimal manual operation. This system has been demonstrated to produce both functional TALENs for effective gene knockout and TALE-mediated gene-specific transcription activation (TALE-TA). The feature of both ease-of-operation and high efficiency of ULtiMATE system makes it not only an ideal method for biologic labs, but also an approach well suited for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions. PMID:24228087

  20. Ultimate Heat Sink Thermal Performance and Water Utilization: Measurements on Cooling and Spray Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G. F.; Hadlock, R. K.; Abbey, O. B.

    1982-02-01

    A data acquisition research program, entitled "Ultimate Heat Sink Performance Field Experiments," has been brought to completion. The primary objective is to obtain the requisite data to characterize thermal performance and water utilization for cooling ponds and spray ponds at elevated temperature. Such data are useful for modeling purposes, but the work reported here does not contain modeling efforts within its scope. The water bodies which have been studied are indicative of nuclear reactor ultimate heat sinks, components of emergency core cooling systems. The data reflect thermal performance and water utilization for meteorological and solar influences which are representative of worst-case combinations of conditions. Constructed water retention ponds, provided with absolute seals against seepage, have been chosen as facilities for the measurement programs; the first pond was located at Raft River, Idaho, and the second at East Mesa, California. The data illustrate and describe, for both cooling ponds and spray ponds, thermal performance and water utilization as the ponds cool from an initially elevated temperature. To obtain the initial elevated temperature, it has been convenient to conduct the measurements at geothermal sites having large supplies and delivery rates of hot geothermal fluid. The data are described and discussed in the text, and presented in the form of data volumes as appendices.

  1. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Chen Guang; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2014-09-01

    In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR), Common Structural Rules (CSR), and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH) are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS), and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM). To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  2. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-21

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  3. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa. PMID:23569295

  4. Weapons and commercial plutonium ultimate disposition choices: Destroy ``completely`` or store forever

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1994-07-01

    All of the options under consideration for weapons and commercial plutonium disposition ultimately boil down to the choices of either ``complete`` destruction or storage ``forever.`` None of the reactor-based plutonium burning systems demonstrated over the past 50 years of reactor development consume this material completely. Ultimately considerable unburned plutonium must be stored ``forever`` from those systems. Plutonium is considered to be dangerous both as a weapons material and as a health hazard. While properly stored plutonium might never make its way back by natural phenomena into the environment as a health hazard, stored plutonium is always accessible to recovery for malevolent purposes. It must be guarded wherever in the world it is stored for as long as it continues to exist. Complete destruction of the plutonium eliminates this material as a concern of future generations. Los Alamos National Laboratory accelerator-driven technology promises to allow safe and complete destruction of this material. Furthermore it appears that in the process of destruction the neutron rich features of the weapons plutonium provides benefits to society that place a value on weapons plutonium exceeding that of highly enriched uranium. A realistic time scale for development and deployment of burial technology either with or without partial burning in reactors is expected to be comparable with or to exceed the time for development and deployment of the accelerator-driven destruction method under study at Los Alamos.

  5. Pancreatic necrosis: results of necrosectomy, packing, and ultimate closure over drains.

    PubMed Central

    Branum, G; Galloway, J; Hirchowitz, W; Fendley, M; Hunter, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The treatment of pancreatic necrosis at a tertiary referral center was reviewed to effect better patient outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatic necrosis is a devastating disease that leads to death in 10% to 50% of cases. Infected necrosis is particularly deadly because 80% of deaths from necrosis are due to infection or its complications. Therapeutic strategies center on aggressive support of organ systems and prevention and treatment of infectious complications. METHODS: Records of all patients who underwent pancreatic necrosectomy from 1990 to 1996 at Emory University Hospital were reviewed. Patients with infected necrosis were debrided as soon as the diagnosis was made. Reoperation for completion necrosectomy with ultimate closure over lavage catheters was performed as necessary. RESULTS: Of the 244 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis in the study period, 50 underwent pancreatic debridement. The mean age was 52 years, and 74% of patients were transferred from other institutions. Eighty-four percent of patients had infected necrosis, and all patients underwent sequential debridement with eventual closure over drains. Organ failure occurred in 72% of cases, and the overall mortality rate was 12%. The mean length of stay was 54 days. CONCLUSIONS: The management of pancreatic necrosis demands the allocation of extensive resources. An aggressive operative strategy of multiple debridements with ultimate closure over drains can lead to a low mortality rate in patients with this complex disease, but the determination of when to explore patients with sterile necrosis remains difficult. PMID:9637550

  6. The n-of-1 clinical trial: the ultimate strategy for individualizing medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Elizabeth O; Patay, Bradley; Diamant, Joel; Issell, Brian; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    N-of-1 or single subject clinical trials consider an individual patient as the sole unit of observation in a study investigating the efficacy or side-effect profiles of different interventions. The ultimate goal of an n-of-1 trial is to determine the optimal or best intervention for an individual patient using objective data-driven criteria. Such trials can leverage study design and statistical techniques associated with standard population-based clinical trials, including randomization, washout and crossover periods, as well as placebo controls. Despite their obvious appeal and wide use in educational settings, n-of-1 trials have been used sparingly in medical and general clinical settings. We briefly review the history, motivation and design of n-of-1 trials and emphasize the great utility of modern wireless medical monitoring devices in their execution. We ultimately argue that n-of-1 trials demand serious attention among the health research and clinical care communities given the contemporary focus on individualized medicine. PMID:21695041

  7. A numerical model for ultimate soil resistance to an untrenched pipeline under ocean currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fu-ping; Han, Xi-ting; Yan, Shu-ming

    2012-06-01

    One of the main concerns for pipeline on-bottom stability design is to properly predict ultimate soil resistance in severe ocean environments. A plane-strain finite element model is proposed to investigate the ultimate soil resistance to the partially-embedded pipeline under the action of ocean currents. Two typical end-constraints of the submarine pipelines are examined, i.e. freely-laid pipes and anti-rolling pipes. The proposed numerical model is verified with the existing mechanical-actuator experiments. The magnitude of lateral-soil-resistance coefficient for the examined anti-rolling pipes is much larger than that for the freely-laid pipes, indicating that the end-constraint condition significantly affects the lateral stability of the untrenched pipeline under ocean currents. The parametric study indicates that, the variation of lateral-soil-resistance coefficient with the dimensionless submerged weight of pipe is affected greatly by the angle of internal friction of soil, the pipe-soil friction coefficient, etc.

  8. Formulation of reduction rate for ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panel induced by opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-li; Lee, Joo-sung

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate the characteristics of ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panels with opening and also to fit the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experimental data on longitudinally stiffened steel plates with and without opening subjected to the uniform axial in-pane load which is carried out to study the buckling and post-buckling up to the final failure are chosen. Also, a nonlinear finite element method capable of efficiently analyzing the large elasto-plastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels is developed and used for simulation. The feasibility of the present simulation process is confirmed by a good agreement with the experimental results. More case studies are developed employing the simulation process to analyze the influence of various design variables on the reduction rate of ultimate strength of stiffened panel induced by opening. Based on the computed results, two design formulae are fitted and the accuracy of design formulae is studied. Furthermore, the viability of the design formulae for practical engineering is proved.

  9. Ultimate Osmosis Engineered by the Pore Geometry and Functionalization of Carbon Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  10. Experimental evaluation of the post-ultimate strength behavior of a ship's hull girder in waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weijun; Iijima, Kazuhiro; Wada, Ryota; Fujikubo, Masahiko

    2012-03-01

    Experimental investigations into the collapse behavior of a box-shape hull girder subjected to extreme wave-induced loads are presented. The experiment was performed using a scaled model in a tank. In the middle of the scaled model, sacrificial specimens with circular pillar and trough shapes which respectively show different bending moment-displacement characteristics were mounted to compare the dynamic collapse characteristics of the hull girder in waves. The specimens were designed by using finite element (FE)-analysis. Prior to the tank tests, static four-point-bending tests were conducted to detect the load-carrying capacity of the hull girder. It was shown that the load-carrying capacity of a ship including reduction of the capacity after the ultimate strength can be reproduced experimentally by employing the trough type specimens. Tank tests using these specimens were performed under a focused wave in which the hull girder collapses under once and repetitive focused waves. It was shown from the multiple collapse tests that the increase rate of collapse becomes higher once the load-carrying capacity enters the reduction path while the increase rate is lower before reaching the ultimate strength.

  11. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  12. The Application Of Laser-Speckle Photography To Ultimate Load Investigations On Reinforced Concrete Constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grob, Klaus-Peter

    1983-10-01

    When assessing the ultimate load of statically undetermined reinforced concrete beams, an exact knowledge of the bond mechanism and the rotation capability of the plastic hinges is of great importance. The size of these plastic areas is determined conclusively from the efficiency of bond between concrete and reinforcement. Experiments were carried out at the Institut air Massivbau, Hannover University, in order to measure the bond strenght and the extension of the plastic areas on models of reinforced concrete constructions. Laser-Speckle Photography was used for these investigations. The experimental devices, peculiarities affecting the application of the procedure to reinforced concrete constructions, like optical characteristics of the concrete, fracture development etc., and the results of the test series are reported on.

  13. The fiber-optic gyroscope, a century after Sagnac's experiment: The ultimate rotation-sensing technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Hervé C.

    2014-12-01

    Taking advantage of the development of optical-fiber communication technologies, the fiber-optic gyroscope (often abbreviated FOG) started to be investigated in the mid-1970s, opening the way for a fully solid-state rotation sensor. It was firstly seen as dedicated to medium-grade applications (1 ° / h range), but today, it reaches strategic-grade performance (10-4 ° / h range) and surpasses its well-established competitor, the ring-laser gyroscope, in terms of bias noise and long-term stability. Further progresses remain possible, the challenge being the ultimate inertial navigation performance of one nautical mile per month corresponding to a long-term bias stability of 10-5 ° / h. This paper is also the opportunity to recall the historical context of Sagnac's experiment, the origin of all optical gyros. xml:lang="fr"

  14. Seismic Proving Test of Ultimate Piping Strength: Current Status of Preliminary Tests - II

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kenichi; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I.; Suzuki, Kohei; Ishiwata, M.; Fujiwaka, T.; Yokota, H.

    2002-07-01

    In 1998 FY, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the piping component tests and the simplified piping system tests is reported with focus on fatigue damage evaluation under large seismic loading. (authors)

  15. Plug nozzles - The ultimate customer driven propulsion system. [applied to manned lunar and Martian landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aukerman, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applying the plug cluster nozzle concept to the propulsion system for a typical lunar excursion vehicle. Primary attention for the design criteria is given to user defined factors such as reliability, low volume, and ease of propulsion system development. Total thrust and specific impulse are held constant in the study while other parameters are explored to minimize the design chamber pressure. A brief history of the plug nozzle concept is included to point out the advanced level of technology of the concept and the feasibility of exploiting the variables considered in the study. The plug cluster concept looks very promising as a candidate for consideration for the ultimate customer driven propulsion system.

  16. Biomimetics and the Development of Humanlike Robots as the Ultimate Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    Evolution led to effective solutions to nature's challenges and they were improved over millions of years. Humans have always made efforts to use nature as a model for innovation and problems solving. These efforts became more intensive in recent years where systematic studies of nature are being made towards better understanding and applying more sophisticated capabilities. Making humanlike robots, including the appearance, functions and intelligence, poses the ultimate challenges to biomimetics. For many years, making such robots was considered science fiction, but as a result of significant advances in biologically inspired technologies, such robots are increasingly becoming an engineering reality. There are already humanlike robots that walk, talk, interpret speech, make eye-contact and facial expressions, as well as perform many other humanlike functions. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and issues of concern will be reviewed.

  17. Determination of ultimate carbonaceous BOD and the specific rate constant (K1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Bennett, J.P.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1982-01-01

    Ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BODu) and the specific rate constant (K1) at which the demand is exerted are important parameters in designing biological wastewater treatment plants and in assessing the impact of wastewater on receiving streams. An analytical method is presented which uses time-series concentrations of BOD, defined as the calculated sum of dissolved oxygen (DO) losses at each time of measurement, for determining BODu and K1. Time-series DO measurements are obtained from a water sample that is incubated in darkness at 20 degrees Celsius in the presence of nitrapyrin, a chemical nitrification inhibitor. Time-series concentrations of BOD that approximate first order kinetics can be analyzed graphically or mathematically to compute BODu and K1.

  18. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  19. Xenobiology: A new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biologists try to engineer useful biological systems that do not exist in nature. One of their goals is to design an orthogonal chromosome different from DNA and RNA, termed XNA for xeno nucleic acids. XNA exhibits a variety of structural chemical changes relative to its natural counterparts. These changes make this novel information-storing biopolymer invisible to natural biological systems. The lack of cognition to the natural world, however, is seen as an opportunity to implement a genetic firewall that impedes exchange of genetic information with the natural world, which means it could be the ultimate biosafety tool. Here I discuss, why it is necessary to go ahead designing xenobiological systems like XNA and its XNA binding proteins; what the biosafety specifications should look like for this genetic enclave; which steps should be carried out to boot up the first XNA life form; and what it means for the society at large. PMID:20217844

  20. Flexibility in reproductive timing in human females: integrating ultimate and proximate explanations

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    From an ultimate perspective, the age of onset of female reproduction should be sensitive to variation in mortality rates, and variation in the productivity of non-reproductive activities. In accordance with this prediction, most of the cross-national variation in women's age at first birth can be explained by differences in female life expectancies and incomes. The within-country variation in England shows a similar pattern: women have children younger in neighbourhoods where the expectation of healthy life is shorter and incomes are lower. I consider the proximate mechanisms likely to be involved in producing locally appropriate reproductive decisions. There is evidence suggesting that developmental induction, social learning and contextual evocation may all play a role. PMID:21199840

  1. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  2. An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated by damping wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao

    2015-01-06

    We discuss the approach of generating round beams for ultimate storage rings using vertical damping wigglers (with horizontal magnetic field). The vertical damping wigglers provide damping and excite vertical emittance. This eliminates the need to generate large linear coupling that is impractical with traditional off-axis injection. We use a PEP-X compatible lattice to demonstrate the approach. This lattice uses separate quadrupole and sextupole magnets with realistic gradient strengths. Intrabeam scattering effects are calculated. As a result, the horizontal and vertical emittances are 22.3 pm and 10.3 pm, respectively, for a 200 mA, 4.5 GeV beam, with a vertical damping wiggler of a total length of 90 m, a peak field of 1.5 T and a wiggler period of 100 mm.

  3. Coordinated breathing in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as cooperation: integrating proximate and ultimate explanations.

    PubMed

    Perelberg, Amir; Schuster, Richard

    2008-05-01

    In this study, coordinated breathing was studied in 13 common bottlenose dolphins because of its links with spontaneous coordinated behaviors (e.g., swimming, foraging, and playing). A strong link was shown between dyadic coordination levels and age/sex categories when both association patterns and spatial formation are considered. This is consistent with a significant influence of social relationships on cooperating and contrasts with an economic perspective based on immediate material outcomes alone. This cooperation bias is explained by linking proximate processes that evoke performance with ultimate evolutionary processes driven by long-term adaptive outcomes. Proximate processes can include 2 kinds of immediate outcomes: material reinforcements and affective states associated with acts of cooperating that can provide positive reinforcement regardless of immediate material benefits (e.g., when there is a time lag between cooperative acts and material outcomes). Affective states can then be adaptive by strengthening social relationships that lead to eventual gains in fitness. PMID:18489227

  4. pH of estuarine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The emf measurements for the TRIS buffer in seawater have been used to define buffer solutions that can be used to determine the pH on a free or total proton scale for estuarine waters. The pH is related to the stoichiometric dissociation constant (K*) of TRISH/sup +/, the concentration of buffer (m/sub TRIS/) and salinity (S). An electrode system with liquid junction was used to measure these buffers to compare the various pH scales.

  5. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  6. Coal slurry pH studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1995-12-01

    Coal slurry pH values can be used to characterize coals. pH values depend on the coal, time since slurry preparation, contact with gas atmosphere, particle size, and stirring. Measured values reflect a sequence of reactions including: carbon dioxide absorption by water from the air, wetting of the coal (pH may be affected by the elemental composition of the mineral matter), and further equilibration with species in the water. The pH initially drops as carbon dioxide is absorbed, then rapidly increases as the coal is wetted, and then slowly decreases as some reactions with species in the water take place.

  7. Coal slurry pH studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal slurry pH values can be used to characterize coals. pH values depend on the coal, time since slurry preparation, contact with gas atmosphere, particle size, and stirring. Measured values reflect a sequence of reactions probably including: carbon dioxide absorption by water from the air, wetting of the coal (pH may be affected by the elemental composition of the mineral matter), and further equilibration with species in the water. The pH initially drops as carbon dioxide is absorbed, then rapidly increases as the coal is wetted, and then slowly decreases as some reactions with species in the water take place.

  8. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J. (San Jose, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  9. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  10. Towards the ultimate minimum particle diameter of silica packings in capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Luedtke, S; Adam, T; von Doehren, N; Unger, K K

    2000-07-28

    Porous silica beads with an average particle diameter between 0.2 and 3 microm have been applied as packing material in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The experiments were directed to investigate whether it is really feasible and as promising as expected to use such small particles. In CEC, plate heights of H approximately/= 1-2 d(p) can be achieved which is smaller than the plate heights usually attained in high-performance liquid chromatography. Using a capillary packed with 0.5 microm silica beads we achieved a plate height of H = 3 d(p) indicating the presence of dispersive effects like Joule heating. Calculations demonstrate that at a field strength of about 800 V cm(-1) one third of the plate height can be lost by Joule heating effects if the heat is not removed by a cooling system. Additionally, the H(u) curve is still descending at the maximum electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity we generated with the modified capillary electrophoresis instrument. To fully exploit the potential of submicron size silicas higher field strengths, i.e., higher EOF velocities, must be attained. To study the influence of the kind of packing on the EOF porous as well as nonporous silicas have been applied. The experiments clearly indicate that the EOF of porous and nonporous silicas is the same. Since the EOF is more or less exclusively generated by the packing material the zeta potential of n-octyl bonded 0.5 microm silica has been determined. The dependence of the zeta potential on the pH is identical to the dependence of the EOF on the pH in a packed capillary. The point of zero charge of the silica is at pH 2-3. PMID:10961325

  11. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American…

  12. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a

  13. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  14. Fetal scalp pH testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Normal pH: 7.25 to 7.35 Borderline pH: 7.20 to 7.25 The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ...

  15. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

  16. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American

  17. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the ... Urine with a pH less than 5.3 is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different ...

  18. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  19. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  20. CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

  1. Parameters affecting downhole pH

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, J.D.; Jangama, V.R.; Willmon, J.

    1997-09-01

    The presence of acetic and formic acids in the produced water of gas condensate wells has been known for some time by the industry. In traditional water analysis, it has been titrated and reported as alkalinity. The calculation of accurate downhole pH values requires that these ions be analyzed separately in the water and that an organic acid material balance be performed on all three phases in the separator. In this manner, it is then possible to use phase distribution coefficients involving ionic equilibrium to determine how these acids distribute themselves between phases as the pH calculation proceeds downhole. In this paper, the above method of calculation of pH and {Delta}pH is used to examine the effect that various concentrations of these acids have on the downhole pH. Various concentrations of acids are examined, and two cases are calculated in which the effect of condensate on the pH is examined.

  2. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  3. How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, IM

    2002-01-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The goal of this pilot project was to obtain preliminary data on genetic variation in DNA repair function in human cells that might encourage our efforts to establish a research program to relate DNA repair function to complex DNA repair genotype and ultimately to cancer risk of radiation exposure.

  4. Lattice Design for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC expertise in designing and operating high current storage rings and the availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel present an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the SPEAR3 storage ring in the future. The PEP-X 'baseline' design, with 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. As a next step, a so-called 'ultimate' PEP-X lattice, reducing the emittance to 11 pm-rad at zero current, has been designed. This emittance approaches the diffraction limited photon emittance for multi-keV photons, providing near maximum photon brightness and high coherence. It is achieved by using 7-bend achromat cells in the ring arcs and a 90-m damping wiggler in one of the 6 long straight sections. Details of the lattice design, dynamic aperture, and calculations of the intra-beam scattering effect and Touschek lifetime at a nominal 0.2 A current are presented. Accelerator-based light sources are in high demand for many experimental applications. The availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel at SLAC presents an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the existing SPEAR3 light source in the future. The PEP-X study started in 2008, and the 'baseline' design, yielding 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. This relatively conservative design can be built using existing technology. However, for a long term future, it is natural to investigate a more aggressive, so-called 'ultimate' ring design. The goal is to reduce the electron emittance in both x and y planes to near the diffraction limited photon emittance of 8 pm-rad at hard X-ray photon wavelength of 0.1 nm. This would provide a near maximum photon brightness and significant increase in photon coherence. This study was motivated by the advances in low emittance design at MAX-IV. The latter was used as a starting point for the PEP-X arc lattice, however new features were included into the design for better tuning capabilities and compensation of non-linear optics effects. Further emittance reduction is achieved with a 90-m damping wiggler. Finally, intra-beam scattering (IBS) and Touschek lifetime effects were estimated and cross-checked using various codes.

  5. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-01

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner. PMID:25597802

  6. PEP-X: An Ultimate Storage Ring Based on Fourth-Order Geometric Achromats

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; Bane, Karl; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    We have designed an 'ultimate' storage ring for the PEP-X light source that achieves the diffraction limited emittances (at 1.5 {angstrom}) of 12 pm-rad in both horizontal and vertical planes with a 4.5-GeV beam. These emittances include the contribution of intrabeam scattering at a nominal current of 200 mA in 3300 bunches. This quality beam in conjunction with a conventional 4-m undulator in a straight section can generate synchrotron radiation having a spectral brightness above 10{sup 22} [photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW] at a 10 keV photon energy. The high coherence at the diffraction limit makes PEP-X competitive with 4th generation light sources based on an energy recovery linac. In addition, the beam lifetime is several hours and the dynamic aperture is large enough to allow off-axis injection. The alignment and stability tolerances, though challenging, are achievable. A ring with all these properties is only possible because of several major advances in mitigating the effects of nonlinear resonances.

  7. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations. PMID:26566825

  8. The ultimate question of origins: God and the beginning of the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, W. L.

    Both cosmology and philosophy trace their roots to the wonder felt by the ancient Greeks as they contemplated the Universe. The ultimate question remains why the Universe exists rather than nothing. This question led Leibniz to postulate the existence of a metaphysically necessary being, which he identified as God. Leibniz's critics, however, disputed this identification, claiming that the space-time universe itself may be the metaphysically necessary being. The discovery during this century that the Universe began to exist, however, calls into question the Universe's status as metaphysically necessary, since any necessary being must be eternal in its existence. Although various cosmogonic models claiming to avert the beginning of the Universe predicted by the standard model have been and continue to be offered, no model involving an eternal universe has proved as plausible as the standard model. Unless we are to assert that the Universe simply sprang into being uncaused out of nothing, we are thus led to Leibniz's conclusion. Several objections to inferring a supernatural cause of the origin of the Universe are considered and found to be unsound.

  9. The Ultimate Question of Origins: God and the Beginning of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, William Lane

    1999-12-01

    Both cosmology and philosophy trace their roots to the wonder felt by the ancient Greeks as they contemplated the universe. The ultimate question remains why the universe exists rather than nothing. This question led Leibniz to postulate the existence of a metaphysically necessary being, which he identified as God. Leibniz's critics, however, disputed this identification, claiming that the space-time universe itself may be the metaphysically necessary being. The discovery during this century that the universe began to exist, however, calls into question the universe's status as metaphysically necessary, since any necessary being must be eternal in its existence. Although various cosmogonic models claiming to avert the beginning of the universe predicted by the standard model have been and continue to be offered, no model involving an eternal universe has proved as plausible as the standard model. Unless we are to assert that the universe simply sprang into being uncaused out of nothing, we are thus led to Leibniz's conclusion. Several objections to inferring a supernatural cause of the origin of the universe are considered and found to be unsound.

  10. The ultimate technology: the end of technology and the task of nature.

    PubMed

    Riis, Sren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound reassessment of nature and technology. Aristotle clearly separates these two domains of being in his definition, but in doing so, he also connects them to one another in a highly influential way. Following this line of thought, the article finally offers an original perspective involving renewed respect for the perpetual self-unfolding nature of living technology. PMID:23889743

  11. Salinization: the ultimate threat to temperate lakes, with particular reference to Southeastern Wisconsin (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Slawski, Thomas M.; Lin, Hebin

    2015-11-01

    Many lakes in Southeastern Wisconsin (the metropolitan-Milwaukee area) are gradually becoming increasingly "salty". While these waterbodies would not be considered presently to be saline lakes, there has been a rapid increase in the chloride concentrations in most of these lakes over the last 30 years, with the lakes increasing from a mean chloride concentration of about 19 mg/L to over 100 mg/L in some cases. While ecological impacts can be expected when chloride values exceed 250 mg/L, the rate of increase presents a basis for concern, especially since the underlying geology of the region is based on limestone/dolomite which is deficient in chlorides. Thus, the origin of the chlorides is anthropogenic: human and industrial wastewaters (treatment of which has effected improvements in trophic status but has not affected other water-borne contaminants) and winter de-icing practices based upon large quantities of sodium chloride are major contributors to the increasing concentrations of chloride in the region's waterways. Without taking remedial measures, the rate of salinization is expected to continue to increase, resulting, ultimately, in the alteration of the freshwater systems in the region.

  12. Ultimate thin vertical p–n junction composed of two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Min; Lee, Daeyeong; Qu, Deshun; Liu, Xiaochi; Ryu, Jungjin; Seabaugh, Alan; Yoo, Won Jong

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional crystals are currently receiving significant attention because of their great potential to be an ultrathin body for efficient electrostatic modulation, which enables to overcome the limitations of silicon technology. Here we report that, as a key building block for two-dimensional semiconductor devices, vertical p–n junctions are fabricated in ultrathin MoS2 by introducing AuCl3 and benzyl viologen dopants. Unlike usual unipolar MoS2, the MoS2 p–n junctions show ambipolar carrier transport, current rectification via modulation of potential barrier in films thicker than 8 nm and reversed current rectification via tunnelling in films thinner than 8 nm. The ultimate thinness of the vertical p–n homogeneous junctions in MoS2 is experimentally found to be 3 nm, and the chemical doping depth is found to be 1.5 nm. The ultrathin MoS2 p–n junctions present a significant potential of the two-dimensional crystals for flexible, transparent, high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25800613

  13. Effect of Load Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengths of three continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/CAS-II, SiC/MAS-5 and SiC/SiC, were determined as a function of test rate in air at 1100 to 1200 C. All three composite materials exhibited a strong dependency of strength on test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress-rate) to another (constant stress loading) suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics. It was further found that constant stress-rate testing could be used as an alternative to life prediction test methodology even for composite materials, at least for short range of lifetimes and when ultimate strength is used as the failure criterion.

  14. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchang; Cunningham, Mark A.; Mire, Joseph; Tesar, Christine; Sacchettini, James; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The specter of a return to an era in which infectious disease looms as a significant threat to human health is not just hyperbole; there are serious concerns about the widespread overuse and misuse of antibiotics contributing to increased antibiotic resistance in pathogens. The recent discovery of a new enzyme, first identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a patient from New Delhi and denoted as NDM-1, represents an example of extreme promiscuity: It hydrolyzes and inactivates nearly all known ?-lactam-based antibiotics with startling efficiency. NDM-1 can utilize different metal cofactors and seems to exploit an alternative mechanism based on the reaction conditions. Here we report the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study that examines the substrate, metal binding, and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. We utilize structures obtained through X-ray crystallography, biochemical assays, and numerical simulation to construct a model of the enzyme catalytic pathway. The NDM-1 enzyme interacts with the substrate solely through zinc, or other metals, bound in the active site, explaining the observed lack of specificity against a broad range of ?-lactam antibiotic agents. The zinc ions also serve to activate a water molecule that hydrolyzes the ?-lactam ring through a proton shuttle.Kim, Y., Cunningham, M. A.; Mire, J., Tesar, C., Sacchettini, J., Joachimiak, A. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism. PMID:23363572

  15. The Ultimate Emission Line Diagnostics Study at z=1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Jane

    2015-10-01

    We propose the ultimate WFC3 grism spectroscopy, in terms of spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and diagnostic emission line coverage, at z=1.4. The targets are two extremely bright lensed galaxies at redshifts of 1.329 and 1.420. These redshifts place all of rest-frame optical diagnostic emission lines, from [O II] 3727 to [S II] 6731 A, in the WFC3 G102 and G141 grisms. On spatial scales down to 100~pc, we will map the star formation rate, metallicity, extinction, and excitation across these two galaxies, and thereby measure not only the physical conditions of star formation, but how those conditions vary spatially. For the target that currently lacks HST and Spitzer imaging, we propose 2 orbits of WFC3/UVIS imaging to enable creation of a lensing map, and 1~hr of Spitzer to obtain a stellar mass estimate. This program will be a legacy for HST, the most rigorous in situ test yet of strong-line nebular line diagnostics in the distant universe, and will establish a benchmark for far larger grism surveys in which HST has invested some 700 orbits.

  16. Reproductive skew in female common marmosets: what can proximate mechanisms tell us about ultimate causes?

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Wendy; Digby, Leslie J; Abbott, David H

    2009-02-01

    Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high reproductive skew: most subordinate females fail to reproduce, while others attempt to breed but produce very few surviving infants. An extensive dataset on the mechanisms limiting reproduction in laboratory-housed and free living subordinate females provides unique insights into the causes of reproductive skew. Non-breeding adult females undergo suppression of ovulation and inhibition of sexual behaviour; however, they receive little or no aggression or mating interference by dominants and do not exhibit behavioural or physiological signs of stress. Breeding subordinate females receive comparable amounts of aggression to non-breeding females but are able to conceive, gestate and lactate normally. In groups containing two breeding females,however, both dominant and subordinate breeders kill one another's infants. These findings suggest that preconception reproductive suppression is not imposed on subordinate females by dominants, at a proximate level, but is instead self-imposed by most subordinates, consistent with restraint models of reproductive skew. In contrast to restraint models, however, this self-suppression probably evolved not in response to the threat of eviction by dominant females but in response to the threat of infanticide. Thus,reproductive skew in this species appears to be generated predominantly by subordinate self-restraint, in a proximate sense, but ultimately by dominant control over subordinates' reproductive attempts. PMID:18945663

  17. Dynamic Aperture and Tolerances for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Design

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    A lattice for the PEP-X ultimate storage ring light source, having 11 pm-rad natural emittance at a beam energy of 4.5 GeV at zero current, using 90 m of damping wiggler and fitting into the existing 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel, has been recently designed. Such a low emittance lattice requires very strong sextupoles for chromaticity correction, which in turn introduce strong non-linear field effects that limit the beam dynamic aperture. In order to maximize the dynamic aperture we choose the cell phases to cancel the third and fourth order geometric resonances in each 8-cell arc. Four families of chromatic sextupoles and six families of geometric (or harmonic) sextupoles are added to correct the chromatic and amplitude-dependent tunes. To find the best settings of the ten sextupole families, we use a Multi-Objective Genetic Optimizer employing elegant to optimize the beam lifetime and dynamic aperture simultaneously. Then we evaluate dynamic aperture reduction caused by magnetic field multipole errors, magnet fabrication errors and misalignments. A sufficient dynamic aperture is obtained for injection, as well as workable beam lifetime.

  18. Ultimate modulation bandwidth of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, M. A.; Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Blokhin, A. A.; Zadiranov, Yu M.; Troshkov, S. I.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Complex influence of photon lifetime (controlled by the mirror loss) and aperture size on the performance of 850 nm InGaAlAs oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with fully doped AlGaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) was investigated. We find a tradeoff between photon lifetime and gain nonlinearity for maximizing the optical bandwidth, leading to the optimum aperture size close to 4-6 ?m. In spite of the reduced photon lifetime (from 4 ps to 1 ps), the excess damping caused by the current-induced self-heating limits the ultimate modulation bandwidth for the given VCSELs design at 24-25 GHz. Further improvement in high frequency characteristics can be facilitated by decrease of the heat generation and improvement of the heat removal from the active region as well as by proper engineering of the scattering loss at the oxide aperture while keeping the low capacitance optimizing design of the oxide aperture.

  19. Moisture absorption early postmortem predicts ultimate drip loss in fresh pork.

    PubMed

    Kapper, C; Walukonis, C J; Scheffler, T L; Scheffler, J M; Don, C; Morgan, M T; Forrest, J C; Gerrard, D E

    2014-02-01

    Water-holding capacity is the ability of meat to hold moisture and is subject to postmortem metabolism. The objective of this study was to characterize the loss of moisture from muscle postmortem and investigate whether these losses are useful in predicting the ultimate drip loss of fresh pork. Cotton-rayon absorptive-based devices were inserted in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pork carcasses (n = 51) postmortem and removed at various intervals for 24h. Greatest moisture absorption was observed at 105 min post exsanguination. Drip loss varied (0.6-15.3%) across carcasses. Individual absorption at 75 min correlated (r = 0.33) with final drip loss. Correlations improved using individual absorption values at 90 min (r = 0.48) and accumulated absorption values at 150 min (r = 0.41). Results show that significant moisture is lost from muscle tissue early postmortem and suggest that capture of this moisture may be useful in predicting final drip loss of fresh meat. PMID:24225387

  20. Ultimate thin vertical p-n junction composed of two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Min; Lee, Daeyeong; Qu, Deshun; Liu, Xiaochi; Ryu, Jungjin; Seabaugh, Alan; Yoo, Won Jong

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional crystals are currently receiving significant attention because of their great potential to be an ultrathin body for efficient electrostatic modulation, which enables to overcome the limitations of silicon technology. Here we report that, as a key building block for two-dimensional semiconductor devices, vertical p-n junctions are fabricated in ultrathin MoS? by introducing AuCl? and benzyl viologen dopants. Unlike usual unipolar MoS?, the MoS? p-n junctions show ambipolar carrier transport, current rectification via modulation of potential barrier in films thicker than 8?nm and reversed current rectification via tunnelling in films thinner than 8?nm. The ultimate thinness of the vertical p-n homogeneous junctions in MoS? is experimentally found to be 3?nm, and the chemical doping depth is found to be 1.5?nm. The ultrathin MoS? p-n junctions present a significant potential of the two-dimensional crystals for flexible, transparent, high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25800613

  1. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) prefer to cooperate when petted: Integrating proximate and ultimate explanations II.

    PubMed

    Perelberg, Amir; Schuster, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Cooperation poses theoretical problems because the behaviors of individuals can benefit others. Evolutionary and game-theory explanations that focus on maximizing one's own material outcomes are usually supported by experimental models with isolated and anonymous subjects. Cooperation in the natural world, however, is often a social act whereby familiar individuals coordinate behaviors for shared outcomes. Social cooperation is also associated with a cooperation bias expressed as a preference for cooperation even when noncooperation is immediately more beneficial. The authors report on evidence for such a bias in a captive group of bottlenose dolphins that voluntarily preferred to receive petting from human guides by using a pairwise coordinated approach, even though this was more difficult, and total petting amount was thereby reduced. To explain why this bias occurs, the authors propose an integrated behavioral-evolutionary approach whereby performance is determined by two kinds of immediate outcomes: material gains and intrinsic affective states associated with cooperating. The latter can provide reinforcement when immediate material gains are reduced, delayed, or absent. Over a lifetime, this proximate mechanism can lead to cooperative relationships whose long-term ultimate consequences can be adaptive. PMID:19236144

  2. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  3. Influence of Reel Lay on Residual Stress and Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hongqian; Wang, Liquan

    Reel lay is a fast and cost-effective way to install subsea pipelines. During reel lay, pipe's repeated plastic bending produces residual stress, which has influence on pipe's ultimate bearing capacity. First, the deformation of pipe in reel lay is analyzed, and the cyclic bending stages are simplified for convenience of theoretical research. Based on the finite element method (FEM), the Ramberg-Osgood model is adopted to describe material's mechanical property with kinematic hardening rule, and five bending stages are simulated. Further, the influence of material parameters and geometry parameters on pipe's residual stress is studied. Finally, the effect of residual stress on pipe's external pressure bearing capacity and tensile capacity is analyzed. Some important conclusions can be drawn: (1) the influence of diameter-thick ratio on residual stress is small, and material parameters' effect on the residual stress is large; (2) the influence of residual stress on pipe's external pressure bearing capacity is small, but its influence on tensile capacity is large.

  4. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Z.; Abbott, B. W.; Troccaz, O.; Baudry, J.; Pinay, G.

    2015-09-01

    Direct and indirect effects from agriculture, urbanization, and resource extraction have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. The capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients is a function of biotic and abiotic conditions across the terrestrial-aquatic gradient including soil, groundwater, riparian zone, and surface water. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments. We analysed a five-year, high frequency water chemistry dataset from 3 catchments ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2 in northwestern France. Catchments differed in the relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations, associated with catchment characteristics such as hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness appeared to have greater transient storage and residence time, buffering the catchment to fluctuations in water chemistry, reflected in relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of PO43- and NH4+ during low flow conditions and strong increases in DOC, sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land use) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on elemental fluxes is both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent catchment buffering capacity and probability of human disturbance provides a useful perspective for evaluating vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human disturbance.

  5. Primary and ultimate biodegradation of anionic surfactants under realistic discharge conditions in river water

    SciTech Connect

    Itrich, N.R.; Federle, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    Some levels of even the most highly biodegradable compounds escape sewage treatment and enter rivers and streams as components of effluent. Rapid biodegradation in the stream lowers a chemical`s concentration, prevents its dispersion through the environment, limits exposure of aquatic organisms downstream, and minimizes any potential for bioaccumulation. The biodegradation kinetics of representative anionic surfactants were determined under conditions simulating the mixing zone below a treatment plant outfall. {sup 14}C-1 C{sub 14} alkyl sulfate (AS), {sup 14}C-(ethoxylate) C{sub 14}E{sub 3} alkyl ethoxylate (AE), {sup 14}C (ethoxylate) C{sub 14}E{sub 3}S alkyl ethoxylate sulfate (AES) and {sup 14}C-(ring) C{sub 12} linear benzenesulfonate (LAS) were dosed at 75 {micro}g/l into river water amended with 1% activated sludge liquor to approximate a mixing zone. Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was monitored over time, and periodically samples were flash frozen, lyophilized, extracted, filtered and analyzed by Rad-TLC. Incorporation into biomass was determined by quantifying the radioactivity associated with the extracted solids on the filter. Primary degradation of all four surfactants exhibited first-order kinetics, and half-lives ranged from 0.4 to 11.0 hrs. The time needed for ultimate degradation, defined as mineralization or incorporation into biomass, to reach 50% ranged from 0.7 to 19 hrs. These data demonstrate the power of this approach for understanding the fate of chemicals in river water. Furthermore, this work shows that loss of parent and consequently loss of toxicity can occur very rapidly under realistic conditions generating kinetic data, which can be used directly with few assumptions to model exposure concentrations downstream.

  6. Development of adaptive seismic isolators for ultimate seismic protection of civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Yancheng; Li, Weihua; Samali, Bijan

    2013-04-01

    Base isolation is the most popular seismic protection technique for civil engineering structures. However, research has revealed that the traditional base isolation system due to its passive nature is vulnerable to two kinds of earthquakes, i.e. the near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. A great deal of effort has been dedicated to improve the performance of the traditional base isolation system for these two types of earthquakes. This paper presents a recent research breakthrough on the development of a novel adaptive seismic isolation system as the quest for ultimate protection for civil structures, utilizing the field-dependent property of the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). A novel adaptive seismic isolator was developed as the key element to form smart seismic isolation system. The novel isolator contains unique laminated structure of steel and MR elastomer layers, which enable its large-scale civil engineering applications, and a solenoid to provide sufficient and uniform magnetic field for energizing the field-dependent property of MR elastomers. With the controllable shear modulus/damping of the MR elastomer, the developed adaptive seismic isolator possesses a controllable lateral stiffness while maintaining adequate vertical loading capacity. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the development of the adaptive seismic isolator is present including designs, analysis and testing of two prototypical adaptive seismic isolators utilizing two different MRE materials. Experimental results show that the first prototypical MRE seismic isolator can provide stiffness increase up to 37.49%, while the second prototypical MRE seismic isolator provides amazing increase of lateral stiffness up to1630%. Such range of increase of the controllable stiffness of the seismic isolator makes it highly practical for developing new adaptive base isolation system utilizing either semi-active or smart passive controls.

  7. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM.

    SciTech Connect

    DEGRASSI,G.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,C.; SUZUKI,K.; NAMITA,Y.

    2003-08-17

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper.

  8. Colorimetric Determination of pH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheryl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which the pH of a solution can be quantitatively measured using a spectrophotometer. The theory, experimental details, sample preparation and selection, instrumentation, and results are discussed. (CW)

  9. Brenda K. Edwards, PhD

    Cancer.gov

    Brenda K. Edwards, PhD, has been with the Surveillance Research Program (SRP) and its predecessor organizations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) since 1989, serving as SRP’s Associate Director from 1990-2011.

  10. INFLUENCE OF JOINING LOCATIONS AND PLATE WIDTH ON ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF ALUMINUM ALLOY PLATES IN IN-PLANE BENDING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okura, Ichiro; Ogasahara, Koji

    The ultimate strength of aluminum alloy plates in in-plane bending is investigated considering joining locations and plate width by the elastic-plastic large deflection analysis with FEM. The aluminum alloys taken into account are heat-treated A6061-T6 and A6005C-T5 and non-heat-treated A5083-O. The softening of material and the residual stresses caused by the friction stir welding (FSW) and the MIG welding are introduced in the analysis. It is shown that the joining locations and the width of plate have a great influence on the ultimate strength. The formula which gives the curves for the ultimate strength of plates in in-plane bending considering joining locations and plate width are proposed, based on the results of the FEM analysis.

  11. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  12. Evaluation of fluorimetric pH sensors for bioprocess monitoring at low pH.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Nils H; Schmidt, Michael; Krause, Christian; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Optical chemical sensors are the standard for pH monitoring in small-scale bioreactors such as microtiter plates, shaking flasks or other single-use bioreactors. The dynamic pH range of the so far commercially available fluorescent pH sensors applied in small-scale bioreactors is restricted to pH monitoring around neutral pH, although many fermentation processes are performed at pH<6 on industrial scale. Thus, two new prototype acidic fluorescence pH sensors immobilized in single-use stirred-tank bioreactors, one with excitation at 470nm and emission at 550nm (sensor 470/550) and the other with excitation at 505nm and emission at 600nm (sensor 505/600), were characterized with respect to dynamic ranges and operational stability in representative fermentation media. Best resolution and dynamic range was observed with pH sensor 505/600 in mineral medium (dynamic range of 3.9<pH<7.2). Applying the same pH sensors to complex medium results in a drastic reduction of resolution and dynamic ranges. Yeast extract in complex medium was found to cause background fluorescence at the sensors' operating wavelength combinations. Optical isolation of the sensor by adding a black colored polymer layer above the sensor spot and fixing an aperture made of adhesive photoresistant foil between the fluorescence reader and the transparent bottom of the polystyrene reactors enabled full re-establishment of the sensor's characteristics. Reliability and operational stability of sensor 505/600 was shown by online pH monitoring (4.5<pH<5.8) of parallel anaerobic batch fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) with offline pH measurements with a standard glass electrode as reference. PMID:25969385

  13. Volcanoes - the Ultimate Source of Trace Metal Enrichment of Atmospheric Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkley, T. K.; Lamothe, P. J.; Xiao, J.; Meeker, G. P.; Thornber, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    It has become clear from studies of peat bogs and ice cores that pre-industrial dusts deposited from the atmosphere contained substantially more trace metals (Pb, Cd, Tl, In, others) than if the dusts had been derived directly from the upper continental crust of the earth. The extra amounts of these metals deposited with dusts to pre-industrial Antarctica are consistent with the masses that come as volatile emissions of degassing volcanoes worldwide: the masses of metals, the proportions of the metals, and the proportions of Pb isotopes are similar between the volcano emissions and the excess amounts of the metals deposited with the fine mineral dusts. Modern dusts deposited in the U.S. Southwest have fractional enrichments in trace metal contents that are similar to those in far-transported pre-industrial dusts from the ice core and peat bog record. However, the amounts of dust that fall each year on the U.S. Southwest (i.e. the modern "flux") are larger, because of the expansive surrounding continental source areas. Therefore, the absolute amounts of excess trace metals that fall are also larger than in the pre-industrial (Antarctic ice) records, by about 1-2 orders of magnitude. Over long times soils have themselves been enriched in trace metals from the same major ultimate source, degassing worldwide volcanoes. The trace metal enrichment of the bulk soils is confirmed by the composition of coarse eolian dusts, mobilized from the soils by high-energy wind events (e.g., Cu, As, Sb, and Pb are enriched in such coarse fractions by factors of 2.1, 4.2, 4.1 and 2.7, respectively, whereas in finest atmospheric dusts factors are 14, 28, 87, and 23). The trace metal content of the soil reservoir is continuously recycled through the atmosphere. Although the modern flux of trace metals deposited with fine dusts in the Southwest is 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than would be expected from the strength of the volcano degassing source, it is reasonable to assume that the volcanic source is indeed what has provided, over long times, the mass present in the modern soil reservoir. Because of the large magnitude and long accumulation time of the trace metal reservoir in the soils, a few recent decades of possibly-anomalous industrial trace element contribution to soils would not account for a substantial component of the reservoir mass, and would not be a substantial component of the excess trace metal flux in the region.

  14. Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9%) than for girls (47.5%). The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p < .001 were low economic status and importance of religion. The four most relevant risk factors for binge drinking (p < .001) were life-time prevalence of school absenteeism/truancy, academic failure, suicidal thoughts, and violence at school in the form of aggressive behavior of teachers. The model of Petraitis was partly confirmed for Binge Drinking in German adolescents and the direction of influence factors was clarified. Conclusions Whereas some of the risk and protective factors for binge drinking are not surprising since they are known for substance abuse in general, there are two points that could be targeted in interventions that do not focus on adolescents alone: (a) training teachers in positive, reassuring behavior and constructive criticism and (b) a focus on high risk adolescents either because they have a lack of coping strategies when in a negative mood or because of their low academic achievement in combination with absenteeism from school. PMID:22469235

  15. Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2012-07-01

    Abstract The world is currently aiming to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is considered carbon neutral because the carbon dioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle. Increasing the use of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes, including thermochemical (direct combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation), or chemical (esterification) technologies. There are lot challenges in using biomass for energy applications. To name few low bulk density, high moisture content, irregular size and shape, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value. In commercial scale operation large quantities of biomass are needed and this will create problems associated with storage and transportation. Furthermore, grinding raw biomass with high moisture content is very challenging as there are no specific equipments and can increase the costs and in some cases it becomes highly impossible. All of these drawbacks led to development of some pretreatment techniques to make biomass more suitable for fuel applications. One of the promising techniques is torrefaction. Torrefaction is heating the biomass in an inert environment or reduced environment. During torrefaction biomass losses moisture, becomes more brittle and with increased energy density values. There are different techniques used for torrefaction of biomass. Fixed bed, bubbling sand bed and moving bed are the most common ones used. The use of microwaves for torrefaction purposes has not been explored. In the present study we looked into the torrefaction of biomass using the regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

  16. MRF with adjustable pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2011-10-01

    Deterministic final polishing of high precision optics using sub-aperture processing with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is an accepted practice throughout the world. A wide variety of materials can be successfully worked with aqueous (pH 10), magnetorheological (MR) fluids, using magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) and either ceria or nanodiamond nonmagnetic abrasives. Polycrystalline materials like zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) are difficult to polish at pH 10 with MRF, due to their grain size and the relatively low stiffness of the MR fluid lap. If microns of material are removed, the grain structure of the material begins to appear. In 2005, Kozhinova et al. (Appl. Opt. 44 4671-4677) demonstrated that lowering pH could improve MRF of ZnS. However, magnetic CI particle corrosion rendered their low pH approach unstable and unsuitable for commercial implementation. In 2009, Shafrir et al. described a sol-gel coating process for manufacturing a zirconia-coated CI particle that protects the magnetic core from aqueous corrosion (Appl. Opt .48 6797-6810). The coating process produces free nanozirconia polishing abrasives during the coating procedure, thereby creating an MR polishing powder that is "self-charged" with the polishing abrasive. By simply adding water, it was possible to polish optical glasses and ceramics with good stability at pH 8 for three weeks. The development of a corrosion resistant, MR polishing powder, opens up the possibility for polishing additional materials, wherein the pH may be adjusted to optimize effectiveness. In this paper we describe the CI coating process, the characterization of the coated powder, and procedures for making stable MR fluids with adjustable pH, giving polishing results for a variety of optical glasses and crystalline ceramics.

  17. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  18. pH. Training Module 5.305.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with pH, measurement of pH with a pH meter and maintenance of pH meter electrodes. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers the definition of pH, types of electrodes and…

  19. pH Dependent Transitions in Xanthorhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Balashov, Sergei P.; Wang, Jennifer M.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    2009-01-01

    Xanthorhodopsin (XR), the light-driven proton pump of the halophilic eubacterium Salinibacter ruber, exhibits substantial homology to bacteriorhodopsin (BR) of archaea and proteorhodopsin (PR) of marine bacteria, but unlike them contains a light-harvesting carotenoid antenna, salinixanthin, as well as retinal. We report here the pH dependent properties of XR. The pKa of the retinal Schiff base is as high as in BR, i.e., ? 12.4. Deprotonation of the Schiff base and the ensuing alkaline denaturation causes large changes in the absorption bands of the carotenoid antenna, which lose intensity and become broader making the spectrum similar to that of salinixanthin not bound to XR. A small red shift of the retinal chromophore band and increase of its extinction, as well as the pH dependent amplitude of the M intermediate indicate that in detergent-solubilized XR the pKa of the Schiff base counter-ion and proton acceptor is about 6 (compared to 2.6 in BR, and 7.5 in PR). The protonation of the counter-ion is accompanied by a small blue shift of the carotenoid absorption bands. The pigment is stable in the dark upon acidification to pH 2. At pH < 2 a transition to a blue shifted species absorbing around 440 nm occurs, accompanied by loss of resolution of the carotenoid absorption bands. At pH < 3 illumination of XR with continuous light causes accumulation of long-lived photoproducts(s) with an absorption maximum around 400 nm. The photocycle of XR was examined between pH 4 and 10 in solubilized samples. The pH dependence of recovery of the initial state slows at both acid and alkaline pH, with pKas of 6.0 and 9.3. The decrease in the rates with pKa 6.0 is apparently caused by protonation of the counter-ion and proton acceptor while that at high pH reflects the pKa of the internal proton donor, Glu94, at the times in the photocycle when this group equilibrates with the bulk. PMID:16649816

  20. A Nanocrystal-based Ratiometric pH Sensor for Natural pH Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Rebecca C.; Lanning, Ryan M.; Snee, Preston T.; Greytak, Andrew B.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor based on CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) has been designed for biological pH ranges. The construct is formed from the conjugation of a pH dye (SNARF) to NCs coated with a poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. The sensor exhibits a well–resolved ratio response at pH values between 6 and 8 under linear or two–photon excitation, and in the presence of a 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. PMID:26413260

  1. Reynolds numbers and the elliptic approximation near the ultimate state of turbulent Rayleigh-Bnard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaozhou; van Gils, Dennis P. M.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter

    2015-06-01

    We report results of Reynolds-number measurements, based on multi-point temperature measurements and the elliptic approximation (EA) of He and Zhang (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 055303), Zhao and He (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 046316) for turbulent Rayleigh-Bnard convection (RBC) over the Rayleigh-number range {10}11? {\\text{}}{Ra}? 2 {10}14 and for a Prandtl number Pr ? 0.8. The sample was a right-circular cylinder with the diameter D and the height L both equal to 112 cm. The Reynolds numbers ReU and ReV were obtained from the mean-flow velocity U and the root-mean-square fluctuation velocity V, respectively. Both were measured approximately at the mid-height of the sample and near (but not too near) the side wall close to a maximum of ReU. A detailed examination, based on several experimental tests, of the applicability of the EA to turbulent RBC in our parameter range is provided. The main contribution to ReU came from a large-scale circulation in the form of a single convection roll with the preferred azimuthal orientation of its down flow nearly coinciding with the location of the measurement probes. First we measured time sequences of ReU(t) and ReV(t) from short (10 s) segments which moved along much longer sequences of many hours. The corresponding probability distributions of ReU(t) and ReV(t) had single peaks and thus did not reveal significant flow reversals. The two averaged Reynolds numbers determined from the entire data sequences were of comparable size. For {\\text{}}{Ra}\\lt {\\text{}}{{Ra}}1*? 2 {10}13 both ReU and ReV could be described by a power-law dependence on Ra with an exponent ? close to 0.44. This exponent is consistent with several other measurements for the classical RBC state at smaller Ra and larger Pr and with the Grossmann-Lohse (GL) prediction for ReU (Grossmann and Lohse 2000 J. Fluid. Mech. 407 27; Grossmann and Lohse 2001 86 3316; Grossmann and Lohse 2002 66 016305) but disagrees with the prediction \\zeta ? 0.33 by GL (Grossmann and Lohse 2004 Phys. Fluids 16 4462) for ReV. At {\\text{}}{Ra}={\\text{}}{{Ra}}2*? 7 {10}13 the dependence of ReV on Ra changed, and for larger Ra {\\text{}}{{Re}}V {\\text{}}{{Ra}}0.50+/- 0.02, consistent with the prediction for ReU (Grossmann and Lohse 2000 J. Fluid. Mech. 407 27; Grossmann and Lohse Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001 86 3316; Grossmann and Lohse Phys. Rev. E 2002 66 016305; Grossmann and Lohse 2012 Phys. Fluids 24 125103) in the ultimate state of RBC.

  2. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section 48.6420-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... 48.6420-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming purposes after June 30, 1965, a credit (under the...

  3. 26 CFR 48.6421-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. 48.6421-1 Section 48.6421-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Manufacturers Taxes 48.6421-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. (a) In general. (1) If gasoline is used in a qualified business use or as fuel in...

  4. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section 48.6420-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... 48.6420-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming purposes after June 30, 1965, a credit (under the...

  5. PROXIMATE OR ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC FORMS OF ARSENIC: METHYLATED ARSENIC(III) SPECIES THAT REACT DIRECTLY WITH DNA

    EPA Science Inventory


    PROXIMATE OR ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC FORMS OF ARSENIC: METHYLATED ARSENIC(III) SPECIES THAT REACT DIRECTL Y WITH DNA.

    Abstract:

    Although inorganic arsenic (iAs), arsenite or arsenate, is genotoxic, there has been no demonstration that iAs or a methylated metabolite...

  6. Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool. Educational Leadership for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Brian D., Ed.; Normore, Anthony H., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool takes a penetrating look at the needs and challenges of society's disenfranchised jail populations. It is incumbent to encourage public awareness of the causes that underlie the destructive cycles plaguing these populations, including the abuse and…

  7. Queerspawn Speak out: A Review of "Let's Get This Straight: The Ultimate Handbook for Youth with LGBTQ Parents"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Caitlin L.

    2012-01-01

    "Let's Get This Straight: The Ultimate Handbook for Youth With LGBTQ Parents" provides an engaging and accessible set of tools for youth from LGBTQ-headed families. The stories and resources shared encourage these youth to take pride in their families, value their diverse experiences, and work against homophobia, transphobia, and other forms of…

  8. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section 48.6420-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... 48.6420-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming purposes after June 30, 1965, a credit (under the...

  9. 26 CFR 48.6421-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. 48.6421-1 Section 48.6421-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Manufacturers Taxes 48.6421-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. (a) In general. (1) If gasoline is used in a qualified business use or as fuel in...

  10. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section 48.6420-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... 48.6420-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming purposes after June 30, 1965, a credit (under the...

  11. Queerspawn Speak out: A Review of "Let's Get This Straight: The Ultimate Handbook for Youth with LGBTQ Parents"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Caitlin L.

    2012-01-01

    "Let's Get This Straight: The Ultimate Handbook for Youth With LGBTQ Parents" provides an engaging and accessible set of tools for youth from LGBTQ-headed families. The stories and resources shared encourage these youth to take pride in their families, value their diverse experiences, and work against homophobia, transphobia, and other forms of

  12. 26 CFR 48.6427-9 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and State use).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered... Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-9 Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and... taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by section...

  13. 26 CFR 48.6427-9 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and State use).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered... Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-9 Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and... taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by section...

  14. 26 CFR 48.6427-9 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and State use).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered... Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-9 Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and... taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by section...

  15. 26 CFR 48.6427-9 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and State use).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered... Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-9 Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and... taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by section...

  16. ARSENIC (III) METHYLATED SPECIES REACT WITH DNA DIRECTLY AND COULD BE PROXIMATED/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC FORMS OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory


    ARSENIC(III) METHYLATED SPECIES REACT WITH DNA DIRECTL Y AND COULD BE PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC FORMS OF ARSENIC


    Arsenite and arsenate (iAs, inorganic arsenic) have been thought to act as genotoxicants without reacting directly with DNA; neither iAs nor As(V) m...

  17. Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool. Educational Leadership for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Brian D., Ed.; Normore, Anthony H., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool takes a penetrating look at the needs and challenges of society's disenfranchised jail populations. It is incumbent to encourage public awareness of the causes that underlie the destructive cycles plaguing these populations, including the abuse and

  18. Cementitious porous pavement in stormwater quality control: pH and alkalinity elevation.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xuheng; Sansalone, John

    2011-01-01

    A certain level of alkalinity acts as a buffer and maintains the pH value in a stable range in water bodies. With rapid urban development, more and more acidic pollutants flow to watersheds with runoff and drop alkalinity to a very low level and ultimately degrade the water environment. Cementitious porous pavement is an effective tool for stormwater acidic neutralization. When stormwater infiltrates cement porous pavement (CPP) materials, alkalinity and pH will be elevated due to the basic characteristics of cement concrete. The elevated alkalinity will neutralize acids in water bodies and maintain the pH in a stable level as a buffer. It is expected that CPP materials still have a certain capability of alkalinity elevation after years of service, which is important for CPP as an effective tool for stormwater management. However, few previous studies have reported on how CPP structures would elevate runoff alkalinity and pH after being exposed to rainfall-runoff for years. In this study, three groups of CPP specimens, all exposed to rainfall-runoff for 3 years, were used to test the pH and alkalinity elevation properties. It was found that runoff pH values were elevated from 7.4 to the range of 7.8-8.6 after infiltrating through the uncoated specimens, and from 7.4 to 8.5-10.7 after infiltrating through aluminum-coated specimens. Runoff alkalinity elevation efficiencies are 11.5-14.5% for uncoated specimens and 42.2% for coated specimens. The study shows that CPP is an effective passive unit operation for stormwater acid neutralization in our built environment. PMID:22049729

  19. Stability and performance of silica-based alkyl bonded-phase HPLC column packings with pH > 8 mobile phases

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    Certain HPLC separations are best performed with high pH (pH >8) mobile phases where basic compounds may not be fully protonated. However, the traditional recommendation for silica-based HPLC column packings is that they not be used with mobile phases above pH 8 because of rapid packed-bed degradation by solubility of the silica support. Studies now have shown that packings with certain types of silica supports and bonded phases can be employed successfully for routine separations with mobile phases of at least pH 9. Column packing lifetime with higher pH mobile phases also can be extended by proper choice of buffer type. Silica support solubility (and ultimate column life) is significantly influenced by the nature of both the anions and cations used in the mobile phase buffer. Even at pH 7, some alkyl bonded phase packings show poor lifetime with higher concentrations of certain buffers, especially at elevated temperatures. Column temperature and buffer concentration also greatly affect silica support solubility and ultimate column lifetime. Findings from this study should assist in the development of more rugged HPLC methods for routine applications.

  20. Ph.D.'s and the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James

    Throughout the last decade, Ph.D. recipients were accustomed to a job market in which demand for their services far exceeded supply. During the same period, manpower experts predicted this situation would continue in the foreseeable future. However, when the 60's ended, the employment illusion had been rudely dispelled by frantic reports of a

  1. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the

  2. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been

  3. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  4. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  5. PhAST: pharmacophore alignment search tool.

    PubMed

    Hhnke, Volker; Hofmann, Bettina; Grgat, Tomislav; Proschak, Ewgenij; Steinhilber, Dieter; Schneider, Gisbert

    2009-04-15

    We present a ligand-based virtual screening technique (PhAST) for rapid hit and lead structure searching in large compound databases. Molecules are represented as strings encoding the distribution of pharmacophoric features on the molecular graph. In contrast to other text-based methods using SMILES strings, we introduce a new form of text representation that describes the pharmacophore of molecules. This string representation opens the opportunity for revealing functional similarity between molecules by sequence alignment techniques in analogy to homology searching in protein or nucleic acid sequence databases. We favorably compared PhAST with other current ligand-based virtual screening methods in a retrospective analysis using the BEDROC metric. In a prospective application, PhAST identified two novel inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase product formation with minimal experimental effort. This outcome demonstrates the applicability of PhAST to drug discovery projects and provides an innovative concept of sequence-based compound screening with substantial scaffold hopping potential. PMID:18727161

  6. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in

  7. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  8. Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

  9. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are

  10. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in…

  11. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat quality traits. Several QTL regions were identified that are worthy of further characterization. Some QTLs may in fact co-localize, suggesting pleiotropic effects for some chromosomal regions. PMID:17559654

  12. Laser spark ignition of premixed methane-air mixtures: parameter measurements and determination of key factors for ultimate ignition results.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Smith, Benjamin W; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present an experimental investigation of the parameters of the laser spark ignition of premixed methane-air mixtures and the determination of the key factors for the ultimate ignition result. Ignition is achieved in a mesh honeycomb burner using the 1064 nm output of a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd : YAG) laser. All pertinent laser ignition parameters, including the minimum ignition energy, the ignition time and blow out time, and the effects that the variation of experimental conditions, such as the spark energy, ignition position, equivalence ratio (ER), and flow rate, have on these parameters have been addressed systematically. To identify the key factors for the ultimate result of laser ignition, several parameters of the ignition processes are measured simultaneously, with an emphasis given to the temporal behavior of the hydroxyl (OH) radicals in relation to the data regarding the spark energy and the local ER. A clear finding of the study is that successful ignition events are always related to higher OH radical photon emissions, considered to be proportional to the concentration level of the OH radicals present, thus indicating a direct link between the OH level at early times (on a microsecond scale) and the ultimate result of laser ignition. Two-dimensional correlation plots of the spark energy, local ER, and OH radical photon count at early times with the ultimate results of laser ignition indicate that the spark energy and local ER do not play a critical role in determining the success or failure of the ignition and that the OH concentration in the early time range is the key factor in determining the final fate of laser ignition. Finally, on the basis of the results obtained here and in the existing literature, some considerations of the mechanism of laser ignition are presented. PMID:25226251

  13. ULSLEA: A limit equilibrium procedure to determine the ultimate limit state loading capacities of template-type platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bea, R.G.; Mortazavi, M.M.

    1996-11-01

    During the past three decades, an immense amount of effort has been devoted to development of sophisticated computer programs to enable the assessment of storm wind, wave, and current loadings and the ultimate limit state capacity characteristics of conventional, pile-supported, template-type offshore platforms. These programs require high degrees of expertise to operate properly, are expensive to purchase and maintain, and require large amounts of manpower and time to complete the analyses. Due to the sophistication of these programs, experience has shown that it is easy to make mistakes that are difficult to detect and that can have significant influences on the results. This paper summarizes the second phase of development and verification of simplified procedures to evaluate environmental loadings and ultimate limit state lateral loading capacities of template-type platforms. Reasonable simplifications and high degrees of user friendliness have been employed in development of the software to reduce the engineering effort, expertise, and costs associated with the analyses. The computer program that has been developed to perform the simplified analyses has been identified as ULSLEA (ultimate limit state limit equilibrium analyses) (Mortazavi and Bea, 1994).

  14. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, Christopher R.; Baross, John A.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2015-08-01

    Saturn's moon, Enceladus, is a geologically active waterworld. The prevailing paradigm is that there is a subsurface ocean that erupts to the surface, which leads to the formation of a plume of vapor and ice above the south polar region. The chemistry of the ocean is just beginning to be understood, but is of profound geochemical and astrobiological interest. Here, we determine the pH of the ocean using a thermodynamic model of carbonate speciation. Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to make a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model suggests that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ∼11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by carbonates and phyllosilicates on the ocean floor. Carboxyl groups in dissolved organic species would be negatively charged, while amino groups would exist predominately in the neutral form. Knowledge of the pH improves our understanding of geochemical processes in Enceladus' ocean. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecules such as those that have been detected in Enceladus' plume. Serpentinization and H2 generation should have occurred on Enceladus, like on the parent bodies of aqueously altered meteorites; but it is unknown whether these critical processes are still taking place, or if Enceladus' rocky core has been completely altered by past hydrothermal activity. The presence of native H2 in the plume would provide strong evidence for contemporary aqueous alteration that replenishes this source of energy for possible life. The high pH also suggests that the delivery of strong oxidants from the surface to the ocean has not been significant (otherwise, sulfuric acid would be produced), which would be consistent with geophysical models of episodic resurfacing activity on Enceladus. This paper represents an expansion of chemical oceanography to an "ocean planet" beyond Earth.

  15. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  16. What Is a pH Probe Study?

    MedlinePLUS

    What is a pH Probe Study ? What is pH a probe study? M easuring the pH in the esophagus helps determine whether or not acid is coming up from the stomach. A pH probe study is usually done in patients where ...

  17. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  18. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  20. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH......

  1. Not Your Father's Ph.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Brandon G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the author, a devoted blogger, confronts his fear that his virtual life is damaging his career prospects in academe. As a new Ph.D. in religious studies, the author has every reason to believe he will find a tenure-track job. He has read the numbers and know that, on average, job candidates spend two to five years in

  2. Iodine evolution and pH control

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Lorenz, R.A.; Weber, C.F.

    1993-10-01

    pH is the major factor in determining the extent of I{sub 2} in solution. In containment where no pH-control chemicals are present, the acidity or basicity of the water pool will be determined by materials that are introduced into containment as a result of the accident itself. These materials may be fission products (i.e., cesium compounds), thermally produced products (i.e., core-concrete aerosols), or compounds produced by radiation (i.e., nitric acid). In situations where pH levels fall below {approximately}7, the formation of I{sub 2} will occur in irradiated iodide solutions. A correlation between pH and iodine formation is needed so that the amounts I{sub 2} in water pools can be assessed. This, in turn, determines the amount of I{sub 2} in the atmosphere available for escape by containment leakage. A number of calculational routines based on more than 100 differential equations representing individual reactions can be found in the literature. In this work, it is shown that a simpler approach based on the steady-state decomposition of hydrogen peroxide should correctly describe iodine formation in severe accidents. Comparisons with test data show this approach to be valid. The most important acids in containment will be nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), produced by irradiation of water and air, and hydrochloric acid (HCl), produced by irradiation or heating of electrical cable insulation. The most important bases in containment will be cesium hydroxide, cesium borate (or cesium carbonate), and in some plants pH additives, such as sodium hydroxide or sodium phosphate.

  3. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The

  4. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The…

  5. Fibril formation pH controls intrafibrillar collagen biomineralization in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marelli, Benedetto; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Zhang, Yu Ling; Rouiller, Isabelle; Barralet, Jake E; Nazhat, Showan N

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that intrafibrillar, homogenous collagen biomineralization can be achieved by controlling self-assembly under mildly alkaline conditions. Using dense collagen (DC) gels as an osteoid model, we modulated their fibrillogenesis environment to evaluate the effects of fibrillogenesis pH on the protein charge distribution and ultimately on biomineralization. Cationic and anionic dye staining and electron cryomicroscopy analyses established that fibrillogenesis under mildly alkaline conditions promotes the formation of electronegative charges within the protein (anionic DC gels). These charges are stable upon titration of the gel pH to physiological values. Subsequent exposure of anionic DC gels to simulated body fluid induced the intrafibrillar biomineralization of the gels, promoting a rapid, extensive formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite, and strongly impacting gel mechanical properties. The generality and significance of this approach has been addressed by implanting freshly made anionic DC gels in vivo, in a rat subcutaneous model. Subcutaneous implants showed an extensive, homogenous biomineralization as early as at day 7, indicating that anionic collagen gels rapidly self-mineralize upon contact with body fluids in a non-osseous implantation site. The control of collagen fibrillogenesis pH provides not only new interpretations to what has been called the collagen mineralization enigma by demonstrating that neat collagen can intrafibrilarly self-mineralize, but it will also set a new starting point for the use of DC gels in bone regenerative medicine, in addition as potential applications as mineralized tissue model or as slow-release delivery carriers. PMID:25453955

  6. Water Droplet Erosion Behavior of High-Power Diode Laser Treated 17Cr4Ni PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.

    2014-05-01

    This article deals with water droplet erosion (WDE) behavior of high-power diode laser (HPDL) treated 17Cr4Ni PH stainless steel. After HPDL treatment, the water droplet erosion resistance (WDER) of 17Cr4Ni PH stainless steel has not improved. The main reason is the surface hardness, which has not improved after HPDL treatment though the microstructure has become much finer. On the other hand, precipitation hardening of the alloy at 490C for 3 h has resulted in improved WDER more than twice. This is because of its increased microhardness and improved modified ultimate resilience (MUR), and formation of fine grained microstructure. The WDER has been correlated with MUR, a single mechanical property, based upon microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, and Young's modulus. WDERs of HPDL treated, untreated, and precipitation hardened 17Cr4Ni PH stainless steel samples were determined using a WDE test facility as per ASTM G73-1978. The WDE damage mechanism, compared on the basis of MUR and scanning electron micrographs, is discussed and reported in this article.

  7. The Added Value of a PhD in Medicine--PhD Students' Perceptions of Acquired Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Henrika; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Lonka, Kristi; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    PhD in the field of medicine is more common than in any other domain. Many medical doctors are driven towards PhD, but also students with other backgrounds (usually MSc) are conducting a PhD in medical schools. Higher education has invested a lot in developing generic and research competences. Still little is known about how PhD students…

  8. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

    PubMed

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. PMID:26613188

  9. Assessment of Ultimate Load Capacity for Pre-Stressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model of PWR Design With BARC Code ULCA

    SciTech Connect

    Basha, S.M.; Singh, R.K.; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-07-01

    Ultimate load capacity assessment of nuclear containments has been a thrust research area for Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) power programme. For containment safety assessment of Indian PHWRs a finite element code ULCA was developed at BARC, Trombay. This code has been extensively benchmarked with experimental results. The present paper highlights the analysis results for Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) tested at Sandia National Labs, USA in a Round Robin analysis activity co-sponsored by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), Japan and the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Three levels of failure pressure predictions namely the upper bound, the most probable and the lower bound (all with 90% confidence) were made as per the requirements of the round robin analysis activity. The most likely failure pressure is predicted to be in the range of 2.95 Pd to 3.15 Pd (Pd= design pressure of 0.39 MPa for the PCCV model) depending on the type of liners used in the construction of the PCCV model. The lower bound value of the ultimate pressure of 2.80 Pd and the upper bound of the ultimate pressure of 3.45 Pd are also predicted from the analysis. These limiting values depend on the assumptions of the analysis for simulating the concrete-tendon interaction and the strain hardening characteristics of the steel members. The experimental test has been recently concluded at Sandia Laboratory and the peak pressure reached during the test is 3.3 Pd that is enveloped by our upper bound prediction of 3.45 Pd and is close to the predicted most likely pressure of 3.15 Pd. (authors)

  10. A uni-extension study on the ultimate material strength and extreme extensibility of atherosclerotic tissue in human carotid plaques

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Sutcliffe, Michael P.F.; Huang, Yuan; Brown, Adam J.; Jing, Zaiping; Lu, Qingsheng; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque rupture occurs when mechanical loading exceeds its material strength. Mechanical analysis has been shown to be complementary to the morphology and composition for assessing vulnerability. However, strength and stretch thresholds for mechanics-based assessment are currently lacking. This study aims to quantify the ultimate material strength and extreme extensibility of atherosclerotic components from human carotid plaques. Tissue strips of fibrous cap, media, lipid core and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus were obtained from 21 carotid endarterectomy samples of symptomatic patients. Uni-extension test with tissue strips was performed until they broke or slid. The Cauchy stress and stretch ratio at the peak loading of strips broken about 2mm away from the clamp were used to characterize their ultimate strength and extensibility. Results obtained indicated that ultimate strength of fibrous cap and media were 158.3 [72.1, 259.3] kPa (Median [Inter quartile range]) and 247.6 [169.0, 419.9] kPa, respectively; those of lipid and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus were 68.8 [48.5, 86.6] kPa and 83.0 [52.1, 124.9] kPa, respectively. The extensibility of each tissue type were: fibrous cap 1.18 [1.10, 1.27]; media 1.21 [1.17, 1.32]; lipid 1.25 [1.11, 1.30] and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus 1.20 [1.17, 1.44]. Overall, the strength of fibrous cap and media were comparable and so were lipid and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus. Both fibrous cap and media were significantly stronger than either lipid or intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus. All atherosclerotic components had similar extensibility. Moreover, fibrous cap strength in the proximal region (closer to the heart) was lower than that of the distal. These results are helpful in understanding the material behavior of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26472304

  11. The panacea toolbox of a PhD biomedical student.

    PubMed

    Skaik, Younis

    2014-01-01

    Doing a PhD (doctor of philosophy) for the sake of contribution to knowledge should give the student an immense enthusiasm through the PhD period. It is the time in one's life that one spends to "hit the nail on the head" in a specific area and topic of interest. A PhD consists mostly of hard work and tenacity; however, luck and genius might also play a little role. You can pass all PhD phases without having both luck and genius. The PhD student should have pre-PhD and PhD toolboxes, which are "sine quibus non" for getting successfully a PhD degree. In this manuscript, the toolboxes of the PhD student are discussed. PMID:25674150

  12. Family Size Preferences in Europe and USA: Ultimate Expected Number of Children. Comparative Studies Number 26: ECE Analyses of Surveys in Europe and USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Jerzy

    This survey analysis compares fertility levels in the United States and European countries, discusses socioeconomic influences in ultimate expected family size, and examines birth rate trends. The average number of ultimately expected children varies from 2.13 children per woman in Bulgaria to 2.80 in Spain. Eighty to 90 percent of U.S. and

  13. Characterisation of Phaseolus symbionts isolated from Mediterranean soils and analysis of genetic factors related to pH tolerance.

    PubMed

    Priefer, U B; Aurag, J; Boesten, B; Bouhmouch, I; Defez, R; Filali-Maltouf, A; Miklis, M; Moawad, H; Mouhsine, B; Prell, J; Schlter, A; Senatore, B

    2001-10-01

    The ultimate objective of PhIMED, in which two European (Germany, Italy) and two Mediterranean (Morocco, Egypt) countries collaborate, is to improve the cultivation of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under arid and semi-arid conditions by analysing and enhancing stress tolerance of the nitrogen fixing rhizobial microsymbionts. Rhizobial strains nodulating P. vulgaris (RP strains) isolated from areas in Morocco frequently subjected to drought were analysed for their salt and pH tolerance and their phylogenetic relationship. Strain RP163, exhibiting high nodulation efficiency and a broad pH tolerance was mutagenised by Tn5 and mutants unable to grow on extreme pH media were isolated. Some of the mutants affected in low pH tolerance were found to be mutated in genes related to cobalmin biosynthesis and in succinate dehydrogenase (sdhA). In a parallel approach, promoters and genes inducible under extreme pH values were identified in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae VF39, among them gabT, which encodes the GABA transaminase and which is induced under acidic conditions. The same gene is present and similarly regulated in RP163. The actSR gene region was cloned from VF39, sequenced and mutants generated in this region were found to be impaired in growth at low pH, but also under neutral conditions. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes 'promintron' promoter, reported to be activated in stationary phase, was found to be also strongly induced under acidic conditions in rhizobia and it is currently being characterised to construct a system allowing the expression of stress tolerance genes in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. PMID:11566393

  14. The pH of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. C.; Bishop, J. L.; Edwards, J. O.

    1993-01-01

    The Viking labeled release (LR) experiments provided data that can be used to determine the acid-base characteristics of the regolith. Constraints on the acid-base properties and redox potentials of the Martian surface material would provide additional information for determining what reactions are possible and defining formation conditions for the regolith. Calculations devised to determine the pH of Mars must include the amount of soluble acid species or base species present in the LR regolith sample and the solubility product of the carbonate with the limiting solubility. This analysis shows that CaCO3, either as calcite or aragonite, has the correct K(sub sp) to have produced the Viking LR successive injection reabsorption effects. Thus CaCO3 or another MeCO3 with very similar solubility characteristics must have been present on Mars. A small amount of soluble acid, but no more than 4 micro-mol per sample, could also have been present. It is concluded that the pH of the regolith is 7.2 +/- 0.1.

  15. Thiosquaramides: pH switchable anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Busschaert, Nathalie; Elmes, Robert B. P.; Czech, Dawid D.; Wu, Xin; Kirby, Isabelle L.; Peck, Evan M.; Hendzel, Kevin D.; Shaw, Scott K.; Chan, Bun; Smith, Bradley D.; Jolliffe, Katrina A.; Gale, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of anions across cellular membranes is an important biological function governed by specialised proteins. In recent years, many small molecules have emerged that mimick the anion transport behaviour of these proteins, but only a few of these synthetic molecules also display the gating/switching behaviour seen in biological systems. A small series of thiosquaramides was synthesised and their pH-dependent chloride binding and anion transport behaviour was investigated using 1H NMR titrations, single crystal X-ray diffraction and a variety of vesicle-based techniques. Spectrophotometric titrations and DFT calculations revealed that the thiosquaramides are significantly more acidic than their oxosquaramide analogues, with pKa values between 4.0 and 9.0. This led to the observation that at pH 7.2 the anion transport ability of the thiosquaramides is fully switched OFF due to deprotonation of the receptor, but is completely switched ON at lower pH. PMID:26146535

  16. Histone acetylation regulates intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    McBrian, Matthew A; Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Ferrari, Roberto; Su, Trent; Huang, Ta-Wei; Li, Kunwu; Hong, Candice S; Christofk, Heather R; Vogelauer, Maria; Seligson, David B; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2013-01-24

    Differences in global levels of histone acetylation occur in normal and cancer cells, although the reason why cells regulate these levels has been unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for histone acetylation in regulating intracellular pH (pH(i)). As pH(i) decreases, histones are globally deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and the released acetate anions are coexported with protons out of the cell by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), preventing further reductions in pH(i). Conversely, global histone acetylation increases as pH(i) rises, such as when resting cells are induced to proliferate. Inhibition of HDACs or MCTs decreases acetate export and lowers pH(i), particularly compromising pH(i) maintenance in acidic environments. Global deacetylation at low pH is reflected at a genomic level by decreased abundance and extensive redistribution of acetylation throughout the genome. Thus, acetylation of chromatin functions as a rheostat to regulate pH(i) with important implications for mechanism of action and therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23201122

  17. Science and Ultimate Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2004-06-01

    This preview of the future of physics comprises contributions from recognized authorities inspired by the pioneering work of John Wheeler. Quantum theory represents a unifying theme within the book, as it relates to the topics of the nature of physical reality, cosmic inflation, the arrow of time, models of the universe, superstrings, quantum gravity and cosmology. Attempts to formulate a final unification theory of physics are also considered, along with the existence of hidden dimensions of space, hidden cosmic matter, and the strange world of quantum technology. John Archibald Wheeler is one of the most influential scientists of the twentieth century. His extraordinary career has spanned momentous advances in physics, from the birth of the nuclear age to the conception of the quantum computer. Famous for coining the term "black hole," Professor Wheeler helped lay the foundations for the rebirth of gravitation as a mainstream branch of science, triggering the explosive growth in astrophysics and cosmology that followed. His early contributions to physics include the S matrix, the theory of nuclear rotation (with Edward Teller), the theory of nuclear fission (with Niels Bohr), action-at-a-distance electrodynamics (with Richard Feynman), positrons as backward-in-time electrons, the universal Fermi interaction (with Jayme Tiomno), muonic atoms, and the collective model of the nucleus. His inimitable style of thinking, quirky wit, and love of the bizarre have inspired generations of physicists.

  18. Toward ultimate nanoplasmonics modeling.

    PubMed

    Solís, Diego M; Taboada, José M; Obelleiro, Fernando; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; García de Abajo, F Javier

    2014-08-26

    Advances in the field of nanoplasmonics are hindered by the limited capabilities of simulation tools in dealing with realistic systems comprising regions that extend over many light wavelengths. We show that the optical response of unprecedentedly large systems can be accurately calculated by using a combination of surface integral equation (SIE) method of moments (MoM) formulation and an expansion of the electromagnetic fields in a suitable set of spatial wave functions via fast multipole methods. We start with a critical review of volume versus surface integral methods, followed by a short tutorial on the key features that render plasmons useful for sensing (field enhancement and confinement). We then use the SIE-MoM to examine the plasmonic and sensing capabilities of various systems with increasing degrees of complexity, including both individual and interacting gold nanorods and nanostars, as well as large random and periodic arrangements of ∼1000 gold nanorods. We believe that the present results and methodology raise the standard of numerical electromagnetic simulations in the field of nanoplasmonics to a new level, which can be beneficial for the design of advanced nanophotonic devices and optical sensing structures. PMID:25077678

  19. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing safety and operational availability.

  20. The ultimate high tide

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, R.G. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible coastal impacts of a rise in sea level. Control measures that are available to coastal communities are emphasized, including pumping of seawater into the ground, replenishing beach sand, protection or moving of potable-water intakes, elevating roadways, and building dikes. Economics will determine which, if any, measures are reasonable at a particular site. There is an upward trend in the mean CO{sub 2} concentration and predictions about the greenhouse effect are creating a rising tide of concern.

  1. Registration of "Ultimate" Zoysiagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ultimate’ (Reg. No. ________, PI 652947) zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) was developed at the Everglades Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Belle Glade, FL and initially approved for release in 2004. A plant patent was submitted in mid-2005 and presently awaits exami...

  2. Rochdale: The Ultimate Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Barrie

    1969-01-01

    Rochdale College, Toronto, Canada, the most ambitious, student-operated "free university in North America, is the antithesis of the conventional college. Its graffiti, drugs, sounds, smells and style shatter the usual academic yardsticks. But one summer of 1969 has brought some law and order to the college, now in its second year of operation.…

  3. New Routes to the PhD: Cause for Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Bill; Murray, Rowena

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that the PhD is at a turning point. Professional groups have criticised the so-called traditional PhD. New routes to the PhD are proposed by several bodies and endorsed by one funding council. In light of these developments, it is appropriate to ask what the implications are for the PhD and for the academy. A focus

  4. Development of a porous polymer pH optrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, J N; Shahriari, M R; Sigel, G H

    1992-12-15

    A novel fiber-optic pH sensor has been developed with long-term stability and high sensitivity. The sensor is based on a porous cellulose triacetate fiber immobilized with Congo Red (pH indicator). This intrinsic fiberoptic pH sensor has shown excellent sensitivity, reversibility, and stability. It has also been demonstrated that the pH optrode is immune to metal-ion interferences. PMID:19798326

  5. Organelle pH in the Arabidopsis endomembrane system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinbo; Zeng, Yonglun; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Sun, Lei; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Pimpl, Peter; Jiang, Liwen

    2013-09-01

    The pH of intracellular compartments is essential for the viability of cells. Despite its relevance, little is known about the pH of these compartments. To measure pH in vivo, we have first generated two pH sensors by combining the improved-solubility feature of solubility-modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) (smGFP) with the pH-sensing capability of the pHluorins and codon optimized for expression in Arabidopsis. PEpHluorin (plant-solubility-modified ecliptic pHluorin) gradually loses fluorescence as pH is lowered with fluorescence vanishing at pH 6.2 and PRpHluorin (plant-solubility-modified ratiomatric pHluorin), a dual-excitation sensor, allowing for precise measurements. Compartment-specific sensors were generated by further fusing specific sorting signals to PEpHluorin and PRpHluorin. Our results show that the pH of cytosol and nucleus is similar (pH 7.3 and 7.2), while peroxisomes, mitochondrial matrix, and plastidial stroma have alkaline pH. Compartments of the secretory pathway reveal a gradual acidification, spanning from pH 7.1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to pH 5.2 in the vacuole. Surprisingly, pH in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and multivesicular body (MVB) is, with pH 6.3 and 6.2, quite similar. The inhibition of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) with concanamycin A (ConcA) caused drastic increase in pH in TGN and vacuole. Overall, the PEpHluorin and PRpHluorin are excellent pH sensors for visualization and quantification of pH in vivo, respectively. PMID:23702593

  6. Ian Douglass Coulter, PhD

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on Dr. Ian Coulters accomplishments from the time he became Executive Vice-President of CMCC in 1981, until he ended his presidency with a years administrative leave in 1990. Annual planning initiatives, pedagogy, scholarship, conflicts, and the quest for university affiliation are discussed as well as his legacy to the College and the chiropractic profession. The term adventurous was first attributed to Coulter by Oswald Hall, PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto who had worked closely with Coulter in a major investigation of the chiropractic profession from 1976 to 1979. Throughout this article the author tries to capture the spirit of daring, innovation and intellect that permeated Coulters presidency, enthralling his advocates and confounding his detractors. PMID:17549218

  7. Intracellular pH in Sperm Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Nishigaki, Takuya; José, Omar; González-Cota, Ana Laura; Romero, Francisco; Treviño, Claudia L.; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation is essential for cell function. Notably, several unique sperm ion transporters and enzymes whose elimination causes infertility are either pHi dependent or somehow related to pHi regulation. Amongst them are: CatSper, a Ca2+ channel; Slo3, a K+ channel; the sperm-specific Na+/H+ exchanger and the soluble adenylyl cyclase. It is thus clear that pHi regulation is of the utmost importance for sperm physiology. This review briefly summarizes the key components involved in pHi regulation, their characteristics and participation in fundamental sperm functions such as motility, maturation and the acrosome reaction. PMID:24887564

  8. A Multiattributes Approach for Ranking PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    In its plan to combat the PhD shortage crisis, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB; 2003) has called for the development of PhD program rankings to serve as incentives for academic institutions to invest more in PhD programs, thereby counterbalancing the disproportionate influence of master of business…

  9. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  10. A Multiattributes Approach for Ranking PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    In its plan to combat the PhD shortage crisis, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB; 2003) has called for the development of PhD program rankings to serve as incentives for academic institutions to invest more in PhD programs, thereby counterbalancing the disproportionate influence of master of business

  11. Steel slag raises pH of greenhouse substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dolomitic lime (DL) is the primary liming agent used for increasing pH in peatmoss-based substrates. Steel slag (SS) is a byproduct of the steel manufacturing industry that has been used to elevate field soil pH. The objective of this research was to determine the pH response of a peatmoss-based g...

  12. INFLUENCE OF PH AND REDOX CONDITIONS ON COPPER LEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaching behavior of metals from a mineral processing waste at varying pH and redox conditions was studies. Effect of combinations of pH and Eh on leaching of copper is described. Leaching of copper was found to be dependent on both pH and Eh. Higher concentrations of Cu were ...

  13. pH dynamics in sewers and its modeling.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Keshab; Ganigue, Ramon; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-15

    pH variation in sewers has a significant effect on hydrogen sulfide production and emissions, and hence its accurate prediction is critical for the optimization of mitigation strategies. In this study, the nature and dynamics of pH variation in a sewer system is examined. Three sewer systems collecting domestic wastewater were monitored, with pH in all cases showing large diurnal variations. pH in fresh sewage in all three cases had a very similar trend with maximum pH in the range of 8.5-8.7. pH variation in fresh sewage followed the same pattern as the sewage flow rate, suggesting that sewage pH is influenced by household water use. Nitrogen content of the wastewater was found to be the most influential factor causing pH variation in fresh sewage, with the total ammonium concentration variation well correlated with the pH variation. A methodology for predicting pH variation in sewers is developed and calibration protocols proposed. The methodology, which is based on the concept of charge balance, was validated using titration curves and field pH data. Measurement of the total ammonium concentration in fresh sewage was found necessary and adequate for the calibration of the charge balance-based pH model. PMID:23962970

  14. Understanding Non-Traditional PhD Students Habitus--Implications for PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of vast changes in doctoral education and the emergence of non-traditional doctoral programmes, this paper investigates the habitus of non-traditional PhD students at a South African university. Bourdieu's conceptual tool of habitus informed the study. In-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 non-traditional

  15. High temperature pH measurements using novel pH electrodes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Song, H.; Hettiarachchi, S.

    1995-12-01

    Researchers used three pH sensors: (1) a yttria-stabilized zirconia, (2) tungsten/tungsten oxide, and (3) platinum hydrogen electrodes to measure the pH in concentrated solutions heated to temperatures from 125-300 C in autoclaves. The studies indicated measurements of pH for solutions containing sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, boric acid, ferrous sulfate, nickel sulfate, and chromous sulfate in various compositions. The solution composition and pH was then calculated by MULTEQ at the experimental conditions. These calculations compared well with the experimental measurements for binary and quaternary systems at temperatures to 300 C and concentrations to 1 molal. The agreement was also excellent for the metal sulfate systems but was poor for chromous sulfate. The agreement for boric acid solutions was adequate for low concentrations of boric acid but was poor for concentrated borate solutions where polyborate ions likely exist. It is not known whether the lack of agreement under these conditions is due to deficiencies in MULTEQ or the experimental measurements.

  16. NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program Ronald E. McNair PhD Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Sunnie

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Ronald E. McNair PHD Program was funded in September 1995. Implementation began during the spring of 1996. The deferment of the actual program initial semester enabled the program to continue support through the fall semester of 1998. This was accomplished by a no-cost extension from August 15, 1998 through December 31, 1998. There were 12 fellows supported by the program in 1996, 15 fellows in 1997, and 15 fellows 1998. Current program capacity is 15 fellows per funding support. Support for the academic outreach component began in spring 1998. The program was named the "Good Enough" Crew Activity (GECA) in honor of Dr. McNair's philosophy of everyone being good enough to achieve anything they want bad enough. The program currently enrolls 65 students from the third through the eight grades. The program is held 12 Saturdays per semester. The time is 9:00 AM to 12:30 PM each Saturday Morning. Program direction and facilitation is jointly administered with the PHD fellows and the Saturday Academy staff. Dr. John Kelly, REM-PHD Principal Investigator serves in a program oversight and leadership capacity. Ms. Sunnie Howard, The NASA REM-PHD Administrative Coordinator serves in an administrative and logistical capacity. Mr. Aaron Hatch, the NASA-AMES Liaison Officer, serve@'in a consultative and curriculum review capacity. The first recognition activity will be held on December 12, 1998, with the students, parents, faculty, PHD fellows, and other local student support services persons. Program outreach efforts are jointly supported by the NASA REM-PHD Program and the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. The Ph.D. program reached its first milestone in May 1998. North Carolina A&T State University graduated the first Ph.D. fellows. The first three Ph.D. Alumni were Ronald E. McNair PHD Program Fellows. It is hoped that this is just the beginning of a highly acclaimed doctoral program. The ultimate program success will be recognized when the program begins to graduate 15 fellows per year. The Ph.D. Program is only three and a half years old and the expectations of graduating PH.D's in that timeframe, is a phenomenal accomplishment for any program in the country. Since inception of the NASA REM-PHD program, tuitions and fees have increased. Stipend support was increased to offer the Ph.D. program on a competitive basis. These increases will place allocation restraints on r_ the current level of funding. These issues are being addressed in the proposal and will bear their own merit.

  17. Regulation of intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Boron, Walter F

    2004-12-01

    The approach that most animal cells employ to regulate intracellular pH (pH(i)) is not too different conceptually from the way a sophisticated system might regulate the temperature of a house. Just as the heat capacity (C) of a house minimizes sudden temperature (T) shifts caused by acute cold and heat loads, the buffering power (beta) of a cell minimizes sudden pH(i) shifts caused by acute acid and alkali loads. However, increasing C (or beta) only minimizes T (or pH(i)) changes; it does not eliminate the changes, return T (or pH(i)) to normal, or shift steady-state T (or pH(i)). Whereas a house may have a furnace to raise T, a cell generally has more than one acid-extruding transporter (which exports acid and/or imports alkali) to raise pH(i). Whereas an air conditioner lowers T, a cell generally has more than one acid-loading transporter to lower pH(i). Just as a house might respond to graded decreases (or increases) in T by producing graded increases in heat (or cold) output, cells respond to graded decreases (or increases) in pH(i) with graded increases (or decreases) in acid-extrusion (or acid-loading) rate. Steady-state T (or pH(i)) can change only in response to a change in chronic cold (or acid) loading or chronic heat (or alkali) loading as produced, for example, by a change in environmental T (or pH) or a change in the kinetics of the furnace (or acid extrudes) or air conditioner (or acid loaders). Finally, just as a temperature-control system might benefit from environmental sensors that provide clues about cold and heat loading, at least some cells seem to have extracellular CO(2) or extracellular HCO(3)(-) sensors that modulate acid-base transport. PMID:15545345

  18. Comparison of Rumen Fluid pH by Continuous Telemetry System and Bench pH Meter in Sheep with Different Ranges of Ruminal pH

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Leonardo F.; Minervino, Antonio H. H.; Arajo, Carolina A. S. C.; Sousa, Rejane S.; Oliveira, Francisco L. C.; Rodrigues, Frederico A. M. L.; Meira-Jnior, Enoch B. S.; Barrto-Jnior, Raimundo A.; Mori, Clara S.; Ortolani, Enrico L.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to compare the measurements of sheep ruminal pH using a continuous telemetry system or a bench pH meter using sheep with different degrees of ruminal pH. Ruminal lactic acidosis was induced in nine adult crossbred Santa Ines sheep by the administration of 15?g of sucrose per kg/BW. Samples of rumen fluid were collected at the baseline, before the induction of acidosis (T0) and at six, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the induction for pH measurement using a bench pH meter. During this 72-hour period, all animals had electrodes for the continuous measurement of pH. The results were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson coefficients of correlation and determination, and paired analysis of variance with Student's t-test. The measurement methods presented a strong correlation (r = 0.94, P < 0.05) but the rumen pH that was measured continuously using a telemetry system resulted in lower values than the bench pH meter (overall mean of 5.38 and 5.48, resp., P = 0.0001). The telemetry system was able to detect smaller changes in rumen fluid pH and was more accurate in diagnosing both subacute ruminal lactic acidosis and acute ruminal lactic acidosis in sheep. PMID:24967422

  19. Stress-resultant models for ultimate load design of reinforced concrete frames and multi-scale parameter estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, B. H.; Brancherie, D.; Davenne, L.; Ibrahimbegovic, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we present a new finite element for (geometrically linear) Timoshenko beam model for ultimate load computation of reinforced concrete frames. The proposed model combines the descriptions of the diffuse plastic failure in the beam-column followed by the creation of plastic hinges due to the failure or collapse of the concrete and of the re-bars. A modified multi-scale analysis is performed in order to identify the parameters for stress-resultant-based macro model, which is used to described the behavior of the Timoshenko beam element. For clarity, we focus upon the micro-scale models using the multi-fiber elements with embedded displacement discontinuities in mode I, which would typically be triggered by bending failure mode. More general case of micro-scale model capable of describing shear failure is described by Ibrahimbegovic et al. (Int J Numer Methods Eng 83(4):452-481, 2010).

  20. Effect of cooling rate on eutectic cell count, grain size, microstructure, and ultimate tensile strength of hypoeutectic cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Hemanth, J.; Rao, K.V.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1999-08-01

    This article describes a series of microstructural and strength studies performed on hypoeutectic cast iron, which was sand cast using a variety of end chills (metallic, nonmetallic, water-cooled, and subzero, respectively). The effects of cooling rate on the eutectic cell count (ECC), grain size, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were evaluated. Attempts were also made to explain these effects and to correlate the UTS with ECC. It was found that subzero chilled and water-cool, chilled cast iron exhibit severe undercooling compared to normal sand cast iron. It was concluded from this investigation that nucleation conditions are completely altered but growth conditions prevail as usual. Therefore, undercooling during solidification is considered to be responsible for variation in ECC, grain size, and microstructure, and tensile strength.

  1. 2.4 ?m GaInAsSb Mesa Photodiode Detectors: Leakage Currents and Ultimate Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prineas, John; Yager, Jeff; Olesberg, Jon; Seydmohamadi, Shahram

    2008-03-01

    Short-wave infrared photodiodes play an important role in areas such as molecular sensing, thermophotovoltaics, and astronomical study of galaxy, star, and planetary formation. Here we present results and analysis of uncoated, unpassivated, GaInAsSb mesa photodiodes. We have currently achieved room temperature peak specific detectivity D*=6x10^10 Jones, dynamic resistance of 25 ?-cm^2, and quantum efficiency of 50%. Devices are limited primarily by sidewall leakage currents, initially due to generation-recombination, and over time due to Ohmic leakage from buildup of sidewall oxides. Based on material parameters obtained in this as well as other studies, ultimate diode performance is predicted, and compared to extended-wave InGaAs/InP and HgCdTe detectors.

  2. Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhdeo, David S.; Gupta, Shashank; Saraswat, Krishna C.; (Raj Dutt, Birendra; Nam, Donguk

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the methodology involved in the minimization of the threshold of a Ge-on-Si laser and maximization of the slope efficiency in the presence of both biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping. Our findings suggest that there exist ultimate limits beyond which no further benefit can be realized through increased tensile strain or n-type doping. In this study, we quantify these limits, showing that the optimal design for minimizing threshold involves approximately 3.7% biaxial tensile strain and 2 1018 cm?3 n-type doping, whereas the optimal design for maximum slope efficiency involves approximately 2.3% biaxial tensile strain with 1 1019 cm?3 n-type doping. Increasing the strain and doping beyond these limits will degrade the threshold and slope efficiency, respectively.

  3. Towards the Artsutanov's dream of the space elevator: The ultimate design of a 35 GPa strong tether thanks to graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we have evaluated the strength of a graphene/nanotube bundle considering the two possible failure mechanisms, i.e. intrinsic fracture or sliding. We have accordingly proposed smart strengthening strategies, such as a flaw tolerant design and the nanotube self-collapse. The flaw tolerant design reduces the required strength whereas the self-collapse can increase the achievable strength. Only by coupling these complementary, and possibly other e.g. self-healing, smart strategies, the Artsutanov's dream of the space elevator could be realized. The ultimate design of a 35 GPa strong tether is thus proposed for the first time in this paper, thanks to graphene bundles and the numerous previous investigations performed by the author. Graphene bundles and composites, in which sliding is the current weakest link, are demonstrated to be two times stronger than their nanotube counterparts.

  4. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it

    2013-04-10

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a {Lambda}CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 < z < 0.3. The survey includes 22,680 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,145 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster, we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for {approx}200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a {Lambda}CDM universe) is on average (1.99 {+-} 0.11)M{sub 200}, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M{sub 200} and in L{sub X} demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  5. Proton Transport and pH Control in Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kane, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Despite diverse and changing extracellular environments, fungi maintain a relatively constant cytosolic pH and numerous organelles of distinct lumenal pH. Key players in fungal pH control are V-ATPases and the P-type proton pump Pma1. These two proton pumps act in concert with a large array of other transporters and are highly regulated. The activities of Pma1 and the V-ATPase are coordinated under some conditions, suggesting that pH in the cytosol and organelles is not controlled independently. Genomic studies, particularly in the highly tractable S. cerevisiae, are beginning to provide a systems-level view of pH control, including transcriptional responses to acid or alkaline ambient pH and definition of the full set of regulators required to maintain pH homeostasis. Genetically encoded pH sensors have provided new insights into localized mechanisms of pH control, as well as highlighting the dynamic nature of pH responses to the extracellular environment. Recent studies indicate that cellular pH plays a genuine signaling role that connects nutrient availability and growth rate through a number of mechanisms. Many of the pH control mechanisms found in S. cerevisiae are shared with other fungi, with adaptations for their individual physiological contexts. Fungi deploy certain proton transport and pH control mechanisms not shared with other eukaryotes; these regulators of cellular pH are potential antifungal targets. This review describes current and emerging knowledge proton transport and pH control mechanisms in S. cerevisiae and briefly discusses how these mechanisms vary among fungi. PMID:26721270

  6. PhD Students' Work Conditions and Study Environment in University- and Industry-Based PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmos, A.; Kofoed, L. B.; Du, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, new models of funding and training PhD students have been established in Denmark in order to integrate industry into the entire PhD education. Several programmes have been conducted where it is possible to co-finance PhD scholarships or to become an employee as an industrial PhD in a company. An important question is what…

  7. PhD Students' Work Conditions and Study Environment in University- and Industry-Based PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmos, A.; Kofoed, L. B.; Du, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, new models of funding and training PhD students have been established in Denmark in order to integrate industry into the entire PhD education. Several programmes have been conducted where it is possible to co-finance PhD scholarships or to become an employee as an industrial PhD in a company. An important question is what

  8. Selective labeling and monitoring pH changes of lysosomes in living cells with fluorogenic pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lai-Qiang; Branchaud, Bruce P

    2011-06-15

    New BODIPY-based pH probes have been designed with excitation and emission wavelengths suitable for fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. These pH probes are cell-permeable, selectively label lysosomes, and can be used for noninvasive monitoring of lysosomal pH changes during physiological and pathological processes. PMID:21576021

  9. Time course of pH change in plant epidermis using microscopic pH imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Risako; Shimizu, Megumi; Kazama, Haruko; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    We established a microscopic pH imaging system to track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis in vivo. In the previous research, we have found out that anthocyanin containing cells have higher pH. However, it was not clear whether the anthocyanin increased the pH or anthocyanin was synthesized result from the higher pH. Therefore, we further investigated the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change. To track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis, we established a system using luminescent imaging technique. We used HPTS (8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate) as pH indicator and applied excitation ratio imaging method. Luminescent image was converted to a pH distribution by obtained in vitro calibration using known pH solution. Cellular level observation was enabled by merging microscopic color picture of the same region to the pH change image. The established system was applied to epidermal cells of red-tip leaf lettuce, Lactuca Sativa L. and the time course was tracked in the growth process. We would discuss about the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change in plant epidermis.

  10. Tear pH, air pollution, and contact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, S.; Garcia, M.L.; Espina, M.; Valero, J.; Valls, O.

    1988-08-01

    We analyzed the tear pH of a random sample of 100 subjects, divided into 3 groups according to the stability of their precorneal tear film (normal eyes, borderline; and dry eyes). The average pH value obtained was 7.52. The pH for borderline and dry eyes was higher than for normal eyes. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of air pollution, specifically sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), on the tear pH. We found that air pollution affected the lacrimal pH, which decreased when the atmospheric SO/sub 2/ increased. Finally, we studied the effect of soft contact lens wear on tear pH after 7 days of contact lens adaptation by assessing the tear pH decrease. We took into account the influence of the sex and age of subjects on the results obtained.

  11. pH regulation of urease levels in Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Sissons, C H; Perinpanayagam, H E; Hancock, E M; Cutress, T W

    1990-05-01

    Potential mechanisms for regulation of urease levels in Streptococcus salivarius were examined, including: induction by urea, nitrogen or carbon source repression, and effects of pH and CO2 (because CO2 enrichment enhanced urease detection on urea agar plates). Regulation by either pH or CO2 was confirmed by comparison of the urease accumulation pattern during anaerobic growth under CO2 with that under N2. Under CO2, there was an initial buffering plateau at pH 6.2 and a rate of Streptococcus salivarius urease accumulation three-fold that under N2, with a pH 7.6 plateau. With both gas phases there was also an increase in the rate of urease appearance coincident with the decrease in medium pH following the pH plateau. The effects of pH, CO2, and HCO3- on urease levels and on growth were separately assessed by culture in media containing 0, 25, 100 mmol/L KHCO3 buffered at different pH levels. There was an inverse relationship between the logarithm of the urease level after 24-hour growth and the pH during growth-the urease specific activity was 100-fold higher at pH 5.5, compared with pH 7.0 and above. HCO3-/CO2 (100 mmol/L) had little effect on urease levels, but was essential for growth at pH 5.5. There was no significant urease induction by urea, or repression by ammonia or glucose. There was also evidence of pH regulation of urease levels in some staphylococci, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Corynebacterium renale, but not in Actinomyces naeslundii and several other species. We conclude that the external pH is a major factor regulating urease levels in S. salivarius and possibly some other species-a mechanism equivalent to urease repression by OH-. PMID:2110582

  12. The CH3PH2 and CH3PH isomers: isomerization, hydrogen release, thermodynamic, and spectroscopy properties.

    PubMed

    Viana, Rommel B; da Silva, Albrico B F

    2014-08-01

    In this study was performed a quantum chemical investigation of the methylphosphine molecule and its radical, which may show potential implications in interstellar processes, and may be crucial atmospheric tracer gasses in the atmosphere of Giant planets. The analyses were performed with the density functional theory and coupled cluster methods. The anharmonic vibrational modes were predicted for all the isomers. The atomic charge distribution was analyzed with different methodologies and some methods fail to establish the correct sign for phosphorous atom charges. The CH2PH2/CH3PH and CHPH3/CH3PH energy gap is 16.45-17.43 and 67.05-69.02 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The CH2PH3/CH3PH2 energy difference ranges from 44.62 to 50.05 kcal mol(-1). The ionization energy predicted with the W1BD method for CH3PH and CH3PH2 are 8.73 and 9.01 eV, respectively. The heat of formation at 298 K for each molecule were calculated in kcal mol(-1): CH3PH (24.16-25.27), CH2PH2 (41.20-42.47), CHPH3 (92.50-94.23), CH3PH2 (-4.73-2.83) and CH2PH3 (40.03-42.55). The rotational energy barriers for CH3PH2 and CH2PH3 are 1.65 and 2.81 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The CHPH3?CH2PH2 unimolecular arrangement presents a barrier energy of 29.89 kcal mol(-1), whereas CH3PH?CH2PH2 is accessible overcoming a barrier of 42.42 kcal mol(-1). The H2-release routes for CH2PH2 from carbon and phosphorous atoms show a barrier of 98.19 and 46.67 kcal mol(-1), respectively. For the CH3PH2?CH2PH3 isomerization, an energy barrier of 94.00 kcal mol(-1) was predicted, while for the H2-release pathway for CH3PH2 it is necessary to pass a potential energy barrier of 97.56 kcal mol(-1). PMID:25037491

  13. To PhET or Not To PhET: That Is the Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casao, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The investigation examined use of a Physics Education Technology (PhET) simulation versus a hands-on lab activity on student's conceptual understanding of physics content. Topics of study included vectors, projectile motion, direct current (DC) circuits, and the photoelectric effect. Participants consisted of high school juniors and seniors enrolled in a physics course. Assessment instruments consisted of questions taken from the Vector Evaluation Test, the Electric Circuits Concept Evaluation test, textbook test banks, or written to address concepts under evaluation. Data collection consisted of a pre-test score, a post-test score, and a gain score. The conceptual understanding of the experimental and the control groups did not significantly differ for vectors and DC circuits. The conceptual understanding of the experimental and control groups did significantly differ for projectile motion. The results indicated a conceptual gain for students using the photoelectric effect simulation. Student attitudes towards the PhET simulations were positive.

  14. Low pH alkaline chemical formulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Peru, D.A.; Thornton, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of a surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding system that is applicable to specific reservoir conditions in Wilmington (California) field. The cost of the chemicals for an ASP (alkali/surfactant/polymer) flood is calculated to be $3.90/bbl of oil produced, with 78% of that cost attributable to polymer. This research included phase behavior tests, oil displacement tests, mineral dissolution tests, and adsorption measurements. It was discovered that consumption of low pH alkalis is low enough in the Wilmington field to be acceptable. In addition, alkali dramatically reduced surfactant adsorption and precipitation. A mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 was recommended for use as a preflush and in the ASP formulation. Research was also conducted on the synergistic effect that occurs when a mixture of alkali and synthetic surfactant contacts crude oil. It appears that very low IFT is predominantly a result of the activation of the natural surfactants present in the Wilmington oil, and the sustained low IFT is primarily the result of the synthetic surfactant. It also appears that removal of acids from the crude oil by the alkali renders the oil more interfacially reactive to synthetic surfactant. These phenomena help to explain the synergism that results from combining alkali and synthetic surfactant into a single oil recovery formulation. 19 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    PubMed

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.380.57 U/L) and pHu (6.30.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.80.78) a* (17.50.53) and b* (12.80.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  16. Prediction of pork quality with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) 2. Feasibility and robustness of NIRS measurements under production plant conditions.

    PubMed

    Kapper, C; Klont, R E; Verdonk, J M A J; Williams, P C; Urlings, H A P

    2012-07-01

    Longissimus dorsi samples (685) collected at four processing plants were used to develop prediction equations for meat quality with near infrared spectroscopy. Equations with R(2)>0.70 and residual prediction deviation (RPD)?2.0 were considered as applicable for screening. One production plant showed R(2) 0.76 and RPD 2.05, other plants showed R(2)<0.70 and RPD<2.0 for drip loss %. RPD values were ?2.05 for drip loss%, for colour L*?1.82 and pH ultimate (pHu)?1.57. Samples were grouped for drip loss%; superior (<2.0%), moderate (2-4%), inferior (>4.0%). 64% from the superior group and 56% from the inferior group were predicted correctly. One equation could be used for screening drip loss %. Best prediction equation for L* did not meet the requirements (R(2) 0.70 and RPD 1.82). pHu equation could not be used. Results suggest that prediction equations can be used for screening drip loss %. PMID:22405914

  17. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.380.57 U/L) and pHu (6.30.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.80.78) a* (17.50.53) and b* (12.80.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  18. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per ?L. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision. PMID:22934885

  19. Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Genn Saji

    2006-07-01

    The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of {sup 137}Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

  20. In vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA oligomer covalent complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1994-12-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine compound formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures. PhIP damages DNA by forming covalent complexes with DNA carcinogen. In an effort to understand how the binding of PhIP to DNA may cause cancer, it is important to characterize the structures of PhIP-damaged DNA molecules. Our HPLC data support fluorescence and {sup 32}P Post-labeling studies which indicate the formation of several species of 2{prime}deoxyguanosine-(dG) or oligodeoxynucleotide-PhIP adducts. The reaction of PhIP with dG resulted in a reddish precipitate that was likely the major adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) adduct, with a more polar adduct fraction remaining in the supernatant. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the adducts in the supernatant revealed the existence of species of much shorter retention times than the dG-C8-PhIP adduct, confirming that these species are more polar than dG-C8-PhIP. At least four adducts were formed in the reaction of PhIP with DNA oligomer. HPLC analysis of the PhIP-DNA oligomer supernatant after butanol extractions revealed four unresolved peaks which spectra had maximum wavelengths between 340 and 360 nm. Though adduct peaks were not completely resolved, there was {approximately}3 minutes interval between the DNA oligomer peak and the adduct peaks. Furthermore, fluorescence emission data of the DNA oligomer-PhIP adduct solution show heterogeneous binding. The more polar PhIP adducts were fraction-collected and their structures will be solved by nuclear magnetic resonance or x-ray crystallography.

  1. Impact of ruminal pH on enteric methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Entz, T; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ruminal pH on methane (CH4) emission from beef cattle. Ruminal pH and CH4 data were generated in 2 experiments using 16 beef heifers offered high-forage (55% barley silage) or high-grain (92% concentrate; DM basis) diets. Both experiments were designed as a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 4 periods and 4 dietary treatments. Methane was measured over 4 consecutive days using open-circuit respiratory chambers with each chamber housing 2 heifers. The ruminal pH of individual heifers was measured using indwelling pH loggers. The mean ruminal pH and CH4 emission (g/h) of 2 heifers in every chamber were summarized in 30-min blocks. Even though rumen methanogens have been described to be inhibited by a pH < 6.0 in vitro, in vivo CH4-production rates (g/h) did not decrease when ruminal pH declined to threshold levels for subacute (5.2 ≤ pH < 5.5) or acute ruminal acidosis (pH < 5.2; P > 0.05). Daily mean CH4 emission (g/d) and ruminal pH were only mildly correlated (r2 = 0.27; P < 0.05), suggesting that additional factors, such as increased propionate formation or passage rate, account for the lower CH4 emissions from cattle fed high-grain as compared to high-forage diets. Lowering ruminal pH alone is, therefore, not an effective CH4-mitigation strategy. Mechanisms permitting methanogens to survive episodes of low-ruminal pH might include changes in community structure toward more pH-tolerant strains or sequestration into microenvironments within biofilms or protozoa where methanogens are protected from low pH. PMID:26020197

  2. Variation in Biofilm Stability with Decreasing pH Affects Porous Medium Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M. F.; Santillan, E. F.; McGrath, L. K.; Altman, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    Changes to microbial communities caused by subsurface CO2 injection may have many consequences, including possible impacts to CO2 transport. We used column experiments to examine how decreasing pH, a geochemical change associated with CO2 injection, will affect biofilm stability and ultimately the hydraulic properties of porous media. Columns consisted of 1 mm2 square capillary tubes filled with 105-150 m diameter glass beads. Artificial groundwater medium containing 1 mM glucose was pumped through the columns at a rate of 0.01 mL/min (q = 14.4 m/day; Re = 0.03). Columns were inoculated with 3 10^8 CFU (avg.) of Pseudomonas fluorescens, a model biofilm former, transformed with a green fluorescent protein. Biomass distribution and transport was examined using scanning laser confocal microscopy and effluent plating. Variation in the bulk hydraulic properties of the columns was measured using manometers. In an initial experiment, biofilm growth was allowed to occur for seven days in medium with pH 7.3. Within this period, cells uniformly coated bead surfaces, effluent cell numbers stabilized at 1 10^9 CFU/mL, and hydraulic conductivity (K) decreased 77%. Next, medium with pH 4 was introduced. As a result, biomass within the reactor redistributed from bead surfaces to pores, effluent cell numbers decreased to 3 10^5 CFU/mL, and K decreased even further (>94% reduction). This decreased K was maintained until the experiment was terminated, seven days after introducing low pH medium. These results suggest that changes in biomass distribution as a result of decreased pH may initially limit transport of solubility-trapped CO2 following CO2 injection. Experiments in progress and planned will test this result in more detail and over longer periods of time. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Observation of millimeter-wave oscillations from resonant tunneling diodes and some theoretical considerations of ultimate frequency limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Le, H. Q.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of oscillation frequencies up to 56 GHz in resonant tunneling structures are discussed in relation to calculations by several authors of the ultimate frequency limits of these devices. It is found that calculations relying on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation give limits well below the observed oscillation frequencies. Two other techniques for calculating the upper frequency limit were found to give more reasonable results. One method employs the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation obtained by Kundrotas and Dargys (1986); the other uses the energy width of the transmission function for electrons through the double-barrier structure. This last technique is believed to be the most accurate since it is based on general results for the lifetime of any resonant state. It gives frequency limits on the order of 1 THz for two recently fabricated structures. It appears that the primary limitation of the oscillation frequency for double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes is imposed by intrinsic device circuit parameters and by the transit time of the depletion layer rather than by time delays encountered in the double-barrier region.

  4. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by core-shell WO3/BiVO4 nanorods with ultimate water splitting efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihosh, Yuriy; Turkevych, Ivan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Uemura, Jin; Kazoe, Yutaka; Kosar, Sonya; Makita, Kikuo; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Takuya; Fujita, Daisuke; Tosa, Masahiro; Kondo, Michio; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2015-06-01

    Efficient photocatalytic water splitting requires effective generation, separation and transfer of photo-induced charge carriers that can hardly be achieved simultaneously in a single material. Here we show that the effectiveness of each process can be separately maximized in a nanostructured heterojunction with extremely thin absorber layer. We demonstrate this concept on WO3/BiVO4+CoPi core-shell nanostructured photoanode that achieves near theoretical water splitting efficiency. BiVO4 is characterized by a high recombination rate of photogenerated carriers that have much shorter diffusion length than the thickness required for sufficient light absorption. This issue can be resolved by the combination of BiVO4 with more conductive WO3 nanorods in a form of core-shell heterojunction, where the BiVO4 absorber layer is thinner than the carrier diffusion length while its optical thickness is reestablished by light trapping in high aspect ratio nanostructures. Our photoanode demonstrates ultimate water splitting photocurrent of 6.72?mA?cm-2 under 1 sun illumination at 1.23?VRHE that corresponds to ~90% of the theoretically possible value for BiVO4. We also demonstrate a self-biased operation of the photoanode in tandem with a double-junction GaAs/InGaAsP photovoltaic cell with stable water splitting photocurrent of 6.56?mA?cm-2 that corresponds to the solar to hydrogen generation efficiency of 8.1%.

  5. Imaging-Genetics in Dyslexia: Connecting risk genetic variants to brain neuroimaging and ultimately to reading impairments

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, John D.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is a common pediatric disorder that affects 5-17% of schoolchildren in the United States. It is marked by unexpected difficulties in fluent reading despite adequate intelligence, opportunity, and instruction. Classically, neuropsychologists have studied dyslexia using a variety of neurocognitive batteries to gain insight into the specific deficits and impairments in affected children. Since dyslexia is a complex genetic trait with high heritability, analyses conditioned on performance on these neurocognitive batteries have been used to try to identify associated genes. This has led to some successes in identifying contributing genes, although much of the heritability remains unexplained. Additionally, the lack of relevant human brain tissue for analysis and the challenges of modeling a uniquely human trait in animals are barriers to advancing our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology. In vivo imaging technologies, however, present new opportunities to examine dyslexia and reading skills in a clearly relevant context in human subjects. Recent investigations have started to integrate these imaging data with genetic data in attempts to gain a more complete and complex understanding of reading processes. In addition to bridging the gap from genetic risk variant to a discernible neuroimaging phenotype and ultimately to the clinical impairments in reading performance, the use of neuroimaging phenotypes will reveal novel risk genes and variants. In this article, we briefly discuss the genetic and imaging investigations and take an in-depth look at the recent imaging-genetics investigations of dyslexia. PMID:23916419

  6. Development of FRP composite structural biomaterials: ultimate strength of the fiber/matrix interfacial bond in in vivo simulated environments.

    PubMed

    Latour, R A; Black, J

    1992-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are being developed as alternatives to metals for structural orthopedic implant applications. FRP composite fracture behavior and environmental interactions are distinctly different from those which occur in metals. These differences must be accounted for in the design and evaluation of implant performance. Fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength in a FRP composite is known to strongly influence fracture behavior. The interfacial bond strength of four candidate fiber/matrix combinations (carbon fiber/polycarbonate, carbon fiber/polysulfone, polyaramid fiber/polycarbonate, polyaramid fiber/polysulfone) were investigated at 37 degrees C in dry and in vivo simulated (saline, exudate) environments. Ultimate bond strength was measured by a single fiber-microdroplet pull-out test. Dry bond strengths were significantly decreased following exposure to either saline or exudate with bond strength loss being approximately equal in both the saline and exudate. Bond strength loss is attributed to the diffusion of water and/or salt ions into the sample and their interaction with interfacial bonding. Because bond degradation is dependent upon diffusion, diffusional equilibrium must be obtained in composite test samples before the full effect of the test environment upon composite mechanical behavior can be determined. PMID:1512281

  7. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS) tool to accelerate plant breeding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Laroche, André; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Liu, HongKui; Li, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broaden NGS usages to large crop genomes such as maize and wheat, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been developed and applied in sequencing multiplexed samples that combine molecular marker discovery and genotyping. GBS is a novel application of NGS protocols for discovering and genotyping SNPs in crop genomes and populations. The GBS approach includes the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes followed by the ligation of barcode adapter, PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplified DNA pool on a single lane of flow cells. Bioinformatic pipelines are needed to analyze and interpret GBS datasets. As an ultimate MAS tool and a cost-effective technique, GBS has been successfully used in implementing genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic diversity study, genetic linkage analysis, molecular marker discovery and genomic selection under a large scale of plant breeding programs. PMID:25324846

  8. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of Bakken and Three Forks Formations horizontal wells in the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) are a key component in determining productivity of wells in continuous-type oil and gas reservoirs. EURs form the foundation of a well-performance-based assessment methodology initially developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; Schmoker, 1999). This methodology was formally reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation (Curtis and others, 2001). The EUR estimation methodology described in this paper was used in the 2013 USGS assessment of continuous oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and incorporates uncertainties that would not normally be included in a basic decline-curve calculation. These uncertainties relate to (1) the mean time before failure of the entire well-production system (excluding economics), (2) the uncertainty of when (and if) a stable hyperbolic-decline profile is revealed in the production data, (3) the particular formation involved, (4) relations between initial production rates and a stable hyperbolic-decline profile, and (5) the final behavior of the decline extrapolation as production becomes more dependent on matrix storage.

  9. TEMPERATURE LIMITS, GENEALOGICAL ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENTAL COURSE, AND ULTIMATE FATE OF HEAT-INDUCED FILAMENTS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI MICROCULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Heiner; Frank, Michael E.

    1963-01-01

    Hoffman, Heiner (New York University, New York, N.Y.) and Michael E. Frank. Temperature limits, genealogical origin, developmental course, and ultimate fate of heat-induced filaments in Escherichia coli microcultures. J. Bacteriol. 85:1221–1234. 1963.—The heat induction of filaments in microcultures of Escherichia coli occurred through a wide range of temperature, with 43.5 C being the upper limit at which all cells continued to grow. The lower temperature limit was not determined, but filaments were obtained at room temperature in overnight cultivations. The evidence from genealogical histories, growth rates, and cell and filament lengths strongly suggested that the filaments are collections of morphologically undifferentiated, but quasi-independent cell units which continue to grow and multiply while retaining the capacity eventually to break off completely as normal, nonfilamented cells. Filaments which failed to give off a daughter by the end of the second generation after their inception lyse explosively. The evidence obtained contradicts the hypothesis that the mother cell of a clonal microcolony becomes a filament and eventually lyses, although the cell length patterns upon which this hypothesis is based were reproduced. A high degree of synchronization of division was obtained and maintained through the entire period of incubation, which in some cultivations extended into the tenth generation. Images PMID:14047212

  10. Assessing brain plasticity across the lifespan with transcranial magnetic stimulation: why, how, and what is the ultimate goal?

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Catarina; Farzan, Faranak; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Sustaining brain and cognitive function across the lifespan must be one of the main biomedical goals of the twenty-first century. We need to aim to prevent neuropsychiatric diseases and, thus, to identify and remediate brain and cognitive dysfunction before clinical symptoms manifest and disability develops. The brain undergoes a complex array of changes from developmental years into old age, putatively the underpinnings of changes in cognition and behavior throughout life. A functionally “normal” brain is a changing brain, a brain whose capacity and mechanisms of change are shifting appropriately from one time-point to another in a given individual's life. Therefore, assessing the mechanisms of brain plasticity across the lifespan is critical to gain insight into an individual's brain health. Indexing brain plasticity in humans is possible with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which, in combination with neuroimaging, provides a powerful tool for exploring local cortical and brain network plasticity. Here, we review investigations to date, summarize findings, and discuss some of the challenges that need to be solved to enhance the use of TMS measures of brain plasticity across all ages. Ultimately, TMS measures of plasticity can become the foundation for a brain health index (BHI) to enable objective correlates of an individual's brain health over time, assessment across diseases and disorders, and reliable evaluation of indicators of efficacy of future preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:23565072

  11. 2-D Neighborhood Operator Using A Single Channel A0 Cell Demonstrates Near Ultimate Data Flow Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Roger S.

    1986-09-01

    A single channel AO cell having a large time bandwidth product can store ten times the image area required for a single calculation of a 9 x 9 neighborhood operator. With proper data sequencing this storage capability of the AO cell can result in nearly one filtered output data point for every input pixel from the image. The image enters the AO cell as a series of columns which are 90 pixels long rather than the 9 pixels required by the desired 9 x 9 convolution filter. Nine such columns which sit side by side in the image fit in tandem in the AO cell. A mask adjoining the AO cell simultaneously selects the desired nine pixels from each of long columns and multiplies by the (mask) filter function. A pulsed laser source illuminating the AO cell and filter mask is collected on a single detector giving a single neighborhood calculation. Each step of the column data through the AO cell gives a new output data point corresponding to the filter mask stepping down the long columns of the image. The result is efficient data flow in two dimensions, first by inserting one whole new column at a time, and second by making the columns much longer than is required by the filter height. This implementation of a large two dimensional convolution filter requires each data point from the image only 1.1 times, on the average, which is within 10% of the ultimate data flow efficiency.

  12. Gastric pH monitoring in healthy, suckling pony foals.

    PubMed

    Baker, S J; Gerring, E L

    1993-06-01

    Gastric pH was monitored in neonatal foals from birth to 3 months of age. Background pH decreased, especially during the first week of life. Milk had complex effects that depended on pH prior to sucking, confounded by the age of the foal: nearly neutral background pH tended to be acidified after milk intake; moderately acid background pH tended to be neutralized; low background pH was only slightly increased by milk. Absolute magnitude of the effects of milk decreased with age. Existence of a proulcerative intragastric environment in preweaning foals is postulated, but this must be considered in the context of what probably is a multifactorial pathogenesis. PMID:8323067

  13. Brine pH modification scale control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    UNOCAL`s patented pH modification technologies are applied at several geothermal fields to control siliceous scale deposition. Low dosages of strong acids are injected into brines to inhibit scaling in both flash and heat recovery plants. Testing has shown that pH modification technology can control scaling at low flash pressures and temperatures and at conductive cooling conditions. Typically, brine pH is reduced to the 5 - 6 range to slow the kinetics of silica polymerization without substantially increasing corrosion. Silica scaling rate prediction models and brine titration data are employed to select target acid dosages and pH. Brine injectivity is enhanced by pH modification as a result of scale control and formation stimulation. The use of acid to control siliceous scaling is cost-effective, and affords certain advantages over pH adjustment by acid gas mixing with brine or condensate dilution.

  14. pH measurement of low-conductivity waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    pH is an important and commonly measured parameter of precipitation and other natural waters. The various sources of errors in pH measurement were analyzed and procedures for improving the accuracy and precision of pH measurements in natural waters with conductivities of < 100 uS/cm at 25 C are suggested. Detailed procedures are given for the preparation of dilute sulfuric acid standards to evaluate the performance of pH electrodes in low conductivity waters. A daily check of the pH of dilute sulfuric acid standards and deionized water saturated with a gas mixture of low carbon dioxide at partial pressure (air) prior to the measurement of the pH of low conductivity waters is suggested. (Author 's abstract)

  15. A quantum dot-spore nanocomposite pH sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingya; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Qian; Zeng, Zhiming; Xu, Xiangdong; Hu, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    A new quantum dot (QD)-based pH sensor design is investigated. The sensor is synthesized based on the self-assembly of green QDs onto treated spores to form QD@spore nanocomposites. The nanocomposites are characterized using laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. Fluorescence measurements showed that these nanocomposites are sensitive to pH in a broad pH range of 5.0-10.0. The developed pH sensors have been satisfactorily applied for pH estimation of real samples and are comparable with those of the commercial assay method, indicating the potential practical application of the pH sensors. PMID:26838398

  16. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  17. Spectral Modeling for Accelerated pH Spectroscopy using EPR

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, R.; Potter, L.C.; Khramtsov, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    A data modeling and processing method for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based pH spectroscopy is presented. The proposed method models the EPR spectrum of a pH-sensitive probe in both protonated and unprotonated forms. Under slow-exchange conditions, the EPR spectrum of a sample with an unknown pH value can be accurately represented by a weighted sum of the two models, with the pH value completely determined by their relative weights. Unlike traditional pH spectroscopy, which relies on locating resonance peaks, the proposed modeling-based approach utilizes the information from the entire scan and hence leads to more accurate estimation of pH for a given acquisition time. By employing the proposed methodology, we expect a reduction in the pH estimation error by more than a factor of three, which represents an order of magnitude reduction in acquisition time compared to the traditional method. PMID:22578559

  18. A profound analysis of Rb2[PH] and Cs2[PH] and the role of [PH]2- ions during temperature-induced solid-solid phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somer, M.; Schnering, H. G. v.; Hochrein, O.; Zahn, D.

    2014-06-01

    The temperature-induced solid-solid transformation of Rb2[PH] and Cs2[PH] is characterized from both experiment and theory. Neutron diffraction, IR-spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal an asymmetric shift of the lattice constants at 80 K. The molecular mechanism of the structural transformation as identified from IR-spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations is closely connected to the orientation of the [PH]2- moieties which undergo a partial order-disorder phase transition.

  19. Ratiometric Imaging of Extracellular pH in Dental Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Dige, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The pH in bacterial biofilms on teeth is of central importance for dental caries, a disease with a high worldwide prevalence. Nutrients and metabolites are not distributed evenly in dental biofilms. A complex interplay of sorption to and reaction with organic matter in the biofilm reduces the diffusion paths of solutes and creates steep gradients of reactive molecules, including organic acids, across the biofilm. Quantitative fluorescent microscopic methods, such as fluorescence life time imaging or pH ratiometry, can be employed to visualize pH in different microenvironments of dental biofilms. pH ratiometry exploits a pH-dependent shift in the fluorescent emission of pH-sensitive dyes. Calculation of the emission ratio at two different wavelengths allows determining local pH in microscopic images, irrespective of the concentration of the dye. Contrary to microelectrodes the technique allows monitoring both vertical and horizontal pH gradients in real-time without mechanically disturbing the biofilm. However, care must be taken to differentiate accurately between extra- and intracellular compartments of the biofilm. Here, the ratiometric dye, seminaphthorhodafluor-4F 5-(and-6) carboxylic acid (C-SNARF-4) is employed to monitor extracellular pH in in vivo grown dental biofilms of unknown species composition. Upon exposure to glucose the dye is up-concentrated inside all bacterial cells in the biofilms; it is thus used both as a universal bacterial stain and as a marker of extracellular pH. After confocal microscopic image acquisition, the bacterial biomass is removed from all pictures using digital image analysis software, which permits to exclusively calculate extracellular pH. pH ratiometry with the ratiometric dye is well-suited to study extracellular pH in thin biofilms of up to 75 µm thickness, but is limited to the pH range between 4.5 and 7.0. PMID:27023830

  20. Chapter A6. Section 6.4. pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Radtke, Dean B.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of pH is critical to the understanding of the viability and vulnerability of environmental waters and is considered a master variable in determining the aqueous geochemistry of an aqueous system. pH is a measure that represents the hydrogen-ion concentration (activity) of a solution. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of pH in ground and surface waters.

  1. Microscale pH regulation by splitting water

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Li-Jing; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple, flexible approach for pH regulation in micro-chambers by injecting controllable amounts of protons and hydroxide ions via field-enhanced dissociation of water molecules. Under a DC voltage bias, the polymeric bipolar membranes integrated in microfluidics devices generate and separate H+ and OH? ions without gas production or contaminant generation resulting from electron-transfer reactions. Robust local on-chip pH and pH gradients are sustained with no need of additional acidic?basic solutions that dilute analyte concentrations. The method could provide a better strategy for pH control in microfluidics. PMID:22121407

  2. Development of pH Responsive Fluorescent False Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minhee; Gubernator, Niko G.; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    We introduce pH responsive fluorescent false neurotransmitters (pH responsive FFNs) as novel probes that act as vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) substrates and ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors. The development of these agents was achieved by systematic molecular design that integrated several structural elements, including the aminoethyl group (VMAT recognition), halogenated hydroxycoumarin core (ratiometric optical pH sensing in the desired pH range), and N- or C-alkylation (modulation of lipophilicity). Of fourteen compounds that were synthesized, the probe Mini202 was selected based on the highest uptake in VMAT2-transfected HEK cells and desirable optical properties. Using Mini202, we measured the pH of catecholamine secretory vesicles in PC-12 cells (pH ~ 5.9) via two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Incubation with methamphetamine led to an increase in vesicular pH (pH ~ 6.4), consistent with a proposed mechanism of action of this psychostimulant, and eventually to redistribution of vesicular content (including Mini202) from vesicles to cytoplasm. Mini202 is sufficiently bright, photostable and suitable for two-photon microscopy. This probe will enable fundamental neuroscience and neuroendocrine research as well as drug screening efforts. PMID:20540519

  3. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  4. New technology for the detection of pH.

    PubMed

    Yuqing, Miao; Jianrong, Chen; Keming, Fang

    2005-04-29

    The measurement of pH is the most widely employed test for (bio-)chemical lab. Since the first use of glass electrode to detect pH, new techniques and methods have broaden the scope of pH detection. Metal/metal oxide, ion sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFET), fibre-optical techniques, nanotechniques, and conducting polymer techniques have been extensively developed. This review covers the various methods for pH detection. New development trends were discussed. PMID:15892973

  5. Molecular aspects of bacterial pH sensing and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Krulwich, Terry A.; Sachs, George; Padan, Etana

    2011-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms for pH-sensing and cytoplasmic pH homeostasis enable most bacteria to tolerate or grow at external pH values that are outside the cytoplasmic pH range they must maintain for growth. The most extreme cases are exemplified by the extremophiles that inhabit environments whose pH is below 3 or above 11. Here we describe how recent insights into the structure and function of key molecules and their regulators reveal novel strategies of bacterial pH-homeostasis. These insights may help us better target certain pathogens and better harness the capacities of environmental bacteria. PMID:21464825

  6. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by core-shell WO3/BiVO4 nanorods with ultimate water splitting efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pihosh, Yuriy; Turkevych, Ivan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Uemura, Jin; Kazoe, Yutaka; Kosar, Sonya; Makita, Kikuo; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Takuya; Fujita, Daisuke; Tosa, Masahiro; Kondo, Michio; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic water splitting requires effective generation, separation and transfer of photo-induced charge carriers that can hardly be achieved simultaneously in a single material. Here we show that the effectiveness of each process can be separately maximized in a nanostructured heterojunction with extremely thin absorber layer. We demonstrate this concept on WO3/BiVO4+CoPi core-shell nanostructured photoanode that achieves near theoretical water splitting efficiency. BiVO4 is characterized by a high recombination rate of photogenerated carriers that have much shorter diffusion length than the thickness required for sufficient light absorption. This issue can be resolved by the combination of BiVO4 with more conductive WO3 nanorods in a form of core-shell heterojunction, where the BiVO4 absorber layer is thinner than the carrier diffusion length while it’s optical thickness is reestablished by light trapping in high aspect ratio nanostructures. Our photoanode demonstrates ultimate water splitting photocurrent of 6.72 mA cm−2 under 1 sun illumination at 1.23 VRHE that corresponds to ~90% of the theoretically possible value for BiVO4. We also demonstrate a self-biased operation of the photoanode in tandem with a double-junction GaAs/InGaAsP photovoltaic cell with stable water splitting photocurrent of 6.56 mA cm−2 that corresponds to the solar to hydrogen generation efficiency of 8.1%. PMID:26053164

  7. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey. I. Survey Overview, Initial Data Releases, and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Muller, Erik; Indermuehle, Balthasar; O'Dougherty, Stefan N.; Lowe, Vicki; Cunningham, Maria; Hernandez, Audra K.; Fuller, Gary A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a new mm-wave molecular-line mapping survey of the southern Galactic Plane and its first data releases. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS) maps a 60° × 2° sector of our Galaxy’s fourth quadrant, using a combination of fast mapping techniques with the Mopra radio telescope, simultaneously in the J=1\\to 0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and CN near 112 GHz at ˜arcminute and ˜0.3 km s-1 resolution, with ˜2 K channel-1 sensitivity for 12CO and ˜1 K channel-1 for the other transitions. The calibrated data cubes from these observations are made available to the community after processing through our pipeline. Here, we describe the motivation for ThrUMMS, the development of new observing techniques for Mopra, and how these techniques were optimized to the objectives of the survey. We showcase some sample data products and describe the first science results on CO-isotopologue line ratios. These vary dramatically across the Galactic Plane, indicating a very wide range of optical depth and excitation conditions, from warm and translucent to cold and opaque. The population of cold clouds in particular have optical depths for 12CO easily exceeding 100. We derive a new, nonlinear conversion law from 12CO integrated intensity to column density, {N}{CO}\\propto {I}{CO}1.38, which suggests that the molecular mass traced by CO in the Galactic disk may have been substantially underestimated. This further suggests that some global relationships in disk galaxies, such as star formation laws, may need to be recalibrated. The large ThrUMMS team is proceeding with several other science investigations.

  8. The FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: a study of the long term fate of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigane, Pascal; Waldmann, Svenja; Pearce, Jonathan; Dimier, Alain; Le Gallo, Yann; Frykman, Peter; Maurand, Nicolas; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Yalamas, Thierry; Cremer, Holger; Spiers, Chris; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project are to study specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2, mainly: the trapping mechanisms occurring in the storage reservoir, the influence of fluid-rock interactions on mechanical integrity of caprock and well vicinity, and also the modifications induced at the regional scale (brine displacement, fault reactivation, hydrogeology changes...). A comprehensive approach combining laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and natural analogue studies is developed to assess all the processes mentioned above. A collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. To address geochemical trapping at reservoir scale, an experimental approach is developed using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose. To evaluate the interactions between CO2 (and formation fluid) and the well environment (formation, cement, casing) and to assess the consequences of these interactions on the transport properties of well materials, a 1 to 1 scale experiment has been set in the Mont Terri Gallery Opalinus clay to reproduce classical well objects (cemented annulus, casing and cement plug) perforating caprock formations. An extensive program of numerical modeling is also developed to calibrate, to reproduce and to extrapolate the experimental results at longer time scales including uncertainty assessment methods. www.ultimateco2.eu

  9. Pre-heated dual-cured resin cements: analysis of the degree of conversion and ultimate tensile strength.

    PubMed

    Frana, Flvio lvares; Oliveira, Michele de; Rodrigues, Jos Augusto; Arrais, Csar Augusto Galvo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of dual-cured resin cements heated to 50 C prior to and during polymerization. Disc- and hourglass-shaped specimens of Rely X ARC (RX) and Variolink II (VII) were obtained using addition silicon molds. The products were manipulated at 25 C or 50 C and were subjected to 3 curing conditions: light-activation through a glass slide or through a pre-cured 2-mm thick resin composite disc, or they were allowed to self-cure (SC). All specimens were dark-stored dry for 15 days. For DC analysis, the resin cements were placed into the mold located on the center of a horizontal diamond on the attenuated total reflectance element in the optical bench of a Fourier Transformed Infrared spectrometer. Infrared spectra (n = 6) were collected between 1680 and 1500 cm-1, and DC was calculated by standard methods using changes in ratios of aliphatic-to-aromatic C=C absorption peaks from uncured and cured states. For UTS test, specimens (n = 10) were tested in tension in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed of 1 mm/min) until failure. DC and UTS data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test (?= 5%). Both products showed higher DC at 50 C than at 25 C in all curing conditions. No significant difference in UTS was noted between most light-activated groups at 25 C and those at 50 C. VII SC groups showed higher UTS at 50 C than at 25 C (p < 0.05). Increased temperature led to higher DC, but its effects on resin cement UTS depended on the curing condition. PMID:21537644

  10. Extracellular pH modulates GABAergic neurotransmission in rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z L; Huang, R Q

    2014-06-20

    Changes in extracellular pH have a modulatory effect on GABAA receptor function. It has been reported that pH sensitivity of the GABA receptor is dependent on subunit composition and GABA concentration. Most of previous investigations focused on GABA-evoked currents, which only reflect the postsynaptic receptors. The physiological relevance of pH modulation of GABAergic neurotransmission is not fully elucidated. In the present studies, we examined the influence of extracellular pH on the GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission in rat hypothalamic neurons. The inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), tonic currents, and the GABA-evoked currents were recorded with whole-cell patch techniques on the hypothalamic slices from Sprague-Dawley rats at 15-26 postnatal days. The amplitude and frequency of spontaneous GABA IPSCs were significantly increased while the external pH was changed from 7.3 to 8.4. In the acidic pH (6.4), the spontaneous GABA IPSCs were reduced in amplitude and frequency. The pH induced changes in miniature GABA IPSCs (mIPSCs) similar to that in spontaneous IPSCs. The pH effect on the postsynaptic GABA receptors was assessed with exogenously applied varying concentrations of GABA. The tonic currents and the currents evoked by sub-saturating concentration of GABA ([GABA]) (10 ?M) were inhibited by acidic pH and potentiated by alkaline pH. In contrast, the currents evoked by saturating [GABA] (1mM) were not affected by pH changes. We also investigated the influence of pH buffers and buffering capacity on pH sensitivity of GABAA receptors on human recombinant ?1?2?2 GABAA receptors stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. The pH influence on GABAA receptors was similar in HEPES- and MES-buffered media, and not dependent on protonated buffers, suggesting that the observed pH effect on GABA response is a specific consequence of changes in extracellular protons. Our data suggest that the hydrogen ions suppress the GABAergic neurotransmission, which is mediated by both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:24780768

  11. Notes on the Measurement of pH Values

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Rebak, R B

    2005-05-05

    The original definition of pH is: pH = -log a{sub H}. Where a{sub H} is the (relative) hydrogen ion activity. However, a single ion activity cannot be measured. Activities of individual ionic species are necessarily conventional. The pH number, of course, has in itself little absolute significance. As the negative of the logarithm of a product of a concentration (c or m) and an activity coefficient (y or {gamma}), it acquires its magnitude from the numerical scale adopted for the latter. Experimental pH measurements are nonetheless widely applied to the determination of thermodynamic equilibrium data such as pK values, on the assumption that they represent -log a{sub H} (or paH). The single ion activity coefficient approaches unity as the ionic strength goes to zero, so that activity becomes m or c and paH becomes pmH or pcH. pH is therefore defined operationally in terms of the operation or method used to measure it, that is, by means of a cell called an operational cell. The cell is standardized by solutions of assigned pH value (Reference Value pH Standard, Primary pH Standards and Operational Standards). Such standard reference solutions are buffer solutions whose pH values are assigned from measurements on cells with or without liquid junction. It must be emphasized that the definition of pH scale is quite different from the measurement of pH with glass-reference electrode-pH meter assemblies, where several standards are used in order to take into account possible deficiencies in the electrode and meter performance.

  12. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na+/K+-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na+/K+-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility. PMID:26173069

  13. Mapping Soil pH Buffering Capacity of Selected Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, A. R.; Kissel, D. E.; Chen, F.; West, L. T.; Adkins, W.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity, since it varies spatially within crop production fields, may be used to define sampling zones to assess lime requirement, or for modeling changes in soil pH when acid forming fertilizers or manures are added to a field. Our objective was to develop a procedure to map this soil property. One hundred thirty six soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) from three Georgia Coastal Plain fields were titrated with calcium hydroxide to characterize differences in pH buffering capacity of the soils. Since the relationship between soil pH and added calcium hydroxide was approximately linear for all samples up to pH 6.5, the slope values of these linear relationships for all soils were regressed on the organic C and clay contents of the 136 soil samples using multiple linear regression. The equation that fit the data best was b (slope of pH vs. lime added) = 0.00029 - 0.00003 * % clay + 0.00135 * % O/C, r(exp 2) = 0.68. This equation was applied within geographic information system (GIS) software to create maps of soil pH buffering capacity for the three fields. When the mapped values of the pH buffering capacity were compared with measured values for a total of 18 locations in the three fields, there was good general agreement. A regression of directly measured pH buffering capacities on mapped pH buffering capacities at the field locations for these samples gave an r(exp 2) of 0.88 with a slope of 1.04 for a group of soils that varied approximately tenfold in their pH buffering capacities.

  14. Cooperative effects in pnicogen bonding: (PH2F)2-7 and (PH2Cl)2-7 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Vakili, Mahshad; Solimannejad, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    The cooperative effects between pnicogen bond interactions in open-chain clusters of (PH2F)n and (PH2Cl)n are studied by ab initio calculations, where n = 2-7. These effects are analyzed in terms of geometric and energetic properties of the clusters. The intermolecular distances observed in the PH2F clusters exhibit quite larger bond contractions than those found in the PH2Cl. The contribution of cooperative effects to the interaction energy is quite significant. In order to understand the mechanism of the cooperativity, interaction energy decomposition and molecular electrostatic potential analyses are performed.

  15. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  16. The Undergraduate Origins of PhD Economists Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Wendy A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors update prior analyses of the undergraduate origins of individuals who earn a PhD in economics in the United States. They include the list of the top institutions worldwide graduating the largest number of undergraduates who subsequently earn an economics PhD from a U.S. university and lists of American institutions with the largest…

  17. What if We Made Fewer Ph.D.'s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Whenever a discussion opens about nonacademic employment for Ph.D.s, it is not long before someone suggests reducing graduate-school admissions. "The market for full-time scholars has fallen off a cliff lately," this argument goes, "so why not just train fewer of them?" The strategy to reduce the number of Ph.D. students recurs in those…

  18. Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM is a postdoctoral Cancer Prevention Fellow in the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention. She comes to BGCRG with a PhD from Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing. She also completed a graduate certificate in Health Disparities and Health Inequality at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  19. PhDs in Australia, from the Beginning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    The Australian PhD is a relatively recent phenomenon, the first three being awarded in 1948. Before that, most Australian scholars typically went to Britain (predominantly) or the USA to undertake their doctoral studies. The aim of this research note is to provide a brief statistical history of the Australian PhD, noting changes over time between

  20. The Undergraduate Origins of PhD Economists Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Wendy A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors update prior analyses of the undergraduate origins of individuals who earn a PhD in economics in the United States. They include the list of the top institutions worldwide graduating the largest number of undergraduates who subsequently earn an economics PhD from a U.S. university and lists of American institutions with the largest

  1. What if We Made Fewer Ph.D.'s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Whenever a discussion opens about nonacademic employment for Ph.D.s, it is not long before someone suggests reducing graduate-school admissions. "The market for full-time scholars has fallen off a cliff lately," this argument goes, "so why not just train fewer of them?" The strategy to reduce the number of Ph.D. students recurs in those

  2. Rethinking PhD Learning Incorporating Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shacham, Miri; Od-Cohen, Yehudit

    2009-01-01

    This paper grows from research which focuses on the learning characteristics of PhD students, incorporating communities of practice both during their studies and beyond completion of their PhD, and drawing on theories of adult learning and lifelong learning. It shows how professional discourse enhances academic discourse through student engagement

  3. Research Collaboration and Commercialization: The PhD Candidate Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Lawrence; Kenny, Breda

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores PhD students' perceptions of their entrepreneurial and commercial capabilities, their attitude towards university supports and the extent to which they engage in external collaboration. The study concentrated on current PhD researchers at one university in Ireland as a unit of analysis and provides encouraging evidence from the

  4. A Renaissance in Engineering PhD Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akay, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of engineering PhD education and its relationship to innovation and technology, and the need to reconsider how we educate PhD engineers. Much of the effort on engineering education in the last two decades focused on undergraduate education with a few exceptions that relate to master degree programs. Doctoral education

  5. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by

  6. A Renaissance in Engineering PhD Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akay, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of engineering PhD education and its relationship to innovation and technology, and the need to reconsider how we educate PhD engineers. Much of the effort on engineering education in the last two decades focused on undergraduate education with a few exceptions that relate to master degree programs. Doctoral education…

  7. Tracking the PhD Students' Daily Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Kwong Nui; van der Meer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated PhD students' computer activities in their daily research practice. Software that tracks computer usage (Manic Time) was installed on the computers of nine PhD students, who were at their early, mid and final stage in doing their doctoral research in four different discipline areas (Commerce, Humanities, Health Sciences and…

  8. Photoreversible changes in pH of pea phytochrome solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokutomi, S.; Yamamoto, K.T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Furuya, M.

    1982-02-01

    Phytochrome is a chromoprotein that serves as the photoreceptor for a variety of photomorphogenic responses in plants. Phytochrome was isolated from etiolated pea seedlings. Photoinduced pH changes of an unbuffered solution of the phytochrome were monitored with a semimicrocombination pH electrode at pH 6.5. Red-light irradiation increased the pH of the medium. This alkalinization was reversed by a subsequent far-red-light irradiation. The magnitude and direction of the red-light-induced pH changes was dependent on the pH of the photocrome solution, and the maximum alkalinization was observed at pH 6.0, where the number of protons taken up per phytochrome monomer was 0.18. These results suggest that phytochrome is a multifunctional protein composed of a chromophoric domain and a hydrophobic domain. It is probable that the hydrophobic domain is responsible for the photoinduced change of hydrophobicity of phytochrome and that the ionizable groups responsible for the photoinduced pH changes are localized in the chromophoric domain. (JMT)

  9. Interlaboratory test of pH measurements in rainwater

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, W.F.; Marinenko, G.; Paule, R.C.

    1985-10-23

    An interlaboratory test of pH measurements in rainwater was conducted. Various types of electrodes and junction materials were used in the test. The results of the exercise verify that there are significant differences in the pH values of low-ionic-strength solutions reported by various laboratories.

  10. Variation of ocean pH in the Indonesia waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Mutiara Rachmat; Setiawan, Agus; Safitri, Mediana

    2015-09-01

    The variation of ocean acidity (pH) in the Indonesia waters is strongly influenced by monsoon. Since the climate change tends to potentially change monsoonal variation over the Indonesian region, it will give also implication to the ocean pH variation. Moreover, changes of ocean pH will give effects to the marine lifes and their environment. In order to investigate this issue, we tried to calculate monthly variation of sea surface pH in the Indonesia waters based on monthly average temperature and salinity over past 18 years data. Temperature and salinity data used in this study were taken from the hydrodynamic model of Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM), while alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were from World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA 2009). Algorithm from Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project-version.3 (OCMIP-3) was used to calculate the pH. The estimation results indicate that pH variation in the Indonesia waters changes insignificantly over 18 years. El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) contribute to physical changes of seawater, but did not affect the pH significantly. The average pH of seawater is higher during northwest monsoon than during southeast monsoon.

  11. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  12. Predicting Computer Science Ph.D. Completion: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, G. W.; Hughes, W. E., Jr.; Etzkorn, L. H.; Weisskopf, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of indicators that can be used to predict whether a student will succeed in a Computer Science Ph.D. program. The analysis was conducted by studying the records of 75 students who have been in the Computer Science Ph.D. program of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Seventy-seven variables were

  13. Predicting Computer Science Ph.D. Completion: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, G. W.; Hughes, W. E., Jr.; Etzkorn, L. H.; Weisskopf, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of indicators that can be used to predict whether a student will succeed in a Computer Science Ph.D. program. The analysis was conducted by studying the records of 75 students who have been in the Computer Science Ph.D. program of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Seventy-seven variables were…

  14. Earth & Space Science PhDs, Class of 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudy, Nicholas; Henly, Megan; Migdalski, Chet

    This study documents the employment patterns and demographic characteristics of recent PhDs in earth and space science. It summarizes the latest annual survey of recent earth and space science PhDs conducted by the American Geological Institute, the American Geophysical Union, and the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of…

  15. Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a microscale pH titration technique that utilizes an automatic pipet. A small aliquot (1-5 mL) of the analyte solution is titrated with repeated additions of titrant, and the pH is determined after each delivery. The equivalence point is determined graphically by either the second derivative method or a Gran plot. The pipet can be…

  16. Evanescent-wave spectroscopic fiber optic pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, C.; Takeda, K.; Isai, M.; Ogita, M.

    1996-02-01

    We demonstrate a new type of fiber optic pH sensor, which is the application of evanescent-wave spectroscopic technique. A methyl red (MR)-doped-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film that coated as part of cladding does function as a pH sensor probe. In this system MR doped in PMMA is used as indicator dye for pH measurement. The absorption spectrum shift in wavelength of indicator dye enables us to get the pH value. The sensor probe is immersed in water solution containing a small proportion of acetic acid over the wide pH range of 5.0 to 7.0. The chemical interaction between MR in sensor probe and hydrogen ion in the water solution causes a change in the dipole moment of MR, that is, the absorption spectrum macroscopically. The evanescent-wave spectroscopic technique provides the measurement of the absorption spectrum shift over a broad range of visible wavelength. The result of experiment was that MR absorption spectrum shifted by 40 nm every increase of 1.0 in pH. The small change in the pH value can be sensed as a large wavelength shift of pH indicator absorption spectrum.

  17. Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM is a postdoctoral Cancer Prevention Fellow in the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention. She comes to BGCRG with a PhD from Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing. She also completed a graduate certificate in Health Disparities and Health Inequality at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. |

  18. The Importance of Having a Ph.D., Career Advice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presentation on the importance of having a PhD to motivate Initiative to Maximize Student Diversity Program (IMSD) undergrads towards conducting research, pursuing careers in the biomedical field, applying to grad school, and getting a Ph.D., based upon ARS scientist's experiences as a student, a ...

  19. WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT THE PH.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWERS, FREDSON

    THE MAJOR ISSUE IN RECENT DISCUSSIONS OF THE PH.D. DEGREE IN ENGLISH IS HOW TO PROVIDE A SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF PH.D.'S TO MEET THE NEEDS OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES AND PERHAPS ALSO TO LOWER THE ATTRITION RATE AMONG GRADUATE STUDENTS. DESPITE THE ACADEMIC WORLD'S FEAR OF A STATUS DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE UNDERGRADUATE TEACHER AND THE GRADUATE…

  20. EFFECTS OF LOW PH ON REPRODUCTION OF RAINBOW TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproduction of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri in acidic water was studied. Adults were exposed to waters of pH 4.5, 5.0, or 5.5 during the final 6 weeks of reproductive maturation; control acidities were pH 6.5-7.1. Progeny of acid-exposed females and control males had reduced s...

  1. Effects of conventional welding and laser welding on the tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength and surface characteristics of two cobalt-chromium alloys: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Madhan Kumar, Seenivasan; Sethumadhava, Jayesh Raghavendra; Anand Kumar, Vaidyanathan; Manita, Grover

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser welding and conventional welding on the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength of the cobalt-chromium alloy. Samples were prepared with two commercially available cobalt-chromium alloys (Wironium plus and Diadur alloy). The samples were sectioned and the broken fragments were joined using Conventional and Laser welding techniques. The welded joints were subjected to tensile and ultimate tensile strength testing; and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the surface characteristics at the welded site. Both on laser welding as well as on conventional welding technique, Diadur alloy samples showed lesser values when tested for tensile and ultimate tensile strength when compared to Wironium alloy samples. Under the scanning electron microscope, the laser welded joints show uniform welding and continuous molt pool all over the surface with less porosity than the conventionally welded joints. Laser welding is an advantageous method of connecting or repairing cast metal prosthetic frameworks. PMID:23858281

  2. Dual pH electrode improves on-line diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1995-12-31

    A new arrangement of pH electrodes and signal processing provides improved diagnostics in process control. A spreadsheet analysis provides insight to the strengths and weaknesses of the method. Double or triple redundancy pH systems have long been used to increase the probability of reliable measurement values in critical processes. These consisted of off-the-shelf pH meters whose outputs were sent through voting logic which either selected the output to be used, or selected and calculated a mean pH value. Newer pH systems have provided more sophisticated self-diagnostic methods, reducing the need for triple redundance. A new method and apparatus provides improved diagnostic capability in a less complex design. When combined with reactionary and true predictive diagnostics, this method can provide increased confidence in reading validity with less experience and complexity.

  3. Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Debut, Martine; Berri, Cécile M; Sellier, Nadine; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Jégo, Yves; Beaumont, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3) were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu), color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP) at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43). There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg) with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97), suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76), it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58), and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84). Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line. PMID:18706119

  4. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS): A New View of the Molecular Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter; Muller, Erik; Nguyen Luong, Quang; Nguyen, Hans

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new mm-wave molecular-line mapping survey of the southern Galactic Plane, and its first data releases and science results. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS) maps a 60°×2° sector of our Galaxy’s fourth quadrant, using a combination of fast mapping techniques with the Mopra radio telescope, simultaneously in the J=1→0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and CN near 112 GHz at ˜arcminute and 0.3 km s-1 resolution, with 1.2 K/chan sensitivity for 12CO and 0.6 K/chan for the other transitions. The calibrated data cubes from these observations are made available to the community after processing through our pipeline. Here, we describe the motivation for ThrUMMS, the development of new observing techniques for Mopra, and how these techniques were optimised to the objectives of the survey. We showcase some sample data products and describe the first science results, on global variations in the iso-CO line ratios and on a detailed multiwavelength study of the GMCs near l=333°. The line ratios vary dramatically across the Galactic Plane, indicating a very wide range of optical depth and excitation conditions, from warm and translucent to cold and opaque. The population of cold clouds in particular have optical depths for 12CO easily exceeding 100 in some locations, and suggests that the fraction of the molecular mass in the Galactic disk that is in the coldest gas may be substantially underestimated. We compute robust column densities from the global data and derive a new conversion law from CO to molecular mass, indicating that global relationships in disk galaxies that depend on the CO→H2 mass conversion, such as star formation laws, may need to be recalibrated. Near l=333°, we have compared ThrUMMS data to HI, cm-continuum, and several Herschel and Spitzer bands to derive the overall mass and star formation properties of two complexes along the line of sight, in the Scutum-Centaurus and Norma arms. The RCW106 complex in particular is currently undergoing a ministarburst event, potentially shedding light on starburst physics in distant galaxies.

  5. Occurrence of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and its ultimate transformation product Guanylurea in several compartments of the aquatic cycle.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Christoph; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Wolschke, Hendrik; Kmmerer, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    In 2030, the World Health Organization estimates that more than 350 million people will be diagnosed with diabetes. Consequently, Metformin - the biguanide drug of choice orally administered for diabetes type II - is anticipated to see a spike in production. Unlike many pharmaceutical drugs, Metformin (Met) is not metabolized by humans but passes through the body unchanged. Entering aquatic compartments, such as in sewage, it can be bacterially transformed to the ultimate transformation product Guanylurea (Gua). Sampling over one week (n=5) from a Southern German sewage treatment plant revealed very high average (AV) concentrations in influent (AVMet=111,800ng/L, AVGua=1300ng/L) and effluent samples (AVMet=4800ng/L, AVGua=44,000ng/L). To provide a more complete picture of the distribution and potential persistence of these compounds in the German water cycle, a new, efficient and highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometric method with direct injection was used for the measurement of Metformin and Guanylurea in drinking, surface, sewage and seawater. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranging from 2-10ng/L allowed the detection of Metformin and Guanylurea in different locations such as: Lake Constance (n=11: AVMet=102ng/L, AVGua=16ng/L), river Elbe (n=12: AVMet=472ng/L, AVGua=9ng/L), river Weser (n=6: AVMet=349ng/L, AVGua=137ng/L) and for the first time in marine North Sea water (n=14: AVMet=13ng/L, AVGua=11ng/L). Based on daily water discharges, Metformin loads of 15.2kg/d (Elbe) and 6.4kg/d (Weser) into the North Sea were calculated. Lake Constance is used to abstract potable water which is further purified to be used as drinking water. A first screening of two tap water samples contained 2ng/L and 61ng/L of Metformin, respectively. The results of this study suggest that Metformin and Guanylurea could be distributed over a large fraction of the world's potable water sources and oceans. With no natural degradation processes, these compounds can be easily reintroduced to humans as they enter the food chain. PMID:24954924

  6. Continuous pH monitoring in a perfused bioreactor system using an optical pH sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Vani, Sundeep; Taylor, Thomas D.; Anderson, Melody M.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring and regulating the pH of the solution in a bioprocess is one of the key steps in the success of bioreactor operation. An in-line optical pH sensor, based on the optical absorption properties of phenol red present in the medium, was developed and tested in this work for use in NASA space bioreactors based on a rotating wall-perfused vessel system supporting a baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell culture. The sensor was tested over three 30-day and one 124-day cell runs. The pH sensor initially was calibrated and then used during the entire cell culture interval. The pH reported by the sensor was compared to that measured by a fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer and a blood gas analyzer. The maximum standard error of prediction for all the four cell runs for development pH sensor against BGA was +/-0.06 pH unit and for the fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer against the blood gas analyzer was +/-0.05 pH unit. The pH sensor system performed well without need of recalibration for 124 days. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Thermal processing of acidified foods with pH 4.1 to pH 4.6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shelf-stable acidified foods with a pH at or below 4.6 must be processed to achieve a 5-log reduction for vegetative bacterial pathogens. Published research does not exist to adequately support the Food and Drug Administration process filings for products with pH 4.14.6 or to define critical limits...

  8. The effect of pH on the rheology of mixed gels containing whey protein isolate and xanthan-curdlan hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Lo, Y Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate goal of this work was to examine the effect of xanthan-curdlan hydrogel complex (XCHC) on the rheology of whey protein isolate (WPI) within the pH range of 4-7 upon heating and cooling. Dynamic rheological properties of WPI and XCHC were studied individually and in combination, as a function of time or temperature. For pure WPI, gels were pH-dependent, and in all pH values except 7, gels formed upon first heating from 40 to 90 C. At pH 7, WPI did not form gel upon first heating, and the storage modulus (G') started to increase during the holding time at 90 C. The onset of gelation temperature of WPI was lower in acidic pH ranges compared to the neutral pH. In mixed gels, the presence of XCHC increased the G' of the gels. The rheological behaviour was pH-dependent and initially was controlled by XCHC; however, after the consolidation of WPI network, the behaviour was led by the whey protein isolate. Results showed that XCHC had a synergistic effect on enhancing the elastic modulus of the gels after the consolidation of WPI network. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to use these biopolymers in the formulation of frozen dairy-based products and enable food manufactures to improve the textural and physicochemical properties, and as a result the consumer acceptance of the food product. PMID:26234882

  9. MERIT Award Recipient: Stephen P. Goff, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    The Goff laboratory is interested in the replication of a simple retrovirus, the Moloney murine leukemia virus, and the interaction of the virus with the host. The ultimate goal of the research is to determine the roles of each of the viral proteins in the complex viral life cycle, and to identify the impact of these proteins on host cellular machinery.

  10. Improved granular activated carbon for the stabilization of wastewater PH

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, R.W.; Dussert, B.W.; Kovacic, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    Laboratory studies have identified the cause of the pH rise, which occurs during water treatment with activated carbon, as an interaction between the naturally occurring anions and protons in the water and the carbon surface. The interaction can be described as an ion exchange type of phenomenon, in which the carbon surface sorbs the anions and corresponding hydronium ions from the water. These studies have shown that the anion sorption and resulting pH increase is independent of the raw material used for the activated carbon production, e.g. bituminous or subbituminous coal, peat, wood or coconut. Also, the pH excursions occur with virgin, reactivated, and acid washed granular carbons. Current pH control technologies focus on adjustment of the wastewater pH prior to discharge or recycle of the initial effluent water until the pH increase abates. However, improved water pH control options have been realized by altering the carbon surface through controlled oxidation rather than the water chemistry or extended preprocessing at the treatment site.

  11. Optical fibre PH sensor based on immobilized indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Defu; Cao, Qiang; Han, JingHong; Cai, Jine; Li, YaTing; Zhu, ZeMin; Fan, Jie; Gao, Ning

    1991-08-01

    An optical fiber pH sensor which has the immobilized pH sensitive indicator dye reagents on the tip of the optical fiber has been studied. The probe is made by covalently immobilizing the phenol red, bromine phenol blue, or bromothymol blue on the polyacrylamide microsphere fixed by polyterafluoroethylene (PTFE) film. A gap between the dye and optical fiber was used to make the diffusion of the hydrogen ions easier. The parameters of the optical fiber pH sensor have been given completely. The ranges of measurement are 3.0 - 5.0 pH, 7.0 - 8.5 pH, and 8.0 - 10.0 pH for bromine phenol blue, phenol red, and bromothymol blue, respectively. The sensitivity is 66.6 mV/pH. The probe has a precision of better than 0.55 pH. The linear correlation coefficient is 0.999. The response time is 1 - 2 min. The hysteresis is 0.52%. The repeatability is 0.013 mV, while the stability is 0.015 pH/h.

  12. Nanochannel pH gradient electrofocusing of proteins.

    PubMed

    Startsev, Michael A; Inglis, David W; Baker, Mark S; Goldys, Ewa M

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate matrix-free pH gradient electrofocusing of proteins within an 85 nm deep nanochannel. In contrast to conventional isoelectric focusing where the fluid does not move, this pH gradient method traps protein molecules flowing through a channel by balancing electric forces due to pH-dependent protein charge and viscous drag forces caused by electro-osmosis. The nanoscale depth of the device and the low voltage used limit convection relative to diffusion, thus producing a stable focused band of protein. R-Phycoerythrin (RPE) and Dylight labeled streptavidin (Dyl-Strep) were focused within a nanochannel using applied voltages between 0.4 and 1.6 V. Concentration enhancement factors of over 380 have been achieved within 5 min. Varying the buffer pH (between 2.7 and 7.2) at the boundaries of the nanochannel affected the shape of the focused bands. For RPE, a pH span of 4.5 (pH 2.7 to 7.2) yielded the narrowest peak while a span of 2.4 (pH 2.7 to 5.1) produced a significantly wider peak. Such matrix-free nanofluidic devices with pH gradient electrofocusing may enable on-chip integration of orthogonal separation techniques with mass spectrometry offering labor savings and enhanced performance. PMID:23819922

  13. Measuring pH in low ionic strength glacial meltwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagshaw, Elizabeth; Beaton, Alex; Wadham, Jemma; Mowlem, Matt; Tranter, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    pH is a fundamental indicator of the biogeochemical status of natural waters, but it remains challenging to measure reliably in the field. Glacial meltwaters are particularly problematic since they have low ionic strength, and pH values range from less than neutral (<7) to extremely high: pH 11 is not uncommon in supraglacial ecosystems and bulk runoff frequently exceeds pH 9 in the height of summer. Meltwaters are also at disequilibrium with the atmosphere, and so immediate measurement is necessary to capture the true pH of the system. Varying flow rates and changing temperature can affect pH, so these parameters and their impacts on the measurement technology in question must be quantified. There are three primary approaches to measuring pH in natural waters: potentiometric, spectrophotometric and fluorescent. We discuss their applicability to glacial systems, via a series of comprehensive laboratory tests at low temperatures and low ionic strengths. The Honeywell Durafet system, a potentiometric ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) sensor which has been successfully demonstrated in long-term ocean monitoring, was the most effective in tests. We present the results of a 60 day deployment of the sensor in glacial outflows from the Greenland ice sheet, and demonstrate its superiority to traditional monitoring solutions.

  14. Ultimate selenium(IV) monitoring and removal from water using a new class of organic ligand based composite adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Awual, Md Rabiul; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shiwaku, Hideaki

    2015-06-30

    This work reports the selenium (Se(IV)) detection and removal from water by ligand functionalized organic-inorganic based novel composite adsorbent. The composite adsorbent was prepared by direct immobilization of N,N'-di(3-carboxysalicylidene)-3,4-diamino-5-hydroxypyrazole onto the mesoporous silica monolith. The adsorbent exhibited distinct color change in the presence of various concentrations of Se(IV). This was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the color change was observed by naked-eye observation. The detection limit was determined to be 1.14 ?g/L. The effect of solution pH, interferential metal ions, contact time, initial Se(IV) concentration, and adsorbent regeneration were evaluated. The maximum sorption capacity was determined based on the initial concentration. The data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Se(IV) sorption capacity was 111.12 mg/g. The presence of diverse competing ions did not affect the Se(IV) sorption capacity, and the adsorbent had almost no sorption capacity for these coexisting ions, which suggests the high selectivity to Se(IV) ions. The adsorbed Se(IV) was eluted with suitable eluent (0.10 M NaOH) and simultaneously regenerated into the initial form for the next operation. The excellent reusability of the adsorbent was justified after eight consecutive sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The proposed adsorbent is cost-effective and environmentally friendly and a potential candidate for treatment of water containing Se(IV). PMID:25771216

  15. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andal; Fernndez, Constanza Estefany; Brando, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 0.04, 2.5 0.05, and 5.9 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 0.06, 0.57 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH. PMID:25715032

  16. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor implanted inside the esophagus. Our pH electrode can monitor the pH changes of gastric juice in real time when the reflux happening in the esophagus. Our micro flexible pH sensor performed clear responses in each distinct pH reflux episode quickly and accurately comparing with the other commercial pH monitoring system. For the food freshness monitoring applications, we used the flexible pH sensor as a freshness indicator to monitor the pH changing profile during the food spoilage procedure. The sensor was then embedded with radio frequency identification (RFID) based passive telemetry enabling remote monitoring of food freshness. In the result, our pH-wireless RFID system presented 633Hz/pH of the sensitivity in the frequency calibration. The calibration of stability and dynamical response of the RFID system were also demonstrated before the test on food freshness monitoring. Finally, a white fish meat for long term spoilage procedure monitoring was applied and tested by using our wireless IrOx pH sensing system. Our RFID pH sensing module is able to monitor, collect and transmit the pH information continuously for 18 hours during the food spoilage procedure. In this dissertation, a micro size of IrOx/AgCl pH sensor was fabricated on a flexible substrate. The physical properties of the IrO x thin film was verified in the work. The different sensing capability such as the sensitivity, stability, reversibility, response time, repeatability, selectivity, and temperature dependence was then demonstrated in this work. After the different in-vitro tests, the pH sensor were embedded with our passive RFID circuitry for the in-vivo GERD diagnosis and food freshness monitoring application. Our wireless pH sensing system was able to deliver the accurate and quick pH sensing data wirelessly. In conclusion, our deformable IrOx pH electrodes have been demonstrated with the advantages of accommodating and conforming sensors in small spaces or curved surfaces. This miniature IrOx pH sensor can respond to distinct potentials of the various pH levels as traditional glass electr

  17. Physiological carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and pH sensing

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Buck, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    In biological systems, carbon dioxide exists in equilibrium with bicarbonate and protons. The individual components of this equilibrium (i.e., CO2, HCO3?, and H+), which must be sensed to be able to maintain cellular and organismal pH, also function as signals to modulate multiple physiological functions. Yet, the molecular sensors for CO2/HCO3?/pH remained unknown until recently. Here, we review recent progress in delineating molecular and cellular mechanisms for sensing CO2, HCO3?, and pH. PMID:20683624

  18. An interlaboratory test of pH measurements in rainwater

    SciTech Connect

    Kock, W.F.; Marinenko, G.; Paule, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    An interlaboratory test of pH measurements in rainwater has been conducted. Various types of electrodes and junction materials were used in this test. The results of this exercise verify that there are significant differences in the pH values of low ionic strength solutions reported by various laboratories. Other work suggests that these differences are due to residual liquid junction potentials. Furthermore, this test confirms the efficacy of using dilute solutions of a strong acid as working standards for pH measurements in acid deposition studies.

  19. In vitro alkaline pH resistance of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Paulo Henrique; Zapata, Ronald Ordinola; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Tanomaru Filho, Mrio; Maliza, Amanda Garcia Alves; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a bacterial species often found in root canals with failed endodontic treatment. Alkaline pastes are widely used in Endodontics because of their biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, but this microorganism can resist alkalinity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the alkaline pH resistance of E. faecalis for different periods up to 14 days. Samples were obtained from the oral cavity of 150 patients from the Endodontic clinic. The pH of the experimental tubes (n=84) was first adjusted with 6M NaOH to pH values of 9.5, 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 (21 tubes per pH). Twenty clinical isolates and the ATCC 29212 strain were tested. The 5 positive controls and experimental tubes of each pH were inoculated with 10 L of bacterial suspension and incubated at 36 C for 24, 48 and 72 h, 7 and 14 days. For each period, the turbidity of the medium was visually compared with a 0.5 McFarland standard. The presence of the microorganism was confirmed by seeding on M-Enterococcus agar. Four tubes containing BHI broth adjusted to the tested pHs were incubated for 14 days to verify if pH changes occurred. The pH of inoculated BHI broth was also measured on day 14 to determine if the microorganism acidified the medium. The growth of all E. faecalis strains occurred at pH 9.5 to 11.5 in all periods. Although turbidity was not observed at pH 12.5, there was growth of 13 and 2 strains at 24 and 48 h, respectively, on M-Enterococcus agar. No tube showed growth at pH 12.5 after 72 h. It was concluded that E. faecalis can survive in highly alkaline pH, and some clinical isolates require 72 h at pH 12.5 to be killed. PMID:24474287

  20. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, John H. (Los Alamos, NM); Campillo, Anthony J. (Los Alamos, NM); Shapiro, Stanley L. (Los Alamos, NM); Winn, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution by irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  1. Platinum-Platinum Oxide Gate pH ISFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Keiji; Miyahara, Yuji; Miyagi, Hiroyuki

    1989-12-01

    Platinum-platinum oxide gate ISFETs (ion sensitive field effect transistors) have been designed and fabricated for a stable pH microsensor. The platinum oxide layer, formed by a new fabrication process using an RF sputtering technique, was identified as PtO2 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The pH response of the platinum-platinum oxide gate ISFET was linear in the pH range between 1 and 10, and a sensitivity of 40.5 4.0 mV/pH was obtained. The ISFET developed had better stability than a conventional Si3N4 bare gate ISFET.

  2. 26 CFR 48.6421-2 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credits or payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses. 48.6421-2 Section 48.6421-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Refunds and...

  3. Influence of the Kingak Shale ultimate shelf margin on frontal structures of the Brooks Range in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stier, Natalie E.; Connors, Christopher D.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) includes several southward-offlapping depositional sequences that culminate in an ultimate shelf margin, which preserves the depositional profile in southern NPRA. The Kingak Shale thins abruptly southward across the ultimate shelf margin and grades into condensed shale, which is intercalated with underlying condensed shale and chert of the Upper Triassic Shublik Formation and overlying condensed shale of the Lower Cretaceous pebble shale unit and the gamma-ray zone (GRZ) of the Hue Shale. This composite of condensed shale forms a thin (≈300-meter) and mechanically weak section between much thicker and mechanically stronger units, including the Sadlerochit and Lisburne Groups below and the sandstone-prone foredeep wedge of the Torok Formation above. Seismic interpretation indicates that the composite condensed section acted as the major detachment during an Early Tertiary phase of deformation in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range and that thrust faults step up northward to the top of the Kingak, or to other surfaces within the Kingak or the overlying Torok. The main structural style is imbricate fault-bend folding, although fault-propagation folding is evident locally, and large-displacement thrust faults incorporate backthrusting to form structural wedges. The Kingak ultimate shelf margin served as a ramp to localize several thrust faults, and the spatial relationship between the ultimate shelf margin and thrust vergence is inferred to have controlled many structures in southern NPRA. For example, the obliqueness of the Carbon Creek anticline relative to other structures in the foothills is the result of northward-verging thrust faults impinging obliquely on the Kingak ultimate shelf margin in southwestern NPRA.

  4. Should MD-PhD programs encourage graduate training in disciplines beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences?

    PubMed

    O'Mara, Ryan J; Hsu, Stephen I; Wilson, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    The goal of MD-PhD training programs is to produce physician-scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician-scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD-PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant because the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician-scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD-PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, nontraditional MD-PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce. PMID:25354071

  5. Should MD-PhD Programs Encourage Graduate Training in Disciplines Beyond Conventional Biomedical or Clinical Sciences?

    PubMed Central

    O'Mara, Ryan J.; Hsu, Stephen I.; Wilson, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of MD–PhD training programs is to produce physician–scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician–scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD–PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant since the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician–scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD–PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, non-traditional MD–PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce. PMID:25354071

  6. Are one early muscle pH and one early temperature measurement sufficient to detect PSE breast meat in turkeys?

    PubMed

    Eadmusik, S; Molette, C; Fernandez, X; Rmignon, H

    2011-04-01

    1. Within a large flock of turkey toms (2000 BUT9 conventionally reared and slaughtered), early muscle pH measurements were randomly done to distinguish two groups of birds presenting low (fast glycolysing, GR) or normal (normal glycolysing, GN) values. 2. Subsequently, ultimate pH values and meat quality parameters were also recorded. Meat quality parameters from GR or GN samples differ more or less indicating more or less severe PSE conditions. Proteins extracted from the samples at 20 min post mortem were similar while they differed greatly at 24 h post mortem. Moreover, among the GR birds, a subgroup of animals (called AB) presented SDS-PAGE profiles largely different from other GR or GN birds. 3. All the subsequent analysis developed on meat quality parameters as well as for protein extractabilities also differed between AB and other animals indicating that they must be considered differently in term of PSE syndrome development. 4. Western blots against Myosin Heavy Chain and actin at 24 h post mortem indicate that myofibrillar protein alterations are different in AB and GR or GN samples. 5. At 20 min post mortem, glycogen content was lowest in AB samples while the glycolytic potential was similar in all samples at the time of death. Measurements of PFK enzyme specific activity did not indicate a different regulation of post mortem glycolysis in AB samples. 6. Our results suggest that a unique pH measurement at 20 min post is insufficient to detect animals more prone to developing a severe PSE syndrome in turkeys. In consequence, it is suggested that a more precise evaluation of the kinetics of pH and temperature decrease has to be conducted to understand the aetiology of meat quality parameter alterations in poultry. PMID:21491241

  7. Career Outcomes for Astronomy Ph.D. Graduates of the University of Texas at Austin: The Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen years ago I conducted a survey of the career trajectories and outcomes of 78 individuals who earned Ph.D.s from the Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin during the period 1984-1995 (Dinerstein, H. 1996, AAS, 189.0501). In the current poster I extend these statistics up to the present, adding 68 Ph.D. recipients from 1996-2010. This is a sufficiently large sample to search for secular trends such as possible changes in duration of the postdoctoral stage, redistribution of demographics among different kinds of long-term positions, and the emergence of new categories of astronomy-related employment. The picture is less discouraging than one might expect. As of 2010, about 75% of the Texas graduates 7 - 14 years past the Ph.D. are still doing astronomy, and most of those in non-astronomical careers left the field by choice (and often have had considerable success in their alternate careers). Of those 6 years or less past the Ph.D., 50% were in postdoctoral positions and less than 10% had left astronomy. Recent reconsiderations of the employment market (Metcalfe, T.S. 2008, PASP, 120, 229; Seth, A. 2009, Astro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Position Paper No. 51) make the point that a typical astronomer who ultimately achieves a permanent position will have held two or three prior temporary positions; this was equally true three decades ago. There has been notable growth nationwide in the number of astronomers employed as faculty at small liberal arts colleges and other undergraduate-centered institutions, a trend that to some degree was anticipated by the University of Texas cohort, which included a number of students for whom this was their personal goal. In a world where job certainty is no longer so prevalent, motivated and resourceful astronomers are finding ways to remain active members of our community.

  8. The National Institute of Nursing Research Graduate Partnerships Program (NINR-GPP): an opportunity for PhD students.

    PubMed

    Engler, Mary B; Austin, Joan K; Grady, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Institutional Graduate Partnerships Program (GPP) offered by the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) provides an exceptional opportunity for students who are enrolled in any PhD program in nursing across the nation to complete dissertation research on the premier research campus of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. The goal of this doctoral fellowship program, which is up to 3 years in length, is to train promising doctoral students in basic and clinical research. This knowledge and skill set is necessary for the next generation of nurse scientists to ultimately conduct translational research. In this article, the authors describe the program, eligibility requirements, application procedures, and selection criteria for NINR-supported GPP nursing students. Also provided are tips for interested students and outcomes of current and former NINR-supported GPP students (NINR-GPP). PMID:25261387

  9. Genetic parameters of meat technological quality traits in a grand-parental commercial line of turkey

    PubMed Central

    Le Bihan-Duval, lisabeth; Berri, Ccile; Baza, lisabeth; Sant, Vronique; Astruc, Thierry; Rmignon, Herv; Le Pottier, Gilles; Bentley, James; Beaumont, Catherine; Fernandez, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Genetic parameters for meat quality traits and their relationships with body weight and breast development were estimated for a total of 420 male turkeys using REML. The birds were slaughtered in a commercial plant and the traits measured included pH at 20 min (pH20) and 24 h post-mortem (pHu) and colour of the breast and thigh meat. The heritabilities of the rate and the extent of the pH fall in the breast muscle were estimated at h2 = 0.21 0.04 and h2 = 0.16 0.04, respectively. Heritabilities ranging from 0.10 to 0.32 were obtained for the colour indicators in the breast muscle. A marked negative genetic correlation (rg = -0.80 0.10) was found between pH20 and lightness (L*) of breast meat, both traits corresponding to PSE indicators. The pH20 in the thigh muscle had a moderate heritability (h2 = 0.20 0.07) and was partially genetically related to pH20 in the breast muscle (rg = 0.45 0.17). Body weight and breast yield were positively correlated with both initial and ultimate pH and negatively with the lightness of breast meat. PMID:14604511

  10. Genetic parameters of meat technological quality traits in a grand-parental commercial line of turkey.

    PubMed

    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Berri, Ccile; Baza, Elisabeth; Sant, Vronique; Astruc, Thierry; Rmignon, Herv; Le Pottier, Gilles; Bentley, James; Beaumont, Catherine; Fernandez, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Genetic parameters for meat quality traits and their relationships with body weight and breast development were estimated for a total of 420 male turkeys using REML. The birds were slaughtered in a commercial plant and the traits measured included pH at 20 min (pH20) and 24 h post-mortem (pHu) and colour of the breast and thigh meat. The heritabilities of the rate and the extent of the pH fall in the breast muscle were estimated at h2=0.21 +/- 0.04 and h2=0.16 +/- 0.04, respectively. Heritabilities ranging from 0.10 to 0.32 were obtained for the colour indicators in the breast muscle. A marked negative genetic correlation (rg=-0.80 +/- 0.10) was found between pH20 and lightness (L*) of breast meat, both traits corresponding to PSE indicators. The pH20 in the thigh muscle had a moderate heritability (h2=0.20 +/- 0.07) and was partially genetically related to pH20 in the breast muscle (rg=0.45 +/- 0.17). Body weight and breast yield were positively correlated with both initial and ultimate pH and negatively with the lightness of breast meat. PMID:14604511

  11. Goli Samimi, PhD, MPH | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Samimi received her PhD in Biomedical Sciences from the University of California, San Diego, focusing on molecular mechanisms in ovarian cancer that conferred resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. |

  12. Commentary: PhDs in Biochemistry Education--5 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research.

  13. pH switchable anion transport by an oxothiosquaramide.

    PubMed

    Elmes, Robert B P; Busschaert, Nathalie; Czech, Dawid D; Gale, Philip A; Jolliffe, Katrina A

    2015-06-25

    An oxothiosquaramide was shown to bind to chloride through hydrogen bonding interactions in DMSO and found to exhibit pH switchable choride transport across phospholipid bilayers via an antiport transport mechanism. PMID:25998008

  14. Ecological Agriculture Research: Increasing Competence through PhD Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, G.; Francis, C. A.; Salomonsson, L.; Sriskandarajah, N.

    1999-01-01

    A Ph.D. course in ecological agriculture included a weeklong intensive workshop and individual research projects. The course demonstrated the usefulness of multiple approaches to learning research methods and perspectives and increased networking among researchers. (SK)

  15. Microbial sulphate reduction at a low pH.

    PubMed

    Koschorreck, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    It is now well established that microbial sulphate-reduction can proceed in environments with a pH<5. This review summarizes existing reports on sulphate reduction at low pH and discusses possible pH effects on sulphate-reducing bacteria. Microbial sulphate reduction has been observed in acidic lakes, wetlands, mesocosms, acidic sulphate soils and bioreactors. Possible inhibitory factors include the metabolites H(2)S and organic acids, which can be toxic depending on pH. Metal sulphide precipitation and competition with other bacteria, namely iron-reducing bacteria, can inhibit sulphate reduction. Theoretical considerations show that normal sulphate reduction rates are too low to maintain a neutral micro niche in an acidic environment. The first acidotolerant sulphate-reducing bacteria have been isolated recently. PMID:18445022

  16. Ashley Felix, Ph.D., M.P.H.

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumna, Ashley Felix, Ph.D., M.P.H., details her transition from pre-med student to an epidemiologist who focuses on studying the causes and prevention of disease.

  17. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

  18. Teaching Human Digestion and pH Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Testing the pH of various liquids is one of the most popular activities in 5th- through 8th-grade classrooms. The author presents an extensive pH-testing lesson based on a 5E (engagement, exploration, explanation, extension, and evaluation) teaching model. The activity provides students with the opportunity to learn about pH and how it relates to

  19. Dysregulated pH in Tumor Microenvironment Checkmates Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The dysregulation of pH by cancerous cells of solid tumors is able to create a unique milieu that is in favor of progression, invasion and metastasis as well as chemo-/immuno-resistance traits of solid tumors. Bioelements involved in pH dysregulation provide new set of oncotargets, inhibition of which may result in better clinical outcome. Methods: To study the impacts of pH dysregulation, we investigated the tumor development and progression in relation with Warburg effect, glycolysis and formation of aberrant tumor microenvironment. Results: The upregulation of glucose transporter GLUT-1 and several enzymes involve in glycolysis exacerbates this phenomenon. The accumulation of lactic acids in cancer cells provokes upregulation of several transport machineries (MCT-1, NHE-1, CA IX and H+ pump V-ATPase) resulting in reinforced efflux of proton into extracellular fluid. This deviant event makes pH to be settled at 7.4 and 6.6 respectively in cancer cells cytoplasm and extracellular fluid within the tumor microenvironment, which in return triggers secretion of lysosomal components (various enzymes in acidic milieu with pH 5) into cytoplasm. All these anomalous phenomena make tumor microenvironment (TME) to be exposed to cocktail of various enzymes with acidic pH, upon which extracellular matrix (ECM) can be remodeled and even deformed, resulting in emergence of a complex viscose TME with high interstitial fluid pressure. Conclusion: It seems that pH dysregulation is able to remodel various physiologic functions and make solid tumors to become much more invasive and metastatic. It also can cause undesired resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Hence, cancer therapy needs to be reinforced using specific inhibitors of bioelements involved in pH dysregulation of TME in solid tumors. PMID:24455478

  20. Vaginal pH: A marker for menopause

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Subrat; Das, Ananya; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Pala, Star

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopause is suspected with age, cessation of menstruation for more than a year and presence of symptoms. The diagnosis of menopause is confirmed by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels >40 IU/L. Few studies have focused on vaginal pH for menopausal diagnosis. It is a simple, non-invasive and inexpensive method for this purpose. Aim of the Study: The following study is to correlate the serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level with vaginal pH estimation in menopause. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 173 women aged 31-60 years with menopausal symptoms who attended the Menopausal Clinic of our hospital from January 2012 to January 2013. Vaginal pH was measured using pH micro-meter strips and serum FSH levels were measured using immunoassay methods. The data obtained was then analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 17) and results were evaluated statistically by the Chi-square and Kappa tests. P ? 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: According to our study of the 173 women studied, mean FSH level was 46.5 IU/L and mean vaginal pH was 5.3. If the menopausal hallmark is considered to be vaginal pH >4.5 and serum FSH ?40 IU/L, the sensitivity of vaginal pH for menopausal diagnosis was 84.9% and of serum FSH is 77.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Vaginal pH is a simple, accurate and cost-effective tool that can be suggested as a suitable and better alternative to serum FSH estimation for the diagnosis of menopause. PMID:24672204