Science.gov

Sample records for ultimate ph phu

  1. Selecting broiler chickens for ultimate pH of breast muscle: analysis of divergent selection experiment and phenotypic consequences on meat quality, growth, and body composition traits.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Boulay, M; Baéza, E; Jégo, Y; Baumard, Y; Chabault, M; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2014-09-01

    Genetic parameters for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle (PM-pHu) and sartorius muscle (SART-pHu); color parameters L*, a*, b*; logarithm of drip loss (LogDL) of pectoralis major (PM) muscle; breast meat yield (BMY); thigh and drumstick yield (TY); abdominal fat percentage (AFP); and BW at 6 wk (BW6) were estimated in 2 lines of broiler chickens divergently selected for PM-pHu. Effects of selection on all the previous traits and on glycolytic potential, pectoralis major muscle pH at 15 min postmortem, curing-cooking yield (CCY), cooking loss (CL), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of the PM muscle were also analyzed after 5 generations. Strong genetic determinism of PM-pHu was observed, with estimated h(2) of 0.57 ± 0.02. There was a significant positive genetic correlation (rg) between PM-pHu and SART-pHu (0.54 ± 0.04), indicating that selection had a general rather than a specific effect on energy storage in skeletal muscles. The h(2) estimates of L*, a*, and b* parameters were 0.58 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 0.48 ± 0.02, respectively. Heritability estimates for TY, BMY, and AFP were 0.39 ± 0.04, 0.52 ± 0.01, and 0.71 ± 0.02, respectively. Our results indicated different genetic control of LogDL and L* of the meat between the 2 lines; these traits had a strong rg with PM-pHu in the line selected for low ultimate pH (pHu) value (pHu-; -0.80 and -0.71, respectively), which was not observed in the line selected for high pHu value (pHu+; -0.04 and -0.29, respectively). A significant positive rg (0.21 ± 0.04) was observed between PM-pHu and BMY but not between PM-pHu and BW6, AFP, or TY. Significant phenotypic differences were observed after 5 generations of selection between the 2 lines. The mean differences (P < 0.001) in pHu between the 2 lines were 0.42 and 0.21 pH units in the breast and thigh muscle, respectively. Breast meat in the pHu+ line exhibited lower L* (-5 units; P < 0.001), a* (-0.22 units; P < 0.001), b* (-1.53 units; P < 0.001), and drip loss (-1.6 units; P < 0.001) than in the pHu- line. Breast meat of the pHu+ line was also characterized by greater CCY (+6.1 units; P < 0.001), lower CL (-1.66 units; P < 0.01), and lower WBSF after cooking (-5.1 units; P < 0.001) compared to the pHu- line. This study highlighted that selection based on pHu can be effective in improving the processing ability of breast meat and reducing the incidence of meat quality defects without affecting chicken growth performance. PMID:25006074

  2. A genome-wide analysis of the ultimate pH in swine.

    PubMed

    Chung, H Y; Lee, K T; Jang, G W; Choi, J G; Hong, J G; Kim, T H

    2015-01-01

    Meat pH is an important factor influencing meat quality traits in swine. This study evaluated a large number of genetic variants that covered all of the swine chromosomal regions. Approximately 68,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), found on Illumina Porcine SNP chips, were tested for associations with meat pH values. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) found that 19 SNPs on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 were significantly associated with pH. Two major candidate genomic regions were defined: a 1.08-Mb region (at nucleotide 30118313 to 31207050) contained 10 significant SNPs, based on an effect value of 5.0; and a 2.7-Mb genomic region (at nucleotide 73293076 to 76023681) contained 9 significant SNPs. Three putative genes - PKHD1L1, VCPIP1, and LOC102166532 - were identified by GWAS near significant SNPs. These genes may account for variations in pH levels. Three pseudogenes and two non-coding RNAs were also detected by GWAS analysis. Estimations of expected and observed P values for pH revealed significant departures from the null hypothesis. A total of 9 haplotype blocks (HB) were constructed: HBs 1, 3, and 5 showed significant effects on pH24 and pH45, whereas an association was not confirmed between pH24 and HBs 4, 6, and 8. Findings from this study indicate that the three genes identified may influence pH of pig meat. PMID:26634535

  3. Net lactate accumulation and low buffering capacity explain low ultimate pH in the longissimus lumborum of AMPK?3(R200Q) mutant pigs.

    PubMed

    Matarneh, Sulaiman K; England, Eric M; Scheffler, Tracy L; Oliver, Emily M; Gerrard, David E

    2015-12-01

    Postmortem lactate accumulation in skeletal muscle is linearly associated with the extent of pH decline. Yet, pigs harboring the AMPK?3(R200Q) mutation produce meat with similar lactate levels to that of wild-type pigs but have a lower ultimate pH. We hypothesized that lower initial lactate levels and (or) lower buffering capacity in muscle of these pigs may help explain this discrepancy. Longissimus lumborum muscle samples were harvested at 0 and 1440min postmortem from AMPK?3(R200Q) and wild-type pigs. As expected, AMPK?3(R200Q) muscle exhibited a lower ultimate pH but similar lactate levels to that of wild-type pigs at 1440min postmortem. However, the total net lactate produced postmortem was greater in the AMPK?3(R200Q) muscle due to lower initial lactate levels at 0min postmortem. Buffering capacity measured over the pH range of 5.5-7.0 was also lower in AMPK?3(R200Q) muscle. Greater net lactate accumulation postmortem (i.e., glycolytic flux) coupled with a lower buffering capacity explains the lower ultimate pH of meat from AMPK?3(R200Q) pigs. PMID:26241465

  4. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  5. The Cytoplasmic Heme-binding Protein (PhuS) from the Heme Uptake System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is an

    E-print Network

    Wraight, Colin A.

    The Cytoplasmic Heme-binding Protein (PhuS) from the Heme Uptake System of Pseudomonas aeruginosaS from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Spectroscopic characterization of the heme). In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two distinct heme uptake operons have been identified (10

  6. The Mechanism of Heme Transfer from the Cytoplasmic Heme Binding Protein PhuS to the -Regioselective Heme Oxygenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-print Network

    Wraight, Colin A.

    S to the -Regioselective Heme Oxygenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mehul N. Bhakta and Angela Wilks* Department Pseudomonas aeruginosa has evolved two outer membrane receptor- mediated uptake systems (encoded by the phu

  7. Language Lea The Ultimate

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    390 I FALL 2004 Language Lea The Ultimate n o rning LII - . Foreign sabilities:T Language Challenge where great value is placed on global understanding, the acquisition of languages is essential. Academics would agree that the study of other languages provides students access to the cultural

  8. Registration of "Ultimate" Zoysiagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultimate’ (Reg. No. ________, PI 652947) zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) was developed at the Everglades Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Belle Glade, FL and initially approved for release in 2004. A plant patent was submitted in mid-2005 and presently awaits exami...

  9. The Ultimate Fizz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckscher, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Many recipes for elementary science activities suggest making carbon dioxide from baking soda and vinegar; however, they often do not give exact measurements of the ingredients. The author was able to turn this "drawback" into a plus by challenging her fifth-grade students to find the "ultimate fizz"--i.,e., "What amount of baking soda added to a…

  10. The Ultimate Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The sport of Ultimate has grown from parking lot fun to international competition in its 35 year existence. As in many sports, the team that scores is subsequently on defense. Thus the probability that a team will score next is dependent on which team has scored most recently. Unlike in many other sports, teams switch ends after each score. Thus…

  11. The Ultimate Flag Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

    This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

  12. Information: The Ultimate Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscomb, Lewis M.

    1979-01-01

    A 100-year scenario of the future of information technology. To achieve inexpensive, high-speed, and small computers, new techniques are likely to replace silicon technology. The ultimate computer might be biological and patterned on DNA. Future computers will require information rather than store it. Light wave communication will broaden…

  13. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate

  14. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  15. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  16. Spacetime in the Ultimate Theory

    E-print Network

    Noboru Nakanishi

    2006-10-09

    If we assume that there is the ultimate thoery at all, how should the concept of the spacetime be formulated? The following essay is my consideration on such a question. The use of mathematical expressions is suppressed as long as possible. Any criticism on my opinion is welcome.

  17. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes. PMID:26250010

  18. Fibrosis: ultimate and proximate causes

    PubMed Central

    Thannickal, Victor J.; Zhou, Yong; Gaggar, Amit; Duncan, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrotic disorders account for an increasing burden of disease-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although numerous risk factors have been recognized, the etiologies of many of these clinical syndromes have not been identified, and they are often termed idiopathic or cryptogenic. Here, we provide an evolutionary perspective on fibrosis aimed at elucidating its etiopathogenesis. By asking the ultimate question of “why” this process evolved in multicellular organisms, we hope to uncover proximate explanations for “how” it causes disease in humans. We posit that physiological fibrosis-like reactions evolved as an essential process in host defense against pathogens and in normal wound healing. Based on this premise, we reason that pathological fibrosis is related to one or more of the following: unidentified infectious or noninfectious antigens, autoimmunity, impaired regenerative responses, and the antagonistically pleiotropic action of genes involved in wound healing or development. The importance of genetic susceptibility, epigenetics, aging, and the modern-day environment are highlighted. Consideration of both ultimate and proximate causation goes beyond philosophical cogitations, as it will better inform pathobiological mechanisms of disease and aid in the prevention and treatment of fibrotic diseases. PMID:25365073

  19. The effect of electrical stimulation on post mortem myofibrillar protein degradation and small heat shock protein kinetics in bull beef.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Castillo, C J; Lomiwes, D; Wu, G; Frost, D; Farouk, M M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of electrical stimulation and ultimate pH (pHu) on shear force, myofibrillar protein degradation and small heat shock protein (sHSP) concentrations in M. longissimus lumborum (LL). The LL from both sides of carcasses (n=15) was excised with low voltage electrical stimulation (ES) applied to an LL muscle from one side, while the opposing LL muscle was not stimulated (NS). Muscles were categorised into low (pHu<5.8), intermediate (5.8?pHu<6.2) and high pHu (pHu?6.2) and aged for up to 28days post mortem at -1.5°C. High pHu meat tenderised faster which corresponded with the faster degradation of titin and desmin in this group compared with low and intermediate pHu meat. Electrical stimulation significantly affected the variable levels of ??-crystallin and HSP20 with higher concentrations of these sHSP in ES muscles at later ageing timepoints compared with NS muscles. PMID:26624792

  20. What is the ultimate goal in acid-base regulation?

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Alagesan, Murali; Prakash, E Sankaranarayanan

    2007-03-01

    It is common to see chapters on acid-base physiology state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial Pco(2) (Pa(CO(2))) or plasma HCO(3). A hypothetical situation in which the Pa(CO(2)) of arterial plasma is 80 mmHg and the plasma HCO(3) concentration is 48 mM is presented and analyzed to get over this misconception. As per the modified Henderson equation, the pH of arterial plasma would be 7.4; however, we explain that this may be associated with intracellular acidosis due to intracellular hypercapnia and that derangement of homeostasis is evident from the occurrence of respiratory depression and, eventually, coma in the patient described. This suggests that the ultimate goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is not just the maintenance of the pH of arterial plasma but the maintenance of the steady-state pH of intracellular fluid as well. PMID:17327583

  1. Atomic Clocks Ultimate Clocks, W. Wayt Gibbs

    E-print Network

    Safronova, Marianna

    Atomic Clocks Ultimate Clocks, W. Wayt Gibbs Scientific American Time 306, 60-67 (19 January 2012-75 (22 January 2014) An Atomic Clock with 10­18 Instability N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland Science 24 September 2010: 1630-1633. Two Atomic Clocks Ticking as One Bruce

  2. Probing the Ultimate Limits of Plasmonic Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciracì, C.; Hill, R. T.; Mock, J. J.; Urzhumov, Y.; Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.; Maier, S. A.; Pendry, J. B.; Chilkoti, A.; Smith, D. R.

    2012-08-01

    Metals support surface plasmons at optical wavelengths and have the ability to localize light to subwavelength regions. The field enhancements that occur in these regions set the ultimate limitations on a wide range of nonlinear and quantum optical phenomena. We found that the dominant limiting factor is not the resistive loss of the metal, but rather the intrinsic nonlocality of its dielectric response. A semiclassical model of the electronic response of a metal places strict bounds on the ultimate field enhancement. To demonstrate the accuracy of this model, we studied optical scattering from gold nanoparticles spaced a few angstroms from a gold film. The bounds derived from the models and experiments impose limitations on all nanophotonic systems.

  3. Dark Energy and Life's Ultimate Future

    E-print Network

    Ruediger Vaas

    2007-03-19

    The discovery of the present accelerated expansion of space changed everything regarding cosmology and life's ultimate prospects. Both the optimistic scenarios of an ever (but decelerated) expanding universe and of a collapsing universe seem to be no longer available. The final future looks deadly dark. However, the fate of the universe and intelligence depends crucially on the nature of the still mysterious dark energy which drives the accelerated expansion. Depending on its - perhaps time-dependent - equation of state, there is a confusing number of different models now, popularly called Big Rip, Big Whimper, Big Decay, Big Crunch, Big Brunch, Big Splat, etc. This paper briefly reviews possibilities and problems. It also argues that even if our universe is finally doomed, perhaps that doesn't matter ultimately because there might be some kind of eternal recurrence. - Key words: Cosmology, Universe, Dark Energy, Cosmological Constant, Quintessence, Phantom Energy, Inflation, Quantum Gravity, Far Future, Life, Intelligence

  4. Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ciracì, C; Hill, R T; Mock, J J; Urzhumov, Y; Fernández-Domínguez, A I; Maier, S A; Pendry, J B; Chilkoti, A; Smith, D R

    2012-08-31

    Metals support surface plasmons at optical wavelengths and have the ability to localize light to subwavelength regions. The field enhancements that occur in these regions set the ultimate limitations on a wide range of nonlinear and quantum optical phenomena. We found that the dominant limiting factor is not the resistive loss of the metal, but rather the intrinsic nonlocality of its dielectric response. A semiclassical model of the electronic response of a metal places strict bounds on the ultimate field enhancement. To demonstrate the accuracy of this model, we studied optical scattering from gold nanoparticles spaced a few angstroms from a gold film. The bounds derived from the models and experiments impose limitations on all nanophotonic systems. PMID:22936772

  5. Methods of ultimate carbonaceous BOD determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; McKenzie, S.W.; Cherry, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted to provide an accurate and practical technique for determining the concentration of ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and the rate at which this demand is exerted. The three methods evaluated were carbon derived, nitrification adjusted, and nitrification inhibited. The studies indicate that comparable concentrations and reaction rates can be determined from either non-nitrified samples using no chemical nitrifying inhibitor, or from partially nitrified samples using the chemical inhibitors, 1-allyl-2 thiourea or nitrapyrin, and that the combined use of time-series analysis and Lee's graphical method provide a reliable and accurate technique for determining ultimate biochemical oxygen demand concentration and reaction rate in 5 to 7 days.

  6. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    We recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. We summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. We take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H.

    1999-07-12

    We recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. We summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. We take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  8. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  9. Ultimate computing. Biomolecular consciousness and nano Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hameroff, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The book advances the premise that the cytoskeleton is the cell's nervous system, the biological controller/computer. If indeed cytoskeletal dynamics in the nanoscale (billionth meter, billionth second) are the texture of intracellular information processing, emerging ''NanoTechnologies'' (scanning tunneling microscopy, Feynman machines, von Neumann replicators, etc.) should enable direct monitoring, decoding and interfacing between biological and technological information devices. This in turn could result in important biomedical applications and perhaps a merger of mind and machine: Ultimate Computing.

  10. Physical Demands in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-12-01

    Krustrup, P and Mohr, M. Physical demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3386-3391, 2015-The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate Frisbee athletes played a game in which activity profile using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Game HRmean and HRpeak were 82 ± 2% and 99 ± 1% of maximum heart rate, respectively. Total game distance was 4.70 ± 0.47 km, of which 0.63 ± 0.14 km was high-intensity running and 0.21 ± 0.11 km was sprinting. In the second half, 10% less (p ? 0.05) ground was covered with high-intensity running compared with the first half (0.28 ± 0.08 km vs. 0.31 ± 0.07 km). Less (43-47%; p ? 0.05) high-intensity running was performed in the third 9-minute period of each half compared with the first two 9-minute periods of the same half. Players performed 17.4 ± 5.7 sprints during the match. Yo-Yo IR2 performance correlated to the amount of high-intensity running in the last 9 minutes of both halves (r = 0.69, p ? 0.05), whereas Yo-Yo IR1 performance correlated with total sprint distance (r = 0.74, p ? 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance. PMID:26595132

  11. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, T.R.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  12. Is space the ultimate high ground?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Gregory J.; Stallings, Francis P.

    2011-06-01

    Military experts often refer to space as the ultimate high ground under the premise that placing systems in orbit provides advantages consistent with the military doctrine of high ground. Although space provides the ultimate "observation post", it has none of the other advantages traditionally associated with high ground. Army Field Manual (FM) 34-130 states the other advantages of holding key terrain: commanding avenues of approach, overcoming obstacles, and affording cover and concealment as additional benefits of high ground. Yet systems in orbit incur none of these additional advantages. Finally, international restrictions and reciprocity concerns limit the employment of weapons in space nullifying many of the unique capability advantages that would otherwise support the "high ground" aspect of space. As the ultimate observation post, satellites provide a large quantity of vital data to military decision makers. This massive amount of data needs to have as much context as possible to convert this data to useful knowledge. To use space assets optimally, the military needs to learn from the past and make space and cyber products distributed and tactical. It is absolutely essential to distribute the right information to the lowest level (tactical elements) of the organization or the "boots on the ground" in a timely manner.

  13. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  14. The ultimate efficiency of photosensitive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    These systems have in common two important but not independent features: they can produce a storable fuel, and they are sensitive only to radiant energy with a characteristic absorption spectrum. General analyses of the conversion efficiencies were made using the operational characteristics of each particular system. An efficiency analysis of a generalized system consisting of a blackbody source, a radiant energy converter having a threshold energy and operating temperature, and a reservoir is reported. This analysis is based upon the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and leads to a determination of the limiting or ultimate efficiency for an energy conversion system having a characteristic threshold.

  15. No way to cool the ultimate greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-10-29

    When the Clinton Administration announced its Climate Change Action Plan last week, some press accounts called it an effort to halt greenhouse warming. To greenhouse experts, however, cutting emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the end of the decade -- the goal of the plan -- will only delay the inevitable. Such modest conservation measures, as a recent study shows, will buy humanity valuable time to adapt to the greenhouse world, but they will have little effect on how warm the global climate ultimately becomes. Centuries down the road, humanity will have to come to grips with elevated temperatures due to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels. Reducing emissions will slow the warming process and give humanity more time to adapt.

  16. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  17. The Phenix ultimate natural convection test

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthe, P.; Pialla, D.; Tenchine, D.; Vasile, A.; Rochwerger, D.

    2012-07-01

    The French sodium cooled fast reactor Phenix was shut down in 2009 after 35 years of operation. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests were performed by the CEA during 9 months. Several topics were involved such as thermal hydraulics, core physics and fuel behaviour. Among these ultimate experiments, two thermal hydraulic tests were performed: an asymmetrical test consisting in a trip of one secondary pump and a natural convection test in the primary circuit. Recognizing the unique opportunity offered by these Phenix ultimate tests, IAEA decided in 2007 to launch a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to benchmarking analyses with system codes on the Phenix natural convection test. One objective of the natural convection test in Phenix reactor is the assessment of the CATHARE system code for safety studies on future and advanced sodium cooled fast reactors. The aim of this paper is to describe this test, which was performed on June 22-23, 2009, and the associated benchmark specifications for the CRP work. The paper reminds briefly the Phenix reactor with the main physical parameters and the instrumentation used during the natural convection test. After that, the test scenario is described: - initial state at a power of 120 MWth, - test beginning resulting from a manual dry out of the two steam generators, - manual scram, - manual trip on the three primary pumps without back-up by pony motors, - setting and development of natural convection in the primary circuit, in a first phase without significant heat sink in the secondary circuits and in a second phase with significant heat sink in the secondary circuits, by opening the casing of steam generators to create an efficient heat sink, by air natural circulation in the steam generators casing. The benchmark case ends after this second phase, which corresponds to the experimental test duration of nearly 7 hours. The paper presents also the benchmark specifications data supplied by the CEA to all participants of this CRP in order to perform calculations (core, primary circuit, primary pumps, IHX, shutdown system, operating parameters, test scenario and real test conditions). Finally, main test results and analyses are presented including the evolution of the core and of the heat exchangers inlet and outlet temperatures, and some local temperature measurements. The natural convection has been easily set up in the pool type reactor Phenix with different boundary conditions at the secondary side, with or without heat sink. The data obtained during this unique test represent some very useful and precious results for the development of SFR in a wide range of thematic such as numerical methods dedicated to thermal-hydraulics safety analyses (system codes, CFD codes and coupling system and CFD codes) and instrumentation. (authors)

  18. In Search of the Ultimate Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    1996-11-01

    From 1960 until 1990 theoretical physicists and experimentalists worked together to probe deeper and deeper into the basic structure of matter, moving closer to an understanding of the ultimate building blocks of the universe. Gerard 't Hooft was closely involved in many of the advances in modern theoretical physics that led to improved understanding of elementary particles, and this is a first-hand account of one of the most creative and exciting periods of discovery in the history of physics. Using language a layperson can understand, this narrative touches on many central topics and ideas, such as quarks and quantum physics; supergravity, superstrings and superconductivity; the Standard Model and grand unification; eleven-dimensional space time and black holes. This fascinating personal account of the past thirty years in one of the most dramatic areas in twentieth-century physics will be of interest to professional physicists and physics students, as well as the educated general reader with an interest in one of the most exciting scientific detective stories ever.

  19. Toward the ultimate synthesis/recognition system.

    PubMed Central

    Furui, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper predicts speech synthesis, speech recognition, and speaker recognition technology for the year 2001, and it describes the most important research problems to be solved in order to arrive at these ultimate synthesis and recognition systems. The problems for speech synthesis include natural and intelligible voice production, prosody control based on meaning, capability of controlling synthesized voice quality and choosing individual speaking style, multilingual and multidialectal synthesis, choice of application-oriented speaking styles, capability of adding emotion, and synthesis from concepts. The problems for speech recognition include robust recognition against speech variations, adaptation/normalization to variations due to environmental conditions and speakers, automatic knowledge acquisition for acoustic and linguistic modeling, spontaneous speech recognition, naturalness and ease of human-machine interaction, and recognition of emotion. The problems for speaker recognition are similar to those for speech recognition. The research topics related to all these techniques include the use of articulatory and perceptual constraints and evaluation methods for measuring the quality of technology and systems. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7479723

  20. Determining paleostructure from estimated ultimate recoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, P.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Maps of estimated ultimate recoveries (EUR) for field wells, a qualitative indicator of reservoir porosity and permeability, can represent paleostructure if hydrocarbon emplacement occurred penecontemporaneously with deposition. This type of qualitative understanding from quantitative data can supplement the geoscientist's knowledge of structurally complex fields. Offshore Gulf of Mexico West Cameron 205 field provides an example. West Cameron 205 field products from middle Miocene Cristellaria I and Cibicides opima sandstones deposited in inner and outer neritic environments and is projected to produce 310 bcf of gas. Structure maps indicate that the field is a highly faulted, south-plunging anticline. The trapping mechanism is poorly understood: closure, with 1,500 ft of column, is placed anomalously against minor faults; the gas-water contacts and gas columns vary within reservoirs; the structurally highest well is dry; and most of the flank wells are the best producers. EUR maps indicate that the field was a four-way closed anticline during fill. EUR values can be calculated easily from readily available production data and are not subject to anthropogenic factors that appear in maps of initial absolute open-flow rate or of yearly production. The geoscientist can exploit EUR maps to understand not only field production, but also paleostructure in structurally complex areas.

  1. Evolutionary Theory and the UltimateProximate Distinction in

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    ­proximate, cooperation, culture, epigenetics The difference between proximate and ultimate explanations of behaviorEvolutionary Theory and the Ultimate­Proximate Distinction in the Human Behavioral Sciences Thomas To properly understand behavior, we must obtain both ultimate and proximate explanations. Put briefly

  2. Olympus: The Ultimate Summit for Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Darrell; Holt, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High above the world-class observatories that dot Hawaii's dormant Mauna Kea volcano, floating farther yet over the hostile and nearly inaccessible peaks of Mt. Everest, lies a summit waiting to be conquered. Here above the clouds and city lights and over 99.7% of the atmosphere is a platform on the edge of space, home to a broad range of astronomy and physics experiments. Today, balloons are lifting experiments longer, higher and more inexpensively than ever before, and returning them safely to Earth for reuse. Week-long flights at altitudes of approximately 35 kilometers carrying payloads in excess of several tons are the norm. NASA now plans to extend this platform and create a new generation of balloons capable of staying afloat with such cargo for 100 days and ultimately 1,000 days. What do some scientists hope to accomplish with 100 or even 1,000 days at the edge of space? To name but a few proposals on the table: Jupiter-size planet searches, large-aperture solar astronomy, large-aperture infrared astronomy, cosmic-ray investigations, long-duration Earth science missions, and hard x-ray imaging experiments. Olympus defines a new era in scientific ballooning. Advances in material science and trajectory control are enabling revolutionary capabilities. Very large scientific payloads can now be reliably launched and retrieved for reflight at a range of altitudes. Balloon flight still remains a fraction of the cost of a rocket launch. The ultra long duration balloon, with its 100-day maiden flight planned for 2001, provides a long-term facility in a near-space environment for many types of science. This is a stratospheric mountaintop well worth the climb.

  3. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called ‘walk-around flower’. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. As bees are very inventive, however, bilabiate constructions will not represent the ultimate response to bees. PMID:17652341

  4. As the heart and sould of the Stanford Mens' Ultimate Team, Whit is the obvious and

    E-print Network

    Okaya, David

    nominee for the Callahan MVP Award. We think he's the most complete big- time player in the country. Check!s Ultimate!s Ultimate!s Ultimate! The printed presence of the Stanford Men's Ultimate TeamThe printed presence of the Stanford Men's Ultimate TeamThe printed presence of the Stanford Men's Ultimate Team

  5. Meta-analysis genomewide association of pork quality traits: ultimate pH and shear force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is common practice to perform genome-wide association analysis (GWA) using a genomic evaluation model of a single population. Joint analysis of several populations is more difficult. An alternative to joint analysis could be the meta-analysis (MA) of several GWA from independent genomic evaluatio...

  6. James M. Cherry, Ph.D. (Video)

    Cancer.gov

    View this video on YouTube. James M. Cherry, Ph.D. details his educational journey from football player to biology major and, ultimately, a career in molecular biology. Dr. Cherry serves as scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations,

  7. Ultimate Limits to Resource Efficiency in Photonic Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    We review resource-efficiency metrics for transferring classical information with photon, present an overview of the ultimate limits to photon and dimensional efficiency permitted by quantum mechanics, as well as that acheived with structured transmitter-receiver pairs.

  8. An Ultimate Hyperfinite Ultralogic Unification for all Physical Theories

    E-print Network

    Robert A. Herrmann

    2006-12-09

    In this paper, all of the restrictions that were previously required in order to obtain a hyperfinite unification for a set of physical theories have been removed. This yields the ultimate hyperfinite ultralogic unification for any set of physical theories.

  9. Some remarks on discrete physics as an ultimate dynamical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-10-01

    The standard model of quarks and leptons currently fails to meet `t Hooft`s criterion for an ``Ultimate Dynamical Theory`` in that it contains 19 parameters which must be taken from experiment. Evaluating discrete physics in the same way we find that it requires 17 parameters and has already succeeded in computing 7 of them. While we are confident that the rest can also be computed, the very concept of an ultimate theory is incompatible with our attitude toward physics.

  10. INFORMATION THEORY: 'Ultimate PC' Would Be a Hot Little Number.

    PubMed

    Seife, C

    2000-09-01

    A physicist has used the laws of thermodynamics, information, relativity, and quantum mechanics to figure out the ultimate physical limits on the speed of a computer. His calculations show that, in principle, a kilogram of matter in a liter-sized container could be an "ultimate laptop" more than a trillion trillion trillion times as powerful as today's fastest supercomputer--if it could be turned into a black hole. PMID:17839510

  11. Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) static ultimate load structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted on the jettisonable metallic shroud used on the Titan/Centaur launch vehicle to verify its structural capabilities and to evaluate its structural interaction with the Centaur stage. A flight configured shroud and the interfacing Titan/Centaur structural assemblies were subjected to tests consisting of combinations of applied axial and shear loads to design ultimate values, including a set of tests on thermal conditions and two dynamic response tests to verify the analytical stiffness model. The strength capabilities were demonstrated at ultimate (125 percent of design limit) loads. It was also verified that the spring rate of the flight configured shroud-to-Centaur forward structural deflections of the specimen became nonlinear, as expected, above limit load values. This test series qualification program verified that the Titan/Centaur shroud and the Centaur and Titan interface components are qualified structurally at design ultimate loads.

  12. More than one ultimate speed and superluminal neutrinos

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jong-Phil

    2012-01-01

    It is suggested that recent superluminal neutrinos from the OPERA collaboration might indicate that there are other ultimate speeds than usual speed of light in our universe. The leptonic sector of the standard model (SM) is reformulated incorporating with new ultimate speeds. In minimal cases where there is another maximum speed $c'$ which equals to the speed of the OPERA neutrinos, new effects would appear at the level of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$. Improved precisions for the electroweak observables would check the validity of this scenario.

  13. 37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING STEPPED TOWERS, AND WITH PYLONS CAPPED BY LANTERNS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. Proximate and Ultimate Mechanisms of Spiny Lobster Gregariousness

    E-print Network

    Childress, Michael J.

    Abstract Proximate and Ultimate Mechanisms of Spiny Lobster Gregariousness Ken Sercy and Michael show clear differences in spiny lobster gregariousness. Panulirus argus is usually found sharing variation in lobster distribution and fitness. Spiny lobsters are a convenient model system for studying

  15. The Ultimate Sampling Dilemma in Experience-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations and 2 experiments demonstrate the ultimate sampling dilemma, which constitutes a serious obstacle to inductive inferences in a probabilistic world. Participants were asked to take the role of a manager who is to make purchasing decisions based on positive versus negative feedback about 3 providers in 2 different product…

  16. Ultimate Success Rates on National Board Examinations: A Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.; Wallis, Norman E.; Present, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the percentage of optometry students successfully completing the four-component National Board of Examiners in Optometry examination at graduation between 1995 to 1997. Ultimate pass rates for all four components ranged from 87.0% to 90.9%. Results are discussed in relation to the 1993 test-sequence expansion and to the number…

  17. The Ultimate Messier Object Log PDF Enter Notes

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    The Ultimate Messier Object Log PDF Enter Notes The "Main Screen" Enter your viewing notes and view constellation. Sort by Marathon # List all objects, in ideal order for a Messier marathon. Atlas, Sort by Messier # List star atlas info for all objects, sorted by Messier #. Credits & Copyrights Visit the SEDS

  18. Accurate Whole Genome Sequencing as the Ultimate Genetic Test

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Accurate Whole Genome Sequencing as the Ultimate Genetic Test Radoje Drmanac,1,2* Brock A. Peters,1- assembling DNA nanoarrays. Science 2010;327:78­81.4 Even 30 years ago, it was obvious that Sanger sequenc that started in Serbia in 1987 with a proposal for sequencing by hy- bridization (SBH) on dot-blot DNA arrays

  19. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary...

  20. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific...Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary...

  1. Logarithmic temperature profiles in the ultimate regime of thermal convection

    E-print Network

    Siegfried Grossmann; Detlef Lohse

    2012-08-13

    We report on the theory of logarithmic temperature profiles in very strongly developed thermal convection in the geometry of a Rayleigh-Benard cell with aspect ratio one and discuss the degree of agreement with the recently measured profiles in the ultimate state of very large Rayleigh number flow. The parameters of the log-profile are calculated and compared with the measure ones. Their physical interpretation as well as their dependence on the radial position are discussed.

  2. The Ultimate Fate of Life in an Accelerating Universe

    E-print Network

    Katherine Freese; William H. Kinney

    2002-05-24

    The ultimate fate of life in a universe with accelerated expansion is considered. Previous work showed that life cannot go on indefinitely in a universe dominated by a cosmological constant. In this paper we consider instead other models of acceleration (including quintessence and Cardassian expansion). We find that it is possible in these cosmologies for life to persist indefinitely. As an example we study potentials of the form $V \\propto \\phi^n$ and find the requirement $n < -2$.

  3. Ultimate capacity of multi-planar double X-joints

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, C.Y.; Soh, C.K.; Soh, A.K.; Fung, T.C.; Chiew, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    The ultimate capacity of the axially loaded multi-planar double X-joints have been evaluated using the finite element method. A comprehensive study has been done on different combinations of axial loading applied to 20 multi-planar double X-joints. For all the joints analyzed, the in-plane braces were subjected to compressive loadings but the load acting on the out-of-plane braces were varied between compressive load, tensile load and no load. The ultimate capacities of the multi-planar joints, with various braces to chord diameter ratio ({beta}) and radius of chord to thickness ratio ({gamma}), are compared to those of the corresponding uniplanar joints. The variation of the ratio between the strength of the multi-planar joint and that of the corresponding uniplanar joint (thereafter called strength ratio) is found to be significant. The strength ratios derived from the AWS code are also compared to those obtained from the numerical analysis by the present authors, and the AWS code is found to be less accurate in predicting multi-planar effects for certain load cases. Moreover, significant discrepancies are found between the ultimate capacities of the multi-planar double X-joints obtained by the present authors and those predicted by the API code.

  4. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on educating and empowering women in these enclaves. Women are in charge of birth spacing and all aspects of management of energy, food, water and the local environment, more so than men, in most countries. PMID:12284190

  5. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology.

    PubMed

    Alessi, G

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner saw behavior as a product of three levels of evolution. J. R. Kantor and Gregory Bateson noted similar relations. This article describes and applies basic evolutionary concepts to each level: (a) phylogenic, (b) ontogenic, and (c) cultural evolution. Each level is analyzed in terms of (a) units of selection, (b) variety of units required for the selection process, (c) selection pressures, (d) interactions among levels, and (e) implications for understanding and predicting behavior. Distinguishing between models of proximate and ultimate causation, as in biology, may help clarify research problems posed by, and facilitate better communication among, psychologists. PMID:1482003

  6. The ultimate quantum limits on the accuracy of measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    1992-01-01

    A quantum generalization of rate-distortion theory from standard communication and information theory is developed for application to determining the ultimate performance limit of measurement systems in physics. For the estimation of a real or a phase parameter, it is shown that the root-mean-square error obtained in a measurement with a single-mode photon level N cannot do better than approximately N exp -1, while approximately exp(-N) may be obtained for multi-mode fields with the same photon level N. Possible ways to achieve the remarkable exponential performance are indicated.

  7. Suicide: The Ultimate Inside-Out ad Hominem Argument

    E-print Network

    Suttle, Bruce B.

    : THE ULTIMATE INSIDE-OUT ad Hominem ARGUMENT BRUCE B. SUTTLE Parkland College I One of the major recurring themes in the literature on suicide is that of the desirability of a more nearly neutral definition of the concept. And despite the numerous.... In fact, there seems to be a consensus that most of the moral issues related, to suicide could be handled with some ease if only there were a morally-neutral definition of suicide. Or in other words, the moral conflicts over suicide which currently...

  8. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  9. What is the Ultimate Goal in Acid-Base Regulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Alagesan, Murali; Prakash, E. Sankaranarayanan

    2007-01-01

    It is common to see chapters on acid-base physiology state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial PCO [subscript 2] (Pa[subscript CO[subscript 2

  10. Plug nozzles: The ultimate customer driven propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aukerman, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applying the plug cluster nozzle concept to the propulsion system for a typical lunar excursion vehicle. Primary attention for the design criteria is given to user defined factors such as reliability, low volume, and ease of propulsion system development. Total thrust and specific impulse are held constant in the study while other parameters are explored to minimize the design chamber pressure. A brief history of the plug nozzle concept is included to point out the advanced level of technology of the concept and the feasibility of exploiting the variables considered in this study. The plug cluster concept looks very promising as a candidate for consideration for the ultimate customer driven propulsion system.

  11. Chain Ends and the Ultimate Strength of Polyethylene Fibers

    E-print Network

    Thomas C. O'Connor; Mark O. Robbins

    2015-11-20

    We use large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the tensile yield mechanism of orthorhombic polyethylene (PE) crystals with finite chains spanning $10^2-10^4$ carbons in length. We find the yield stress $\\sigma_y$ saturates for long chains at 6.3 GPa, agreeing well with experiments. We show chains do not break but always yield by slip, after nucleation of 1D dislocations at chain ends. Dislocations are accurately described by a Frenkel-Kontorova model parametrized by the mechanical properties of an ideal crystal. We compute a dislocation core size $\\xi\\approx25$\\AA\\ and determine the high and low strain rate limits of $\\sigma_y$. Our results suggest characterizing the 1D dislocations of polymer crystals as an efficient method for numerically predicting the ultimate tensile strength of aligned fibers.

  12. Ultimate Spectrum of Solar/Stellar Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-08-01

    We reconstruct an ultimate spectrum of solar/stellar cosmic rays (SCR) in a given point in the heliosphere (stellar sphere) basing on maximal value of magnetic field strenght in active region and its characteristic linear dimension. An accelerator of given dimensions and magnetic field strengh may accelarate to a finite energy for a given time (a maximal energy of SCR). We will use spectrum of SCR proposed by Syrovatsky (1961) for relativistic and non-relativistic energies normaliszing it to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity at maximal SCR energy. Maximal values of SCR flux propagating in the heliosphere are determined by equilibrium between pressure of interplanetary magnrtic field and dynamic pressure of SCR (Frier&Webber, 1963). The obtained spectra would be applied to explain the extreme solar particle event occurred in about 775 AD basing on the tree-ring chronology (Miyake et al., 2012).

  13. Ultimate photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures with critical film thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Cong; Jin Kuijuan; Zhao Ruiqiang; Lu Huibin; Guo Haizhong; Ge Chen; He Meng; Wang Can; Yang Guozhen

    2011-05-02

    One order larger photovoltage is obtained with critical thicknesses of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} films in both kinds of heterostructures of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (0.8 wt % Nb-doped) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/Si fabricated at various oxygen pressures. Our self-consistent calculation reveals that the critical thickness of the La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} film with the ultimate value of photovoltage is just the thickness of the depletion layer of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} in both heterojunctions, respectively.

  14. PhD, Master's Plan A & B Graduation Information Checklist December 12

    E-print Network

    Flann, Nicholas

    Due Date PhD, Master's Plan A & B Graduation Information Checklist December 12 Dean and, ultimately, signed by the Dean White (Plan A and PhD) or blue (Plan B) copy Binding Receipt December 12 Master's Plan C/Professional Degrees Notification of Completion

  15. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we have made significant progress with the design of PEP-X, a USR that would inhabit the decommissioned PEP-II tunnel at SLAC. The enlargement of the dynamic aperture is largely a result of the cancellations of the 4th-order resonances in the 3rd-order achromats and the effective use of lattice optimization programs. In this paper, we will show those cancellations of the 4th-order resonances using an analytical approach based on the exponential Lie operators and the Poisson brackets. Wherever possible, our analytical results will be compared with their numerical counterparts. Using the derived formulae, we will construct 4th-order geometric achromats and use them as modules for the lattice of the PEP-X USR, noting that only geometric terms are canceled to the 4th order.

  16. CATHARE calculations of Phenix ultimate natural convection test

    SciTech Connect

    Pialla, D.; Tenchine, D.

    2012-07-01

    The Phenix Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) started operation in 1973 and it was stopped in 2009. Before the reactor was definitively shutdown, in order to collect experimental data for code assessments in the frame of Generation IV an intensive program of ultimate tests was set up. Among these ultimate experiments, two thermal hydraulic tests were performed: an asymmetrical test consisting in a trip on one secondary pump and a natural convection test in the primary circuit. The natural convection test has been used for an international benchmark on system codes in the frame of the IAEA. The CATHARE code - initially developed for water cooled reactors and now extended for safety analyses for other kinds of reactors, including Sodium Fast Reactor - was used by CEA for this benchmark. The paper reminds briefly the Phenix reactor with the main physical parameters and the instrumentation used during the natural convection test. Main test results are also briefly reminded including the evolution of the core and the heat exchangers inlet and outlet temperatures, and some local temperature measurements. The main developments to perform CATHARE SFR computations and the strategy of system code assessment are presented. Then the CATHARE modelling of Phenix reactor is depicted and the various assumptions are pointed out. CATHARE encountered no problem to predict the initial nominal state. Afterwards, the whole transient scenario is calculated and CATHARE calculations are compared to the Phenix measurements. The global trend is rather well predicted by the CATHARE code. Nevertheless, due to complex flow phenomena occurring in large plena and components, the system code encountered physical limitations, leading to remaining discrepancies between code prediction and plant data. Various sensitivity calculations are presented and they bring partial answers. Additional analyses are in progress to understand more deeply the complex 3D phenomena involved during the different phases of the natural convection test. Additional work for coupling CATHARE system code and TRIO-U CFD code is in progress and will bring useful information to better understand the physical phenomena involved during the natural convection test and to improve system modeling for future SFR safety analysis. (authors)

  17. 75 FR 11922 - Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth Staffing Companies), and Aerotek, Cromwell...unemployment insurance (UI) tax account for Roth Staffing Companies. The Department has...workers leased from Ultimate Staffing (Roth Staffing Companies) and Aerotek...

  18. The ultimate band compression factor in gradient elution chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2008-01-01

    The equations predicting the ultimate time band compression factor, G = (t{sub R}-t{sub F})/t{sub p} in linear gradient elution chromatography, for an infinitely narrow injection (injection time t{sub p} {yields} 0) were derived for an ideal-model column (dispersionless chromatography, H = 0) assuming the Linear Solvent Strength Model for the retention behavior of the analyte. Numerical solutions can readily be obtained when the LSSM model does not apply. The results can be generalized to any retained organic modifier (k'{sub A}) in the mobile phase. The stronger the retention of the organic modifier, the more effective the band compression. Dispersion in real chromatographic column (H {ne} 0) affects the limits that can be reached in linear gradients but poorly in step gradients. Examples based on a conventional HETP of about 12 {micro}m using a 5 {micro}m particle packed column reveal that the best time compression factor that could be expected is twice the one predicted with an ideal column.

  19. Launching GUPPI: the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuPlain, Ron; Ransom, Scott; Demorest, Paul; Brandt, Patrick; Ford, John; Shelton, Amy L.

    2008-08-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is launching the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), a prototype flexible digital signal processor designed for pulsar observations with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). GUPPI uses field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware and design tools developed by the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California, Berkeley. The NRAO has been concurrently developing GUPPI software and hardware using minimal software resources. The software handles instrument monitor and control, data acquisition, and hardware interfacing. GUPPI is currently an expert-only spectrometer, but supports future integration with the full GBT production system. The NRAO was able to take advantage of the unique flexibility of the CASPER FPGA hardware platform, develop hardware and software in parallel, and build a suite of software tools for monitoring, controlling, and acquiring data with a new instrument over a short timeline of just a few months. The NRAO interacts regularly with CASPER and its users, and GUPPI stands as an example of what reconfigurable computing and open-source development can do for radio astronomy. GUPPI is modular for portability, and the NRAO provides the results of development as an open-source resource.

  20. The Ultimate Future of Artificial Life: Towards Artificial Cosmogenesis

    E-print Network

    Vidal, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This philosophical paper tries to tackle the question of what could be the ultimate future of ALife from a cosmic viewpoint. We first argue that the natural direction of ALife is a simulation of an entire universe. Two new challenges naturally arise. The first is to simulate open-ended evolution at all levels in a single simulation; i.e. not only in biology, but also to link it up a level below (physical evolution) and a level above (cultural evolution). The second challenge is to probe what would happen if we would "replay the tape of the universe". Assuming that intelligent life would indeed simulate an entire universe, this leads to two tentative hypotheses. Following the soft-ALife program, some authors argued that we could be in a simulation run by an intelligent entity. Following the hard/wet-ALife program, this would lead to an artificial cosmogenesis. This last direction is argued with a careful speculative philosophical approach, emphasizing the imperative to find a solution to the heat death problem...

  1. The ultimate precision limits for noisy frequency estimation

    E-print Network

    Andrea Smirne; Jan Kolodynski; Susana F. Huelga; Rafal Demkowicz-Dobrzanski

    2015-11-09

    Quantum metrology protocols allow to surpass precision limits typical to classical statistics. However, in recent years, no-go theorems have been formulated, which state that typical forms of uncorrelated noise can constrain the quantum enhancement to a constant factor, and thus bound the error to the standard asymptotic scaling. In particular, that is the case of time-homogeneous (Lindbladian) dephasing and, more generally, all semigroup dynamics that include phase covariant terms, which commute with the system Hamiltonian. We show that the standard scaling can be surpassed when the dynamics is no longer ruled by a semigroup and becomes time-inhomogeneous. In this case, the ultimate precision is determined by the system short-time behaviour, which when exhibiting the natural Zeno regime leads to a non-standard asymptotic resolution. In particular, we demonstrate that the relevant noise feature dictating the precision is the violation of the semigroup property at short timescales, while non-Markovianity does not play any specific role.

  2. The Ultimate Fate of Continental Crust is to Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, D. L.; Teyssier, C.; Rey, P. F.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal-mechanical models support a link between deep burial of continental crust, melting, and crustal flow in orogens. Deeply buried continental crust may partially melt, adding magma to the overlying continental crust, creating a continental plateau, and accounting for the large melt volumes observed in modern and ancient orogens. In Cordilleran-style orogens, the non-subducting plate is hot, thin and includes a back-arc region favorable for crustal-scale thrusting, high-T metamorphism, and generation of migmatite. Collisional orogens have thicker lithosphere and experience lithosphere-scale thrusting and deeper burial of continental crust, including continental subduction. In either orogenic mode, the ultimate fate of continental crust is partial melting, the depth of which controls the processes and rates of crustal differentiation and exhumation. To explore the relationship between melting and crustal flow associated with deeply buried (subducted) continental crust, we generated 2D thermal-mechanical (Ellipsis) models. In the subducted continental slab, the crust experiences varying amounts of heating relative to decompression depending on subduction depth and position in the slab. Particles at the slab base experience heating during decompression, followed by near-isothermal decompression for particles subducted to >90 km, or near-isobaric heating followed by decompression and cooling. Particles adjacent to the mantle wedge have complex paths, including convection within the partially molten region. Some crust subducted to 110 km remains entrained in the mantle. The shallowest rocks that were tracked in the model (40 km) are heated during extrusion into the lower crust of the overriding continent. Continental rocks exhumed from the coesite stability field exceed typical solidus Ts during decompression. Rocks subducted to <80 km may partially melt depending on maximum depth and position in the slab. These results and a paradigm developed from model and field observations relate continental subduction and crustal melting to lower crustal flow and plateau development in the overriding plate.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book: entropy. It is physicists who can benefit most from discarding mathematics and seeking intuitive understanding. It is often too easy to put the numbers into a formula, with little real comprehension of the underlying physics. For layman or physicist the book is hard work. It is not a volume to be read from cover to cover; each section needs to be considered and digested, with frequent turning backwards (or sometimes forwards) to other pages. Even then the outcome may leave questions that can only be answered by access to an academic library to look up some of the copious references to original papers (which, of course, do not eschew mathematics or make concessions to conceptual difficulties). Unfortunately the book is marred by an impression of haste and lack of care, leading to errors that should not have reached the final print. For example, a graph of increase of population with generation number is shown as and stated to be a straight line. It should be exponential. This sort of thing undermines confidence in the whole text. High temperature superconductivity may have a revolutionary effect on electrical machines in the future, but for the time being magnets for magnetic resonance imaging machines and the like still use the old superconductors. Amusing anecdotes make for interesting reading, but the one about Faraday is garbled: he had nothing to do with frogs' legs (that was Galvani), and the quip about taxing electricity one day, if not apocryphal, was made either to Peel or to Gladstone, not to the King. In at least one case a topic mentioned in the index and glossary does not appear on the stated page in the text, apparently having been cut out at a late stage. Personally I did not find the book satisfying, but others will differ. Especially when dealing with intuitive appreciation, what is straightforward to one person may be utterly opaque to another. Making physics comprehensible and conveying its fascination is a daunting and often thankless task, but a very necessary one. The more it is attempted by those with a command of the subject, the more likely i

  4. Effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on ultimate strength of shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on the ultimate strength and stress displacement properties of the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) was determined. The LI-900 Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tiles mounted on the .41 cm thick Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) were investigated. Substructure deformations reduce the ultimate strength of the SIP/tile TPS and increase the scatter in the ultimate strength data. Substructure deformations that occur unsymmetric to the tile can cause the tile to rotate when subjected to a uniform applied load. Load eccentricity reduces SIP/tile TPS ultimate strength and causes tile rotation.

  5. Field #1 East: Softball Field #1 West Turf: Ultimate, Lacrosse, Softball

    E-print Network

    Billey, Sara

    Field #1 East: Softball Field #1 West Turf: Ultimate, Lacrosse, Softball Field #2: Ultimate Field WallaWallaRd CanalRd Canal Rd Clark Rd E-6 M ary Gates M em orial Dr ICA Track 1 2 Field #1-West Turf WC

  6. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... (75 FR 60133) on September 29, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period. No comments were received... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported...

  7. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.21 Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects....

  8. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.21 Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects....

  9. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Ask a PHriend Connect with Other ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Ask a PHriend Connect with Other ...

  10. In Vitro Colonization of the Muscle Extracellular Matrix Components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: The Influence of Growth Medium, Temperature and pH on Initial Adhesion and Induction of Biofilm Formation by Collagens I and III

    PubMed Central

    Chagnot, Caroline; Agus, Allison; Renier, Sandra; Peyrin, Frédéric; Talon, Régine; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-?2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed. PMID:23516631

  11. Ultimate Frisbee

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-09-26

    far from the embalmed body of the Beloved Leader or the 38th Parallel but that, as the players later said, it could've been a tournament anywhere in the world. To use a word coined by the organizer of the tournament: this was "discplomacy" at its...

  12. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...National Standard Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) Standard 2...Criteria for Assessing Atmospheric Effects on the Ultimate Heat Sink,'' has...sinks for safety-related systems at nuclear power plants. Guidance from...

  13. 26 CFR 48.6427-8 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    This section provides rules under which ultimate purchasers of taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by section 6427(l). Generally, these claims relate to diesel fuel and kerosene used in nontaxable...

  14. Age effects in L2 acquisition: ultimate attainment at the syntax-morphology interface 

    E-print Network

    Komar, Paulina

    2010-11-24

    This paper presents a selective overview of studies that have examined age effects in second language (L2) acquisition. The focus was on adult second language learners and the L2 ultimate attainment at syntax-interface morphology, with particular...

  15. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... feasibility studies; (f) Advanced Telecommunications services and computer networks for medical, educational... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate...

  16. METHYLATED ASIII COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC METABOLITES OF INORGANIC ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    METHYLATED Asm COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC METABOLITES OF INORGANIC ARSENIC.

    The methylation of inorganic arsenic has typically been viewed as a detoxification process. Genotoxicity tests have generally shown that arsenite has greater mutagenic p...

  17. METHODS/MATERIALS MATRIX OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES FOR SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous substances. Disposal methods studied include incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, fixation, biological treatment, and chemical treatment. Applications of ...

  18. 78 FR 72972 - Application of Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...: The Department of Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC, fit, willing, and able, and awarding it commuter...

  19. Electronic Properties of Ultimate Nanowires F. J. Himpsel, S. C. Erwin, I. Barke, ...

    E-print Network

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    silicene instead? #12;Graphitic ribbon Si(557)-Au Single chain of orbitals The ultimate nanowire #12;The vertical shift horizontal shift "W" shape Various spin splittings Rashba (spin-orbit) Hamiltonian: H (k V

  20. The Proximate-Ultimate Distinction and its Relation to the Emergence of Linguistic Structure 

    E-print Network

    Doney, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Ernst Mayr's Proximate-Ultimate distinction has come under scrutiny in recent years for its supposed failure to account for reciprocal evolutionary processes such as niche-construction and intersexual selection. This article defends Mayr...

  1. On the function of the ultimate legs of some Scolopendridae (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kronmüller, Christian; Lewis, John G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The function of the variously shaped ultimate legs of Scolopendridae is briefly reviewed. Their function in Scolopendra heros Girard, 1853, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815, Scolopendra morsitans (Linnaeus, 1758), Scolopendra galapagoensis Bollman, 1889, Scolopendra hainanum Kronmüller, 2012, Scolopendra spinosissima Kraepelin, 1903 Cormocephalus aurantiipes (Newport, 1844) and Ethmostigmus trigonopodus (Leach, 1817), in which they are least specialised has been investigated. Specimens were tapped with forceps on different parts of the trunk to simulate the attack of a predator. When tapped on the first third of the trunk (near the head), the centipedes attacked the forceps with their forcipules. When tapped on the last third or the ultimate legs, they adopted a warning position, raising the ultimate legs to display the ventral and medial prefemoral spines as well as the spined coxopleural processes. In some cases the centipedes attacked the forceps with the claws of the ultimate legs by chopping down on them after lifting the legs high into the warning position. When tapped in the mid part of the trunk, the centipedes curled sideways to reach the forceps with their forcipules and ultimate legs simultaneously. Scolopendra galapagoensis not only lifted the ultimate legs into the warning position but also the last 3-4 pairs of locomotory legs, presenting their distodorsal prefemoral spines. This resembles the warning posture of some spiders. In addition to their function in warning behaviour, defensive stabbing, ritualised meeting reactions and during courtship behaviour, the ultimate legs may in addition act as hooks and perhaps be involved in species recognition. No evidence was found that the ultimate legs are used to catch prey, nor of prey or predators being held between the prefemora. PMID:26257548

  2. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  3. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Langry, Kevin C. (Tracy, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  4. The Responsive Ph.D.: Innovations in U.S. Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbuch, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Woodrow Wilson Foundation does not like to write reports. Typically, Woodrow Wilson translates ideas into academic practices. This said, having engaged 14 (and ultimately 20) graduate schools to work on the Responsive Ph.D.--as the authors called their initiative--it is time to report on what they have accomplished, and on what they have…

  5. arXiv:astro-ph/0009259v219Sep2000 How the Sun Shines

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    arXiv:astro-ph/0009259v219Sep2000 How the Sun Shines John N. Bahcall What makes the sun shine? How does the sun produce the vast amount of energy necessary to support life on earth? These questions 1833 Treatise on Astronomy: The sun's rays are the ultimate source of almost every motion which takes

  6. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  7. Effect of secretion on intracellular pH regulation in isolated rat bile duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, D; Cho, W K; Mennone, A; Boyer, J L

    1993-01-01

    The effects of secretin on ion transport mechanisms involved in regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and HCO3- excretion were characterized in bile duct epithelial (BDE) cells isolated from normal rat liver. pHi was measured with 2,7-bis(carboxy-ethyl)-5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein-acetomethylester (BCECF-AM) using a microfluorimetric method. Basal pHi of BDE was 7.04 +/- 0.06 in Hepes and 7.16 +/- 0.10 in KRB and was unaffected by secretin (50-200 nM). Recovery rates from an acid load in Hepes or in KRB media (with and without amiloride) were also not altered by secretin, indicating that Na+/H+ exchange and Na+/HCO3- cotransport were not affected by this hormone. After acute Cl- removal, pHi rose 0.24 +/- 0.08 pHU at a maximal rate of 0.125 +/- 0.06 pHU/min (H+ flux rates = 6.02 +/- 3.27 mM/min) and recovered after Cl- readmission (0.188 +/- 0.08 pHU/min; H+ flux rates = 11.82 +/- 5.34 mM/min). Pretreatment with 1 mM DIDS inhibited the effects of Cl- removal, while valinomycin, which induces cell depolarization, enhanced these effects, probably by stimulating electrogenic HCO3- influx. Secretin significantly increased both the maximal rate of alkalinization after Cl- removal (P < 0.012) and of pHi recovery after Cl- readmission (P < 0.025), indicating stimulation of Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity. These findings were reproduced with N6,2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP). The Cl- channel blocker 5-nitro-2'-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB, 10 microM) significantly decreased the effects of secretin and DBcAMP on the pHi changes promoted by acute Cl- removal/readmission. These findings establish that secretin stimulates the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in BDE cells, probably by activating Cl- channels via the intracellular messenger cAMP. This in turn depolarizes the cell, stimulating electrogenic Na+/HCO3- symport. The cell depolarization induced by Cl- channel activation should enhance HCO3- entrance through electrogenic Na+/HCO3- symport, which in turn stimulates the Cl-/HCO3- exchange. These mechanisms could account for secretin stimulated bicarbonate secretion in bile. Images PMID:8397224

  8. 26 CFR 48.6421-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes...payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. (a) In general. (1) If gasoline is used in a qualified...

  9. 26 CFR 48.6421-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes...payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. (a) In general. (1) If gasoline is used in a qualified...

  10. 26 CFR 48.6421-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes...payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. (a) In general. (1) If gasoline is used in a qualified...

  11. 26 CFR 48.6421-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes...payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. (a) In general. (1) If gasoline is used in a qualified...

  12. Ultimate pier and contraction scour prediction in cohesive soils at selected bridges in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, Timothy D.; Over, Thomas M.; Domanski, Marian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Scour Rate In COhesive Soils-Erosion Function Apparatus (SRICOS-EFA) method includes an ultimate scour prediction that is the equilibrium maximum pier and contraction scour of cohesive soils over time. The purpose of this report is to present the results of testing the ultimate pier and contraction scour methods for cohesive soils on 30 bridge sites in Illinois. Comparison of the ultimate cohesive and noncohesive methods, along with the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) cohesive soil reduction-factor method and measured scour are presented. Also, results of the comparison of historic IDOT laboratory and field values of unconfined compressive strength of soils (Qu) are presented. The unconfined compressive strength is used in both ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor methods, and knowing how the values from field methods compare to the laboratory methods is critical to the informed application of the methods. On average, the non-cohesive method results predict the highest amount of scour, followed by the reduction-factor method results; and the ultimate cohesive method results predict the lowest amount of scour. The 100-year scour predicted for the ultimate cohesive, noncohesive, and reduction-factor methods for each bridge site and soil are always larger than observed scour in this study, except 12% of predicted values that are all within 0.4 ft of the observed scour. The ultimate cohesive scour prediction is smaller than the non-cohesive scour prediction method for 78% of bridge sites and soils. Seventy-six percent of the ultimate cohesive predictions show a 45% or greater reduction from the non-cohesive predictions that are over 10 ft. Comparing the ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor 100-year scour predictions methods for each bridge site and soil, the scour predicted by the ultimate cohesive scour prediction method is less than the reduction-factor 100-year scour prediction method for 51% of bridge sites and soils. Critical shear stress remains a needed parameter in the ultimate scour prediction for cohesive soils. The unconfined soil compressive strength measured by IDOT in the laboratory was found to provide a good prediction of critical shear stress, as measured by using the erosion function apparatus in a previous study. Because laboratory Qu analyses are time-consuming and expensive, the ability of field-measured Rimac data to estimate unconfined soil strength in the critical shear–soil strength relation was tested. A regression analysis was completed using a historic IDOT dataset containing 366 data pairs of laboratory Qu and field Rimac measurements from common sites with cohesive soils. The resulting equations provide a point prediction of Qu, given any Rimac value with the 90% confidence interval. The prediction equations are not significantly different from the identity Qu = Rimac. The alternative predictions of ultimate cohesive scour presented in this study assume Qu will be estimated using Rimac measurements that include computed uncertainty. In particular, the ultimate cohesive predicted scour is greater than observed scour for the entire 90% confidence interval range for predicting Qu at the bridges and soils used in this study, with the exception of the six predicted values that are all within 0.6 ft of the observed scour.

  13. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  14. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an MOU-holding PHA ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an ...

  15. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how well the acid is cleared downward into the ...

  16. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding.

    PubMed

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558?MPa) and wire feed rate, 19?m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7?mm, welding speed, 200?mm/min, welding voltage, 30?V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10?L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10-20?L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  17. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding

    PubMed Central

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558?MPa) and wire feed rate, 19?m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7?mm, welding speed, 200?mm/min, welding voltage, 30?V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10?L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10–20?L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  18. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    PubMed

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. PMID:23928074

  19. Cause and effect in biology revisited: is Mayr's proximate-ultimate dichotomy still useful?

    PubMed

    Laland, Kevin N; Sterelny, Kim; Odling-Smee, John; Hoppitt, William; Uller, Tobias

    2011-12-16

    Fifty years ago, Ernst Mayr published a hugely influential paper on the nature of causation in biology, in which he distinguished between proximate and ultimate causes. Mayr equated proximate causation with immediate factors (for example, physiology) and ultimate causation with evolutionary explanations (for example, natural selection). He argued that proximate and ultimate causes addressed different questions and were not alternatives. Mayr's account of causation remains widely accepted today, with both positive and negative ramifications. Several current debates in biology (for example, over evolution and development, niche construction, cooperation, and the evolution of language) are linked by a common axis of acceptance/rejection of Mayr's model of causation. We argue that Mayr's formulation has acted to stabilize the dominant evolutionary paradigm against change but may now hamper progress in the biological sciences. PMID:22174243

  20. Intra-Beam Scattering, Impedance, and Instabilities in Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    We have investigated collective effects in an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances in both planes, using PEP-X as an example. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, a 4.5 GeV ring running round beams at 200 mA in 3300 bunches, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current. The Touschek lifetime is 11 hours. Impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. We have investigated collective effects in PEP-X, an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances (at one angstrom wavelength) in both planes. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current of 200 mA, assuming round beams. The Touschek lifetime is quite large in PEP-X, 11.6 hours, and - near the operating point - increases with decreasing emittance. It is, however, a very sensitive function of momentum acceptance. In an ultimate ring like PEP-X impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. Before ultimate PEP-X can be realized, the question of how to run a machine with round beams needs serious study. For example, in this report we assumed that the vertical emittance is coupling dominated. It may turn out that using vertical dispersion is a preferable way to generate round beams. The choice will affect IBS and the Touschek effect.

  1. Space simulation ultimate pressure lowered two decades by removal of diffusion pump oil contaminants during operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The complex problem why large space simulation chambers do not realize the true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance have been identified and some advances in vacuum/distillation/fractionation technology have been achieved which resulted in a two decade or more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effect of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and reclaiming contaminated oil by high vacuum molecular distillation are described.

  2. The ultimate speed implied by theories of Weber`s type

    SciTech Connect

    Assis, A.K.T.; Clemente, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    As in the last few years there has been a renewed interest in the laws of Ampere for the force between current elements and of Weber for the force between charges, we analyze the limiting velocity which appears in Weber`s law. Then we make the same analysis for Phipps` potential and for generalizations of it. Comparing the results with the relativistic calculation, we obtain that these theories can yield c for the ultimate speed of the charges or for the ultimate relative speed between the charges but not for both simultaneously, as in the case in the special theory of relativity. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Getting “Just Deserts” or Seeing the “Silver Lining”: The Relation between Judgments of Immanent and Ultimate Justice

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Annelie J.; Callan, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    People can perceive misfortunes as caused by previous bad deeds (immanent justice reasoning) or resulting in ultimate compensation (ultimate justice reasoning). Across two studies, we investigated the relation between these types of justice reasoning and identified the processes (perceptions of deservingness) that underlie them for both others (Study 1) and the self (Study 2). Study 1 demonstrated that observers engaged in more ultimate (vs. immanent) justice reasoning for a “good” victim and greater immanent (vs. ultimate) justice reasoning for a “bad” victim. In Study 2, participants' construals of their bad breaks varied as a function of their self-worth, with greater ultimate (immanent) justice reasoning for participants with higher (lower) self-esteem. Across both studies, perceived deservingness of bad breaks or perceived deservingness of ultimate compensation mediated immanent and ultimate justice reasoning respectively. PMID:25036011

  4. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  5. Ultimate biochemical oxygen demand in semi-intensively managed shrimp pond waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent studies were conducted to quantified ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (UBOD) and the corresponding decomposition rate constant for production pond (average 21.5 ha each) waters and effluents on six semi-intensively managed marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in Honduras. S...

  6. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  7. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  8. Temperature dependent elastic constants and ultimate strength of graphene and graphyne

    E-print Network

    Melnik, Roderick

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 137, 194901 (2012) Temperature dependent elastic constants and ultimate and graphyne show a negative region in the low temperature regime. This coefficient increases up to be positive with re- spect to the increase of temperature than that of graphene. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  9. Age of Onset and Nativelike L2 Ultimate Attainment of Morphosyntactic and Phonetic Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamsson, Niclas

    2012-01-01

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result…

  10. The Ultimate Haptic Device: First Step Guillaume Millet Sinan Haliyo Stephane Regnier Vincent Hayward

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    The Ultimate Haptic Device: First Step Guillaume Millet Sinan Haliyo St´ephane R´egnier Vincent in the motor windings; the forces due to viscous and friction losses e-mail: millet@isir.fr e-mail: sinan and the relatively soft load represented by a two- finger grip. We also desire that this force be commanded, not only

  11. Minor in Management The student is ultimately responsible for knowing and completing all degree requirements.

    E-print Network

    Kihara, Daisuke

    for Non-Management Majors may not be used as a pre- requisite for MGMT 20100, Management Accounting I, MGMT 32400, and MGMT 45100. Complete the following courses: MGMT 20100 Management Accounting I (MGMTMinor in Management The student is ultimately responsible for knowing and completing all degree

  12. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This request for... Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. OMB Number:...

  13. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This request for... That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. OMB Number:...

  14. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and applicants may use to implement general...

  15. The UlTimaTe alvin roTh BS'71

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Keren

    The UlTimaTe maTchmaker alvin roTh BS'71 on Winning The noBel PriZe and hiS Pioneering re personal connection. Two of the featured subjects, the distinguished alumnus Alvin Roth BS'71 and "genius. Professor Roth, now the Craig and Susan McCaw Professor of Economics at Stanford, received what is often

  16. Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Edward D. Tate

    E-print Network

    00FTT-50 Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Edward D. Tate Stephen. Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a means to accomplish these goals. The majority of vehicles be improved. A series hybrid vehicle electrically couples the engine to the road. The propulsion system

  17. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r = 0.65–0.94). Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters. PMID:25695083

  18. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation 1. INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    though we cannot see what this future will be like. As he puts it: "The river of human life has reached PURPOSE OF SPACE COLONISATION JBIS, Vol. 65, pp.13-19, 2012 I.A. CRAWFORD Department of Earth and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation

  19. 26 CFR 48.6427-8 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by ultimate... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-8 Diesel fuel and... purchasers of taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by...

  20. Quantum Computation--The Ultimate Frontier Chris Adami and Jonathan P. Dowling

    E-print Network

    Dowling, Jonathan P.

    Quantum Computation--The Ultimate Frontier Chris Adami and Jonathan P. Dowling Quantum Computing The discovery of an algorithm for factoring which runs in polynomial time on a quantum computer has given rise to a concerted effort to understand the principles, advantages, and limitations of quantum computing. At the same

  1. Adjudicating pathological criminal incapacity within a climate of ultimate issue barriers: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Geert Philip

    2015-01-01

    Mental health experts are increasingly being utilised by the criminal justice system to provide assistance to courts during the assessment of issues falling beyond the knowledge and/or experience of the courts. A particular domain where the assistance of qualified psychiatrists and psychologists is becoming essential is where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity falls to be assessed. Mental health professionals testifying during trials where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity is raised will present opinion evidence which is one of the exceptions to the rule of inadmissibility of opinion evidence. Mental health professionals providing their opinion evidence are, however, prohibited from expressing opinions on so-called "ultimate issues" upon which only the court may ultimately rule upon. The latter rule is also commonly known in practice as the "ultimate issue" rule which presents multifaceted challenges in respect of the application of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. In this article, the author assesses the application of the ultimate issue rule with reference to the defence of pathological criminal incapacity as it operates within the South African criminal law context. A comparative analysis is also provided with reference to the rule as it operates in the United States of America and more specifically Federal Rule 704. It is concluded that the ultimate issue rule unnecessarily restricts testimony provided by mental health professionals as such placing a barrier on such evidence. As such, it is argued that the rule is superfluous as it remains within the discretion of the trier of fact to decide as to what weight to attach to such evidence. PMID:25681851

  2. Capturing Hydrolysis Products in the Solid State: Effects of pH on Uranyl Squarates under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Clare E.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2010-10-04

    We investigate the relationship between hydrolysis prior to crystallization and its subsequent manifestation in the solid state through a study of uranyl squarates as a function of pH. We report the synthesis and characterization of two new uranyl squarates and discuss the expression of hydrolysis in these products, wherein increasing solution pH results in polymerization from uranyl monomers to trimers and ultimately chains.

  3. Author s note: Marie F. Smith, CRA;Valerie T. Eviner, PhD; Kathie Weathers, PhD; Maria Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, PhD; Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 65 Sharon Turnpike (PO

    E-print Network

    Eviner, Valerie

    Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, Ph. Eviner, PhD Kathie C. Weathers, PhD Maria Uriarte, PhD Holly A. Ewing, PhD Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD Peter

  4. Application of SERS Nanoparticles for Intracellular pH Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, T; Talley, C; Colvin, M; Huser, T

    2004-10-21

    We present an alternative approach to optical probes that will ultimately allow us to measure chemical concentrations in microenvironments within cells and tissues. This approach is based on monitoring the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response of functionalized metal nanoparticles (50-100 nm in diameter). SERS allows for the sensitive detection of changes in the state of chemical groups attached to individual nanoparticles and small clusters. Here, we present the development of a nanoscale pH meter. The pH response of these nanoprobes is tested in a cell-free medium, measuring the pH of the solution immediately surrounding the nanoparticles. Heterogeneities in the SERS signal, which can result from the formation of small nanoparticle clusters, are characterized using SERS correlation spectroscopy and single particle/cluster SERS spectroscopy. The response of the nanoscale pH meters is tested under a wide range of conditions to approach the complex environment encountered inside living cells and to optimize probe performance.

  5. Ultimate limits to quantum metrology and the meaning of the Heisenberg limit

    E-print Network

    Marcin Zwierz; Carlos A. Pérez-Delgado; Pieter Kok

    2012-04-19

    For the last 20 years, the question of what are the fundamental capabilities of quantum precision measurements has sparked a lively debate throughout the scientific community. Typically, the ultimate limits in quantum metrology are associated with the notion of the Heisenberg limit expressed in terms of the physical resources used in the measurement procedure. Over the years, a variety of different physical resources were introduced, leading to a confusion about the meaning of the Heisenberg limit. Here, we review the mainstream definitions of the relevant resources and introduce the universal resource count, that is, the expectation value of the generator (above its ground state) of translations in the parameter we wish to estimate, that applies to all measurement strategies. This leads to the ultimate formulation of the Heisenberg limit for quantum metrology. We prove that the new limit holds for the generators of translations with an upper-bounded spectrum.

  6. Ultimate strength assessment of a tanker hull based on experimentally developed master curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingcai; Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2013-06-01

    A geometrically similar scaling was made from small-scale specimen to full-scale stiffened panels and then their collapse behaviour is investigated. It is considered that the stiffened panel compressive ultimate strength test was designed according to geometrical scaling laws so that the output of the test could be used as representative of the stiffened panels of the compressive zone of a tanker hull subjected to vertical bending moment. The ultimate strength of a tanker hull is analysed by a FE analysis using the experimentally developed master stress-strain curves which are obtained by the beam tension test and the compressive test of the stiffened panel, and are then compared with the result achieved by the progressive collapse method.

  7. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-Li; Feng, Ji-Cai; Chen, Ke

    2015-06-01

    This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  8. Multiple proximate and ultimate causes of natal dispersal in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in vertebrates vary, and relative importance of these causes is poorly understood. Among populations, inter- and intrasexual social cues for dispersal are thought to reduce inbreeding and local mate competition, respectively, and specific emigration cue may affect dispersal distance, such that inbreeding avoidance dispersal tends to be farther than dispersal to reduce local competition. To investigate potential occurrence of multiple proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal within populations, we radio-marked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. Natal dispersal probability and distance were monitored over a 3-year period when large-scale management changes reduced density of adult females and increased density of adult males. Most dispersal (95-97%) occurred during two 12-week periods: spring, when yearling males still closely associate with related females, and prior to fall breeding season, when yearling males closely associate with other breeding-age males. Following changes to sex and age structure that reduced potential for inbreeding and increased potential for mate competition, annual dispersal probability did not change; however, probability of spring dispersal decreased, whereas probability of fall dispersal increased. Spring dispersal distances were greater than fall dispersal distances, suggesting that adaptive inbreeding avoidance dispersal requires greater distance than mate competition dispersal where opposite-sex relatives are philopatric and populations are not patchily distributed. Both inbreeding avoidance and mate competition are important ultimate causes of dispersal of white-tailed deer, but ultimate motivations for dispersal are proximately cued by different social mechanisms and elicit different responses in dispersers.

  9. Ultimate-state scaling in a shell model for homogeneous turbulent convection

    E-print Network

    Emily S. C. Ching; T. C. Ko

    2008-04-16

    An interesting question in turbulent convection is how the heat transport depends on the strength of thermal forcing in the limit of very large thermal forcing. Kraichnan predicted [Phys. Fluids {\\bf 5}, 1374 (1962)] that the heat transport measured by the Nusselt number (Nu) would depend on the strength of thermal forcing measured by the Rayleigh number (Ra) as Nu $\\sim$ Ra$^{1/2}$ with possible logarithmic corrections at very high Ra. This scaling behavior is taken as a signature of the so-called ultimate state of turbulent convection. The ultimate state was interpreted in the Grossmann-Lohse (GL) theory [J. Fluid Mech. {\\bf 407}, 27 (2000)] as a bulk-dominated state in which both the kinetic and thermal dissipation are dominated by contributions from the bulk of the flow with the boundary layers either broken down or playing no role in the heat transport. In this paper, we study the dependence of Nu and the Reynolds number (Re) measuring the root-mean-squared velocity fluctuations on Ra and the Prandtl number (Pr) using a shell model for homogeneous turbulent convection where buoyancy is acting directly on most of the scales. We find that Nu$\\sim$ Ra$^{1/2}$Pr$^{1/2}$ and Re$\\sim$ Ra$^{1/2}$Pr$^{-1/2}$, which resemble the ultimate-state scaling behavior for fluids with moderate Pr, but the presence of a drag acting on the large scales is crucial in giving rise to such scaling. This suggests that if buoyancy acts on most of the scales in the bulk of turbulent convection at very high Ra, then the ultimate state cannot be a bulk-dominated state.

  10. An investigation into geometry and microstructural effects upon the ultimate tensile strengths of butt welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical theory was evaluated empirically. This theory predicts weld ultimate tensile strength based on material properties and fusion line angles, mismatch, peaking, and weld widths. Welds were made on 1/4 and 1/2 in. aluminum 2219-T87, their geometries were measured, they were tensile tested, and these results were compared to theoretical predictions. Statistical analysis of results was performed to evaluate correlation of theory to results for many different categories of weld geometries.

  11. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  12. Photoionization study of PH: PH/sub 2/ revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Cho, H.

    1989-01-01

    The photoion yield curve of PH/sup +/ (PH) is presented, from threshold to 1040 A. The adiabatic ionization potential of PH is 10.149 +- 0.008 eV. Extensive autoionization structure is observed and analyzed. It is attributed to several Rydberg series, whose mutual convergence limit is 11.852 +- 0.002 eV, and corresponds to the onset of PH/sup +/ (a /sup 4/..sigma../sup -/). The photoion yield curve of AsH/sup +/ (AsH) is juxtaposed, and shown to have a similar pattern. A new photoion yield curve of PH/sup +//sub 2/ (PH/sub 2/) is shown, where the source of PH/sub 2/ is the H+PH/sub 3/ reaction. The new results corroborate the earlier data (based on the pyrolysis of benzylphosphine) regarding the adiabatic ionization potential of PH/sub 2/ to form X /sup 1/A/sub 1/, and the presence of broad autoionizing structure. They also display less scatter, and enable one to estimate the onset for a-italic-tilde /sup 3/B/sub 1/ to be about 0.70 eV above X /sup 1/A/sub 1/. From the analogous behavior of the AsH/sup +//sub 2/ (AsH/sub 2/) curve, the a /sup 3/B/sub 1/--X /sup 1/A/sub 1/ splitting in AsH/sup +//sub 2/ is estimated to be 0.58--0.68 eV.

  13. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section...Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming...

  14. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section...Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming...

  15. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section...Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming...

  16. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section...Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming...

  17. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D; Wilkinson, Martin G; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A E; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening. PMID:25798136

  18. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D.; Wilkinson, Martin G.; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A. E.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening. PMID:25798136

  19. 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba-Son; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750?°C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750?°C. At 800?°C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

  20. Editorial Selected papers from the 15th Ultimate Integration on Silicon (ULIS) conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.

    2015-06-01

    This special issue includes selected papers, based on the presentations at the 15th Ultimate Integration on Silicon (ULIS) conference. ULIS is an annual conference that regroups the European research community working on advanced silicon devices and nano devices. It has been held annually since 1999. The aim of the ULIS Conference is to provide an open forum for the presentation and discussion of recent research in technology, physics, modelling, simulation and characterization of advanced nanoscale silicon and silicon compatible devices in the More Moore, More than Moore and Beyond CMOS domains.

  1. Engineering Ultimate Self-Protection in Autonomic Agents for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) will push space exploration missions to the limit. Future missions will be required to be self-managing as well as self-directed, in order to meet the challenges of human and robotic space exploration. We discuss security and self protection in autonomic agent based-systems, and propose the ultimate self-protection mechanism for such systems-self-destruction. Like other metaphors in Autonomic Computing, this is inspired by biological systems, and is the analog of biological apoptosis. Finally, we discus the role it might play in future NASA space exploration missions.

  2. Assembly of Customized TAL Effectors Through Advanced ULtiMATE System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjiao; Guo, Shengjie; Yuan, Pengfei; Wei, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have been widely applied in gene targeting. Here we describe an advanced ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation-Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector) system that utilizes USER fusion technique and archive of 512 tetramer templates to achieve highly efficient construction of TALEs, which takes only half a day to accomplish the assembly of any given TALE construct. This system is also suitable for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions. PMID:26443213

  3. Optimal estimation of losses at the ultimate quantum limit with non-Gaussian states

    E-print Network

    G. Adesso; F. Dell'Anno; S. De Siena; F. Illuminati; L. A. M. Souza

    2009-04-23

    We address the estimation of the loss parameter of a bosonic channel probed by arbitrary signals. Unlike the optimal Gaussian probes, which can attain the ultimate bound on precision asymptotically either for very small or very large losses, we prove that Fock states at any fixed photon number saturate the bound unconditionally for any value of the loss. In the relevant regime of low-energy probes, we demonstrate that superpositions of the first low-lying Fock states yield an absolute improvement over any Gaussian probe. Such few-photon states can be recast quite generally as truncations of de-Gaussified photon-subtracted states.

  4. Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universitt Leipzig 1650

    E-print Network

    Matta, Abraham "Ibrahim"

    , Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles 1974 Leonard Kleinrock, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg 1713 Johann Christoph Wichmannshausen, Ph.D. Universität Leipzig 1685 Otto Mencke, Ph

  5. 3.0 SOP 6b pH 2007 10 12 pH pH total hydrogen

    E-print Network

    3.0 SOP 6b pH 2007 10 12 1 / 7 SOP 6b m- pH 1. pH pH total hydrogen ion concentration scale pH [H+ ] 1 kg 2. (1) ]HSO[]H[ )/1(]H[]H[ 4F STF -+ ++ + += KS (1) [H+ ]F ST [HSO4 - ]+[SO4 2- ] KS HSO4 - pH (2) 10 -= - + 110 soln-kgmol ][H logpH . (2) 3. pH m- pH (aq

  6. Name: _______________________________ Ph.D: MUSIC

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Name: _______________________________ Ph.D: MUSIC INTEGRATED COMPOSITION, IMPROVISATION, AND TECHNOLOGY (ICIT) Degree Requirements (2015-2016) Music 200 (Bibliography and Research): ______ 4 units Music 215A (Computer Music Composition and Production): ______ 4 units Music 215B (Computer Music

  7. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  8. Voltammetric pH Nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Magdalena; Kurel, Malgorzata; Jedraszko, Justyna; Toczydlowska, Diana; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin; Nogala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale pH evaluation is a prerequisite for understanding the processes and phenomena occurring at solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas interfaces, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, extraction, partitioning, and corrosion. Research on the homogeneous processes within small volumes such as intracellular fluids, microdroplets, and microfluidic chips also requires nanometer scale pH assessment. Due to the opacity of numerous systems, optical methods are useless and, if applicable, require addition of a pH-sensitive dye. Potentiometric probes suffer from many drawbacks such as potential drift and lack of selectivity. Here, we present a voltammetric nanosensor for reliable pH assessment between pH 2 and 12 with high spatial resolution. It consists of a pyrolytic carbon nanoelectrode obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) inside a quartz nanopipette. The carbon is modified by adsorption of syringaldazine from its ethanolic solution. It exhibits a stable quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram with nearly Nernstian dependency of midpeak potentials (-54 mV/pH). This sensor was applied as a probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in order to map pH over a platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME), generating hydroxide ions (OH(-)) by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a diffusion-controlled rate in aerated phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the alkalization of the electrolyte close to the oxygen reducing electrode, showing the insufficient buffer capacity of PBS to maintain a stable pH at the given conditions. PMID:26516786

  9. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  10. Ultimate Osmosis Engineered by the Pore Geometry and Functionalization of Carbon Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  11. Approaching Ultimate Intrinsic SNR in a Uniform Spherical Sample with Finite Arrays of Loop Coils

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Manushka V.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated to what degree and at what rate the ultimate intrinsic (UI) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be approached using finite radiofrequency detector arrays. We used full-wave electromagnetic field simulations based on dyadic Green’s functions to compare the SNR of arrays of loops surrounding a uniform sphere with the ultimate intrinsic SNR (UISNR), for increasing numbers of elements over a range of magnetic field strengths, voxel positions, sphere sizes, and acceleration factors. We evaluated the effect of coil conductor losses and the performance of a variety of distinct geometrical arrangements such as “helmet” and “open-pole” configurations in multiple imaging planes. Our results indicate that UISNR at the center is rapidly approached with encircling arrays and performance is substantially lower near the surface, where a quadrature detection configuration tailored to voxel position is optimal. Coil noise is negligible at high field, where sample noise dominates. Central SNR for practical array configurations such as the helmet is similar to that of close-packed arrangements. The observed trends can provide physical insights to improve coil design. PMID:26097442

  12. Weapons and commercial plutonium ultimate disposition choices: Destroy ``completely`` or store forever

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1994-07-01

    All of the options under consideration for weapons and commercial plutonium disposition ultimately boil down to the choices of either ``complete`` destruction or storage ``forever.`` None of the reactor-based plutonium burning systems demonstrated over the past 50 years of reactor development consume this material completely. Ultimately considerable unburned plutonium must be stored ``forever`` from those systems. Plutonium is considered to be dangerous both as a weapons material and as a health hazard. While properly stored plutonium might never make its way back by natural phenomena into the environment as a health hazard, stored plutonium is always accessible to recovery for malevolent purposes. It must be guarded wherever in the world it is stored for as long as it continues to exist. Complete destruction of the plutonium eliminates this material as a concern of future generations. Los Alamos National Laboratory accelerator-driven technology promises to allow safe and complete destruction of this material. Furthermore it appears that in the process of destruction the neutron rich features of the weapons plutonium provides benefits to society that place a value on weapons plutonium exceeding that of highly enriched uranium. A realistic time scale for development and deployment of burial technology either with or without partial burning in reactors is expected to be comparable with or to exceed the time for development and deployment of the accelerator-driven destruction method under study at Los Alamos.

  13. The n-of-1 clinical trial: the ultimate strategy for individualizing medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Elizabeth O; Patay, Bradley; Diamant, Joel; Issell, Brian; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    N-of-1 or single subject clinical trials consider an individual patient as the sole unit of observation in a study investigating the efficacy or side-effect profiles of different interventions. The ultimate goal of an n-of-1 trial is to determine the optimal or best intervention for an individual patient using objective data-driven criteria. Such trials can leverage study design and statistical techniques associated with standard population-based clinical trials, including randomization, washout and crossover periods, as well as placebo controls. Despite their obvious appeal and wide use in educational settings, n-of-1 trials have been used sparingly in medical and general clinical settings. We briefly review the history, motivation and design of n-of-1 trials and emphasize the great utility of modern wireless medical monitoring devices in their execution. We ultimately argue that n-of-1 trials demand serious attention among the health research and clinical care communities given the contemporary focus on individualized medicine. PMID:21695041

  14. Formulation of reduction rate for ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panel induced by opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-li; Lee, Joo-sung

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate the characteristics of ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panels with opening and also to fit the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experimental data on longitudinally stiffened steel plates with and without opening subjected to the uniform axial in-pane load which is carried out to study the buckling and post-buckling up to the final failure are chosen. Also, a nonlinear finite element method capable of efficiently analyzing the large elasto-plastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels is developed and used for simulation. The feasibility of the present simulation process is confirmed by a good agreement with the experimental results. More case studies are developed employing the simulation process to analyze the influence of various design variables on the reduction rate of ultimate strength of stiffened panel induced by opening. Based on the computed results, two design formulae are fitted and the accuracy of design formulae is studied. Furthermore, the viability of the design formulae for practical engineering is proved.

  15. Ultimate osmosis engineered by the pore geometry and functionalization of carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  16. Experimental evaluation of the post-ultimate strength behavior of a ship's hull girder in waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weijun; Iijima, Kazuhiro; Wada, Ryota; Fujikubo, Masahiko

    2012-03-01

    Experimental investigations into the collapse behavior of a box-shape hull girder subjected to extreme wave-induced loads are presented. The experiment was performed using a scaled model in a tank. In the middle of the scaled model, sacrificial specimens with circular pillar and trough shapes which respectively show different bending moment-displacement characteristics were mounted to compare the dynamic collapse characteristics of the hull girder in waves. The specimens were designed by using finite element (FE)-analysis. Prior to the tank tests, static four-point-bending tests were conducted to detect the load-carrying capacity of the hull girder. It was shown that the load-carrying capacity of a ship including reduction of the capacity after the ultimate strength can be reproduced experimentally by employing the trough type specimens. Tank tests using these specimens were performed under a focused wave in which the hull girder collapses under once and repetitive focused waves. It was shown from the multiple collapse tests that the increase rate of collapse becomes higher once the load-carrying capacity enters the reduction path while the increase rate is lower before reaching the ultimate strength.

  17. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-21

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  18. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat quality traits. Several QTL regions were identified that are worthy of further characterization. Some QTLs may in fact co-localize, suggesting pleiotropic effects for some chromosomal regions. PMID:17559654

  19. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  20. General framework for estimating the ultimate precision limit in noisy quantum-enhanced metrology

    E-print Network

    Escher, B M; Davidovich, L; 10.1038/nphys1958

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of parameters characterizing dynamical processes is central to science and technology. The estimation error changes with the number N of resources employed in the experiment (which could quantify, for instance, the number of probes or the probing energy). Typically, it scales as 1/N^(1/2). Quantum strategies may improve the precision, for noiseless processes, by an extra factor 1/N^(1/2). For noisy processes, it is not known in general if and when this improvement can be achieved. Here we propose a general framework for obtaining attainable and useful lower bounds for the ultimate limit of precision in noisy systems. We apply this bound to lossy optical interferometry and atomic spectroscopy in the presence of dephasing, showing that it captures the main features of the transition from the 1/N to the 1/N^(1/2) behaviour as N increases, independently of the initial state of the probes, and even with use of adaptive feedback.

  1. The fiber-optic gyroscope, a century after Sagnac's experiment: The ultimate rotation-sensing technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Hervé C.

    2014-12-01

    Taking advantage of the development of optical-fiber communication technologies, the fiber-optic gyroscope (often abbreviated FOG) started to be investigated in the mid-1970s, opening the way for a fully solid-state rotation sensor. It was firstly seen as dedicated to medium-grade applications (1 ° / h range), but today, it reaches strategic-grade performance (10-4 ° / h range) and surpasses its well-established competitor, the ring-laser gyroscope, in terms of bias noise and long-term stability. Further progresses remain possible, the challenge being the ultimate inertial navigation performance of one nautical mile per month corresponding to a long-term bias stability of 10-5 ° / h. This paper is also the opportunity to recall the historical context of Sagnac's experiment, the origin of all optical gyros. xml:lang="fr"

  2. Determination of ultimate carbonaceous BOD and the specific rate constant (K1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Bennett, J.P.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1982-01-01

    Ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BODu) and the specific rate constant (K1) at which the demand is exerted are important parameters in designing biological wastewater treatment plants and in assessing the impact of wastewater on receiving streams. An analytical method is presented which uses time-series concentrations of BOD, defined as the calculated sum of dissolved oxygen (DO) losses at each time of measurement, for determining BODu and K1. Time-series DO measurements are obtained from a water sample that is incubated in darkness at 20 degrees Celsius in the presence of nitrapyrin, a chemical nitrification inhibitor. Time-series concentrations of BOD that approximate first order kinetics can be analyzed graphically or mathematically to compute BODu and K1.

  3. An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated by damping wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao

    2015-01-06

    We discuss the approach of generating round beams for ultimate storage rings using vertical damping wigglers (with horizontal magnetic field). The vertical damping wigglers provide damping and excite vertical emittance. This eliminates the need to generate large linear coupling that is impractical with traditional off-axis injection. We use a PEP-X compatible lattice to demonstrate the approach. This lattice uses separate quadrupole and sextupole magnets with realistic gradient strengths. Intrabeam scattering effects are calculated. As a result, the horizontal and vertical emittances are 22.3 pm and 10.3 pm, respectively, for a 200 mA, 4.5 GeV beam, with a vertical damping wiggler of a total length of 90 m, a peak field of 1.5 T and a wiggler period of 100 mm.

  4. Coordinated breathing in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as cooperation: integrating proximate and ultimate explanations.

    PubMed

    Perelberg, Amir; Schuster, Richard

    2008-05-01

    In this study, coordinated breathing was studied in 13 common bottlenose dolphins because of its links with spontaneous coordinated behaviors (e.g., swimming, foraging, and playing). A strong link was shown between dyadic coordination levels and age/sex categories when both association patterns and spatial formation are considered. This is consistent with a significant influence of social relationships on cooperating and contrasts with an economic perspective based on immediate material outcomes alone. This cooperation bias is explained by linking proximate processes that evoke performance with ultimate evolutionary processes driven by long-term adaptive outcomes. Proximate processes can include 2 kinds of immediate outcomes: material reinforcements and affective states associated with acts of cooperating that can provide positive reinforcement regardless of immediate material benefits (e.g., when there is a time lag between cooperative acts and material outcomes). Affective states can then be adaptive by strengthening social relationships that lead to eventual gains in fitness. PMID:18489227

  5. Biomimetics and the Development of Humanlike Robots as the Ultimate Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    Evolution led to effective solutions to nature's challenges and they were improved over millions of years. Humans have always made efforts to use nature as a model for innovation and problems solving. These efforts became more intensive in recent years where systematic studies of nature are being made towards better understanding and applying more sophisticated capabilities. Making humanlike robots, including the appearance, functions and intelligence, poses the ultimate challenges to biomimetics. For many years, making such robots was considered science fiction, but as a result of significant advances in biologically inspired technologies, such robots are increasingly becoming an engineering reality. There are already humanlike robots that walk, talk, interpret speech, make eye-contact and facial expressions, as well as perform many other humanlike functions. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and issues of concern will be reviewed.

  6. The initial freezing point temperature of beef rises with the rise in pH: a short communication.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Kemp, R M; Cartwright, S; North, M

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the initial freezing point temperature of meat is affected by pH. Sixty four bovine M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum were classified into two ultimate pH groups: low (<5.8) and high pH (>6.2) and their cooling and freezing point temperatures were determined. The initial freezing temperatures for beef ranged from -0.9 to -1.5°C (?=0.6°C) with the higher and lower temperatures associated with high and low ultimate pH respectively. There was a significant correlation (r=+0.73, P<0.01) between beef pH and freezing point temperature in the present study. The outcome of this study has implications for the meat industry where evidence of freezing (ice formation) in a shipment as a result of high pH meat could result in a container load of valuable chilled product being downgraded to a lower value frozen product. PMID:23410892

  7. Secret Plans Tab by Eagles Of Death Metal, www.Ultimate-Guitar.Com SECRET PLANS -Eagles of Death Metal

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    Secret Plans Tab by Eagles Of Death Metal, www.Ultimate-Guitar.Com ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECRET PLANS - Eagles of Death Metal 4] (What I want!) And that's it! Another simple but great song by the Eagles of Death Metal. #12;

  8. Cari Kitahara, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kitahara earned her Ph.D. in cancer epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She joined the Radiation Epidemiology Branch in 2008 as a predoctoral fellow and became a research fellow in 2011. In 2015, she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator.

  9. Lattice Design for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC expertise in designing and operating high current storage rings and the availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel present an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the SPEAR3 storage ring in the future. The PEP-X 'baseline' design, with 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. As a next step, a so-called 'ultimate' PEP-X lattice, reducing the emittance to 11 pm-rad at zero current, has been designed. This emittance approaches the diffraction limited photon emittance for multi-keV photons, providing near maximum photon brightness and high coherence. It is achieved by using 7-bend achromat cells in the ring arcs and a 90-m damping wiggler in one of the 6 long straight sections. Details of the lattice design, dynamic aperture, and calculations of the intra-beam scattering effect and Touschek lifetime at a nominal 0.2 A current are presented. Accelerator-based light sources are in high demand for many experimental applications. The availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel at SLAC presents an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the existing SPEAR3 light source in the future. The PEP-X study started in 2008, and the 'baseline' design, yielding 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. This relatively conservative design can be built using existing technology. However, for a long term future, it is natural to investigate a more aggressive, so-called 'ultimate' ring design. The goal is to reduce the electron emittance in both x and y planes to near the diffraction limited photon emittance of 8 pm-rad at hard X-ray photon wavelength of 0.1 nm. This would provide a near maximum photon brightness and significant increase in photon coherence. This study was motivated by the advances in low emittance design at MAX-IV. The latter was used as a starting point for the PEP-X arc lattice, however new features were included into the design for better tuning capabilities and compensation of non-linear optics effects. Further emittance reduction is achieved with a 90-m damping wiggler. Finally, intra-beam scattering (IBS) and Touschek lifetime effects were estimated and cross-checked using various codes.

  10. 26 CFR 48.6421-2 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school...payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses. (a) In general. If gasoline is used in an intercity...

  11. 26 CFR 48.6421-2 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school...payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses. (a) In general. If gasoline is used in an intercity...

  12. 26 CFR 48.6421-2 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school...payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses. (a) In general. If gasoline is used in an intercity...

  13. 26 CFR 48.6421-2 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school...payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses. (a) In general. If gasoline is used in an intercity...

  14. Effect of Load Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengths of three continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/CAS-II, SiC/MAS-5 and SiC/SiC, were determined as a function of test rate in air at 1100 to 1200 C. All three composite materials exhibited a strong dependency of strength on test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress-rate) to another (constant stress loading) suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics. It was further found that constant stress-rate testing could be used as an alternative to life prediction test methodology even for composite materials, at least for short range of lifetimes and when ultimate strength is used as the failure criterion.

  15. Ultimate thin vertical p-n junction composed of two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Min; Lee, Daeyeong; Qu, Deshun; Liu, Xiaochi; Ryu, Jungjin; Seabaugh, Alan; Yoo, Won Jong

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional crystals are currently receiving significant attention because of their great potential to be an ultrathin body for efficient electrostatic modulation, which enables to overcome the limitations of silicon technology. Here we report that, as a key building block for two-dimensional semiconductor devices, vertical p-n junctions are fabricated in ultrathin MoS? by introducing AuCl? and benzyl viologen dopants. Unlike usual unipolar MoS?, the MoS? p-n junctions show ambipolar carrier transport, current rectification via modulation of potential barrier in films thicker than 8?nm and reversed current rectification via tunnelling in films thinner than 8?nm. The ultimate thinness of the vertical p-n homogeneous junctions in MoS? is experimentally found to be 3?nm, and the chemical doping depth is found to be 1.5?nm. The ultrathin MoS? p-n junctions present a significant potential of the two-dimensional crystals for flexible, transparent, high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25800613

  16. Toward ultimate miniaturization of high Q silicon traveling-wave microresonators.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mohammad; Li, Qing; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Adibi, Ali

    2010-09-13

    High Q traveling-wave resonators (TWR)s are one of the key building block components for VLSI Photonics and photonic integrated circuits (PIC). However, dense VLSI integration requires small footprint resonators. While photonic crystal resonators have shown the record in simultaneous high Q (~10(5)-10(6)) and very small mode volumes; the structural simplicity of TWRs has motivated many ongoing researches on miniaturization of these resonators with maintaining Q in the same range. In this paper, we investigate the scaling issues of silicon traveling-wave microresonators down to ultimate miniaturization levels in SOI platforms. Two main constraints that are considered during this down scaling are: 1) Preservation of the intrinsic Q of the resonator at high values, and 2) Compatibility of resonator with passive (active) integration by preserving the SiO(2) BOX layer (plus a thin Si slab layer for P-N junction fabrication). Microdisk and microdonut (an intermediate design between disk and ring shape) are considered for high Q, miniaturization, and single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range (as high as the free-spectral range). Theoretical and experimental results for miniaturized resonators are demonstrated and Q's as high as ~10(5) for resonators as small as 1.5 ?m radius are achieved. PMID:20940850

  17. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchang; Cunningham, Mark A.; Mire, Joseph; Tesar, Christine; Sacchettini, James; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The specter of a return to an era in which infectious disease looms as a significant threat to human health is not just hyperbole; there are serious concerns about the widespread overuse and misuse of antibiotics contributing to increased antibiotic resistance in pathogens. The recent discovery of a new enzyme, first identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a patient from New Delhi and denoted as NDM-1, represents an example of extreme promiscuity: It hydrolyzes and inactivates nearly all known ?-lactam-based antibiotics with startling efficiency. NDM-1 can utilize different metal cofactors and seems to exploit an alternative mechanism based on the reaction conditions. Here we report the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study that examines the substrate, metal binding, and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. We utilize structures obtained through X-ray crystallography, biochemical assays, and numerical simulation to construct a model of the enzyme catalytic pathway. The NDM-1 enzyme interacts with the substrate solely through zinc, or other metals, bound in the active site, explaining the observed lack of specificity against a broad range of ?-lactam antibiotic agents. The zinc ions also serve to activate a water molecule that hydrolyzes the ?-lactam ring through a proton shuttle.—Kim, Y., Cunningham, M. A.; Mire, J., Tesar, C., Sacchettini, J., Joachimiak, A. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism. PMID:23363572

  18. PEP-X: An Ultimate Storage Ring Based on Fourth-Order Geometric Achromats

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; Bane, Karl; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    We have designed an 'ultimate' storage ring for the PEP-X light source that achieves the diffraction limited emittances (at 1.5 {angstrom}) of 12 pm-rad in both horizontal and vertical planes with a 4.5-GeV beam. These emittances include the contribution of intrabeam scattering at a nominal current of 200 mA in 3300 bunches. This quality beam in conjunction with a conventional 4-m undulator in a straight section can generate synchrotron radiation having a spectral brightness above 10{sup 22} [photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW] at a 10 keV photon energy. The high coherence at the diffraction limit makes PEP-X competitive with 4th generation light sources based on an energy recovery linac. In addition, the beam lifetime is several hours and the dynamic aperture is large enough to allow off-axis injection. The alignment and stability tolerances, though challenging, are achievable. A ring with all these properties is only possible because of several major advances in mitigating the effects of nonlinear resonances.

  19. Dynamic Aperture and Tolerances for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Design

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    A lattice for the PEP-X ultimate storage ring light source, having 11 pm-rad natural emittance at a beam energy of 4.5 GeV at zero current, using 90 m of damping wiggler and fitting into the existing 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel, has been recently designed. Such a low emittance lattice requires very strong sextupoles for chromaticity correction, which in turn introduce strong non-linear field effects that limit the beam dynamic aperture. In order to maximize the dynamic aperture we choose the cell phases to cancel the third and fourth order geometric resonances in each 8-cell arc. Four families of chromatic sextupoles and six families of geometric (or harmonic) sextupoles are added to correct the chromatic and amplitude-dependent tunes. To find the best settings of the ten sextupole families, we use a Multi-Objective Genetic Optimizer employing elegant to optimize the beam lifetime and dynamic aperture simultaneously. Then we evaluate dynamic aperture reduction caused by magnetic field multipole errors, magnet fabrication errors and misalignments. A sufficient dynamic aperture is obtained for injection, as well as workable beam lifetime.

  20. The Ultimate Emission Line Diagnostics Study at z=1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Jane

    2015-10-01

    We propose the ultimate WFC3 grism spectroscopy, in terms of spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and diagnostic emission line coverage, at z=1.4. The targets are two extremely bright lensed galaxies at redshifts of 1.329 and 1.420. These redshifts place all of rest-frame optical diagnostic emission lines, from [O II] 3727 to [S II] 6731 A, in the WFC3 G102 and G141 grisms. On spatial scales down to 100~pc, we will map the star formation rate, metallicity, extinction, and excitation across these two galaxies, and thereby measure not only the physical conditions of star formation, but how those conditions vary spatially. For the target that currently lacks HST and Spitzer imaging, we propose 2 orbits of WFC3/UVIS imaging to enable creation of a lensing map, and 1~hr of Spitzer to obtain a stellar mass estimate. This program will be a legacy for HST, the most rigorous in situ test yet of strong-line nebular line diagnostics in the distant universe, and will establish a benchmark for far larger grism surveys in which HST has invested some 700 orbits.

  1. Salinization: the ultimate threat to temperate lakes, with particular reference to Southeastern Wisconsin (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Slawski, Thomas M.; Lin, Hebin

    2015-11-01

    Many lakes in Southeastern Wisconsin (the metropolitan-Milwaukee area) are gradually becoming increasingly "salty". While these waterbodies would not be considered presently to be saline lakes, there has been a rapid increase in the chloride concentrations in most of these lakes over the last 30 years, with the lakes increasing from a mean chloride concentration of about 19 mg/L to over 100 mg/L in some cases. While ecological impacts can be expected when chloride values exceed 250 mg/L, the rate of increase presents a basis for concern, especially since the underlying geology of the region is based on limestone/dolomite which is deficient in chlorides. Thus, the origin of the chlorides is anthropogenic: human and industrial wastewaters (treatment of which has effected improvements in trophic status but has not affected other water-borne contaminants) and winter de-icing practices based upon large quantities of sodium chloride are major contributors to the increasing concentrations of chloride in the region's waterways. Without taking remedial measures, the rate of salinization is expected to continue to increase, resulting, ultimately, in the alteration of the freshwater systems in the region.

  2. The ultimate technology: the end of technology and the task of nature.

    PubMed

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound reassessment of nature and technology. Aristotle clearly separates these two domains of being in his definition, but in doing so, he also connects them to one another in a highly influential way. Following this line of thought, the article finally offers an original perspective involving renewed respect for the perpetual self-unfolding nature of living technology. PMID:23889743

  3. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations. PMID:26566825

  4. Moisture absorption early postmortem predicts ultimate drip loss in fresh pork.

    PubMed

    Kapper, C; Walukonis, C J; Scheffler, T L; Scheffler, J M; Don, C; Morgan, M T; Forrest, J C; Gerrard, D E

    2014-02-01

    Water-holding capacity is the ability of meat to hold moisture and is subject to postmortem metabolism. The objective of this study was to characterize the loss of moisture from muscle postmortem and investigate whether these losses are useful in predicting the ultimate drip loss of fresh pork. Cotton-rayon absorptive-based devices were inserted in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pork carcasses (n = 51) postmortem and removed at various intervals for 24h. Greatest moisture absorption was observed at 105 min post exsanguination. Drip loss varied (0.6-15.3%) across carcasses. Individual absorption at 75 min correlated (r = 0.33) with final drip loss. Correlations improved using individual absorption values at 90 min (r = 0.48) and accumulated absorption values at 150 min (r = 0.41). Results show that significant moisture is lost from muscle tissue early postmortem and suggest that capture of this moisture may be useful in predicting final drip loss of fresh meat. PMID:24225387

  5. Comparative study of peat and lignite on the basis of proximate and ultimate analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schelkoph, G.M.; Malterer, T.J.; Steadman, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Ultimate and proximate analytical data was used as the basis for comparisons of selected United States peats and North Dakota lignites that have formed under a variety of depositional environments, in order to better understand the transitional relationships involved in the transformation of peat to lignite. A ternary diagram of the bond-equivalents of C, O, and H can be used to represent relationships among complex chemical compounds. This method was initially developed for Australian brown coals. The rationale for adopting this method was the usefulness of the reaction trajectories in identifying the dominating chemical changes in coalification. The mass percentage of nitrogen and organic sulfur are added to the mass percentage of oxygen. The bond equivalence data implies that a relationship exists between peat and lignite by the cellulose present and the degree of decarboxylation. It has been shown elsewhere that the carboxyl content of Minnesota peat and Yalloun brown coal are greater than that of a North Dakota lignite. Collateral research at UNDERC has found virtually no cellulose in North Dakota lignite, but 5% cellulose (maf) in Minnesota peat. This relationship implies that decellulosation and decarboxylation reactions represented on the ternary diagram are occurring in the diagenesis of peat to lignite. The data further indicates that Australian brown coals are indeed intermediate in coalification between United States peat and North Dakota lignite.

  6. Ultimate thin vertical p–n junction composed of two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Min; Lee, Daeyeong; Qu, Deshun; Liu, Xiaochi; Ryu, Jungjin; Seabaugh, Alan; Yoo, Won Jong

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional crystals are currently receiving significant attention because of their great potential to be an ultrathin body for efficient electrostatic modulation, which enables to overcome the limitations of silicon technology. Here we report that, as a key building block for two-dimensional semiconductor devices, vertical p–n junctions are fabricated in ultrathin MoS2 by introducing AuCl3 and benzyl viologen dopants. Unlike usual unipolar MoS2, the MoS2 p–n junctions show ambipolar carrier transport, current rectification via modulation of potential barrier in films thicker than 8?nm and reversed current rectification via tunnelling in films thinner than 8?nm. The ultimate thinness of the vertical p–n homogeneous junctions in MoS2 is experimentally found to be 3?nm, and the chemical doping depth is found to be 1.5?nm. The ultrathin MoS2 p–n junctions present a significant potential of the two-dimensional crystals for flexible, transparent, high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25800613

  7. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) prefer to cooperate when petted: Integrating proximate and ultimate explanations II.

    PubMed

    Perelberg, Amir; Schuster, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Cooperation poses theoretical problems because the behaviors of individuals can benefit others. Evolutionary and game-theory explanations that focus on maximizing one's own material outcomes are usually supported by experimental models with isolated and anonymous subjects. Cooperation in the natural world, however, is often a social act whereby familiar individuals coordinate behaviors for shared outcomes. Social cooperation is also associated with a cooperation bias expressed as a preference for cooperation even when noncooperation is immediately more beneficial. The authors report on evidence for such a bias in a captive group of bottlenose dolphins that voluntarily preferred to receive petting from human guides by using a pairwise coordinated approach, even though this was more difficult, and total petting amount was thereby reduced. To explain why this bias occurs, the authors propose an integrated behavioral-evolutionary approach whereby performance is determined by two kinds of immediate outcomes: material gains and intrinsic affective states associated with cooperating. The latter can provide reinforcement when immediate material gains are reduced, delayed, or absent. Over a lifetime, this proximate mechanism can lead to cooperative relationships whose long-term ultimate consequences can be adaptive. PMID:19236144

  8. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  9. Ultimate modulation bandwidth of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, M. A.; Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Blokhin, A. A.; Zadiranov, Yu M.; Troshkov, S. I.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Complex influence of photon lifetime (controlled by the mirror loss) and aperture size on the performance of 850 nm InGaAlAs oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with fully doped AlGaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) was investigated. We find a tradeoff between photon lifetime and gain nonlinearity for maximizing the optical bandwidth, leading to the optimum aperture size close to 4-6 ?m. In spite of the reduced photon lifetime (from 4 ps to 1 ps), the excess damping caused by the current-induced self-heating limits the ultimate modulation bandwidth for the given VCSELs design at 24-25 GHz. Further improvement in high frequency characteristics can be facilitated by decrease of the heat generation and improvement of the heat removal from the active region as well as by proper engineering of the scattering loss at the oxide aperture while keeping the low capacitance optimizing design of the oxide aperture.

  10. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-01

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner. PMID:25597802

  11. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  12. Stella Koutros, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Koutros received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology from Yale University. She completed her doctoral work through the Yale-NCI partnership training program in cancer epidemiology, conducting research in the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch (OEEB). In 2008, upon completion of her doctorate she became a fellow in OEEB; she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator in 2015.

  13. Mark Purdue, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Purdue received a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of Toronto, Canada. He joined DCEG in 2004 as a postdoctoral fellow within the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, and was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator in 2009. He has received several awards for his research in molecular epidemiology, including DCEG and NIH Fellowship Achievement awards and a DCEG Intramural Research Award.

  14. The Methods Behind PH WINS.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers-a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  15. The Methods Behind PH WINS

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers—a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  16. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Z.; Abbott, B. W.; Troccaz, O.; Baudry, J.; Pinay, G.

    2015-09-01

    Direct and indirect effects from agriculture, urbanization, and resource extraction have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. The capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients is a function of biotic and abiotic conditions across the terrestrial-aquatic gradient including soil, groundwater, riparian zone, and surface water. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments. We analysed a five-year, high frequency water chemistry dataset from 3 catchments ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2 in northwestern France. Catchments differed in the relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations, associated with catchment characteristics such as hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness appeared to have greater transient storage and residence time, buffering the catchment to fluctuations in water chemistry, reflected in relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of PO43- and NH4+ during low flow conditions and strong increases in DOC, sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land use) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on elemental fluxes is both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent catchment buffering capacity and probability of human disturbance provides a useful perspective for evaluating vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human disturbance.

  17. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM.

    SciTech Connect

    DEGRASSI,G.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,C.; SUZUKI,K.; NAMITA,Y.

    2003-08-17

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper.

  18. (October 22, 2015) Neuroscience Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    HANDBOOK (October 22, 2015) Neuroscience Ph.D. Program Daniel Tranel, PhD Program Director Michael ...................................................................................................4 B. Neuroscience Program Graduate Research Assistantships .................................5 C ......................................................................................................................7 A. Required Core Neuroscience Courses

  19. Mechanisms of Intragastric pH Sensing

    E-print Network

    Goo, Tyralee; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    food in the stomach increases intragastric pH, which isof the stomach respond to changes in luminal pH and acidpH, and then enabling gastric acid secretion to continue. Finally, the intestinal phase occurs when stomach

  20. Andrew Terranova, Ph.D. Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Orleans, supervised by Timothy Stickle, Ph.D. and Amanda Morris, Ph.D. 2003 ­ 2004 Project Director, Bully, stability, and correlates to bullying roles in middle school children. Behavioral Sciences and the Law-based Sample of Boys and Girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. #12;CV ­ Andrew Terranova, Ph.D. Page 3

  1. My PhD Plan Completed Work

    E-print Network

    Ruina, Andy L.

    Background My PhD Plan Completed Work Planned Work Hierarchical Biped Control A Exam Matthew Kelly August 4, 2014 Matthew Kelly Hierarchical Biped Control 1 / 34 #12;Background My PhD Plan Completed Work Planned Work Table of Contents 1 Background 2 My PhD Plan 3 Completed Work 4 Planned Work Push Hold Free

  2. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH

  3. The pH Base Saturation Relationships

    E-print Network

    dePamphilis, Claude

    The pH Base Saturation Relationships of Pennsylvania Subsoils by Edward J. Ciolkosz Agronomy Series Number 149 November 2001 #12;The pH Base Saturation Relationships of Pennsylvania Subsoils by Edward J, soil scientists commonly use soil pH to estimate the percent base saturation. Predictions have not been

  4. Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2012-07-01

    Abstract The world is currently aiming to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is considered carbon neutral because the carbon dioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle. Increasing the use of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes, including thermochemical (direct combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation), or chemical (esterification) technologies. There are lot challenges in using biomass for energy applications. To name few low bulk density, high moisture content, irregular size and shape, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value. In commercial scale operation large quantities of biomass are needed and this will create problems associated with storage and transportation. Furthermore, grinding raw biomass with high moisture content is very challenging as there are no specific equipments and can increase the costs and in some cases it becomes highly impossible. All of these drawbacks led to development of some pretreatment techniques to make biomass more suitable for fuel applications. One of the promising techniques is torrefaction. Torrefaction is heating the biomass in an inert environment or reduced environment. During torrefaction biomass losses moisture, becomes more brittle and with increased energy density values. There are different techniques used for torrefaction of biomass. Fixed bed, bubbling sand bed and moving bed are the most common ones used. The use of microwaves for torrefaction purposes has not been explored. In the present study we looked into the torrefaction of biomass using the regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

  5. Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9%) than for girls (47.5%). The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p < .001 were low economic status and importance of religion. The four most relevant risk factors for binge drinking (p < .001) were life-time prevalence of school absenteeism/truancy, academic failure, suicidal thoughts, and violence at school in the form of aggressive behavior of teachers. The model of Petraitis was partly confirmed for Binge Drinking in German adolescents and the direction of influence factors was clarified. Conclusions Whereas some of the risk and protective factors for binge drinking are not surprising since they are known for substance abuse in general, there are two points that could be targeted in interventions that do not focus on adolescents alone: (a) training teachers in positive, reassuring behavior and constructive criticism and (b) a focus on high risk adolescents either because they have a lack of coping strategies when in a negative mood or because of their low academic achievement in combination with absenteeism from school. PMID:22469235

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Consignee. Enter the requested information and sign the statement in ink. (For a definition of ultimate consignee, see § 748.5...part.) Block 7: Purchaser. This form must be signed in ink by the Purchaser, if the Purchaser is not the same as the...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Consignee. Enter the requested information and sign the statement in ink. (For a definition of ultimate consignee, see § 748.5...part.) Block 7: Purchaser. This form must be signed in ink by the Purchaser, if the Purchaser is not the same as the...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Consignee. Enter the requested information and sign the statement in ink. (For a definition of ultimate consignee, see § 748.5...part.) Block 7: Purchaser. This form must be signed in ink by the Purchaser, if the Purchaser is not the same as the...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Consignee. Enter the requested information and sign the statement in ink. (For a definition of ultimate consignee, see § 748.5...part.) Block 7: Purchaser. This form must be signed in ink by the Purchaser, if the Purchaser is not the same as the...

  10. Augustus, Ekphrasis, and the Shield of Aeneas Virgil's Aeneid is widely recognized as Rome's ultimate foundation myth, conceived

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    Augustus, Ekphrasis, and the Shield of Aeneas Virgil's Aeneid is widely recognized as Rome's ultimate foundation myth, conceived during the Principate to redefine Rome under Augustus' rule. Although years later, interspersed with the narrative are scenes which detail the entire history of Rome up

  11. Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool. Educational Leadership for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Brian D., Ed.; Normore, Anthony H., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool takes a penetrating look at the needs and challenges of society's disenfranchised jail populations. It is incumbent to encourage public awareness of the causes that underlie the destructive cycles plaguing these populations, including the abuse and…

  12. PROXIMATE OR ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC FORMS OF ARSENIC: METHYLATED ARSENIC(III) SPECIES THAT REACT DIRECTLY WITH DNA

    EPA Science Inventory


    PROXIMATE OR ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC FORMS OF ARSENIC: METHYLATED ARSENIC(III) SPECIES THAT REACT DIRECTL Y WITH DNA.

    Abstract:

    Although inorganic arsenic (iAs), arsenite or arsenate, is genotoxic, there has been no demonstration that iAs or a methylated metabolite...

  13. Environmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste in a Parallel

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Environmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste in a Parallel Co-combustion Process Ana McPhail,*, Robert Griffin, Mahmoud El and can mitigate air quality degradation associated with combustion of conventional fossil fuels. Co-combustion

  14. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section 48.6420-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... § 48.6420-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming purposes after June 30, 1965, a credit (under the...

  15. 26 CFR 48.6421-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. 48.6421-1 Section 48.6421-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used for certain nonhighway purposes. (a) In general. (1) If gasoline is used in a qualified business use or as fuel in...

  16. 26 CFR 48.6427-9 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and State use).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered...Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-9 Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered...certain registered ultimate vendors of taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the...

  17. Ultimate Attainment in Late Second Language Acquisition: Phonetic and Grammatical Challenges in Advanced Dutch-English Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Monika S.; Gilbers, Steven; Nota, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The present article provides an exploration of ultimate attainment in second language (L2) and its limitations. It is argued that the question of maturational constraints can best be investigated when the reference population is bilingual and exposed on a regular basis to varieties of their first language (L1) that show cross-linguistic influence.…

  18. Background: In order to stave off deleterious complications of the disease, the ultimate task for people with diabetes is to

    E-print Network

    , the ultimate task for people with diabetes is to maintain their blood glucose in euglycemic range. Despite anesthetized diabetic pigs, with carbohydrate loads simulated by intravenous glucose administration through ear-vein catheters. Type 1 diabetes-like pathology was induced using intravenous administration of cytotoxin

  19. ARSENIC (III) METHYLATED SPECIES REACT WITH DNA DIRECTLY AND COULD BE PROXIMATED/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC FORMS OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory


    ARSENIC(III) METHYLATED SPECIES REACT WITH DNA DIRECTL Y AND COULD BE PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC FORMS OF ARSENIC


    Arsenite and arsenate (iAs, inorganic arsenic) have been thought to act as genotoxicants without reacting directly with DNA; neither iAs nor As(V) m...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Consignee. Enter the requested information and sign the statement in ink. (For a definition of ultimate consignee, see § 748.5...part.) Block 7: Purchaser. This form must be signed in ink by the Purchaser, if the Purchaser is not the same as the...

  1. 26 CFR 48.6427-9 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and State use).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered... Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-9 Diesel fuel and kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (farming and... taxed diesel fuel and kerosene may claim the income tax credits or payments allowed by section...

  2. 02/03/2011 09:46The Last Word On Ultimate Explanations? | Evolutionary Psychology Blog Page 1 of 7http://www.epjournal.net/blog/2011/02/the-last-word-on-ultimate...1+Newsletter&utm_term=The+Last+Word+On+Ultimate+Explanations_3F

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    , and Stuart West entitled "Evolutionary Theory and the Ultimate-Proximate Distinction in the Human Behavioral. They discuss several areas, including the evolution of cooperation, cultural transmission, and epigenetics (2003) define as "a predisposition to reward others for cooperative, norm-abiding behaviors . . . [and

  3. Reynolds numbers and the elliptic approximation near the ultimate state of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaozhou; van Gils, Dennis P. M.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter

    2015-06-01

    We report results of Reynolds-number measurements, based on multi-point temperature measurements and the elliptic approximation (EA) of He and Zhang (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 055303), Zhao and He (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 046316) for turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) over the Rayleigh-number range {10}11? {\\text{}}{Ra}? 2× {10}14 and for a Prandtl number Pr ? 0.8. The sample was a right-circular cylinder with the diameter D and the height L both equal to 112 cm. The Reynolds numbers ReU and ReV were obtained from the mean-flow velocity U and the root-mean-square fluctuation velocity V, respectively. Both were measured approximately at the mid-height of the sample and near (but not too near) the side wall close to a maximum of ReU. A detailed examination, based on several experimental tests, of the applicability of the EA to turbulent RBC in our parameter range is provided. The main contribution to ReU came from a large-scale circulation in the form of a single convection roll with the preferred azimuthal orientation of its down flow nearly coinciding with the location of the measurement probes. First we measured time sequences of ReU(t) and ReV(t) from short (10 s) segments which moved along much longer sequences of many hours. The corresponding probability distributions of ReU(t) and ReV(t) had single peaks and thus did not reveal significant flow reversals. The two averaged Reynolds numbers determined from the entire data sequences were of comparable size. For {\\text{}}{Ra}\\lt {\\text{}}{{Ra}}1*? 2× {10}13 both ReU and ReV could be described by a power-law dependence on Ra with an exponent ? close to 0.44. This exponent is consistent with several other measurements for the classical RBC state at smaller Ra and larger Pr and with the Grossmann-Lohse (GL) prediction for ReU (Grossmann and Lohse 2000 J. Fluid. Mech. 407 27; Grossmann and Lohse 2001 86 3316; Grossmann and Lohse 2002 66 016305) but disagrees with the prediction \\zeta ? 0.33 by GL (Grossmann and Lohse 2004 Phys. Fluids 16 4462) for ReV. At {\\text{}}{Ra}={\\text{}}{{Ra}}2*? 7× {10}13 the dependence of ReV on Ra changed, and for larger Ra {\\text{}}{{Re}}V˜ {\\text{}}{{Ra}}0.50+/- 0.02, consistent with the prediction for ReU (Grossmann and Lohse 2000 J. Fluid. Mech. 407 27; Grossmann and Lohse Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001 86 3316; Grossmann and Lohse Phys. Rev. E 2002 66 016305; Grossmann and Lohse 2012 Phys. Fluids 24 125103) in the ultimate state of RBC.

  4. Unlocking a Caged Lysosomal Protein from a Polymeric Nanogel with a pH Trigger

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A polymeric nanogel has been used to sequester and turn off a lysosomal protein, acid ?-glucosidase (GAA). The nanogel contains a ?-thiopropionate cross-linker, which endows the nanogel with pH-sensitivity. While encapsulation of the enzyme fully turns off its activity, approximately 75% of the activity is recovered upon reducing the pH to 5.0. The recovered activity is ascribed to pH-induced degradation of the ?-thiopropionate cross-linker causing the swelling of the nanogel and ultimately causing the release of the enzyme. We envision that strategies for sequestering protein molecules and releasing them at lysosomal pH might open up new directions for therapeutic treatment of lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:25291086

  5. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  6. Proximate and Ultimate Causation of Egg Size and the "Third-Chick Disadvantage" in the Western Gull

    E-print Network

    Pierotti, Raymond; Bellrose, Cheryl A.

    1986-04-01

    PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE CAUSATION OF EGG SIZE AND THE "THIRD-CHICK DISADVANTAGE" IN THE WESTERN GULL RAYMOND PIEROTTI 1 AND CHERYL A. BELLROSE 2'3 Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 USA, and 2...Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95192 USA ABSTRACT.--It is generally observed in gulls (Larus spp.) that produce a typical clutch of three that the third- or last-laid egg is smaller and lighter than its...

  7. Relax dude, we just play for fun! The flatlining trajectory of recreation specialization in the context of ultimate frisbee 

    E-print Network

    Kerins, Andrew James

    2007-04-25

    DUDE, WE JUST PLAY FOR FUN! THE FLATLINING TRAJECTORY OF RECREATION SPECIALIZATION IN THE CONTEXT OF ULTIMATE FRISBEE A Thesis by ANDREW JAMES KERINS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2005 Major Subject: Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences RELAX DUDE, WE JUST PLAY FOR FUN! THE FLATLINING TRAJECTORY OF RECREATION SPECIALIZATION IN THE CONTEXT...

  8. Ultimate compression after impact load prediction in graphite/epoxy coupons using neural network and multivariate statistical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire, Alexandre David

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this research was to accurately predict the ultimate compressive load of impact damaged graphite/epoxy coupons using a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and multivariate statistical regression analysis (MSRA). An optimized use of these data treatment tools allowed the generation of a simple, physically understandable equation that predicts the ultimate failure load of an impacted damaged coupon based uniquely on the acoustic emissions it emits at low proof loads. Acoustic emission (AE) data were collected using two 150 kHz resonant transducers which detected and recorded the AE activity given off during compression to failure of thirty-four impacted 24-ply bidirectional woven cloth laminate graphite/epoxy coupons. The AE quantification parameters duration, energy and amplitude for each AE hit were input to the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network to accurately classify the material failure mechanisms present in the low proof load data. The number of failure mechanisms from the first 30% of the loading for twenty-four coupons were used to generate a linear prediction equation which yielded a worst case ultimate load prediction error of 16.17%, just outside of the +/-15% B-basis allowables, which was the goal for this research. Particular emphasis was placed upon the noise removal process which was largely responsible for the accuracy of the results.

  9. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  10. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J. (San Jose, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  11. Cementitious porous pavement in stormwater quality control: pH and alkalinity elevation.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xuheng; Sansalone, John

    2011-01-01

    A certain level of alkalinity acts as a buffer and maintains the pH value in a stable range in water bodies. With rapid urban development, more and more acidic pollutants flow to watersheds with runoff and drop alkalinity to a very low level and ultimately degrade the water environment. Cementitious porous pavement is an effective tool for stormwater acidic neutralization. When stormwater infiltrates cement porous pavement (CPP) materials, alkalinity and pH will be elevated due to the basic characteristics of cement concrete. The elevated alkalinity will neutralize acids in water bodies and maintain the pH in a stable level as a buffer. It is expected that CPP materials still have a certain capability of alkalinity elevation after years of service, which is important for CPP as an effective tool for stormwater management. However, few previous studies have reported on how CPP structures would elevate runoff alkalinity and pH after being exposed to rainfall-runoff for years. In this study, three groups of CPP specimens, all exposed to rainfall-runoff for 3 years, were used to test the pH and alkalinity elevation properties. It was found that runoff pH values were elevated from 7.4 to the range of 7.8-8.6 after infiltrating through the uncoated specimens, and from 7.4 to 8.5-10.7 after infiltrating through aluminum-coated specimens. Runoff alkalinity elevation efficiencies are 11.5-14.5% for uncoated specimens and 42.2% for coated specimens. The study shows that CPP is an effective passive unit operation for stormwater acid neutralization in our built environment. PMID:22049729

  12. Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Debut, Martine; Berri, Cécile M; Sellier, Nadine; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Jégo, Yves; Beaumont, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3) were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu), color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP) at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43). There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg) with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97), suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76), it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58), and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84). Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line. PMID:18706119

  13. James H. Clarke, Ph.D. JAMES HAROLD CLARKE, Ph.D., BCES, F. AAFS

    E-print Network

    James H. Clarke, Ph.D. Page 1 JAMES HAROLD CLARKE, Ph.D., BCES, F. AAFS Department of Civil 6152 (cell) james.h.clarke@vanderbilt.edu EDUCATION: The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland on Reactor Safeguards, consultant #12;James H. Clarke, Ph.D. Page 2 2005-2008 Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  14. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  15. Fetal scalp pH testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Normal pH: 7.25 to 7.35 Borderline pH: 7.20 to 7.25 The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ...

  16. Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook

    E-print Network

    Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook 2012 - 2013 #12;MANUAL OF THE PH.D. DEGREE IN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012 - 2013 IE graduate degrees please contact: Office of Graduate Programs Of Industrial Engineering Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering Arizona State University PO

  17. Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook

    E-print Network

    Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook 2013 - 2014 #12;MANUAL OF THE PH.D. DEGREE IN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 2013 - 2014 IE graduate degrees please contact: Office of Graduate Programs Of Industrial Engineering Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering Arizona State University PO

  18. Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook

    E-print Network

    Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook 2014 - 2015 #12;#12;MANUAL OF THE PH.D. DEGREE IN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 2014 - 2015 IE graduate degrees please contact: Office of Graduate Programs Of Industrial Engineering Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering Arizona State University PO

  19. Psychologist M. Kirk Dougher, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Practicum Trainee Hortencia Rivera Program Assistant Jennifer Elgert Program Assistant Sara Denis Student Assistant Victoria Dodman, Psy.D. Asst Dir Broward Amber Lyda, Psy.D. Asst Dir./Training Dir Tiffany Albury Seiman, Ph.D. Suicide Prevention Coord Adam Iglesias, Ph.D. Psychologist Candiest Pinchem-Henry Program

  20. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  1. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the ... Urine with a pH less than 5.3 is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different ...

  2. CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

  3. Anna Margaret Davidson Ph.D. Candidate

    E-print Network

    DeJong, Theodore

    Anna Margaret Davidson Ph.D. Candidate Department of Plant Sciences University of California Davis 2007 Wickson Hall One Shields Ave. Davis, CA 95616. (815) 212-4409. adavidson@ucdavis.edu EDUCATION Ph Assistantship, UC Davis Winter, 2011, 2012 TA for PLS 113, Biological Applications in Fruit Tree Management

  4. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reserve (as defined in 12 CFR 225, appendix A); (2) Allowance for market risk. The ultimate holding... addressed to the Division of Market Regulation, Risk Assessment Group; and (4) The reports that the ultimate... holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1g Section...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Reserve (as defined in 12 CFR 225, appendix A); (2) Allowance for market risk. The ultimate holding... addressed to the Division of Market Regulation, Risk Assessment Group; and (4) The reports that the ultimate... holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1g Section...

  6. 3.0 SOP 6a pH 2007 10 12 pH (total hydrogen

    E-print Network

    3.0 SOP 6a pH 2007 10 12 1 / 8 SOP 6a / pH 1. pH (total hydrogen ion concentration scale HSO4 - pH (2) 10 -= - + 110 soln-kgmol ][H logpH . (2) 3. pH pH (S)(X) [] (E) KCl [H+ ] #12;3.0 SOP 6a pH 2007 10 12 2 / 8 (3) pH FRT EE /10ln )S(pHpH(X) XS - += . (3) pH pH(S) pH

  7. Intracellular pH modulates quinary structure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rachel D; Guseman, Alex J; Pielak, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    NMR spectroscopy can provide information about proteins in living cells. pH is an important characteristic of the intracellular environment because it modulates key protein properties such as net charge and stability. Here, we show that pH modulates quinary interactions, the weak, ubiquitous interactions between proteins and other cellular macromolecules. We use the K10H variant of the B domain of protein G (GB1, 6.2 kDa) as a pH reporter in Escherichia coli cells. By controlling the intracellular pH, we show that quinary interactions influence the quality of in-cell (15) N-(1) H HSQC NMR spectra. At low pH, the quality is degraded because the increase in attractive interactions between E. coli proteins and GB1 slows GB1 tumbling and broadens its crosspeaks. The results demonstrate the importance of quinary interactions for furthering our understanding of protein chemistry in living cells. PMID:26257390

  8. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hendee, Shonn P. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrscheib, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nunez, David (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, M. Kathleen (Cedar Crest, NM); Franke, James E. (Franklin, TN); Kemeny, Gabor J. (Madison, WI)

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  9. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

    PubMed

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. PMID:26613188

  10. pH. Training Module 5.305.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with pH, measurement of pH with a pH meter and maintenance of pH meter electrodes. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers the definition of pH, types of electrodes and…

  11. Acidified seawater impacts sea urchin larvae pH regulatory systems relevant for calcification

    PubMed Central

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y.; Melzner, Frank; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Dorey, Narimane; Himmerkus, Nina; Holtmann, Wiebke C.; Dupont, Sam T.; Thorndyke, Michael C.; Bleich, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Calcifying echinoid larvae respond to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry with reduced growth and developmental delay. To date, no information exists on how ocean acidification acts on pH homeostasis in echinoderm larvae. Understanding acid–base regulatory capacities is important because intracellular formation and maintenance of the calcium carbonate skeleton is dependent on pH homeostasis. Using H+-selective microelectrodes and the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, we conducted in vivo measurements of extracellular and intracellular pH (pHe and pHi) in echinoderm larvae. We exposed pluteus larvae to a range of seawater CO2 conditions and demonstrated that the extracellular compartment surrounding the calcifying primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) conforms to the surrounding seawater with respect to pH during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. Using FITC dextran conjugates, we demonstrate that sea urchin larvae have a leaky integument. PMCs and spicules are therefore directly exposed to strong changes in pHe whenever seawater pH changes. However, measurements of pHi demonstrated that PMCs are able to fully compensate an induced intracellular acidosis. This was highly dependent on Na+ and HCO3?, suggesting a bicarbonate buffer mechanism involving secondary active Na+-dependent membrane transport proteins. We suggest that, under ocean acidification, maintained pHi enables calcification to proceed despite decreased pHe. However, this probably causes enhanced costs. Increased costs for calcification or cellular homeostasis can be one of the main factors leading to modifications in energy partitioning, which then impacts growth and, ultimately, results in increased mortality of echinoid larvae during the pelagic life stage. PMID:23077257

  12. Colorimetric Determination of pH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheryl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which the pH of a solution can be quantitatively measured using a spectrophotometer. The theory, experimental details, sample preparation and selection, instrumentation, and results are discussed. (CW)

  13. Mary Fennell, PhD Chair

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Evaluation Oversight Committee Roster CHAIR Mary Fennell, Ph.D. Chair, Department of Sociology and Community Health Brown University Box 1916, 211 Maxcy Hall 112 George Street Providence, RI 02912

  14. Curriculum Vitae Hyungjun Kim, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    : Structural connectivity in Methamphetamine abusers using Diffusion tensor imaging, Amygdala shape alterations in Methamphetamine abusers (Advisor: In Kyoon Lyoo, M.D., Ph.D.) 2003 Korean Medical Doctor, College of Oriental

  15. Brenda K. Edwards, PhD

    Cancer.gov

    Brenda K. Edwards, PhD, has been with the Surveillance Research Program (SRP) and its predecessor organizations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) since 1989, serving as SRP’s Associate Director from 1990-2011.

  16. pH Regulation in Anoxic Plants

    PubMed Central

    FELLE, HUBERT H.

    2005-01-01

    • Background pH regulation is the result of a complex interaction of ion transport, H+ buffering, H+-consuming and H+-producing reactions. Cells under anoxia experience an energy crisis; an early response thereof (in most tissues) is a rapid cytoplasmic acidification of roughly half a pH unit. Depending on the degree of anoxia tolerance, this pH remains relatively stable for some time, but then drops further due to an energy shortage, which, in concert with a general breakdown of transmembrane gradients, finally leads to cell death unless the plant finds access to an energy source. • Scope In this review the much-debated origin of the initial pH change and its regulation under anoxia is discussed, as well as the problem of how tissues deal with the energy crisis and to what extent pH regulation and membrane transport from and into the vacuole and the apoplast is a part thereof. • Conclusions It is postulated that, because a foremost goal of cells under anoxia must be energy production (having an anaerobic machinery that produces insufficient amounts of ATP), a new pH is set to ensure a proper functioning of the involved enzymes. Thus, the anoxic pH is not experienced as an error signal and is therefore not reversed to the aerobic level. Although acclimated and anoxia-tolerant tissues may display higher cytoplasmic pH than non-acclimated or anoxia-intolerant tissues, evidence for an impeded pH-regulation is missing even in the anoxia-intolerant tissues. For sufficient energy production, residual H+ pumping is vital to cope with anoxia by importing energy-rich compounds; however it is not vital for pH-regulation. Whereas the initial acidification is not due to energy shortage, subsequent uncontrolled acidosis occurring in concert with a general gradient breakdown damages the cell but may not be the primary event. PMID:16024558

  17. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva. PMID:25523957

  18. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing safety and operational availability.

  19. Science and Ultimate Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2004-06-01

    This preview of the future of physics comprises contributions from recognized authorities inspired by the pioneering work of John Wheeler. Quantum theory represents a unifying theme within the book, as it relates to the topics of the nature of physical reality, cosmic inflation, the arrow of time, models of the universe, superstrings, quantum gravity and cosmology. Attempts to formulate a final unification theory of physics are also considered, along with the existence of hidden dimensions of space, hidden cosmic matter, and the strange world of quantum technology. John Archibald Wheeler is one of the most influential scientists of the twentieth century. His extraordinary career has spanned momentous advances in physics, from the birth of the nuclear age to the conception of the quantum computer. Famous for coining the term "black hole," Professor Wheeler helped lay the foundations for the rebirth of gravitation as a mainstream branch of science, triggering the explosive growth in astrophysics and cosmology that followed. His early contributions to physics include the S matrix, the theory of nuclear rotation (with Edward Teller), the theory of nuclear fission (with Niels Bohr), action-at-a-distance electrodynamics (with Richard Feynman), positrons as backward-in-time electrons, the universal Fermi interaction (with Jayme Tiomno), muonic atoms, and the collective model of the nucleus. His inimitable style of thinking, quirky wit, and love of the bizarre have inspired generations of physicists.

  20. Surviving the Ultimate Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    A superintendent who was nearly appointed New York City Schools chancellor explains the physical and mental stamina his job requires. Most school executives don't recognize job stresses leading to physical disorders, adverse effects on family life, and alcoholism. Since superintendents' demise usually centers on political/interpersonal conflicts,…

  1. The ultimate high tide

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, R.G. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible coastal impacts of a rise in sea level. Control measures that are available to coastal communities are emphasized, including pumping of seawater into the ground, replenishing beach sand, protection or moving of potable-water intakes, elevating roadways, and building dikes. Economics will determine which, if any, measures are reasonable at a particular site. There is an upward trend in the mean CO{sub 2} concentration and predictions about the greenhouse effect are creating a rising tide of concern.

  2. The Ultimate Neutrino Detector

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    opportunities with the NuMI beam · Liquid Argon detector for the NuMI off- axis experiment · `Other' physics coordinates [Gatti, Padovini, Quartapelle,Greenlaw,Radeka IEEE Trans. NS- 26 (2) (1979) 2910] · Signals: Electric field Ionization density scintillation · Experiment: (dQ/dx) ~ 55,000 e/cm@400-500 V/m #12;Adam

  3. Toward ultimate nanoplasmonics modeling.

    PubMed

    Solís, Diego M; Taboada, José M; Obelleiro, Fernando; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; García de Abajo, F Javier

    2014-08-26

    Advances in the field of nanoplasmonics are hindered by the limited capabilities of simulation tools in dealing with realistic systems comprising regions that extend over many light wavelengths. We show that the optical response of unprecedentedly large systems can be accurately calculated by using a combination of surface integral equation (SIE) method of moments (MoM) formulation and an expansion of the electromagnetic fields in a suitable set of spatial wave functions via fast multipole methods. We start with a critical review of volume versus surface integral methods, followed by a short tutorial on the key features that render plasmons useful for sensing (field enhancement and confinement). We then use the SIE-MoM to examine the plasmonic and sensing capabilities of various systems with increasing degrees of complexity, including both individual and interacting gold nanorods and nanostars, as well as large random and periodic arrangements of ?1000 gold nanorods. We believe that the present results and methodology raise the standard of numerical electromagnetic simulations in the field of nanoplasmonics to a new level, which can be beneficial for the design of advanced nanophotonic devices and optical sensing structures. PMID:25077678

  4. Effect of cooling rate on eutectic cell count, grain size, microstructure, and ultimate tensile strength of hypoeutectic cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Hemanth, J.; Rao, K.V.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1999-08-01

    This article describes a series of microstructural and strength studies performed on hypoeutectic cast iron, which was sand cast using a variety of end chills (metallic, nonmetallic, water-cooled, and subzero, respectively). The effects of cooling rate on the eutectic cell count (ECC), grain size, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were evaluated. Attempts were also made to explain these effects and to correlate the UTS with ECC. It was found that subzero chilled and water-cool, chilled cast iron exhibit severe undercooling compared to normal sand cast iron. It was concluded from this investigation that nucleation conditions are completely altered but growth conditions prevail as usual. Therefore, undercooling during solidification is considered to be responsible for variation in ECC, grain size, and microstructure, and tensile strength.

  5. Stress build-up during the reaction of thermoset films cured above the ultimate T{sub g}

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, J.; Manson, J.A.E.; Hult, A.

    1993-12-31

    The structure evolution and build-up of internal stresses in an acrylate and an epoxy cured above their ultimate T{sub g}`s have been investigated. The samples were cured isothermally and the structure evolvement followed using a parallel plate dynamic mechanical analyzer. From the dynamic-mechanical data a predicted stress build-up was calculated and compared with an experimentally observed stress level. The predictions show that the acrylate is expected to build up stresses two orders of magnitude greater than the opoxy. This discrepancy can be explained by the difference in structure and reaction mechanism between the monomers, notably the early gelation, high rubbery modulus and high cure shrinkage of the acrylates as compared to the epoxy. In the case of the acrylate the predicted stress level agrees well with experimental results. For the epoxy no stresses were observed, presumably due to their being below the measurability limit.

  6. Towards the Artsutanov's dream of the space elevator: The ultimate design of a 35 GPa strong tether thanks to graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we have evaluated the strength of a graphene/nanotube bundle considering the two possible failure mechanisms, i.e. intrinsic fracture or sliding. We have accordingly proposed smart strengthening strategies, such as a flaw tolerant design and the nanotube self-collapse. The flaw tolerant design reduces the required strength whereas the self-collapse can increase the achievable strength. Only by coupling these complementary, and possibly other e.g. self-healing, smart strategies, the Artsutanov's dream of the space elevator could be realized. The ultimate design of a 35 GPa strong tether is thus proposed for the first time in this paper, thanks to graphene bundles and the numerous previous investigations performed by the author. Graphene bundles and composites, in which sliding is the current weakest link, are demonstrated to be two times stronger than their nanotube counterparts.

  7. Ultimate crack and lack of any security in the statistical key exchange protocol with random signals and feedback

    E-print Network

    Zoltan Gingl; Laszlo B. Kish

    2010-12-30

    We deterministically crack the secure, statistical key exchange protocol based on feedback proposed by Pao-Lo Liu [ J. Lightwave Techology 27 (2009) pp. 5230-34]. The crack is ultimate and absolute because it works under idealized conditions, and produces much higher data visibility for the eavesdropper than the protocol provides for Alice and Bob. Even with the most idealistic driving noise spectrum stated by Liu, during the most secure phase of the protocol, far away from the transients, where the system is already in its most secure steady-state, the eavesdropper has 100% success rate in identifying the key bits, at the same time when Alice and Bob have less than 100% success rate while using the Liu protocol. No statistics is needed, Eve can extract the secure bit from two samples of the signal in the two direction. Thus the Liu-protocol offers no security against the attack described in this paper.

  8. Layer- and direction-specific material properties, extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of human abdominal aorta and aneurysm: a uniaxial extension study

    E-print Network

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Huang, Yuan; Sutcliffe, Michael P. F.; Brown, Adam J.; Jing, Zaiping; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Lu, Qingsheng

    2015-04-24

    of extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of the tissue are important if rupture is to be modelled. Tissue pieces from 11 abdomen aortic aneurysm (AAA) from patients scheduled for elective surgery and from 8 normal aortic artery (NAA) from...

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (F) The aggregate maximum potential exposure; (G) A summary report reflecting...distribution of the ultimate holding company's exposures on a consolidated basis for each of the...in an easily accessible place using any media acceptable under §...

  10. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it

    2013-04-10

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a {Lambda}CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 < z < 0.3. The survey includes 22,680 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,145 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster, we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for {approx}200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a {Lambda}CDM universe) is on average (1.99 {+-} 0.11)M{sub 200}, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M{sub 200} and in L{sub X} demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  11. Version 3.0 SOP 6a --pH October 12, 2007 pH (total hydrogen

    E-print Network

    Version 3.0 SOP 6a -- pH October 12, 2007 117 SOP 6a pH - / 1. pH (total hydrogen ion concentration pH scale) . , [H+ ] 1 kg . 2. . F T S F 4 [H ] [H ] (1 / ) [H ] [HSO ] S K+ + + - = + + (1) [H+ ]F (free concentration), ST ([HSO4 - ]+[SO4 2- ]) KS [HSO4 - ] . pH . 10 1 [H ] pH

  12. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  13. pH Dependent Transitions in Xanthorhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Balashov, Sergei P.; Wang, Jennifer M.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    2009-01-01

    Xanthorhodopsin (XR), the light-driven proton pump of the halophilic eubacterium Salinibacter ruber, exhibits substantial homology to bacteriorhodopsin (BR) of archaea and proteorhodopsin (PR) of marine bacteria, but unlike them contains a light-harvesting carotenoid antenna, salinixanthin, as well as retinal. We report here the pH dependent properties of XR. The pKa of the retinal Schiff base is as high as in BR, i.e., ? 12.4. Deprotonation of the Schiff base and the ensuing alkaline denaturation causes large changes in the absorption bands of the carotenoid antenna, which lose intensity and become broader making the spectrum similar to that of salinixanthin not bound to XR. A small red shift of the retinal chromophore band and increase of its extinction, as well as the pH dependent amplitude of the M intermediate indicate that in detergent-solubilized XR the pKa of the Schiff base counter-ion and proton acceptor is about 6 (compared to 2.6 in BR, and 7.5 in PR). The protonation of the counter-ion is accompanied by a small blue shift of the carotenoid absorption bands. The pigment is stable in the dark upon acidification to pH 2. At pH < 2 a transition to a blue shifted species absorbing around 440 nm occurs, accompanied by loss of resolution of the carotenoid absorption bands. At pH < 3 illumination of XR with continuous light causes accumulation of long-lived photoproducts(s) with an absorption maximum around 400 nm. The photocycle of XR was examined between pH 4 and 10 in solubilized samples. The pH dependence of recovery of the initial state slows at both acid and alkaline pH, with pKa’s of 6.0 and 9.3. The decrease in the rates with pKa 6.0 is apparently caused by protonation of the counter-ion and proton acceptor while that at high pH reflects the pKa of the internal proton donor, Glu94, at the times in the photocycle when this group equilibrates with the bulk. PMID:16649816

  14. Mechanisms of Intragastric pH Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Tyralee; Akiba, Yasutada

    2010-01-01

    Luminal amino acids and lack of luminal acidity as a result of acid neutralization by intragastric foodstuffs are powerful signals for acid secretion. Although the hormonal and neural pathways underlying this regulatory mechanism are well understood, the nature of the gastric luminal pH sensor has been enigmatic. In clinical studies, high pH, tryptic peptides, and luminal divalent metals (Ca2+ and Mg2+) increase gastrin release and acid production. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), first described in the parathyroid gland but expressed on gastric G cells, is a logical candidate for the gastric acid sensor. Because CaSR ligands include amino acids and divalent metals, and because extracellular pH affects ligand binding in the pH range of the gastric content, its pH, metal, and nutrient-sensing functions are consistent with physiologic observations. The CaSR is thus an attractive candidate for the gastric luminal sensor that is part of the neuroendocrine negative regulatory loop for acid secretion. PMID:20938760

  15. Vienna, Austria: PhD positions in Population Genetics PhD positions in Population Genetics

    E-print Network

    Leps, Jan "Suspa"

    Vienna, Austria: PhD positions in Population Genetics PhD positions in Population Genetics of the leading centres of population genetics. The Vienna Graduate School of Population Genetics has been founded disciplines: bioinformatics, statistics, evolutionary genetics, functional genetics, theoretical

  16. Andrew A. Shapiro, Ph.D. Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Andrew A. Shapiro, Ph.D. EDUCATION Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering University of California-SiO2." M.S. Materials Science and Engineering University of California, Los Angeles, 1989 Thesis Materials Science and Engineering 2000- 2005 Lecturer - Materials Science and Engineering 1998- 2000 Co

  17. Blind deconvolution of multivariate signals : a deflation approach Ph. Loubaton* ,Ph. A. Regalia**

    E-print Network

    Regalia, Phillip A.

    Blind deconvolution of multivariate signals : a deflation approach Ph. Loubaton* ,Ph. A. Regalia established (e.g. [6])that the blind deconvolution problem makes sense as soon as y (or equivalently w ) is non Gaussian. In this paper, we deal with the previously adaptive blind deconvolution problem

  18. Ioannis Pavlidis, Ph.D. Peter Symosek, Ph.D. Honeywell Technology Center Honeywell Technology Center

    E-print Network

    Ioannis Pavlidis, Ph.D. Peter Symosek, Ph.D. Honeywell Technology Center Honeywell Technology Center MN65-2500 MN65-2500 3660 Technology Drive 3660 Technology Drive Minneapolis, MN 55418 Minneapolis with theoretical and experimental arguments that a dual-band fusion system in the near infrared can segment human

  19. PhD Handbook PhD Handbook-Faculty of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    PhD Handbook June 2015 #12;PhD Handbook- Faculty of Medicine Last updated June 2015 Page | 1 Introduction Established in 1814, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Oslo is the country's oldest faculty of medicine. The Faculty's teaching and research extends over a large area and has a clear

  20. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  1. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  2. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  3. What Is a pH Probe Study?

    MedlinePLUS

    What is a pH Probe Study ? What is pH a probe study? M easuring the pH in the esophagus helps determine whether or not acid is coming up from the stomach. A pH probe study is usually done in patients where ...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  5. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  6. PH DEPENDENT TOXICITY OF FIVE METALS TO THREE MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH of natural marine systems is relatively stable; this may explain why metal toxicity changes with pH have not been well documented. However, changes in metal toxicity with pH in marine waters are of concern in toxicity testing. During porewater toxicity testing pH can chang...

  7. RUG Philosophy PhD Regulations, page 1 Regulations

    E-print Network

    Zaroubi, Saleem

    RUG Philosophy PhD Regulations, page 1 Regulations PhD programmes in Philosophy Faculty of Philosophy Contents 1. General provisions 2. Structure of the PhD programme (training and research) 3D programme in Philosophy. 1.1.2. The PhD programmes are organized by the Philosophy Graduate School

  8. Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Genn Saji

    2006-07-01

    The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of {sup 137}Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

  9. The Added Value of a PhD in Medicine--PhD Students' Perceptions of Acquired Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Henrika; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Lonka, Kristi; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    PhD in the field of medicine is more common than in any other domain. Many medical doctors are driven towards PhD, but also students with other backgrounds (usually MSc) are conducting a PhD in medical schools. Higher education has invested a lot in developing generic and research competences. Still little is known about how PhD students…

  10. In Vivo Intracellular pH Measurements in Tobacco and Arabidopsis Reveal an Unexpected pH Gradient in the

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    In Vivo Intracellular pH Measurements in Tobacco and Arabidopsis Reveal an Unexpected pH Gradient 866, Dynamique Musculaire et Métabolisme, 34060 Montpellier, France The pH homeostasis of endomembranes is essential for cellular functions. In order to provide direct pH measurements

  11. Development of FRP composite structural biomaterials: ultimate strength of the fiber/matrix interfacial bond in in vivo simulated environments.

    PubMed

    Latour, R A; Black, J

    1992-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are being developed as alternatives to metals for structural orthopedic implant applications. FRP composite fracture behavior and environmental interactions are distinctly different from those which occur in metals. These differences must be accounted for in the design and evaluation of implant performance. Fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength in a FRP composite is known to strongly influence fracture behavior. The interfacial bond strength of four candidate fiber/matrix combinations (carbon fiber/polycarbonate, carbon fiber/polysulfone, polyaramid fiber/polycarbonate, polyaramid fiber/polysulfone) were investigated at 37 degrees C in dry and in vivo simulated (saline, exudate) environments. Ultimate bond strength was measured by a single fiber-microdroplet pull-out test. Dry bond strengths were significantly decreased following exposure to either saline or exudate with bond strength loss being approximately equal in both the saline and exudate. Bond strength loss is attributed to the diffusion of water and/or salt ions into the sample and their interaction with interfacial bonding. Because bond degradation is dependent upon diffusion, diffusional equilibrium must be obtained in composite test samples before the full effect of the test environment upon composite mechanical behavior can be determined. PMID:1512281

  12. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by core-shell WO3/BiVO4 nanorods with ultimate water splitting efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pihosh, Yuriy; Turkevych, Ivan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Uemura, Jin; Kazoe, Yutaka; Kosar, Sonya; Makita, Kikuo; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Takuya; Fujita, Daisuke; Tosa, Masahiro; Kondo, Michio; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic water splitting requires effective generation, separation and transfer of photo-induced charge carriers that can hardly be achieved simultaneously in a single material. Here we show that the effectiveness of each process can be separately maximized in a nanostructured heterojunction with extremely thin absorber layer. We demonstrate this concept on WO3/BiVO4+CoPi core-shell nanostructured photoanode that achieves near theoretical water splitting efficiency. BiVO4 is characterized by a high recombination rate of photogenerated carriers that have much shorter diffusion length than the thickness required for sufficient light absorption. This issue can be resolved by the combination of BiVO4 with more conductive WO3 nanorods in a form of core-shell heterojunction, where the BiVO4 absorber layer is thinner than the carrier diffusion length while it’s optical thickness is reestablished by light trapping in high aspect ratio nanostructures. Our photoanode demonstrates ultimate water splitting photocurrent of 6.72?mA?cm?2 under 1 sun illumination at 1.23?VRHE that corresponds to ~90% of the theoretically possible value for BiVO4. We also demonstrate a self-biased operation of the photoanode in tandem with a double-junction GaAs/InGaAsP photovoltaic cell with stable water splitting photocurrent of 6.56?mA?cm?2 that corresponds to the solar to hydrogen generation efficiency of 8.1%. PMID:26053164

  13. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS) tool to accelerate plant breeding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Laroche, André; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Liu, HongKui; Li, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broaden NGS usages to large crop genomes such as maize and wheat, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been developed and applied in sequencing multiplexed samples that combine molecular marker discovery and genotyping. GBS is a novel application of NGS protocols for discovering and genotyping SNPs in crop genomes and populations. The GBS approach includes the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes followed by the ligation of barcode adapter, PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplified DNA pool on a single lane of flow cells. Bioinformatic pipelines are needed to analyze and interpret GBS datasets. As an ultimate MAS tool and a cost-effective technique, GBS has been successfully used in implementing genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic diversity study, genetic linkage analysis, molecular marker discovery and genomic selection under a large scale of plant breeding programs. PMID:25324846

  14. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey. I. Survey Overview, Initial Data Releases, and First Results

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Peter J; Indermuehle, Balthasar; O'Dougherty, Stefan N; Lowe, Vicki; Cunningham, Maria R; Hernandez, Audra K; Fuller, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new mm-wave molecular-line mapping survey of the southern Galactic Plane and its first data releases. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS) maps a 60{\\deg}x2{\\deg} sector of our Galaxy's fourth quadrant, using a combination of fast mapping techniques with the Mopra radio telescope, simultaneously in the J=1-0 lines of $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, C$^{18}$O, and CN near 112 GHz at ~arcminute and ~0.3 km s$^{-1}$ resolution, with ~2 K channel$^{-1}$ sensitivity for $^{12}$CO and ~1 K channel$^{-1}$ for the other transitions. The calibrated data cubes from these observations are made available to the community after processing through our pipeline. Here, we describe the motivation for ThrUMMS, the development of new observing techniques for Mopra, and how these techniques were optimised to the objectives of the survey. We showcase some sample data products and describe the first science results on CO-isotopologue line ratios. These vary dramatically across the Galactic Plane, indicating a...

  15. Curriculum Vitae Christopher Dehon, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    .P.H. Functioned as the sole therapist responsible for piloting a new treatment for PTSD in young children and their mothers following trauma. Treatment addressed both the classic symptoms of PTSD and parent training for externalizing problems that were comorbid with children's symptoms of PTSD. Analyzed the overall effectiveness

  16. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in…

  17. PhD course: Institutions for Democracy?

    E-print Network

    Bølviken, Erik

    PhD course: Institutions for Democracy? Parliaments, Parties and Interest groups in Comparative that these political institutions take in contemporary democracies, based on recent comparative research. The focus and the Humanities in Paris. Parliamentary Democracy: Inevitable, Sustainable, Impossible? 1015-1100 Perspectives

  18. Sawyer Fuller, PhD Postdoctoral Researcher

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xi

    at Insect Scale: What Flying Insects Can Tell Us About Robotics and Vice Versa 4 PM Wednesday, February 11th. Insects have overcome these challenges with scale-appropriate flight apparatuses that surpass anything man at insect-sized air vehicles and investigates the flight systems of aerial insects. He completed his Ph

  19. Curriculum Vitae Hailei Wang, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    for an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) study using microchannel heat exchangers to reduce plant size-effective and environment-sound alternative grid energy storage solution to pumped hydro, CAES and more expensive batteries1 Curriculum Vitae Hailei Wang, Ph.D. Senior Investigator, Advanced Energy Systems Microproducts

  20. Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

  1. Observational Optical Astronomy Ph 344 Fall 2014

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Observational Optical Astronomy Ph 344 Fall 2014 Instructors: Dr. Tad Pryor 302W Physics & Astronomy Building, Busch Campus 848-445-8873 pryor@physics.rutgers.edu Office Hour: Wednesday 3:00 - 4:30 PM (or make an appointment) Mr. Jean Walker 332W Physics & Astronomy Building, Busch Campus jpwalker

  2. Ph.D.'s and the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James

    Throughout the last decade, Ph.D. recipients were accustomed to a job market in which demand for their services far exceeded supply. During the same period, manpower experts predicted this situation would continue in the foreseeable future. However, when the 60's ended, the employment illusion had been rudely dispelled by frantic reports of a…

  3. Graduate Student MS and Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Graduate Student Handbook MS and Ph.D. Imaging Science 2015-2016 Academic Year Revision 23 Attendance 18 10.7 Cooperative Education/Internships 18 10.8 Course Exemption 18 10.9 Course Substitution 20 10.16 Imaging Science Seminar 20 10.17 Independent Study 20 10.18 Intersession and Summer Term

  4. LANCE FREEMAN, PH.D. DEMOGRAPHIC

    E-print Network

    LANCE FREEMAN, PH.D. JAPAN'S DEMOGRAPHIC DILEMMA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HOUSING #12;2 © 2015 industrialized countries, Japan is in the midst of several demographic shifts dramatically impacting to as the second demographic transition. This second demographic transition stems from a value orientation away

  5. Gunhee Kim, Ph.D. Assistant professor

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Robert F.

    Vision, Machine Learning, Optimization, Data Mining, and Robotics Education Ph.D. in Computer Science Storylines from Web Photo Collections Advisor: Prof. Eric P. Xing Committee: Prof. Takeo Kanade, Prof. Christos Faloutsos, Prof. Antonio Torralba (MIT) M.S. in Robotics, Carnegie Mellon University Aug 2006

  6. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  7. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  8. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  9. Name: _______________________________ M.A./Ph.D: MUSIC

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Name: _______________________________ M.A./Ph.D: MUSIC INTEGRATED COMPOSITION, IMPROVISATION, AND TECHNOLOGY (ICIT) Degree Requirements (2015-2016) Required courses for the M.A.: Music 200 (Bibliography and Research): ______ 4 units Music 209 (Seminar in Creative Practices): ______ ______ 8 units Music 215A

  10. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  11. Brains & Behavior Larry Young, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Frantz, Kyle J.

    such as autism. Young's new book, The Chemistry Between Us: Love, Sex, and the Science of Attraction (2012Brains & Behavior Retreat Larry Young, Ph.D. is Director of the Center for Translational Social Disorders at Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Dr. Young received his undergraduate degree

  12. Effects of conventional welding and laser welding on the tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength and surface characteristics of two cobalt-chromium alloys: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Madhan Kumar, Seenivasan; Sethumadhava, Jayesh Raghavendra; Anand Kumar, Vaidyanathan; Manita, Grover

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser welding and conventional welding on the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength of the cobalt-chromium alloy. Samples were prepared with two commercially available cobalt-chromium alloys (Wironium plus and Diadur alloy). The samples were sectioned and the broken fragments were joined using Conventional and Laser welding techniques. The welded joints were subjected to tensile and ultimate tensile strength testing; and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the surface characteristics at the welded site. Both on laser welding as well as on conventional welding technique, Diadur alloy samples showed lesser values when tested for tensile and ultimate tensile strength when compared to Wironium alloy samples. Under the scanning electron microscope, the laser welded joints show uniform welding and continuous molt pool all over the surface with less porosity than the conventionally welded joints. Laser welding is an advantageous method of connecting or repairing cast metal prosthetic frameworks. PMID:23858281

  13. The panacea toolbox of a PhD biomedical student.

    PubMed

    Skaik, Younis

    2014-01-01

    Doing a PhD (doctor of philosophy) for the sake of contribution to knowledge should give the student an immense enthusiasm through the PhD period. It is the time in one's life that one spends to "hit the nail on the head" in a specific area and topic of interest. A PhD consists mostly of hard work and tenacity; however, luck and genius might also play a little role. You can pass all PhD phases without having both luck and genius. The PhD student should have pre-PhD and PhD toolboxes, which are "sine quibus non" for getting successfully a PhD degree. In this manuscript, the toolboxes of the PhD student are discussed. PMID:25674150

  14. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey. I. Survey Overview, Initial Data Releases, and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Muller, Erik; Indermuehle, Balthasar; O'Dougherty, Stefan N.; Lowe, Vicki; Cunningham, Maria; Hernandez, Audra K.; Fuller, Gary A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a new mm-wave molecular-line mapping survey of the southern Galactic Plane and its first data releases. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS) maps a 60° × 2° sector of our Galaxy’s fourth quadrant, using a combination of fast mapping techniques with the Mopra radio telescope, simultaneously in the J=1\\to 0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and CN near 112 GHz at ˜arcminute and ˜0.3 km s-1 resolution, with ˜2 K channel-1 sensitivity for 12CO and ˜1 K channel-1 for the other transitions. The calibrated data cubes from these observations are made available to the community after processing through our pipeline. Here, we describe the motivation for ThrUMMS, the development of new observing techniques for Mopra, and how these techniques were optimized to the objectives of the survey. We showcase some sample data products and describe the first science results on CO-isotopologue line ratios. These vary dramatically across the Galactic Plane, indicating a very wide range of optical depth and excitation conditions, from warm and translucent to cold and opaque. The population of cold clouds in particular have optical depths for 12CO easily exceeding 100. We derive a new, nonlinear conversion law from 12CO integrated intensity to column density, {N}{CO}\\propto {I}{CO}1.38, which suggests that the molecular mass traced by CO in the Galactic disk may have been substantially underestimated. This further suggests that some global relationships in disk galaxies, such as star formation laws, may need to be recalibrated. The large ThrUMMS team is proceeding with several other science investigations.

  15. DoctorofPhilosophyinPublicPolicy(PhD) About the PhD Program

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    and management research for government, business, think tanks and other research organizations. The PhD program involves a combination of course work (culminating in a comprehensive exam) and proposing, writing

  16. Specimen: pH180 (from main paper) Kaczmarek Treatment pH8.1160

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    0 10 20 0 10 20 30 y(µm) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 OD Specimen: pH180 (from main paper) Kaczmarek Treatment pH8.1160 Bulk B/Ca: 5.23 mmol/mol x (µm) 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 10 20 30 40 x (µm) y(µm) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 OD Specimen: pH380 Kaczmarek Treatment pH8.1260 BulkB/Ca: 2.95 mmol/mol 0 5 10 15 20 0 10 20 30

  17. is known to be active in over 85% of all tumours [9]. Ultimately, two tumour specific promoters can be incorporated into one

    E-print Network

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    of a protein to the upper small intestine by exploiting the pH shift between the stomach and the upper small intestine. pH-sensitive microparticles composed of methacrylic acid (MAA) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG the functionality of the protein and (2) increasing the bioavailability of the drug. We have designed pH

  18. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, Christopher R.; Baross, John A.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2015-08-01

    Saturn's moon, Enceladus, is a geologically active waterworld. The prevailing paradigm is that there is a subsurface ocean that erupts to the surface, which leads to the formation of a plume of vapor and ice above the south polar region. The chemistry of the ocean is just beginning to be understood, but is of profound geochemical and astrobiological interest. Here, we determine the pH of the ocean using a thermodynamic model of carbonate speciation. Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to make a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model suggests that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ?11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by carbonates and phyllosilicates on the ocean floor. Carboxyl groups in dissolved organic species would be negatively charged, while amino groups would exist predominately in the neutral form. Knowledge of the pH improves our understanding of geochemical processes in Enceladus' ocean. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecules such as those that have been detected in Enceladus' plume. Serpentinization and H2 generation should have occurred on Enceladus, like on the parent bodies of aqueously altered meteorites; but it is unknown whether these critical processes are still taking place, or if Enceladus' rocky core has been completely altered by past hydrothermal activity. The presence of native H2 in the plume would provide strong evidence for contemporary aqueous alteration that replenishes this source of energy for possible life. The high pH also suggests that the delivery of strong oxidants from the surface to the ocean has not been significant (otherwise, sulfuric acid would be produced), which would be consistent with geophysical models of episodic resurfacing activity on Enceladus. This paper represents an expansion of chemical oceanography to an "ocean planet" beyond Earth.

  19. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    E-print Network

    Glein, Christopher; Waite, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to obtain a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model indicates that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ~11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by clays and carbonates on the ocean floor. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecule...

  20. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS): A New View of the Molecular Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter; Muller, Erik; Nguyen Luong, Quang; Nguyen, Hans

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new mm-wave molecular-line mapping survey of the southern Galactic Plane, and its first data releases and science results. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS) maps a 60°×2° sector of our Galaxy’s fourth quadrant, using a combination of fast mapping techniques with the Mopra radio telescope, simultaneously in the J=1?0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and CN near 112 GHz at ˜arcminute and 0.3 km s-1 resolution, with 1.2 K/chan sensitivity for 12CO and 0.6 K/chan for the other transitions. The calibrated data cubes from these observations are made available to the community after processing through our pipeline. Here, we describe the motivation for ThrUMMS, the development of new observing techniques for Mopra, and how these techniques were optimised to the objectives of the survey. We showcase some sample data products and describe the first science results, on global variations in the iso-CO line ratios and on a detailed multiwavelength study of the GMCs near l=333°. The line ratios vary dramatically across the Galactic Plane, indicating a very wide range of optical depth and excitation conditions, from warm and translucent to cold and opaque. The population of cold clouds in particular have optical depths for 12CO easily exceeding 100 in some locations, and suggests that the fraction of the molecular mass in the Galactic disk that is in the coldest gas may be substantially underestimated. We compute robust column densities from the global data and derive a new conversion law from CO to molecular mass, indicating that global relationships in disk galaxies that depend on the CO?H2 mass conversion, such as star formation laws, may need to be recalibrated. Near l=333°, we have compared ThrUMMS data to HI, cm-continuum, and several Herschel and Spitzer bands to derive the overall mass and star formation properties of two complexes along the line of sight, in the Scutum-Centaurus and Norma arms. The RCW106 complex in particular is currently undergoing a ministarburst event, potentially shedding light on starburst physics in distant galaxies.

  1. Occurrence of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and its ultimate transformation product Guanylurea in several compartments of the aquatic cycle.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Christoph; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Wolschke, Hendrik; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    In 2030, the World Health Organization estimates that more than 350 million people will be diagnosed with diabetes. Consequently, Metformin - the biguanide drug of choice orally administered for diabetes type II - is anticipated to see a spike in production. Unlike many pharmaceutical drugs, Metformin (Met) is not metabolized by humans but passes through the body unchanged. Entering aquatic compartments, such as in sewage, it can be bacterially transformed to the ultimate transformation product Guanylurea (Gua). Sampling over one week (n=5) from a Southern German sewage treatment plant revealed very high average (AV) concentrations in influent (AVMet=111,800ng/L, AVGua=1300ng/L) and effluent samples (AVMet=4800ng/L, AVGua=44,000ng/L). To provide a more complete picture of the distribution and potential persistence of these compounds in the German water cycle, a new, efficient and highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometric method with direct injection was used for the measurement of Metformin and Guanylurea in drinking, surface, sewage and seawater. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranging from 2-10ng/L allowed the detection of Metformin and Guanylurea in different locations such as: Lake Constance (n=11: AVMet=102ng/L, AVGua=16ng/L), river Elbe (n=12: AVMet=472ng/L, AVGua=9ng/L), river Weser (n=6: AVMet=349ng/L, AVGua=137ng/L) and for the first time in marine North Sea water (n=14: AVMet=13ng/L, AVGua=11ng/L). Based on daily water discharges, Metformin loads of 15.2kg/d (Elbe) and 6.4kg/d (Weser) into the North Sea were calculated. Lake Constance is used to abstract potable water which is further purified to be used as drinking water. A first screening of two tap water samples contained 2ng/L and 61ng/L of Metformin, respectively. The results of this study suggest that Metformin and Guanylurea could be distributed over a large fraction of the world's potable water sources and oceans. With no natural degradation processes, these compounds can be easily reintroduced to humans as they enter the food chain. PMID:24954924

  2. Layer- and Direction-Specific Material Properties, Extreme Extensibility and Ultimate Material Strength of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysm: A Uniaxial Extension Study.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Huang, Yuan; Sutcliffe, Michael P F; Brown, Adam J; Jing, Zaiping; Gillard, Jonathan H; Lu, Qingsheng

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical analysis has the potential to provide complementary information to aneurysm morphology in assessing its vulnerability. Reliable calculations require accurate material properties of individual aneurysmal components. Quantification of extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of the tissue are important if rupture is to be modelled. Tissue pieces from 11 abdomen aortic aneurysm (AAA) from patients scheduled for elective surgery and from 8 normal aortic artery (NAA) from patients who scheduled for kidney/liver transplant were collected at surgery and banked in liquid nitrogen with the use of Cryoprotectant solution to minimize frozen damage. Prior to testing, specimen were thawed and longitudinal and circumferential tissue strips were cut from each piece and adventitia, media and thrombus if presented were isolated for the material test. The incremental Young's modulus of adventitia of NAA was direction-dependent at low stretch levels, but not the media. Both adventitia and media had a similar extreme extensibility in the circumferential direction, but the adventitia was much stronger. For aneurysmal tissues, no significant differences were found when the incremental moduli of adventitia, media or thrombus in both directions were compared. Adventitia and media from AAA had similar extreme extensibility and ultimate strength in both directions and thrombus was the weakest material. Adventitia and media from AAA were less extensible compared with those of NAA, but the ultimate strength remained similar. The material properties, including extreme extensibility and ultimate strength, of both healthy aortic and aneurysmal tissues were layer-dependent, but not direction-dependent. PMID:25905688

  3. Negli ultimi tempi si fa un gran parlare di HTML5 (e CSS3)... Sono solo le ultime versioni degli standard HTML (e CSS) o c'

    E-print Network

    Goy, Anna

    1 Negli ultimi tempi si fa un gran parlare di HTML5 (e CSS3)... Sono solo le ultime versioni degli standard HTML (e CSS) o c'è qualcosa di più?!? HTML5 è una specifica di HTML che ha introdotto nel HTML5 - I HTML5 è una specifica di HTML che ha introdotto nel linguaggio funzionalità che vanno ben oltre il

  4. 26 CFR 48.6421-2 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses. 48.6421-2 Section 48.6421-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-2 Credits or payments to ultimate purchasers of gasoline used in intercity, local, or school buses. (a) In general. If gasoline is used in an intercity or local bus while engaged...

  5. High-Performance Glazing for Energy-Efficient and Bird-Safe Buildings Objective: With the ultimate goal of reducing bird-window collisions, identify a short list

    E-print Network

    Wolberg, George

    High-Performance Glazing for Energy-Efficient and Bird-Safe Buildings Objective: With the ultimate goal of reducing bird-window collisions, identify a short list of energy-efficient glazing products that also successfully address bird-safety, test these top-performing products using mock-ups, and recommend

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Reserve (as defined in 12 CFR 225, appendix A); (2) Allowance for market risk. The ultimate holding... Commission determines, based on a review of the group-wide internal risk management control system and... appendix G; and (B) A supplemental report entitled “Accountant's Report on Internal Risk Management...

  7. The launch of the first Sputnik on Ortoher 4, 1967,gener-ated a shock wave which ultimately led toa revolution in the

    E-print Network

    Bodner, George M.

    The launch of the first Sputnik on Ortoher 4, 1967,gener- ated a shock wave which ultimately led". .. chemistry is an experimental science in which descriptive material D ~ V San essential role. It was argued the science. PrototypesAlready In Place During the course of this conference, a significant amount of time

  8. or rain, affect pollen viability and ultimate pollinationUSE OF DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS, of their crops. Therefore simple, inexpensive techniques

    E-print Network

    Kalisz, Susan

    NOTES or rain, affect pollen viability and ultimate pollinationUSE OF DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS of pollen before crosses are undertaken, or while field pollination is occurring, areGERMINATION ASSAYS to estimate the viability RESISTANT COTTON POLLEN VIABILITY of cotton pollen and each have biases based

  9. Universit degli Studi di Padova PhD Courses List

    E-print Network

    Schenato, Luca

    Università degli Studi di Padova PhD Courses List PhD Course Page 1. ANIMAL AND FOOD SCIENCE......................................................................................................................................................4 3. BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES .....................................................................................................................................................8 5. BRAIN, MIND AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

  10. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an MOU-holding PHA ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an ...

  11. Department of Bioengineering Ph.D. Graduate Student Handbook

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Department of Bioengineering Ph.D. Graduate Student Handbook Graduate Group in Bioengineering University of Pennsylvania #12;1 Fall 2012 Bioengineering Ph.D. Graduate Student Handbook INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 2 BIOENGINEERING OVERVIEW

  12. Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Mathematics -

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Mathematics - Education Specialization Education Specialization The Ph.D. in Mathematics with a specialization in mathematics education combines study in mathematics, mathematics education, and quantitative and qualitative research methods in education

  13. Bridging the Reef gaps: first evidence for corals surviving under low pH conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernov, D.; Fine, M.

    2007-12-01

    Following two major extinction events, the late Permian and Triassic/Jurassic, there is a long absence of corals from the geological record followed by a recurrence coral fossils. This unusual disappearance and reappearance, referred to commonly as 'reef gaps', was explained as a failure in sampling effort, and/or the movement of these species into geographic 'refugia' that have not been found. Because the phylogeny of recent corals suggests their origin in the pre-Permian-extinction , an alternative explanation for reef gaps hypothesized that corals have a means of alternating between soft bodies and fossilizing forms. This study supports this hypothesis. Thirty coral fragments from 5 coral colonies of the scleractinian Mediterranean corals Oculina patagonica (encrusting) and Madracis pharencis (bulbous) were subjected to pH 7.4-7.6 (in accordance with the pH projected by the IPCC for the year 2300) and 30 fragments to pH 8.0-8.3 (ambient) over a period of 12 months. 100% of the colonies in the experiment and 90% of all polyps survived to the end the experiment. The corals grown in acidified conditions, where skeleton-building conditions were absent, maintained basic life functions as a solitary skeleton-less ecophenotype resembling a sea anemone. On an evolutionary scale, these results provide a possible explanation to coral survival over major extinction events such as the Permian/Triassic and Triassic/Jurassic events. It is important to note that these results only demonstrate that corals can persist as soft bodied ecophoenotypes, but the loss of reef framework has major ramifications to the entire structure and function of coral reef ecosystems, ultimately impacting the services they provide to human society.

  14. Variation in Biofilm Stability with Decreasing pH Affects Porous Medium Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M. F.; Santillan, E. F.; McGrath, L. K.; Altman, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    Changes to microbial communities caused by subsurface CO2 injection may have many consequences, including possible impacts to CO2 transport. We used column experiments to examine how decreasing pH, a geochemical change associated with CO2 injection, will affect biofilm stability and ultimately the hydraulic properties of porous media. Columns consisted of 1 mm2 square capillary tubes filled with 105-150 µm diameter glass beads. Artificial groundwater medium containing 1 mM glucose was pumped through the columns at a rate of 0.01 mL/min (q = 14.4 m/day; Re = 0.03). Columns were inoculated with 3 × 10^8 CFU (avg.) of Pseudomonas fluorescens, a model biofilm former, transformed with a green fluorescent protein. Biomass distribution and transport was examined using scanning laser confocal microscopy and effluent plating. Variation in the bulk hydraulic properties of the columns was measured using manometers. In an initial experiment, biofilm growth was allowed to occur for seven days in medium with pH 7.3. Within this period, cells uniformly coated bead surfaces, effluent cell numbers stabilized at 1 × 10^9 CFU/mL, and hydraulic conductivity (K) decreased 77%. Next, medium with pH 4 was introduced. As a result, biomass within the reactor redistributed from bead surfaces to pores, effluent cell numbers decreased to 3 × 10^5 CFU/mL, and K decreased even further (>94% reduction). This decreased K was maintained until the experiment was terminated, seven days after introducing low pH medium. These results suggest that changes in biomass distribution as a result of decreased pH may initially limit transport of solubility-trapped CO2 following CO2 injection. Experiments in progress and planned will test this result in more detail and over longer periods of time. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Massive Data Analysis Robert C. Qiu, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    Massive Data Analysis Robert C. Qiu, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Tennessee Technological University February 25, 2015 Robert C. Qiu, Ph.D. Massive Data Analysis: the unreasonable effectiveness of data [2]. Robert C. Qiu, Ph.D. Massive Data Analysis #12;Inference Inference

  16. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  17. Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Ecology and

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Ecology and Environmental Sciences (interdisciplinary) The Ph.D. in Ecology and Environmental Sciences (http:// www.montana.edu/eces) was developed jointly by the Departments of Ecology and Land Resources & Environmental Sciences as a broad interdisciplinary Ph.D. program

  18. ISAB Contributors J. Richard Alldredge, Ph.D.g ,

    E-print Network

    ISAB Contributors J. Richard Alldredge, Ph.D.g , Kurt D. Fausch, Ph.D. Alec G. Maule, Ph.D. Erik Merrill, J.D. Presentation to Council March 11, 2015 #12;Key Findingy g Density dependence is now Density DependenceDependence · 25 of 27 Columbia R spring/summer Chinookp g populations: strong DD

  19. CURRICULUM VITAE KATHERINE J. AUCOIN, PH.D.

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    , LA · The Importance of Early Identification of Maternal Depression o Lisa S. Segre, Ph.D. 8.D., Eliot Goldman, Ph.D. · Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy - Depression Intervention training o Kevin Stark, Ph health treatment for pregnant women and women with infants, with a focus on perinatal depression

  20. A Multiattributes Approach for Ranking PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    In its plan to combat the PhD shortage crisis, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB; 2003) has called for the development of PhD program rankings to serve as incentives for academic institutions to invest more in PhD programs, thereby counterbalancing the disproportionate influence of master of business…

  1. NFP Fellowships for PhD studies For students

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    NFP Fellowships for PhD studies For students who have a/are PhD degree Who need a scholarship Fellowship for a PhD study in the Netherlands. Requirements The NFP target group consists of professionals who are nationals of and work and live in an NFP country. The chances of obtaining an NFP fellowship

  2. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to...

  3. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to...

  5. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to...

  6. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to...

  7. INFLUENCE OF PH AND REDOX CONDITIONS ON COPPER LEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaching behavior of metals from a mineral processing waste at varying pH and redox conditions was studies. Effect of combinations of pH and Eh on leaching of copper is described. Leaching of copper was found to be dependent on both pH and Eh. Higher concentrations of Cu were ...

  8. Nutrient Management Module No. 8 Soil pH and

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    4449-8 May 2009 Nutrient Management Module No. 8 Soil pH and Organic Matter by Ann McCauley, Soil a list of additional resources and contacts for those wanting more in-depth information about soil pH with the focus on soil pH and organic matter: soil reactions and soil amendments, and soil test reports

  9. Using Nanotechnology in Agriculture Kent Pinkerton, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Using Nanotechnology in Agriculture Kent Pinkerton, Ph.D. Rona Sillva, B.S. Laurel Plummer, Ph.D. Amy Madl, Ph.D., DABT Western Center for Agricultural Health and Safety Seminar Series June 6, 2011 #12;Agriculture and Health Mexico CityIndia http

  10. Steel slag raises pH of greenhouse substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dolomitic lime (DL) is the primary liming agent used for increasing pH in peatmoss-based substrates. Steel slag (SS) is a byproduct of the steel manufacturing industry that has been used to elevate field soil pH. The objective of this research was to determine the pH response of a peatmoss-based g...

  11. The effect of pH on the rheology of mixed gels containing whey protein isolate and xanthan-curdlan hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Lo, Y Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate goal of this work was to examine the effect of xanthan-curdlan hydrogel complex (XCHC) on the rheology of whey protein isolate (WPI) within the pH range of 4-7 upon heating and cooling. Dynamic rheological properties of WPI and XCHC were studied individually and in combination, as a function of time or temperature. For pure WPI, gels were pH-dependent, and in all pH values except 7, gels formed upon first heating from 40 to 90 °C. At pH 7, WPI did not form gel upon first heating, and the storage modulus (G') started to increase during the holding time at 90 °C. The onset of gelation temperature of WPI was lower in acidic pH ranges compared to the neutral pH. In mixed gels, the presence of XCHC increased the G' of the gels. The rheological behaviour was pH-dependent and initially was controlled by XCHC; however, after the consolidation of WPI network, the behaviour was led by the whey protein isolate. Results showed that XCHC had a synergistic effect on enhancing the elastic modulus of the gels after the consolidation of WPI network. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to use these biopolymers in the formulation of frozen dairy-based products and enable food manufactures to improve the textural and physicochemical properties, and as a result the consumer acceptance of the food product. PMID:26234882

  12. Ultimate selenium(IV) monitoring and removal from water using a new class of organic ligand based composite adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Awual, Md Rabiul; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shiwaku, Hideaki

    2015-06-30

    This work reports the selenium (Se(IV)) detection and removal from water by ligand functionalized organic-inorganic based novel composite adsorbent. The composite adsorbent was prepared by direct immobilization of N,N'-di(3-carboxysalicylidene)-3,4-diamino-5-hydroxypyrazole onto the mesoporous silica monolith. The adsorbent exhibited distinct color change in the presence of various concentrations of Se(IV). This was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the color change was observed by naked-eye observation. The detection limit was determined to be 1.14 ?g/L. The effect of solution pH, interferential metal ions, contact time, initial Se(IV) concentration, and adsorbent regeneration were evaluated. The maximum sorption capacity was determined based on the initial concentration. The data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Se(IV) sorption capacity was 111.12 mg/g. The presence of diverse competing ions did not affect the Se(IV) sorption capacity, and the adsorbent had almost no sorption capacity for these coexisting ions, which suggests the high selectivity to Se(IV) ions. The adsorbed Se(IV) was eluted with suitable eluent (0.10 M NaOH) and simultaneously regenerated into the initial form for the next operation. The excellent reusability of the adsorbent was justified after eight consecutive sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The proposed adsorbent is cost-effective and environmentally friendly and a potential candidate for treatment of water containing Se(IV). PMID:25771216

  13. Characterisation and deployment of an immobilised pH sensor spot towards surface ocean pH measurements

    E-print Network

    Characterisation and deployment of an immobilised pH sensor spot towards surface ocean pH-6452, Beirut, Lebanon h i g h l i g h t s g r a p h i c a l a b s t r a c t Immobilised pH sensor spot charac- terised over a pH range 7.8e8.2. Response time of 50 s at 25 C. Temperature and Salinity depen- dence

  14. PhD Students' Work Conditions and Study Environment in University- and Industry-Based PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmos, A.; Kofoed, L. B.; Du, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, new models of funding and training PhD students have been established in Denmark in order to integrate industry into the entire PhD education. Several programmes have been conducted where it is possible to co-finance PhD scholarships or to become an employee as an industrial PhD in a company. An important question is what…

  15. Regression models of ultimate methane yields of fruits and vegetable solid wastes, sorghum and napiergrass on chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, V Nallathambi

    2007-04-01

    Several fractions of fruits and vegetable solid wastes (FVSW), sorghum and napiergrass were analyzed for total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total organic carbon, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total soluble carbohydrate, extractable protein, acid-detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, cellulose and ash contents. Their ultimate methane yields (B(o)) were determined using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. A series of simple and multiple regression models relating the B(o) to the various substrate constituents were generated and evaluated using computer statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of simple regression analyses revealed that, only weak relationship existed between the individual components such as carbohydrate, protein, ADF, lignin and cellulose versus B(o). A regression of B(o) versus combination of two variables as a single independent variable such as carbohydrate/ADF and carbohydrate+protein/ADF also showed that the relationship is not strong. Thus it does not appear possible to relate the B(o) of FVSW, sorghum and napiergrass with single compositional characteristics. The results of multiple regression analyses showed promise and the relationship appeared to be good. When ADF and lignin/ADF were used as independent variables, the percentage of variation accounted for by the model is low for FVSW (r(2)=0.665) and sorghum and napiergrass (r(2)=0.746). Addition of nitrogen, ash and total soluble carbohydrate data to the model had a significantly higher effect on prediction of B(o) of these wastes with the r(2) values ranging from 0.9 to 0.99. More than 90% of variation in B(o) of FVSW could be accounted for by the models when the variables carbohydrate, lignin, lignin/ADF, nitrogen and ash (r(2)=0.904), carbohydrate, ADF, lignin/ADF, nitrogen and ash (r(2)=0.90) and carbohydrate/ADF, lignin/ADF, lignin and ash (r(2)=0.901) were used. All the models have low standard error values, which indicate the amount of spread is less. Thus, considering only the higher r(2) values, six models are proposed for predicting the B(o) based on FVSW data and sorghum and napiergrass data. It would be more convenient if B(o) could be predicted by analyzing the chemical composition of the substrate rather than performing the long-term batch fermentation. To test the validity of the regression models, chemical constituents of FVSW that were not included in the regression analyses were determined and their experimental B(o) were determined by BMP assay. All the six models were used to predict the B(o) from the chemical constituents of these FVSW. It was found that most of the predicted values were within 20% of the experimental B(o) in models 1, 3 and 6. Since models 3 and 6 used the same variables namely, total soluble carbohydrate, ADF, lignin/ADF, nitrogen and ash, B(o) can be predicted from these five chemical constituents which accounts for more than 90% of the variation in B(o) (r(2)>90). PMID:16815010

  16. Proton Transport and pH Control in Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kane, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Despite diverse and changing extracellular environments, fungi maintain a relatively constant cytosolic pH and numerous organelles of distinct lumenal pH. Key players in fungal pH control are V-ATPases and the P-type proton pump Pma1. These two proton pumps act in concert with a large array of other transporters and are highly regulated. The activities of Pma1 and the V-ATPase are coordinated under some conditions, suggesting that pH in the cytosol and organelles is not controlled independently. Genomic studies, particularly in the highly tractable S. cerevisiae, are beginning to provide a systems-level view of pH control, including transcriptional responses to acid or alkaline ambient pH and definition of the full set of regulators required to maintain pH homeostasis. Genetically encoded pH sensors have provided new insights into localized mechanisms of pH control, as well as highlighting the dynamic nature of pH responses to the extracellular environment. Recent studies indicate that cellular pH plays a genuine signaling role that connects nutrient availability and growth rate through a number of mechanisms. Many of the pH control mechanisms found in S. cerevisiae are shared with other fungi, with adaptations for their individual physiological contexts. Fungi deploy certain proton transport and pH control mechanisms not shared with other eukaryotes; these regulators of cellular pH are potential antifungal targets. This review describes current and emerging knowledge proton transport and pH control mechanisms in S. cerevisiae and briefly discusses how these mechanisms vary among fungi. PMID:26721270

  17. Time course of pH change in plant epidermis using microscopic pH imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Risako; Shimizu, Megumi; Kazama, Haruko; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    We established a microscopic pH imaging system to track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis in vivo. In the previous research, we have found out that anthocyanin containing cells have higher pH. However, it was not clear whether the anthocyanin increased the pH or anthocyanin was synthesized result from the higher pH. Therefore, we further investigated the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change. To track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis, we established a system using luminescent imaging technique. We used HPTS (8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate) as pH indicator and applied excitation ratio imaging method. Luminescent image was converted to a pH distribution by obtained in vitro calibration using known pH solution. Cellular level observation was enabled by merging microscopic color picture of the same region to the pH change image. The established system was applied to epidermal cells of red-tip leaf lettuce, Lactuca Sativa L. and the time course was tracked in the growth process. We would discuss about the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change in plant epidermis.

  18. Early career profiles of STFC PhD students Early Career profiles of STFC PhD students April 2010

    E-print Network

    Early career profiles of STFC PhD students April 2010 #12;Early Career profiles of STFC PhD students April 2010 Early Career profiles of STFC PhD students April 2010 Acknowledgements STFC would like to thank all former students who responded to the request for information about their careers

  19. Tear pH, air pollution, and contact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, S.; Garcia, M.L.; Espina, M.; Valero, J.; Valls, O.

    1988-08-01

    We analyzed the tear pH of a random sample of 100 subjects, divided into 3 groups according to the stability of their precorneal tear film (normal eyes, borderline; and dry eyes). The average pH value obtained was 7.52. The pH for borderline and dry eyes was higher than for normal eyes. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of air pollution, specifically sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), on the tear pH. We found that air pollution affected the lacrimal pH, which decreased when the atmospheric SO/sub 2/ increased. Finally, we studied the effect of soft contact lens wear on tear pH after 7 days of contact lens adaptation by assessing the tear pH decrease. We took into account the influence of the sex and age of subjects on the results obtained.

  20. The pH of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. C.; Bishop, J. L.; Edwards, J. O.

    1993-01-01

    The Viking labeled release (LR) experiments provided data that can be used to determine the acid-base characteristics of the regolith. Constraints on the acid-base properties and redox potentials of the Martian surface material would provide additional information for determining what reactions are possible and defining formation conditions for the regolith. Calculations devised to determine the pH of Mars must include the amount of soluble acid species or base species present in the LR regolith sample and the solubility product of the carbonate with the limiting solubility. This analysis shows that CaCO3, either as calcite or aragonite, has the correct K(sub sp) to have produced the Viking LR successive injection reabsorption effects. Thus CaCO3 or another MeCO3 with very similar solubility characteristics must have been present on Mars. A small amount of soluble acid, but no more than 4 micro-mol per sample, could also have been present. It is concluded that the pH of the regolith is 7.2 +/- 0.1.

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reserve (as defined in 12 CFR 225, appendix A); (2) Allowance for market risk. The ultimate holding... holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1g Section 240... companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). As a condition for a broker...

  2. Understanding Non-Traditional PhD Students Habitus--Implications for PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of vast changes in doctoral education and the emergence of non-traditional doctoral programmes, this paper investigates the habitus of non-traditional PhD students at a South African university. Bourdieu's conceptual tool of habitus informed the study. In-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 non-traditional…

  3. DCEG Award Recipients - Ashley Felix, PhD and Qian Xiao, PhD, MPH

    Cancer.gov

    May 28, 2015 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove Room TE 406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Title:  The sequence of genetic mutations in endometrial hyperplasia and invasive carcinoma Ashley Felix, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Cancer Prevention Fellow, Hormonal and Reproductive

  4. RBS Ph.D. Placements Prepared by the RBS Ph.D. Office

    E-print Network

    , the following information is also provided: 1. Is the position in a business school accredited by AACSB are totals by department for the different categories. Total grads Tenure-track positions Total AACSB@business.rutgers.edu. #12;Last name First name Adviser Placement AACSB accredited? Ph.D. granting? US News National? US News

  5. Univ. Maryland Biochemistry Ph.D. requirements SHORT GUIDE TO REQUIREMENTS: BIOCHEMISTRY Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    ://www.gradschool.umd.edu/catalog/academic_record.htm#6). b. 12 credits of Ph.D. research (BCHM 898 pre-candidacy, BCHM 899 post-candidacy). c. Oral to the student's or research advisor's own work. e. Preparation and oral defense of a publication

  6. Line positions and intensities of the phosphine (PH3) Pentad near 4.5 ?m

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, V. Malathy; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Brown, Linda R.; Benner, D. C.; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2014-04-01

    In order to improve the spectroscopic database for remote sensing of the giant planets, line positions and intensities are determined for the five bands (2?2, ?2 + ?4, 2?4, ?1 and ?3) that comprise the Pentad of PH3 between 1950 and 2450 cm?1. Knowledge of PH3 spectral line parameters in this region is important for the exploration of dynamics and chemistry on Saturn, (using existing Cassini/VIMS observations) and future near-IR data of Jupiter from Juno and ESA’s Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). For this study, spectra of pure PH3 from two Fourier transform spectrometers were obtained: (a) five high-resolution (0.00223 cm?1), high signal-to-noise (?1800) spectra recorded at room temperature (298.2 K) with the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, Washington and (b) four high-resolution (at 0.0115 cm?1 resolution), high signal-to-noise (?700) spectra recorded at room temperature in the region 1800–5200 cm?1 using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. Individual line parameters above 2150 cm?1 were retrieved by simultaneous multispectrum fittings of all five Bruker spectra, while retrievals with the four Kitt Peak spectra were done in the 1938–2168 cm?1 range spectrum by spectrum and averaged. In all, positions and intensities were obtained for more than 4400 lines. These included 53 A+A? split pairs of transitions (arising due to vibration–rotation interactions (Coriolis-type interaction) between the ?3 and ?1 fundamental bands) for K? = 3, 6, and 9. Over 3400 positions and 1750 intensities of these lines were ultimately identified as relatively unblended and modeled up to J = 14 and K = 12 with rms values of 0.00133 cm?1 and 7.7%, respectively. The PH3 line parameters (observed positions and measured intensities with known quantum assignments) and Hamiltonian constants are reported. Comparisons with other recent studies are discussed.

  7. Line positions and intensities of the phosphine (PH3) Pentad near 4.5 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Brown, Linda R.; Benner, D. Chris; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2014-04-01

    In order to improve the spectroscopic database for remote sensing of the giant planets, line positions and intensities are determined for the five bands (2?2, ?2 + ?4, 2?4, ?1 and ?3) that comprise the Pentad of PH3 between 1950 and 2450 cm-1. Knowledge of PH3 spectral line parameters in this region is important for the exploration of dynamics and chemistry on Saturn, (using existing Cassini/VIMS observations) and future near-IR data of Jupiter from Juno and ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). For this study, spectra of pure PH3 from two Fourier transform spectrometers were obtained: (a) five high-resolution (0.00223 cm-1), high signal-to-noise (?1800) spectra recorded at room temperature (298.2 K) with the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, Washington and (b) four high-resolution (at 0.0115 cm-1 resolution), high signal-to-noise (?700) spectra recorded at room temperature in the region 1800-5200 cm-1 using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. Individual line parameters above 2150 cm-1 were retrieved by simultaneous multispectrum fittings of all five Bruker spectra, while retrievals with the four Kitt Peak spectra were done in the 1938-2168 cm-1 range spectrum by spectrum and averaged. In all, positions and intensities were obtained for more than 4400 lines. These included 53 A+A- split pairs of transitions (arising due to vibration-rotation interactions (Coriolis-type interaction) between the ?3 and ?1 fundamental bands) for K? = 3, 6, and 9. Over 3400 positions and 1750 intensities of these lines were ultimately identified as relatively unblended and modeled up to J = 14 and K = 12 with rms values of 0.00133 cm-1 and 7.7%, respectively. The PH3 line parameters (observed positions and measured intensities with known quantum assignments) and Hamiltonian constants are reported. Comparisons with other recent studies are discussed.

  8. Should MD-PhD programs encourage graduate training in disciplines beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences?

    PubMed

    O'Mara, Ryan J; Hsu, Stephen I; Wilson, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    The goal of MD-PhD training programs is to produce physician-scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician-scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD-PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant because the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician-scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD-PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, nontraditional MD-PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce. PMID:25354071

  9. Career Outcomes for Astronomy Ph.D. Graduates of the University of Texas at Austin: The Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen years ago I conducted a survey of the career trajectories and outcomes of 78 individuals who earned Ph.D.s from the Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin during the period 1984-1995 (Dinerstein, H. 1996, AAS, 189.0501). In the current poster I extend these statistics up to the present, adding 68 Ph.D. recipients from 1996-2010. This is a sufficiently large sample to search for secular trends such as possible changes in duration of the postdoctoral stage, redistribution of demographics among different kinds of long-term positions, and the emergence of new categories of astronomy-related employment. The picture is less discouraging than one might expect. As of 2010, about 75% of the Texas graduates 7 - 14 years past the Ph.D. are still doing astronomy, and most of those in non-astronomical careers left the field by choice (and often have had considerable success in their alternate careers). Of those 6 years or less past the Ph.D., 50% were in postdoctoral positions and less than 10% had left astronomy. Recent reconsiderations of the employment market (Metcalfe, T.S. 2008, PASP, 120, 229; Seth, A. 2009, Astro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Position Paper No. 51) make the point that a typical astronomer who ultimately achieves a permanent position will have held two or three prior temporary positions; this was equally true three decades ago. There has been notable growth nationwide in the number of astronomers employed as faculty at small liberal arts colleges and other undergraduate-centered institutions, a trend that to some degree was anticipated by the University of Texas cohort, which included a number of students for whom this was their personal goal. In a world where job certainty is no longer so prevalent, motivated and resourceful astronomers are finding ways to remain active members of our community.

  10. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  11. pH measurement of low-conductivity waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    pH is an important and commonly measured parameter of precipitation and other natural waters. The various sources of errors in pH measurement were analyzed and procedures for improving the accuracy and precision of pH measurements in natural waters with conductivities of < 100 uS/cm at 25 C are suggested. Detailed procedures are given for the preparation of dilute sulfuric acid standards to evaluate the performance of pH electrodes in low conductivity waters. A daily check of the pH of dilute sulfuric acid standards and deionized water saturated with a gas mixture of low carbon dioxide at partial pressure (air) prior to the measurement of the pH of low conductivity waters is suggested. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Spectral Modeling for Accelerated pH Spectroscopy using EPR

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, R.; Potter, L.C.; Khramtsov, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    A data modeling and processing method for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based pH spectroscopy is presented. The proposed method models the EPR spectrum of a pH-sensitive probe in both protonated and unprotonated forms. Under slow-exchange conditions, the EPR spectrum of a sample with an unknown pH value can be accurately represented by a weighted sum of the two models, with the pH value completely determined by their relative weights. Unlike traditional pH spectroscopy, which relies on locating resonance peaks, the proposed modeling-based approach utilizes the information from the entire scan and hence leads to more accurate estimation of pH for a given acquisition time. By employing the proposed methodology, we expect a reduction in the pH estimation error by more than a factor of three, which represents an order of magnitude reduction in acquisition time compared to the traditional method. PMID:22578559

  13. Chapter A6. Section 6.4. pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Radtke, Dean B.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of pH is critical to the understanding of the viability and vulnerability of environmental waters and is considered a master variable in determining the aqueous geochemistry of an aqueous system. pH is a measure that represents the hydrogen-ion concentration (activity) of a solution. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of pH in ground and surface waters.

  14. Marine teleost locates live prey through pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Caprio, John; Shimohara, Mami; Marui, Takayuki; Harada, Shuitsu; Kiyohara, Sadao

    2014-06-01

    We report that the Japanese sea catfish Plotosus japonicus senses local pH-associated increases in H(+)/CO2 equating to a decrease of ?0.1 pH unit in ambient seawater. We demonstrated that these sensors, located on the external body of the fish, detect undamaged cryptic respiring prey, such as polychaete worms. Sensitivity is maximal at the natural pH of seawater (pH 8.1 to 8.2) and decreases dramatically in seawater with a pH <8.0. PMID:24904164

  15. Ph.D. Handbook 2015/2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    on policy and planning committees, and to develop your academic network through summer internships > Qualifying Examinations > Dissertation Ph.D. Program Committees Internships Institute for Social Science

  16. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  17. Molecular aspects of bacterial pH sensing and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Krulwich, Terry A.; Sachs, George; Padan, Etana

    2011-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms for pH-sensing and cytoplasmic pH homeostasis enable most bacteria to tolerate or grow at external pH values that are outside the cytoplasmic pH range they must maintain for growth. The most extreme cases are exemplified by the extremophiles that inhabit environments whose pH is below 3 or above 11. Here we describe how recent insights into the structure and function of key molecules and their regulators reveal novel strategies of bacterial pH-homeostasis. These insights may help us better target certain pathogens and better harness the capacities of environmental bacteria. PMID:21464825

  18. The impact of lactic acid concentration and sodium chloride on pH, water-holding capacity, and cooked color of injection-enhanced dark-cutting beef.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, J T; Apple, J K; Johnson, Z B

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of enhancement with 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2.0% lactic acid (LA), with or without 0.5% salt (NaCl), on pH, water-holding capacity, and resultant cooked color of dark-cutting (DC) beef. The pH of DC sections treated with LA decreased (P<0.05), whereas water-holding capacity (WHC) increased (P<0.05) with increasing concentrations of LA. Sensory panelists noted an increase (P<0.05) in the degree of doneness (less pink internal color), whereas, a(?) and chroma values were lower (P<0.05), and hue angles were greater (P<0.05), indicating the internal color of LA-treated DC sections was less red and appeared more well-done. Also, 630:580nm reflectance ratios were similar (P>0.05) among DC steaks treated with 0.5% and 1.0% LA and normal pH (NDC) steaks, likely caused by an increase (P<0.05) in myoglobin denaturation in LA-enhanced DC steaks. These results indicate that the use of LA can reduce postmortem muscle pH and alter the cooked color of DC beef, ultimately resulting in a deletion of the persistent pinking condition. PMID:22062760

  19. pH- and ionic-strength-induced structural changes in poly(acrylic acid)-lipid-based self-assembled materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Crisci, A.; Hay, D. N. T.; Seifert, S.; Firestone, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a polyanion introduced as a lipid conjugate (poly(acrylic acid)- dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, PAA-DMPE) on the structure of a self-assembled, biomembrane mimetic has been evaluated using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). At high grafting density (8-11 mol.%), the PAA chains were found to produce significant changes in structure in response to changes in pH and electrolyte composition. At low pH and in the absence of salt (NaCl), the neutral PAA chains adopt a coil conformational state that leads to the formation of a swollen lamellar structure. Upon the addition of salt at low to intermediate pH values, two lamellar phases, a collapsed and an expanded structure, coexist. Finally, when the polymer is fully ionized (at high pH), the extended conformation of the polymer generates a cubic phase. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of how polyelectrolytes may ultimately be harnessed for the preparation of self-assembling materials responsive to external stimuli.

  20. Damage Initiation and Ultimate Tensile Strength of Scaled [0 deg n/90 deg n/0 deg n]sub T Graphite-Epoxy Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Prosser, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Previous research on scaling effects in composite materials has demonstrated that the stress levels at first ply failure and ultimate failure of composite laminates are dependent on the size of the laminate. In particular, the thickness dimension has been shown to be the most influential parameter in strength scaling of composite coupons loaded in tension. Geometrically and constitutively scaled laminates exhibit decreasing strength with increasing specimen size, and the magnitude of the strength-size effect is a function of both material properties and laminate stacking sequence. Some of the commonly used failure criteria for composite materials such as maximum stress, maximum strain, and tensor polynomial (e.g., Tsai-Wu) cannot account for the strength-size effect. In this paper, three concepts are developed and evaluated for incorporating size dependency into failure criteria for composite materials. An experimental program of limited scope was performed to determine the first ply failure stress in scaled cross-ply laminates loaded in tension. Test specimens were fabricated of AS-4/3502 graphite-epoxy composite material with laminate stacking sequences of [0 deg n/90 deg n/o deg n]subT where n=1-6. Two experimental techniques were used to determine first ply failure, defined as a transverse matrix crack in the 90 deg ply: (1) step loading with dye penetrant x-ray of the specimen at each load interval, and (2) acoustic emission. The best correlation between first ply failure analysis and experimental data was obtained using a modified Weibull approach which incorporated the residual thermal stress and the outer ply constraint, as well as the ply thickness effect. Finally, a second set of experiments was performed to determine the tensile response and ultimate failure of the scaled cross-ply laminates. The results of these experiments indicated no influence of specimen size on tensile response or ultimate strength.

  1. Integrating individual-based indices of contaminant effects. How multiple sublethal effects may ultimately reduce amphibian recruitment from a contaminated breeding site.

    PubMed

    Rowe, C L; Hopkins, W A; Congdon, J D

    2001-11-29

    Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana ) that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element-contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR). These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modifications to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance) costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage) in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological) may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of contaminants for long periods of time, research focused on one or few sublethal responses could substantially underestimate overall effects on individuals. We suggest that investigators adopt a more integrated perspective on contaminant-induced biological changes so that studies of individual-based effects can be better integrated into analyses of mechanisms of population change. PMID:12805772

  2. Mapping Soil pH Buffering Capacity of Selected Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, A. R.; Kissel, D. E.; Chen, F.; West, L. T.; Adkins, W.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity, since it varies spatially within crop production fields, may be used to define sampling zones to assess lime requirement, or for modeling changes in soil pH when acid forming fertilizers or manures are added to a field. Our objective was to develop a procedure to map this soil property. One hundred thirty six soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) from three Georgia Coastal Plain fields were titrated with calcium hydroxide to characterize differences in pH buffering capacity of the soils. Since the relationship between soil pH and added calcium hydroxide was approximately linear for all samples up to pH 6.5, the slope values of these linear relationships for all soils were regressed on the organic C and clay contents of the 136 soil samples using multiple linear regression. The equation that fit the data best was b (slope of pH vs. lime added) = 0.00029 - 0.00003 * % clay + 0.00135 * % O/C, r(exp 2) = 0.68. This equation was applied within geographic information system (GIS) software to create maps of soil pH buffering capacity for the three fields. When the mapped values of the pH buffering capacity were compared with measured values for a total of 18 locations in the three fields, there was good general agreement. A regression of directly measured pH buffering capacities on mapped pH buffering capacities at the field locations for these samples gave an r(exp 2) of 0.88 with a slope of 1.04 for a group of soils that varied approximately tenfold in their pH buffering capacities.

  3. Notes on the Measurement of pH Values

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Rebak, R B

    2005-05-05

    The original definition of pH is: pH = -log a{sub H}. Where a{sub H} is the (relative) hydrogen ion activity. However, a single ion activity cannot be measured. Activities of individual ionic species are necessarily conventional. The pH number, of course, has in itself little absolute significance. As the negative of the logarithm of a product of a concentration (c or m) and an activity coefficient (y or {gamma}), it acquires its magnitude from the numerical scale adopted for the latter. Experimental pH measurements are nonetheless widely applied to the determination of thermodynamic equilibrium data such as pK values, on the assumption that they represent -log a{sub H} (or paH). The single ion activity coefficient approaches unity as the ionic strength goes to zero, so that activity becomes m or c and paH becomes pmH or pcH. pH is therefore defined operationally in terms of the operation or method used to measure it, that is, by means of a cell called an operational cell. The cell is standardized by solutions of assigned pH value (Reference Value pH Standard, Primary pH Standards and Operational Standards). Such standard reference solutions are buffer solutions whose pH values are assigned from measurements on cells with or without liquid junction. It must be emphasized that the definition of pH scale is quite different from the measurement of pH with glass-reference electrode-pH meter assemblies, where several standards are used in order to take into account possible deficiencies in the electrode and meter performance.

  4. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na+/K+-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na+/K+-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility. PMID:26173069

  5. The Undergraduate Origins of PhD Economists Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Wendy A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors update prior analyses of the undergraduate origins of individuals who earn a PhD in economics in the United States. They include the list of the top institutions worldwide graduating the largest number of undergraduates who subsequently earn an economics PhD from a U.S. university and lists of American institutions with the largest…

  6. Tuesday, November 7, 2001 Alina M. Szmant, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    Tuesday, November 7, 2001 Alina M. Szmant, Ph.D. Can We Reverse the Decline of Florida Coral Reefs? A 2-Step Attempt at Ecological Restoration #12;Can We Reverse the Decline of Florida Coral Reefs? A 2 Reverse the Decline of Florida Coral Reefs? A 2-Step Attempt at Ecological Restoration Alina M. Szmant, Ph

  7. Ph.D. Showcase: Slope Preserving Lossy Terrain Compression

    E-print Network

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Ph.D. Showcase: Slope Preserving Lossy Terrain Compression PhD Student: Zhongyi Xie Rensselaer perturb the eleva- tion in such a way that when slope is computed from the reconstructed surface DEM data has made pos- sible terrain analysis in geomorphology, water flow model- ing, and the great

  8. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  9. Aminu K Bello, MD,PhD Medicine/Nephrology

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    1 Aminu K Bello, MD,PhD Medicine/Nephrology Supervisor: Dr. Marcello Tonelli I qualified as MD in Nigeria and underwent specialist clinical training in internal medicine and nephrology in Nigeria, UK with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) research during my Masters/PhD program at the University of Sheffield

  10. Jessica'Carol'Kissinger,'Ph.D.' Professor'of'Genetics'

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Jessica'Carol'Kissinger,'Ph.D.' Professor'of'Genetics' Adjunct'in'Computer'Science' Director:'jkissing@uga.edu' ' ' Departmental.'URL:'http://www.genetics.uga.edu/directory/jessicaFkissinger'' Laboratory' Member,'Center'for'Tropical'and'Emerging'Global'Diseases'since'2002' ' EDUCATION' 1989F1995' Ph.D.,'Molecular,'Cellular'and'Developmental'Biology.'Minor:'Genetics

  11. GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION Ph.D. Education

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    with authentic research projects is essential to the education of students in this degree, students engage in twoGRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION Ph.D. Education: Research and Evaluation in Education Faculty: James.D. Education: Research and Evaluation in Education OVERVIEW The Research and Evaluation in Education Ph

  12. The Importance of Having a Ph.D., Career Advice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presentation on the importance of having a PhD to motivate Initiative to Maximize Student Diversity Program (IMSD) undergrads towards conducting research, pursuing careers in the biomedical field, applying to grad school, and getting a Ph.D., based upon ARS scientist's experiences as a student, a ...

  13. GRANT AWARDS Manuel Amieva, MD, PhD

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    , PhD Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Science Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Project: Preventing, Neurology and Neurological Sciences Project: Identifying Neuroimaging and Genetic Biomarkers for Psychiatry Disorders in Children Carolin Purmann, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Project

  14. Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Materials Science

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Materials Science Participating Departments://www.mtmatsci.org) Overview MSU is part of a collaborative Ph.D. program with UMT and MTech in materials science (Mat) in materials science, materials engineering, physics, chemistry, metallurgy, or a related science

  15. Mary Beth Leigh, PhD Associate Professor of Microbiology

    E-print Network

    Mary Beth Leigh, PhD Associate Professor of Microbiology Institute of Arctic Biology, University mbleigh@alaska.edu Education · Ph.D. Microbiology (2003) University of Oklahoma, Co-advisors: John S · Associate Professor of Microbiology, Institute of Arctic Biology, Department of Biology and Wildlife

  16. The Ph.D. Surplus - Realities and Illusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Harold P.

    Every 6 years the number of Ph.D.'s produced doubles. At this point about 1 percent of the babies born 27 years ago gets a Ph.D. This production rate will probably increase to 6 percent of the adult population. With the present situation in higher education, which includes an average retirement after 40 years of service, the supply already…

  17. Bioenergy Sustainability Virginia Dale PhD Mathematical Ecology

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Bioenergy Sustainability Virginia Dale PhD Mathematical Ecology Major collaborators: · ORNL o Latha Baskaran (SWAT, modeling) o Rebecca Efroymson (Risk assessment)Virginia Dale, PhD Mathematical Ecology Profitability Resource conservation McBride et al. (2011) Ecological Indicators 11:1277-1289 Dale et al. (In

  18. Internetworking with satellite constellations PhD viva presentation

    E-print Network

    Wood, Lloyd

    Internetworking with satellite constellations PhD viva presentation Centre for Communication;Internetworking with satellite constellations - Lloyd Wood 2 Overview of this talk and Lloyd's PhD work constellation. · TCP across LEO/MEO mesh networks ­ performance influences the approach to routing design

  19. Revised March 2012 Ph.D. in Education Program

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Richard

    Education and Disability Policy, and Urban Services Leadership (Adult Learning or Health PromotionRevised March 2012 Ph.D. in Education Program Application Manual #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword 3 policy 15 Appendices 16 Ph.D. in Education Program Curriculum Overview 17 Application Requirements 19

  20. Howard Gobioff, PhD Mountain View, CA

    E-print Network

    to look for in a job and a company. How to succeed once you get there. This talk will look at those1 Howard Gobioff, PhD Google Mountain View, CA Erik Riedel, PhD hp labs palo alto, ca copyright questions from two different viewpoints - for a job in an industrial research lab, and at an Internet

  1. Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM is a postdoctoral Cancer Prevention Fellow in the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention. She comes to BGCRG with a PhD from Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing. She also completed a graduate certificate in Health Disparities and Health Inequality at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  2. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (Ph.D.) Executive Officer: Professor Alpana Bhattacharya

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    137 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (Ph.D.) Executive Officer: Professor Alpana Bhattacharya The Graduate Center 365 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10016 Email: Rpalant@gc.cuny.edu http://www.gc.cuny.edu/EducationalPsychology Jason R. Young n Barry J. Zimmerman THE PROGRAM The Ph.D. Program in Educational Psychology is designed

  3. Montana State University 1 PhD in History

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    of emphasis and two Minor Areas. Major Fields include: a. History of Science and Technology; b. EnvironmentalMontana State University 1 PhD in History The PhD in History requires a minimum of 25 History; c. U.S. History. Minor Fields include a. gender; b. race; c. class, labor and economy; d

  4. PhD Fellowship Program New and Improved for 2014

    E-print Network

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    PhD Fellowship Program New and Improved for 2014 Provisions | Eligibility | Selection | Application | Timeline 20 December 2013 Intel provides fellowships to outstanding PhD students in Engineering, Computer on semiconductor and computing technologies at selected U.S. universities. Award Provisions The fellowship includes

  5. Earth & Space Science PhDs, Class of 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudy, Nicholas; Henly, Megan; Migdalski, Chet

    This study documents the employment patterns and demographic characteristics of recent PhDs in earth and space science. It summarizes the latest annual survey of recent earth and space science PhDs conducted by the American Geological Institute, the American Geophysical Union, and the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of…

  6. URBAN EDUCATION (Ph.D.) Executive Officer: Professor Anthony Picciano

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    242 URBAN EDUCATION (Ph.D.) Executive Officer: Professor Anthony Picciano Graduate Center 365 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10016 Email: Urban_ed@gc.cuny.edu http://www.gc.cuny.edu/UrbanEducation/ FACULTY Zolkower n Mark L. Zuss THE PROGRAM The Ph.D. Program in Urban Education is designed to prepare leaders

  7. Variation of ocean pH in the Indonesia waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Mutiara Rachmat; Setiawan, Agus; Safitri, Mediana

    2015-09-01

    The variation of ocean acidity (pH) in the Indonesia waters is strongly influenced by monsoon. Since the climate change tends to potentially change monsoonal variation over the Indonesian region, it will give also implication to the ocean pH variation. Moreover, changes of ocean pH will give effects to the marine lifes and their environment. In order to investigate this issue, we tried to calculate monthly variation of sea surface pH in the Indonesia waters based on monthly average temperature and salinity over past 18 years data. Temperature and salinity data used in this study were taken from the hydrodynamic model of Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM), while alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were from World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA 2009). Algorithm from Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project-version.3 (OCMIP-3) was used to calculate the pH. The estimation results indicate that pH variation in the Indonesia waters changes insignificantly over 18 years. El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) contribute to physical changes of seawater, but did not affect the pH significantly. The average pH of seawater is higher during northwest monsoon than during southeast monsoon.

  8. Industrial Engineering-BS ,PhD option in Engineering

    E-print Network

    Barge, Marcy

    I Industrial Engineering- BS ,PhD option in Engineering Industrial & Management Engineering - BS MS Engineering Management - MS Construction Engineering Techmilogy - BS 'Counseling"- MS option in Health & Human Applied Mathematics - BS optionin Mathematics Applied Mechanics PhD option in Engineering Applied

  9. PhD Studentship Department of Theoretical Biology,

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    PhD Studentship Department of Theoretical Biology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. A four year, The Netherlands. The aim of this PhD project is development/study of an electromechanical model of cardiac tissue the job: Our Theoretical Biology group (http://www-binf.bio.uu.nl/) performs fundamental research

  10. Tracking the PhD Students' Daily Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Kwong Nui; van der Meer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated PhD students' computer activities in their daily research practice. Software that tracks computer usage (Manic Time) was installed on the computers of nine PhD students, who were at their early, mid and final stage in doing their doctoral research in four different discipline areas (Commerce, Humanities, Health Sciences and…

  11. Teaching Ph.D.'s How to Reach Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Marc Aronson, a lecturer in the School of Communication and Information at Rutgers University at New Brunswick and a historian who writes books for young adults, recently suggested that all Ph.D. candidates be required to take a course he calls "Communications." The goal would be to teach Ph.D.'s--both would-be academics and those who will pursue…

  12. EFFECTS OF LOW PH ON REPRODUCTION OF RAINBOW TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproduction of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri in acidic water was studied. Adults were exposed to waters of pH 4.5, 5.0, or 5.5 during the final 6 weeks of reproductive maturation; control acidities were pH 6.5-7.1. Progeny of acid-exposed females and control males had reduced s...

  13. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  14. PhDs in Australia, from the Beginning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    The Australian PhD is a relatively recent phenomenon, the first three being awarded in 1948. Before that, most Australian scholars typically went to Britain (predominantly) or the USA to undertake their doctoral studies. The aim of this research note is to provide a brief statistical history of the Australian PhD, noting changes over time between…

  15. Research Collaboration and Commercialization: The PhD Candidate Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Lawrence; Kenny, Breda

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores PhD students' perceptions of their entrepreneurial and commercial capabilities, their attitude towards university supports and the extent to which they engage in external collaboration. The study concentrated on current PhD researchers at one university in Ireland as a unit of analysis and provides encouraging evidence from the…

  16. Rethinking PhD Learning Incorporating Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shacham, Miri; Od-Cohen, Yehudit

    2009-01-01

    This paper grows from research which focuses on the learning characteristics of PhD students, incorporating communities of practice both during their studies and beyond completion of their PhD, and drawing on theories of adult learning and lifelong learning. It shows how professional discourse enhances academic discourse through student engagement…

  17. What if We Made Fewer Ph.D.'s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Whenever a discussion opens about nonacademic employment for Ph.D.s, it is not long before someone suggests reducing graduate-school admissions. "The market for full-time scholars has fallen off a cliff lately," this argument goes, "so why not just train fewer of them?" The strategy to reduce the number of Ph.D. students recurs in those…

  18. Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a microscale pH titration technique that utilizes an automatic pipet. A small aliquot (1-5 mL) of the analyte solution is titrated with repeated additions of titrant, and the pH is determined after each delivery. The equivalence point is determined graphically by either the second derivative method or a Gran plot. The pipet can be…

  19. GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION Ph.D. Education

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    personalized attention. Students in the program meet with each other and all Leadership in Education facultyGRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION Ph.D. Education: Leadership in Education Faculty: Michaela Colombo, Ed.D. Education: Leadership in Education OVERVIEW The Leadership in Education Ph.D. at UMass Lowell provides

  20. CURRICULUM VITAE CALVIN EUGENE ARNOLD, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    1 CURRICULUM VITAE CALVIN EUGENE ARNOLD, Ph.D. POSITION AND CONTACT INFORMATION Position: Center)658-3403 E-mail: cearnold@ufl.edu EDUCATION Ph. D. Michigan State University, Horticulture, 1969 M. Ag. University of Florida, Fruit Crops (citrus), 1966 B. S. University of Florida, Agricultural Education, 1965 A

  1. Forrest S. Schultz, PhD Professor of Chemistry

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Forrest S. Schultz, PhD Professor of Chemistry State Director and President, Wisconsin Science Olympiad Department of Chemistry University of Wisconsin-Stout Menomonie, WI 54751 715-505-5012 schultzf@uwstout.edu EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Ph.D. Organic Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1997 Thesis research

  2. A Renaissance in Engineering PhD Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akay, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of engineering PhD education and its relationship to innovation and technology, and the need to reconsider how we educate PhD engineers. Much of the effort on engineering education in the last two decades focused on undergraduate education with a few exceptions that relate to master degree programs. Doctoral education…

  3. MANUAL FOR STUDENTS Ph.D. Program in Biochemistry

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    MANUAL FOR STUDENTS Ph.D. Program in Biochemistry The Graduate School and University Center City-817-1503 Email: biochemistry@gc.cuny.edu Web: http://web.gc.cuny.edu/biochemistry 2007 #12;The Graduate Center, CUNY Biochemistry Ph.D. Program www.gc.cuny.edu Page 2 FIGURE SHOWN ON THE COVER Cartoon depiction

  4. Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Mathematics Students in mathematics are expected to develop competence in real and complex analysis and at least two areas chosen from applied mathematics of Mathematical Sciences requirements for the Ph.D. in Mathematics. These departmental requirements supplement

  5. Evanescent-wave spectroscopic fiber optic pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, C.; Takeda, K.; Isai, M.; Ogita, M.

    1996-02-01

    We demonstrate a new type of fiber optic pH sensor, which is the application of evanescent-wave spectroscopic technique. A methyl red (MR)-doped-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film that coated as part of cladding does function as a pH sensor probe. In this system MR doped in PMMA is used as indicator dye for pH measurement. The absorption spectrum shift in wavelength of indicator dye enables us to get the pH value. The sensor probe is immersed in water solution containing a small proportion of acetic acid over the wide pH range of 5.0 to 7.0. The chemical interaction between MR in sensor probe and hydrogen ion in the water solution causes a change in the dipole moment of MR, that is, the absorption spectrum macroscopically. The evanescent-wave spectroscopic technique provides the measurement of the absorption spectrum shift over a broad range of visible wavelength. The result of experiment was that MR absorption spectrum shifted by 40 nm every increase of 1.0 in pH. The small change in the pH value can be sensed as a large wavelength shift of pH indicator absorption spectrum.

  6. Functional Properties and Utilization of High pH Beef 

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Lyda G.

    2010-10-12

    Two Texas fed beef and cow/bull packing plants were surveyed for high pH beef carcasses as well as the evaluation of functional properties of high pH beef in whole muscle beef jerky, frankfurters, and snack stick production. An estimated 42% of cow...

  7. Plume shot noise in convection: evidence of a boundary layer instability consistent with the triggering of the Ultimate regime of convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salort, Julien

    2008-11-01

    A sudden enhancement of the heat transfer for Rayleigh numbers Ra>1e12 was reported in a Rayleigh Bénard cell in 1997 (Chavanne et al. PRL).This observation was interpreted as the occurrence of Kraichnan's ``Ultimate'' regime of convection, which is characterized by turbulent boundary layers. This interpretation has been indirectly supported by the outcome a test experiment, using a cell with corrugated surfaces. A more direct test would consist in probing fluctuations within the boundary layer, but its thinness (order 100 microns) causes instrumentation challenges. To overcome this difficulty, we recorded the shot noise induced by the thermal plumes leaving the bottom plate. We find that the heat transfer enhancement at Ra˜1e12, is accompanied by a significant increase of shot noise. This observation is interpreted as the signature of a boundary layer instability, in agreement with the Ultime regime scenario. [ Gauthier F. and Roche P.-E et al., EPL 83:24005 (2008) ] [3pt] In collaboration with Frédéric Gauthier and Philippe-E. Roche, Institut NEEL, CNRS.

  8. Key role of work hardening in superconductivity/superfluidity, heat conductivity and ultimate strain increase, evolution, cancer, aging and other phase transitions

    E-print Network

    V. P. Kisel

    2009-05-27

    The shear/laminar flow of liquids/gas/plasma/biological cells (BC), etc. is equivalent to dislocation-like shear of solids. The turbulent flow is the next stage of deformation/ multiplication of dislocation-like defects and their ordering in sub-grains and grain-boundaries, then grains slip-rotation in the direction approximately perpendicular to the shear flow. It is shown that phase transitions are governed by unified deformation hardening/softening under hydrostatic pressure, particle irradiation and impurity (isotope) chemical pressure, hard confining conditions and cooling, etc. thus changing electric, magnetic, ferroelectric, thermal, optical properties.1-2 Dislocation-like work hardening, DWH, is determined by non-monotonous properties of dislocation double edge-cross-jog slip, and ultrastrong DWH gives the lowest drag for any dislocation-like plasticity at phase transitions. This provides the same micromechanisms of the ultimate stage of conventional deformation (superfluidity) of ordinary liquids, i.e., water, kerosene and glycerin, liquid and solid He, quasi-particle condensates. The key role of DWH is confirmed for superconductivity, integer and fractional quantum Hall effects and the enhancement of ultimate strain and diffusion under deformation down to nanostructures, etc. Phase transformations in biological cells (explosive events of diversity and population of species and diseases - for example, locust and plaque bacteria, evolution, aging and cancer,2 bursts in the development of human intellectual possibilities (languages, culture, arts and sciences, history, etc.) depend on the same deformation effects in biological evolution.

  9. Continuous pH monitoring in a perfused bioreactor system using an optical pH sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Vani, Sundeep; Taylor, Thomas D.; Anderson, Melody M.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring and regulating the pH of the solution in a bioprocess is one of the key steps in the success of bioreactor operation. An in-line optical pH sensor, based on the optical absorption properties of phenol red present in the medium, was developed and tested in this work for use in NASA space bioreactors based on a rotating wall-perfused vessel system supporting a baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell culture. The sensor was tested over three 30-day and one 124-day cell runs. The pH sensor initially was calibrated and then used during the entire cell culture interval. The pH reported by the sensor was compared to that measured by a fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer and a blood gas analyzer. The maximum standard error of prediction for all the four cell runs for development pH sensor against BGA was +/-0.06 pH unit and for the fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer against the blood gas analyzer was +/-0.05 pH unit. The pH sensor system performed well without need of recalibration for 124 days. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. PH 7011 Epidemiology for Public Health Instructor's Name: Ike S Okosun, MS, MPH, Ph.D, FRSPH, FTOS, FACE

    E-print Network

    Frantz, Kyle J.

    PH 7011 ­ Epidemiology for Public Health Instructor's Name: Ike S Okosun, MS, MPH, Ph.D, FRSPH, FTOS, FACE Division: Epidemiology and Biostatistics Fall Semester 2014 CourseBasics Class Day are required for the course. Required Course Materials Introduction to Epidemiology by Ray M. Merrill, Jones

  11. Ph.D. Recipients listed by year. 1 2009 Zhang, Rui Ph.D. Advisor: T. Kowalewski; R.

    E-print Network

    Kurnikova, Maria

    -Preorganized -Peptide Nucleic Acid (-PNA) for Recognition of Double helical B-form DNA (B-DNA) 2008 Gao, Haifeng Ph of Monomers in the Presence of Cross-Linkers: From Stars to Gels 2008 Cooper, Jessica Ph.D. Advisor: R. Mc

  12. MERIT Award Recipient: Stephen P. Goff, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    The Goff laboratory is interested in the replication of a simple retrovirus, the Moloney murine leukemia virus, and the interaction of the virus with the host. The ultimate goal of the research is to determine the roles of each of the viral proteins in the complex viral life cycle, and to identify the impact of these proteins on host cellular machinery.

  13. PhD Program in Bioengineering and Curriculum Bionanotechnology

    E-print Network

    Robbiano, Lorenzo

    ....................................................................8 7. SINGLE MOLECULE DETECTION: THE ULTIMATE BIOSENSOR ISSUE the molecular level up to the macroscopic world - the development of new strategies based on micro- and nano-manufacturing to produce new microsystems and scaffolds with dimensions comparable to cells - the design, development

  14. K.W. Gavin Cheng, Ph.D Associate Professor

    E-print Network

    Manitoba, University of

    : developed a rapid assay for regeneration of nerve cell which is now in use by many research groups around work on development of neural stem cells for transplantation (with R. Brownstone, S. Hochman, and L of Manitoba for ultimate commercialization. Proceed with genetic modification of neural stem cells to optimize

  15. Improved granular activated carbon for the stabilization of wastewater PH

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, R.W.; Dussert, B.W.; Kovacic, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    Laboratory studies have identified the cause of the pH rise, which occurs during water treatment with activated carbon, as an interaction between the naturally occurring anions and protons in the water and the carbon surface. The interaction can be described as an ion exchange type of phenomenon, in which the carbon surface sorbs the anions and corresponding hydronium ions from the water. These studies have shown that the anion sorption and resulting pH increase is independent of the raw material used for the activated carbon production, e.g. bituminous or subbituminous coal, peat, wood or coconut. Also, the pH excursions occur with virgin, reactivated, and acid washed granular carbons. Current pH control technologies focus on adjustment of the wastewater pH prior to discharge or recycle of the initial effluent water until the pH increase abates. However, improved water pH control options have been realized by altering the carbon surface through controlled oxidation rather than the water chemistry or extended preprocessing at the treatment site.

  16. Nanochannel pH gradient electrofocusing of proteins.

    PubMed

    Startsev, Michael A; Inglis, David W; Baker, Mark S; Goldys, Ewa M

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate matrix-free pH gradient electrofocusing of proteins within an 85 nm deep nanochannel. In contrast to conventional isoelectric focusing where the fluid does not move, this pH gradient method traps protein molecules flowing through a channel by balancing electric forces due to pH-dependent protein charge and viscous drag forces caused by electro-osmosis. The nanoscale depth of the device and the low voltage used limit convection relative to diffusion, thus producing a stable focused band of protein. R-Phycoerythrin (RPE) and Dylight labeled streptavidin (Dyl-Strep) were focused within a nanochannel using applied voltages between 0.4 and 1.6 V. Concentration enhancement factors of over 380 have been achieved within 5 min. Varying the buffer pH (between 2.7 and 7.2) at the boundaries of the nanochannel affected the shape of the focused bands. For RPE, a pH span of 4.5 (pH 2.7 to 7.2) yielded the narrowest peak while a span of 2.4 (pH 2.7 to 5.1) produced a significantly wider peak. Such matrix-free nanofluidic devices with pH gradient electrofocusing may enable on-chip integration of orthogonal separation techniques with mass spectrometry offering labor savings and enhanced performance. PMID:23819922

  17. Is intracellular pH a clock for mitosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Experiments have shown that the intracellular pH of many cells rises to a maximum at the onset of mitosis, subsequently decreasing 0.3 to 0.5 pH units by the end of mitosis. This result, and observations that tubulin net charge depends strongly on pH, may be critical for microtubule (MT) dynamics during mitosis. In vivo studies demonstrate that MT dynamics is sensitive to pH, with MT growth favored by higher pH values. Therefore it seems likely that the shift from the dominance of microtubule growth during prophase, and to a lesser extent during prometaphase, to a parity between MT polymerization and depolymerization during metaphase chromosome oscillations is a consequence of gradually decreasing intracellular pH during mitosis. Thus the timing and sequencing of prophase, prometaphase, and metaphase chromosome motions may be understood as an increase in the MT disassembly to assembly probability ratio resulting from a continuously declining intracellular pH. PMID:23402214

  18. Pnicogen and hydrogen bonds: complexes between PH3X(+) and PH2X systems.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Grabowski, S?awomir J

    2015-02-01

    The charge-assisted complexes between PH3X(+) and PH2X have been analyzed. MP2/aug'-cc-pVTZ calculations were performed and the results were supported by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach and the Natural Bond Orbitals method. It was found that three different configurations could be formed, i.e. those linked through a P···P or a P···X pnicogen bond and those linked through a P-H···P hydrogen bond. The P···P configurations are the most stable ones corresponding to the strongest interactions; for all complexes the P···P configuration exists, while the P···X and P-H···P ones are present only for some of them. Different relations between the parameters were found, especially for the P···P interactions where there are correlations between the P···P distance and the electron density at the P···P bond critical point (?PP) as well as between ?PP and the charge transfer energy. PMID:25521698

  19. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH. PMID:25715032

  20. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  1. Behavioral Responsesof Drunella coloradensis (Ephemeroptera) Nymphs to Short-Term pH Reductions

    E-print Network

    Pennuto, Chris

    Behavioral Responsesof Drunella coloradensis (Ephemeroptera) Nymphs to Short-Term pH Reductions coloradensis (Ephemeroptera) nymphs to short-term pH reductions. Can.J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50: 2692 after pH reductions of 1 and 2 pH units below ambient. The severity of pH decline below the ambient of 7

  2. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  6. The Effects of Casting Porosity on the Tensile Behavior of Investment Cast 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan, D. F.; Crenshaw, T. B.; Gearhart, J. S.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of casting porosity on the mechanical behavior of investment cast 17-4PH stainless steel was studied as well as the effect of heat treatment on the alloy's sensitivity to casting defects. Interdendritic porosity, formed during solidification and shrinkage of the alloy, reduces the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength roughly in proportion to the reduction in load bearing cross-section. The effects of casting porosity on ductility (% strain, % reduction in area) are more severe, in agreement with research on other alloy systems. In this study, 10% porosity reduced the ductility of 17-4PH stainless steel by almost 80% for the high-strength H925 condition. Tensile testing at -10°C (263 K) further reduces the alloy ductility with and without pores present. In the lower strength H1100 condition, the ductility is higher than the H925 condition, as expected, and somewhat less sensitive to porosity. By measuring the area % porosity on the fracture surface of tensile specimens, the trend in failure strain versus area % porosity was obtained and analyzed using two methods: an empirical approach to determine an index of defect susceptibility with a logarithmic fit and an analytical approach based on the constitutive stress-strain behavior and critical strain concentration in the vicinity of the casting voids. The applicability of the second method depends on the amount of non-uniform strain (necking) and, as such, the softer H1100 material did not correlate well to the model. The behavior of 17-4PH was compared to previous work on cast Al alloys, Mg alloys, and other cast materials.

  7. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25°C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor implanted inside the esophagus. Our pH electrode can monitor the pH changes of gastric juice in real time when the reflux happening in the esophagus. Our micro flexible pH sensor performed clear responses in each distinct pH reflux episode quickly and accurately comparing with the other commercial pH monitoring system. For the food freshness monitoring applications, we used the flexible pH sensor as a freshness indicator to monitor the pH changing profile during the food spoilage procedure. The sensor was then embedded with radio frequency identification (RFID) based passive telemetry enabling remote monitoring of food freshness. In the result, our pH-wireless RFID system presented 633Hz/pH of the sensitivity in the frequency calibration. The calibration of stability and dynamical response of the RFID system were also demonstrated before the test on food freshness monitoring. Finally, a white fish meat for long term spoilage procedure monitoring was applied and tested by using our wireless IrOx pH sensing system. Our RFID pH sensing module is able to monitor, collect and transmit the pH information continuously for 18 hours during the food spoilage procedure. In this dissertation, a micro size of IrOx/AgCl pH sensor was fabricated on a flexible substrate. The physical properties of the IrO x thin film was verified in the work. The different sensing capability such as the sensitivity, stability, reversibility, response time, repeatability, selectivity, and temperature dependence was then demonstrated in this work. After the different in-vitro tests, the pH sensor were embedded with our passive RFID circuitry for the in-vivo GERD diagnosis and food freshness monitoring application. Our wireless pH sensing system was able to deliver the accurate and quick pH sensing data wirelessly. In conclusion, our deformable IrOx pH electrodes have been demonstrated with the advantages of accommodating and conforming sensors in small spaces or curved surfaces. This miniature IrOx pH sensor can respond to distinct potentials of the various pH levels as traditional glass electr

  8. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, John H. (Los Alamos, NM); Campillo, Anthony J. (Los Alamos, NM); Shapiro, Stanley L. (Los Alamos, NM); Winn, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution by irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  9. Langevin dynamics of proteins at constant pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Antosiewicz, Jan M.

    2002-11-01

    An application of the Langevin dynamics algorithm for simulation of protein conformational equilibria at constant pH is presented. The algorithm is used to compute average protonation of titratable groups in ovomucoid third domain, as functions of pH, resulting in data, basically equivalent to the pH dependencies of chemical shifts obtained from multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, for the protein titratable residues. The pKa values obtained from the simulation are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. Possible improvements of this methodology, using achievements from other fields of mesoscopic biomolecular simulations, are also discussed.

  10. BIOLOGICAL TIMEKEEPING Martha U. Gillette, Ph.D.a,b and Sabra M. Abbott, M.D., Ph.D.b,c,d

    E-print Network

    Gillette, Martha U.

    .D., Ph.D., Department of Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MABIOLOGICAL TIMEKEEPING Martha U. Gillette, Ph.D.a,b and Sabra M. Abbott, M.D., Ph.D.b,c,d a. Gillette, Ph.D., Dept. of Cell & Developmental Biology, Chemistry & Life Sciences Lab, University

  11. Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, N. N.; Xing, T.; Wang, P.; Xie, C.; Xu, X. L.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH (pHi) and ultimate pH (pHu) and significantly reduced L* (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers’ welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport. PMID:26580445

  12. Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, N N; Xing, T; Wang, P; Xie, C; Xu, X L

    2015-12-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH (pHi) and ultimate pH (pHu) and significantly reduced L* (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers' welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport. PMID:26580445

  13. The ultimate structure of matter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topic in high energy physics: the particle zoo; the strong and the weak; the particle explosion; deep inside the nucleon; the search for unity; physics in collision; the standard model; particles and the cosmos; and practical benefits.

  14. Symbolic Martyrdom: The Ultimate Apology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Thomas R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the claim that "scaffold speeches" (speeches by individuals awaiting execution) form a discrete genre. Argues that they constitute a subgenre within the larger genre of apologia. Illustrates the subgenre through analysis of John Brown's final speech at his trial following the Harper's Ferry raid. (SR)

  15. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  16. High Mg effective incorporation in Al-rich Al x Ga1 - x N by periodic repetition of ultimate V/III ratio conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    According to first-principles calculations, the solubility of Mg as a substitute for Ga or Al in Al x Ga1 – x N bulk is limited by large, positive formation enthalpies. In contrast to the bulk case, the formation enthalpies become negative on Al x Ga1 – x N surface. In addition, the N-rich growth atmosphere can also be favorable to Mg incorporation on the surface by changing the chemical potentials. On the basis of these special features, we proposed a modified surface engineering technique that applies periodical interruptions under an ultimate V/III ratio condition (extremely N-rich), to enhance Mg effective incorporation. By optimizing the interruption conditions (2 nm interruption interval with 2 s interruption time), the enhancement ratio can be up to about 5 in the Al0.99Ga0.01N epilayer. PMID:24444104

  17. Key role of work hardening in superconductivity/superfluidity, heat conductivity and ultimate strain increase, evolution, cancer, aging and other phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Kisel, V P

    2009-01-01

    The shear/laminar flow of liquids/gas/plasma/biological cells (BC), etc. is equivalent to dislocation-like shear of solids. The turbulent flow is the next stage of deformation/ multiplication of dislocation-like defects and their ordering in sub-grains and grain-boundaries, then grains slip-rotation in the direction approximately perpendicular to the shear flow. It is shown that phase transitions are governed by unified deformation hardening/softening under hydrostatic pressure, particle irradiation and impurity (isotope) chemical pressure, hard confining conditions and cooling, etc. thus changing electric, magnetic, ferroelectric, thermal, optical properties.1-2 Dislocation-like work hardening, DWH, is determined by non-monotonous properties of dislocation double edge-cross-jog slip, and ultrastrong DWH gives the lowest drag for any dislocation-like plasticity at phase transitions. This provides the same micromechanisms of the ultimate stage of conventional deformation (superfluidity) of ordinary liquids, i....

  18. Graduate School of Science and Technology/GSST, Aarhus Universitet, September 2015 for PhD Students Quick Guide to illness during the PhD studies

    E-print Network

    D Students 1 Quick Guide to illness during the PhD studies ­ for PhD students 1. Illness if you are employed) ................................................................................................................................................. 2 2. Illness if you are not employed (i.e. PhD students who do not have an MSc and/or PhD studentsD Students 2 1. Illness if you are employed (i.e. PhD students who have an MSc and are employed at Aarhus

  19. Characterisation and deployment of an immobilised pH sensor spot towards surface ocean pH measurements.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jennifer S; Achterberg, Eric P; Rérolle, Victoire M C; Abi Kaed Bey, Samer; Floquet, Cedric F A; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2015-10-15

    The oceans are a major sink for anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the uptake causes changes to the marine carbonate system and has wide ranging effects on flora and fauna. It is crucial to develop analytical systems that allow us to follow the increase in oceanic pCO2 and corresponding reduction in pH. Miniaturised sensor systems using immobilised fluorescence indicator spots are attractive for this purpose because of their simple design and low power requirements. The technology is increasingly used for oceanic dissolved oxygen measurements. We present a detailed method on the use of immobilised fluorescence indicator spots to determine pH in ocean waters across the pH range 7.6-8.2. We characterised temperature (-0.046 pH/°C from 5 to 25 °C) and salinity dependences (-0.01 pH/psu over 5-35), and performed a preliminary investigation into the influence of chlorophyll on the pH measurement. The apparent pKa of the sensor spots was 6.93 at 20 °C. A drift of 0.00014 R (ca. 0.0004 pH, at 25 °C, salinity 35) was observed over a 3 day period in a laboratory based drift experiment. We achieved a precision of 0.0074 pH units, and observed a drift of 0.06 pH units during a test deployment of 5 week duration in the Southern Ocean as an underway surface ocean sensor, which was corrected for using certified reference materials. The temperature and salinity dependences were accounted for with the algorithm, R=0.00034-0.17·pH+0.15·S(2)+0.0067·T-0.0084·S·1.075. This study provides a first step towards a pH optode system suitable for autonomous deployment. The use of a short duration low power illumination (LED current 0.2 mA, 5 ?s illumination time) improved the lifetime and precision of the spot. Further improvements to the pH indicator spot operations include regular application of certified reference materials for drift correction and cross-calibration against a spectrophotometric pH system. Desirable future developments should involve novel fluorescence spots with improved response time and apparent pKa values closer to the pH of surface ocean waters. PMID:26515007

  20. Testimony of Patrick D. Gallagher, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), all of whichTestimony of Patrick D. Gallagher, Ph.D. Deputy Director National Institute of Standards

  1. Tenure Track Seminar - Melissa Friesen, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    May 14, 2015 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove Room TE 406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Topic: Occupational Exposure Assessment in Epidemiologic Studies Speaker: Melissa Friesen, Ph.D., Investigator Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch Division

  2. Ecological Agriculture Research: Increasing Competence through PhD Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, G.; Francis, C. A.; Salomonsson, L.; Sriskandarajah, N.

    1999-01-01

    A Ph.D. course in ecological agriculture included a weeklong intensive workshop and individual research projects. The course demonstrated the usefulness of multiple approaches to learning research methods and perspectives and increased networking among researchers. (SK)

  3. Hadi Belhaj, Ph.D. The Petroleum Institute,

    E-print Network

    Williams, John M.

    Hadi Belhaj, Ph.D. The Petroleum Institute, Petroleum Engineering Department, Office 3112, Abu years of combined petroleum industry and academic experiences" KEY SKILLS · Reservoir monitoring with top operating and service companies · Unique skills in petroleum economics and risk analysis

  4. Goli Samimi, PhD, MPH | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Samimi received her PhD in Biomedical Sciences from the University of California, San Diego, focusing on molecular mechanisms in ovarian cancer that conferred resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy.

  5. Doug Kaylor (PhD Candidate) University of Tennessee

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Doug Kaylor (PhD Candidate) University of Tennessee Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries March 12, 2014 INDICES GOOGLE EARTH ACCESS DATABASE Figure adapted from Cohen, Yang & Kennedy 2010 #12;#12;#12;#12;Data

  6. Ph 315 Lab Notes A. La Rosa OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

    E-print Network

    Ph 315 Lab Notes A. La Rosa OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS ___________________________________________________________ 1. THE ROLE OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS A typical digital data acquisition system uses a transducer or microcontroller (volts). A conditioning circuit composed of operational amplifiers is then use for that purpose

  7. Innovation in Laboratory Instruction Award Essy Behravesh, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Gaucher, Eric

    Department of Biomedical Engineering Illustration of Candidate's Laboratory Innovation Innovation in Laboratory Instruction Award Essy Behravesh, Ph.D. Wallace H. Coulter 1 Faculty Supporting Letters: · Nomination Letter from the Chair of Biomedical Engineering

  8. Megan Oakleaf, MLS, PhD www.meganoakleaf.info

    E-print Network

    Oakleaf, Megan

    The Value of Military Libraries Megan Oakleaf, MLS, PhD www.meganoakleaf.info December 2011 Norfolk Library Assessment & Record Keeping Documented Impact Oakleaf, Megan. "Are They Learning? Are We? Learning

  9. Megan Oakleaf, MLS, PhD www.meganoakleaf.info

    E-print Network

    Oakleaf, Megan

    Megan Oakleaf, MLS, PhD www.meganoakleaf.info moakleaf@syr.edu Massachusetts Library Association 1-evaluation · Can focus on service standards Article forthcoming by Megan Oakleaf #12;© Oakleaf, 2010 Rubrics

  10. LU TP 95{19 hep-ph/9509235

    E-print Network

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    LU TP 95{19 hep-ph/9509235 August 1995 QCD Physics Lessons of Z0 Decays* Torbjorn Sjostrand. Therefore statements should not be accepted blindly, but hopefully they may help stimulate a fruitful debate

  11. Professor David Wyper PhD Director: SINAPSE

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    ; PET tracer discovery and validation; PET in drug discovery. Support in the form of part funding for Ph Russia Ireland Iran Poland Canada Portugal USA Austria Tunisia #12;Key Strengths Positron Emission

  12. CURRICULUM VITAE ROSALYN J MORAN PhD

    E-print Network

    Moran, Rosalyn

    and Mechanical Engineering College of Engineering, Mathematical & Physical Sciences University College Dublin, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering College of Engineering, Mathematical & Physical Sciences University of Engineers Ireland (IEI) Biomedical Research Medal 2007. PhD Scholarship, Irish Research Council for Science

  13. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

  14. Commentary: PhDs in Biochemistry Education--5 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research.

  15. Paul Pinsky, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Pinsky has also worked in the fields of mathematical modeling, especially of the natural history of cancer, epidemiology and statistical methods. He has a PhD in applied mathematics and an MPH in epidemiology.

  16. SOIL, WATER, AND CLIMATE PhD DEFENSE SEMINAR ______ _

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    ____________________________________________________________________ SOIL, WATER, AND CLIMATE Ph² in the Minnesota River Basin and generates significant sediment and chemical pollution. The objective of my study. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was calibrated and validated against observed data from

  17. Richard B Miller, Ph.D. School of Family Life

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Tony R.

    Richard B Miller, Ph.D. School of Family Life Brigham Young University #12;Positive Emotions in Marriage Happy Satisfied Comfortable Excited "In love" Secure Validated Fulfilled #12;Negative Emotions in Marriage Disappointed Discouraged Hopeless Hurt Resentful Angry Furious Depressed

  18. PhD Program in Bioengineering and Robotics

    E-print Network

    Robbiano, Lorenzo

    1 PhD Program in Bioengineering and Robotics MAY 28TH --> VERSION UPDATED WITH NEW THEME, # 43 Curriculum Advanced and Humanoid Robotics Research themes 1. ARTICULATORY INFORMATION FOR AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION IN HUMAN­ROBOT VERBAL INTERACTION

  19. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer...Devices § 868.1170 Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer...Devices § 868.1170 Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer...