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Sample records for ultimate ph phu

  1. Effect of ultimate pH on postmortem myofibrillar protein degradation and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Tiantian; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the complex effects of postmortem ultimate pH (pHu) on Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle quality during postmortem ageing and provides an explanation of how pHu affects beef tenderness. High pHu beef had the highest initial tenderness (P < 0.05) compared with other groups at 1 day postmortem. Intermediate and low pHu beef had similar initial WBSF at 1 day postmortem, but intermediate pHu beef had slower tenderization rate than low pHu beef (P < 0.05). Purge loss, cooking loss, L*, a*, and b* values decreased with increasing pHu during ageing (P < 0.05). Myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was higher in high pHu beef than intermediate and low pHu beef throughout ageing (P < 0.05). Protein degradation studies found that desmin and troponin-T appeared degraded within 0.5 h postmortem for high and low pHu beef, compared to >2 days for intermediate pHu beef. Overall, Chinese Yellow crossbred cattle tenderness is related to pHu, which may be affected by proteolytic enzymatic activity. Therefore, pHu may be used to predict beef tenderness and other quality characteristics during postmortem ageing. To achieve consistent tenderness, different ageing times should be used, depending on pHu. PMID:25197695

  2. Effect of Ultimate pH on Postmortem Myofibrillar Protein Degradation and Meat Quality Characteristics of Chinese Yellow Crossbreed Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiantian; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the complex effects of postmortem ultimate pH (pHu) on Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle quality during postmortem ageing and provides an explanation of how pHu affects beef tenderness. High pHu beef had the highest initial tenderness (P < 0.05) compared with other groups at 1 day postmortem. Intermediate and low pHu beef had similar initial WBSF at 1 day postmortem, but intermediate pHu beef had slower tenderization rate than low pHu beef (P < 0.05). Purge loss, cooking loss, L*, a*, and b* values decreased with increasing pHu during ageing (P < 0.05). Myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was higher in high pHu beef than intermediate and low pHu beef throughout ageing (P < 0.05). Protein degradation studies found that desmin and troponin-T appeared degraded within 0.5 h postmortem for high and low pHu beef, compared to >2 days for intermediate pHu beef. Overall, Chinese Yellow crossbred cattle tenderness is related to pHu, which may be affected by proteolytic enzymatic activity. Therefore, pHu may be used to predict beef tenderness and other quality characteristics during postmortem ageing. To achieve consistent tenderness, different ageing times should be used, depending on pHu. PMID:25197695

  3. Early on-line classification of beef carcasses based on ultimate pH by near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marlon M; Rosenvold, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Prediction of ultimate pH (measured 48 h post mortem; pH(u)) in beef from Visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra collected 20 to 40 min post mortem was assessed. Spectra were collected from carcasses (cows: n = 86, bulls: n = 170, steers: n = 363, and heifers: n = 38) in a commercial hot boning abattoir under routine conditions. Partial Least Squares (PLS) models showed limited accuracy with RMSE for validation equal to 0.26, 0.20 and 0.36 for the All-animals, Non-bulls and Bulls models, respectively. The pH(u)-PLS-predicted values were used to segregate carcasses as normal (pH(u)<5.8) or high (pH(u) ≥ 5.8) showing better performance, by correctly classifying at least 90% of high pH(u) carcasses. The Non-bulls model was equivalent to the current technology used in the abattoir to classify carcasses based on pH(u). Thus near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used for on-line classification of beef carcasses based on pH(u). PMID:24211544

  4. Impact of divergent selection for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle on biochemical, histological, and sensorial attributes of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, N; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Baéza, E; Chabault, M; Chartrin, P; Bordeau, T; Cailleau-Audouin, E; Meteau, K; Berri, C

    2015-09-01

    The impact of divergent selection based on the ultimate pH (pHu) of pectoralis major (P. major) muscle on the chemical, biochemical, and histological profiles of the muscle and sensorial quality of meat was investigated in broiler chickens. The protein, lipid, DM, glycogen and lactate content, glycolytic potential, proteolysis, lipid and protein oxidation index, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillary density, and collagen surface were determined on the breast P. major muscle of 6-wk-old broilers issued from the high-pHu (pHu+) and low-pHu (pHu-) lines. Sensory attributes were also evaluated on the breast (roasted or grilled) and thigh (roasted) meat of the 2 lines. Protein, lipid, and DM content of P. major muscle were not affected by selection ( > 0.05). However, the P. major muscle of the pHu+ line was characterized by lower residual glycogen (-16%; ≤ 0.001) and lactate (-14%; ≤ 0.001) content and lower glycolytic potential (-14%; ≤ 0.001) compared with the pHu- line. Although the average cross-sectional area of muscle fibers and surface occupied by collagen were similar ( > 0.05) in both lines, fewer capillaries per fiber (-15%; ≤ 0.05) were observed in the pHu+ line. The pHu+ line was also characterized by lower lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance index: -23%; ≤ 0.05) but protein oxidation and proteolysis index were not different ( > 0.05) between the 2 lines. At the sensory level, selection on breast muscle pHu mainly affected the texture of grilled and roast breast meat, which was judged significantly more tender ( ≤ 0.001) in the pHu+ line, and the acid taste, which was less pronounced in the roasted breast meat of the pHu+ line ( ≤ 0.002). This study highlighted that selection based on pHu does not affect the chemical composition and structure of breast meat. However, by modifying muscle blood supply and glycogen turnover, it affects meat acidity and oxidant status, both of which are likely to contribute to the large

  5. Further investigations into the relationship between ultimate pH and tenderness for beef samples from bulls and steers.

    PubMed

    Purchas, R W; Aungsupakorn, R

    1993-01-01

    Samples of longissimus dorsi muscle from 150 cattle comprising Friesian bulls and steers and Charolais × Angus cross steers, were used to investigate the nature of the relationship between ultimate pH and beef tenderness under conditions where cold-shortening was avoided. A modified Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear machine with a square- rather than a vee-blade enabled several aspects of tenderness to be evaluated, including peak force (PF), initial yield force (IY), PF-IY, and an index of total work done. The two steer groups differed little in meat quality characteristics, but, in terms of six major hindquarter cuts, the Charolais cross group yielded 14·3% more meat per unit live weight, due to a combination of a superior dressing-out percent and a higher cutability. Relative to Friesian steers, the bulls produced beef with a higher ultimate pH (P < 0·001), and after adjustment to a common pH, the bull beef was tougher for all WB parameters except PF-IY. Cooking loss was higher for beef from bulls after adjustment for pH. Although reduced by pH adjustment, beef from bulls remained significantly darker than that from steers (P < 0·05) based on reflectance measurements. Maximum toughness in terms of PF, IY, and work index was at an ultimate pH of 6·0-6·1, but the peak was much less clear for PF-IY. The decline in tenderness with an increase in ultimate pH to 6·2 was associated with a decrease in sarcomere length. This result supports a previous suggestion that shortening explains, at least in part, the lower average tenderness at intermediate pH values. PMID:22060661

  6. Integration ofhup cosmid pHU52 into the chromosomal DNA ofCicer-Rhizobium using Tn5 as an homologous sequence.

    PubMed

    Kunnimalaiyaan, M; Lodha, M L; Sreekumar, K R

    1992-11-01

    Cosmid pHU52, which carrieshup genes ofBradyrhizobium japonicum, has been integrated into theCicer-Rhizobium G36-84 genome via Tn5-mediated homologous recombination. Tn5 was inserted into both the cosmid pHU52 and the chromosome ofCicer-Rhizobium to provide a region of DNA homology, without affecting the expression of necessary genes. An incompatible plasmid, pPH1JI, was used to select those few cells that had undergone recombination. The integration of the cosmid was demonstrated by Southern blot analysis. Chromosomal integration of thehup genes maximized stability and minimized the potential for their horizontal transfer to other bacterial species. The integratedhup genes were found to expressex planta as well in nodules. The method described illustrates how a given gene can be stably integrated into the chromosome. PMID:24425601

  7. Evaluation of pH, ultimate tensile strength, and micro-shear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciana Artioli; Carneiro, Karina Kato; Tanaka, Auro; Lima, Darlon Martins; Bauer, José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and micro-shear bond strength (µSBS) of two self-adhesive resin cements to enamel and dentin. Sound bovine incisors (n = 10) and two self-adhesive resin cements (i.e., RelyX U-100 and seT PP) were used. The pH of the resin cements was measured using a pH-indicator paper (n = 3). Specimens for UTS were obtained from an hourglass-shaped mold. For µSBS, cylinders with internal diameter of 0.75 mm and height of 0.5 mm were bonded to the flat enamel and dentin surfaces. Bonded cylinders were tested in the shear mode using a loop wire. The fracture mode was also evaluated. The cement seT PP showed a low pH; U-100 showed significantly higher UTS (49.9 ± 2.0) than seT PP (40.0 ± 2.1) (p < 0.05) and high µSBS to enamel (10.7 ± 3.7). The lowest µSBS was found for seT PP to dentin (0.7 ± 0.6); seT PP to enamel (4.8 ± 1.7), and for U-100 to dentin (7.2 ± 1.9), showing an intermediate µSBS value (p < 0.05). Adhesive failure was the most frequently observed failure mode. The resin cement that presented the lowest pH and UTS also presented the lowest micro-shear bond strength to enamel and dentin. PMID:25337932

  8. Crystal structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytoplasmic heme binding protein, Apo-PhuS.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sarvind; O'Neill, Maura J; Wilks, Angela; Poulos, Thomas L

    2013-11-01

    Iron is an essential element to all living organisms and is an important determinant of bacterial virulence. Bacteria have evolved specialized systems to sequester and transport iron from the environment or host. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, uses two outer membrane receptor mediated systems (Phu and Has) to utilize host heme as a source of iron. PhuS is a 39 kDa soluble cytoplasmic heme binding protein which interacts and transports heme from the inner membrane heme transporter to the cytoplasm where it is degraded by heme oxygenase thus releasing iron. PhuS is unique among other cytoplasmic heme transporter proteins owing to the presence of three histidines in the heme binding pocket which can potentially serve as heme ligands. Out of the three histidine residues on the heme binding helix, His 209 is conserved among heme trafficking proteins while His 210 and His 212 are unique to PhuS. Here we report the crystal structure of PhuS at 1.98Å resolution which shows a unique heme binding pocket and oligomeric structure compared to other known cytoplasmic heme transporter and accounts for some of the unusual biochemical properties of PhuS. PMID:23973453

  9. Ultimate Frisbee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ed; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Ultimate Frisbee is a highly competitive noncontact sport similar to football or soccer, played by two teams of seven or more members. Various aspects of the game are described, including: (1) equipment; (2) playing field; and (3) the rules and scoring system. (JN)

  10. The impact of ultimate pH on muscle characteristics and sensory attributes of the longissimus thoracis within the dark cutting (Canada B4) beef carcass grade.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, J; Aalhus, J L; Uttaro, B A; López-Campos, O; Larsen, I L; Bruce, H L

    2014-12-01

    Canada B4 beef carcasses are penalized because the longissimus thoracis (LT) at the grade site (12-13th ribs) is darker than the color threshold for normal bright cherry-red beef. Previous studies have shown that not all B4 carcasses have pH>6.0; therefore, the relationship between LT pH and meat quality was investigated by collecting thirty half-carcasses comprised of the following: ten Canada AA (AA, control), ten B4 with LT pH>6.0 (CL, classic), and ten B4 with LT pH<6.0 (AT, atypical). LT from CL carcasses had the lowest mean lactate level, lowest glucidic potential and highest mean pH value. LT muscle from CL and AT carcasses was dark and had decreased purge, drip loss and cooking loss. Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel results showed that AT beef was toughest (P<0.0001), substantiating economic penalty. Causal mechanisms for AT carcasses may be inconsistent with traditional DFD theory because of close to normal final muscle pH. PMID:25173716

  11. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  12. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H. ); Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  13. Spectroscopic Determination of Distinct Heme Ligands in Outer-Membrane Receptors PhuR and HasR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Modi, Anuja R.; Sun, Shengfang; Dawson, John H.; Wilks, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes two outer membrane receptors, PhuR (Pseudomonas heme uptake) and HasR (heme assimilation system). The HasR receptor acquires heme through interaction with a secreted hemophore, HasAp. The non-hemophore-dependent PhuR is encoded along with proteins required for heme translocation into the cytoplasm. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of the HasR and PhuR receptors. Absorption and MCD spectroscopy confirmed that, similar to other Gram-negative OM receptors, HasR coordinates heme through the conserved N-terminal plug His-221 and His-624 of the surface-exposed FRAP-loop. In contrast, PhuR showed distinct absorption and MCD spectra consistent with coordination through a Tyr residue. Sequence alignment of PhuR with all known Gram-negative OM heme receptors revealed a lack of a conserved His within the FRAP loop but two Tyr residues at positions 519 and 529. Site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopic characterization confirmed Tyr-519 and the N-terminal plug His-124 provide the heme ligands in PhuR. We propose that PhuR and HasR represent nonredundant heme receptors capable of sensing and accessing heme across a wide range of physiological conditions on colonization and infection of the host. PMID:25849630

  14. A new species of Dixonius (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Phu Quy Island, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Botov, Andreas; Phung, Trung My; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Bauer, Aaron M; Brennan, Ian G; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of Dixonius on the basis of five specimens from Phu Quy Island, Binh Thuan Province, in southern Vietnam. The new species can be distinguished from congeners based on molecular and morphological differences. Diagnostic features are: small size (SVL up to 44 mm); 7 or 8 supralabials; 11 or 12 rows of keeled tubercles on dorsum; 21-23 ventral scale rows; 5 or 6 precloacal pores in males; a canthal stripe running from rostrum through the eye and terminating behind the head; second pair of postmentals about one third to one half size of first pair; ground color of dorsum brown, with one or two rows of light yellow or orange spots in one or two rows along flanks, and irregular bands or a reticulated network of dark marks on dorsum. This is the fifth species of Dixonius known to occur in Vietnam. PMID:26624650

  15. The Ultimate Flag Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

    This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

  16. Education and Ultimate Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Richard Peters and John White have both argued that education should contribute to the meaning people are able to find in or give to life. Both dismiss the idea of ultimate or profound meaning ("the meaning of life") in favour of ordinary meaning, or "meaning in life". Thus they exemplify the trend visible also in the general…

  17. The Ultimate Fizz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckscher, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Many recipes for elementary science activities suggest making carbon dioxide from baking soda and vinegar; however, they often do not give exact measurements of the ingredients. The author was able to turn this "drawback" into a plus by challenging her fifth-grade students to find the "ultimate fizz"--i.,e., "What amount of baking soda added to a…

  18. The Ultimate Alternative. A Curriculum for Teaching Ultimate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporali, John Martin

    1988-01-01

    A curriculum for teaching Ultimate, a cardiovascular frisbee disc sport alternative to traditional ball sports, is presented, covering cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills at three different levels. (CB)

  19. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate…

  20. The origin and evolution of skarn-forming fluids from the Phu Lon deposit, northern Loei Fold Belt, Thailand: Evidence from fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamvong, Teera; Zaw, Khin

    2009-05-01

    The Phu Lon skarn Cu-Au deposit is located in the northern Loei Fold Belt (LFB), Thailand. It is hosted by Devonian volcano-sedimentary sequences intercalated with limestone and marble units, intruded by diorite and quartz monzonite porphyries. Phu Lon is a calcic skarn with both endoskarn and exoskarn facies. In both skarn facies, andradite and diopside comprise the main prograde skarn minerals, whereas epidote, chlorite, tremolite, actinolite and calcite are the principal retrograde skarn minerals. Four types of fluid inclusions in garnet were distinguished: (1) liquid-rich inclusions; (2) daughter mineral-bearing inclusions; (3) salt-saturated inclusions; and (4) vapor-rich inclusions. Epidote contains only one type of fluid inclusion: liquid-rich inclusions. Fluid inclusions associated with garnet (prograde skarn stage) display high homogenization temperatures and moderate salinities (421.6-468.5 °C; 17.4-23.1 wt% NaCl equiv.). By contrast, fluid inclusions associated with epidote (retrograde skarn stage) record lower homogenization temperatures and salinities (350.9-399.8 °C; 0.5-8 wt% NaCl equiv.). These data suggest a possible mixing of saline magmatic fluids with external, dilute fluid sources (e.g., meteoric fluids), as the system cooled. Some fluid inclusions in garnet contain hematite daughters, suggesting an oxidizing magmatic environment. Sulfur isotope determinations on sulfide minerals from both the prograde and retrograde stages show a uniform and narrow range of δ34S values (-2.6 to -1.1 ‰ δ34S), suggesting that the ore-forming fluid contained sulfur of orthomagmatic origin. Overall, the Phu Lon deposit is interpreted as an oxidized Cu-Au skarn based on the mineralogy and fluid inclusion characteristics.

  1. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  2. Ultimate realities: deterministic and evolutionary.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  3. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  4. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes. PMID:26250010

  5. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J

    1995-01-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics. PMID:7776343

  6. Librarians Are the Ultimate Knowledge Managers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koina, Cathie

    2003-01-01

    Librarians are the ultimate knowledge managers. Everyone knows that. After all, haven't they been the custodians of documented knowledge for centuries? Who could possibly do it better than them? Well, then why aren't people knocking down their doors, begging them to be the knowledge managers of the organisation? Are they just ignorant of how…

  7. SNPs detection in DHPS-WDR83 overlapping genes mapping on porcine chromosome 2 in a QTL region for meat pH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pH is an important parameter influencing technological quality of pig meat, a trait affected by environmental and genetic factors. Several quantitative trait loci associated to meat pH are described on PigQTL database but only two genes influencing this parameter have been so far detected: Ryanodine receptor 1 and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit. To search for genes influencing meat pH we analyzed genomic regions with quantitative effect on this trait in order to detect SNPs to use for an association study. Results The expressed sequences mapping on porcine chromosomes 1, 2, 3 in regions associated to pork pH were searched in silico to find SNPs. 356 out of 617 detected SNPs were used to genotype Italian Large White pigs and to perform an association analysis with meat pH values recorded in semimembranosus muscle at about 1 hour (pH1) and 24 hours (pHu) post mortem. The results of the analysis showed that 5 markers mapping on chromosomes 1 or 3 were associated with pH1 and 10 markers mapping on chromosomes 1 or 2 were associated with pHu. After False Discovery Rate correction only one SNP mapping on chromosome 2 was confirmed to be associated to pHu. This polymorphism was located in the 3’UTR of two partly overlapping genes, Deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) and WD repeat domain 83 (WDR83). The overlapping of the 3’UTRs allows the co-regulation of mRNAs stability by a cis-natural antisense transcript method of regulation. DHPS catalyzes the first step in hypusine formation, a unique amino acid formed by the posttranslational modification of the protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A in a specific lysine residue. WDR83 has an important role in the modulation of a cascade of genes involved in cellular hypoxia defense by intensifying the glycolytic pathway and, theoretically, the meat pH value. Conclusions The involvement of the SNP detected in the DHPS/WDR83 genes on meat pH phenotypic variability and their

  8. Methods of ultimate carbonaceous BOD determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; McKenzie, S.W.; Cherry, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted to provide an accurate and practical technique for determining the concentration of ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and the rate at which this demand is exerted. The three methods evaluated were carbon derived, nitrification adjusted, and nitrification inhibited. The studies indicate that comparable concentrations and reaction rates can be determined from either non-nitrified samples using no chemical nitrifying inhibitor, or from partially nitrified samples using the chemical inhibitors, 1-allyl-2 thiourea or nitrapyrin, and that the combined use of time-series analysis and Lee's graphical method provide a reliable and accurate technique for determining ultimate biochemical oxygen demand concentration and reaction rate in 5 to 7 days.

  9. Ultimate permeation across atomically thin porous graphene.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Kemal; Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M; Droudian, Amirhossein; Gasser, Patrick; Shorubalko, Ivan; Kye, Jeong-Il; Lee, Changho; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2014-04-18

    A two-dimensional (2D) porous layer can make an ideal membrane for separation of chemical mixtures because its infinitesimal thickness promises ultimate permeation. Graphene--with great mechanical strength, chemical stability, and inherent impermeability--offers a unique 2D system with which to realize this membrane and study the mass transport, if perforated precisely. We report highly efficient mass transfer across physically perforated double-layer graphene, having up to a few million pores with narrowly distributed diameters between less than 10 nanometers and 1 micrometer. The measured transport rates are in agreement with predictions of 2D transport theories. Attributed to its atomic thicknesses, these porous graphene membranes show permeances of gas, liquid, and water vapor far in excess of those shown by finite-thickness membranes, highlighting the ultimate permeation these 2D membranes can provide. PMID:24744372

  10. Bolometers - Ultimate sensitivity, optimization, and amplifier coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical expressions for Johnson noise and thermal noise in bolometers are considered, and optimization with respect to thermal conductivity and bias power is performed. Numerical approximations are given for the ultimate NEP of bolometers as a function of material parameters and compared with photon noise including photon correlations. A resonating capacitor is shown to improve the coupling to an amplifier, so that the amplifier need not limit performance even for very low temperature bolometers.

  11. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, T.R.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  12. Ultimate computing. Biomolecular consciousness and nano Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hameroff, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The book advances the premise that the cytoskeleton is the cell's nervous system, the biological controller/computer. If indeed cytoskeletal dynamics in the nanoscale (billionth meter, billionth second) are the texture of intracellular information processing, emerging ''NanoTechnologies'' (scanning tunneling microscopy, Feynman machines, von Neumann replicators, etc.) should enable direct monitoring, decoding and interfacing between biological and technological information devices. This in turn could result in important biomedical applications and perhaps a merger of mind and machine: Ultimate Computing.

  13. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  14. Physical Demands in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate Frisbee athletes played a game in which activity profile using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Game HRmean and HRpeak were 82 ± 2% and 99 ± 1% of maximum heart rate, respectively. Total game distance was 4.70 ± 0.47 km, of which 0.63 ± 0.14 km was high-intensity running and 0.21 ± 0.11 km was sprinting. In the second half, 10% less (p ≤ 0.05) ground was covered with high-intensity running compared with the first half (0.28 ± 0.08 km vs. 0.31 ± 0.07 km). Less (43-47%; p ≤ 0.05) high-intensity running was performed in the third 9-minute period of each half compared with the first two 9-minute periods of the same half. Players performed 17.4 ± 5.7 sprints during the match. Yo-Yo IR2 performance correlated to the amount of high-intensity running in the last 9 minutes of both halves (r = 0.69, p ≤ 0.05), whereas Yo-Yo IR1 performance correlated with total sprint distance (r = 0.74, p ≤ 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance. PMID:26595132

  15. The ultimate efficiency of photosensitive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    These systems have in common two important but not independent features: they can produce a storable fuel, and they are sensitive only to radiant energy with a characteristic absorption spectrum. General analyses of the conversion efficiencies were made using the operational characteristics of each particular system. An efficiency analysis of a generalized system consisting of a blackbody source, a radiant energy converter having a threshold energy and operating temperature, and a reservoir is reported. This analysis is based upon the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and leads to a determination of the limiting or ultimate efficiency for an energy conversion system having a characteristic threshold.

  16. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. PMID:26359938

  17. No way to cool the ultimate greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-10-29

    When the Clinton Administration announced its Climate Change Action Plan last week, some press accounts called it an effort to halt greenhouse warming. To greenhouse experts, however, cutting emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the end of the decade -- the goal of the plan -- will only delay the inevitable. Such modest conservation measures, as a recent study shows, will buy humanity valuable time to adapt to the greenhouse world, but they will have little effect on how warm the global climate ultimately becomes. Centuries down the road, humanity will have to come to grips with elevated temperatures due to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels. Reducing emissions will slow the warming process and give humanity more time to adapt.

  18. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  19. Meta-analysis genomewide association of pork quality traits: ultimate pH and shear force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is common practice to perform genome-wide association analysis (GWA) using a genomic evaluation model of a single population. Joint analysis of several populations is more difficult. An alternative to joint analysis could be the meta-analysis (MA) of several GWA from independent genomic evaluatio...

  20. The Phenix ultimate natural convection test

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthe, P.; Pialla, D.; Tenchine, D.; Vasile, A.; Rochwerger, D.

    2012-07-01

    The French sodium cooled fast reactor Phenix was shut down in 2009 after 35 years of operation. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests were performed by the CEA during 9 months. Several topics were involved such as thermal hydraulics, core physics and fuel behaviour. Among these ultimate experiments, two thermal hydraulic tests were performed: an asymmetrical test consisting in a trip of one secondary pump and a natural convection test in the primary circuit. Recognizing the unique opportunity offered by these Phenix ultimate tests, IAEA decided in 2007 to launch a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to benchmarking analyses with system codes on the Phenix natural convection test. One objective of the natural convection test in Phenix reactor is the assessment of the CATHARE system code for safety studies on future and advanced sodium cooled fast reactors. The aim of this paper is to describe this test, which was performed on June 22-23, 2009, and the associated benchmark specifications for the CRP work. The paper reminds briefly the Phenix reactor with the main physical parameters and the instrumentation used during the natural convection test. After that, the test scenario is described: - initial state at a power of 120 MWth, - test beginning resulting from a manual dry out of the two steam generators, - manual scram, - manual trip on the three primary pumps without back-up by pony motors, - setting and development of natural convection in the primary circuit, in a first phase without significant heat sink in the secondary circuits and in a second phase with significant heat sink in the secondary circuits, by opening the casing of steam generators to create an efficient heat sink, by air natural circulation in the steam generators casing. The benchmark case ends after this second phase, which corresponds to the experimental test duration of nearly 7 hours. The paper presents also the benchmark specifications data supplied by the CEA to all

  1. Olympus: The Ultimate Summit for Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Darrell; Holt, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High above the world-class observatories that dot Hawaii's dormant Mauna Kea volcano, floating farther yet over the hostile and nearly inaccessible peaks of Mt. Everest, lies a summit waiting to be conquered. Here above the clouds and city lights and over 99.7% of the atmosphere is a platform on the edge of space, home to a broad range of astronomy and physics experiments. Today, balloons are lifting experiments longer, higher and more inexpensively than ever before, and returning them safely to Earth for reuse. Week-long flights at altitudes of approximately 35 kilometers carrying payloads in excess of several tons are the norm. NASA now plans to extend this platform and create a new generation of balloons capable of staying afloat with such cargo for 100 days and ultimately 1,000 days. What do some scientists hope to accomplish with 100 or even 1,000 days at the edge of space? To name but a few proposals on the table: Jupiter-size planet searches, large-aperture solar astronomy, large-aperture infrared astronomy, cosmic-ray investigations, long-duration Earth science missions, and hard x-ray imaging experiments. Olympus defines a new era in scientific ballooning. Advances in material science and trajectory control are enabling revolutionary capabilities. Very large scientific payloads can now be reliably launched and retrieved for reflight at a range of altitudes. Balloon flight still remains a fraction of the cost of a rocket launch. The ultra long duration balloon, with its 100-day maiden flight planned for 2001, provides a long-term facility in a near-space environment for many types of science. This is a stratospheric mountaintop well worth the climb.

  2. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. As bees are very inventive, however, bilabiate constructions will not represent the ultimate response to bees. PMID:17652341

  3. Do postsurgical interventions optimize ultimate scar cosmesis.

    PubMed

    Viera, M H; Amini, S; Konda, S; Berman, B

    2009-06-01

    Keloids and other scars are different manifestations of the normal wound healing process. If located in visible areas, scars may have a psychological impact that could affect the quality of life of the scar-bearing population. Good preoperatory planning including hiding incisions in natural anatomical landmarks or placing them parallel to relaxed skin tension lines are among the techniques used to improve the cosmesis of scars. Once a prominent or noticeable scar has developed, multiple therapeutic modalities can be applied including surgical excision, although high recurrence rates precludes its use as monotherapy. Several advanced surgical correction techniques including Z-plasty and W-plasty may be useful in repositioning scars. Other modalities that have been reported to improve scar cosmesis include cryosurgery, radiotherapy, lasers, and skin substitute grafts. Adjuvant postsurgical treatment modalities have reduced dramatically the recurrence rates associated with the removal of the scar. In this review of the literature the authors discuss evidence based data related to the abovementioned modalities and other topical and intralesional therapies including occlusion, compression, silicone, corticosteroids, interferons, imiquimod, resiquimod, tacrolimus, 5-fluorouracil, retinoids, as well as the role of several over-the-counter agents such as onion extract, vitamin E and the combination of hydrocortisone, vitamin E and silicone. Finally, they address newer modalities including vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, transforming growth factor-3, interleukin-10, mannose-6-phosphate, UVA-1, narrowband UVB, intense pulsed light and photodynamic therapy. Ultimately, the decision of choosing the most appropriate postexcisional management treatment should be taken by physicians on a case-by-case basis in order to obtain the best cosmetically acceptable results. PMID:19528906

  4. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  5. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  6. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  7. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  8. 29 CFR 18.704 - Opinion on ultimate issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opinion on ultimate issue. 18.704 Section 18.704 Labor... ultimate issue. Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admissible is not objectionable because it embraces an ultimate issue to be decided by the judge as trier of fact....

  9. "Got Disc?" The "Ultimate" Experience in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Darst, Paul W.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    A quality physical education program is one in which students are exposed to and can participate in a variety of sports and activities. One activity that is increasing in popularity in and outside of physical education is the game of "Ultimate." Opportunities to play Ultimate are increasing rapidly in intramural programs and community and…

  10. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  11. 29 CFR 18.704 - Opinion on ultimate issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opinion on ultimate issue. 18.704 Section 18.704 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.704 Opinion on ultimate issue. Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admissible is not...

  12. 29 CFR 18.704 - Opinion on ultimate issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opinion on ultimate issue. 18.704 Section 18.704 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.704 Opinion on ultimate issue. Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admissible is not...

  13. 29 CFR 18.704 - Opinion on ultimate issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opinion on ultimate issue. 18.704 Section 18.704 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.704 Opinion on ultimate issue. Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admissible is not...

  14. Ultimate Limits to Resource Efficiency in Photonic Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    We review resource-efficiency metrics for transferring classical information with photon, present an overview of the ultimate limits to photon and dimensional efficiency permitted by quantum mechanics, as well as that acheived with structured transmitter-receiver pairs.

  15. Ultimate bending capacity of strain hardening steel pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-fei; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Based on Hencky's total strain theory of plasticity, ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes can be determined analytically assuming an elastic-linear strain hardening material, the simplified analytical solution is proposed as well. Good agreement is observed when ultimate bending capacities obtained from analytical solutions are compared with experimental results from full-size tests of steel pipes. Parametric study conducted as part of this paper indicates that the strain hardening effect has significant influence on the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. It is shown that pipe considering strain hardening yields higher bending capacity than that of pipe assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material. Thus, the ignorance of strain hardening effect, as commonly assumed in current codes, may underestimate the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. The solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in the design of offshore/onshore steel pipes, supports of offshore platforms and other tubular structural steel members.

  16. Some remarks on discrete physics as an ultimate dynamical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-10-01

    The standard model of quarks and leptons currently fails to meet `t Hooft`s criterion for an ``Ultimate Dynamical Theory`` in that it contains 19 parameters which must be taken from experiment. Evaluating discrete physics in the same way we find that it requires 17 parameters and has already succeeded in computing 7 of them. While we are confident that the rest can also be computed, the very concept of an ultimate theory is incompatible with our attitude toward physics.

  17. INFORMATION THEORY: 'Ultimate PC' Would Be a Hot Little Number.

    PubMed

    Seife, C

    2000-09-01

    A physicist has used the laws of thermodynamics, information, relativity, and quantum mechanics to figure out the ultimate physical limits on the speed of a computer. His calculations show that, in principle, a kilogram of matter in a liter-sized container could be an "ultimate laptop" more than a trillion trillion trillion times as powerful as today's fastest supercomputer--if it could be turned into a black hole. PMID:17839510

  18. Incidence and Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries to College Ultimate Players

    PubMed Central

    Swedler, David I.; Nuwer, Jamie M.; Nazarov, Anna; Huo, Samantha C.; Malevanchik, Lev

    2015-01-01

    Context: The burden of injuries to college ultimate players has never been fully described. Objective: To quantify the injury rate in ultimate players and describe the diagnoses, anatomic locations, and mechanisms of injuries. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: College ultimate teams in the United States during the 2012 season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Initial injury rate per 1000 athlete-exposures. Results: The initial injury rate in college ultimate players was 12.64 per 1000 athlete-exposures; the rate did not differ between men and women (P = .5). Bivariate analysis indicated that injuries occurred twice as often during games as during practices, men were more likely than women to be injured when laying out for the disc, and men were more likely to incur strains and sprains than women. Conclusions: Injury patterns to college ultimate players were similar to those for athletes in other National Collegiate Athletic Association sports. This is the first study to systematically describe injuries to ultimate players. PMID:25384003

  19. Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) static ultimate load structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted on the jettisonable metallic shroud used on the Titan/Centaur launch vehicle to verify its structural capabilities and to evaluate its structural interaction with the Centaur stage. A flight configured shroud and the interfacing Titan/Centaur structural assemblies were subjected to tests consisting of combinations of applied axial and shear loads to design ultimate values, including a set of tests on thermal conditions and two dynamic response tests to verify the analytical stiffness model. The strength capabilities were demonstrated at ultimate (125 percent of design limit) loads. It was also verified that the spring rate of the flight configured shroud-to-Centaur forward structural deflections of the specimen became nonlinear, as expected, above limit load values. This test series qualification program verified that the Titan/Centaur shroud and the Centaur and Titan interface components are qualified structurally at design ultimate loads.

  20. Balancing act: the ultimate balance nutrition consulting center.

    PubMed

    Engle, L

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional issues often complicate health care but are very important in HIV treatment where diet can play a strong role in drug absorption and effectiveness. A Canadian company has started a for-fee nutritional counseling service called Ultimate Balance. The nutritionists at Ultimate Balance require medical disclosure and extensive telephone interviews with patients, and also review patients' cases and medications. The nutritional guidance provided is controversial, because it is funded by a company that produces nutritional supplements, and counselors sometimes recommend those supplements. A personal experience with the nutritional counseling service is described. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365979

  1. Pork Quality Traits According to Postmortem pH and Temperature in Berkshire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Chul Wook; Yang, Mi Ra; No, Gun Ryoung; Kim, Sam Woong; Kim, Il-Suk

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the role of pH and temperature postmortem, and to demonstrate the importance of these factors in determining meat quality. Postmortem pH 45min (pH at 45 min postmortem or initial pH) via analysis of Pearson's correlation showed high positive correlation with pH change pH c24 (pH change from pH 45min to pH 24h postmortem). However, postmortem pH after 24 h (pH 24h or ultimate pH) had a high negative correlation with pH change, pH c24 , CIE L*, and protein content. Initial temperature postmortem (T 1h ) was positively associated with a change in temperature from 45 min to 24 h postmortem (T c24 ) and cooking loss, but negatively correlated with water holding capacity. Temperature at 24 h postmortem (T 24h ) was negatively associated with T c24 . Collectively, these results indicate that higher initial pH was associated with higher pH c24 , T 1h , and T c24 . However, higher initial pH was associated with a reduction in carcass weight, backfat thickness, CIE a* and b*, water holding capacity, collagen and fat content, drip loss, and cooking loss as well as decreased shear force. In contrast, CIE a* and b*, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force in higher ultimate pH was showed by a similar pattern to higher initial pH, whereas pH c24 , carcass weight, backfat thickness, water holding capacity, fat content, moisture content, protein content, T 1h , T 24h , and T c24 were exhibited by completely differential patterns (p<0.05). Therefore, we suggest that initial pH, ultimate pH, and temperatures postmortem are important factors in determining the meat quality of pork. PMID:27499661

  2. The Ultimate Sampling Dilemma in Experience-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations and 2 experiments demonstrate the ultimate sampling dilemma, which constitutes a serious obstacle to inductive inferences in a probabilistic world. Participants were asked to take the role of a manager who is to make purchasing decisions based on positive versus negative feedback about 3 providers in 2 different product…

  3. 78 FR 40625 - Reporting Ultimate Payees of Political Committee Disbursements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... 11 CFR Part 104 Reporting Ultimate Payees of Political Committee Disbursements AGENCY: Federal... clarifying its interpretation of the regulatory requirement that political committees ] report the full name... purpose of such payments, in three situations: A political committee reimburses an individual who...

  4. Ultimate strain measurement of micromachined membranes using a potentiometric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goforth, R. C.; Ulrich, R. K.; Leong, Y. K.; Zhao, G.

    A potentiometric method for the measurement of ultimate strain of thin films is presented. In this method, an electric potential is applied between two electrodes located one on each side of the thin film under investigation. The electrodes are immersed in an electrolytic solution. The thin film acts as an electrical current barrier. To determine the ultimate strain, a controlled load is applied to the film. Cracking of the film causes a sharp rise in the current from an initial small leakage value. The applied load at the onset of cracking is used to calculate the ultimate strain. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of the method for thin silicon nitride films deposited on aluminum strips. The method is very sensitive and can detect cracks too small to be observed with a microscope. We discuss extension of the method to the measurement of the ultimate strain of micromachined membranes. The load is applied by pressuring one side of the membrane. Micromachined structures are used to determine residual stresses.

  5. Immediate and Ultimate Functions of Physical Activity Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    Play has been difficult to define because it is an aspect of many activities rather than of just a specific kind of activity. Classic theorists such as Piaget and Vygotsky emphasized representational play as play in its purist form, but both immediate and ultimate functions of play can be discerned in simple physical activity play. (Author)

  6. 37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING STEPPED TOWERS, AND WITH PYLONS CAPPED BY LANTERNS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Ultimate Success Rates on National Board Examinations: A Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.; Wallis, Norman E.; Present, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the percentage of optometry students successfully completing the four-component National Board of Examiners in Optometry examination at graduation between 1995 to 1997. Ultimate pass rates for all four components ranged from 87.0% to 90.9%. Results are discussed in relation to the 1993 test-sequence expansion and to the number…

  8. Effects of pH adjustment with phosphates on attributes and functionalities of normal and high pH beef.

    PubMed

    Young, O A; Zhang, S X; Farouk, M M; Podmore, C

    2005-05-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscles from six normal- and six high-ultimate pH bulls were selected for fine mincing and subsequent pH adjustment with acid and alkaline pyrophosphate. Four pH treatments were prepared: initially high remains high (mean of pH 6.37), high becomes normal (5.62); initially normal remains normal (5.65), and normal becomes high (6.21). The addition level of phosphate as P(2)O(5) was the same in all replicates. Before pH adjustment, colour and water holding capacity (WHC) values were strongly affected by higher (initial) pH in expected ways: darker, lower chroma, higher capacity. After pH adjustment, these values were affected only by the final pH, not the initial pH (the pH history). Total protein solubility was likewise affected by final pH but not initial pH. In contrast, the combination high initial pH-high final pH improved sarcoplasmic protein solubility by 20% over the combination normal initial pH-high final pH. Sarcoplasmic protein solubility is an indicator of strain required to fracture cooked batters made from the minced meats; in the event, the rank order of the four treatments for strain-to-fracture matched that of sarcoplasmic protein solubility. Statistically, sarcoplasmic protein solubility and strain-to-fracture were both affected by initial pH (P<0.01) and final pH (P<0.001). However, stress required to fracture cooked batters was entirely controlled by initial pH (P<0.01). In other words, the stress-to-fracture advantage of initially high pH meat was not matched by upward pH adjustment of initially normal pH meat. Emulsion stability, which is better with higher pH meat, was affected by initial and final pH (both P<0.01). Cook yield, like WHC of pH-adjusted raw meat, was more due to final pH than initial pH, similarly cooked batter colour, whereas final pH had a significant effect on quality attributes (generally better when higher). An initially high pH history conferred an enduring advantage on three important batter attributes

  9. Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond and Spray Pond Analysis Models.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-05-02

    Version 00 Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function ofmore » windspeed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted.« less

  10. Preventing ultimate harm as the justification for biomoral modification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-06-01

    Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, the point at which worthwhile life is forever impossible on the planet. These risks can be mitigated, they say, by enhancing moral psychology in novel ways. Persson and Savulescu argue that some parents should modify the underlying biogenetics of their children's moral psychology, if such measures were safe and effective, but they admit these interventions may not decouple humanity from Ultimate Harm. Neither are these modifications the only options, they concede, for addressing risks to humanity. Even with these concessions, saving humanity from itself is a fairly poor reason to modify the moral psychology of children. In most ways, adults would be better candidates, morally speaking, for modifications of psychology. Even then, there is no direct link between morally enhanced human beings and the hoped-for effect of better protection from Ultimate Harm. Asserting a general duty of all to contribute to the avoidance of Ultimate Harm is a better moral strategy than intervening in the moral psychology of some, even though meeting that duty may involve substantial interference with the free exercise of one's interests. PMID:25186171

  11. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  12. What is the Ultimate Goal in Acid-Base Regulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Alagesan, Murali; Prakash, E. Sankaranarayanan

    2007-01-01

    It is common to see chapters on acid-base physiology state that the goal of acid-base regulatory mechanisms is to maintain the pH of arterial plasma and not arterial PCO [subscript 2] (Pa[subscript CO[subscript 2

  13. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  14. The ultimate quantum limits on the accuracy of measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    1992-01-01

    A quantum generalization of rate-distortion theory from standard communication and information theory is developed for application to determining the ultimate performance limit of measurement systems in physics. For the estimation of a real or a phase parameter, it is shown that the root-mean-square error obtained in a measurement with a single-mode photon level N cannot do better than approximately N exp -1, while approximately exp(-N) may be obtained for multi-mode fields with the same photon level N. Possible ways to achieve the remarkable exponential performance are indicated.

  15. The ultimate challenge: prove B. F. Skinner wrong.

    PubMed

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  16. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology.

    PubMed

    Alessi, G

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner saw behavior as a product of three levels of evolution. J. R. Kantor and Gregory Bateson noted similar relations. This article describes and applies basic evolutionary concepts to each level: (a) phylogenic, (b) ontogenic, and (c) cultural evolution. Each level is analyzed in terms of (a) units of selection, (b) variety of units required for the selection process, (c) selection pressures, (d) interactions among levels, and (e) implications for understanding and predicting behavior. Distinguishing between models of proximate and ultimate causation, as in biology, may help clarify research problems posed by, and facilitate better communication among, psychologists. PMID:1482003

  17. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  18. Some Physics Constraints on Ultimate Achievement in Track and Field

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2009-02-06

    World records in track and field have improved remarkably throughout the last 100 years; however, in several events physics places quite strict limitations on ultimate performance. For example, analysis suggests that records in broad jump and pole vault have approached their optimum possible values. Physical constraints are more subtle for events such as javelin, high jump, and the distance races, and thus there may be opportunities for “breakthroughs” in current records. Considering that there is enormous cultural interest and economic expenditure on sports, for most events the level of scientific analysis isn’t very high. This presents a research opportunity for fans who are engineers or physicists.

  19. Pork Quality Traits According to Postmortem pH and Temperature in Berkshire

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Chul Wook; Yang, Mi Ra; No, Gun Ryoung; Kim, Il-Suk

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the role of pH and temperature postmortem, and to demonstrate the importance of these factors in determining meat quality. Postmortem pH45min (pH at 45 min postmortem or initial pH) via analysis of Pearson’s correlation showed high positive correlation with pH change pHc24 (pH change from pH45min to pH24h postmortem). However, postmortem pH after 24 h (pH24h or ultimate pH) had a high negative correlation with pH change, pHc24, CIE L*, and protein content. Initial temperature postmortem (T1h ) was positively associated with a change in temperature from 45 min to 24 h postmortem (Tc24) and cooking loss, but negatively correlated with water holding capacity. Temperature at 24 h postmortem (T24h) was negatively associated with Tc24. Collectively, these results indicate that higher initial pH was associated with higher pHc24, T1h, and Tc24. However, higher initial pH was associated with a reduction in carcass weight, backfat thickness, CIE a* and b*, water holding capacity, collagen and fat content, drip loss, and cooking loss as well as decreased shear force. In contrast, CIE a* and b*, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force in higher ultimate pH was showed by a similar pattern to higher initial pH, whereas pHc24, carcass weight, backfat thickness, water holding capacity, fat content, moisture content, protein content, T1h, T24h, and Tc24 were exhibited by completely differential patterns (p<0.05). Therefore, we suggest that initial pH, ultimate pH, and temperatures postmortem are important factors in determining the meat quality of pork. PMID:27499661

  20. Methods for ultimate load analysis of concrete containments

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.; Yuan, K.A.; Lu, Y.M.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of the research project described in this interim report is to develop a qualified methodology for the ultimate load analysis of concrete containment structures. The EPRI-sponsored nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS-EPGEN, which has recently been modified to incorporate a constitutive model for plain concrete and modeling capabilities for reinforced and prestressed concrete containments, is utilized as the structural analysis tool in this development. The ABAQUS-EPGEN concrete modeling and analysis capabilities are first evaluated by comparing measured data with code predictions for full-scale reinforced concrete slab specimens tested under uniaxial and biaxial tension. These specimen tests simulate the behavior of the cylindrical wall of a typical concrete containment structure under internal pressure. The calculated and measured strain comparisons are used to improve the constitutive model and to qualify the code for concrete containment analysis. The second part of this effort deals with the ultimate load analysis of reinforced and prestressed containments to determine bounds on the global overpressure capacities of typical concrete containment structures. The third part of this effort further examines such local effects through a substructural analysis of the liner-concrete interaction at major concrete cracks.

  1. The Displacement Perspective During Ultimate Failure of Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.; Bhar, A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the state of displacement of symmetric and anti-symmetric angle-ply and cross-ply laminated composite plates during its ultimate failure, subjected to transverse static load. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is employed in conjunction with the finite element approach using eight-noded quadratic isoparametric element. The free vibration analyses of isotropic and laminated composite plates are carried out to ensure the overall validity of the present finite element formulation. The mid surface of the laminate is considered as the reference plane. The principal material directions in different laminae are oriented to produce a laminated structural element capable of resisting loads in several directions. The stiffness of a composite laminate is obtained from the properties of the constituent laminae. The affected stiffness of the failed lamina is discarded completely after the failure of weakest ply. The rigidity matrix of the laminate with remaining laminae is re-established. The re-evaluation process continues until the laminate fails completely. To investigate the displacement behaviour of laminates during the ultimate failure, parametric studies are carried out for different cases by varying the stacking sequences, fiber orientations, layer thicknesses, aspect ratios and the number of layers in the laminate. The comparison of results in terms of non-dimensional natural frequencies and ply-by-ply failure analyses obtained from the present investigation are made with those available in the reported literature.

  2. Ultimate sensitivity of time-resolved optoacoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Karabutov, Alexander A.

    2000-05-01

    The major limitation in sensitivity of the optical tomography is associated with strong optical attenuation in human tissues. Opto-acoustic tomography overcomes this limitation utilizing detection of acoustic waves instead of detection of transmitted photons. Exceptional sensitivity of the opto-acoustic tomography allows early detection of small tumors located dep in human tissues, such as breast. This paper demonstrates that an optimally designed opto-acoustic imaging system can detect early 1-mm tumors with minimal blood content of only 7 percent at the depth of up to 7-cm within the breast attenuating laser irradiation 3.3 times per each 1-cm of its depth. A theoretical consideration of the ultimate sensitivity of piezo-detection in a wide ultrasonic frequency band is developed. The detection sensitivity is presented as a function of the ultrasonic frequency, tumor dimensions and optical absorption coefficient. Comparative analysis of piezo and optical interferometric detection of opto-acoustic transients is presented. The theoretical models of piezo detection were developed for the open-circuit and short-circuit schemes of operation. The ultimate sensitivity limited by thermal noise of electric capacitor of the piezo-element was estimated. It was shown that the limit of detection depends on the frequency band, the electric capacity of the transducer and the sped of sound in the piezo-element. Comparative analysis of various piezo-materials was made from the point of view of their utility for sensitive opto-acoustic detection.

  3. Helium separation via porous silicene based ultimate membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2013-09-01

    Helium purification has become more important for increasing demands in scientific and industrial applications. In this work, we demonstrated that the porous silicene can be used as an effective ultimate membrane for helium purification on the basis of first-principles calculations. Prinstine silicene monolayer is impermeable to helium gas with a high penetration energy barrier (1.66 eV). However, porous silicene with either Stone-Wales (SW) or divacancy (555 777 or 585) defect presents a surmountable barrier for helium (0.33 to 0.78 eV) but formidable for Ne, Ar, and other gas molecules. In particular, the porous silicene with divacancy defects shows high selectivity for He/Ne and He/Ar, superior to graphene, polyphenylene, and traditional membranes.

  4. Ultimate photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures with critical film thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Cong; Jin Kuijuan; Zhao Ruiqiang; Lu Huibin; Guo Haizhong; Ge Chen; He Meng; Wang Can; Yang Guozhen

    2011-05-02

    One order larger photovoltage is obtained with critical thicknesses of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} films in both kinds of heterostructures of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (0.8 wt % Nb-doped) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/Si fabricated at various oxygen pressures. Our self-consistent calculation reveals that the critical thickness of the La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} film with the ultimate value of photovoltage is just the thickness of the depletion layer of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} in both heterojunctions, respectively.

  5. Ultimate boundedness stability and controllability of hereditary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chukwu, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    By generalizing the Liapunov-Yoshizawa techniques, necessary and sufficient conditions are given for uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of a rather general class of nonlinear differential equations of neutral type. Among the applications treated by the methods are the Lienard equation of neutral type and hereditary systems of Lurie type. The absolute stability of this later equation is also investigated. A certain existence result of a solution of a neutral functional differential inclusion with two point boundary values is applied to study the exact function space controllability of a nonlinear neutral functional differential control system. A geometric growth condition is used to characterize both the function space and Euclidean controllability of another nonlinear delay system which has a compact and convex control set. This yields conditions under which perturbed nonlinear delay controllable systems are controllable.

  6. Ultimate drivers of native biodiversity change in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Norton, David A; Reid, Nick; Young, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to address land degradation and biodiversity loss while maintaining the production of plant and animal products is a key global challenge. Biodiversity decline as a result of vegetation clearance, cultivation, grazing, pesticide and herbicide application, and plantation establishment, amongst other factors, has been widely documented in agricultural ecosystems. In this paper we identify six ultimate drivers that underlie these proximate factors and hence determine what native biodiversity occurs in modern agricultural landscapes; (1) historical legacies; (2) environmental change; (3) economy; (4) social values and awareness; (5) technology and knowledge; and (6) policy and regulation. While historical legacies and environmental change affect native biodiversity directly, all six indirectly affect biodiversity by influencing the decisions that land managers make about the way they use their land and water resources. Understanding these drivers is essential in developing strategies for sustaining native biodiversity in agricultural landscapes into the future. PMID:26834971

  7. Ultimate pressure capacity of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Wang, Y.K.; Reich, M.

    1985-05-01

    This report presents the results of an in-depth evaluation of current modeling techniques and analysis procedures for determining ultimate pressure capacity of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments. The material used for describing the nonlinear material behavior of concrete and steel are reviewed in detail. Special attention is focused on post-cracking behavior of concrete which controls one of the containment failure modes, i.e., the shear failure. Various finite element idealizations utilized for containment analysis are reviewed. The effects of major assumptions pertaining to containment geometry, basemat restraint, finite element mesh, rebar locations and orientations, are evaluated. Finally, failure analyses of two selected reinforced and prestressed concrete containments are performed and results are compared with those presented in the literature. 27 refs., 25 figs.

  8. Plug nozzles: The ultimate customer driven propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aukerman, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applying the plug cluster nozzle concept to the propulsion system for a typical lunar excursion vehicle. Primary attention for the design criteria is given to user defined factors such as reliability, low volume, and ease of propulsion system development. Total thrust and specific impulse are held constant in the study while other parameters are explored to minimize the design chamber pressure. A brief history of the plug nozzle concept is included to point out the advanced level of technology of the concept and the feasibility of exploiting the variables considered in this study. The plug cluster concept looks very promising as a candidate for consideration for the ultimate customer driven propulsion system.

  9. Ultimate Spectrum of Solar/Stellar Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-08-01

    We reconstruct an ultimate spectrum of solar/stellar cosmic rays (SCR) in a given point in the heliosphere (stellar sphere) basing on maximal value of magnetic field strenght in active region and its characteristic linear dimension. An accelerator of given dimensions and magnetic field strengh may accelarate to a finite energy for a given time (a maximal energy of SCR). We will use spectrum of SCR proposed by Syrovatsky (1961) for relativistic and non-relativistic energies normaliszing it to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity at maximal SCR energy. Maximal values of SCR flux propagating in the heliosphere are determined by equilibrium between pressure of interplanetary magnrtic field and dynamic pressure of SCR (Frier&Webber, 1963). The obtained spectra would be applied to explain the extreme solar particle event occurred in about 775 AD basing on the tree-ring chronology (Miyake et al., 2012).

  10. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J. David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman’s principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides

  11. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    PubMed

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  12. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  13. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  14. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

    2014-08-01

    Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely

  15. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  16. Ph.D. shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, “The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role,” reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are “major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research.’ The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

  17. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Langry, Kevin C.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  18. Evaluation of ultimate tensile strength using Miniature Disk Bend Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kundan; Pooleery, Arun; Madhusoodanan, K.; Singh, R. N.; Chakravartty, J. K.; Shriwastaw, R. S.; Dutta, B. K.; Sinha, R. K.

    2015-06-01

    Correlations for evaluation of Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) using Miniature Disk Bend Test (MDBT) or Small Punch Test (SPT) has been an open issue since the development of the techniques. The larger plastic strains, in tri-axial state of stress during SPT, make the translation to the equivalent uniaxial parameter less certain. Correlations based on Pmax of load-displacement curve are also in disagreement as the point corresponding to Pmax does not represent a necking situation as in case of UTS, in a uniaxial tensile test. In present work, an attempt has been made for locating necking zone, which appears prior to Pmax, through experiments and FEM analyses. Experimental results on disk specimens from 20MnMoNi55, CrMoV ferritic steel and SS304LN materials along with FEM analyses found that load corresponding to 0.48 mm displacement is to be very close to the necking zone, and gives best fit for a UTS correlation.

  19. The ultimate band compression factor in gradient elution chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2008-01-01

    The equations predicting the ultimate time band compression factor, G = (t{sub R}-t{sub F})/t{sub p} in linear gradient elution chromatography, for an infinitely narrow injection (injection time t{sub p} {yields} 0) were derived for an ideal-model column (dispersionless chromatography, H = 0) assuming the Linear Solvent Strength Model for the retention behavior of the analyte. Numerical solutions can readily be obtained when the LSSM model does not apply. The results can be generalized to any retained organic modifier (k'{sub A}) in the mobile phase. The stronger the retention of the organic modifier, the more effective the band compression. Dispersion in real chromatographic column (H {ne} 0) affects the limits that can be reached in linear gradients but poorly in step gradients. Examples based on a conventional HETP of about 12 {micro}m using a 5 {micro}m particle packed column reveal that the best time compression factor that could be expected is twice the one predicted with an ideal column.

  20. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  1. Gaussian benchmark for optical communication aiming towards ultimate capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-05-01

    We establish the fundamental limit of communication capacity within Gaussian schemes under phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which employ multimode Gaussian states for encoding and collective Gaussian operations and measurements for decoding. We prove that this Gaussian capacity is additive, i.e., its upper bound occurs with separable encoding and separable receivers so that a single-mode communication suffices to achieve the largest capacity under Gaussian schemes. This rigorously characterizes the gap between the ultimate Holevo capacity and the capacity within Gaussian communication, showing that Gaussian regime is not sufficient to achieve the Holevo bound particularly in the low-photon regime. Furthermore, the Gaussian benchmark established here can be used to critically assess the performance of non-Gaussian protocols for optical communication. We move on to identify non-Gaussian schemes to beat the Gaussian capacity and show that a non-Gaussian receiver recently implemented by Becerra et al. [F. E. Becerra et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 147 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.316] can achieve this aim with an appropriately chosen encoding strategy.

  2. Histologic remission: the ultimate therapeutic goal in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Bressenot, Aude; Kampman, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of histologic activity has been observed. Histologic healing requires complete recovery of the colonic mucosa, with absence of inflammation or structural changes. Histologic improvements have been linked with improved clinical outcomes, such as a reduced risk of relapse and need for surgery/hospitalization and a reduced risk of developing cancer. Hence, there is a rationale for aiming for histologic remission in UC. Numerous methods of classification of histologic activity in UC have been proposed, although only some of these are widely used. We review the current definitions of histologic remission, the range of scoring systems most commonly used, and the evidence of histologic improvement that is available from the latest therapies for UC. We also highlight questions that will require careful consideration if histologic remission is to become more widely used as an end point in clinical trials and a treatment goal in clinical practice. PMID:23911875

  3. Digital exchange of graphic arts material: the ultimate challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, David Q.

    1996-01-01

    The digital exchange of graphic arts material -- particularly advertising material for publications -- in an open standardized environment represents the ultimate challenge for electronic data exchange. To meet the needs of publication advertising, the graphic arts industry must be able to transmit advertisements in an open environment where there are many senders and many receivers of the material. The material being transmitted consists of combinations of pictorial material, text, and line art with these elements superimposed on top of each other and/or interrelated in complex ways. The business relationships established by the traditional workflow environment, the combination of aesthetic and technical requirements, and the large base of existing hardware and software play a major role in limiting the options available. Existing first- and second-generation standards are focused on the CEPS environment, which operates on and stores data as raster files. The revolution in personal computer hardware and software, and the acceptance of these tools by the graphic arts community, dictates that standards must also be created and implemented for this world of vector/raster-based systems. The requirements for digital distribution of advertising material for publications, the existing graphic arts standards base, and the anticipation of future standards developments in response to these needs are explored.

  4. Launching GUPPI: the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuPlain, Ron; Ransom, Scott; Demorest, Paul; Brandt, Patrick; Ford, John; Shelton, Amy L.

    2008-08-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is launching the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), a prototype flexible digital signal processor designed for pulsar observations with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). GUPPI uses field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware and design tools developed by the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California, Berkeley. The NRAO has been concurrently developing GUPPI software and hardware using minimal software resources. The software handles instrument monitor and control, data acquisition, and hardware interfacing. GUPPI is currently an expert-only spectrometer, but supports future integration with the full GBT production system. The NRAO was able to take advantage of the unique flexibility of the CASPER FPGA hardware platform, develop hardware and software in parallel, and build a suite of software tools for monitoring, controlling, and acquiring data with a new instrument over a short timeline of just a few months. The NRAO interacts regularly with CASPER and its users, and GUPPI stands as an example of what reconfigurable computing and open-source development can do for radio astronomy. GUPPI is modular for portability, and the NRAO provides the results of development as an open-source resource.

  5. The development of high cooling power and low ultimate temperature superfluid Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashok B.

    demonstrated and further work is still required. However, despite these difficulties, one of the two stage SSR's was able to reach an ultimate low temperature of 248 mK from a high temperature of 1.03 K. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultimate limits to thermally assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Terry W.

    2005-02-01

    The application of thermal energy to enable recording on extremely high anisotropy magnetic media appears to be a viable means of extending the density of stored information. The central physical issue facing the technology is what gain can be realized in writability along with long-term data stability using imaginable media materials. We reasonably expect the material properties M(T) and Hk(T) to determine this, since a stability metric for media with characteristic magnetization switching unit volume V is MV Hk/2kBT. This matter is controversial owing to still open questions related to thermomagnetic recording with temperature elevation above the Curie point and optimal cooling rates. There are indications that multi-component magnetic media may offer advantages in achieving performance goals. Beyond the physical issues lie engineering matters related to the correct system architecture to yield a practical storage device to meet future customer expectations. Here one must address a detailed means of delivering localized heating to the magnetic medium to perform efficient recording. To date, magnetic recording devices have been highly mechanical systems, so it is natural to inquire how a need for an aggressively heated head-medium interface could impact the evolution of future systems. Eventually elements of thermally assisted recording could be combined with patterned media approaches such as self-organized magnetic arrays to push toward ultimate limits where the thermal instability of bits overtakes engineered media materials. Finally, a practical recording system cannot be realized unless a means of finding, following, and reading the smallest bits with a usable signal-to-noise ratio exists—engineering issues separate from an ability to reliably record those bits. This paper is based on an invited presentation of the same title given at the meeting of the American Physical Society, 22-26 March 2004, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  7. Detection of strand breaks in phiX 174 RFI and PM2 DNA reacted with ultimate and proximate carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, H W

    1977-10-01

    Supercoiled DNA duplexes of phages phiX 174 and PM2 were treated in aqueous solution at neutral pH with ultimate and proximate carcinogens. Subsequently, the carcinogen-treated phage DNAs were subjected to velocity sedimentation in neutral and alkaline sucrose to quantitative introduction of single strand breaks. Reaction of phage DNA with the ultimate carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNOUr), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNOUr), 7-bromomethyl-benza[a]-anthracene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene [(Ac)2ONFln] and K-region oxides for short periods followed by sedimentation in neutral sucrose gradients led to very few breaks. Incubation with the proximate carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 7-methyl-, and 7,12-dimethyl-benza[a]anthracene did not result in breaks. However, when the phage DNAs were reacted with the ultimate carcinogens under the same conditions but subsequently alkali-denatured and sedimented in alkaline sucrose gradients, single strand breaks were readily introduced. Incubation with the proximate carcinogens followed by alkali denaturation and sedimentation in alkaline sucrose showed that only 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene and, to a minor extent, 7-methyl-benz[]anthracene caused alkali-inducible breaks. The ability of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine to effect breakdown of superhelical phage DNA in alkali was found enhanced in the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine. PMID:145749

  8. Ultimate VHF Broadband Interferometer Zen KAWASAKI and Manabu AKITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Z.; Akita, M.

    2013-12-01

    propagation, like electromagnetic wave propagation in non-dispersive medium. This procedure presented exciting results of lightning channel imaging, and the bi-directional leader propagation can be visualized in terms of azimuth and elevation as a function of time. Moreover all of the VHF radiation process for an entire lightning flash from initiation to termination can be imaged, and it is concluded that the system might be an ultimate broad band digital interferometer. The authors would like to show their appreciation to Paul Krehbiel, NMIMT, who gave a chance and suggestion of a continuous recording scheme for BDITF. M. Stock et al. : Continuous Broadband Digital Interferometry of Lightning using a Generalized Cross Correlation Algorithm M. Akita et al. : Data Processing Procedure 1 using Distribution of Slopes of Phase Differences for Broadband VHF Interferometer

  9. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  10. [The relationships of Zhang Jing-yue's three theories of the Supreme Ultimate].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chun-Peng

    2007-07-01

    Under the influence of Supreme Ultimate of Neo-Confucianism, Zhang Jing-yue put forward the three theories of the Supreme Ultimate, viz., Supreme Ultimate of the Primordial Qi, Supreme Ultimate of the Heart, and Supreme Ultimate of the Vital Gate. These three theories were of trinity relationship, forming the basic frame of Jingyue's system of medical theories. Among them, the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Primordial Qi was the foundation of natural concept in his medical theories, the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Vital Gate was the teleology of his medical theories, and the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Heart, as a cognitive method, was the methodology of his medical theories. Jing-yue' s medical theories were constructed on these three corner-stays, which was a tremendous leap forward in the development of traditional Chinese medicine and Neo-Confucianism. PMID:18453202

  11. Mixed metal oxide films as pH sensing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshak, Khalil; Gill, Edric; Korostynska, Olga; Arshak, Arousian

    2007-05-01

    Due to the demand for accurate, reliable and highly sensitive pH sensors, research is being pursued to find novel materials to achieve this goal. Semiconducting metal oxides, such as TiO, SnO and SnO II and insulating oxides such as Nb IIO 5 and Bi IIO 3, and their mixtures in different proportions are being investigated for this purpose. The films of these materials mixtures are used in conjunction with an interdigitated electrode pattern to produce a conductimetric/capacitive pH sensor. The advantages of this approach include straightforward manufacturing, versatility and cost-effectiveness. It was noted that upon contact with a solution, the electrical parameters of the films, such as resistance etc., change. The correlation of these changes with pH values is the basis for the proposed system development. The ultimate goal is to find materials composition, which would have the highest sensitivity towards the pH level of the solutions. It was found that the materials that produced the highest sensitivity either had a long response time or were unstable over a wide pH range. Those exhibiting lower sensitivities were found to be more stable over a wide pH range. All oxide films tested demonstrated a change in electrical parameters upon contact with buffers of known pH value.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  13. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  14. Effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on ultimate strength of shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on the ultimate strength and stress displacement properties of the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) was determined. The LI-900 Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tiles mounted on the .41 cm thick Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) were investigated. Substructure deformations reduce the ultimate strength of the SIP/tile TPS and increase the scatter in the ultimate strength data. Substructure deformations that occur unsymmetric to the tile can cause the tile to rotate when subjected to a uniform applied load. Load eccentricity reduces SIP/tile TPS ultimate strength and causes tile rotation.

  15. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate...

  16. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or other Federal, State, or local programs at reasonable rates and terms; and (v) The intermediary... influence in the ultimate recipient, and the ultimate recipient and its principal officers (including immediate family) hold no legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary except the...

  17. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or other Federal, State, or local programs at reasonable rates and terms; and (v) The intermediary... influence in the ultimate recipient, and the ultimate recipient and its principal officers (including immediate family) hold no legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary except the...

  18. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... (75 FR 60133) on September 29, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period. No comments were received... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported...

  19. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and applicants may use to implement general design criteria (GDC) that are applicable to the ultimate......

  20. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Country of ultimate destination and approval of... ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.9 Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers. (a) The country designated as the country of...

  1. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... Commissioner. (2) A cold weather blend is a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel that is produced in an area... registered ultimate vendor (blending) is a taxable fuel registrant, a registered ultimate vendor, or...

  2. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... Commissioner. (2) A cold weather blend is a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel that is produced in an area... registered ultimate vendor (blending) is a taxable fuel registrant, a registered ultimate vendor, or...

  3. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... Commissioner. (2) A cold weather blend is a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel that is produced in an area... registered ultimate vendor (blending) is a taxable fuel registrant, a registered ultimate vendor, or...

  4. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... Commissioner. (2) A cold weather blend is a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel that is produced in an area... registered ultimate vendor (blending) is a taxable fuel registrant, a registered ultimate vendor, or...

  5. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  6. The Responsive Ph.D.: Innovations in U.S. Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbuch, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Woodrow Wilson Foundation does not like to write reports. Typically, Woodrow Wilson translates ideas into academic practices. This said, having engaged 14 (and ultimately 20) graduate schools to work on the Responsive Ph.D.--as the authors called their initiative--it is time to report on what they have accomplished, and on what they have…

  7. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... esophagitis You may need to have the following tests if your doctor suspects esophagitis : Barium swallow Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (also called upper GI endoscopy)

  8. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  9. METHYLATED ASIII COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC METABOLITES OF INORGANIC ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    METHYLATED Asm COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC METABOLITES OF INORGANIC ARSENIC.

    The methylation of inorganic arsenic has typically been viewed as a detoxification process. Genotoxicity tests have generally shown that arsenite has greater mutagenic p...

  10. 75 FR 11922 - Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., Ultimate Staffing (Roth Staffing Companies), and Aerotek, Cromwell, CT; Amended Certification Regarding... in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3938). At the request of the State agency,...

  11. METHODS/MATERIALS MATRIX OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES FOR SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous substances. Disposal methods studied include incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, fixation, biological treatment, and chemical treatment. Applications of ...

  12. A new method to characterize the complex mineralogy of ultimate wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forestier, L. Le; Brown, W.L.; Libourel, G. |

    1995-12-31

    Ultimate wastes, resulting from the incineration of municipal solid wastes, contain high amounts of toxic elements that require stabilization before storage. However, whatever the stabilization processed involved, characterization of their crystal chemistry is essential. In this paper, the authors present a method which allows the determination of the mineralogy of ultimate wastes in detail. They present here an example of results from an ultimate waste, resulting from electrofiltration of fumes. This method is based on grain size and density separations coupled with X-ray diffraction, ICP-ES, ICP-MS, wet chemical methods and electron microprobe analyses. Despite the complexity of this waste, they show that it is possible, not only to determine its mineralogy, but also to give the modal proportions of each phase, and to provide some insights into the crystal chemistry of the main pollutants of this ultimate waste product.

  13. 78 FR 72972 - Application of Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...: The Department of Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC, fit, willing, and able, and awarding it commuter...

  14. Voltammetric pH Nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Magdalena; Kurel, Malgorzata; Jedraszko, Justyna; Toczydlowska, Diana; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin; Nogala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale pH evaluation is a prerequisite for understanding the processes and phenomena occurring at solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas interfaces, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, extraction, partitioning, and corrosion. Research on the homogeneous processes within small volumes such as intracellular fluids, microdroplets, and microfluidic chips also requires nanometer scale pH assessment. Due to the opacity of numerous systems, optical methods are useless and, if applicable, require addition of a pH-sensitive dye. Potentiometric probes suffer from many drawbacks such as potential drift and lack of selectivity. Here, we present a voltammetric nanosensor for reliable pH assessment between pH 2 and 12 with high spatial resolution. It consists of a pyrolytic carbon nanoelectrode obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) inside a quartz nanopipette. The carbon is modified by adsorption of syringaldazine from its ethanolic solution. It exhibits a stable quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram with nearly Nernstian dependency of midpeak potentials (-54 mV/pH). This sensor was applied as a probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in order to map pH over a platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME), generating hydroxide ions (OH(-)) by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a diffusion-controlled rate in aerated phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the alkalization of the electrolyte close to the oxygen reducing electrode, showing the insufficient buffer capacity of PBS to maintain a stable pH at the given conditions. PMID:26516786

  15. On the function of the ultimate legs of some Scolopendridae (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kronmüller, Christian; Lewis, John G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The function of the variously shaped ultimate legs of Scolopendridae is briefly reviewed. Their function in Scolopendra heros Girard, 1853, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815, Scolopendra morsitans (Linnaeus, 1758), Scolopendra galapagoensis Bollman, 1889, Scolopendra hainanum Kronmüller, 2012, Scolopendra spinosissima Kraepelin, 1903 Cormocephalus aurantiipes (Newport, 1844) and Ethmostigmus trigonopodus (Leach, 1817), in which they are least specialised has been investigated. Specimens were tapped with forceps on different parts of the trunk to simulate the attack of a predator. When tapped on the first third of the trunk (near the head), the centipedes attacked the forceps with their forcipules. When tapped on the last third or the ultimate legs, they adopted a warning position, raising the ultimate legs to display the ventral and medial prefemoral spines as well as the spined coxopleural processes. In some cases the centipedes attacked the forceps with the claws of the ultimate legs by chopping down on them after lifting the legs high into the warning position. When tapped in the mid part of the trunk, the centipedes curled sideways to reach the forceps with their forcipules and ultimate legs simultaneously. Scolopendra galapagoensis not only lifted the ultimate legs into the warning position but also the last 3-4 pairs of locomotory legs, presenting their distodorsal prefemoral spines. This resembles the warning posture of some spiders. In addition to their function in warning behaviour, defensive stabbing, ritualised meeting reactions and during courtship behaviour, the ultimate legs may in addition act as hooks and perhaps be involved in species recognition. No evidence was found that the ultimate legs are used to catch prey, nor of prey or predators being held between the prefemora. PMID:26257548

  16. Reconstructing Ocean pH with Boron Isotopes in Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Gavin L.; Rae, James W. B.

    2016-06-01

    In order to better understand the effect of CO2 on the Earth system in the future, geologists may look to CO2-induced environmental change in Earth's past. Here we describe how CO2 can be reconstructed using the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of marine calcium carbonate. We review the chemical principles that underlie the proxy, summarize the available calibration data, and detail how boron isotopes can be used to estimate ocean pH and ultimately atmospheric CO2 in the past. δ11B in a variety of marine carbonates shows a coherent relationship with seawater pH, in broad agreement with simple models for this proxy. Offsets between measured and predicted δ11B may in part be explained by physiological influences, though the exact mechanisms of boron incorporation into carbonate remain unknown. Despite these uncertainties, we demonstrate that δ11B may provide crucial constraints on past ocean acidification and atmospheric CO2.

  17. Combined wind turbine fatigue and ultimate load reduction by individual blade control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Leithead, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    If each blade of the wind turbine has individual pitch actuator, there is possibility of employing the pitch system to mitigate structural loads through advanced control methods. Previously, considerable reduction of blade lifetime equivalent fatigue loads has been achieved by Individual Blade Control (IBC) and in addition, it has also been shown the potential in blade ultimate loads reduction. However, both fatigue and ultimate loads impact on the design and life of wind turbine blades. In this paper, the design and application of IBC that concurrently reduce both blade fatigue and ultimate loads is investigated. The contributions of blade load spectral components, which are 1P, 2P and edgewise mode from blade in-plane and/or out-of-plane bending moments, are firstly explored. Four different control options for reducing various combinations of these load components are compared. In response to the different spectral peaks of both fatigue and ultimate loads, the controller has been designed so that it can act on different frequency components which vary with wind speed. The performance of the IBC controller on fatigue and ultimate load reduction is assessed by simulating a 5MW exemplar wind turbine. Simulation results show that with a proper selection of controlling inputs at different wind speed, the use of a single combined IBC can achieve satisfactory reduction on both fatigue and ultimate loads.

  18. In vitro colonization of the muscle extracellular matrix components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: the influence of growth medium, temperature and pH on initial adhesion and induction of biofilm formation by collagens I and III.

    PubMed

    Chagnot, Caroline; Agus, Allison; Renier, Sandra; Peyrin, Frédéric; Talon, Régine; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-α2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed. PMID:23516631

  19. In Vitro Colonization of the Muscle Extracellular Matrix Components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: The Influence of Growth Medium, Temperature and pH on Initial Adhesion and Induction of Biofilm Formation by Collagens I and III

    PubMed Central

    Chagnot, Caroline; Agus, Allison; Renier, Sandra; Peyrin, Frédéric; Talon, Régine; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-α2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed. PMID:23516631

  20. Application of SERS Nanoparticles for Intracellular pH Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, T; Talley, C; Colvin, M; Huser, T

    2004-10-21

    We present an alternative approach to optical probes that will ultimately allow us to measure chemical concentrations in microenvironments within cells and tissues. This approach is based on monitoring the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response of functionalized metal nanoparticles (50-100 nm in diameter). SERS allows for the sensitive detection of changes in the state of chemical groups attached to individual nanoparticles and small clusters. Here, we present the development of a nanoscale pH meter. The pH response of these nanoprobes is tested in a cell-free medium, measuring the pH of the solution immediately surrounding the nanoparticles. Heterogeneities in the SERS signal, which can result from the formation of small nanoparticle clusters, are characterized using SERS correlation spectroscopy and single particle/cluster SERS spectroscopy. The response of the nanoscale pH meters is tested under a wide range of conditions to approach the complex environment encountered inside living cells and to optimize probe performance.

  1. Ultimate pier and contraction scour prediction in cohesive soils at selected bridges in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, Timothy D.; Over, Thomas M.; Domanski, Marian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Scour Rate In COhesive Soils-Erosion Function Apparatus (SRICOS-EFA) method includes an ultimate scour prediction that is the equilibrium maximum pier and contraction scour of cohesive soils over time. The purpose of this report is to present the results of testing the ultimate pier and contraction scour methods for cohesive soils on 30 bridge sites in Illinois. Comparison of the ultimate cohesive and noncohesive methods, along with the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) cohesive soil reduction-factor method and measured scour are presented. Also, results of the comparison of historic IDOT laboratory and field values of unconfined compressive strength of soils (Qu) are presented. The unconfined compressive strength is used in both ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor methods, and knowing how the values from field methods compare to the laboratory methods is critical to the informed application of the methods. On average, the non-cohesive method results predict the highest amount of scour, followed by the reduction-factor method results; and the ultimate cohesive method results predict the lowest amount of scour. The 100-year scour predicted for the ultimate cohesive, noncohesive, and reduction-factor methods for each bridge site and soil are always larger than observed scour in this study, except 12% of predicted values that are all within 0.4 ft of the observed scour. The ultimate cohesive scour prediction is smaller than the non-cohesive scour prediction method for 78% of bridge sites and soils. Seventy-six percent of the ultimate cohesive predictions show a 45% or greater reduction from the non-cohesive predictions that are over 10 ft. Comparing the ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor 100-year scour predictions methods for each bridge site and soil, the scour predicted by the ultimate cohesive scour prediction method is less than the reduction-factor 100-year scour prediction method for 51% of bridge sites and soils. Critical shear stress

  2. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  3. Residual ultimate strength of a very large crude carrier considering probabilistic damage extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Joonmo; Nam, Ji-Myung; Tayyar, Tansel

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides the prediction of ultimate longitudinal strengths of the hull girders of a very large crude carrier considering probabilistic damage extent due to collision and grounding accidents based on IMO Guidelines (2003). The probabilistic density functions of damage extent are expressed as a function of non-dimensional damage variables. The accumulated probabilistic levels of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% are taken into account for the estimation of damage extent. The ultimate strengths have been calculated using the in-house software called Ultimate Moment Analysis of Damaged Ships which is based on the progressive collapse method, with a new convergence criterion of force vector equilibrium. Damage indices are provided for several probable heeling angles from 0° (sagging) to 180° (hogging) due to collision- and grounding-induced structural failures and consequent flooding of compartments. This paper proves from the residual strength analyses that the second moment of area of a damage section can be a reliable index for the estimation of the residual ultimate strength. A simple polynomial formula is also proposed based on minimum residual ultimate strengths.

  4. Universal limiter for transient interpolation modeling of the advective transport equations: The ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    A fresh approach is taken to the embarrassingly difficult problem of adequately modeling simple pure advection. An explicit conservative control-volume formation makes use of a universal limiter for transient interpolation modeling of the advective transport equations. This ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme is applied to unsteady, one-dimensional scalar pure advection at constant velocity, using three critical test profiles: an isolated sine-squared wave, a discontinuous step, and a semi-ellipse. The goal, of course, is to devise a single robust scheme which achieves sharp monotonic resolution of the step without corrupting the other profiles. The semi-ellipse is particularly challenging because of its combination of sudden and gradual changes in gradient. The ULTIMATE strategy can be applied to explicit conservation schemes of any order of accuracy. Second-order schemes are unsatisfactory, showing steepening and clipping typical of currently popular so-called high resolution shock-capturing of TVD schemes. The ULTIMATE third-order upwind scheme is highly satisfactory for most flows of practical importance. Higher order methods give predictably better step resolution, although even-order schemes generate a (monotonic) waviness in the difficult semi-ellipse simulation. Little is to be gained above ULTIMATE fifth-order upwinding which gives results close to the ultimate for which one might hope.

  5. Mapping of minority carrier diffusion length and heavy metal contamination with ultimate surface photovoltage method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J.; Aleynikov, A.; Savtchouk, A.; Edelman, P.

    2004-07-01

    The Ultimate surface photovoltage method of minority carrier diffusion length measurements reffered to as Ultimate SPV, replaces a sequential “one wavelength at a time” approach with simultaneous illumination with the entire set of wavelengths. In this multiwavelength beam, each monochromatic component is chopped with slightly different frequency. This enables simultaneous monitoring of all component SPV signals corresponding to different wavelengths using multi-frequency signal processing. The amplitude and phase of each component signals are then analyzed and used to calculate the diffusion length and surface lifetime. In-flight Ultimate SPV measurement, whereby the wafer continuously moves under SPV probe, is used for fast whole wafer mapping. In addition to speed advantages, Ultimate SPV offers a fundemental accuracy advantage due to elimination of differences in wafer condition during sequential illumination with individual wavelengths. High-speed measurements make it possible to add additional wafer treatments and perform multi-mapping required for separation of Fe and Cu in the silicon bulk. Wafer mapping in time of 2 minutes realized with Ultimate SPV is critical for monitoring of cobalt in silicon.

  6. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Zeng, Mao-Mao; Zheng, Zong-Ping; He, Zhi-Yong; Tao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Ya-Hui; Chen, Jie

    2014-12-01

    A novel method allowing simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors (phenylalanine, tyrosine, creatine, creatinine, glucose) has been developed as a robust kinetic study tool by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A direct hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction was applied to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all seven analytes, with the mean recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% at two concentration levels. Then, an Atlantis dC18 column selected from four different chromatographic columns was ultimately used to separate these compounds within 15 min. The limits of detection range of allseven analytes were calculated as 0.14-325.00 μg L(-1). The intra- and interday precision of the proposed method were less than 15.4 and 19.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to depict the kinetic profiles of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors in pork model, reducing the analysis time and cost in the kinetic study. PMID:25407701

  8. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    PubMed

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. PMID:23928074

  9. Cause and effect in biology revisited: is Mayr's proximate-ultimate dichotomy still useful?

    PubMed

    Laland, Kevin N; Sterelny, Kim; Odling-Smee, John; Hoppitt, William; Uller, Tobias

    2011-12-16

    Fifty years ago, Ernst Mayr published a hugely influential paper on the nature of causation in biology, in which he distinguished between proximate and ultimate causes. Mayr equated proximate causation with immediate factors (for example, physiology) and ultimate causation with evolutionary explanations (for example, natural selection). He argued that proximate and ultimate causes addressed different questions and were not alternatives. Mayr's account of causation remains widely accepted today, with both positive and negative ramifications. Several current debates in biology (for example, over evolution and development, niche construction, cooperation, and the evolution of language) are linked by a common axis of acceptance/rejection of Mayr's model of causation. We argue that Mayr's formulation has acted to stabilize the dominant evolutionary paradigm against change but may now hamper progress in the biological sciences. PMID:22174243

  10. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding.

    PubMed

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10-20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  11. Higher order direct model reference adaptive control with generic uniform ultimate boundedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Arnab; Höcht, Leonhard; Holzapfel, Florian

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new higher order model reference adaptive control (HO-MRAC) approach following direct adaptive control philosophy, which estimates unknown time-varying parameters. This approach leads to a Lyapunov based conventional MRAC update law, augmented by an observer type parameter predictor dynamics. The predictor dynamics are composed of a stable known part, a feedback of the parameter error and unknown higher order parameters, which are updated using a Lyapunov based adaptive design. So, this HO-MRAC can cope with rapidly changing parameters, due to estimation of their time derivatives. Moreover, for stability analysis, a Lyapunov based generic ultimate boundedness theorem is presented, which allows for a computation of separate bounds for each state vector partition. Furthermore, this theorem formulates the explicit specification of transient and ultimate bounds, reaching time on the ultimate bounds and a set of admissible initial conditions. Two challenging illustrative examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Influence of early pH decline on calpain activity in porcine muscle.

    PubMed

    Pomponio, Luigi; Ertbjerg, Per; Karlsson, Anders H; Costa, Leonardo Nanni; Lametsch, René

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of post-mortem pH decline on calpain activity and myofibrillar degradation. From 80 pigs, 30 Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were selected on the basis of pH values at 3h post-mortem and classified into groups of 10 as fast, intermediate and slow pH decline. The rate of pH decline early post-mortem differed between the three groups, but the ultimate pH values were similar at 24h. Calpain activity and autolysis from 1 to 72h post-mortem were determined using casein zymography and studied in relation to myofibrillar fragmentation. Colour and drip loss were measured. A faster decrease in pH resulted in reduced level of mu-calpain activity and increased autolysis of the enzyme, and hence an earlier loss of activity due to activation of mu-calpain in muscles with a fast pH decline. Paralleling the mu-calpain activation in muscles with a fast pH decline a higher myofibril fragmentation at 24h post-mortem was observed, which was no longer evident in the later phase of the tenderization process. In conclusion, the rate of early pH decline influenced mu-calpain activity and the rate but not the extent of myofibrillar degradation, suggesting an early effect of proteolysis on myofibril fragmentation that is reduced during ageing due to an earlier exhaustion of mu-calpain activity. PMID:20374873

  13. Intra-Beam Scattering, Impedance, and Instabilities in Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    We have investigated collective effects in an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances in both planes, using PEP-X as an example. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, a 4.5 GeV ring running round beams at 200 mA in 3300 bunches, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current. The Touschek lifetime is 11 hours. Impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. We have investigated collective effects in PEP-X, an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances (at one angstrom wavelength) in both planes. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current of 200 mA, assuming round beams. The Touschek lifetime is quite large in PEP-X, 11.6 hours, and - near the operating point - increases with decreasing emittance. It is, however, a very sensitive function of momentum acceptance. In an ultimate ring like PEP-X impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. Before ultimate PEP-X can be realized, the question of how to run a machine with round beams needs serious study. For example, in this report we assumed that the vertical emittance is coupling dominated. It may turn out that using vertical dispersion is a preferable way to generate round beams. The choice will affect IBS and the Touschek effect.

  14. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    ... J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Kidney Stones Urinalysis Browse the Encyclopedia A. ...

  15. Making pH Tangible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

  16. Space simulation ultimate pressure lowered two decades by removal of diffusion pump oil contaminants during operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The complex problem why large space simulation chambers do not realize the true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance have been identified and some advances in vacuum/distillation/fractionation technology have been achieved which resulted in a two decade or more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effect of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and reclaiming contaminated oil by high vacuum molecular distillation are described.

  17. A survey of beef muscle color and pH.

    PubMed

    Page, J K; Wulf, D M; Schwotzer, T R

    2001-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to define a beef carcass population in terms of muscle color, ultimate pH, and electrical impedance; to determine the relationships among color, pH, and impedance and with other carcasses characteristics; and to determine the effect of packing plant, breed type, and sex class on these variables. One thousand beef carcasses were selected at three packing plants to match the breed type, sex class, marbling score, dark-cutting discount, overall maturity, carcass weight, and yield grade distributions reported for the U.S. beef carcass population by the 1995 National Beef Quality Audit. Data collected on these carcasses included USDA quality and yield grade data and measurements of muscle color (L*, a*, b*), muscle pH, and electrical impedance of the longissimus muscle. About one-half (53.1%) of the carcasses fell within a muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.49, and 81.3% of the carcasses fell within a longissimus muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.59. A longissimus muscle pH of 5.87 was the approximate cut-off between normal and dark-cutting carcasses. Frequency distributions indicated that L* values were normally distributed, whereas a* and b* values were abnormally distributed (skewed because of a longer tail for lower values, a tail corresponding with dark-cutting carcasses). Electrical impedance was highly variable among carcasses but was not highly related to any other variable measured. Color measurements (L*, a*, b*) were correlated (P < 0.05) with lean maturity score (-.58, -.31, and -.43, respectively) and with muscle pH (-.40, -.58, and -.56, respectively). In addition, fat thickness was correlated with muscle pH and color (P < 0.05). There was a threshold at approximately .76 cm fat thickness, below which carcasses had higher muscle pH values and lower colorimeter readings. Steer carcasses (L* = 39.62, a* = 25.20, and b* = 11.03) had slightly higher colorimeter readings (P < 0.05) than heifer carcasses (L* = 39.20, a* = 24.78, and b

  18. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  19. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  20. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  1. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  2. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  3. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15 Section 4280.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds...

  4. The Ultimate Flag Games Curriculum: An Answer to a Participation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie

    2011-01-01

    In response to a lack of active participation by students in physical education, the Ultimate Flag Games curriculum was created and has thrived in the decades since its inception. The curriculum has been successful at the middle school, high school, and higher education levels. This article introduced the curriculum, different games, and rules and…

  5. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280.21 Section 4280.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs...

  6. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This request for... That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. OMB Number:...

  7. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This request for... Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. OMB Number:...

  8. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280.21 Section 4280.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs...

  9. Student's Ultimate Career Coursework, Employment, & Student Services Handbook. "SUCCESS Handbook" Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foothill-De Anza Community Coll. District, Cupertino, CA. Occupational Training Inst.

    The Student's Ultimate Career Coursework, Employment and Student Services (SUCCESS) Handbook project was undertaken to identify student support services available through the California Community Colleges (CCC), increase student retention among special needs vocational education students, and identify common barriers to employment. The project…

  10. Ultimate biochemical oxygen demand in semi-intensively managed shrimp pond waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent studies were conducted to quantified ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (UBOD) and the corresponding decomposition rate constant for production pond (average 21.5 ha each) waters and effluents on six semi-intensively managed marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in Honduras. S...

  11. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reexports or retransfers. 123.9 Section 123.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.9 Country of ultimate destination... be subject to all the documentation required for a permanent export license (see § 123.1) and...

  12. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Explosives found at 27 CFR parts 447, 478, and 479, which are unaffected by the Defense Trade Cooperation... reexports or retransfers. 123.9 Section 123.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.9 Country of ultimate...

  13. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r = 0.65–0.94). Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters. PMID:25695083

  14. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  15. Qualtum cosmics-and-chaotics--the ultimate tortoise in physics and modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A

    1997-01-01

    Qualtum cosmics is the qualitative opposite of quantum mechanics. The flip-side of qualtum cosmics is qualtum chaotics, the two governing much of what is seen as inscrutable in medicine. The Ultimate (Last) Tortoise is close to Einsteinean idea of a Unified Theory, a single concept that can explain whatsoever there is in physics, (and in medicine, or what have you). PMID:10740733

  16. Adjudicating pathological criminal incapacity within a climate of ultimate issue barriers: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Geert Philip

    2015-01-01

    Mental health experts are increasingly being utilised by the criminal justice system to provide assistance to courts during the assessment of issues falling beyond the knowledge and/or experience of the courts. A particular domain where the assistance of qualified psychiatrists and psychologists is becoming essential is where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity falls to be assessed. Mental health professionals testifying during trials where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity is raised will present opinion evidence which is one of the exceptions to the rule of inadmissibility of opinion evidence. Mental health professionals providing their opinion evidence are, however, prohibited from expressing opinions on so-called "ultimate issues" upon which only the court may ultimately rule upon. The latter rule is also commonly known in practice as the "ultimate issue" rule which presents multifaceted challenges in respect of the application of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. In this article, the author assesses the application of the ultimate issue rule with reference to the defence of pathological criminal incapacity as it operates within the South African criminal law context. A comparative analysis is also provided with reference to the rule as it operates in the United States of America and more specifically Federal Rule 704. It is concluded that the ultimate issue rule unnecessarily restricts testimony provided by mental health professionals as such placing a barrier on such evidence. As such, it is argued that the rule is superfluous as it remains within the discretion of the trier of fact to decide as to what weight to attach to such evidence. PMID:25681851

  17. The Methods Behind PH WINS

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers—a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  18. The Methods Behind PH WINS.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers--a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10,000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12,000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  19. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  20. Nonlinear finite element analysis of nuclear reinforced prestressed concrete containments up to ultimate load capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-06-01

    For safety evaluation of nuclear structures a finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) has been developed. Eight/nine noded isoparametric quadrilateral plate/shell element with reinforcement as a through thickness discrete but integral smeared layer of the element is presented to analyze reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Various constitutive models such as crushing, cracking in tension, tension stiffening and rebar yielding are studied and effect of these parameters on the reserve strength of structures is brought out through a number of benchmark tests. A global model is used to analyze the prestressed concrete containment wall of a typical 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) up to its ultimate capacity. This demonstrates the adequacy of Indian PHWR containment design to withstand severe accident loads.

  1. Ultimate strength analyses of the Watts Bar, Maine Yankee, and Bellefonte containments

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.

    1984-07-01

    As part of Sandia National Laboratories' Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program, structural analyses of the Watts Bar, Maine Yankee, and Bellefonte containment structures were performed with the obtective of obtaining realistic estimates of their ultimate static pressure capacities. The Watts Bar investigation included analyses of the containment shell, equipment hatch, anchorage systems, and personnel lock. The ultimate pressure capability is estimated to be between 120 and 137 psig, corresponding to shell yielding and equipment hatch buckling, respectively. The Maine yankee investigation consisted of an analysis of the containment shell and estimated its failure pressure to be between 96 and 118 psig. For the Bellefonte containment, analyses of the containment shell and equipment hatch were performed. The pressure capacity of the Bellefonte containment is estimated to be between 130 and 139 psig, corresponding to dome tendon yielding and cylinder wall tendon yielding, respectively.

  2. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D.; Wilkinson, Martin G.; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A. E.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening. PMID:25798136

  3. An investigation into geometry and microstructural effects upon the ultimate tensile strengths of butt welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical theory was evaluated empirically. This theory predicts weld ultimate tensile strength based on material properties and fusion line angles, mismatch, peaking, and weld widths. Welds were made on 1/4 and 1/2 in. aluminum 2219-T87, their geometries were measured, they were tensile tested, and these results were compared to theoretical predictions. Statistical analysis of results was performed to evaluate correlation of theory to results for many different categories of weld geometries.

  4. The ultimate safe (US) Reactor: A concept for the third millenium

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor is based on a novel safety concept. Fission products in the reactor are allowed to accumulate only to a level at which they would constitute a harmless source term. Removal of fission products also removes the decay heat - the driving force for the source term. The reactor has no excess criticality and is controlled by the reactivity temperature coefficient. Safety is inherent and passive. Waste is removed from the site promptly.

  5. Multiple proximate and ultimate causes of natal dispersal in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in vertebrates vary, and relative importance of these causes is poorly understood. Among populations, inter- and intrasexual social cues for dispersal are thought to reduce inbreeding and local mate competition, respectively, and specific emigration cue may affect dispersal distance, such that inbreeding avoidance dispersal tends to be farther than dispersal to reduce local competition. To investigate potential occurrence of multiple proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal within populations, we radio-marked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. Natal dispersal probability and distance were monitored over a 3-year period when large-scale management changes reduced density of adult females and increased density of adult males. Most dispersal (95-97%) occurred during two 12-week periods: spring, when yearling males still closely associate with related females, and prior to fall breeding season, when yearling males closely associate with other breeding-age males. Following changes to sex and age structure that reduced potential for inbreeding and increased potential for mate competition, annual dispersal probability did not change; however, probability of spring dispersal decreased, whereas probability of fall dispersal increased. Spring dispersal distances were greater than fall dispersal distances, suggesting that adaptive inbreeding avoidance dispersal requires greater distance than mate competition dispersal where opposite-sex relatives are philopatric and populations are not patchily distributed. Both inbreeding avoidance and mate competition are important ultimate causes of dispersal of white-tailed deer, but ultimate motivations for dispersal are proximately cued by different social mechanisms and elicit different responses in dispersers.

  6. Back Propagation Neural Networks for Predicting Ultimate Strengths of Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Tensile Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Hill, Eric v. K.

    1993-01-01

    The research presented herein demonstrates the feasibility of predicting ultimate strengths in simple composite structures through a neural network analysis of their acoustic emission (AE) amplitude distribution data. A series of eleven ASTM D-3039 unidirectional graphite/epoxy tensile samples were loaded to failure to generate the amplitude distributions for this analysis. A back propagation neural network was trained to correlate the AE amplitude distribution signatures generated during the first 25% of loading with the ultimate strengths of the samples. The network was trained using two sets of inputs: (1) the statistical parameters obtained from a Weibull distribution fit of the amplitude distribution data, and (2) the event frequency (amplitude) distribution itself. The neural networks were able to predict ultimate strengths with a worst case error of -8.99% for the Weibull modeled amplitude distribution data and 3.74% when the amplitude distribution itself was used to train the network. The principal reason for the improved prediction capability of the latter technique lies in the ability of the neural network to extract subtle features from within the amplitude distribution.

  7. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding

    PubMed Central

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10–20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  8. Permissive role of cytosolic pH acidification in neurodegeneration: A closer look at its causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Javad; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Golzari, Samad E J; Sabermarouf, Babak; Reyhani-Rad, Siamak

    2016-10-01

    The maintenance of cytosolic pH in its physiological range is required for normal neuronal activity, and even minor alterations can have serious consequences. This Review summarizes the current understanding of the conditions that are associated with cytosolic pH disruption and that lead to abnormal cytosolic acidification. Oxidative stress results in cytosolic acidification, and this plays a crucial role in the emergence of apoptosis in protein misfolding and excitotoxicity, ultimately leading to irreversible neuronal damage. Through the identification of mechanisms by which intraneuronal pH acidification promotes neurodegeneration, we may identify new approaches for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27282491

  9. The pH of antiseptic cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

  10. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  11. Rain pH estimation based on the particulate matter pollutants and wet deposition study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian; Pal, Asim Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In forecasting of rain pH, the changes caused by particulate matter (PM) are generally neglected. In regions of high PM concentration like Dhanbad, the role of PM in deciding the rain pH becomes important. Present work takes into account theoretical prediction of rain pH by two methods. First method considers only acid causing gases (ACG) like CO2, SO2 and NOx in pH estimation, whereas, second method additionally accounts for effect of PM (ACG-PM). In order to predict the rain pH, site specific deposited dust that represents local PM was studied experimentally for its impact on pH of neutral water. After incorporation of PM correction factor, it was found that, rain pH values estimated were more representative of the observed ones. Fractional bias (FB) for the ACG-PM method reduced to values of the order of 10(-2) from those with order of 10(-1) for the ACG method. The study confirms neutralization of rain acidity by PM. On account of this, rain pH was found in the slightly acidic to near neutral range, despite of the high sulfate flux found in rain water. Although, the safer range of rain pH blurs the severity of acid rain from the picture, yet huge flux of acidic and other ions get transferred to water bodies, soil and ultimately to the ground water system. Simple use of rain pH for rain water quality fails to address the issues of its increased ionic composition due to the interfering pollutants and thus undermines severity of pollutants transferred from air to rain water and then to water bodies and soil. PMID:27139302

  12. The fiber-optic gyroscope: Challenges to become the ultimate rotation-sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Hervé C.

    2013-12-01

    Taking advantage of the development of optical-fiber communication technologies, the fiber-optic gyroscope started to be investigated in the mid 1970s, opening the way for a fully solid-state rotation sensor. It was firstly seen as dedicated to medium-grade applications, but today, it reaches strategic-grade performance and surpasses its well-established competitor, the ring-laser gyroscope, in terms of bias noise and long-term stability. Further progresses remain possible, the challenge being the ultimate inertial navigation performance of one nautical mile per month corresponding to a long-term bias stability of 10-5°/h.

  13. Lava ultimate resin nano ceramic for CAD/ CAM: customization case study.

    PubMed

    Koller, M; Arnetzl, G V; Holly, L; Arnetzl, G

    2012-01-01

    Lava Ultimate Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) blocks are innovative new CAD/CAM materials that make it possible to achieve superior esthetic results in easy steps. The blocks are made of nano ceramic particles embedded in a highly cured resin matrix. Therefore, composite materials can be used to characterize and adjust resin nano ceramic restorations after milling. The milled RNC restorations can be individualized intra-orally or extra-orally, either before or after insertion. Unlike conventional ceramic restorations, customization and glaze firing is neither necessary nor possible with RNC restorations. This opens up the opportunity for intraoral individualization and adaptation of the restorations. PMID:22891419

  14. Engineering Ultimate Self-Protection in Autonomic Agents for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) will push space exploration missions to the limit. Future missions will be required to be self-managing as well as self-directed, in order to meet the challenges of human and robotic space exploration. We discuss security and self protection in autonomic agent based-systems, and propose the ultimate self-protection mechanism for such systems-self-destruction. Like other metaphors in Autonomic Computing, this is inspired by biological systems, and is the analog of biological apoptosis. Finally, we discus the role it might play in future NASA space exploration missions.

  15. A theoretical approach for estimation of ultimate size of bimetallic nanocomposites synthesized in microemulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Saydi, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    In this research a new idea for prediction of ultimate sizes of bimetallic nanocomposites synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsion system is proposed. In this method, by modifying Tabor Winterton approximation equation, an effective Hamaker constant was introduced. This effective Hamaker constant was applied in the van der Waals attractive interaction energy. The obtained effective van der Waals interaction energy was used as attractive contribution in the total interaction energy. The modified interaction energy was applied successfully to predict some bimetallic nanoparticles, at different mass fraction, synthesized in microemulsion system of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane.

  16. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  17. Pancreatic necrosis: results of necrosectomy, packing, and ultimate closure over drains.

    PubMed Central

    Branum, G; Galloway, J; Hirchowitz, W; Fendley, M; Hunter, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The treatment of pancreatic necrosis at a tertiary referral center was reviewed to effect better patient outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatic necrosis is a devastating disease that leads to death in 10% to 50% of cases. Infected necrosis is particularly deadly because 80% of deaths from necrosis are due to infection or its complications. Therapeutic strategies center on aggressive support of organ systems and prevention and treatment of infectious complications. METHODS: Records of all patients who underwent pancreatic necrosectomy from 1990 to 1996 at Emory University Hospital were reviewed. Patients with infected necrosis were debrided as soon as the diagnosis was made. Reoperation for completion necrosectomy with ultimate closure over lavage catheters was performed as necessary. RESULTS: Of the 244 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis in the study period, 50 underwent pancreatic debridement. The mean age was 52 years, and 74% of patients were transferred from other institutions. Eighty-four percent of patients had infected necrosis, and all patients underwent sequential debridement with eventual closure over drains. Organ failure occurred in 72% of cases, and the overall mortality rate was 12%. The mean length of stay was 54 days. CONCLUSIONS: The management of pancreatic necrosis demands the allocation of extensive resources. An aggressive operative strategy of multiple debridements with ultimate closure over drains can lead to a low mortality rate in patients with this complex disease, but the determination of when to explore patients with sterile necrosis remains difficult. PMID:9637550

  18. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Ultimate Load Behaviour of Brick Masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    The present work brings out the studies on ultimate load behavior of brick masonry subjected to compression and shear-loading. The work composed of both the experimental and numerical investigations, aimed at contributing to the better understanding of the knowledge on the behavior of brick masonry structures under monotonic loading. Two brick masonry specimens have been tested up to ultimate load and the structural response in terms of the load, deflections and strains has been investigated. Due to the complexity, time and expense involved in the experimental investigations on brick masonry, limited number of experimental studies have been conducted and further, numerical studies have been carried out to simulate the experimental tests by suitably adopting the appropriate constitute models for the materials used. The responses and the failure load behaviour obtained from nonlinear numerical models developed are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results. The proposed numerical models can easily be adopted for further studies on the structural component made using brick masonry considering various geometric configurations, material disposition, loading conditions etc.

  19. Development of base isolation device complied with the ultimate strength design code in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Isao; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the scheme of a research project funded by the Ministry of Land Infrastructure Transport and Tourism (MLIT) from the fiscal year of 2012 to 2014 under the title of "Development of base isolation device complied with the ultimate strength design code." The theoretical prediction tells us a new approach to develop a highly stable laminated rubber bearing that has a constant buckling load even under large lateral displacement. Relatively high shear stiffness makes it more stable and the height of the bearing should be longer than its diameter. They are the newly discovered theoretical buckling stability criteria from the previous studies conducted by the author's research team. The experimental studies in this project show the compatibility with the theoretical prediction and highly linear loaddisplacement relationship under large deformation. The performance of the newly developed device satisfies the requirement of the ultimate strength design code, if the ground condition of the target building is normally solid enough to prevent liquefaction. The theoretically predicted buckling stability of the laminated rubber bearings has been experimentally verified by the specimens of this project.

  20. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Chen Guang; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2014-09-01

    In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR), Common Structural Rules (CSR), and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH) are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS), and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM). To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  1. Formulation of reduction rate for ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panel induced by opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-li; Lee, Joo-sung

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate the characteristics of ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panels with opening and also to fit the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experimental data on longitudinally stiffened steel plates with and without opening subjected to the uniform axial in-pane load which is carried out to study the buckling and post-buckling up to the final failure are chosen. Also, a nonlinear finite element method capable of efficiently analyzing the large elasto-plastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels is developed and used for simulation. The feasibility of the present simulation process is confirmed by a good agreement with the experimental results. More case studies are developed employing the simulation process to analyze the influence of various design variables on the reduction rate of ultimate strength of stiffened panel induced by opening. Based on the computed results, two design formulae are fitted and the accuracy of design formulae is studied. Furthermore, the viability of the design formulae for practical engineering is proved.

  2. The n-of-1 clinical trial: the ultimate strategy for individualizing medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Elizabeth O; Patay, Bradley; Diamant, Joel; Issell, Brian; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    N-of-1 or single subject clinical trials consider an individual patient as the sole unit of observation in a study investigating the efficacy or side-effect profiles of different interventions. The ultimate goal of an n-of-1 trial is to determine the optimal or best intervention for an individual patient using objective data-driven criteria. Such trials can leverage study design and statistical techniques associated with standard population-based clinical trials, including randomization, washout and crossover periods, as well as placebo controls. Despite their obvious appeal and wide use in educational settings, n-of-1 trials have been used sparingly in medical and general clinical settings. We briefly review the history, motivation and design of n-of-1 trials and emphasize the great utility of modern wireless medical monitoring devices in their execution. We ultimately argue that n-of-1 trials demand serious attention among the health research and clinical care communities given the contemporary focus on individualized medicine. PMID:21695041

  3. Uncovering the ultimate performance of single-walled carbon nanotube films as transparent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustonen, K.; Laiho, P.; Kaskela, A.; Susi, T.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Kauppinen, E. I.

    2015-10-01

    The ultimate performance—ratio of electrical conductivity to optical absorbance—of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transparent conductive films (TCFs) is an issue of considerable application relevance. Here, we present direct experimental evidence that SWCNT bundling is detrimental for their performance. We combine floating catalyst synthesis of non-bundled, high-quality SWCNTs with an aggregation chamber, in which bundles with mean diameters ranging from 1.38 to 2.90 nm are formed from identical 3 μm long SWCNTs. The as-deposited TCFs from 1.38 nm bundles showed sheet resistances of 310 Ω/□ at 90% transparency, while those from larger bundles of 1.80 and 2.90 nm only reached values of 475 and 670 Ω/□, respectively. Based on these observations, we elucidate how networks formed by smaller bundles perform better due to their greater interconnectivity at a given optical density. Finally, we present a semi-empirical model for TCF performance as a function of SWCNT mean length and bundle diameter. This gives an estimate for the ultimate performance of non-doped, random network mixed-metallicity SWCNT TCFs at ˜80 Ω/□ and 90% transparency.

  4. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-21

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  5. Ultimate osmosis engineered by the pore geometry and functionalization of carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  6. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa. PMID:23569295

  7. Ultimate Osmosis Engineered by the Pore Geometry and Functionalization of Carbon Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  8. Ultimate Heat Sink Thermal Performance and Water Utilization: Measurements on Cooling and Spray Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G. F.; Hadlock, R. K.; Abbey, O. B.

    1982-02-01

    A data acquisition research program, entitled "Ultimate Heat Sink Performance Field Experiments," has been brought to completion. The primary objective is to obtain the requisite data to characterize thermal performance and water utilization for cooling ponds and spray ponds at elevated temperature. Such data are useful for modeling purposes, but the work reported here does not contain modeling efforts within its scope. The water bodies which have been studied are indicative of nuclear reactor ultimate heat sinks, components of emergency core cooling systems. The data reflect thermal performance and water utilization for meteorological and solar influences which are representative of worst-case combinations of conditions. Constructed water retention ponds, provided with absolute seals against seepage, have been chosen as facilities for the measurement programs; the first pond was located at Raft River, Idaho, and the second at East Mesa, California. The data illustrate and describe, for both cooling ponds and spray ponds, thermal performance and water utilization as the ponds cool from an initially elevated temperature. To obtain the initial elevated temperature, it has been convenient to conduct the measurements at geothermal sites having large supplies and delivery rates of hot geothermal fluid. The data are described and discussed in the text, and presented in the form of data volumes as appendices.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Ultimate Load Behaviour of Brick Masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2016-04-01

    The present work brings out the studies on ultimate load behavior of brick masonry subjected to compression and shear-loading. The work composed of both the experimental and numerical investigations, aimed at contributing to the better understanding of the knowledge on the behavior of brick masonry structures under monotonic loading. Two brick masonry specimens have been tested up to ultimate load and the structural response in terms of the load, deflections and strains has been investigated. Due to the complexity, time and expense involved in the experimental investigations on brick masonry, limited number of experimental studies have been conducted and further, numerical studies have been carried out to simulate the experimental tests by suitably adopting the appropriate constitute models for the materials used. The responses and the failure load behaviour obtained from nonlinear numerical models developed are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results. The proposed numerical models can easily be adopted for further studies on the structural component made using brick masonry considering various geometric configurations, material disposition, loading conditions etc.

  10. Approaching Ultimate Intrinsic SNR in a Uniform Spherical Sample with Finite Arrays of Loop Coils

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Manushka V.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated to what degree and at what rate the ultimate intrinsic (UI) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be approached using finite radiofrequency detector arrays. We used full-wave electromagnetic field simulations based on dyadic Green’s functions to compare the SNR of arrays of loops surrounding a uniform sphere with the ultimate intrinsic SNR (UISNR), for increasing numbers of elements over a range of magnetic field strengths, voxel positions, sphere sizes, and acceleration factors. We evaluated the effect of coil conductor losses and the performance of a variety of distinct geometrical arrangements such as “helmet” and “open-pole” configurations in multiple imaging planes. Our results indicate that UISNR at the center is rapidly approached with encircling arrays and performance is substantially lower near the surface, where a quadrature detection configuration tailored to voxel position is optimal. Coil noise is negligible at high field, where sample noise dominates. Central SNR for practical array configurations such as the helmet is similar to that of close-packed arrangements. The observed trends can provide physical insights to improve coil design. PMID:26097442

  11. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  12. The fiber-optic gyroscope, a century after Sagnac's experiment: The ultimate rotation-sensing technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Hervé C.

    2014-12-01

    Taking advantage of the development of optical-fiber communication technologies, the fiber-optic gyroscope (often abbreviated FOG) started to be investigated in the mid-1970s, opening the way for a fully solid-state rotation sensor. It was firstly seen as dedicated to medium-grade applications (1 ° / h range), but today, it reaches strategic-grade performance (10-4 ° / h range) and surpasses its well-established competitor, the ring-laser gyroscope, in terms of bias noise and long-term stability. Further progresses remain possible, the challenge being the ultimate inertial navigation performance of one nautical mile per month corresponding to a long-term bias stability of 10-5 ° / h. This paper is also the opportunity to recall the historical context of Sagnac's experiment, the origin of all optical gyros. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Determination of ultimate carbonaceous BOD and the specific rate constant (K1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Bennett, J.P.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1982-01-01

    Ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BODu) and the specific rate constant (K1) at which the demand is exerted are important parameters in designing biological wastewater treatment plants and in assessing the impact of wastewater on receiving streams. An analytical method is presented which uses time-series concentrations of BOD, defined as the calculated sum of dissolved oxygen (DO) losses at each time of measurement, for determining BODu and K1. Time-series DO measurements are obtained from a water sample that is incubated in darkness at 20 degrees Celsius in the presence of nitrapyrin, a chemical nitrification inhibitor. Time-series concentrations of BOD that approximate first order kinetics can be analyzed graphically or mathematically to compute BODu and K1.

  14. Xenobiology: a new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Markus

    2010-04-01

    Synthetic biologists try to engineer useful biological systems that do not exist in nature. One of their goals is to design an orthogonal chromosome different from DNA and RNA, termed XNA for xeno nucleic acids. XNA exhibits a variety of structural chemical changes relative to its natural counterparts. These changes make this novel information-storing biopolymer "invisible" to natural biological systems. The lack of cognition to the natural world, however, is seen as an opportunity to implement a genetic firewall that impedes exchange of genetic information with the natural world, which means it could be the ultimate biosafety tool. Here I discuss, why it is necessary to go ahead designing xenobiological systems like XNA and its XNA binding proteins; what the biosafety specifications should look like for this genetic enclave; which steps should be carried out to boot up the first XNA life form; and what it means for the society at large. PMID:20217844

  15. 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba-Son; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750 °C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750 °C. At 800 °C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

  16. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  17. An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated by damping wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao

    2015-01-06

    We discuss the approach of generating round beams for ultimate storage rings using vertical damping wigglers (with horizontal magnetic field). The vertical damping wigglers provide damping and excite vertical emittance. This eliminates the need to generate large linear coupling that is impractical with traditional off-axis injection. We use a PEP-X compatible lattice to demonstrate the approach. This lattice uses separate quadrupole and sextupole magnets with realistic gradient strengths. Intrabeam scattering effects are calculated. As a result, the horizontal and vertical emittances are 22.3 pm and 10.3 pm, respectively, for a 200 mA, 4.5 GeV beam, with a vertical damping wiggler of a total length of 90 m, a peak field of 1.5 T and a wiggler period of 100 mm.

  18. Methods for ultimate load analysis of concrete containments: Second phase: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Dameron, R.A.; Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1987-03-01

    This summary report gives an overview of research on the influence of special effects on the ultimate load behavior of concrete containment structures. The special effects analyses that were performed include containment response under combined pressure and temperature, shear dislocation at a major concrete crack, wall discontinuity at the wall-basemat juncture, flawed liner, and thermal buckling. The EPRI-sponsored finite element code, ABAQUS-EPGEN, is utilized as the structural analysis tool in this research. The code was modified to incorporate a constitutive model for plain concrete and models for concrete/liner and concrete/rebar interaction. The report provides a general assessment of local effects mechanisms in concrete containment response to overpressurization.

  19. Biomimetics and the Development of Humanlike Robots as the Ultimate Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    Evolution led to effective solutions to nature's challenges and they were improved over millions of years. Humans have always made efforts to use nature as a model for innovation and problems solving. These efforts became more intensive in recent years where systematic studies of nature are being made towards better understanding and applying more sophisticated capabilities. Making humanlike robots, including the appearance, functions and intelligence, poses the ultimate challenges to biomimetics. For many years, making such robots was considered science fiction, but as a result of significant advances in biologically inspired technologies, such robots are increasingly becoming an engineering reality. There are already humanlike robots that walk, talk, interpret speech, make eye-contact and facial expressions, as well as perform many other humanlike functions. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and issues of concern will be reviewed.

  20. Regions of attraction and ultimate boundedness for linear quadratic regulators with nonlinearities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    The closed-loop stability of multivariable linear time-invariant systems controlled by optimal linear quadratic (LQ) regulators is investigated for the case when the feedback loops have nonlinearities N(sigma) that violate the standard stability condition, sigma N(sigma) or = 0.5 sigma(2). The violations of the condition are assumed to occur either (1) for values of sigma away from the origin (sigma = 0) or (2) for values of sigma in a neighborhood of the origin. It is proved that there exists a region of attraction for case (1) and a region of ultimate boundedness for case (2), and estimates are obtained for these regions. The results provide methods for selecting the performance function parameters to design LQ regulators with better tolerance to nonlinearities. The results are demonstrated by application to the problem of attitude and vibration control of a large, flexible space antenna in the presence of actuator nonlinearities.

  1. Plug nozzles - The ultimate customer driven propulsion system. [applied to manned lunar and Martian landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aukerman, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applying the plug cluster nozzle concept to the propulsion system for a typical lunar excursion vehicle. Primary attention for the design criteria is given to user defined factors such as reliability, low volume, and ease of propulsion system development. Total thrust and specific impulse are held constant in the study while other parameters are explored to minimize the design chamber pressure. A brief history of the plug nozzle concept is included to point out the advanced level of technology of the concept and the feasibility of exploiting the variables considered in the study. The plug cluster concept looks very promising as a candidate for consideration for the ultimate customer driven propulsion system.

  2. Cancer of unknown primary ultimately diagnosed as male breast cancer: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Rigakos, Georgios; Vakos, Amanda; Papadopoulos, Sotirios; Vernadou, Anastasia; Tsimpidakis, Antonios; Papachristou, Dionysios; Razis, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of unknown primary (CUP) constitute a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians and a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in Western countries. Immunohistochemistry assays are commonly used to identify the primary cancer, but fail in approximately one-third of cases. The identification of the possible origin of CUP is crucial, as it may help select the appropriate treatment options. We herein present the case of a 54-year-old male patient, who presented with lower back pain in June, 2013. Following a thorough investigation, the clinical and pathological findings could not identify the primary cancer, leading towards a misdiagnosis. Ultimately, microRNA testing of the resected spine lesion was able to identify the primary tumor as male breast cancer and allow for optimal treatment of the patient. PMID:27446561

  3. Xenobiology: A new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biologists try to engineer useful biological systems that do not exist in nature. One of their goals is to design an orthogonal chromosome different from DNA and RNA, termed XNA for xeno nucleic acids. XNA exhibits a variety of structural chemical changes relative to its natural counterparts. These changes make this novel information-storing biopolymer “invisible” to natural biological systems. The lack of cognition to the natural world, however, is seen as an opportunity to implement a genetic firewall that impedes exchange of genetic information with the natural world, which means it could be the ultimate biosafety tool. Here I discuss, why it is necessary to go ahead designing xenobiological systems like XNA and its XNA binding proteins; what the biosafety specifications should look like for this genetic enclave; which steps should be carried out to boot up the first XNA life form; and what it means for the society at large. PMID:20217844

  4. Ultimate capacity evaluation of reinforced concrete slabs using yield line analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Yield line theory offers a simplified nonlinear analytical method that can determine the ultimate bending capacity of flat reinforced concrete planes subject to distributed and concentrated loads. Alternately, yield line theory, combined with hinge rotation limits can determine the energy absorption capacity of plates subject to impulsive and impact loads. This method is especially useful in evaluating existing structures that cannot be qualified using conservative simplifying analytical assumptions. Typical components analyzed by yield line theory are basements, floor and roof slabs subject to vertical loads along with walls subject to out of plant wall loads. One limitation of yield line theory is that it is difficult to evaluate some mechanisms; this is aggravated by the complex geometry and reinforcing layouts commonly found in practice. A yield line evaluation methodology is proposed to solve computationally tedious yield line mechanisms. This methodology is implemented in a small PC based computer program that allows the engineer to quickly evaluate multiple yield line mechanisms.

  5. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  6. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  7. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  8. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the ... Urine with a pH less than 5.3 is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different ...

  9. Fetal scalp pH testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Normal pH: 7.25 to 7.35 Borderline pH: 7.20 to 7.25 The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ...

  10. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  11. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

  12. CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

  13. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  14. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  15. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  16. Parameters affecting downhole pH

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, J.D.; Jangama, V.R.; Willmon, J.

    1997-09-01

    The presence of acetic and formic acids in the produced water of gas condensate wells has been known for some time by the industry. In traditional water analysis, it has been titrated and reported as alkalinity. The calculation of accurate downhole pH values requires that these ions be analyzed separately in the water and that an organic acid material balance be performed on all three phases in the separator. In this manner, it is then possible to use phase distribution coefficients involving ionic equilibrium to determine how these acids distribute themselves between phases as the pH calculation proceeds downhole. In this paper, the above method of calculation of pH and {Delta}pH is used to examine the effect that various concentrations of these acids have on the downhole pH. Various concentrations of acids are examined, and two cases are calculated in which the effect of condensate on the pH is examined.

  17. How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, IM

    2002-01-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The goal

  18. Stiffness and ultimate load of osseointegrated prosthesis fixations in the upper and lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Techniques for the skeletal attachment of amputation-prostheses have been developed over recent decades. This type of attachment has only been performed on a small number of patients. It poses various potential advantages compared to conventional treatment with a socket, but is also associated with an increased risk of bone or implant-bone interface fracture in the case of a fall. We therefore investigated the bending stiffness and ultimate bending moment of such devices implanted in human and synthetic bones. Methods Eight human specimens and 16 synthetic models of the proximal femora were implanted with lower extremity prostheses and eight human specimens and six synthetic humeri were implanted with upper extremity prostheses. They were dissected according to typical amputation levels and underwent loading in a material testing machine in a four-point bending setup. Bending stiffness, ultimate bending moment and fracture modes were determined in a load to failure experiment. Additionally, axial pull-out was performed on eight synthetic specimens of the lower extremity. Results Maximum bending moment of the synthetic femora was 160.6±27.5 Nm, the flexural rigidity of the synthetic femora was 189.0±22.6 Nm2. Maximum bending moment of the human femora was 100.4±38.5 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 137.8±29.4 Nm2. The maximum bending moment of the six synthetic humeri was 104.9±19.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 63.7±3.6 Nm2. For the human humeri the maximum bending moment was 36.7±11.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity at was 43.7±10.5 Nm2. The maximum pull-out force for the eight synthetic femora was 3571±919 N. Conclusion Significant differences were found between human and synthetic specimens of the lower and upper extremity regarding maximum bending moment, bending displacement and flexural rigidity. The results of this study are relevant with respect to previous finding regarding the load at the interfaces of osseointegrated prosthesis

  19. Lattice Design for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC expertise in designing and operating high current storage rings and the availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel present an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the SPEAR3 storage ring in the future. The PEP-X 'baseline' design, with 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. As a next step, a so-called 'ultimate' PEP-X lattice, reducing the emittance to 11 pm-rad at zero current, has been designed. This emittance approaches the diffraction limited photon emittance for multi-keV photons, providing near maximum photon brightness and high coherence. It is achieved by using 7-bend achromat cells in the ring arcs and a 90-m damping wiggler in one of the 6 long straight sections. Details of the lattice design, dynamic aperture, and calculations of the intra-beam scattering effect and Touschek lifetime at a nominal 0.2 A current are presented. Accelerator-based light sources are in high demand for many experimental applications. The availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel at SLAC presents an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the existing SPEAR3 light source in the future. The PEP-X study started in 2008, and the 'baseline' design, yielding 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. This relatively conservative design can be built using existing technology. However, for a long term future, it is natural to investigate a more aggressive, so-called 'ultimate' ring design. The goal is to reduce the electron emittance in both x and y planes to near the diffraction limited photon emittance of 8 pm-rad at hard X-ray photon wavelength of 0.1 nm. This would provide a near maximum photon brightness and significant increase in photon coherence. This study was motivated by the advances in low emittance design at MAX-IV. The latter was used as a starting point for the PEP-X arc lattice

  20. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-01

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner. PMID:25597802

  1. Moisture absorption early postmortem predicts ultimate drip loss in fresh pork.

    PubMed

    Kapper, C; Walukonis, C J; Scheffler, T L; Scheffler, J M; Don, C; Morgan, M T; Forrest, J C; Gerrard, D E

    2014-02-01

    Water-holding capacity is the ability of meat to hold moisture and is subject to postmortem metabolism. The objective of this study was to characterize the loss of moisture from muscle postmortem and investigate whether these losses are useful in predicting the ultimate drip loss of fresh pork. Cotton-rayon absorptive-based devices were inserted in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pork carcasses (n = 51) postmortem and removed at various intervals for 24h. Greatest moisture absorption was observed at 105 min post exsanguination. Drip loss varied (0.6-15.3%) across carcasses. Individual absorption at 75 min correlated (r = 0.33) with final drip loss. Correlations improved using individual absorption values at 90 min (r = 0.48) and accumulated absorption values at 150 min (r = 0.41). Results show that significant moisture is lost from muscle tissue early postmortem and suggest that capture of this moisture may be useful in predicting final drip loss of fresh meat. PMID:24225387

  2. Ultimate tensile strength of dentin: Evidence for a damage mechanics approach to dentin failure.

    PubMed

    Staninec, Michal; Marshall, Grayson W; Hilton, Joan F; Pashley, David H; Gansky, Stuart A; Marshall, Sally J; Kinney, John H

    2002-01-01

    Dentin structure and properties are known to vary with orientation and location. The present study explored the variation in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of dentin with location in the tooth. Hourglass specimens were prepared from dentin located in the center, under cusps, and in the cervical regions of human molar teeth. These were tested in tension at various distances from the pulp. Median tensile strengths ranged from 44.4 MPa in the inner dentin near the pulp, to 97.8 MPa near the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). This increase in the median UTS with distance from the pulp to the DEJ was statistically significant (P <.001). Of particular importance was the observation that the UTS measurements followed a Weibull probability distribution, with a Weibull modulus of about 4.5. The Weibull behavior of the UTS data strongly suggests that the large variances in fracture strength data result from a distribution of preexisting defects in the dentin. These findings justify a damage-mechanics approach to studies of dentin failure. PMID:12115767

  3. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  4. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchang; Cunningham, Mark A.; Mire, Joseph; Tesar, Christine; Sacchettini, James; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The specter of a return to an era in which infectious disease looms as a significant threat to human health is not just hyperbole; there are serious concerns about the widespread overuse and misuse of antibiotics contributing to increased antibiotic resistance in pathogens. The recent discovery of a new enzyme, first identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a patient from New Delhi and denoted as NDM-1, represents an example of extreme promiscuity: It hydrolyzes and inactivates nearly all known β-lactam-based antibiotics with startling efficiency. NDM-1 can utilize different metal cofactors and seems to exploit an alternative mechanism based on the reaction conditions. Here we report the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study that examines the substrate, metal binding, and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. We utilize structures obtained through X-ray crystallography, biochemical assays, and numerical simulation to construct a model of the enzyme catalytic pathway. The NDM-1 enzyme interacts with the substrate solely through zinc, or other metals, bound in the active site, explaining the observed lack of specificity against a broad range of β-lactam antibiotic agents. The zinc ions also serve to activate a water molecule that hydrolyzes the β-lactam ring through a proton shuttle.—Kim, Y., Cunningham, M. A.; Mire, J., Tesar, C., Sacchettini, J., Joachimiak, A. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism. PMID:23363572

  5. Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Daniele; Davì, Fabrizio; Paone, Nicola

    2011-10-01

    Scintillating crystals are employed in high energy physics, in medical imaging, diagnostic and security. Two mechanical properties of lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate cerium-doped Lu 2(1- x) Y 2 xSiO 5:Ce with x=0.1 (LYSO) crystals have been measured: the ultimate tensile stress ( σUTS) and the Young elastic modulus ( E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results account for an elastic-brittle stress-strain relation, which depends heavily on the specimen preparation and the material defects. σUTS along the [0 1 0] tensile direction ranges within 68.14 and 115.61 MPa, which, in the lowest case, is more than twice with respect to those measured for PbWO 4 (PWO), exhibiting a marked difference between the annealed and the not-annealed samples. The mean elastic modulus ( E), along the same direction, is E=1.80×10 11 (±2.15×10 10) N/m 2, with lower dispersion respect to UTS data. This type of analysis and study can be included into quality control procedures of crystals, based on samples taken out of production; such procedures can be established for industrial processing of crystals aimed to the high energy physics (calorimeters) and medical imaging (PET, etc.) applications.

  6. Effect of Load Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengths of three continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/CAS-II, SiC/MAS-5 and SiC/SiC, were determined as a function of test rate in air at 1100 to 1200 C. All three composite materials exhibited a strong dependency of strength on test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress-rate) to another (constant stress loading) suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics. It was further found that constant stress-rate testing could be used as an alternative to life prediction test methodology even for composite materials, at least for short range of lifetimes and when ultimate strength is used as the failure criterion.

  7. COLLECTIVE VORTEX BEHAVIORS: DIVERSITY, PROXIMATE, AND ULTIMATE CAUSES OF CIRCULAR ANIMAL GROUP MOVEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Johann; Bode, Nikolai W F; Denoël, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These "collective vortex behaviors" occur at different group sizes from pairs to several million individuals and have been reported in a large number of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, including humans. However, to date, no comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on vortex behaviors has been conducted. Here, we review the state of the art of the proximate and ultimate causes of vortex behaviors. The ubiquity of this behavioral phenomenon could suggest common causes or fundamental underlying principles across contexts. However, we find that a variety of proximate mechanisms give rise to vortex behaviors. We highlight the potential benefits of collective vortex behaviors to individuals involved in them. For example, in some species, vortices increase feeding efficiency and could give protection against predators. It has also been argued that vortices could improve collective decision-making and information transfer. We highlight gaps in our understanding of these ubiquitous behavioral phenomena and discuss future directions for research in vortex studies. PMID:27192777

  8. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations. PMID:26566825

  9. Ultimate thin vertical p–n junction composed of two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Min; Lee, Daeyeong; Qu, Deshun; Liu, Xiaochi; Ryu, Jungjin; Seabaugh, Alan; Yoo, Won Jong

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional crystals are currently receiving significant attention because of their great potential to be an ultrathin body for efficient electrostatic modulation, which enables to overcome the limitations of silicon technology. Here we report that, as a key building block for two-dimensional semiconductor devices, vertical p–n junctions are fabricated in ultrathin MoS2 by introducing AuCl3 and benzyl viologen dopants. Unlike usual unipolar MoS2, the MoS2 p–n junctions show ambipolar carrier transport, current rectification via modulation of potential barrier in films thicker than 8 nm and reversed current rectification via tunnelling in films thinner than 8 nm. The ultimate thinness of the vertical p–n homogeneous junctions in MoS2 is experimentally found to be 3 nm, and the chemical doping depth is found to be 1.5 nm. The ultrathin MoS2 p–n junctions present a significant potential of the two-dimensional crystals for flexible, transparent, high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25800613

  10. Tunable dark plasmons in a metallic nanocube dimer: toward ultimate sensitivity nanoplasmonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shunping; Xu, Hongxing

    2016-07-14

    Metallic nanoparticles can function as label-free nanosensors monitoring the local dielectric environment in their close vicinity, thanks to the localized surface plasmon resonances. The sensing figure of merit is limited by the total loss rate of the plasmon. Here, we theoretically study a silver nanocube dimer and discover for the first time a dark plasmon with its total loss rate at the lower theoretical limit. It originates from the attractive coupling of the dipolar and quadrupolar mode in the individual nanocubes. It shows an unprecedented sensitivity to the interparticle gap distance, i.e., one ångström change in the gap distance results in a shift twice as large as the peak width. The sensing figure of merit using this dark plasmon is 56-61, reaching the ultimate value limited only by the material permittivity. The field of the mode is confined mainly within the gap region which is in the extreme deep subwavelength (3.5 × 10(-6)λ0(3)) region. Besides sensing applications, the dark plasmon also shows foreseeable potential in enhanced spectroscopy, nanolasers and other nanophotonic devices. PMID:27412788