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Sample records for ultra-shallow junction formation

  1. Exploring the limits of N-type ultra-shallow junction formation.

    PubMed

    Polley, Craig M; Clarke, Warrick R; Miwa, Jill A; Scappucci, Giordano; Wells, Justin W; Jaeger, David L; Bischof, Maia R; Reidy, Richard F; Gorman, Brian P; Simmons, Michelle

    2013-06-25

    Low resistivity, near-surface doping in silicon represents a formidable challenge for both the microelectronics industry and future quantum electronic devices. Here we employ an ultra-high vacuum strategy to create highly abrupt doping profiles in silicon, which we characterize in situ using a four point probe scanning tunnelling microscope. Using a small molecule gaseous dopant source (PH3) which densely packs on a reconstructed silicon surface, followed by encapsulation in epitaxial silicon, we form highly conductive dopant sheets with subnanometer control of the depth profiles. This approach allows us to test the limits of ultra-shallow junction formation, with room temperature resistivities of 780 ?/? at an encapsulation depth of 4.3 nm, increasing to 23 k?/? at an encapsulation depth of only 0.5 nm. We show that this depth-dependent resistivity can be accounted for by a combination of dopant segregation and surface scattering. PMID:23721101

  2. Ultra-Shallow P{sup +}/N Junction Formation in Si Using Low Temperature Solid Phase Epitaxy Assisted with Laser Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Shuhei; Tanaka, Yuki; Fukaya, Takumi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Fuse, Genshu; Kudo, Toshio; Sakuragi, Susumu

    2008-11-03

    A combination of Ge pre-amorphization implantation (Ge-PAI), low-energy B implantation and laser annealing is a promising method to form highly-activated, abrupt and ultra-shallow junctions (USJ). In our previous report of IIT 2006, we succeeded in forming pn junctions less than 10 nm using non-melt double-pulsed green laser. However, a large leakage current under reverse bias was observed consequently due to residual defects in the implanted layer. In this study, a method to form USJ is proposed: a combination of low-temperature solid phase epitaxy and non-melt laser irradiation for B activation. Ge pre-amorphization implantation was performed at energy of 6 keV with a dose of 3x10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. Then B implantation was performed at energy of 0.2 keV with a dose of 1.2x10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}. Samples were annealed at 400 deg. C for 10 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, non-melt laser irradiation was performed at energy of 690 mJ/cm{sup 2} and pulse duration of 100 ns with intervals of 300 ns. As a result, USJ around 10 nm with better crystallinity was successfully formed. And the leakage current of pn diodes was reduced significantly. Moreover, it is proven from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis that transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of B is specifically suppressed.

  3. Junction Photovoltge (JPV) Techniques for Ultra-Shallow Junction Characterization

    E-print Network

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    .I. Currenta , D.K. Schroderb , T. Claryssec , W. Vandervorstc,d a Frontier Semiconductor, 199 River Oaks dependent, non-steady-state surface photo-voltage (SPV) theory for oxidized silicon wafers was developed to characterization of silicon epitaxial layer lifetime [2]. In 1960, Lucovsky [3] developed two-dimensional junction

  4. Formation of Ultra-Shallow and Low-Reverse-Bias-Current Tantalum-Silicided Junctions Using a Si-Encapsulated Silicidation Technique and Low-Temperature Furnace Annealing below 550°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, Kazuhide; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    1998-08-01

    Low-temperature processing, below 550°C, has been developed to form ultra-shallow, low-leakage, and low-contact-resistance junctions with tantalum silicide. We have experimentally demonstrated that the amount of residual defects after ion implantation and subsequent low-temperature annealing is strongly dependent on the substrate dopant concentration for both n+p and p+n junctions. It is also confirmed that ion implantation through Ta is not the main factor inducing larger leakage due to metal-knock-on. As a result, ultra-low leakage current (7.8×10-10 A/cm2 and 6.6×10-10 A/cm2 for n+p and p+n junctions at reverse-bias of 5 V) and ultra-shallow junction depth (70 nm and 40 nm for n+p and p+n junctions) have been achieved in Ta-silicided junctions at an annealing temperature of as low as ˜550°C, by employing an ultraclean ion implanter, Si-encapsulated silicidation, and low-dopant-concentration substrate.

  5. Understanding defect interactions in Si Ultra-shallow p-n junctions formed by very low energy Boron Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanamurthy, Lakshmanan H.

    One of the biggest challenges in the scaling of CMOS devices is the formation of a highly activated, abrupt, defect free Source drain extension (SDE) region. This is especially difficult with p-FET's because of the (1) Boron diffusion co-efficient enhancement from Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and (2) low solid solubility of. Boron at the conventional spike annealing temperatures. In addition to the fabrication challenges, the continued development effort on Boron doped silicon ultra-shallow junctions (USJ) has posed a great challenge to materials characterization. Many of the conventional junction characterization techniques like 4 point probe, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy have great difficulty in the accurate quantification of junctions less than 10 nm. This has increased the gap in understanding the advanced thermal processing techniques like LASER annealing. Such milli-second annealing techniques can solve the fabrication problem by annealing the junctions for a very high temperature at a very short duration. To solve these challenges a new characterization methodology was developed by using ion beam analysis (Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, nuclear reaction analysis) with room-temperature UV-assisted oxidation and chemical wet etching. The measurements from this technique was able to profile a high-resolution (~ 0.5 nm) depth distributions of total boron atoms, electrically activated boron atoms and silicon lattice defects in silicon ultra-shallow junctions, as shallow as 8 nm. Additionally, the ability for depth profiling Si lattice defects offered by this method has aided in the understanding of the residual defect differences in the Conventional thermal and laser annealing techniques.In the absence of Transmission electron microscopy's ability to directly quantify the point Defect density in USJ's formed by millisecond LASER annealing, Angular Ion channeling measurements were performed to understand the defect dissolution dependence on LASER temperature and Dwell time. These measurements provided a fundamental understanding of the types of Boron interstitial clusters and the defect dissolution mechanism that is dominant during LASER annealing. Finally a pathway to obtain a highly activated, abrupt junction based on the mechanism proposed in this work was identified.

  6. Ultra-Shallow Junctions Fabrication by Plasma Immersion Implantation on PULSION registered Followed by Laser Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Torregrosa, Frank; Etienne, Hasnaa; Sempere, Guillaume; Mathieu, Gilles; Roux, Laurent; Vervisch, Vanessa; Delaporte, Philippe; Sarnet, Thierry; Pap, Aron; Kis-Szabo, Krisztian; Pavelka, Tibor; Grosjean, Catherine

    2008-11-03

    In order to achieve the requirements for P+/N junctions for <45 nm ITRS nodes, ultra low energy and high dose implantations are needed. Classical beamline implantation is now limited in low energies, compared to Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) which efficiency is no more to prove for the realization of Ultra-Shallow Junctions (USJ) in semiconductor applications : this technique allows to get ultimate shallow profiles (as implanted) due to no lower limitation of energy and high dose rate. Electrical activation is also a big issue since it has to afford high electrical activation rate with very low diffusion. Laser annealing is one of the candidates for the 45 nm node. This paper presents electrical and physico-chemical characterizations of junctions realized with BF3 PIII followed by laser thermal processing with aim to obtain ultra-shallow junctions. Different implantation conditions (acceleration voltage/dose) and laser conditions (laser types, fluence/number of shots) are used for this study. Pre-amorphization is also used to confine the junction depth, and is shown to have a positive effect on junction depth but leads in higher junction leakage due to the remaining of EOR defects. The characterization is done using Optical characterization tool (SEMILAB) for sheet resistance and junction leakage measurements. SIMS is used for Boron profile and junction depth.

  7. Fabrication of Ultra-Shallow Junctions on 300 mm Wafers Using the Plasma Immersion Implanter PULSION registered Followed by Spike Annealing Using LEVITOR Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Torregrosa, Frank; Etienne, Hasnaa; Sempere, Guillaume; Mathieu, Gilles; Roux, Laurent; Milesi, Frederic; Gonzatti, Frederic

    2008-11-03

    Thanks to the European Project SEA-NET, an industrial version of the IBS Plasma Ion Implantation tool has been installed in LETI for the fabrication of Ultra-Shallow Junction for 45 and 32 nm CMOS on 200 and 300 mm wafers. In this study, we present first doping results on 300 mm wafers using BF{sub 3} plasma. Annealing after PULSION implantation is performed by the ASM furnace LEVITOR. This tool, which works on conduction heating is emissivity independent for temperature control and allows reaching high ramp up and ramp down speeds (up to 900 deg. C/s). Main characteristics of as implanted wafers are presented (metal contamination 2E10/cm{sup 2}, SIMS depth profiles down to 5 nm). Then the effect of convection gas in the annealing process on sheet resistance, junction depth and uniformity is presented.

  8. Ultra shallow P+/N junctions using plasma immersion ion implantation and laser annealing for sub 0.1 ?m CMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, Frank; Laviron, Cyrille; Milesi, Frédéric; Hernandez, Miguel; Faïk, Hasna; Venturini, Julien

    2005-08-01

    Classical beam line ion implantation is limited to low energies and cannot achieve P+/N junctions requested for <45 nm ITRS node. RTA (rapid thermal annealing) needs to be improved for dopants activation and damage reductions. Spike annealing process also induces a large diffusion mainly due to TED (transient enhanced diffusion). Compared to conventional beam line ion implantation limited to a minimum energy implantation of 200 eV, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is an emerging technique to get ultimate shallow profiles (as-implanted) due to no lower limitation of energy and high dose rate. On the another hand, laser thermal processing (LTP) allows to obtain very shallow junction with no TED, abrupt profile and activated depth control. In this paper, we show the implementation of the BF3 PIII associated with the LTP. Ions from BF3+ plasma have been implanted in 200 mm n-type silicon wafers with energies from 100 eV to 1 keV and doses from 3E14 to 5E15 at/cm2 using PULSION® (IBS PIII prototype). Then, wafers have been annealed using SOPRA VEL 15 XeCl excimer lasers (l = 308 nm, 200 ns, 15 J/pulse) with energy density from 1 to 2.5 J/cm2 and 1, 3 or 10 shots. The samples have been characterized at CEA LETI by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) combined with four points probe sheet resistance measurements.

  9. SIMS backside depth profiling of ultra shallow implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, K. L.; Wee, A. T. S.; See, A.; Liu, R.; Ng, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    In secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling, a more accurate junction depth can be acquired by sputtering from the backside of the wafer [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16 (1) (1998) 298]. This technique takes advantage of the better depth resolution of the leading edge as compared to the trailing edge [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 47 (1990) 223]. By using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, we have developed a backside depth profiling technique for studying ultra shallow implants. The abrupt interface of the SOI wafer and the large selectivity in chemical etching result in smooth after-etched surfaces, which facilitate high resolution SIMS profiling. The true dopant distribution of B 1 keV implants was studied by performing front and backside depth profiling using SOI substrates. The 7.5 and 0.5 keV O 2+ primary ions were used at oblique incidence in a Cameca IMS-6f, with and without oxygen flooding and sample rotation. The effectiveness of backside SIMS profiling of the ultra shallow dopant implants using SOI substrates is evaluated.

  10. Is ultra shallow analysis possible using SIMS?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, D. P.; Dowsett, M. G.; Ormsby, T. J.; Cooke, G. A.

    1998-11-01

    The use of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyse ultra shallow dopant profiles is now becoming routine. However, interpretation of the data is not straight forward, and the conventional method of effectively multiplying intensity and ion dose (time) axes by calibration constants to "quantify" the data is certain to produce serious inaccuracies. We demonstrate that for oxygen primary beams, analysis of silicon at normal incidence without oxygen flooding is currently the only analytical condition which leads to quantifiable, accurate profiles, and show that depth resolution better than 1 nm can be obtained from within 0.5 nm of the surface using sub-keV primary beams.

  11. Analysis of Tight Junction Formation and Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Kerekes, Ryan A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Foster, Carmen M; Retterer, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study segmentation of tight junctions and analyze the formation and integrity of tight junctions in large-scale confocal image stacks, a challenging biological problem because of the low spatial resolution images and the presence of breaks in tight junction structure. We present an automated, three-step processing approach for tight junction analysis. In our approach, we first localize each individual nucleus in the image by using thresholding, morphological filters and active contours. By using each nucleus position as a seed point, we automatically segment the cell body based on the active contour. We then use an intensity-based skeletonization algorithm to generate the boundary regions for each cell, and features are extracted from tight junctions associated with each cell to assess tight junction continuity. Based on qualitative results and quantitative comparisons, we show that we are able to automatically segment tight junctions and compute relevant features that provide a quantitative measure of tight junction formation to which the permeability of the cell monolayer can ultimately be correlated.

  12. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +}-implants in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, B. R.; Darby, B. L.; Jones, K. S.; Petersen, D. H.; Hansen, O.; Lin, R.; Nielsen, P. F.; Doyle, B. L.; Kontos, A.

    2012-12-15

    The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized Ge (PA-Ge) following rapid thermal annealing was investigated using micro Hall effect and ion beam analysis techniques. The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23.2%, 21.4%, and 17.6% due to ion backscattering for 2, 4, and 6 keV implants in Ge, respectively. The electrical activation of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants at 2, 4, and 6 keV to fluences ranging from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} was studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400-600 Degree-Sign C for 60 s. For both c-Ge and PA-Ge, a large fraction of the implanted dose is rendered inactive due to the formation of a presumable B-Ge cluster. The B lattice location in samples annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C for 60 s was characterized by channeling analysis with a 650 keV H{sup +} beam by utilizing the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha})2{alpha} nuclear reaction and confirmed the large fraction of off-lattice B for both c-Ge and PA-Ge. Within the investigated annealing range, no significant change in activation was observed. An increase in the fraction of activated dopant was observed with increasing energy which suggests that the surface proximity and the local point defect environment has a strong impact on B activation in Ge. The results suggest the presence of an inactive B-Ge cluster for ultra-shallow implants in both c-Ge and PA-Ge that remains stable upon annealing for temperatures up to 600 Degree-Sign C.

  13. Method for shallow junction formation

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, K.H.

    1996-10-29

    A doping sequence is disclosed that reduces the cost and complexity of forming source/drain regions in complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit technologies. The process combines the use of patterned excimer laser annealing, dopant-saturated spin-on glass, silicide contact structures and interference effects creates by thin dielectric layers to produce source and drain junctions that are ultrashallow in depth but exhibit low sheet and contact resistance. The process utilizes no photolithography and can be achieved without the use of expensive vacuum equipment. The process margins are wide, and yield loss due to contact of the ultrashallow dopants is eliminated. 8 figs.

  14. Method for shallow junction formation

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A doping sequence that reduces the cost and complexity of forming source/drain regions in complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit technologies. The process combines the use of patterned excimer laser annealing, dopant-saturated spin-on glass, silicide contact structures and interference effects creates by thin dielectric layers to produce source and drain junctions that are ultrashallow in depth but exhibit low sheet and contact resistance. The process utilizes no photolithography and can be achieved without the use of expensive vacuum equipment. The process margins are wide, and yield loss due to contact of the ultrashallow dopants is eliminated.

  15. Ultra-shallow seismic imaging of the top of the saturated zone

    E-print Network

    Sloan, Steven D.; Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Steeples, Don W.

    2010-04-08

    We collected ultra-shallow seismic-reflection data to image the near-surface stratigraphy of a Kansas River point bar. We were successful in identifying a discontinuous clay layer and the top of the saturated zone at depths ...

  16. Ultra-Shallow Imaging Using 2D & 3D Seismic Reflection Methods

    E-print Network

    Sloan, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the survey design, acquisition, processing, and interpretation of ultra-shallow seismic reflection (USR) data in two and three dimensions. The application of 3D USR methods to image multiple...

  17. Loss of implanted heavy elements during annealing of ultra-shallow ion-implanted silicon: The complete picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. K.; Koh, S. Y.; Fang, V.; Markwitz, A.; Osipowicz, T.

    2014-09-01

    From the observations of the annealing process of ultra-shallow Sn and Pb implanted Si, we propose the mechanism and the triggering conditions for the dopant dose loss effect commonly observed in heavy ion-implanted silicon. The results of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. With these results, we construct a complete chain of events that leads to the loss of most of the implanted ions. First, the implanted atoms agglomerate into liquid melts during high temperature electron beam annealing, causing polycrystalline phase formation. Next, liquid phase movement takes place along grain boundaries, and the implanted atoms are forced out of the surface layer as the grain boundaries disappear during grain growth, leaving behind low concentrations of residual atoms. The specific conditions that trigger such a sequence of processes are identified.

  18. PULSION registered: A Versatile 200 to 300 mm Bridge Tool Plasma Immersion Ion Implanter for Ultra-Shallow Doping and Nanotechology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Torregrosa, Frank; Etienne, Hasnaa; Sempere, Guillaume; Mathieu, Gilles; Roux, Laurent; Milesi, Frederic; Gonzatti, Frederic

    2008-11-03

    Thanks to the European Projects SEA-NET and PULLNANO, an industrial version of the IBS Plasma Ion Implantation tool has been installed in LETI for the fabrication of Ultra-Shallow Junctions for 45 and 32 nm CMOS on 200 and 300 mm wafers. In this paper, we present the main machine characteristics (layout, contamination, homogeneity, reproducibility, uptime) and we show that implanted wafers are compatible with the 32 nm nodes requirements. Then doping results (sheet resistance vs junction depth and leakage current) using several annealing technics are presented (laser, flash and spike anneals). In the second part of the paper, versatility of the tool is demonstrated with its use for other applications (3D doping, hydrogenation, solar cells...)

  19. Semiconductor junction formation by directed heat

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Robert B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1988-03-24

    The process of the invention includes applying precursors 6 with N- and P-type dopants therein to a silicon web 2, with the web 2 then being baked in an oven 10 to drive off excessive solvents, and the web 2 is then heated using a pulsed high intensity light in a mechanism 12 at 1100.degree.-1150.degree. C. for about 10 seconds to simultaneously form semiconductor junctions in both faces of the web.

  20. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation applied to P+N junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vervisch, Vanessa; Barakel, D.; Ottaviani, L.; Pasquinelli, M.; Torregrosa, F.

    2006-11-13

    Plasma immersion ion implantation is an alternative doping technique for the formation of Ultra Shallow Junctions in semiconductor. In this study, we present the PIII technology developed by the company Ion Beam Services and called PULSION registered . We explain the advantages of PIII for the conception of thin emitter solar cells and the use of N type silicon in the fabrication of photodiode. Electrical characterisations of solar cells prepared by immersion of silicon wafer in BF3 plasma are presented, showing a satisfying photovoltaic behaviour and more specially an increase of internal quantum efficiency in the short wavelength range, due to the thickness of the emitter.

  1. Gap junction expression is required for normal chemical synapse formation

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Krista L.; Kristan, William B.; French, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical and chemical synapses provide two distinct modes of direct communication between neurons, and the embryonic development of the two is typically not simultaneous. Instead, in both vertebrates and invertebrates, gap junction-based electrical synapses arise prior to chemical synaptogenesis, and the early circuits composed of gap junction-based electrical synapses resemble those produced later by chemical synapses. This developmental sequence from electrical to chemical synapses has led to the hypothesis that in developing neuronal circuits electrical junctions are necessary forerunners of chemical synapses. Up to now it has been difficult to test this hypothesis directly, but we can identify individual neurons in the leech nervous system from before the time when synapses are first forming, so we could test the hypothesis. Using RNA interference, we transiently reduced gap junction expression in individual identified neurons during the 2–4 days when chemical synapses normally form. We found that the expected chemical synapses failed to form on schedule, and they were still missing months later when the nervous system was fully mature. We conclude that the formation of gap junctions between leech neurons is a necessary step in the formation of chemical synaptic junctions, confirming the predicted relation between electrical synapses and chemical synaptogenesis. PMID:21068332

  2. Automatic deployment of a 2-D geophone array for efficient ultra-shallow seismic imaging

    E-print Network

    Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Steeples, Don W.; Czarnecki, Gerard P.; Sloan, Steven D.; Eslick, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    attached geo- 70phones to rigid linear media successfully imaged the shal- 71low subsurface [Schmeissner et al., 2001; Spikes et al., 722005]. Interfering modes introduced by the rigid platform, 73although not significantly detrimental to the quality... human hand during emplacement. Despite 84the need for manual handling of each geophone, Bachrach 85and Mukerji?s design improved significantly the efficiency 86of 3-D ultra-shallow seismic imaging by enabling planting 87of 72 geophones in about five...

  3. Photocarrier Radiometry Characterization of Ultra-shallow Junctions (USJ) in Silicon with Excimer Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng; Ren, Shengdong; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The activation and recrystallization in arsenic ion-implanted silicon under excimer laser (193 nm) irradiation is investigated using photocarrier radiometry (PCR). Arsenic ion-implanted silicon wafers with a dose of and an energy of 1 keV were irradiated at different laser parameters, such as the laser fluence, shot number, and repetition rate. The excimer laser irradiation-induced enhancement of PCR signals of implanted silicon samples showed that the implantation-induced crystalline structural damage was reduced and the implanted ions were effectively activated.

  4. Low temperature selective silicon-germanium-boron alloy technology for nanoscale CMOS junctions and contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannavaram, Shyam Akshay

    As device dimensions continue to scale down into the sub-100 nm CMOS (Complimentary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) regime, enormous challenges with respect to formation of advanced junctions and contacts are encountered. These challenges come in the form of the need for ultra-shallow extension junctions (<20 nm) with very low sheet resistances (<400 O/sq.), with near-perfect, laterally abrupt profiles (<2 nm/decade) and process compatibility with respect to ultra-low resistivity metal (silicide) contact formation. In this work, a novel junction formation method was developed to address the above-mentioned problems simultaneously. In order to achieve above-equilibrium activation at low temperatures, a diffusion-free junction process based on in-situ activated Silicon-Germanium-Boron ternary alloy as-deposited junctions was proposed as potential solutions for end-of-the-roadmap ultra-shallow p +/n junctions. These films were grown at 500°C by Ultra-High Vacuum Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-RTCVD). In order to achieve above-equilibrium stable dopant activation, a novel idea that allowed for the substitutional incorporation of very high levels of boron in a strained SiGe lattice was employed. The reverse junction leakage of the as-deposited and annealed junctions satisfied a stringent budget of 1% of the device off-state leakage for both, the high performance and low power designs. Temperature dependent leakage current measurements indicated a generation-dominated current for temperatures in the range of device operation ( VR = -1 V, 25--100°C) and band-to-band tunneling only at high biases (>4 V). The nominal slope of the junction doping profile decay from SIMS was estimated to be less than 4 nm/decade. Subsequent improvements in determining the actual junction abruptness by reducing the SIMS primary beam energy were incremental owing to nonelimination of other artifacts. To overcome these limitations, the junction abruptness was quantified using the reverse-bias C-V extraction method. Considering the junction alternatives for the sub-70 nm technology nodes and the thermal compatibility requirements with advanced gate stacks that employ high-k dielectrics and/or metal gates, the as-deposited SiGeB junction and contact technology finds great promise with respect to its potential applicability. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Fabrication of sub-40-nm p-n junctions for 0.18 {mu}m MOS device applications using a cluster-tool-compatible, nanosecond thermal doping technique

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, K.H.; McCarthy, A.M.

    1993-09-20

    In this paper, we introduced an alternative deep-submicrometer doping technology, Projection Gas Immersion Laser Doping (P-GILD). Representing the marriage of lithography and diffusion, P-GILD is a resistless, step-and-repeat doping process that utilizes excimer laser light patterned by a dielectric reticle to selectively heat and, thereby, dope regions of an integrated circuit. Results of physical and electrical characterization are presented for ultra-shallow p{sup +} {minus}n and n{sup +} {minus}p junctions produced by gas immersion laser doping (GILD), a phenomenologically identical technique that utilizes an aluminum contact mask rather than a dielectric reticle to pattern the beam. Junctions produced using GILD exhibit uniformly-doped, abrupt impurity profiles with no apparent defect formation in the silicon. Electrically, sheet and contact resistivities of the ultra-shallow junctions are less than 100{Omega}/sheet and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} {Omega}{sm_bullet}cm{sup 2}, respectively, while n{sup +} {minus}p and p{sup +} {minus}n diodes exhibit nearly ideal forward bias behavior and reverse leakage current densities less than 5 nA/cm{sup 2} at {minus}5V. Uniformity of both diode characteristics and sheet resistance for junctions produced by the step-and-repeat process is also shown to be better than {plus_minus}5% across a 4-inch wafer.

  6. ZO-1 controls endothelial adherens junctions, cell-cell tension, angiogenesis, and barrier formation.

    PubMed

    Tornavaca, Olga; Chia, Minghao; Dufton, Neil; Almagro, Lourdes Osuna; Conway, Daniel E; Randi, Anna M; Schwartz, Martin A; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S

    2015-03-16

    Intercellular junctions are crucial for mechanotransduction, but whether tight junctions contribute to the regulation of cell-cell tension and adherens junctions is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the tight junction protein ZO-1 regulates tension acting on VE-cadherin-based adherens junctions, cell migration, and barrier formation of primary endothelial cells, as well as angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. ZO-1 depletion led to tight junction disruption, redistribution of active myosin II from junctions to stress fibers, reduced tension on VE-cadherin and loss of junctional mechanotransducers such as vinculin and PAK2, and induced vinculin dissociation from the ?-catenin-VE-cadherin complex. Claudin-5 depletion only mimicked ZO-1 effects on barrier formation, whereas the effects on mechanotransducers were rescued by inhibition of ROCK and phenocopied by JAM-A, JACOP, or p114RhoGEF down-regulation. ZO-1 was required for junctional recruitment of JACOP, which, in turn, recruited p114RhoGEF. ZO-1 is thus a central regulator of VE-cadherin-dependent endothelial junctions that orchestrates the spatial actomyosin organization, tuning cell-cell tension, migration, angiogenesis, and barrier formation. PMID:25753039

  7. Wnt4 Participates in the Formation of Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Strochlic, Laure; Falk, Julien; Goillot, Evelyne; Sigoillot, Séverine; Bourgeois, Francine; Delers, Perrine; Rouvière, Jérôme; Swain, Amanda; Castellani, Valérie; Schaeffer, Laurent; Legay, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation requires the highly coordinated communication of several reciprocal signaling processes between motoneurons and their muscle targets. Identification of the early, spatially restricted cues in target recognition at the NMJ is still poorly documented, especially in mammals. Wnt signaling is one of the key pathways regulating synaptic connectivity. Here, we report that Wnt4 contributes to the formation of vertebrate NMJ in vivo. Results from a microarray screen and quantitative RT-PCR demonstrate that Wnt4 expression is regulated during muscle cell differentiation in vitro and muscle development in vivo, being highly expressed when the first synaptic contacts are formed and subsequently downregulated. Analysis of the mouse Wnt4?/? NMJ phenotype reveals profound innervation defects including motor axons overgrowing and bypassing AChR aggregates with 30% of AChR clusters being unapposed by nerve terminals. In addition, loss of Wnt4 function results in a 35% decrease of the number of prepatterned AChR clusters while Wnt4 overexpression in cultured myotubes increases the number of AChR clusters demonstrating that Wnt4 directly affects postsynaptic differentiation. In contrast, muscle structure and the localization of several synaptic proteins including acetylcholinesterase, MuSK and rapsyn are not perturbed in the Wnt4 mutant. Finally, we identify MuSK as a Wnt4 receptor. Wnt4 not only interacts with MuSK ectodomain but also mediates MuSK activation. Taken together our data reveal a new role for Wnt4 in mammalian NMJ formation that could be mediated by MuSK, a key receptor in synaptogenesis. PMID:22253844

  8. Benefits of Damage Engineering for PMOS Junction Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd

    2011-01-07

    As CMOS devices continue to shrink, the formation of ultra shallow junction (USJ) in the source/drain extension remains to be a key challenge requiring high dopant activation, shallow dopant profile and abrupt junctions. The next generations of sub nano-CMOS devices impose a new set of challenges such as elimination of residual defects resulting in higher leakage, difficulty to control lateral diffusion, junction stability post anneal and junction formation in new materials. To address these challenges for advanced technological nodes beyond 32 nm, it is imperative to explore novel species and techniques. Molecular species such as Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}), a novel doping species and a promising alternative to monomer Boron is of considerable interest due to the performance boost for 22 nm low power and high performance devices. Also, to reduce residual defects, damage engineering methodologies have generated a lot of attention as it has demonstrated significant benefits in device performance. Varian proprietary techniques to perform implants at cold temperatures (PTC II) have demonstrated lower junction leakage, enhanced activation, reduced dopant diffusion and less dopant deactivation due to the reduction of self-interstitial atoms present at the end-of-range (EOR) with low implant temperatures. In this paper, for the first time, there is a comprehensive study of the effect of implant temperature on defect engineering affecting deactivation/reactivation, and it is well established in this paper that colder the implant temperature the better it is for damage engineering with reduced EOR defects and better amorphization. The effect has been studied over a wide range of implant temperature. To understand any difference in deactivation between molecular and monomer Boron and to provide direct comparison equivalent Boron implants, co-implanted with Carbon were also studied. Implants with wide range of temperatures are implemented using PTC II. This paper will also show how damage reduction correlates with optimum junction formation and stability.

  9. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan -Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; et al

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit ?-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore »the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  10. Synergistic effect of ATP for RuvA–RuvB–Holliday junction DNA complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Takuma; Han, Yong-Woon; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Yokota, Hiroaki; Nakao, Kimiko; Yokokawa, Ryuji; Ono, Teruo; Harada, Yoshie

    2015-01-01

    The Escherichia coli RuvB hexameric ring motor proteins, together with RuvAs, promote branch migration of Holliday junction DNA. Zero mode waveguides (ZMWs) constitute of nanosized holes and enable the visualization of a single fluorescent molecule under micromolar order of the molecules, which is applicable to characterize the formation of RuvA–RuvB–Holliday junction DNA complex. In this study, we used ZMWs and counted the number of RuvBs binding to RuvA–Holliday junction DNA complex. Our data demonstrated that different nucleotide analogs increased the amount of Cy5-RuvBs binding to RuvA–Holliday junction DNA complex in the following order: no nucleotide, ADP, ATP?S, and mixture of ADP and ATP?S. These results suggest that not only ATP binding to RuvB but also ATP hydrolysis by RuvB facilitates a stable RuvA–RuvB–Holliday junction DNA complex formation. PMID:26658024

  11. Excimer laser annealing: A gold process for CZ silicon junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.; Bottenberg, William R.; Byron, Stanley; Alexander, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A cold process using an excimer laser for junction formation in silicon has been evaluated as a way to avoid problems associated with thermal diffusion. Conventional thermal diffusion can cause bulk precipitation of SiOx and SiC or fail to completely activate the dopant, leaving a degenerate layer at the surface. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of fabricating high quality p-n junctions using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation at remelt temperature with ion-implanted surfaces. Solar-cell efficiency exceeding 16 percent was obtained using Czochralski single-crystal silicon without benefit of back surface field or surface passivation. Characterization shows that the formation of uniform, shallow junctions (approximately 0.25 micron) by excimer laser scanning preserves the minority carrier lifetime that leads to high current collection. However, the process is sensitive to initial surface conditions and handling parameters that drive the cost up.

  12. Formation and stability of ridge-ridge-ridge triple junctions in rheologically realistic lithosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras; Burov, Evgueni

    2015-04-01

    Triple junctions are probably the most remarkable features of plate boundaries since their presence constitutes one of the major demonstrations of plate tectonics theory. Divergent (R-R-R) triple junctions (at 120° and T junctions) are particular ones since their stability depends on the exact values of the relative velocities of plate divergence and hence is strongly affected by plate rheology and processes of crustal accretion. The mechanisms of their formation and long-term steadiness are not well understood even though it is commonly accepted, generally based on common sense, that the geometry and stability of triple junctions should be related to the intuitively acceptable geometric considerations that 3-branch configurations should be "stable" over the time on a 3D Earth surface. That said, most plate boundaries are in fact 2D in terms that they involve only two plates, while junctions with 3 and more branches, if even mechanically not excluded, are generally short-lived and hence rarely observed at tectonic scale. Indeed, it has been long-time suggested that triple junctions result from evolution of short-lived quadruple junctions, yet, without providing a consistent mechanical explanation or experimental demonstration of this process, due to the rheological complexity of the lithosphere and that of strain localization and crustal accretion processes. For example, it is supposed that R-R-R junctions form as result of axisymmetric mantle upwellings. However, impingement of buoyant fluid on a non-pre-stressed lithosphere should result in multiple radial cracks, as is well known from previous analog and numerical experiments. In case of uni-directionally pre-stressed lithosphere, it has also shown that linear 2D rift structures should be formed. Therefore, a complete 3D thermos-mechanically consistent approach is needed to understand the processes of formation of multi-branch junctions. With this goal we here reproduce and study the processes of multi-branch junction formation and evolution by using high-resolution 3D numerical mechanical experiments that take into account realistic thermo-rheological structure and rheology of the lithosphere. We find that two major types of quadruple and triple junctions are formed under bi-directional or multidirectional far-field stress field: (i) plate rifting junctions are formed by the initial plate fragmentation and can be subsequently re-arranged into (ii) oceanic spreading junctions controlled by the new oceanic crust accretion. In particular, we document initial formation and destabilization of quadruple R-R-R-R junctions as initial plate rifting structures under bi-directional extension. In most cases, quadruple plate rifting junctions rapidly (typically within 1-2 Myr) evolve towards formation of two diverging triple oceanic spreading junctions connected by a linear spreading center lengthening with time. This configuration remains stable over long time scales. However, under certain conditions, quadruple junctions may also remain relatively stable. Asymmetric stretching results in various configurations, for example formation of "T-junctions" with trans-extensional components and combination of fast and slow spreading ridges. Combined with plume impingement, this scenario evolves in realistic patterns closely resembling observed plate dynamics. In particular, opening of the Red Sea and of the Afar rift system find a logical explanation within a single model. Numerical experiments also suggest that several existing oceanic spreading junctions form as the result of plate motions rearrangements after which only one of two plates spreading along the ridge become subjected to bi-directional spreading.

  13. Formation of gap junctions by treatment in vitro with potassium conductance blockers

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Gap junctions were regularly seen in thin sections of canine tracheal smooth muscle incubated in vitro. Their number was increased in tissued exposed in vitro to either of two potassium conductance blockers, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and at the same time the muscles became mechanically active, with spontaneous contractions. The presence of gap junctions in this smooth muscle may provide one basis for cell-to-cell coupling, and their increase after TEA- and 4-AP-treatment could account for a decreased junctional resistance between cells, contributing to a longer space constant. However, an increase in gap junctions was not sufficient to change the behavior of trachealis smooth muscle from multiunit to single-unit type. Gap junctions in increased numbers persisted after washout of 4- AP, which caused inhibition of spontaneous contractions, and despite inhibition of the contractile effects of 4-AP by atropine. The rapid induction of gap junction formation was not dependent on de novo synthesis of protein. The fact that the number of gap junctions can be increased by chemical agents has important implications for control of their formation and provides a tool for analysis fo their role in cell- to-cell coupling. PMID:690170

  14. SIMS depth profiling of boron ultra shallow junctions using oblique O 2+ beams down to 150 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhel, M.; Laugier, F.; Delille, D.; Wyon, C.; Kwakman, L. F. Tz.; Hopstaken, M.

    2006-07-01

    An epitaxial Si grown multi-layer stack consisting of boron delta-doped layers separated by 6.4 nm thick undoped films has been profiled using a Cameca IMS Wf magnetic SIMS. Using low energy oblique O 2+ beam, the boron depth resolution is improved from 1.66 nm/decade at 500 eV down to 0.83 nm/decade at 150 eV. At very low impact energy O 2+ bombardment induces a near full oxidation of silicon and oxygen flooding is then no more needed in the analytical chamber to get a smooth sputtering of silicon at 45° incidence angle.

  15. Y-junction carbon nanocoils: synthesis by chemical vapor deposition and formation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Er-Xiong; Wang, Jing; Geng, Hong-Zhang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ze-Chen; Luo, Zhi-Jia; Yang, Hai-Jie; Zou, Cheng-Xiong; Kang, Jianli; Pan, Lujun

    2015-06-01

    Y-junction carbon nanocoils (Y-CNCs) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition using Ni catalyst prepared by spray-coating method. According to the emerging morphologies of Y-CNCs, several growth models were advanced to elucidate their formation mechanisms. Regarding the Y-CNCs without metal catalyst in the Y-junctions, fusing of contiguous CNCs and a tip-growth mechanism are considered to be responsible for their formation. However, as for the Y-CNCs with catalyst presence in the Y-junctions, the formation can be ascribed to nanoscale soldering/welding and bottom-growth mechanism. It is found that increasing spray-coating time for catalyst preparation generates agglomerated larger nanoparticles strongly adhering to the substrate, resulting in bottom-growth of CNCs and appearance of the metal catalyst in the Y-junctions. In the contrary case, CNCs catalyzed by isolated smaller nanoparticles develop Y-junctions with an absence of metal catalyst by virtue of weaker adhesion of catalyst with the substrate and tip-growth of CNCs.

  16. Y-junction carbon nanocoils: synthesis by chemical vapor deposition and formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Er-Xiong; Wang, Jing; Geng, Hong-Zhang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ze-Chen; Luo, Zhi-Jia; Yang, Hai-Jie; Zou, Cheng-Xiong; Kang, Jianli; Pan, Lujun

    2015-01-01

    Y-junction carbon nanocoils (Y-CNCs) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition using Ni catalyst prepared by spray-coating method. According to the emerging morphologies of Y-CNCs, several growth models were advanced to elucidate their formation mechanisms. Regarding the Y-CNCs without metal catalyst in the Y-junctions, fusing of contiguous CNCs and a tip-growth mechanism are considered to be responsible for their formation. However, as for the Y-CNCs with catalyst presence in the Y-junctions, the formation can be ascribed to nanoscale soldering/welding and bottom-growth mechanism. It is found that increasing spray-coating time for catalyst preparation generates agglomerated larger nanoparticles strongly adhering to the substrate, resulting in bottom-growth of CNCs and appearance of the metal catalyst in the Y-junctions. In the contrary case, CNCs catalyzed by isolated smaller nanoparticles develop Y-junctions with an absence of metal catalyst by virtue of weaker adhesion of catalyst with the substrate and tip-growth of CNCs. PMID:26063127

  17. Y-junction carbon nanocoils: synthesis by chemical vapor deposition and formation mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Er-Xiong; Wang, Jing; Geng, Hong-Zhang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ze-Chen; Luo, Zhi-Jia; Yang, Hai-Jie; Zou, Cheng-Xiong; Kang, Jianli; Pan, Lujun

    2015-01-01

    Y-junction carbon nanocoils (Y-CNCs) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition using Ni catalyst prepared by spray-coating method. According to the emerging morphologies of Y-CNCs, several growth models were advanced to elucidate their formation mechanisms. Regarding the Y-CNCs without metal catalyst in the Y-junctions, fusing of contiguous CNCs and a tip-growth mechanism are considered to be responsible for their formation. However, as for the Y-CNCs with catalyst presence in the Y-junctions, the formation can be ascribed to nanoscale soldering/welding and bottom-growth mechanism. It is found that increasing spray-coating time for catalyst preparation generates agglomerated larger nanoparticles strongly adhering to the substrate, resulting in bottom-growth of CNCs and appearance of the metal catalyst in the Y-junctions. In the contrary case, CNCs catalyzed by isolated smaller nanoparticles develop Y-junctions with an absence of metal catalyst by virtue of weaker adhesion of catalyst with the substrate and tip-growth of CNCs. PMID:26063127

  18. Application of laser annealing to solar cell junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzeff, J. S.; Lopez, M.; Josephs, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using high-energy Q-switched Nd:glass lasers to form pn junctions in solar cells by annealing ion-implanted substrates is investigated. The properties of laser annealed cells are analyzed by electrical, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering and secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques. Tests indicate the laser annealed substrates to be damage-free and electrically active. Similar reference analysis of ion-implanted furnace-annealed substrates reveals the presence of residual defects in the form of dislocation lines and loops with substantial impurity redistribution evident for some anneal temperature/time regimes. Fabricated laser annealed cells exhibit excellent conversion efficiency. It is noted that additional improvements are anticipated once the anneal parameters for a back surface field are optimized.

  19. Defining a Link between Gap Junction Communication, Proteolysis, and Cataract Formation*

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    Defining a Link between Gap Junction Communication, Proteolysis, and Cataract Formation* Received results in severe cataracts within the nuclear por- tion of the lens. These cataracts are associated and subsequent opacification of the lens. The general cysteine protease inhibitor, E-64, blocked cataract

  20. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng-han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan-Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell?cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (E-cad-ECD) in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit ?-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role. PMID:26290581

  1. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan -Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit ?-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.

  2. Basic Aspects of the Formation and Activation of Boron Junctions Using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zschaetzsch, G.; Vandervorst, W.; Hoffmann, T.; Goossens, J.; Everaert, J.-L.; Agua Borniquel, J. I. del; Poon, T.

    2008-11-03

    This study investigates the basic aspects of junction formation using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation using BF{sub 3} and addresses the role of (pre)amorphization, C(F)-co-implantation, plasma parameters (bias, dose) and the thermal anneal cycle (spike versus msec laser anneal). The basic physics are studied using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, sheet resistance and using four point probe and RsL. Profiles with junction depths ranging from 10-12 nm and sheet resistance values below 800 Ohm/sq are readily achievable.

  3. Active zones of mammalian neuromuscular junctions: formation, density, and aging.

    PubMed

    Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Presynaptic active zones are synaptic vesicle release sites that play essential roles in the function and pathology of mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The molecular mechanisms of active zone organization use presynaptic voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in NMJs as scaffolding proteins. VDCCs interact extracellularly with the muscle-derived synapse organizer, laminin ?2 and interact intracellularly with active zone-specific proteins, such as Bassoon, CAST/Erc2/ELKS2alpha, ELKS, Piccolo, and RIMs. These molecular mechanisms are supported by studies in P/Q- and N-type VDCCs double-knockout mice, and they are consistent with the pathological conditions of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and Pierson syndrome, which are caused by autoantibodies against VDCCs or by a laminin ?2 mutation. During normal postnatal maturation, NMJs maintain the density of active zones, while NMJs triple their size. However, active zones become impaired during aging. Propitiously, muscle exercise ameliorates the active zone impairment in aged NMJs, which suggests the potential for therapeutic strategies. PMID:23252894

  4. In situ Formation of Highly Conducting Covalent Au-C Contacts for Single-Molecule Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Z.L.; Hybertsen, M.; Skouta, R.; Vazquez, H.; Widawsky, J.R.; Schneebeli, S.; Chen, W.; Breslow, R.; Venkataraman, L.

    2011-06-01

    Charge transport across metal-molecule interfaces has an important role in organic electronics. Typically, chemical link groups such as thiols or amines are used to bind organic molecules to metal electrodes in single-molecule circuits, with these groups controlling both the physical structure and the electronic coupling at the interface. Direct metal-carbon coupling has been shown through C60, benzene and {pi}-stacked benzene but ideally the carbon backbone of the molecule should be covalently bonded to the electrode without intervening link groups. Here, we demonstrate a method to create junctions with such contacts. Trimethyl tin (SnMe{sub 3})-terminated polymethylene chains are used to form single-molecule junctions with a break-junction technique. Gold atoms at the electrode displace the SnMe{sub 3} linkers, leading to the formation of direct Au-C bonded single-molecule junctions with a conductance that is {approx}100 times larger than analogous alkanes with most other terminations. The conductance of these Au-C bonded alkanes decreases exponentially with molecular length, with a decay constant of 0.97 per methylene, consistent with a non-resonant transport mechanism. Control experiments and ab initio calculations show that high conductances are achieved because a covalent Au-C sigma ({sigma}) bond is formed. This offers a new method for making reproducible and highly conducting metal-organic contacts.

  5. Gating of single molecule junction conductance by charge transfer complex formation.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Andrea; Grace, Iain; Brooke, Carly; Wang, Kun; Lambert, Colin J; Xu, Bingqian; Nichols, Richard J; Higgins, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference. PMID:26510687

  6. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch H.; Wang, Fei; Yates, Bradley R.; Jones, Kevin S.; Hansen, Ole; Kontos, Alex; Nielsen, Peter F.

    2012-11-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations.

  7. Fluid displacement during droplet formation at microfluidic flow-focusing junction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Microdroplets and microcapsules have been widely produced using microfluidic flow-focusing junction for biomedical and chemical applications. However, the multiphase microfluidic flow at the flow-focusing junction has not been well investigated. In this study, the displacement of two (core and shell) aqueous fluids that disperse into droplets altogether in a carrier oil emulsion was investigated both numerically and experimentally. It was found that extensive displacement of the two aqueous fluids within the droplet during its formation could occur as a result of the shear effect of the carrier fluid and the capillary effect of interfacial tension. We further identified that the two mechanisms of fluid displacement can be evaluated by two dimensionless parameters. The quantitative relationship between the degree of fluid displacement and these two dimensionless parameters was determined experimentally. Finally, we demonstrated that the degree of fluid displacement could be controlled to generate hydrogel microparticles of different morphologies using planar or nonplanar flow-focusing junctions. These findings should provide useful guidance to the microfluidic production of microscale droplets or capsules for various biomedical and chemical applications. PMID:26381220

  8. Gating of single molecule junction conductance by charge transfer complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Andrea; Grace, Iain; Brooke, Carly; Wang, Kun; Lambert, Colin J.; Xu, Bingqian; Nichols, Richard J.; Higgins, Simon J.

    2015-11-01

    The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference.The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of 1c; experimental details of conductance measurements, formation of charge transfer complexes of 1c and 2 in solution; further details of theoretical methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04420k

  9. Trpm7 Protein Contributes to Intercellular Junction Formation in Mouse Urothelium.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaki; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-12-11

    Trpm7 is a divalent cation-permeable channel that has been reported to be involved in magnesium homeostasis as well as cellular adhesion and migration. We generated urothelium-specific Trpm7 knock-out (KO) mice to reveal the function of Trpm7 in vivo. A Trpm7 KO was induced by tamoxifen and was confirmed by genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. By using patch clamp recordings in primary urothelial cells, we observed that Mg(2+)-inhibitable cation currents as well as acid-inducible currents were significantly smaller in Trpm7 KO urothelial cells than in cells from control mice. Assessment of voiding behavior indicated a significantly smaller voided volume in Trpm7 KO mice (mean voided volume 0.28 ± 0.08 g in KO mice and 0.36 ± 0.04 g in control mice, p < 0.05, n = 6-8). Histological analysis showed partial but substantial edema in the submucosal layer of Trpm7 KO mice, most likely due to inflammation. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? was significantly higher in Trpm7 KO bladders than in controls. In transmission electron microscopic analysis, immature intercellular junctions were observed in Trpm7 KO urothelium but not in control mice. These results suggest that Trpm7 is involved in the formation of intercellular junctions in mouse urothelium. Immature intercellular junctions in Trpm7 knock-out mice might lead to a disruption of barrier function resulting in inflammation and hypersensitive bladder afferent nerves that may affect voiding behavior in vivo. PMID:26504086

  10. Afadin regulates puncta adherentia junction formation and presynaptic differentiation in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Daisaku; Mandai, Kenji; Maruo, Tomohiko; Supriyanto, Irwan; Togashi, Hideru; Inoue, Takahito; Mori, Masahiro; Takai, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    The formation and remodeling of mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses in the stratum lucidum of the hippocampus are implicated in the cellular basis of learning and memory. Afadin and its binding cell adhesion molecules, nectin-1 and nectin-3, together with N-cadherin, are concentrated at puncta adherentia junctions (PAJs) in these synapses. Here, we investigated the roles of afadin in PAJ formation and presynaptic differentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. At these synapses in the mice in which the afadin gene was conditionally inactivated before synaptogenesis by using nestin-Cre mice, the immunofluorescence signals for the PAJ components, nectin-1, nectin-3 and N-cadherin, disappeared almost completely, while those for the presynaptic components, VGLUT1 and bassoon, were markedly decreased. In addition, these signals were significantly decreased in cultured afadin-deficient hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the interevent interval of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents was prolonged in the cultured afadin-deficient hippocampal neurons compared with control neurons, indicating that presynaptic functions were suppressed or a number of synapse was reduced in the afadin-deficient neurons. Analyses of presynaptic vesicle recycling and paired recordings revealed that the cultured afadin-deficient neurons showed impaired presynaptic functions. These results indicate that afadin regulates both PAJ formation and presynaptic differentiation in most mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses, while in a considerable population of these neurons, afadin regulates only PAJ formation but not presynaptic differentiation. PMID:24587018

  11. Kartogenin induces cartilage-like tissue formation in tendon–bone junction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    Tendon–bone junctions (TBJs) are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. Healing of TBJ injuries is slow and is often repaired with scar tissue formation that compromises normal function. This study explored the feasibility of using kartogenin (KGN), a biocompound, to enhance the healing of injured TBJs. We first determined the effects of KGN on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and patellar tendon stem/progenitor cells (PTSCs) in vitro. KGN enhanced cell proliferation in both cell types in a concentration-dependent manner and induced chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, as demonstrated by high expression levels of chondrogenic markers aggrecan, collagen II and Sox-9. Besides, KGN induced the formation of cartilage-like tissues in cell cultures, as observed through the staining of abundant proteoglycans, collagen II and osteocalcin. When injected into intact rat patellar tendons in vivo, KGN induced cartilage-like tissue formation in the injected area. Similarly, when KGN was injected into experimentally injured rat Achilles TBJs, wound healing in the TBJs was enhanced, as evidenced by the formation of extensive cartilage-like tissues. These results suggest that KGN may be used as an effective cell-free clinical therapy to enhance the healing of injured TBJs. PMID:25419468

  12. Transcription factor AP-2? is a core regulator of tight junction biogenesis and cavity formation during mouse early embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inchul; Carey, Timothy S.; Wilson, Catherine A.; Knott, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    The trophectoderm epithelium is the first differentiated cell layer to arise during mammalian development. Blastocyst formation requires the proper expression and localization of tight junction, polarity, ion gradient and H2O channel proteins in the outer cell membranes. However, the underlying transcriptional mechanisms that control their expression are largely unknown. Here, we report that transcription factor AP-2? (Tcfap2c) is a core regulator of blastocyst formation in mice. Bioinformatics, chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcriptional analysis revealed that Tcfap2c binds and regulates a diverse group of genes expressed during blastocyst formation. RNA interference experiments demonstrated that Tcfap2c regulates genes important for tight junctions, cell polarity and fluid accumulation. Functional and ultrastructural studies revealed that Tcfap2c is necessary for tight junction assembly and paracellular sealing in trophectoderm epithelium. Aggregation of control eight-cell embryos with Tcfap2c knockdown embryos rescued blastocyst formation via direct contribution to the trophectoderm epithelium. Finally, we found that Tcfap2c promotes cellular proliferation via direct repression of p21 transcription during the morula-to-blastocyst transition. We propose a model in which Tcfap2c acts in a hierarchy to facilitate blastocyst formation through transcriptional regulation of core genes involved in tight junction assembly, fluid accumulation and cellular proliferation. PMID:23136388

  13. Laser annealing of ion implanted CZ silicon for solar cell junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzeff, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of large spot size pulsed laser annealing of phosphorus implanted, Czochralski grown silicon for function formation of solar cells are evaluated. The feasibility and requirements are also determined to scale-up a laser system to anneal 7.62 cm diameter wafers at a rate of one wafer/second. Results show that laser annealing yields active, defect-free, shallow junction devices. Functional cells with AM 1 conversion efficiencies up to 15.4% for 2 x 2 cm and 2 x 4 cm sizes were attained. For larger cells, 7.62 cm dia., conversion efficiencies ranged up to 14.5%. Experiments showed that texture etched surfaces are not compatible with pulsed laser annealing due to the surface melting caused by the laser energy. When compared with furnace annealed cells, the laser annealed cells generally exhibited conversion efficiencies which were equal to or better than those furnace annealed. In addition, laser annealing has greater throughput potential.

  14. Porous silicon formation by hole injection from a back side p+/n junction for electrical insulation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fèvre, A.; Menard, S.; Defforge, T.; Gautier, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to study the formation of porous silicon (PS) in low doped (1 × 1014 cm-3) n-type silicon through hole injection from a back side p+/n junction in the dark. This technique is investigated within the framework of electrical insulation. Three different types of junctions are investigated. The first one is an epitaxial n-type layer grown on p+ doped silicon wafer. The two other junctions are carried out by boron diffusion leading to p+ regions with junction depths of 20 and 115 ?m. The resulting PS morphology is a double layer with a nucleation layer (NL) and macropores fully filled with mesoporous material. This result is unusual for low doped n-type silicon. Morphology variations are described depending on the junction formation process, the electrolyte composition, the anodization current density and duration. In order to validate the more interesting industrial potentialities of the p+/n injection technique, a comparison is achieved with back side illumination in terms of resulting morphology and experiments confirm comparable results. Electrical characterizations of the double layer, including NL and fully filled macropores, are then performed. To our knowledge, this is the first electrical investigation in low doped n type silicon with this morphology. Compared to the bulk silicon, the measured electrical resistivities are 6-7 orders of magnitude higher at 373 K.

  15. Neuromuscular Junction Formation in Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Augments Contractile Function and Improves Cytoskeletal Organization

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil R.W.; Passey, Samantha L.; Player, Darren J.; Mudera, Vivek; Baar, Keith; Greensmith, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases are conditions that affect both motor neurons and the underlying skeletal muscle tissue. At present, the majority of neuromuscular research utilizes animal models and there is a growing need to develop novel methodologies that can be used to help understand and develop treatments for these diseases. Skeletal muscle tissue-engineered constructs exhibit many of the characteristics of the native tissue such as accurate fascicular structure and generation of active contractions. However, to date, there has been little consideration toward the integration of engineered skeletal muscle with motor neurons with the aim of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation, which would provide a model to investigate neuromuscular diseases and basic biology. In the present work we isolated primary embryonic motor neurons and neonatal myoblasts from Sprague-Dawley rats, and cocultured the two cell types in three-dimensional tissue-engineered fibrin hydrogels with the aim of NMJ formation. Immunohistochemistry revealed myotube formation in a fascicular arrangement and neurite outgrowth from motor neuron cell bodies toward the aligned myotubes. Furthermore, colocalization of pre- and postsynaptic proteins and chemical inhibition of spontaneous myotube twitch indicated the presence of NMJs in the innervated constructs. When electrical field stimulation was employed to evoke isometric contractions, maximal twitch and tetanic force were higher in the constructs cocultured with motor neurons, which may, in part, be explained by improved myotube cytoskeletal organization in these constructs. The fabrication of such constructs may be useful tools for investigating neuromuscular pharmaceuticals and improving the understanding of neuromuscular pathologies. PMID:26166548

  16. Regional changes of AQP0-dependent square array junction and gap junction associated with cortical cataract formation in the Emory mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sondip K; Brako, Lawrence; Gu, Sumin; Jiang, Jean X; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2014-10-01

    The Emory mutant mouse has been widely used as an animal model for human senile cataract since it develops late-onset hereditary cataract. Here, we focus on the regional changes of aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and connexins that are associated with the cortical cataract formation in the Emory mutant mice. Emory mutant and CFW wild-type mice at age 1-16 months were used in this study. By using an established photography system with dissecting microscopy, the opacities were first detected at the anterior or posterior lens center surface in Emory mice at age 7 months, and gradually extended toward the equator during the 16 months examined. Scanning EM verified that disorganized and fragmented fiber cells were associated with the areas of opacities within approximately 200 ?m from the lens surface, indicating that Emory mouse cataracts belong to the cortical cataracts. Freeze-fracture TEM further confirmed that cortical cataracts exhibited extensive wavy square array junctions, small gap junctions and globules. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that in contrast to the high labeling intensity of AQP0-loop antibody, the labeling of AQP0 C-terminus antibody was decreased considerably in superficial fibers in Emory cataracts. Similarly, a significant decrease in the labeling of the antibody against Cx50 C-terminus, but not Cx46 C-terminus, occurred in superficial and outer cortical fibers in Emory cataracts. Western blotting further revealed that the C-termini of both AQP0 and Cx50 in Emory cataracts were decreased to over 50% to that of the wild-type. Thus, this systematic study concludes that the Emory mouse cataract belongs to the cortical cataract which is due to regional breakdown of superficial fibers associated with formation of AQP0-dependent wavy square array junctions, small gap junctions and globules. The marked decreases of the C-termini of both AQP0 and Cx50 in the superficial fibers may disturb the needed interaction between these two proteins during fiber cell differentiation and thus play a role in the cortical cataract formation in Emory mutant mice. PMID:25088353

  17. Operational mechanism of light-emitting devices based on Ru(II) complexes: Evidence for electrochemical junction formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, Hartmut; Shimada, Satoru; Rubner, Michael F.

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the operational mechanism of single-layer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on the small molecule tris(2,2' bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(II)] was investigated using capacitance and resistance measurements. The current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of such devices suggest that an electrochemical junction is formed during operation with a high electric field across the junction. A similar mechanism has been proposed for polymer LECs. In the case of Ru(II) devices, electrically conducting regions adjacent to the electrodes are the result of mixed-valent states that form due to oxidation and reduction of the complex. The junction thickness is a function of the type of counterions used and the operating voltage. Thinner junctions were observed for devices with high ionic conductivity and at higher operating voltages. Transient capacitance and resistance measurements show that the junction formation is faster in devices with higher ion mobility and during higher operating voltages. In addition, the capacitance and resistance exhibit a relaxation time after the device is turned off. This relaxation shows that the electrochemical junction stays present in a device for some time (several seconds to minutes) once a device is turned off. The electrochemical junction disappears as the counterions relax back. Furthermore, a theoretical model is presented, which shows that due to the concentration gradient of mixed-valent states during operation, an electric field has to be present in the device. The model also shows that there can be no local charge neutrality in the bulk of the device during operation.

  18. Cluster-formation in the Rosette molecular cloud at the junctions of filaments

    E-print Network

    Schneider, N; Hennemann, M; Motte, F; Didelon, P; Federrath, C; Bontemps, S; Di Francesco, J; Arzoumanian, D; Minier, V; André, Ph; Hill, T; Zavagno, A; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Attard, M; Bernard, J -Ph; Elia, D; Fallscheer, C; Griffin, M; Kirk, J; Klessen, R; Könyves, V; Martin, P; Men'shchikov, A; Palmeirim, P; Peretto, N; Pestalozzi, M; Russeil, D; Sadavoy, S; Sousbie, T; Testi, L; Tremblin, P; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G

    2012-01-01

    For many years feedback processes generated by OB-stars in molecular clouds, including expanding ionization fronts, stellar winds, or UV-radiation, have been proposed to trigger subsequent star formation. However, hydrodynamic models including radiation and gravity show that UV-illumination has little or no impact on the global dynamical evolution of the cloud. The Rosette molecular cloud, irradiated by the NGC2244 cluster, is a template region for triggered star-formation, and we investigated its spatial and density structure by applying a curvelet analysis, a filament-tracing algorithm (DisPerSE), and probability density functions (PDFs) on Herschel column density maps, obtained within the HOBYS key program. The analysis reveals not only the filamentary structure of the cloud but also that all known infrared clusters except one lie at junctions of filaments, as predicted by turbulence simulations. The PDFs of sub-regions in the cloud show systematic differences. The two UV-exposed regions have a double-peak...

  19. Rho1 regulates adherens junction remodeling by promoting recycling endosome formation through activation of myosin II.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Hanako; Loza, Andrew J; Skeath, James B; Longmore, Gregory D

    2014-10-01

    Once adherens junctions (AJs) are formed between polarized epithelial cells they must be maintained because AJs are constantly remodeled in dynamic epithelia. AJ maintenance involves endocytosis and subsequent recycling of E-cadherin to a precise location along the basolateral membrane. In the Drosophila pupal eye epithelium, Rho1 GTPase regulates AJ remodeling through Drosophila E-cadherin (DE-cadherin) endocytosis by limiting Cdc42/Par6/aPKC complex activity. We demonstrate that Rho1 also influences AJ remodeling by regulating the formation of DE-cadherin-containing, Rab11-positive recycling endosomes in Drosophila postmitotic pupal eye epithelia. This effect of Rho1 is mediated through Rok-dependent, but not MLCK-dependent, stimulation of myosin II activity yet independent of its effects upon actin remodeling. Both Rho1 and pMLC localize on endosomal vesicles, suggesting that Rho1 might regulate the formation of recycling endosomes through localized myosin II activation. This work identifies spatially distinct functions for Rho1 in the regulation of DE-cadherin-containing vesicular trafficking during AJ remodeling in live epithelia. PMID:25079692

  20. Nano-welding and junction formation in hydrogen titanate nanowires by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dhal, Satyanarayan; Chatterjee, Shyamal; Sarkar, Subhrangsu; Tribedi, Lokesh C; Bapat, Rudheer; Ayyub, Pushan

    2015-06-12

    Crystalline hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7) nanowires were irradiated with N(+) ions of different energies and fluences. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that at relatively lower fluence the nanowires are bent and start to adhere strongly to one another as well as to the silicon substrate. At higher fluence, the nanowires show large-scale welding and form a network of mainly 'X' and 'Y' junctions. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering studies confirm a high degree of amorphization of the nanowire surface after irradiation. We suggest that while ion-irradiation induced defect formation and dangling bonds may lead to chemical bonding between nanowires, the large scale nano-welding and junction network formation can be ascribed to localized surface melting due to heat spike. Our results demonstrate that low energy ion irradiation with suitable choice of fluence may provide an attractive route to the formation and manipulation of large-area nanowire-based devices. PMID:25990259

  1. Boron Profile Sharpening in Ultra-Shallow p{sup +}-n Junction Produced by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation from BF{sub 3} Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lukichev, V.; Rudenko, K.; Orlikovsky, A.; Pustovit, A.; Vyatkin, A.

    2008-11-03

    We have investigated plasma immersion ion implantation (PI{sup 3}) of boron with energies of 500 eV (doses up to 2x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}) from BF{sub 3} plasma with He pre-amorphizing implantation (PAI)(energy 3 keV, dose 5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}). Implanted samples were subjected to RTA (T = 900 to 1050 deg. C, t = 2 to 24 sec and spike anneal). SIMS analysis of boron profiles revealed its anomalous behavior. For short RTA times the profile tail (below 5x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) moves toward the surface and then, as in the usual diffusion, toward the bulk at longer annealing times.

  2. Cooperativity between trans and cis interactions in cadherin-mediated junction formation

    E-print Network

    Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    , 10032; and e Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center, Hebrew University, Jerusalem and a condensed ordered 2D junction formed by dimers alone is a cooperative process involving both trans and cis of cadherins into junctions. To elu- cidate the physical principles underlying this process, we present

  3. Physical understanding of cryogenic implant benefits for electrical junction stability

    SciTech Connect

    Adeni Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd

    2012-03-12

    We investigate the effect of cryogenic temperature implants on electrical junction stability for ultra shallow junction applications for sub-32 nm technology nodes and beyond. A comprehensive study was conducted to gain physical understanding of the impact of cryogenic temperature implants on dopant-defect interactions. Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) molecule, a potential alternative to monomer boron was implanted in carbon preamorphized silicon substrates at cryogenic implant temperatures. Results indicate implants at cryogenic temperatures increase dopant activation with reduced diffusion, resulting in lower sheet resistance for a lower junction depth. Further, this study emphasizes the benefits of co-implants performed at cryogenic temperatures as alternative to traditional preamorphizing implants.

  4. Time-resolved mixing and flow-field measurements during droplet formation in a flow-focusing junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Odile; Gökhan Ergin, F.; Li, Huai-Zhi; Watz, Bo B.; Funfschilling, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Highly monodispersed emulsions can be produced in microfluidic flow-focusing junctions (Anna et al 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 364-6, Baroud et al 2010 Lab Chip 10 2032-45). This is the reason why many industrial processes in the medical industry among others are based on droplet manipulation and involve at some point a step of dripping within a junction. However, only a few studies have focused on the flow field inside and outside the droplet, even though it is a necessary step for understanding the physical mechanism involved and for modeling the droplet formation process. Water-in-oil emulsions are produced in flow-focusing junctions of square cross sections. The fluids constituting the emulsion are (i) a 5.0?mPa·s silicon oil for the oil phase and (ii) distilled water containing 2.0?wt% of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant for the aqueous phase. Time-resolved shadow particle images are acquired using a microscale particle image velocimetry (µPIV) system and flow fields are calculated using an adaptive PIV algorithm in combination with dynamic masking. Inside the microchannel and in the permanent regime, the droplet has an internal circulation that has been well established by Sarrazin et al (AICHE J. 52 4061-70). But during the formation of a droplet in a flow-focusing junction, the flow field is not so well known, and the circulation in the finger flows forward along the sides and returns along the center. The mechanism can be described in terms of four distinct steps: droplet growth, necking, rupture, and recoil. The liquid expelled from the neck just before rupture is also well observed. The flow field and mixing are measured in detail during a complete cycle of formation of a main droplet and satellite droplets using high-speed imaging. This allows us to develop a better understanding of the different forces that are present and of the physical mechanism of droplet formation.

  5. EpCAM contributes to formation of functional tight junction in the intestinal epithelium by recruiting claudin proteins.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zili; Maeda, Takako; Tamura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Yashiro, Kenta; Tsukita, Sachiko; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2012-11-15

    Tight junctions (TJs) connect epithelial cells and form a semipermeable barrier that only allows selective passage of ions and solutes across epithelia. Here we show that mice lacking EpCAM, a putative cell adhesion protein frequently overexpressed in human cancers, manifest intestinal barrier defects and die shortly after birth as a result of intestinal erosion. EpCAM was found to be highly expressed in the developing intestinal epithelium of wild-type mice and to localize to cell-cell junctions including TJs. Claudin-7 colocalized with EpCAM at cell-cell junctions, and the two proteins were found to associate with each other. Claudins 2, 3, 7, and 15 were down-regulated in the intestine of EpCAM mutant mice, with claudin-7 being reduced to undetectable levels. TJs in the mutant intestinal epithelium were morphologically abnormal with the network of TJ strands scattered and dispersed. Finally, the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium was impaired in the mutant animals. These results suggest that EpCAM contributes to formation of intestinal barrier by recruiting claudins to cell-cell junctions. PMID:22819673

  6. Study of silicon-germanium junction formation for SOI based CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yan

    Si1-xGex source/drain technology has been sucessfully applied to bulk metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Both channel mobility and source/drain contact resistivity are substantially improved with this technology. In this dissertation, Si1-xGex junction formation for silicon on insulator (SOI) based CMOS technology was investigated. Strain in epitaxially grown films on SOI films and silicon nanowires is studied using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). For epitaxially grown Si1-xGe x film on SOI, there is lower degree of strain development in the SOI layer due to the rigid interface between the SOI and the burried oxide as compared to bulk. However, for silicon nanowires on oxide, the situation is different since nanowires serve as compliant substrates. Part of the strain energy is transferred to silicon nanowires. The consistency between synthesized Raman peak shifts and the experimental measurements verified the strain sharing between the epitaxially grown Si1-xGe x films and the silicon nanowires. Splittings of high order Laue zone line (HOLZ) from a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern was quantified to study the strain distribution in epitaxial Si1- xGex films grown on silicon nanowires. It was found out in this study that elastic deformation of epitaxial Si 1-xGex at free surfaces leads to strain relaxation at these surfaces. This phenomenon is detrimental to strain engineering in a nanowire MOSFET and provides new challenges to develop smart designs for constraining strain in the nano-structures. Moreover, atomic layer deposition (ALD) Platinum is proposed for metal deposition on 3D epitaxial Si1-xGex source/drain. The uniform deposition around 3D Si1- xGex films effectively increases the contact surface area which is highly desired in the FinFET application.

  7. LSR/angulin-1 is a tricellular tight junction protein involved in blood–brain barrier formation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Christina; Munji, Roeben N.; Lee, Seo Yeon; Ruderisch, Nadine; Soung, Allison; Arnold, Thomas D.; Derugin, Nikita; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Yen, Frances T.

    2015-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a term used to describe the unique properties of central nervous system (CNS) blood vessels. One important BBB property is the formation of a paracellular barrier made by tight junctions (TJs) between CNS endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we show that Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR), a component of paracellular junctions at points in which three cell membranes meet, is greatly enriched in CNS ECs compared with ECs in other nonneural tissues. We demonstrate that LSR is specifically expressed at tricellular junctions and that its expression correlates with the onset of BBB formation during embryogenesis. We further demonstrate that the BBB does not seal during embryogenesis in Lsr knockout mice with a leakage to small molecules. Finally, in mouse models in which BBB was disrupted, including an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke, LSR was down-regulated, linking loss of LSR and pathological BBB leakage. PMID:25753034

  8. Formation of p-n-p junction with ionic liquid gate in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xin; Tang, Ning E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn Duan, Junxi; Zhang, Yuewei; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin; Gao, Li; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Ge, Weikun E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-04-07

    Ionic liquid gating is a technique which is much more efficient than solid gating to tune carrier density. To observe the electronic properties of such a highly doped graphene device, a top gate made of ionic liquid has been used. By sweeping both the top and back gate voltage, a p-n-p junction has been created. The mechanism of forming the p-n-p junction has been discussed. Tuning the carrier density by ionic liquid gate can be an efficient method to be used in flexible electronics.

  9. Gap junctions composed of connexins 41.8 and 39.4 are essential for colour pattern formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Irion, Uwe; Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Krauss, Jana; Çolak Champollion, Tu?ba; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Weiler, Christian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between all three pigment cell types are required to form the stripe pattern of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), but their molecular nature is poorly understood. Mutations in leopard (leo), encoding Connexin 41.8 (Cx41.8), a gap junction subunit, cause a phenotypic series of spotted patterns. A new dominant allele, leo(tK3), leads to a complete loss of the pattern, suggesting a dominant negative impact on another component of gap junctions. In a genetic screen, we identified this component as Cx39.4 (luchs). Loss-of-function alleles demonstrate that luchs is required for stripe formation in zebrafish; however, the fins are almost not affected. Double mutants and chimeras, which show that leo and luchs are only required in xanthophores and melanophores, but not in iridophores, suggest that both connexins form heteromeric gap junctions. The phenotypes indicate that these promote homotypic interactions between melanophores and xanthophores, respectively, and those cells instruct the patterning of the iridophores. PMID:25535837

  10. The effect of preamorphization energy on ultrashallow junction formation following ultrahigh-temperature annealing of ion-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, K.A.; Robertson, L. S.; Jain, Amitabh; Jones, K. S.

    2005-02-15

    High-power arc lamp design has enabled ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) annealing as an alternative to conventional rapid thermal processing (RTP) for ultrashallow junction formation. The time duration of the UHT annealing technique is significantly reduced from those obtained through conventional RTP. This difference in time may offer the ability to maintain a highly activated ultrashallow junction without being subjected to transient enhanced diffusion (TED), which is typically observed during postimplant thermal processing. In this study, two 200-mm (100) n-type Czochralski-grown Si wafers were preamorphized with either a 48- or a 5-keV Ge{sup +} implant to 5x10{sup 14} cm{sup 2}, and subsequently implanted with 3-keV BF{sub 2}{sup +} molecular ions to 6x10{sup 14} cm{sup 2}. The wafers were sectioned and annealed under various conditions in order to investigate the effects of the UHT annealing technique on the resulting junction characteristics. The main point of the paper is to show that the UHT annealing technique is capable of producing a highly activated p-type source/drain extension without being subjected to TED only when the preamorphization implant is sufficiently deep.

  11. Junction formation and current transport mechanisms in hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäckle, Sara; Mattiza, Matthias; Liebhaber, Martin; Brönstrup, Gerald; Rommel, Mathias; Lips, Klaus; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-08-01

    We investigated hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells combining monocrystalline n-type silicon (n-Si) and a highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The build-in potential, photo- and dark saturation current at this hybrid interface are monitored for varying n-Si doping concentrations. We corroborate that a high build-in potential forms at the hybrid junction leading to strong inversion of the n-Si surface. By extracting work function and valence band edge of the polymer from ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, a band diagram of the hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction is presented. The current-voltage characteristics were analyzed using Schottky and abrupt pn-junction models. The magnitude as well as the dependence of dark saturation current on n-Si doping concentration proves that the transport is governed by diffusion of minority charge carriers in the n-Si and not by thermionic emission of majorities over a Schottky barrier. This leads to a comprehensive explanation of the high observed open-circuit voltages of up to 634?mV connected to high conversion efficiency of almost 14%, even for simple planar device structures without antireflection coating or optimized contacts. The presented work clearly shows that PEDOT:PSS forms a hybrid heterojunction with n-Si behaving similar to a conventional pn-junction and not, like commonly assumed, a Schottky junction.

  12. Junction formation and current transport mechanisms in hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Jäckle, Sara; Mattiza, Matthias; Liebhaber, Martin; Brönstrup, Gerald; Rommel, Mathias; Lips, Klaus; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-01-01

    We investigated hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells combining monocrystalline n-type silicon (n-Si) and a highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The build-in potential, photo- and dark saturation current at this hybrid interface are monitored for varying n-Si doping concentrations. We corroborate that a high build-in potential forms at the hybrid junction leading to strong inversion of the n-Si surface. By extracting work function and valence band edge of the polymer from ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, a band diagram of the hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction is presented. The current-voltage characteristics were analyzed using Schottky and abrupt pn-junction models. The magnitude as well as the dependence of dark saturation current on n-Si doping concentration proves that the transport is governed by diffusion of minority charge carriers in the n-Si and not by thermionic emission of majorities over a Schottky barrier. This leads to a comprehensive explanation of the high observed open-circuit voltages of up to 634?mV connected to high conversion efficiency of almost 14%, even for simple planar device structures without antireflection coating or optimized contacts. The presented work clearly shows that PEDOT:PSS forms a hybrid heterojunction with n-Si behaving similar to a conventional pn-junction and not, like commonly assumed, a Schottky junction. PMID:26278010

  13. Identification, simulation and avoidance of artifacts in ultra-shallow depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmaack, K.; Patel, S. B.; Corcoran, S. F.

    1998-11-01

    Distortions and shifts of shallow implantation distributions of B in Si, recently observed in depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using 1.9 keV O2+ ions at oblique incidence (˜60°) with oxygen flooding, have been reproduced at a beam energy of 1 keV. Measurements on samples containing a series of delta doping spikes revealed a pronounced initial drop in erosion rate followed by a more gradual decrease extending to at least 200 nm. These changes give rise to severe errors in depth calibration (shift up to 4 nm). The artifacts are due to bombardment-induced oxygen incorporation and surface roughening (ripple formation), the latter effect also causing a pronounced degradation in depth resolution. The essential features of the observed profile distortions can be simulated by a simple model. Ripple formation is not observed with normally incident oxygen beams in vacuum, in which case profiles with excellent resolution and minimum shift can be obtained, notably at ultra-low probe energy.

  14. Role of grainyhead-like 2 in the formation of functional tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cells develop intercellular junctions, including tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). In epithelial tissues, TJs act as barriers that protect bodies from dehydration, infection and toxic substances. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the establishment of functional TJs during organogenesis remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2) as a transcription factor that is specifically expressed in cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells lining the bile duct tubules in the liver. Using our three-dimensional (3D) culture system of hepatic progenitor cells, we demonstrated that Grhl2 enhanced barrier functions of hepatic progenitor cells by upregulating claudin (Cldn) 3 and Cldn4, thereby promoting epithelial morphogenesis. In addition, we identified Rab25 as another target of Grhl2, which promotes the localization of Cldn4 at TJs. Our results indicate that a transcription factor promotes epithelial morphogenesis by establishing functional TJs by not only regulating the transcription of Cldns but also affecting their localization at TJs. PMID:24665375

  15. The Peptidoglycan-Binding Protein SjcF1 Influences Septal Junction Function and Channel Formation in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena

    PubMed Central

    Rudolf, Mareike; Tetik, Nalan; Ramos-León, Félix; Flinner, Nadine; Ngo, Giang; Stevanovic, Mara; Burnat, Mireia; Pernil, Rafael; Flores, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria exchange nutrients and regulators between cells for diazotrophic growth. Two alternative modes of exchange have been discussed involving transport either through the periplasm or through septal junctions linking adjacent cells. Septal junctions and channels in the septal peptidoglycan are likely filled with septal junction complexes. While possible proteinaceous factors involved in septal junction formation, SepJ (FraG), FraC, and FraD, have been identified, little is known about peptidoglycan channel formation and septal junction complex anchoring to the peptidoglycan. We describe a factor, SjcF1, involved in regulation of septal junction channel formation in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. SjcF1 interacts with the peptidoglycan layer through two peptidoglycan-binding domains and is localized throughout the cell periphery but at higher levels in the intercellular septa. A strain with an insertion in sjcF1 was not affected in peptidoglycan synthesis but showed an altered morphology of the septal peptidoglycan channels, which were significantly wider in the mutant than in the wild type. The mutant was impaired in intercellular exchange of a fluorescent probe to a similar extent as a sepJ deletion mutant. SjcF1 additionally bears an SH3 domain for protein-protein interactions. SH3 binding domains were identified in SepJ and FraC, and evidence for interaction of SjcF1 with both SepJ and FraC was obtained. SjcF1 represents a novel protein involved in structuring the peptidoglycan layer, which links peptidoglycan channel formation to septal junction complex function in multicellular cyanobacteria. Nonetheless, based on its subcellular distribution, this might not be the only function of SjcF1. PMID:26126850

  16. Moleskin is essential for the formation of the myotendinous junction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze Cindy; Geisbrecht, Erika R

    2011-11-15

    It is the precise connectivity between skeletal muscles and their corresponding tendon cells to form a functional myotendinous junction (MTJ) that allows for the force generation required for muscle contraction and organismal movement. The Drosophila MTJ is composed of secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins deposited between integrin-mediated hemi-adherens junctions on the surface of muscle and tendon cells. In this paper, we have identified a novel, cytoplasmic role for the canonical nuclear import protein Moleskin (Msk) in Drosophila embryonic somatic muscle attachment. Msk protein is enriched at muscle attachment sites in late embryogenesis and msk mutant embryos exhibit a failure in muscle-tendon cell attachment. Although the muscle-tendon attachment sites are reduced in size, components of the integrin complexes and ECM proteins are properly localized in msk mutant embryos. However, msk mutants fail to localize phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) to the sites of muscle-tendon cell junctions. In addition, the tendon cell specific proteins Stripe (Sr) and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are reduced in msk mutant embryos. Our rescue experiments demonstrate that Msk is required in the muscle cell, but not in the tendon cells. Moreover, muscle attachment defects due to loss of Msk are rescued by an activated form of MAPK or the secreted epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) ligand Vein. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that Msk signals non-autonomously through the Vein-Egfr signaling pathway for late tendon cell late differentiation and/or maintenance. PMID:21925492

  17. Planar Be-implanted GaAs junction formation using swept-line electron beam annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.K.; De Jule, R.Y.; Soda, K.J.

    1983-12-01

    Comparative studies of swept-line electron beam annealing and furnace annealing of Be implanted in n-GaAs doped with Si are presented. Electron beam annealing causes less Be redistribution and results in fewer traps than furnace annealing, but causes site mixing of amphoteric Si. Planar Be-implanted junctions result in a p(+)-nu-n structure for the electron beam annealed samples, similar to thermally quenched samples. It is believed that this is caused by the incorporation of amphoteric Si on Ga and As sites during transient annealing, which produces results similar to thermal quenching. 14 references.

  18. Formation, translocation and resolution of Holliday junctions during homologous genetic recombination.

    PubMed

    West, S C

    1995-01-30

    Over the past three or four years, great strides have been made in our understanding of the proteins involved in recombination and the mechanisms by which recombinant molecules are formed. This review summarizes our current understanding of the process by focusing on recent studies of proteins involved in the later steps of recombination in bacteria. In particular, biochemical investigation of the in vitro properties of the E. coli RuvA, RuvB and RuvC proteins have provided our first insight into the novel insight into the novel molecular mechanisms by which Holliday junctions are moved along DNA and then resolved by endonucleolytic cleavage. PMID:7746849

  19. In-plane epitaxial growth of silicon nanowires and junction formation on Si(100) substrates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linwei; Xu, Mingkun; Xu, Jie; Xue, Zhaoguo; Fan, Zheng; Picardi, Gennaro; Fortuna, Franck; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2014-11-12

    Growing self-assembled silicon nanowires (SiNWs) into precise locations represents a critical capability to scale up SiNW-based functionalities. We here report a novel epitaxy growth phenomenon and strategy to fabricate orderly arrays of self-aligned in-plane SiNWs on Si(100) substrates following exactly the underlying crystallographic orientations. We observe also a rich set of distinctive growth dynamics/modes that lead to remarkably different morphologies of epitaxially grown SiNWs/or grains under variant growth balance conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy cross-section analysis confirms a coherent epitaxy (or partial epitaxy) interface between the in-plane SiNWs and the Si(100) substrate, while conductive atomic force microscopy characterization reveals that electrically rectifying p-n junctions are formed between the p-type doped in-plane SiNWs and the n-type c-Si(100) substrate. This in-plane epitaxy growth could provide an effective means to define nanoscale junction and doping profiles, providing a basis for exploring novel nanoelectronics. PMID:25343717

  20. Formation of antiwaves in gap-junction-coupled chains of neurons.

    PubMed

    Urban, Alexander; Ermentrout, Bard

    2012-07-01

    Using network models consisting of gap-junction-coupled Wang-Buszaki neurons, we demonstrate that it is possible to obtain not only synchronous activity between neurons but also a variety of constant phase shifts between 0 and ?. We call these phase shifts intermediate stable phase-locked states. These phase shifts can produce a large variety of wavelike activity patterns in one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional arrays of neurons, which can be studied by reducing the system of equations to a phase model. The 2? periodic coupling functions of these models are characterized by prominent higher order terms in their Fourier expansion, which can be varied by changing model parameters. We study how the relative contribution of the odd and even terms affects what solutions are possible, the basin of attraction of those solutions, and their stability. These models may be applicable to the spinal central pattern generators of the dogfish and also to the developing neocortex of the neonatal rat. PMID:23005452

  1. Involvement of YAP, TAZ and HSP90 in Contact Guidance and Intercellular Junction Formation in Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Joshua T.; Tuyen, Binh C.; Rose, Brad W.; Reilly, Christopher M.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular environment possesses a rich milieu of biophysical and biochemical signaling cues that are simultaneously integrated by cells and influence cellular phenotype. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (WWTR1; TAZ), two important signaling molecules of the Hippo pathway, have been recently implicated as nuclear relays of cytoskeletal changes mediated by substratum rigidity and topography. These proteins intersect with other important intracellular signaling pathways (e.g. Wnt and TGF?). In the cornea, epithelial cells adhere to the stroma through a 3-dimensional topography-rich basement membrane, with features in the nano-submicron size-scale that are capable of profoundly modulating a wide range of fundamental cell behaviors. The influences of substratum-topography, YAP/TAZ knockdown, and HSP90 inhibition on cell morphology, YAP/TAZ localization, and the expression of TGF?2 and CTGF, were investigated. The results demonstrate (a) that knockdown of TAZ enhances contact guidance in a YAP dependent manner, (b) that CTGF is predominantly regulated by YAP and not TAZ, and (c) that TGF?2 is regulated by both YAP and TAZ in these cells. Additionally, inhibition of HSP90 resulted in nuclear localization and subsequent transcriptional-activation of YAP, formation of cell-cell junctions and co-localization of E-cadherin and ?-catenin at adherens junctions. Results presented in this study reflect the complexities underlying the molecular relationships between the cytoskeleton, growth factors, heat shock proteins, and co-activators of transcription that impact mechanotransduction. The data reveal the importance of YAP/TAZ on the cell behaviors, and gene and protein expression. PMID:25290150

  2. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hideki; Gotoh, Tomoko; Kojima, Takashi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Sawada, Norimasa

    2003-06-10

    F9 murine embryonal carcinoma cells provide an attractive system for facilitating molecular mechanisms for epithelial morphogenesis, since they have the capability of differentiating into polarized epithelial cells bearing an apical junctional complexes. We previously showed that a specific retinoid X receptor-retinoic acid receptor heterodimer transduced retinoid signals for biogenesis of functional tight junctions in F9 cells (Exp. Cell Res. 263, (2001) 163). In the present study we generated F9 cells expressing doxycycline-inducible hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha, a nuclear receptor. We herein show that induction of HNF-4alpha initiates differentiation of F9 cells to polarized epithelial cells, in which tight-junction proteins occludin, claudin-6, claudin-7, and ZO-1 are concentrated at the apical-most regions of lateral membranes. Expression of occludin, claudin-6, and claudin-7 was induced in the cells by doxycycline treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in terms of the amount of HNF-4alpha. In contrast, expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin were not altered by HNF-4alpha. We also demonstrate, by analysis of diffusion of labeled sphingomyelin, that the fence function of tight junctions is achieved by induction of HNF-4alpha. These findings indicate that HNF-4alpha triggers de novo formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of epithelial cell polarity. PMID:12749857

  3. [Influence of limk1 Gene Polymorphism on Learning Acquisition and Memory Formation with pCREB Distribution and Aggregate Formation in Neuromuscular Junctions in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Kaminskaya, A N; Nikitina, E A; Medvedeva, A V; Gerasimenko, M S; Chernikova, D A; Savateeva-Popova, E V

    2015-06-01

    We have shown previously that the polymorphic structure of the limk1 gene in drosophila leads to changes in LIMK1 content and to defects in courtship behavior, sound production, and learning/memory. The results of the present study of three wild-type strains and mutant agn(ts3) with altered limk1 structure demonstrate that long-term memory is normal in Canton-S and Oregon-R but is impaired in Berlin and drastically suppressed in agn(ts3). This temperature-sensitive mutant carries the S-element from the Tc1/mariner family insertion near the dlimk1 3'-UTR and, compared to Canton-S, has a reverse pCREB distribution in adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of the second dorsal imago nerve before and after learning. Moreover, only agn(ts3) demonstrates amyloid-like aggregate formation in NMJ. This suggests that this impedes pCREb transport and thereby impairs the formation of short- and long-term memory. PMID:26310031

  4. Massive formation of square array junctions dramatically alters cell shape but does not cause lens opacity in the cav1-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sondip K; Brako, Lawrence; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2014-08-01

    The wavy square array junctions are composed of truncated aquaporin-0 (AQP0) proteins typically distributed in the deep cortical and nuclear fibers in wild-type lenses. These junctions may help maintain the narrowed extracellular spaces between fiber cells to minimize light scattering. Herein, we investigate the impact of the cell shape changes, due to abnormal formation of extensive square array junctions, on the lens opacification in the caveolin-1 knockout mice. The cav1-KO and wild-type mice at age 1-22 months were used. By light microscopy examinations, cav1-KO lenses at age 1-18 months were transparent in both cortical and nuclear regions, whereas some lenses older than 18 months old exhibited nuclear cataracts. Scanning EM consistently observed the massive formation of ridge-and-valley membrane surfaces in young fibers at approximately 150 ?m deep in all cav1-KO lenses studied. In contrast, the typical ridge-and-valleys were only seen in mature fibers deeper than 400 ?m in wild-type lenses. The resulting extensive ridge-and-valleys dramatically altered the overall cell shape in cav1-KO lenses. Remarkably, despite dramatic shape changes, these deformed fiber cells remained intact and made close contact with their neighboring cells. By freeze-fracture TEM, ridge-and-valleys exhibited the typical orthogonal arrangement of 6.6 nm square array intramembrane particles and displayed the narrowed extracellular spaces. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP0 C-terminus labeling was significantly decreased in outer cortical fibers in cav1-KO lenses. However, freeze-fracture immunogold labeling showed that the AQP0 C-terminus antibody was sparsely distributed on the wavy square array junctions, suggesting that the cleavage of AQP0 C-termini might not yet be complete. The cav1-KO lenses with nuclear cataracts showed complete cellular breakdown and large globule formation in the lens nucleus. This study suggests that despite dramatic cell shape changes, the massive formation of wavy square array junctions in intact fibers may provide additional adhesive support for maintaining the narrowed extracellular spaces that are crucial for the transparency of cav1-KO lenses. PMID:24877741

  5. The Apical Junctional Complex in Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium, including the respiratory system, acts as a selective gate between the outside environment and underlying tissue. Epithelial cells are polarized due to the formation of the apical junctional complex, which includes adherent junctions and tight junctions. Endothelial cells are one of the most important cellular constituents of blood vessels. Endothelial junctional proteins play important roles in tissue integrity as well as in vascular permeability, leukocyte extravasation, and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the apical junctional complex in respiratory diseases. PMID:24855600

  6. The role of the organic layer functionalization in the formation of silicon/organic layer/metal junctions with coinage metals.

    PubMed

    Juarez, María F; Soria, Federico A; Patrito, Eduardo M; Paredes-Olivera, Patricia

    2011-12-28

    The design of silicon/alkyl layer/metal junctions for the formation of optimal top metal contacts requires knowledge of the mechanistic and energetic aspects of the interactions of metal atoms with the modified surface. This involves (a) the interaction of the metal with the terminal groups of the organic layer, (b) the diffusion of metal atoms through the organic layer and (c) the reactions of metal atoms with the silicon surface atoms. The diffusion through the monolayer and the metal catalyzed breakage of Si-C bonds must be avoided to obtain high quality junctions. In this work, we performed a comprehensive density functional theory investigation to identify the reaction pathways of all these processes. In the absence of a reactive terminal group, gold atoms may penetrate through a compact alkyl monolayer on Si(111) with no energy barrier. However, the presence of thiol terminal groups introduces a high energy barrier which blocks the diffusion of metals into the monolayer. The diffusion barriers increase in the order Ag < Au < Cu and correlate with the stability of metal-thiolate complexes whereas the barriers for the formation of metal silicides increase in the order Cu < Au < Ag in correlation with the increasing metallic radii. The reactivity of gold clusters with functionalized Si(111) surfaces was also investigated. Metal silicide formation can only be avoided by a compact monolayer terminated by a reactive functional group. The mechanistic and energetic picture obtained in this work contributes to understanding of the factors that influence the quality of top metal contacts during the formation of silicon/organic layer/metal junctions. PMID:22041894

  7. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalte

    2004-12-28

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  8. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  9. In situ formation of p-n junction: a novel principle for photoelectrochemical sensor and its application for mercury(II) ion detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Liu, Kang-Li; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun; Zhang, Chi

    2014-05-27

    The discovery and development of photoelectrochemical sensors with novel principles are of great significance to realize sensitive and low-cost detection. In this paper, a new photoelectrochemial sensor based on the in situ formation of p-n junction was designed and used for the accurate determination of mercury(II) ions. Cysteine-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was assembled on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode based on the electrostatic interaction between Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and Cys-capped ZnS QDs. The in situ formation of HgS, a p-type semiconductor, on the surface of ZnS facilitated the charge carrier transport and promoted electron-hole separation, triggered an obviously enhanced anodic photocurrent of Cys-capped ZnS QDs. The formation of p-n junction was confirmed by P-N conductive type discriminator measurements and current-voltage (I-V) curves. The photoelectrochemical method was used for the sensing of trace mercuric (II) ions with a linear concentration of 0.01 to 10.0 µM and a detection limit of 4.6×10(-9)mol/L. It is expected that the present study can serve as a foundation to the application of p-n heterojunction to photoelectrochemical sensors and it might be easily extended to more exciting sensing systems by photoelectrochemistry. PMID:24832992

  10. High-T(sub c) Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Junctions with Polyimide-Passivated Ambient Temperature Edge Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barner, J. B.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Hunt, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to controllably fabricate High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) S-Normal-S (SNS) Josephson Juntions (JJ's) enhances the possibilities fro many applications, including digital circuits, SQUID's, and mixers. A wide variety of approaches to fabricating SNS-like junctions has been tried and analyzed in terms of proximity effect behavior.

  11. Josephson junction

    DOEpatents

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Martens, J.S.

    1995-05-02

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material. 10 figs.

  12. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B+-implants in Ge B. R. Yates, B. L. Darby, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, R. Lin et al.

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    . Petersen, O. Hansen, R. Lin et al. Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 112, 123525 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4770474 View glass deposition via POCl3 for control of phosphorus dose in Si J. Appl. Phys. 112, 124912 (2012 overgrowth Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 212401 (2012) Mechanisms of damage formation in Eu-implanted AlN J. Appl

  13. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted elements with drastically increased confidence level. Silicon wafers implanted with Arsenic at different implantation energies were measured by XRR and GIXRF using a combined, simultaneous measurement and data evaluation procedure. The data were processed using a self-developed software package (JGIXA), designed for simultaneous fitting of GIXRF and XRR data. The results were compared with depth profiles obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS).

  14. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions?

    PubMed Central

    Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted elements with drastically increased confidence level. Silicon wafers implanted with Arsenic at different implantation energies were measured by XRR and GIXRF using a combined, simultaneous measurement and data evaluation procedure. The data were processed using a self-developed software package (JGIXA), designed for simultaneous fitting of GIXRF and XRR data. The results were compared with depth profiles obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). PMID:25202165

  15. Formation of a pn junction on an anisotropically etched GaAs surface using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, R.P.; Bailey, S.G.; Mazaris, G.A.; Williams, W.D.

    1986-10-13

    A continuous p-type GaAs epilayer has been deposited on an n-type sawtooth GaAs surface using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A wet chemical etching process was used to expose the intersecting (111)Ga and (1-bar1-bar1)Ga planes with 6 ..mu..m periodicity. Charge collection microscopy was used to verify the presence of the pn junction thus formed and to measure its depth. The ultimate goal of this work is to fabricate a V-groove GaAs cell with improved absorptivity, high short-circuit current, and tolerance to particle radiation.

  16. Ohmic contact formation of metal/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions with an anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hanhui; Wang, Peng; Qi, Dongfeng; Li, Xin; Han, Xiang; Wang, Chen; Chen, Songyan Li, Cheng; Huang, Wei

    2014-11-10

    The modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge inserting an amorphous Ge layer has been demonstrated. It is interested that the Schottky barrier height of Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions is oscillated with increase of the a-Ge thickness from 0 to 10?nm, and when the thickness reaches above 10?nm, the Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge shows ohmic characteristics. Electron hopping through localized states of a-Ge layer, the alleviation of metal induced gap states, as well as the termination of dangling bonds at the amorphous-Ge/n-Ge interface are proposed to explain the anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height.

  17. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  18. On the formation and evolution of the Pannonian Basin: Constraints derived from the structure of the junction area between the Carpathians and Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenco, L.; Radivojevi?, D.

    2012-12-01

    The large number and distribution of rollback systems in Mediterranean orogens infer the possibility of interacting extensional back-arc deformation driven by different slabs. The formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is generally related to the rapid Miocene rollback of a slab attached to the European continent. A key area of the entire system that is neglected by kinematic studies is the connection between the South Carpathians and Dinarides. In order to derive an evolutionary model, we interpreted regional seismic lines traversing the entire Serbian part of the Pannonian Basin. The observed deformation is dominantly expressed by the formation of Miocene extensional detachments and (half) grabens. The extensional geometries and associated synkinematic sedimentation that migrated in time and space allow the definition of a continuous and essentially asymmetric early to late Miocene extensional evolution. This evolution was followed by the formation of few uplifted areas during the subsequent latest Miocene-Quaternary inversion. The present-day extensional geometry changing the strike across the basin is an effect of the clockwise rotation of the South Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains in respect to the Dinarides. Our study infers that the Carpathian rollback is not the only mechanism responsible for the formation of the Pannonian Basin; an additional middle Miocene rollback of a Dinaridic slab is required to explain the observed structures. Furthermore, the study provides constraints for the pre-Neogene orogenic evolution of this junction zone, including the affinity of major crustal blocks, obducted ophiolitic sequences and the Sava suture zone.

  19. Electron scattering effects at physisorbed hydrogen molecules on break-junction electrodes and nanowires formation in hydrogen environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Maas, M.; Vasnyov, S.; Hendriksen, B. L. M.; Shklyarevskii, O. I.; Speller, S.

    2012-06-01

    Physisorption of hydrogen molecules on the surface of gold and other coinage metals has been studied using distance tunneling spectroscopy. We have observed that the distance dependence of the tunnel current (resistance) displays a strong N-shaped deviation from exponential behavior. Such deviations are difficult to explain within the Tersoff-Hamann approximation. We suggest the scattering of tunneling electrons by H2 molecules as an origin for the observed effect. We have found that this phenomenon is also common for strongly adsorbed organic molecules with a single anchoring group. Pulling Au, Cu and Pt nanowires at 22 K in hydrogen environment shows that the break-junction electrodes are still connected through hydrogen-metal monoatomic chains down to very low conductance values of 10-4-10-6 G0.

  20. Formation of single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon pn junctions by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiyuan, Wang; Yongguang, Huang; Dewei, Liu; Xiaoning, Zhu; Xiao, Cui; Hongliang, Zhu

    2013-06-01

    Pn junctions based on single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon were formed by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). P type silicon wafers were implanted with 245 keV 126Te+ to a dose of 2 × 1015 ions/cm2, after a PLM process (248 nm, laser fluence of 0.30 and 0.35 J/cm2, 1-5 pulses, duration 30 ns), an n+ type single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon layer with high carrier density (highest concentration 4.10 × 1019 cm-3, three orders of magnitude larger than the solid solution limit) was formed, it shows high broadband optical absorption from 400 to 2500 nm. Current—voltage measurements were performed on these diodes under dark and one standard sun (AM 1.5), and good rectification characteristics were observed. For present results, the samples with 4-5 pulses PLM are best.

  1. Electro-Optical Characteristics of P+n In0.53Ga0.47As Hetero-Junction Photodiodes in Large Format Dense Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWames, R.; Littleton, R.; Witte, K.; Wichman, A.; Bellotti, E.; Pellegrino, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is concerned with focal plane array (FPA) data and use of analytical and three-dimensional numerical simulation methods to determine the physical effects and processes limiting performance. For shallow homojunction P+n designs the temperature dependence of dark current for T < 300 K depends on the intrinsic carrier concentration of the In0.53Ga0.47As material, implying that the dominant dark currents are generation and recombination (G-R) currents originating in the depletion regions of the double layer planar heterostructure (DLPH) photodiode. In the analytical model differences from bulk G-R behavior are modeled with a G-R like perimeter-dependent shunt current conjectured to originate at the InP/InGaAs interface. In this description the fitting property is the effective conductivity, ? eff( T), in mho cm-1. Variation in the data suggests ? eff (300 K) values of 1.2 × 10-11-4.6 × 10-11 mho cm-1). Substrate removal extends the quantum efficiency (QE) spectral band into the visible region. However, dead-layer effects limit the QE to 10% at a wavelength of 0.5 ?m. For starlight-no moon illumination conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio is estimated to be 50 at an operating temperature of 300 K. A major result of the 3D numerical simulation of the device is the prediction of a perimeter G-R current not associated with the properties of the metallurgical interface. Another is the prediction that for a junction positioned in the larger band gap InP cap layer the QE is bias-dependent and that a relatively large reverse bias ?0.9 V is needed for the QE to saturate to the shallow homojunction value. At this higher bias the dark current is larger than the shallow homojunction value. The 3D numerical model and the analytical model agree in predicting and explaining the measured radiatively limited diffusion current originating at the n-side of the junction. The calculations of the area-dependent G-R current for the condition studied are also in agreement. Unique advantages of the 3D numerical simulation are the ability to mimic real device structures, achieve deeper understanding of the real physical effects associated with the various methods of junction formation, and predict how device designs will function.

  2. Opto-electronic modeling of light emission from avalanche-mode silicon p+n junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Satadal; Hueting, Raymond J. E.; Annema, Anne-Johan; Qi, Lin; Nanver, Lis K.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2015-09-01

    This work presents the modeling of light emission from silicon based p+n junctions operating in avalanche breakdown. We revisit the photon emission process under the influence of relatively high electric fields in a reverse biased junction ( > 10 5 V/cm). The photon emission rate is described as a function of the electron temperature T e , which is computed from the spatial distribution of the electric field. The light emission spectra lie around the visible spectral range ( ? ˜ 300-850 nm), where the peak wavelength and the optical intensity are both doping level dependent. It is theoretically derived that a specific minimum geometrical width ( ˜ 170 nm) of the active region of avalanche is required, corresponding to a breakdown voltage of ˜5 V, below which the rate of photon emission in the desired spectrum drops. The derived model is validated using experimental data obtained from ultra-shallow p+n junctions with low absorption through a nm-thin p+ region and surface coverage of solely 3 nm of pure boron. We observe a peak in the emission spectra near 580 nm and 650 nm for diodes with breakdown voltages 7 V and 14 V, respectively, consistent with our model.

  3. A tectonically controlled alluvial fan which developed into a marine fan-delta at a complex triple junction: Miocene Gildirli Formation of the Adana Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görür, Naci

    1992-12-01

    The sediments of the Gildirli Formation in the Karaisali embayment of the Adana Basin, southern Turkey, records the evolution, under tectonic control at a complex triple junction, of an alluvial fan into a fan-delta during a rapid Early Miocene transgression. The alluvial fan is represented by the lower part of the formation (Çakmak Member) and is characterized by an internal architecture, recording an overall progradation of the coarse proximal fan conglomerates over distal fine-grained sediments. The conglomerates contain mostly Upper Cretaceous limestone clasts of various sizes derived from the faulted mountain front of the Taurus range where this limestone is widely exposed. This active mountain front delimited the Karaisah embayment to the north and provided, during the fault activity, abundant coarse clasts to this area throughout the deposition of both the alluvial fan and the overlying fan-delta sediments. The production of fine detritus during the faulting was very limited and therefore this source contributed little fine grain detritus to the sediments. Provenance studies indicate that the fine clastics in the Gildirli Formation were carried by streams during periods of active faulting and also during periods of tectonic quiescence from a far-distant source in the hinterlands of the Taurus Mountains. The recurrent activity along the northern boundary-fault resulted in the intercalation of these fine clastics with the predominant coarse sediments in this formation. When the study area was flooded from the south by a rapidly deepening Early Miocene sea, the accumulation of all these sediments took place in a fan-delta environment. The fan-delta sediments constitute the upper parts of the Gildirli Formation (Kabalaktepe Member) and display an inverse facies pattern in which foreset beds overlie topsets and hence an upward-fining and deepening sequence. This deviation from a genetic upward-coarsening sequence of a typical marine delta was perhaps the result of a rapid relative rise in sea-level, due to tectonically induced subsidence of the area possibly coupled with a short-term global sea-level rise in the Burdigalian.

  4. Arp2/3 promotes junction formation and maintenance in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine by regulating membrane association of apical proteins.

    PubMed

    Bernadskaya, Yelena Y; Patel, Falshruti B; Hsu, Hsiao-Ting; Soto, Martha C

    2011-08-15

    It has been proposed that Arp2/3, which promotes nucleation of branched actin, is needed for epithelial junction initiation but is less important as junctions mature. We focus here on how Arp2/3 contributes to the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium and find important roles for Arp2/3 in the maturation and maintenance of junctions in embryos and adults. Electron microscope studies show that embryos depleted of Arp2/3 form apical actin-rich microvilli and electron-dense apical junctions. However, whereas apical/basal polarity initiates, apical maturation is defective, including decreased apical F-actin enrichment, aberrant lumen morphology, and reduced accumulation of some apical junctional proteins, including DLG-1. Depletion of Arp2/3 in adult animals leads to similar intestinal defects. The DLG-1/AJM-1 apical junction proteins, and the ezrin-radixin-moesin homologue ERM-1, a protein that connects F-actin to membranes, are required along with Arp2/3 for apical F-actin enrichment in embryos, whereas cadherin junction proteins are not. Arp2/3 affects the subcellular distribution of DLG-1 and ERM-1. Loss of Arp2/3 shifts both ERM-1 and DLG-1 from pellet fractions to supernatant fractions, suggesting a role for Arp2/3 in the distribution of membrane-associated proteins. Thus, Arp2/3 is required as junctions mature to maintain apical proteins associated with the correct membranes. PMID:21697505

  5. Cardiotonic steroid ouabain stimulates expression of blood-testis barrier proteins claudin-1 and -11 and formation of tight junctions in Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Raimund; Shihan, Mazen; Stammler, Angelika; Konrad, Lutz; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2015-04-15

    The interaction of ouabain with the sodium pump induces signalling cascades resembling those triggered by hormone/receptor interactions. In the rat Sertoli cell line 93RS2, ouabain at low concentrations stimulates the c-Src/c-Raf/Erk1/2 signalling cascade via its interaction with the ?4 isoform of the sodium pump expressed in these cells, leading to the activation of the transcription factor CREB. As a result of this signalling sequence, ouabain stimulates expression of claudin-1 and claudin-11, which are also controlled by a CRE promoter. Both of these proteins are known to be essential constituents of tight junctions (TJ) between Sertoli cells, and as a result of the ouabain-induced signalling TJ formation between neighbouring Sertoli cells is significantly enhanced by the steroid. Thus, ouabain-treated cell monolayers display higher transepithelial resistance and reduced free diffusion of FITC-coupled dextran in tracer diffusion assays. Taking into consideration that the formation of TJ is indispensable for the maintenance of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and therefore for male fertility, the actions of ouabain described here and the fact that this and other related cardiotonic steroids (CTS) are produced endogenously suggest a direct influence of ouabain/sodium pump interactions on the maintenance of the BTB and thereby an effect on male fertility. Since claudin-1 and claudin-11 are also present in other blood-tissue barriers, one can speculate that ouabain and perhaps other CTS influence the dynamics of these barriers as well. PMID:25666991

  6. Obstacle strength of binary junction due to dislocation dipole formation: An in-situ transmission electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez Haghighat, S. M.; Schäublin, R.

    2015-10-01

    We report the experimental observation of the ½<111> edge dislocation dipole formation and annihilation in ultra-high purity Fe using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in-situ straining. The observation is confirmed by TEM image simulations. The edge dipole is formed by the interaction of a moving screw dislocation with an obstacle of dislocation character. It results from the glide of the two arms of the dislocation on two different glide planes, which stabilizes the dipole that is closed by a jog. The dipole is later released from the obstacle and disappears, presumably by gliding of the dipole's edge segments along their Burgers vector and freeing the mobile screw dislocation from the jog. This mechanism leads to enhanced obstacle strength of the immobile dislocation well above Orowan critical stress, promoting forest strength.

  7. In Situ Formation of Disorder-Engineered TiO2(B)-Anatase Heterophase Junction for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinmeng; Wang, Yating; Zhu, Yingming; Wu, Moqing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xingang; Jiang, Zheng; Meng, Ming

    2015-11-18

    Hydrogenation of semiconductors is an efficient way to increase their photocatalytic activity by forming disorder-engineered structures. Herein, we report a facile hydrogenation process of TiO2(B) nanobelts to in situ generate TiO2(B)-anatase heterophase junction with a disordered surface shell. The catalyst exhibits an excellent performance for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under the simulated solar light irradiation (?580 ?mol h(-1), 0.02 g photocatalyst). The atomically well-matched heterophase junction, along with the disorder-engineered surface shell, promotes the separation of electron-hole and inhibits their recombination. This strategy can be further employed to design other disorder-engineered composite photocatalysts for solar energy utilization. PMID:26536137

  8. Solitons in Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A. V.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic flux quanta in Josephson junctions, often called fluxons, in many cases behave as solitons. A review of recent experiments and modelling of fluxon dynamics in Josephson circuits is presented. Classic quasi-one-dimensional junctions, stacked junctions (Josephson superlattices), and discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTLs) are discussed. Applications of fluxon devices as high-frequency oscillators and digital circuits are also addressed.

  9. Connexin43 gap junctions in normal, regenerating, and cultured mouse bone marrow and in human leukemias: their possible involvement in blood formation.

    PubMed Central

    Krenacs, T.; Rosendaal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Communicating channels called gap junctions are thought to play a ubiquitous part in cell growth and development. Based on earlier work, we have recently found functional evidence of their presence in human and mouse bone marrow. In this study we studied the cell-type association of the gap junction channel-forming protein, connexin, in mouse and human bone marrow under different physiological and pathological conditions and tested the pathway of communication in bone marrow cultures. For high-resolution antigen demonstration we took advantage of semi-thin resin sections, antigen retrieval methods, immunofluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Connexin43 (Cx43) and its mRNA were consistently expressed in human and rodent marrow. Cx37 was found only in the arteriolar endothelium, but neither Cx32 nor -26 were expressed. In tissue sections, the immunostained junctions appeared as dots, which were digitally measured and counted. Their average size was 0.40 mm in human and 0.49 mm in mice marrow. There were at least twice as many gap junctions in the femoral midshaft of 6-week-old mice (1.75 x 10(5)/mm3) as in those older than 12 weeks (0.89 x 10(5)/mm3). Most Cx43 was associated with collagen III+ endosteal and adventitial stromal cells and with megakaryocytes. Elsewhere, they were few and randomly distributed between all kinds of hematopoietic cells. In the femoral epiphysis of juvenile mice, stromal cell processes full of Cx43 enmeshed three to six layers of hematopoietic cells near the endosteum. The same pattern was seen in the midshaft of regenerating mouse marrow 3 to 5 days after cytotoxic treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Functional tests in cultures showed the transfer of small fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5, 6-carboxyfluorescein, between stromal cells and in rare cases between stromal and hematopoietic cells too. The stromal cells were densely packed with Cx43 and we found aggregates of connexon particles in their membrane replicas. In normocellular human bone marrow, gap junctions were as rare as in adult mouse and similarly distributed, except that they were also on adipocytic membranes. In a few leukemic samples, characterized by an increased stromal/hematopoietic cell ratio, there were two- to fourfold more Cx43 (2.8 x 10(5) to 3.9 x 10(5)/mm3) than in the normal (1.0 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(5)/mm3). The cases included a hypoplastic acute lymphoblastic leukemia, an acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M4-5), a case of myelodysplastic syndrome with elevated number of megakaryocytes, and a CD34+ acute hemoblastosis, probably acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M7). Taken together, our results indicate that direct cell-cell communication may be involved in hematopoiesis, ie, in developmentally active epiphyseal bone marrow and when there is a demand for progenitors in regeneration. However, gap junctions may not play as important a role in resting adult hematopoiesis and in leukemias. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:9546360

  10. Junctional adhesion molecule A promotes epithelial tight junction assembly to augment lung barrier function.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Leslie A; Ward, Christina; Kwon, Mike; Mitchell, Patrick O; Quintero, David A; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A; Koval, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial barrier function is maintained by tight junction proteins that control paracellular fluid flux. Among these proteins is junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), an Ig fold transmembrane protein. To assess JAM-A function in the lung, we depleted JAM-A in primary alveolar epithelial cells using shRNA. In cultured cells, loss of JAM-A caused an approximately 30% decrease in transepithelial resistance, decreased expression of the tight junction scaffold protein zonula occludens 1, and disrupted junctional localization of the structural transmembrane protein claudin-18. Consistent with findings in other organs, loss of JAM-A decreased ?1 integrin expression and impaired filamentous actin formation. Using a model of mild systemic endoxotemia induced by i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide, we report that JAM-A(-/-) mice showed increased susceptibility to pulmonary edema. On injury, the enhanced susceptibility of JAM-A(-/-) mice to edema correlated with increased, transient disruption of claudin-18, zonula occludens 1, and zonula occludens 2 localization to lung tight junctions in situ along with a delay in up-regulation of claudin-4. In contrast, wild-type mice showed no change in lung tight junction morphologic features in response to mild systemic endotoxemia. These findings support a key role of JAM-A in promoting tight junction homeostasis and lung barrier function by coordinating interactions among claudins, the tight junction scaffold, and the cytoskeleton. PMID:25438062

  11. Complex formation between calmodulin and a peptide from the intracellular loop of the gap junction protein connexin43: Molecular conformation and energetics of binding.

    PubMed

    Myllykoski, Matti; Kuczera, Krzysztof; Kursula, Petri

    2009-10-01

    Gap junctions are formed by a family of transmembrane proteins, connexins. Connexin43 is a widely studied member of the family, being ubiquitously expressed in a variety of tissues and a target of a large number of disease mutations. The intracellular loop of connexin43 has been shown to include a calmodulin binding domain, but detailed 3-dimensional data on the structure of the complex are not available. In this study, we used a synthetic peptide from this domain to reveal the conformation of the calmodulin-peptide complex by small angle X-ray scattering. Upon peptide binding, calmodulin lost its dumbbell shape, adopting a more globular conformation. We also studied the energetics of the interaction using calorimetry and computational methods. All our data indicate that calmodulin binds to the peptide from cx43 in the classical 'collapsed' conformation. PMID:19716642

  12. Josephson Junctions and Devices fabricated by Focused Electron Beam Irradiation

    E-print Network

    Booij, Wilfred Edwin

    for the formation of these Josephson junctions in YBa2Cu3O7-d and related compounds are discussed as well as the physical properties of the irradiated material. From electrical transport measurements of individual Josephson junctions it was found...

  13. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4{alpha}-induced epithelial polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki . E-mail: hidchiba@sapmed.ac.jp; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-10-15

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4{alpha}-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4{alpha} led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4{alpha} provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization.

  14. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4alpha-induced epithelial polarization.

    PubMed

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-10-15

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4alpha-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4alpha led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4alpha provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization. PMID:16098509

  15. Alternative USJ formation and characterization methods for 45 nm node technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, John O.

    2005-08-01

    Several alternative methods of forming and characterizing ultra-shallow junctions for the 45 nm node (Xj = 9.5 nm) to extend planar single gate CMOS for bulk or SOI technologies are being investigated. To continue gate length scaling (Lg) and optimize gate overlap control, the industry will move from Spike/RTA annealing at the 65 nm node to diffusion-less activation using high temperature milli-second annealing (Flash/RTA or non-melt laser), low temperature SPE or their combinations to optimize Rs and Xj. This is driving the development of new high dose/low energy implanter designs with: (1) high tilt angle capabilities for gate over lap control, (2) uniform beam parallelism across 300 mm wafers to eliminate asymmetrical transistor effects and (3) high productivity at 200 eV boron equivalent energies with no energy contamination using new molecular dopant species (B10H14 and B18H22). If these techniques are unsuccessful in achieving the 45 nm node shallow p+ junctions with improved Rs dopant activation above Bss with acceptable junction leakage and device channel mobility enhancement then alternative non-implantation doping methods will be introduced such as in situ doped SEG and infusion DCD. Also, accurate characterization of these shallow junctions is critical so new non-penetrating 4PP Rs measurement techniques are being developed along with new spreading resistance depth profile analysis to determine the electrically active dopant profile as opposed to the SIMS chemical dopant profile.

  16. Metal Silicides: Active elements of ULSI contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, C. M.; Tsai, J. Y.; Sun, J.

    1996-11-01

    As device dimensions scale to the 0.1 urn regime, the self-aligned suicide (SALICIDE) contact technology increasingly becomes an integral part of both the ultra-shallow junction and the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor device itself. This paper will discuss the effect of suicide materials and formation processes on suicide stability, junction consumption, the ability to accurately profile shallow junctions, and contact resistance in series with the channel. The use of suicides as diffusion sources (SADS) provides an important pathway toward optimization of suicide technology. Diffusion of boron and arsenic from nearly epitaxial layers of CoSi2, formed from bilayers of Ti and Co, offer good suicide stability, ultra-shallow, low-leakage junctions, and low contact resistance.

  17. A Kinetic Monte Carlo model for material aging: Simulations of second phase formation at Au/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} junction in oxygen environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. W.; Yang, N. Y. C.

    2014-03-14

    Electronic properties of semiconductor devices are sensitive to defects such as second phase precipitates, grain sizes, and voids. These defects can evolve over time especially under oxidation environments and it is therefore important to understand the resulting aging behavior in order for the reliable applications of devices. In this paper, we propose a kinetic Monte Carlo framework capable of simultaneous simulation of the evolution of second phases, precipitates, grain sizes, and voids in complicated systems involving many species including oxygen. This kinetic Monte Carlo model calculates the energy barriers of various events based directly on the experimental data. As a first step of our model implementation, we incorporate the second phase formation module in the parallel kinetic Monte Carlo codes SPPARKS. Selected aging simulations are performed to examine the formation of second phase precipitates at the eletroplated Au/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} interface under oxygen and oxygen-free environments, and the results are compared with the corresponding experiments.

  18. On the formation and evolution of the Pannonian basin: constraints derived from the orogenic collapse recorded at the junction between Carpathians and Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenco, L. C.; Radivojevic, D.

    2012-04-01

    Formation and evolution of back-arc basins is related to the evolution of subduction zones, resulting geometries being dependent on the interplay between the velocity of retreating slabs and boundary conditions that often limit rapid subduction systems. Classical models of evolution in the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaridic domain assume that the formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is related to the rapid roll-back of an European slab and the invasion of Tisza-Dacia and ALCAPA upper plate blocks into the so-called Carpathians embayment starting at ~20Ma. The general mechanism assumes a gradual evolution, an initial mechanical phase of extensional detachments being recognized near the transition between the Alps and the Pannonian basin was subsequently followed by upper crustal normal faulting and a thermal phase during the Middle-late Miocene times that affected the central part of the Pannonian basin. A key area of the entire system often neglected by kinematic studies is the connection between South Carpathians and Dinarides. Here, regional seismic lines traversing the entire Serbian part of the Pannonian basin were calibrated with well data in order to derive an evolutionary model. The deformation is dominantly expressed by the formation of extensional (half-)grabens that are the brittle expression of large-scale extensional detachments. In contrast with previous interpretation restricting the syn-rift phase to the Middle Miocene, the geometry of normal faults and the associated syn-kinematic sedimentation allows the definition of a continuous Early to Late Miocene extensional evolution that was followed by the formation of isolated uplifted areas during the subsequent Pliocene - Quaternary inversion. The orientation of these (half-)grabens changes gradually from W-E to NW-SE and then to N-S, suggesting that the present-day strike of faults is the effect of a clockwise rotational mechanism of South Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains in respect to Dinarides. The S-ward prolongation of the large scale extension in an area that is adjacent across Carpathians to the Moesian platform suggests that the roll-back of the Carpathians is not the only mechanism that is responsible for the formation of the Pannonian basin. The correlation with similar extensional structures superposed over the orogenic chain located S-wards strongly points towards a component of Pannonian collapse driven by a Middle Miocene roll-back of a Dinaridic slab. The study provides critical constraints for the pre-Neogene evolution of an area where there major crustal blocks (i.e. Tisza, Dacia and Dinarides) are juxtaposed together with their partly overlying obducted ophiolitic sequences against the major oceanic suture of Dinarides, the Sava zone.

  19. Altered patterns of cardiac intercellular junction distribution in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, R.; Severs, N. J.; Gourdie, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the distribution pattern of intercellular junctions (the mechanically coupling desmosomes and the electrically coupling gap junctions) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) hearts showing myofibre disarray. DESIGN: Samples from six necropsied hearts were studied, representing the interventricular septum and the free walls of the left and right ventricles. Immunohistochemical labelling of desmoplakin was used as a marker for desmosomes, and of connexin43 as a marker for gap junctions, in single and double stainings. The slides were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Marked disorganisation of intercalated discs was observed in areas featuring myofibre disarray. Besides overall derangement, localised abnormalities in desmosome organisation were evident, which included: (1) the formation of abnormally enlarged megadiscs; (2) the presence of intersecting disc structures; and (3) aberrant side to side desmosomal connections. Gap junctional abnormalities included: (1) random distribution of gap junctions over the surface of myocytes, rather than localisation to intercalated discs; (2) abundant side to side gap junction connections between adjacent myocytes; and (3) formation of abnormally shaped gap junctions. Circles of myocytes continuously interconnected by gap junctions were also observed. Regions of the diseased hearts lacking myofibre disarray, and control hearts of normal patients and patients with other cardiac diseases, did not show these alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The disorganisation of the intercellular junctions associated with myofibre disarray in HCM may play an important role in the pathophysiological manifestations of the disease. The remodelling of gap junction distribution may underlie the formation of an arrhythmogenic substrate, thereby contributing to the generation and maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias associated with HCM. Images PMID:8944586

  20. Rectosigmoid Junction Coding Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    Coding Guidelines Rectosigmoid Junction C199 Primary Site A tumor is classified as rectosigmoid when differentiation between rectum and sigmoid is not possible. A tumor is classified as rectal if • lower margin lies less than 16 cm from the anal

  1. Single naphthalene and anthracene molecular junctions using Ag and Cu electrodes in ultra high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shintaro; Kaneko, Satoshi; Chenyang, Liu; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2015-11-01

    We present a charge transport study on single naphthalene and anthracene molecular junctions wired into Ag and Cu electrodes using mechanically controllable break junction technique at 100 K under ultra-high vacuum condition. In particular we focus on effect of metal-? interaction on the formation probability of the molecular junctions. We found that the single molecular junctions of the acene molecules (e.g. naphthalene and anthracene) exhibit highly conductive character below 0.2 G0 (G0 = 2e2/h). The acene molecular junctions displayed formation probability of ca. 20% for Ag system and >40% for Cu system. The high formation probability of the molecular junctions with respect to benzene/Au junctions can be qualitatively explained by size effect, in which larger molecules of the naphthalene and anthracene can effectively bridge the gap between metal electrodes compared with small molecule such as benzene. The acene/Cu junctions displayed higher formation probability than the acene/Ag junctions. This result demonstrated that not only the size effect but the degree of the metal-? interaction have to be taken into account to quantitatively evaluate the formation probability of the molecular junctions for Ag and Cu system.

  2. A role of temperature inhomogeneity and hot-spot formation on the THz emission from high-Tc superconducting intrinsic Josephson junction mesa devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Chiharu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Takeo; Asanuma, Kentaro; Nakade, Kurama; Yasui, Takaki; Saiwai, Yoshihiko; Shibano, Yuki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Klemm, Richard; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the mesa device fabricated from single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? (Bi2212) gets heated enormously and forms very inhomogeneous temperature distribution and often ``hot-spot,'' where temperature is well above Tc when it is current biased and turns to the resistive state. One very surprising phenomena, there is that the mesa can still emit THz radiation even in such a hectic thermal condition in the mesa if two conditions are satisfied: ac-Josephson effect and the cavity resonance condition. In order to understand such a curious behavior we have carried out photoluminescent measurement to investigate temperature inhomogeneous distribution and emission spectra simultaneously while the mesa is generating strong THz emission. Furthermore, we were able to control the hot-spot position by shining the LASER beam focused on the mesa to see the interplay between hot-spot formation, inhomogeneous temperature distribution, and THz emission intensity and the frequency. The results will be shown in detail at the meeting.

  3. Electrical conductance and structure of copper atomic junctions in the presence of water molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Demir, Firuz; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Saffarzadeh, Alireza; Kirczenow, George; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated Cu atomic contacts in the presence of H2O both experimentally and theoretically. The conductance measurements showed the formation of H2O/Cu junctions with a fixed conductance value of around 0.1 G0 (G0 = 2e(2)/h). These structures were found to be stable and could be stretched over 0.5 nm, indicating the formation of an atomic or molecular chain. In agreement with the experimental findings, theoretical calculations revealed that the conductance of H2O/Cu junctions decreases in stages as the junction is stretched, with the formation of a H2O/Cu atomic chain with a conductance of ca. 0.1 G0 prior to junction rupture. Conversely, in the absence of H2O, the conductance of the Cu junction remains close to 1 G0 prior to the junction rupture and abrupt conductance drop. PMID:26588589

  4. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel ? -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  5. Brain barriers: Crosstalk between complex tight junctions and adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Unique intercellular junctional complexes between the central nervous system (CNS) microvascular endothelial cells and the choroid plexus epithelial cells form the endothelial blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the epithelial blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), respectively. These barriers inhibit paracellular diffusion, thereby protecting the CNS from fluctuations in the blood. Studies of brain barrier integrity during development, normal physiology, and disease have focused on BBB and BCSFB tight junctions but not the corresponding endothelial and epithelial adherens junctions. The crosstalk between adherens junctions and tight junctions in maintaining barrier integrity is an understudied area that may represent a promising target for influencing brain barrier function. PMID:26008742

  6. Phase diagrams of particles with dissimilar patches: X-junctions and Y-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, J. M.; Teixeira, P. I. C.

    2012-07-01

    We use Wertheim’s first-order perturbation theory to investigate the phase behaviour and the structure of coexisting fluid phases for a model of patchy particles with dissimilar patches (two patches of type A and fB patches of type B). A patch of type ? = {A,B} can bond to a patch of type ? = {A,B} in a volume v??, thereby decreasing the internal energy by ???. We analyse the range of model parameters where AB bonds, or Y-junctions, are energetically disfavoured (?AB < ?AA/2) but entropically favoured (vAB ? v??), and BB bonds, or X-junctions, are energetically favoured (?BB > 0). We show that, for low values of ?BB/?AA, the phase diagram has three different regions: (i) close to the critical temperature a low-density liquid composed of long chains and rich in Y-junctions coexists with a vapour of chains; (ii) at intermediate temperatures there is coexistence between a vapour of short chains and a liquid of very long chains with X- and Y-junctions; (iii) at low temperatures an ideal gas coexists with a high-density liquid with all possible AA and BB bonds formed. It is also shown that in region (i) the liquid binodal is reentrant (its density decreases with decreasing temperature) for the lower values of ?BB/?AA. The existence of these three regions is a consequence of the competition between the formation of X- and Y-junctions: X-junctions are energetically favoured and thus dominate at low temperatures, whereas Y-junctions are entropically favoured and dominate at higher temperatures.

  7. Tight junction, selective permeability, and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Krug, Susanne M; Schulzke, Jörg D; Fromm, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The tight junction forms a barrier against unlimited paracellular passage but some of the tight junction proteins just do the opposite, they form extracellular channels zigzagging between lateral membranes of neighboring cells. All of these channel-forming proteins and even some of the barrier formers exhibit selectivity, which means that they prefer certain substances over others. All channel formers exhibit at least one of the three types of selectivity: for cations (claudin-2, -10b, -15), for anions (claudin-10a, -17) or for water (claudin-2). Also some, but not all, barrier-forming claudins are charge-selective (claudin-4, -8, -14). Moreover, occludin and tricellulin turned out to be relevant for barrier formation against macromolecule passage. Tight junction proteins are dysregulated or can be genetically defective in numerous diseases, which may lead to three effects: (i) impaired paracellular transport e.g. causing magnesium loss in the kidney, (ii) increased paracellular transport of solutes and water e.g. causing leak-flux diarrhea in the intestine, and (iii) increased permeability to large molecules e.g. unwanted intestinal pathogen uptake fueling inflammatory processes. This review gives an overview on the properties of tight junction proteins featuring selective permeability, and in this context explains how these proteins induce or aggravate diseases. PMID:25220018

  8. Measurement of Tunnel Junction Resistance during Formation

    E-print Network

    Bland, Roger

    and wire­bonding of the device. Under the assumption that oxygen was diffusing through the electrodes, we with the device. We have not been able to discover the mechanism: oxygen diffusing through the electrodes, pumped with an oil diffusion pump. Throughout fabrication of the device, liquid nitrogen is circulated

  9. Assembly of the Escherichia coli RuvABC resolvasome directs the orientation of Holliday junction resolution

    PubMed Central

    van Gool, Alain J.; Hajibagheri, Nasser M.A.; Stasiak, Andrzej; West, Stephen C.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic recombination can lead to the formation of intermediates in which DNA molecules are linked by Holliday junctions. Movement of a junction along DNA, by a process known as branch migration, leads to heteroduplex formation, whereas resolution of a junction completes the recombination process. Holliday junctions can be resolved in either of two ways, yielding products in which there has, or has not, been an exchange of flanking markers. The ratio of these products is thought to be determined by the frequency with which the two isomeric forms (conformers) of the Holliday junction are cleaved. Recent studies with enzymes that process Holliday junctions in Escherichia coli, the RuvABC proteins, however, indicate that protein binding causes the junction to adopt an open square-planar configuration. Within such a structure, DNA isomerization can have little role in determining the orientation of resolution. To determine the role that junction-specific protein assembly has in determining resolution bias, a defined in vitro system was developed in which we were able to direct the assembly of the RuvABC resolvasome. We found that the bias toward resolution in one orientation or the other was determined simply by the way in which the Ruv proteins were positioned on the junction. Additionally, we provide evidence that supports current models on RuvABC action in which Holliday junction resolution occurs as the resolvasome promotes branch migration. PMID:10421637

  10. Thermoelectricity in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod; Jang, Sung-Yeon; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arun

    2007-03-16

    By trapping molecules between two gold electrodes with a temperature difference across them, the junction Seebeck coefficients of 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT), 4,4'-dibenzenedithiol, and 4,4''-tribenzenedithiol in contact with gold were measured at room temperature to be +8.7 +/- 2.1 microvolts per kelvin (muV/K), +12.9 +/- 2.2 muV/K, and +14.2 +/- 3.2 muV/K, respectively (where the error is the full width half maximum of the statistical distributions). The positive sign unambiguously indicates p-type (hole) conduction in these heterojunctions, whereas the Au Fermi level position for Au-BDT-Au junctions was identified to be 1.2 eV above the highest occupied molecular orbital level of BDT. The ability to study thermoelectricity in molecular junctions provides the opportunity to address these fundamental unanswered questions about their electronic structure and to begin exploring molecular thermoelectric energy conversion. PMID:17303718

  11. Junctional Tourniquet Training Experience.

    PubMed

    Kragh, John F; Geracci, James J; Parsons, Donald L; Robinson, John B; Biever, Kimberlie A; Rein, Erling B; Glassberg, Elon; Strandenes, Geir; Chen, Jacob; Benov, Avi; Marcozzi, David; Shackelford, Stacy; Cox, Kevin M; Mann-Salinas, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, out-of-hospital care of junctional hemorrhage bleeding from the trunk-appendage junctions has changed, in part, due to the newly available junctional tourniquets (JTs) that have been cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration. Given four new models of JT available in 2014, several military services have begun to acquire, train, or even use such JTs in care. The ability of users to be trained in JT use has been observed by multiple instructors. The experience of such instructors has been broad as a group, but their experience as individuals has been neither long nor deep. A gathering into one source of the collective experience of trainers of JT users could permit a collation of useful information to include lessons learned, tips in skill performance, identification of pitfalls of use to avoid, and strategies to optimize user learning. The purpose of the present review is to record the experiences of several medical personnel in their JT training of users to provide a guide for future trainers. PMID:26360350

  12. From Dislocation Junctions to Forest Hardening R. Madec, B. Devincre, and L. P. Kubin

    E-print Network

    Devincre, Benoit

    From Dislocation Junctions to Forest Hardening R. Madec, B. Devincre, and L. P. Kubin Laboratoire d and strain hardening in fcc crystals are examined with emphasis on the process of junction formation of the dislocation microstructure strength and of its scaling law. It is shown that forest hardening is dominated

  13. [Molecular organization of tricellular tight junctions].

    PubMed

    Furuse, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Within an epithelial cellular sheet, the paracellular pathway can be divided into two routes: one between two adjacent cells and one at tricellular contacts, where the vertices of three cells meet. For epithelial barrier function, tight junctions restrict solute permeability through the paracellular pathway between two cells, while tricellular contacts contain specialized structures of tight junctions, named tricellular tight junctions (tTJs). Two types of membrane proteins, tricellulin and angulin family proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1 and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as molecular components of tTJs. Angulins recruit triellulin to tTJs and these tTJ-associated proteins are required for normal tTJ formation as well as strong epithelial barrier function. Furthermore, mutations in tricellulin and angulin-2/ILDR1 genes cause autosomal recessive familial deafness, DFNB49 and DFNB42, respectively. Further analyses of the angulin-tricellulin system should lead to better understanding of the molecular mechanism and regulation of tTJs. PMID:24790043

  14. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Flores, Jesús M.; Arias, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells. PMID:26404354

  15. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    PubMed

    Torres-Flores, Jesús M; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-09-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells. PMID:26404354

  16. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  17. Investigation of Junction Properties of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells and their Correlation to Device Properties (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dhere, R. G.; Zhang, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M.; To, B.; Noufi, R.; Gessert, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the Junction Studies are: (1) understand the nature of the junction in the CdTe/CdS device; (2) correlate the device fabrication parameters to the junction formation; and (3) develop a self consistent device model to explain the device properties. Detailed analysis of CdS/CdTe and SnO{sub 2}/CdTe devices prepared using CSS CdTe is discussed.

  18. Cross-Talk between Adherens Junctions and Desmosomes Depends on Plakoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jani E.; Wahl, James K.; Sass, Kristin M.; Jensen, Pamela J.; Johnson, Keith R.; Wheelock, Margaret J.

    1997-01-01

    Squamous epithelial cells have both adherens junctions and desmosomes. The ability of these cells to organize the desmosomal proteins into a functional structure depends upon their ability first to organize an adherens junction. Since the adherens junction and the desmosome are separate structures with different molecular make up, it is not immediately obvious why formation of an adherens junction is a prerequisite for the formation of a desmosome. The adherens junction is composed of a transmembrane classical cadherin (E-cadherin and/or P-cadherin in squamous epithelial cells) linked to either ?-catenin or plakoglobin, which is linked to ?-catenin, which is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. The desmosome is composed of transmembrane proteins of the broad cadherin family (desmogleins and desmocollins) that are linked to the intermediate filament cytoskeleton, presumably through plakoglobin and desmoplakin. To begin to study the role of adherens junctions in the assembly of desmosomes, we produced an epithelial cell line that does not express classical cadherins and hence is unable to organize desmosomes, even though it retains the requisite desmosomal components. Transfection of E-cadherin and/or P-cadherin into this cell line did not restore the ability to organize desmosomes; however, overexpression of plakoglobin, along with E-cadherin, did permit desmosome organization. These data suggest that plakoglobin, which is the only known common component to both adherens junctions and desmosomes, must be linked to E-cadherin in the adherens junction before the cell can begin to assemble desmosomal components at regions of cell–cell contact. Although adherens junctions can form in the absence of plakoglobin, making use only of ?-catenin, such junctions cannot support the formation of desmosomes. Thus, we speculate that plakoglobin plays a signaling role in desmosome organization. PMID:9049256

  19. Single Molecule Junctions: Probing Contact Chemistry and Fundamental Circuit Laws

    SciTech Connect

    Hybertsen M. S.

    2013-04-11

    By exploiting selective link chemistry, formation of single molecule junctions with reproducible conductance has become established. Systematic studies reveal the structure-conductance relationships for diverse molecules. I will draw on experiments from my collaborators at Columbia University, atomic-scale calculations and theory to describe progress in two areas. First, I will describe a novel route to form single molecule junctions, based on SnMe3 terminated molecules, in which gold directly bonds to carbon in the molecule backbone resulting in near ideal contact resistance [1]. Second, comparison of the conductance of junctions formed with molecular species containing either one backbone or two backbones in parallel allows demonstration of the role of quantum interference in the conductance superposition law at the molecular scale [2].

  20. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Hilbert, Claude (Austin, TX); Hahn, Erwin L. (Berkeley, CA); Sleator, Tycho (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic Q-spoiler comprising at least one Josephson tunnel junction connected in an LC circuit for flow of resonant current therethrough. When in use in a system for detecting the magnetic resonance of a gyromagnetic particle system, a high energy pulse of high frequency energy irradiating the particle system will cause the critical current through the Josephson tunnel junctions to be exceeded, causing the tunnel junctions to act as resistors and thereby damp the ringing of the high-Q detection circuit after the pulse. When the current has damped to below the critical current, the Josephson tunnel junctions revert to their zero-resistance state, restoring the Q of the detection circuit and enabling the low energy magnetic resonance signals to be detected.

  1. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, J.; Hilbert, C.; Hahn, E.L.; Sleator, T.

    1986-03-25

    An automatic Q-spoiler comprising at least one Josephson tunnel junction connected in an LC circuit for flow of resonant current therethrough. When in use in a system for detecting the magnetic resonance of a gyromagnetic particle system, a high energy pulse of high frequency energy irradiating the particle system will cause the critical current through the Josephson tunnel junctions to be exceeded, causing the tunnel junctions to act as resistors and thereby damp the ringing of the high-Q detection circuit after the pulse. When the current has damped to below the critical current, the Josephson tunnel junctions revert to their zero-resistance state, restoring the Q of the detection circuit and enabling the low energy magnetic resonance signals to be detected.

  2. The Extracellular Architecture of Adherens Junctions Revealed by Crystal Structures of Type I Cadherins

    SciTech Connect

    O Harrison; X Jin; S Hong; F Bahna; G Ahlsen; J Brasch; Y Wu; J Vendome; K Felsovalyi; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Adherens junctions, which play a central role in intercellular adhesion, comprise clusters of type I classical cadherins that bind via extracellular domains extended from opposing cell surfaces. We show that a molecular layer seen in crystal structures of E- and N-cadherin ectodomains reported here and in a previous C-cadherin structure corresponds to the extracellular architecture of adherens junctions. In all three ectodomain crystals, cadherins dimerize through a trans adhesive interface and are connected by a second, cis, interface. Assemblies formed by E-cadherin ectodomains coated on liposomes also appear to adopt this structure. Fluorescent imaging of junctions formed from wild-type and mutant E-cadherins in cultured cells confirm conclusions derived from structural evidence. Mutations that interfere with the trans interface ablate adhesion, whereas cis interface mutations disrupt stable junction formation. Our observations are consistent with a model for junction assembly involving strong trans and weak cis interactions localized in the ectodomain.

  3. Dislocation Dynamics Simulations of Junctions in Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C; Aubry, S; Chung, P; Arsenlis, A

    2011-12-05

    The formation and strength of dislocations in the hexagonal closed packed material beryllium are studied through dislocation junctions and the critical stress required to break them. Dislocation dynamics calculations (using the code ParaDiS) of junction maps are compared to an analytical line tension approximation in order to validate our model. Results show that the two models agree very well. Also the critical shear stress necessary to break 30{sup o} - 30{sup o} and 30{sup o} - 90{sup o} dislocation junctions is computed numerically. Yield surfaces are mapped out for these junctions to describe their stability regions as function of resolved shear stresses on the glide planes. The example of two non-coplanar binary dislocation junctions with slip planes [2-1-10] (01-10) and [-12-10] (0001) corresponding to a prismatic and basal slip respectively is chosen to verify and validate our implementation.

  4. A local VE-cadherin and Trio-based signaling complex stabilizes endothelial junctions through Rac1.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Ilse; Heemskerk, Niels; Kroon, Jeffrey; Schaefer, Antje; van Rijssel, Jos; Hoogenboezem, Mark; van Unen, Jakobus; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi; Huveneers, Stephan; van Buul, Jaap D

    2015-08-15

    Endothelial cell-cell junctions maintain a restrictive barrier that is tightly regulated to allow dynamic responses to permeability-inducing angiogenic factors, as well as to inflammatory agents and adherent leukocytes. The ability of these stimuli to transiently remodel adherens junctions depends on Rho-GTPase-controlled cytoskeletal rearrangements. How the activity of Rho-GTPases is spatio-temporally controlled at endothelial adherens junctions by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) is incompletely understood. Here, we identify a crucial role for the Rho-GEF Trio in stabilizing junctions based around vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin (also known as CDH5). Trio interacts with VE-cadherin and locally activates Rac1 at adherens junctions during the formation of nascent contacts, as assessed using a novel FRET-based Rac1 biosensor and biochemical assays. The Rac-GEF domain of Trio is responsible for the remodeling of junctional actin from radial into cortical actin bundles, a crucial step for junction stabilization. This promotes the formation of linear adherens junctions and increases endothelial monolayer resistance. Collectively, our data show the importance of spatio-temporal regulation of the actin cytoskeleton through Trio and Rac1 at VE-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions in the maintenance of the endothelial barrier. PMID:26116572

  5. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2008-08-12

    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption. PMID:18685100

  6. Characterization of buried metal-molecule-metal junctions using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayco, Christopher B.; Land, Donald P.; Parikh, Atul N.; Kiehl, Richard A.

    2014-09-01

    We have devised an infrared spectromicroscopy based experimental configuration to enable structural characterization of buried molecular junctions. Our design utilizes a small mercury drop at the focal point of an infrared microscope to act as a mirror in studying metal-molecule-metal (MmM) junctions. An organic molecular monolayer is formed either directly on the mercury drop or on a thin, infrared (IR) semi-transparent layer of Au deposited onto an IR transparent, undoped silicon substrate. Following the formation of the monolayer, films on either metal can be examined independently using specular reflection spectroscopy. Furthermore, by bringing together the two monolayers, a buried molecular bilayer within the MmM junction can be characterized. Independent examination of each half of the junction prior to junction formation also allows probing any structural and/or conformational changes that occur as a result of forming the bilayer. Because our approach allows assembling and disassembling microscopic junctions by forming and withdrawing Hg drops onto the monolayer covered metal, spatial mapping of junctions can be performed simply by translating the location of the derivatized silicon wafer. Finally, the applicability of this technique for the longer-term studies of changes in molecular structure in the presence of electrical bias is discussed.

  7. Laser beam induced current microscopy and photocurrent mapping for junction characterization of infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, WeiDa

    2015-02-01

    For non-destructive optical characterization, laser beam induced current (LBIC) microscopy has been developed into as a quantitative tool to examine individual photodiodes within a large pixel array. Two-dimensional LBIC microscopy, also generally called photocurrent mapping (PC mapping), can provide spatially resolved information about local electrical properties and p-n junction formation in photovoltaic infrared (including visible light) photodetectors from which it is possible to extract material and device parameters such as junction area, junction depth, diffusion length, leakage current position and minority carrier diffusion length etc. This paper presents a comprehensive review of research background, operating principle, fundamental issues, and applications of LBIC or PC mapping.

  8. Polarity effect on interfacial reactions at soldered junctions of electrically stressed thermoelectric modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chien-Neng; Chen, Wen-Tai; Lee, Ching-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Polarity-dependent interfacial reaction at soldered junctions of bismuth telluride based thermoelectric modules is reported. Using infrared thermal imaging system asymmetrical heating at various soldered junctions of thermoelectric modules under electrical stressing was directly observed. It is suggested that electromigration (EM) coupled with asymmetrical heating leads to preferential consumption of Ni barrier and formation of Ni3Sn4, SnTe, and SbSn compounds at the cathode junction of p-type element. By measuring the EM-induced Sn atomic flux, the product of diffusivity and effective charge number, DZ ?, was determined to be 10-8-10-9 cm2/s at 200 °C.

  9. Junction array carbon nanotube bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail E.

    2013-04-01

    Vertically aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT forests) irradiated with low-intensity near-infrared laser exhibited bolometric response that became significant with decreasing temperature down from room to about 84 K. High responsivity of 42 V/W with signal bandwidth of about 2600 Hz was observed in the region with a surprisingly small temperature coefficient of resistance. This fact along with peculiar current dependences of material differential photoresistance can be explained by lifting Coulomb blockade in carbon nanotube junctions irradiated with light. A combination of significant bolometric response and nonlinear electrical transport are believed to be characteristic features of the nanostructured junction array system. Investigated material also revealed quite substantial noise with equivalent power of 3 * 10-6 WHz-1/2 that can be reduced by optimization of nanotube junction network in the forest structure.

  10. Josephson junctions in SPICE3

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on SPICE3 which is the most recent version of the venerable circuit simulator SPICE from the University of California, Berkeley. Unlike its predecessors, SPICE3 is written in the C programming language, and is designed for interactive use under a modern multitasking operating system. SPICE3, being an interactive program, offers the user great control and flexibility in performing simulations, and provides a powerful graphics capability for viewing simulation results. A C-shell like control syntax is supported, as well as such features as plotting while simulating, parameter alteration during simulation, and simulation data controlled breakpoints. Unfortunately, the Berkeley distribution of SPICE3 lacks support for Josephson junctions. As a consequence, the author has developed a customize version of SPICE3b.1 which incorporates a Josephson junction model. The model supports control current modulation, as well as a fifth order polynomial description of the quasiparticle current suitable for NbN junctions.

  11. Spin-filter Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Kartik; Blamire, Mark G.; Barber, Zoe H.

    2011-11-01

    Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic barriers have been intensively investigated in recent years. Of particular interest has been the realization of so called ?-junctions with a built-in phase difference, and induced triplet pairing. Such experiments have so far been limited to systems containing metallic ferromagnets. Although junctions incorporating a ferromagnetic insulator (IF) have been predicted to show a range of unique properties including ?-shifts with intrinsically low dissipation and an unconventional temperature dependence of the critical current Ic, difficulties with the few known IF materials have prevented experimental tests. Here we report supercurrents through magnetic GdN barriers and show that the field and temperature dependence of Icis strongly modified by the IF. In particular we show that the strong suppression of Cooper pair tunnelling by the spin filtering of the IF barrier can be modified by magnetic inhomogeneity in the barrier.

  12. The development of the myotendinous junction. A review

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Benjamin; Ruggiero, Florence; Le Guellec, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Summary The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a complex specialized region located at the muscle-tendon interface that represents the primary site of force transmission. Despite their different embryologic origins, muscle and tendon morphogenesis occurs in close spatial and temporal association. After muscle attachment, muscle and tendon constitute a dynamic and functional integrated unit that transduces muscle contraction force to the skeletal system. We review here the current understanding of MTJ formation describing changes during morphogenesis and focusing on the crosstalk between muscle and tendon cells that leads to the development of a functional MTJ. Molecules involved in the formation of the linkage, both at the tendon side and at the muscle side of the junction are described. Much of this knowledge comes from studies using different animal models such as mice, zebrafish and Drosophila where powerful methods for in vivo imaging and genetic manipulations can be used to enlighten this developmental process. PMID:23738275

  13. Simple Electronic Analog of a Josephson Junction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, R. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that an electronic Josephson junction analog constructed from three integrated circuits plus an external reference oscillator can exhibit many of the circuit phenomena of a real Josephson junction. Includes computer and other applications of the analog. (Author/SK)

  14. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164...American Viticultural Areas § 9.164 River Junction. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved...

  15. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164...American Viticultural Areas § 9.164 River Junction. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved...

  16. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164...American Viticultural Areas § 9.164 River Junction. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved...

  17. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164...American Viticultural Areas § 9.164 River Junction. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved...

  18. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164...American Viticultural Areas § 9.164 River Junction. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved...

  19. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164... River Junction. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the River...

  20. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164... River Junction. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the River...

  1. Dynamic recrystallization behaviour at grain boundaries and triple junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviour and nucleation mechanisms were investigated using copper and copper alloy bicrystals, tricrystals and polycrystals. New grains were preferentially formed along grain boundaries in the bicrystals. After grain-boundary migration and bulging, nuclei appeared behind the deeply bulged grain boundary regions. The critical strain for nucleation was about one-quarter to one-half of the peak strain. The characteristics of nucleation at a grain boundary depended sensitively on grain boundary character. In copper alloy bicrystals, nucleation was much delayed due to solute drag of migrating grain boundaries. The nucleation at triple junctions, in contrast, took place at a much lower strain. New grain formation at triple junction was stimulated by development of folds. All the new grains were twin-related (?3) to the matrix and were formed behind the migrating grain boundaries. Therefore, it was revealed that the DRX mechanism in copper and copper alloys was essentially controlled by annealing twin formation. Variant selection of the twinning plane depended sensitively on the direction of the grain-boundary migration and on the geometry, however, was not affected by activated slip plane or dislocation glide. The DRX nucleation mechanisms at grain boundaries and at triple junctions are discussed with respect to grainboundary migration and annealing twin formation.

  2. GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION AND CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gap Junctions (GJs) provide cell-to-cell communication (GJIC) of essential metabolites and ions. Js allow tissues to average responses, clear waste products, and minimize the effects of xenobiotics by dilution and allowing steady-state catabolism. any chemicals can adversely affe...

  3. Nicotinic Receptors at Neuromuscular Junction

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    Nicotinic Receptors at Neuromuscular Junction Hadi Tajalli #12;Acetylcholine is synthesized from (muscle membrane) The nicotinic receptor is a complex of five subunits which together form a channel #12 M2 domains line the channel pore #12;Reconstructed image of a nicotinic ACh receptor #12;6 residues

  4. The Yolla Bolly junction revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, M.C.; Jayko, A.S. ); Jones, D.L. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Engebretson, D.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    West of Red Bluff, California, rocks of the northern Coast Ranges, Klamath-Sierra Nevada, and Great Valley provinces come together at what has been called the Yolla Bolly junction. Mapping of the Red Bluff and Willows 1:100,000 quadrangles has greatly clarified the enigmatic features of this complex area. Terranes of the Klamath Mountains and their Cretaceous sedimentary cover have been thrust northwestward over the Elder Creek terrane and Franciscan rocks, north of the left-lateral Cold Fork fault zone. The Condrey Mountain window (Franciscan Pickett Peak terrane) provides a measure of the magnitude of this thrusting (ca 90 km). South of the Cold Fork fault zone, the Franciscan and Elder Creek terranes were driven southeastward as tectonic wedges onto Sierran-Klamath basement. Timing of this scissor-tectonics is not constrained near the junction, but further north in southwest Oregon, Lower Eocene strata were deformed by overthrusting of the Klamath block whereas Upper Eocene strata overlap the thrust, indicating that thrusting occurred between about 52 and 60 Ma. Plate reconstructions for this time interval indicate the close proximity of the Kula-Farallon-North America triple junction and that old (ca 100 m.y.) Farallon lithosphere was being subducted north of the junction whereas to the south, very young (ca 10 m.y.) Kula plate was presumably obducted onto North America.

  5. Cholera toxin notches epithelial junctions.

    PubMed

    Lemichez, Emmanuel; Stefani, Caroline

    2013-09-11

    Cholera toxin (CT) is the factor responsible for watery diarrhea associated with Vibrio cholerae infection. In this issue, Guichard et al. (2013) report that CT compromises intestinal epithelium barrier function via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced disruption of Rab11- and exocyst-dependent delivery of endocytic recycling cargo to cell-cell junctions. PMID:24034608

  6. Promoting RNA helical stacking via A-minor junctions

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Cody; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Jaeger, Luc

    2011-01-01

    RNA molecules take advantage of prevalent structural motifs to fold and assemble into well-defined 3D architectures. The A-minor junction is a class of RNA motifs that specifically controls coaxial stacking of helices in natural RNAs. A sensitive self-assembling supra-molecular system was used as an assay to compare several natural and previously unidentified A-minor junctions by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. This class of modular motifs follows a topological rule that can accommodate a variety of interchangeable A-minor interactions with distinct local structural motifs. Overall, two different types of A-minor junctions can be distinguished based on their functional self-assembling behavior: one group makes use of triloops or GNRA and GNRA-like loops assembling with helices, while the other takes advantage of more complex tertiary receptors specific for the loop to gain higher stability. This study demonstrates how different structural motifs of RNA can contribute to the formation of topologically equivalent helical stacks. It also exemplifies the need of classifying RNA motifs based on their tertiary structural features rather than secondary structural features. The A-minor junction rule can be used to facilitate tertiary structure prediction of RNAs and rational design of RNA parts for nanobiotechnology and synthetic biology. PMID:20876687

  7. Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Bethany M.; Gingrich, Eric C.; Khasawneh, Mazin A.; Loloee, Reza; Pratt, William P., Jr.; Birge, Norman O.

    2015-03-01

    Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials are of interest for both scientific and technological purposes. In principle, either the amplitude of the critical current or superconducting phase shift across the junction can be controlled by the relative magnetization directions of the ferromagnetic layers in the junction. Our approach concentrates on phase control utilizing two junctions in a SQUID geometry. We will report on efforts to control the phase of junctions carrying either spin-singlet or spin-triplet supercurrent for cryogenic memory applications. Supported by Northorp Grumman Corporation and by IARPA under SPAWAR Contract N66001-12-C-2017.

  8. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-05-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the best-studied. Structural proteins, notably zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and microtubules, have been found recently at gap junctions. Along with the expansion of the list of connexin-associating proteins, reports have appeared that suggest that connexins might have additional roles in addition to their channel function, such as transcriptional and cytoskeletal regulation. Here, gap junction interacting proteins are reviewed and their function is addressed. The striking similarity of proteins present at the cytoplasmic face of tight junctions, adherens junctions and gap junctions and their possible role in gene transcription and cytoskeletal anchorage is highlighted. PMID:15094344

  9. Modeling impurity-assisted chain creation in noble-metal break junctions.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, S; Thiess, A; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the generalization of the model for chain formation in break junctions, introduced by Thiess et al (2008 Nano Lett. 8 2144), to zigzag transition-metal chains with s and p impurities. We apply this extended model to study the producibility trends for noble-metal chains with impurities, often present in break junction experiments, namely, Cu, Ag and Au chains with H, C, O and N adatoms. Providing the material-specific parameters for our model from systematic full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave first-principles calculations, we find that the presence of such impurities crucially affects the binding properties of the noble-metal chains. We reveal that both the impurity-induced bond strengthening and the formation of zigzag bonds can lead to a significantly enhanced probability for chain formation in break junctions. PMID:22392857

  10. Gap junctions as electrical synapses.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M V

    1997-06-01

    Gap junctions are the morphological substrate of one class of electrical synapse. The history of the debate on electrical vs. chemical transmission is instructive. One lesson is that Occam's razor sometimes cuts too deep; the nervous system does its operations in a number of different ways and a unitarian approach can lead one astray. Electrical synapses can do many things that chemical synapses can do, and do them just as slowly. More intriguing are the modulatory actions that chemical synapses can have on electrical synapses. Voltage dependence provides an important window on structure function relations of the connexins, even where the dependence may have no physiological role. The new molecular approaches will greatly advance our knowledge of where gap junctions occur and permit experimental manipulation with high specificity. PMID:9278865

  11. Spin filter superconducting tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blamire, M. G.; Pal, A.; Barber, Z. H.; Senapati, Kartik

    2012-10-01

    Studies of the spin filter properties of tunnel barriers consisting of the insulating ferromagnets, EuO and EuS have been conducted for many years, but detailed investigation and application of their properties has been restricted by difficulties associated with growth and stoichiometry. We have recently demonstrated a new insulating ferromagnetic material GdN and shown that GdN barriers are strongly spin-filtering and can be incorporated into superconducting tunnel junctions. S/Insulator/S tunnel junctions enable detailed investigation of the magnitude of non-tunnel (leakage) currents and the optimisation of the tunnel barrier. We show that our insulating ferromagnet devices have a very low zero-bias leakage, but that behaviour for higher bias voltages is strongly non-ideal. We will discuss the potential for such devices to be used as spin-sources for both conventional and superconducting spintronics.

  12. Fabrication of Tunnel Junctions For Direct Detector Arrays With Single-Electron Transistor Readout Using Electron-Beam Lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Rhee, K. W.; Teufel, J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the fabrication of small aluminum tunnel junctions for applications in astronomy. Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated single-electron transistor readout have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-millimeter wavelengths. The junctions for the detector and single-electron transistor can be made with electron-beam lithography and a standard self-aligned double-angle deposition process. However, high yield and uniformity of the junctions is required for large-format detector arrays. This paper will describe how measurement and modification of the sensitivity ratio in the resist bilayer was used to greatly improve the reliability of forming devices with uniform, sub-micron size, low-leakage junctions.

  13. Memory cell based on a ? Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldobin, E.; Sickinger, H.; Weides, M.; Ruppelt, N.; Kohlstedt, H.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.

    2013-06-01

    The ? Josephson junction has a doubly degenerate ground state with the Josephson phases ±?. We demonstrate the use of such a ? Josephson junction as a memory cell (classical bit), where writing is done by applying a magnetic field and reading by applying a bias current. In the "store" state, the junction does not require any bias or magnetic field, but just needs to stay cooled for permanent storage of the logical bit. Straightforward integration with rapid single flux quantum logic is possible.

  14. Thermal activation of superconducting Josephson junctions

    E-print Network

    Devalapalli, Aditya P. (Aditya Prakash)

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting quantum circuits (SQCs) are being explored as model systems for scalable quantum computing architectures. Josephson junctions are extensively used in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) ...

  15. Chaos synchronization between time delay coupled Josephson junctions governed by a central junction

    E-print Network

    E. M. Shahverdiev; L. H. Hashimova; P. A. Bayramov; R. A. Nuriev

    2015-09-13

    We study chaos synchronization between Josephson junctions governed by a central junction with a time delay and demonstrate with numerical simulations the possibility of high quality synchronization. The results are important for obtaining high power systems of Josephson junctions, which are promising for practical applications.

  16. Communication Electrical behavior of cement-based junctions including the pn-junction

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Electrical behavior of cement-based junctions including the pn-junction Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, though not perfect, was attained by using a junction (pn or nn + ) between cement pastes with different

  17. RWGSCAT - RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE JUNCTION SCATTERING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to optimize frequency response and determine the tolerances required to meet RF specifications, accurate computer modeling of passive rectangular waveguide components is often required. Many rectangular waveguide components may be represented either exactly or approximately as a number of different size rectangular waveguides which are connected in series. RWGSCAT, Rectangular WaveGuide junction SCATtering program, solves for the scattering properties of a waveguide device. This device must consist of a number of rectangular waveguide sections of different cross sectional area which are connected in series. Devices which fall into this category include step transformers, filters, and smooth or corrugated rectangular horns. RWGSCAT will model such devices and accurately predict the reflection and transmission characteristics, taking into account higher order (other than dominant TE 10) mode excitation if it occurs, as well as multiple reflections and stored energy at each discontinuity. For devices which are large with respect to the wavelength of operation, the characteristics of the device may be required for computing a higher order mode or a number of higher order modes exciting the device. Such interactions can be represented by defining a scattering matrix for each discontinuity in the device, and then cascading the individual scattering matrices in order to determine the scattering matrix for the overall device. The individual matrices are obtained using the mode matching method. RWGSCAT is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. It has been successfully compiled and implemented using Lahey FORTRAN 77 under MS-DOS. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. It requires 377K of RAM for execution. Sample input data is also provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the distribution medium in LaTEX format. RWGSCAT is also offered as a bundle with a related program, CWGSCAT (Scattering Matrix Program for Circular WaveGuide Junctions). Please see the abstract for RWGSCAT/CWGSCAT (COS-10045) for information about the bundled package. RWGSCAT was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  18. Effect of Front-Side Silver Metallization on Underlying n+-p Junction in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. S.; Li, Z. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; Liang, L.; Ionkin, A.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    We report on the effect of front-side Ag metallization on the underlying n+-p junction of multicrystalline Si solar cells. The junction quality beneath the contacts was investigated by characterizing the uniformities of the electrostatic potential and doping concentration across the junction, using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. We investigated cells with a commercial Ag paste (DuPont PV159) and fired at furnace setting temperatures of 800 degrees, 840 degrees, and 930 degrees C, which results in actual cell temperatures ~100 degrees C lower than the setting temperature and the three cells being under-, optimal-, and over-fired. We found that the uniformity of the junction beneath the Ag contact was significantly degraded by the over-firing, whereas the junction retained good uniformity with the optimal- and under-fire temperatures. Further, Ag crystallites with widely distributed sizes from <100 nm to several ?m were found at the Ag/Si interface of the over-fired cell. Large crystallites were imaged as protrusions into Si deeper than the junction depth. However, the junction was not broken down; instead, it was reformed on the entire front of the crystallite/Si interface. We propose a mechanism of the junction-quality degradation, based on emitter Si melting at the temperature around the Ag-Si eutectic point during firing, and subsequent recrystallization with incorporation of impurities in the Ag paste and with formation of crystallographic defects during quenching.

  19. Thermoelectric effects in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Yonatan; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Despite its intrinsic nonequilibrium origin, thermoelectricity in nanoscale systems is usually described within a static scattering approach which disregards the dynamical interaction with the thermal baths that maintain energy flow. Using the theory of open quantum systems, we show instead that unexpected properties, such as a resonant structure and large sign sensitivity, emerge if the nonequilibrium nature of this problem is considered. Our approach also allows us to define and study a local temperature, which shows hot spots and oscillations along the system according to the coupling of the latter to the electrodes. This demonstrates that Fourier's lawa paradigm of statistical mechanicsis generally violated in nanoscale junctions. PMID:19072125

  20. Discovering the Molecular Components of Intercellular Junctions—A Historical View

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Werner W.

    2009-01-01

    The organization of metazoa is based on the formation of tissues and on tissue-typical functions and these in turn are based on cell–cell connecting structures. In vertebrates, four major forms of cell junctions have been classified and the molecular composition of which has been elucidated in the past three decades: Desmosomes, which connect epithelial and some other cell types, and the almost ubiquitous adherens junctions are based on closely cis-packed glycoproteins, cadherins, which are associated head-to-head with those of the hemi-junction domain of an adjacent cell, whereas their cytoplasmic regions assemble sizable plaques of special proteins anchoring cytoskeletal filaments. In contrast, the tight junctions (TJs) and gap junctions (GJs) are formed by tetraspan proteins (claudins and occludins, or connexins) arranged head-to-head as TJ seal bands or as paracrystalline connexin channels, allowing intercellular exchange of small molecules. The by and large parallel discoveries of the junction protein families are reported. PMID:20066111

  1. Flow dynamics past a simplified wing body junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gand, Fabien; Deck, Sébastien; Brunet, Vincent; Sagaut, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Junction flows may suffer from secondary flows such as horseshoe vortices and corner separations that can dramatically impair the performances of aircrafts. The present article brings into focus the unsteady aspects of the flow at the intersection of a wing and a flat plate. The simplified junction flow test case is designed according to a literature review to favor the onset of a corner separation. The salient statistical and fluctuating properties of the flow are scrutinized using large eddy simulation and wind tunnel tests, which are carried out at a Reynolds number based on the wing chord c and the free stream velocity U? of Rec=2.8×105. As the incoming boundary layer at Re?=2100 (? being the boundary layer momentum thickness one-half chord upstream the junction) experiences the adverse pressure gradient created by the wing, a three dimensional separation occurs at the nose of the junction leading to the formation of a horseshoe vortex. The low frequency, large scale bimodal behavior of the horseshoe vortex at the nose of the junction is characterized by multiple frequencies within f .?/U?=[0.05-0.1] (where ? is the boundary layer thickness one-half chord upstream the wing). Downstream of the bimodal region, the meandering of the core of the horseshoe vortex legs in the crossflow planes is scrutinized. It is found that the horseshoe vortex oscillates around a mean location over an area covering almost 10% of the wing chord in the tranverse plane at the trailing edge at normalized frequencies around f .?/U?=0.2-0.3. This so-called meandering is found to be part of a global dynamics of the horseshoe vortex initiated by the bimodal behavior. Within the corner, no separation is observed and it is shown that a high level of anisotropy (according to Lumley's formalism) is reached at the intersection of the wing and the flat plate, which makes the investigated test case challenging for numerical methods. The conditions of apparition of a corner separation are eventually discussed and we assume that the vicinity of the horseshoe vortex suction side leg might prevent the corner separation. It is also anticipated that higher Reynolds number junction flows are more likely to suffer from such separations.

  2. Electron transport through molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.; Pederson, Mark R.

    2011-12-01

    At present, metal-molecular tunnel junctions are recognized as important active elements in molecular electronics. This gives a strong motivation to explore physical mechanisms controlling electron transport through molecules. In the last two decades, an unceasing progress in both experimental and theoretical studies of molecular conductance has been demonstrated. In the present work we give an overview of theoretical methods used to analyze the transport properties of metal-molecular junctions as well as some relevant experiments and applications. After a brief general description of the electron transport through molecules we introduce a Hamiltonian which can be used to analyze electron-electron, electron-phonon and spin-orbit interactions. Then we turn to description of the commonly used transport theory formalisms including the nonequilibrium Green’s functions based approach and the approach based on the “master” equations. We discuss the most important effects which could be manifested through molecules in electron transport phenomena such as Coulomb, spin and Frank-Condon blockades, Kondo peak in the molecular conductance, negative differential resistance and some others. Bearing in mind that first principles electronic structure calculations are recognized as the indispensable basis of the theory of electron transport through molecules, we briefly discuss the main equations and some relevant applications of the density functional theory which presently is often used to analyze important characteristics of molecules and molecular clusters. Finally, we discuss some kinds of nanoelectronic devices built using molecules and similar systems such as carbon nanotubes, various nanowires and quantum dots.

  3. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q {approx} 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement.

  4. Angiopoietin 2 regulates the transformation and integrity of lymphatic endothelial cell junctions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Nurmi, Harri; Appak, Sila; Sabine, Amélie; Bovay, Esther; Korhonen, Emilia A; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Lohela, Marja; D'Amico, Gabriela; Holopainen, Tanja; Leow, Ching Ching; Dejana, Elisabetta; Petrova, Tatiana V; Augustin, Hellmut G; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-07-15

    Primitive lymphatic vessels are remodeled into functionally specialized initial and collecting lymphatics during development. Lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) junctions in initial lymphatics transform from a zipper-like to a button-like pattern during collecting vessel development, but what regulates this process is largely unknown. Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) deficiency leads to abnormal lymphatic vessels. Here we found that an ANG2-blocking antibody inhibited embryonic lymphangiogenesis, whereas endothelium-specific ANG2 overexpression induced lymphatic hyperplasia. ANG2 inhibition blocked VE-cadherin phosphorylation at tyrosine residue 685 and the concomitant formation of button-like junctions in initial lymphatics. The defective junctions were associated with impaired lymph uptake. In collecting lymphatics, adherens junctions were disrupted, and the vessels leaked upon ANG2 blockade or gene deletion. ANG2 inhibition also suppressed the onset of lymphatic valve formation and subsequent valve maturation. These data identify ANG2 as the first essential regulator of the functionally important interendothelial cell-cell junctions that form during lymphatic development. PMID:25030698

  5. Electrostatic control of thermoelectricity in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsang; Jeong, Wonho; Kim, Kyeongtae; Lee, Woochul; Reddy, Pramod

    2014-11-01

    Molecular junctions hold significant promise for efficient and high-power-output thermoelectric energy conversion. Recent experiments have probed the thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions. However, electrostatic control of thermoelectric properties via a gate electrode has not been possible due to technical challenges in creating temperature differentials in three-terminal devices. Here, we show that extremely large temperature gradients (exceeding 1 × 10(9) K m(-1)) can be established in nanoscale gaps bridged by molecules, while simultaneously controlling their electronic structure via a gate electrode. Using this platform, we study prototypical Au-biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol-Au and Au-fullerene-Au junctions to demonstrate that the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductance of molecular junctions can be simultaneously increased by electrostatic control. Moreover, from our studies of fullerene junctions, we show that thermoelectric properties can be significantly enhanced when the dominant transport orbital is located close to the chemical potential (Fermi level) of the electrodes. These results illustrate the intimate relationship between the thermoelectric properties and charge transmission characteristics of molecular junctions and should enable systematic exploration of the recent computational predictions that promise extremely efficient thermoelectric energy conversion in molecular junctions. PMID:25282046

  6. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    SciTech Connect

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.

    2014-09-22

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900??m and core diameters of 20–800??m. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  7. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  8. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  9. Thermoelectric efficiency of critical quantum junctions

    E-print Network

    Mihail Mintchev; Luca Santoni; Paul Sorba

    2013-10-30

    We derive the efficiency at maximal power of a scale-invariant (critical) quantum junction in exact form. Both Fermi and Bose statistics are considered. We show that time-reversal invariance is spontaneously broken. For fermions we implement a new mechanism for efficiency enhancement above the Curzon-Ahlborn bound, based on a shift of the particle energy in each heat reservoir, proportional to its temperature. In this setting fermionic junctions can even reach at maximal power the Carnot efficiency. The bosonic junctions at maximal power turn out to be less efficient then the fermionic ones.

  10. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1992-11-24

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect. 5 figs.

  11. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect.

  12. Modeling Social Network Relationships via t-Cherry Junction Trees

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    Modeling Social Network Relationships via t-Cherry Junction Trees Brian Proulx and Junshan Zhang the underlying structure therein. In this paper, we employ the t-cherry junction tree, a very recent advancement in this approach: 1) the best approximation possible via junction trees belongs to the class of t-cherry junction

  13. Acoustic modulation of droplet size in a T-junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Lothar; Franke, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    We introduce an approach and describe the process of acoustically driven formation of droplets in a microfluidic T-junction. Our system allows for fast and precise control of drop volume over a wide range that is fully electrically triggered. We exploit the interaction of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) excited on a piezoelectric, transparent substrate with the fluid to adjust the size of drops in a continuous microflow in real time and relate SAW intensity and drop size. Our device operates in the squeezing regime at low capillary numbers. We describe the mechanism of SAW modulated formation of a monodisperse microemulsion that forms the basis for the integration of more complex operations useful for droplet fluidic systems.

  14. A study on NiGe-contacted Ge n+/p Ge shallow junction prepared by dopant segregation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Bing-Yue; Shih, Jhe-Ju; Lin, Han-Chi; Lin, Chiung-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the effect of dopant segregation on the NiGe/n-Ge contact is studied by experiments and first-principles calculations. Both Al-contacted and NiGe-contacted n+/p junctions were fabricated. Phosphorus and arsenic ions were Implanted Before Germanide (IBG) formation or Implanted After Germanide (IAG) formation. The NiGe-contacted junction always exhibit higher forward current than the Al-contacted junction due to dopant segregation. First principles calculations predict that phosphorus atoms tend to segregate on both NiGe side and Ge side while arsenic atoms tend to segregate at Ge side. Since phosphorus has higher activation level and lower diffusion coefficient than arsenic, we propose a phosphorus IBG + arsenic IAG process. Shallow n+/p junction with junction depth 90 nm below the NiGe/Ge interface is achieved. The lowest and average contact resistivity is 2 × 10-6 ? cm2 and 6.7 × 10-6 ? cm2, respectively. Methods which can further reduce the junction depth and contact resistivity are suggested.

  15. Rectification Properties of Carbon Nanotube ''Y-Junctions''

    SciTech Connect

    Andriotis, Antonis N.; Menon, Madhu; Srivastava, Deepak; Chernozatonskii, Leonid

    2001-08-06

    Quantum conductivity of single-wall carbon nanotube Y-junctions is calculated. The current versus voltage characteristics of these junctions show asymmetry and rectification, in agreement with recent experimental results. Furthermore, rectification is found to be independent of the angle between the branches of these junctions, indicating this to be an intrinsic property of symmetric Y-junctions. The implications for the Y-junction to function as a nanoscale molecular electronic switch are investigated.

  16. Optoelectronic switching of addressable molecular crossbar junctions

    E-print Network

    J. C. Li

    2006-11-22

    This letter reports on the observation of optoelectronic switching in addressable molecular crossbar junctions fabricated using polymer stamp-printing method. The active medium in the junction is a molecular self-assembled monolayer softly sandwiched between gold electrodes. The molecular junctions are investigated through currentvoltage measurements at varied temperature (from 95 to 300 K) in high vacuum condition. The junctions show reversible optoelectronic switching with the highest on/off ratio of 3 orders of magnitude at 95 K. The switching behavior is independent of both optical wavelength and molecular structure, while it strongly depends on the temperature. Initial analysis indicates that the distinct binding nature of the molecule/electrode interfaces play a dominant role in the switching performance.

  17. Method of junction formation for CIGS photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Delahoy, Alan E. (Rocky Hill, NJ)

    2010-01-26

    Sulfur is used to improve the performance of CIGS devices prepared by the evaporation of a single source ZIS type compound to form a buffer layer on the CIGS. The sulfur may be evaporated, or contained in the ZIS type material, or both. Vacuum evaporation apparatus of many types useful in the practice of the invention are known in the art. Other methods of delivery, such as sputtering, or application of a thiourea solution, may be substituted for evaporation.

  18. Method of junction formation for CIGS photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Delahoy, Alan E.

    2006-03-28

    Sulfur is used to improve the performance of CIGS devices prepared by the evaporation of a single source ZIS type compound to form a buffer layer on the CIGS. The sulfur may be evaporated, or contained in the ZIS type material, or both. Vacuum evaporation apparatus of many types useful in the practice of the invention are known in the art. Other methods of delivery, such as sputtering, or application of a thiourea solution, may be substituted for evaporation.

  19. Regulation of connexin biosynthesis, assembly, gap junction formation, and removal

    E-print Network

    Mullen, Sean P.

    Segretaina , Matthias M. Falkb,* a INSERM EMI 00-09, Universite´ de Paris 5 V, 45 rue des Saint Pe`res, 75006, highly regulated process that includes biosynthesis of the connexin subunit proteins on endoplasmic biosynthesis and degradation, draw comparisons to other membrane proteins, highlight novel findings, point out

  20. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOEpatents

    Klem, J.F.; Zolper, J.C.

    1997-10-21

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling. 5 figs.

  1. Junction Plasmon-Induced Molecular Reorientation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hu, Dehong; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-10-17

    Time and frequency dependent intensity variations in sequences of Raman spectra recorded at plasmonic junctions can be assigned to molecular reorientation. This is revealed through Raman trajectories recorded at a nanojunction formed between a silver AFM tip and a corrugated silver surface coated with biphenyl-4,4’-dithiol. Molecular motion is not observed when the tip is retracted and only surface enhancement is operative. In effect, junction plasmon induced molecular reorientation is tracked.

  2. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F. (Sandia Park, NM); Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling.

  3. Spontaneous Photoemission From Metamaterial Junction: A Conjecture

    E-print Network

    Subir Ghosh; Santanu K. Maiti

    2013-07-29

    The possibility of spontaneous photon pair emission from a normal material - metamaterial junction is investigated in a quantum field theory setting. We consider a pair of photons arising from vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field close to the junction where one photon each comes from the normal and metamaterial sectors. Mixing between the positive and negative norm photon modes can give rise to spontaneous photoemission, the rate of which is calculated.

  4. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao (Tom); Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3?×?1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W-1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III-V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  5. Induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions by Kv2.1 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Philip D; Haberkorn, Christopher J; Akin, Elizabeth J; Seel, Peter J; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    Junctions between cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) and the plasma membrane are a subtle but ubiquitous feature in mammalian cells; however, very little is known about the functions and molecular interactions that are associated with neuronal ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Here, we report that Kv2.1 (also known as KCNB1), the primary delayed-rectifier K(+) channel in the mammalian brain, induces the formation of ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Kv2.1 localizes to dense, cell-surface clusters that contain non-conducting channels, indicating that they have a function that is unrelated to membrane-potential regulation. Accordingly, Kv2.1 clusters function as membrane-trafficking hubs, providing platforms for delivery and retrieval of multiple membrane proteins. Using both total internal reflection fluorescence and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the clustered Kv2.1 plays a direct structural role in the induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions in both transfected HEK 293 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. Glutamate exposure results in a loss of Kv2.1 clusters in neurons and subsequent retraction of the cER from the plasma membrane. We propose Kv2.1-induced ER-plasma-membrane junctions represent a new macromolecular plasma-membrane complex that is sensitive to excitotoxic insult and functions as a scaffolding site for both membrane trafficking and Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:25908859

  6. Quadruple-junction lattice coherency and phase separation in a binary-phase system

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    If each phase has an identical crystal structure and small misfit in the lattice parameters in a binary-phase crystalline system, coherent phase boundaries usually form during separation. Although there have been numerous studies on the effect of coherency elastic energy, no attempt has been made to demonstrate how the phase-separation behaviour varies when multiple interfaces meet at a junction. Here we show that a comprehensively different phase-separation morphology is induced, to release the high coherency strain confined to quadruple junctions. High-temperature in-situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase boundaries with a new crystallographic orientation emerge over twinned crystals to provide strain relaxation at quadruple junctions. The high coherency strain and the formation of different phase boundaries can be understood in terms of the force equilibrium between interface tensions at a junction point. Visualizing the quadruple points at atomic resolution, our observations emphasize the impact of multiple junctions on the morphology evolution during phase separation. PMID:26346223

  7. Quadruple-junction lattice coherency and phase separation in a binary-phase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-09-01

    If each phase has an identical crystal structure and small misfit in the lattice parameters in a binary-phase crystalline system, coherent phase boundaries usually form during separation. Although there have been numerous studies on the effect of coherency elastic energy, no attempt has been made to demonstrate how the phase-separation behaviour varies when multiple interfaces meet at a junction. Here we show that a comprehensively different phase-separation morphology is induced, to release the high coherency strain confined to quadruple junctions. High-temperature in-situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase boundaries with a new crystallographic orientation emerge over twinned crystals to provide strain relaxation at quadruple junctions. The high coherency strain and the formation of different phase boundaries can be understood in terms of the force equilibrium between interface tensions at a junction point. Visualizing the quadruple points at atomic resolution, our observations emphasize the impact of multiple junctions on the morphology evolution during phase separation.

  8. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao (Tom); Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3?×?1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W?1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices. PMID:26152225

  9. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao Tom; Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 10(10) Jones (cm Hz(1/2) W(-1)) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III-V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices. PMID:26152225

  10. Epidermal tight junctions in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandner, JM; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Yoshida, T; Moll, I; Beck, LA; De Benedetto, A

    2014-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is an essential barrier that under homeostatic conditions efficiently protects and/or minimizes damage from both environmental (e.g. microorganisms, physical trauma, ultraviolet radiation) and endogenous (e.g., cancers, inflammation) factors. This formidable barrier function resides mainly in the epidermis, a dynamic, highly-stratified epithelium. The epidermis has 2 major barrier structures: stratum corneum, the outmost layer and tight junctions, intercellular junctions that seal adjacent keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, found below the stratum corneum. In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of tight junction function, composition and regulation. Herein we review what is known about tight junctions in healthy skin and keratinocyte culture systems and highlight the dynamic crosstalk observed between tight junctions and the cutaneous immune system. Finally we discuss the preliminary observations suggesting that tight junction function or protein expression may be relevant for the pathogenesis of a number of common cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. PMID:25838981

  11. Multi-junction solar cell device

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Daniel J. (Lakewood, CO); Geisz, John F. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2007-12-18

    A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel junctions between each active cell. At least one layer that forms each of the top and middle active cells is composed of a single-crystal III-V semiconductor alloy that is substantially lattice-matched to the silicon substrate (22). The polarity of the active p-n junction cells is either p-on-n or n-on-p. The present invention further includes a method for substantially lattice matching single-crystal III-V semiconductor layers with the silicon substrate (22) by including boron and/or nitrogen in the chemical structure of these layers.

  12. Black Diamonds at Brane Junctions

    E-print Network

    Andrew Chamblin; Csaba Csaki; Joshua Erlich; Timothy J. Hollowood

    2000-02-10

    We discuss the properties of black holes in brane-world scenarios where our universe is viewed as a four-dimensional sub-manifold of some higher-dimensional spacetime. We consider in detail such a model where four-dimensional spacetime lies at the junction of several domain walls in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. In this model there may be any number p of infinitely large extra dimensions transverse to the brane-world. We present an exact solution describing a black p-brane which will induce on the brane-world the Schwarzschild solution. This exact solution is unstable to the Gregory-Laflamme instability, whereby long-wavelength perturbations cause the extended horizon to fragment. We therefore argue that at late times a non-rotating uncharged black hole in the brane-world is described by a deformed event horizon in p+4 dimensions which will induce, to good approximation, the Schwarzschild solution in the four-dimensional brane world. When p=2, this deformed horizon resembles a black diamond and more generally for p>2, a polyhedron.

  13. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2008-10-03

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.

  14. Gap Junctions and Hemichannels in Signal Transmission, Function and Development of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Nidhi; Kar, Rekha; Jiang, Jean X.

    2012-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) mediated by connexins, in particular connexin 43 (Cx43), plays important roles in regulating signal transmission among different bone cells and thereby regulates development, differentiation, modeling and remodeling of the bone. GJIC regulates osteoblast formation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Osteoclast formation and resorptive ability are also reported to be modulated by GJIC. Furthermore, osteocytes utilize GJIC to coordinate bone remodeling in response to anabolic factors and mechanical loading. Apart from gap junctions, connexins also form hemichannels, which are localized on the cell surface and function independently of the gap junction channels. Both these channels mediate the transfer of molecules smaller than 1.2 kDa including small ions, metabolites, ATP, prostaglandin and IP3. The biological importance of the communication mediated by connexin-forming channels in bone development is revealed by the low bone mass and osteoblast dysfunction in the Cx43-null mice and the skeletal malformations observed in occulodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) caused by mutations in the Cx43 gene. The current review summarizes the role of gap junctions and hemichannels in regulating signaling, function and development of bone cells. PMID:21963408

  15. Articular Cartilage Increases Transition Zone Regeneration in Bone-tendon Junction Healing

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Lee, Kwong Man; Leung, Kwok Sui

    2008-01-01

    The fibrocartilage transition zone in the direct bone-tendon junction reduces stress concentration and protects the junction from failure. Unfortunately, bone-tendon junctions often heal without fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. We hypothesized articular cartilage grafts could increase fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. Using a goat partial patellectomy repair model, autologous articular cartilage was harvested from the excised distal third patella and interposed between the residual proximal two-thirds bone fragment and tendon during repair in 36 knees. We evaluated fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration, bone formation, and mechanical strength after repair at 6, 12, and 24 weeks and compared them with direct repair. Autologous articular cartilage interposition resulted in more fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration (69.10% ± 14.11% [mean ± standard deviation] versus 8.67% ± 7.01% at 24 weeks) than direct repair at all times. There was no difference in the amount of bone formation and mechanical strength achieved. Autologous articular cartilage interposition increases fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration in bone-tendon junction healing, but additional research is required to ascertain the mechanism of stimulation and to establish the clinical applicability. PMID:18987921

  16. Ultra shallow secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling: Limitation of sample rotation in improving depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. M.; Wee, A. T. S.; Huan, C. H. A.; See, A.

    2001-09-01

    Depth resolution deterioration attributed to crater bottom roughness induced by 500 eV O 2+ ion bombardment at 56° incidence angle is investigated. During this secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling process, sample rotation and oxygen flooding were applied to assess their effectiveness in suppressing surface roughness. Oxygen flooding was found to effectively suppress roughening and gives the best depth resolution at the energy and incident angle used. Although sample rotation was found to suppress roughening, the depth resolution was still degraded, which is counter-intuitive. Profiles fitted to the Hofmann model suggest that ion beam mixing may limit the depth resolution in low energy ion profiling.

  17. Deficiency of Transcription Factor Brn4 Disrupts Cochlear Gap Junction Plaques in a Model of DFN3 Non-Syndromic Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Kidokoro, Yoshinobu; Karasawa, Keiko; Minowa, Osamu; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Noda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kamiya, Kazusaku

    2014-01-01

    Brn4, which encodes a POU transcription factor, is the gene responsible for DFN3, an X chromosome–linked, non-syndromic type of hearing loss. Brn4-deficient mice have a low endocochlear potential (EP), hearing loss, and ultrastructural alterations in spiral ligament fibrocytes, however the molecular pathology through which Brn4 deficiency causes low EP is still unclear. Mutations in the Gjb2 and Gjb6 genes encoding the gap junction proteins connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin30 (Cx30) genes, respectively, which encode gap junction proteins and are expressed in cochlear fibrocytes and non-sensory epithelial cells (i.e., cochlear supporting cells) to maintain the proper EP, are responsible for hereditary sensorineural deafness. It has been hypothesized that the gap junction in the cochlea provides an intercellular passage by which K+ is transported to maintain the EP at the high level necessary for sensory hair cell excitation. Here we analyzed the formation of gap junction plaques in cochlear supporting cells of Brn4-deficient mice at different stages by confocal microscopy and three-dimensional graphic reconstructions. Gap junctions from control mice, which are composed mainly of Cx26 and Cx30, formed linear plaques along the cell-cell junction sites with adjacent cells. These plaques formed pentagonal or hexagonal outlines of the normal inner sulcus cells and border cells. Gap junction plaques in Brn4-deficient mice did not, however, show the normal linear structure but instead formed small spots around the cell-cell junction sites. Gap junction lengths were significantly shorter, and the level of Cx26 and Cx30 was significantly reduced in Brn4-deficient mice compared with littermate controls. Thus the Brn4 mutation affected the assembly and localization of gap junction proteins at the cell borders of cochlear supporting cells, suggesting that Brn4 substantially contributes to cochlear gap junction properties to maintain the proper EP in cochleae, similar to connexin-related deafness. PMID:25259580

  18. Methods for the fabrication of thermally stable magnetic tunnel junctions

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Y. Austin (Middleton, WI); Yang, Jianhua J. (Madison, WI); Ladwig, Peter F. (Hutchinson, MN)

    2009-08-25

    Magnetic tunnel junctions and method for making the magnetic tunnel junctions are provided. The magnetic tunnel junctions are characterized by a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers. The methods used to fabricate the magnetic tunnel junctions are capable of completely and selectively oxidizing a tunnel junction precursor material using an oxidizing gas containing a mixture of gases to provide a tunnel junction oxide without oxidizing the adjacent ferromagnetic materials. In some embodiments the gas mixture is a mixture of CO and CO.sub.2 or a mixture of H.sub.2 and H.sub.2O.

  19. The atrioventricular junctions in Ebstein malformation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S; Goltz, D; McCarthy, K; Cook, A; Connell, M; Smith, A; Anderson, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To review the anatomical structure of the right atrioventricular junction, including the specialised atrioventricular conduction system, in hearts with Ebstein's malformation, to identify potential substrates for the abnormalities in conduction.?METHODS—Five heart specimens representing the morphological spectrum of Ebstein malformation were examined grossly and histologically.?RESULTS—On the endocardial surface, the atrioventricular junction was marked by a faint line in two hearts, and by a small ridge in the other three. Analysis of the right parietal junction in four hearts revealed only two accessory muscular atrioventricular connections. A plane of fibrofatty tissue separated atrial from ventricular myocardium in the right parietal junction in all hearts. The compact atrioventricular node was closer to the coronary sinus than usual. Accessory nodoventricular connections were present in four hearts, while accessory fasciculo-ventricular connections were found in one. The right bundle branch was hypoplastic or absent in four hearts.?CONCLUSIONS—In this small series, the parietal atrioventricular junction was better developed than previously thought. Structural abnormalities of the atrioventricular conduction system, however, were present. These may account for some of the conduction abnormalities frequently observed with the Ebstein malformation.???Keywords: Ebstein's anomaly; atrioventricular node; bundle branch block; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome PMID:10722549

  20. Semiconductor Lasers Containing Quantum Wells in Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Qiu, Yueming

    2004-01-01

    In a recent improvement upon In(x)Ga(1-x)As/InP semiconductor lasers of the bipolar cascade type, quantum wells are added to Esaki tunnel junctions, which are standard parts of such lasers. The energy depths and the geometric locations and thicknesses of the wells are tailored to exploit quantum tunneling such that, as described below, electrical resistances of junctions and concentrations of dopants can be reduced while laser performances can be improved. In(x)Ga(1-x)As/InP bipolar cascade lasers have been investigated as sources of near-infrared radiation (specifically, at wavelengths of about 980 and 1,550 nm) for photonic communication systems. The Esaki tunnel junctions in these lasers have been used to connect adjacent cascade stages and to enable transport of charge carriers between them. Typically, large concentrations of both n (electron-donor) and p (electron-acceptor) dopants have been necessary to impart low electrical resistances to Esaki tunnel junctions. Unfortunately, high doping contributes free-carrier absorption, thereby contributing to optical loss and thereby, further, degrading laser performance. In accordance with the present innovation, quantum wells are incorporated into the Esaki tunnel junctions so that the effective heights of barriers to quantum tunneling are reduced (see figure).

  1. Hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on layers of inorganic nanocrystals and organic semiconductors: optimization of layer thickness by considering the width of the depletion region.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sudip K; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-03-01

    We report the formation and characterization of hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on a layer of copper diffused silver indium disulfide (AgInS2@Cu) nanoparticles and another layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules. With copper diffusion in the nanocrystals, their optical absorption and hence the activity of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells was extended towards the near-IR region. To decrease the particle-to-particle separation for improved carrier transport through the inorganic layer, we replaced the long-chain ligands of copper-diffused nanocrystals in each monolayer with short-ones. Under illumination, the hybrid pn-junctions yielded a higher short-circuit current as compared to the combined contribution of the Schottky junctions based on the components. A wider depletion region at the interface between the two active layers in the pn-junction device as compared to that of the Schottky junctions has been considered to analyze the results. Capacitance-voltage characteristics under a dark condition supported such a hypothesis. We also determined the width of the depletion region in the two layers separately so that a pn-junction could be formed with a tailored thickness of the two materials. Such a "fully-depleted" device resulted in an improved photovoltaic performance, primarily due to lessening of the internal resistance of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells. PMID:24452695

  2. Nonlinear pattern dynamics in Josephson-junction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenländer, J.; Dangelmayr, G.; Güttinger, W.

    1996-07-01

    The dynamics of a two-dimensional array of Josephson junctions under an external load is shown to be equivalent to that of a one-dimensional nonlinear chain of nonidentical, globally, and nonuniformly coupled oscillators. This allows us to determine the dynamical states and collective spatiotemporal patterns the array exhibits in response to varying initial conditions, input patterns, coupling strengths, and bias current. When the bias current goes through critical values, successive bifurcations activate spatially distinct, coupled oscillatory compartments in the array, where semirotating, whirling, and quasiperiodic and aperiodic states coexist, and induce staircase current-voltage characteristics. Classical and vortex-induced row switching phenomena, stable families of frequency synchronized and phase-locked states, subharmonics in compartment couplings, stochastic jumps, and hysteresis loops are deduced, and sequences of input patterns are shown to be dynamically storable in the array's attractors. The dynamical formation of oscillatory compartments is also a general feature of three-dimensional Josephson-junction networks. Coherent microwave radiation emission is possible only for specific input patterns or by using symmetry-breaking array architectures. The theoretical predictions are in close agreement with the dynamics recently observed in low-temperature scanning electron microscopy experiments.

  3. Pasiflora proteins are novel core components of the septate junction

    PubMed Central

    Deligiannaki, Myrto; Casper, Abbie L.; Jung, Christophe; Gaul, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets play essential roles as selective barriers insulating the body from the environment and establishing distinct chemical compartments within it. In invertebrate epithelia, septate junctions (SJs) consist of large multi-protein complexes that localize at the apicolateral membrane and mediate barrier function. Here, we report the identification of two novel SJ components, Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2, through a genome-wide glial RNAi screen in Drosophila. Pasiflora mutants show permeable blood-brain and tracheal barriers, overelongated tracheal tubes and mislocalization of SJ proteins. Consistent with the observed phenotypes, the genes are co-expressed in embryonic epithelia and glia and are required cell-autonomously to exert their function. Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2 belong to a previously uncharacterized family of tetraspan membrane proteins conserved across the protostome-deuterostome divide. Both proteins localize at SJs and their apicolateral membrane accumulation depends on other complex components. In fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments we demonstrate that pasiflora proteins are core SJ components as they are required for complex formation and exhibit restricted mobility within the membrane of wild-type epithelial cells, but rapid diffusion in cells with disrupted SJs. Taken together, our results show that Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2 are novel integral components of the SJ and implicate a new family of tetraspan proteins in the function of these ancient and crucial cell junctions. PMID:26329602

  4. Exploring Hot Gas at Junctions of Galaxy Filaments with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, I.; Kawahara, H.; Sekiya, N.; Sasaki, S.; Sousbie, T.; Y. Yamasaki, N.

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies are forced to form filamentary structure reflecting the underlying cosmic web of the dark matter. In particular, at junctions of galaxy filaments, one can naturally expect that intense structure formation has high chances to occur. We identified the galaxy filaments by making use of our original method (Sousbie (2011) & Sousbie et al. (2011)) in conjunction with SDSS spectroscopic galaxies. We performed X-ray pointing observations for six fields locating in the junctions of the galaxy filaments where no specific diffuse X-ray emissions had previously been detected so far. We discovered significant X-ray signals in their images and spectra of the all regions compared to a background region. Spectral analysis revealed that six sources originate from diffuse emissions associated with optically bright galaxies, group-scale, or cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperautres of 1-4 keV, while the others are compact object origin. Interestingly, the observed three intracluster media possess peculiar signatures such as complex or elongated morphologies in X-ray and/or optical and hot spot, suggesting that all of the systems are experiencing an ongoing merger (Kawahara et al. (2011) & Mitsuishi et al. (2014)). In this conference, results of follow-up radio observations to search for merger-induced diffuse radio emissions will be reported.

  5. Ballistic Josephson junctions in edge-contacted graphene.

    PubMed

    Calado, V E; Goswami, S; Nanda, G; Diez, M; Akhmerov, A R; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Klapwijk, T M; Vandersypen, L M K

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid graphene-superconductor devices have attracted much attention since the early days of graphene research. So far, these studies have been limited to the case of diffusive transport through graphene with poorly defined and modest-quality graphene/superconductor interfaces, usually combined with small critical magnetic fields of the superconducting electrodes. Here, we report graphene-based Josephson junctions with one-dimensional edge contacts of molybdenum rhenium. The contacts exhibit a well-defined, transparent interface to the graphene, have a critical magnetic field of 8?T at 4?K, and the graphene has a high quality due to its encapsulation in hexagonal boron nitride. This allows us to study and exploit graphene Josephson junctions in a new regime, characterized by ballistic transport. We find that the critical current oscillates with the carrier density due to phase-coherent interference of the electrons and holes that carry the supercurrent caused by the formation of a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Furthermore, relatively large supercurrents are observed over unprecedented long distances of up to 1.5??m. Finally, in the quantum Hall regime we observe broken symmetry states while the contacts remain superconducting. These achievements open up new avenues to exploit the Dirac nature of graphene in interaction with the superconducting state. PMID:26214253

  6. Currents Induced by Injected Charge in Junction Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas

    2013-01-01

    The problem of drifting charge-induced currents is considered in order to predict the pulsed operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors with a junction controlled active area. The direct analysis of the field changes induced by drifting charge in the abrupt junction devices with a plane-parallel geometry of finite area electrodes is presented. The problem is solved using the one-dimensional approach. The models of the formation of the induced pulsed currents have been analyzed for the regimes of partial and full depletion. The obtained solutions for the current density contain expressions of a velocity field dependence on the applied voltage, location of the injected surface charge domain and carrier capture parameters. The drift component of this current coincides with Ramo's expression. It has been illustrated, that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms. Experimental illustrations of the current pulse variations determined by either the rather small or large carrier density within the photo-injected charge domain are presented, based on a study of Si detectors. PMID:24036586

  7. Partial suppression of the fission yeast rqh1(-) phenotype by expression of a bacterial Holliday junction resolvase.

    PubMed

    Doe, C L; Dixon, J; Osman, F; Whitby, M C

    2000-06-01

    A key stage during homologous recombination is the processing of the Holliday junction, which determines the outcome of the recombination reaction. To dissect the pathways of Holliday junction processing in a eukaryote, we have targeted an Escherichia coli Holliday junction resolvase to the nuclei of fission yeast recombination-deficient mutants and analysed their phenotypes. The resolvase partially complements the UV and hydroxyurea hypersensitivity and associated aberrant mitoses of an rqh1(-) mutant. Rqh1 is a member of the RecQ subfamily of DNA helicases that control recombination particularly during S-phase. Significantly, overexpression of the resolvase in wild-type cells partly mimics the loss of viability, hyper-recombination and 'cut' phenotype of an rqh1(-) mutant. These results indicate that Holliday junctions form in wild-type cells that are normally removed in a non-recombinogenic way, possibly by Rqh1 catalysing their reverse branch migration. We propose that in the absence of Rqh1, replication fork arrest results in the accumulation of Holliday junctions, which can either impede sister chromatid segregation or lead to the formation of recombinants through Holliday junction resolution. PMID:10835372

  8. Structure of d(CCGGGACCGG)4 as a four-way junction at 1.6?Å resolution: new insights into solvent interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arka; Mandal, Pradeep Kumar; Gautham, Namasivayam

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the decamer sequence d(CCGGGACCGG)4 has previously been reported at 2.16?Å resolution as a four-way junction. Here, the structure of this sequence is reported at the significantly higher resolution of 1.6?Å, which is the highest resolution reported for a four-way junction. This allowed the unambiguous identification of an extensive hydration network with distinct patterns and solvent-mediated interactions that shed new light on the role of water in the formation and stabilization of junction structures. PMID:23027741

  9. Albumin impairs renal tubular tight junctions via targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yibo; Hu, Caiyu; Ding, Guixia; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Songming; Jia, Zhanjun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-05-01

    Proteinuria is, not only a hallmark of glomerular disease, but also a contributor to kidney injury. However, its pathogenic mechanism is still elusive. In the present study, the effects of albumin on renal tubular tight junctions and the potential molecular mechanisms of those effects were investigated. In mouse proximal tubular cells (mPTCs), albumin treatment resulted in a significant loss of the cellular tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating a severe impairment of the tight junctions. On the basis of our previous study showing that albumin stimulated NLRP3 [neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, major histocompatibility complex class 2 transcription activator, incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina, and telomerase-associated protein (NACHT); leucine-rich repeat (LRR); and pyrin domain (PYD) domains-containing protein 3] inflammasome activation in mPTCs, we pretreated mPTCs with NLRP3 siRNA (siNLRP3) and found that NLRP3 knockdown significantly blocked the downregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 induced by albumin. Similarly, in albumin-overloaded wild-type mice, both ZO-1 and claudin-1 were downregulated at the protein and mRNA levels in parallel with the impaired formation of the tight junctions on transmission electron microscopy and the abnormal renal tubular morphology on periodic acid-Schiff staining, which contrasted with the stimulation of NLRP3 in the renal tubules. In contrast, NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3(-/-)) mice preserved normal ZO-1 and claudin-1 expression as well as largely normal tight junctions and tubular morphology. More importantly, deletion of the NLRP3 pathway downstream component caspase-1 similarly blocked the albumin overload-induced downregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1. Taken together, these findings demonstrated an important role of the albumin-NLRP3 inflammasome axis in mediating the impairment of renal tubular tight junctions and integrity. PMID:25715986

  10. Irsogladine maleate regulates gap junctional intercellular communication-dependent epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The airway epithelium of the human nasal mucosa acts as the first physical barrier that protects against inhaled substances and pathogens. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors via upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC is thought to participate in the formation of functional tight junctions. However, the effects of IM on GJIC and the epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the effects of IM on GJIC and the tight junctional barrier in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with IM and the GJIC inhibitors oleamide and 18?-GA. Some cells were pretreated with IM before treatment with TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) to examine whether IM prevented the changes via TLR3-mediated signal pathways. In hTERT-HNECs, GJIC blockers reduced the expression of tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A. IM induced GJIC activity and enhanced the expression of claudin-1, -4, and JAM-A at the protein and mRNA levels with an increase of barrier function. GJIC blockers prevented the increase of the tight junction proteins induced by IM. Furthermore, IM prevented the reduction of JAM-A but not induction of IL-8 and TNF-? induced by poly(I:C). In conclusion, IM can maintain the GJIC-dependent tight junctional barrier via regulation of GJIC in upper airway nasal epithelium. Therefore, it is possible that IM may be useful as a nasal spray to prevent the disruption of the epithelial barrier by viral infections and exposure to allergens in human nasal mucosa. PMID:25652184

  11. Brownian refrigeration by hybrid tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltonen, J. T.; Helle, M.; Timofeev, A. V.; Solinas, P.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Pekola, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    Voltage fluctuations generated in a hot resistor can cause extraction of heat from a colder normal metal electrode of a hybrid tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor. We extend the analysis presented in Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.210604 98, 210604 (2007) of this heat rectifying system, bearing resemblance to a Maxwell’s demon. Explicit analytic calculations show that the entropy of the total system is always increasing. We then consider a single-electron transistor configuration with two hybrid junctions in series, and show how the cooling is influenced by charging effects. We analyze also the cooling effect from nonequilibrium fluctuations instead of thermal noise, focusing on the shot noise generated in another tunnel junction. We conclude by discussing limitations for an experimental observation of the effect.

  12. Synchronized switching in a josephson junction crystal.

    PubMed

    Leib, Martin; Hartmann, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    We consider a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator where the central conductor is interrupted by a series of uniformly spaced Josephson junctions. The device forms an extended medium that is optically nonlinear on the single photon level with normal modes that inherit the full nonlinearity of the junctions but are nonetheless accessible via the resonator ports. For specific plasma frequencies of the junctions, a set of normal modes clusters in a narrow band and eventually becomes entirely degenerate. Upon increasing the intensity of a red detuned drive on these modes, we observe a sharp and synchronized switching from low-occupation quantum states to high-occupation classical fields, accompanied by a pronounced jump from low to high output intensity. PMID:24949766

  13. Spinal Gap Junction Channels in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves or the spinal cord is often accompanied by neuropathic pain, which is a complex, chronic pain state. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in the expression and activity of gap junction channels in the spinal cord are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Thus, this review briefly summarizes evidence that regulation of the expression, coupling, and activity of spinal gap junction channels modulates pain signals in neuropathic pain states induced by peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury. We particularly focus on connexin 43 and pannexin 1 because their regulation vastly attenuates symptoms of neuropathic pain. We hope that the study of gap junction channels eventually leads to the development of a suitable treatment tool for patients with neuropathic pain. PMID:26495077

  14. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  15. Tunnel junction based memristors as artificial synapses.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andy; Niehörster, Stefan; Fabretti, Savio; Shepheard, Norman; Kuschel, Olga; Küpper, Karsten; Wollschläger, Joachim; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Chicca, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    We prepared magnesia, tantalum oxide, and barium titanate based tunnel junction structures and investigated their memristive properties. The low amplitudes of the resistance change in these types of junctions are the major obstacle for their use. Here, we increased the amplitude of the resistance change from 10% up to 100%. Utilizing the memristive properties, we looked into the use of the junction structures as artificial synapses. We observed analogs of long-term potentiation, long-term depression and spike-time dependent plasticity in these simple two terminal devices. Finally, we suggest a possible pathway of these devices toward their integration in neuromorphic systems for storing analog synaptic weights and supporting the implementation of biologically plausible learning mechanisms. PMID:26217173

  16. Tunnel junction based memristors as artificial synapses

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andy; Niehörster, Stefan; Fabretti, Savio; Shepheard, Norman; Kuschel, Olga; Küpper, Karsten; Wollschläger, Joachim; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Chicca, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    We prepared magnesia, tantalum oxide, and barium titanate based tunnel junction structures and investigated their memristive properties. The low amplitudes of the resistance change in these types of junctions are the major obstacle for their use. Here, we increased the amplitude of the resistance change from 10% up to 100%. Utilizing the memristive properties, we looked into the use of the junction structures as artificial synapses. We observed analogs of long-term potentiation, long-term depression and spike-time dependent plasticity in these simple two terminal devices. Finally, we suggest a possible pathway of these devices toward their integration in neuromorphic systems for storing analog synaptic weights and supporting the implementation of biologically plausible learning mechanisms. PMID:26217173

  17. Molecular organization of tricellular tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Furuse, Mikio; Izumi, Yasushi; Oda, Yukako; Higashi, Tomohito; Iwamoto, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    When the apicolateral border of epithelial cells is compared with a polygon, its sides correspond to the apical junctional complex, where cell adhesion molecules assemble from the plasma membranes of two adjacent cells. On the other hand, its vertices correspond to tricellular contacts, where the corners of three cells meet. Vertebrate tricellular contacts have specialized structures of tight junctions, termed tricellular tight junctions (tTJs). tTJs were identified by electron microscopic observations more than 40 years ago, but have been largely forgotten in epithelial cell biology since then. The identification of tricellulin and angulin family proteins as tTJ-associated membrane proteins has enabled us to study tTJs in terms of not only the paracellular barrier function but also unknown characteristics of epithelial cell corners via molecular biological approaches. PMID:25097825

  18. The CellBorderTracker, a novel tool to quantitatively analyze spatiotemporal endothelial junction dynamics at the subcellular level.

    PubMed

    Seebach, Jochen; Taha, Abdallah Abu; Lenk, Janine; Lindemann, Nico; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Brinkmann, Klaus; Bogdan, Sven; Schnittler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial junctions are dynamic structures organized by multi-protein complexes that control monolayer integrity, homeostasis, inflammation, cell migration and angiogenesis. Newly developed methods for both the genetic manipulation of endothelium and microscopy permit time-lapse recordings of fluorescent proteins over long periods of time. Quantitative data analyses require automated methods. We developed a software package, the CellBorderTracker, allowing quantitative analysis of fluorescent-tagged cell junction protein dynamics in time-lapse sequences. The CellBorderTracker consists of the CellBorderExtractor that segments cells and identifies cell boundaries and mapping tools for data extraction. The tool is illustrated by analyzing fluorescent-tagged VE-cadherin the backbone of adherence junctions in endothelium. VE-cadherin displays high dynamics that is forced by junction-associated intermittent lamellipodia (JAIL) that are actin driven and WASP/ARP2/3 complex controlled. The manual segmentation and the automatic one agree to 90 %, a value that indicates high reliability. Based on segmentations, different maps were generated allowing more detailed data extraction. This includes the quantification of protein distribution pattern, the generation of regions of interest, junction displacements, cell shape changes, migration velocities and the visualization of junction dynamics over many hours. Furthermore, we demonstrate an advanced kymograph, the J-kymograph that steadily follows irregular cell junction dynamics in time-lapse sequences for individual junctions at the subcellular level. By using the CellBorderTracker, we demonstrate that VE-cadherin dynamics is quickly arrested upon thrombin stimulation, a phenomenon that was largely due to transient inhibition of JAIL and display a very heterogeneous subcellular and divers VE-cadherin dynamics during intercellular gap formation and resealing. PMID:26275669

  19. An ab-initio analysis of bimetallic oligoaniline molecular junctions 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Michael Wei-Lueng

    2007-09-17

    The electron transport characteristics of Oligoaniline molecular junctions terminated with thiol-ends are analyzed with the density functional theory and the Green's function approach. The molecular junction consists of an Oligoaniline molecule...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes...

  3. PGC-1 regulates the neuromuscular junction program and ameliorates

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    PGC-1 regulates the neuromuscular junction program and ameliorates Duchenne muscular dystrophy by PGC-1 and GABP is dysregulated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), we examined the effects; neuromuscular junction; GA-binding protein; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; transcriptional regulation

  4. Introduction Gap junctions are tightly packed arrays of membrane channels

    E-print Network

    Mullen, Sean P.

    with several human diseases, such as X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, tumorigenesis, cataractogenesis occurring, disease-causing missense mutations of several -connexin genes (Cx26, Cx30, Cx31, Cx32). Our junction diseases, Gap junctions, Green

  5. Stabilization of Ion Concentration Polarization Using a Heterogeneous Nanoporous Junction

    E-print Network

    Kim, Pilnam

    We demonstrate a recycled ion-flux through heterogeneous nanoporous junctions, which induce stable ion concentration polarization with an electric field. The nanoporous junctions are based on integration of ionic hydrogels ...

  6. Endoscopic Approaches to the Craniovertebral Junction.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Thorp, Brian D; Shriver, Michael F; Zanation, Adam M; Woodard, Troy D; Sindwani, Raj; Recinos, Pablo F

    2016-02-01

    The endoscopic endonasal approach provides a direct surgical trajectory to anteriorly located lesions at the craniovertebral junction. The inferior limit of surgical exposure is predicted by the nasopalatine line, and the lateral limit is demarcated by the lower cranial nerves. Endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy allows preservation of the soft palate, and patients can restart an oral diet on the first postoperative day. Treating the condition at the craniovertebral junction using this approach requires careful preoperative planning and endoscopic endonasal surgical experience with a 2-surgeon 4-handed approach combining expertise in otolaryngology and neurosurgery. PMID:26614839

  7. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Drummond, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  8. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  9. Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.; Kogan, V.G.

    1997-04-01

    The magnetic-field dependence of the critical current I{sub c}(H) is considered for a short Josephson junction with the critical current density j{sub c} alternating along the tunnel contact. Two model cases, periodic and randomly alternating j{sub c}, are treated in detail. Recent experimental data on I{sub c}(H) for grain-boundary Josephson junctions in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Optimal control of quantum superpositions in a bosonic Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapert, M.; Ferrini, G.; Sugny, D.

    2012-02-01

    We show how to optimally control the creation of quantum superpositions in a bosonic Josephson junction within the two-site Bose-Hubbard-model framework. Both geometric and purely numerical optimal-control approaches are used, the former providing a generalization of the proposal of Micheli [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.67.013607 67, 013607 (2003)]. While this method is shown not to lead to significant improvements in terms of time of formation and fidelity of the superposition, a numerical optimal-control approach appears more promising, as it allows creation of an almost perfect superposition, within a time short compared to other existing protocols. We analyze the robustness of the optimal solution against atom-number variations. Finally, we discuss the extent to which these optimal solutions could be implemented with state-of-the-art technology.

  11. Photoelectric properties of GaAs p-n-junction under illumination of intense laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ašmontas, S.; Gradauskas, J.; Sužied?lis, A.; Šil?nas, A.; Vai?ikauskas, V.; Žalys, O.; Steik?nas, G.; Steik?nien?, A.

    2014-10-01

    Results of experimental investigation of photoelectric properties of GaAs p-n-junction illuminated by short laser pulses of 1.06 ?m wavelength are presented. The influence of laser radiation intensity and external bias voltage on the formation of photoresponse voltage has been studied. Free carrier heating was recognized to influence significantly the magnitude of the measured photovoltage. Possibility to improve the conversion efficiency of solar cells is discussed.

  12. INDIUM-GALLIUM-ARSENIDE AND GERMANIUM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    1 INDIUM-GALLIUM-ARSENIDE AND GERMANIUM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate;2 INDIUM-GALLIUM-ARSENIDE AND GERMANIUM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS Abstract by Sajid Kabeer In0.53Ga0.47As tunnel-type dopant, exhibited a backward diode behavior. #12;4 INDIUM-GALLIUM-ARSENIDE AND GERMANIUM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS

  13. Back-contacted back-junction silicon solar cells

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    Back-contacted back-junction silicon solar cells Krister Mangersnes THESIS submitted in partial of making high-efficiency back-contacted back-junction silicon solar cells. Though a bit disappointing, we Conventional silicon solar cells have a front-side contacted emitter. Back-contacted back-junction (BC

  14. Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of facility. Note Buildings #35. #33 and #31A in lower left of photograph. VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  15. Metal-Semiconductor junctions tlu@math.pku.edu.cn

    E-print Network

    Lu, Tiao

    1 Metal-Semiconductor junctions tlu@math.pku.edu.cn homepage: dsec.pku.edu.cn/~tlu blog: http- semiconductor rectifying contact (Schottky contact) ­Simple to fabricate ­Switching speed is much higher than that of p-n junction diodes Metal-Semiconductor junctions are also used as ohmic- contact to carry current

  16. Highly reliable ag nanowire flexible transparent electrode with mechanically welded junctions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byungil; Shin, Hae-A-Seul; Kim, Taegeon; Joo, Young-Chang; Han, Seung Min

    2014-08-27

    Deformation behavior of the Ag nanowire flexible transparent electrode under bending strain is studied and results in a novel approach for highly reliable Ag nanowire network with mechanically welded junctions. Bending fatigue tests up to 500,000 cycles are used to evaluate the in situ resistance change while imposing fixed, uniform bending strain. In the initial stages of bending cycles, the thermally annealed Ag nanowire networks show a reduction in fractional resistance followed by a transient and steady-state increase at later stages of cycling. SEM analysis reveals that the initial reduction in resistance is caused by mechanical welding as a result of applied bending strain, and the increase in resistance at later stages of cycling is determined to be due to the failure at the thermally locked-in junctions. Based on the observations from this study, a new methodology for highly reliable Ag nanowire network is proposed: formation of Ag nanowire networks with no prior thermal annealing but localized junction formation through simple application of mechanical bending strain. The non-annealed, mechanically welded Ag nanowire network shows significantly enhanced cyclic reliability with essentially 0% increase in resistance due to effective formation of localized wire-to-wire contact. PMID:24789010

  17. Asymptotic solution for the resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model of the Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, I.; Lee, Y.C.

    1981-07-01

    Using the method developed by Bogolyubov et al., we find analytically a steady-state solution for the resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model of the Josephson junction that is driven by a constant current source. This solution explains how the relative amplitude of the voltage oscillation depends on the junction parameters such as I/sub o/ (the critical current), R (the resistance), C (the capacitance), and the external current I/sub e/. The validity of the analytical solution is assessed by comparing it with numerical results. We find that this solution is useful for normal tunnel junction with I/sub e//I/sub o/ of order 1 or larger, and for any other weak links with I/sub e//I/sub o/ much larger than 1.

  18. Functional dissociation of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance and disruption of the apical- basolateral intramembrane diffusion barrier by expression of a mutant tight junction membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Tight junctions, the most apical of the intercellular junctions that connect individual cells in a epithelial sheet, are thought to form a seal that restricts paracellular and intramembrane diffusion. To analyze the functioning of tight junctions, we generated stable MDCK strain 2 cell lines expressing either full-length or COOH-terminally truncated chicken occludin, the only known transmembrane component of tight junctions. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that mutant occludin was incorporated into tight junctions but, in contrast to full-length chicken occludin, exhibited a discontinuous junctional staining pattern and also disrupted the continuous junctional ring formed by endogenous occludin. This rearrangement of occludin was not paralleled by apparent changes in the junctional morphology as seen by thin section electron microscopy nor apparent discontinuities of the junctional strands observed by freeze-fracture. Nevertheless, expression of both wild-type and mutant occludin induced increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). In contrast to TER, particularly the expression of COOH-terminally truncated occludin led to a severalfold increase in paracellular flux of small molecular weight tracers. Since the selectivity for size or different types of cations was unchanged, expression of wild-type and mutant occludin appears to have activated an existing mechanism that allows selective paracellular flux in the presence of electrically sealed tight junctions. Occludin is also involved in the formation of the apical/basolateral intramembrane diffusion barrier, since expression of the COOH-terminally truncated occludin was found to render MDCK cells incapable of maintaining a fluorescent lipid in a specifically labeled cell surface domain. PMID:8769425

  19. Miniaturized symmetrization optics for junction laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Jacob M. (Inventor); Kaiser, Charlie J. (Inventor); Neil, Clyde C. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Miniaturized optics comprising transverse and lateral cylindrical lenses composed of millimeter-sized rods with diameters, indices-of-refraction and spacing such that substantially all the light emitted as an asymmetrical beam from the emitting junction of the laser is collected and translated to a symmetrical beam.

  20. Traffic Assignment with Junction Modeling in TAPAS

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Traffic Assignment with Junction Modeling in TAPAS Author: Oedsen van der Kooi d e Supervisors: ir.2 Commonly Used Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 The Traffic Assignment Problem.3) is the Traffic Assignment Problem (TAP). The TAP uses as input a study area divided up into zones, with a graph

  1. Scaffolding protein GOPC regulates tight junction structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruifeng; Stewart, Lorraine; Wilson, Jean M

    2015-05-01

    GOPC (FIG/PIST/CAL) is a PDZ-domain scaffolding protein that regulates the trafficking of a wide array of proteins, including small GTPases, receptors and cell surface molecules such as cadherin 23 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. In Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, we find that GOPC localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but not to the cis- or trans-Golgi cisternae. Colocalization occurs with the early endosome Rab GTPase Rab5 and a TGN/endosome marker Rab14 but not with Rab11, a marker of recycling endosomes. No localization of GOPC was detected to the lateral membranes or tight junctions. Knockdown of GOPC in MDCK cells results in decreased transepithelial resistance and increased paracellular flux. This might be attributable to the compromised trafficking of tight junction components from the TGN, as GOPC-knockdown cells have decreased lateral labeling of the tight junction protein claudin-1 and decreased protein levels of claudin-2. GOPC might mediate the trafficking of newly synthesized tight junction proteins from the TGN to the cell surface or the recycling of these proteins from specialized endosomal compartments. PMID:25616555

  2. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  3. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  4. Fast algorithms for triangular Josephson junction arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Sahdev, D.

    1997-04-01

    We develop fast algorithms for the numerical study of two-dimensional triangular Josephson junction arrays. The Dirac bra-ket formalism is introduced in the context of such arrays. We note that triangular arrays can have both hexagonal and rectangular periodicity and develop algorithms for each. Boundaries are next introduced and fast algorithms for finite arrays are developed. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Oligodendrocyte gap junction loss and disconnection from reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis gray matter.

    PubMed

    Markoullis, Kyriaki; Sargiannidou, Irene; Schiza, Natasa; Roncaroli, Federico; Reynolds, Richard; Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2014-09-01

    Gap junctions are essential for glial cell function and have been increasingly implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Because increasing cortical abnormalities correlate with disease progression and cognitive dysfunction, we examined the expression of oligodendrocytic connexin32 (Cx32) and Cx47 and their astrocytic partners Cx30 and Cx43 in cortical lesions and normal-appearing gray matter (NAGM) in MS patients. Postmortem brain tissue samples from 9 MS cases were compared with 10 controls using real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses. Connexin32 and Cx47 gap junction formation in oligodendrocytes was reduced within lesions, whereas Cx32 loss also extended to NAGM. In contrast, astrocytic Cx30 expression was increased within cortical lesions, whereas Cx43 was elevated in both lesions and NAGM. Diffuse microglial activation and marked astrogliotic changes accompanied these connexin abnormalities. Increased expression of Cx43 correlated with inflammatory load (r = 0.828, p = 0.042), whereas Cx32 expression correlated with longer disease duration and, therefore, milder course (r = 0.825, p = 0.043). Thus, there is a loss of intramyelin and intercellular oligodendrocyte gap junctions in MS gray matter lesions and NAGM, whereas interastrocytic gap junctions are increased, reflecting astrogliosis. These changes correlate with inflammation and disease duration and suggest that disconnection of oligodendrocytes from reactive astrocytes may play a role in failed remyelination and disease progression. PMID:25101702

  6. Ontogeny of tight junction protein expression in the ovine cerebral cortex during development.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, G B; Ahmedli, N; Chen, X; Stonestreet, B S

    2015-12-01

    Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier are composed of transmembrane and associated cytoplasmic proteins. The transmembrane claudin proteins form the primary seal between endothelial cells and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) regulate tight junction formation. We have previously shown that claudin-1, claudin-5, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and ZO-2 exhibit differential developmental regulation from 60% of gestation up to maturity in adult sheep. The purpose of the current study was to examine developmental changes in claudin-3, -12, and JAM-A protein expression in cerebral cortices of fetuses at 60%, 80%, and 90% gestation, and in newborn and adult sheep. We also examined correlations between changes in endogenous cortisol levels and tight junction protein expression in cerebral cortices of the fetuses. Claudin-3, -12 and JAM-A expressions were determined by Western immunoblot. Claudin-3 and -12 were lower (P<0.01) at 60%, 80%, 90% and in newborns than in adults, and JAM-A was lower in adults than in fetuses at 80% and 90% gestation. Claudin-3 expression demonstrated a direct correlation with increasing plasma cortisol levels (r=0.60, n=15, P<0.02) in the fetuses. We conclude that: claudin-3, -12 and JAM-A are expressed as early as 60% of gestation in ovine cerebral cortices, exhibit differential developmental regulation, and that increasing endogenous glucocorticoids modulate claudin-3 expression in the fetus. PMID:26424381

  7. Regulation of Adherens Junctions in Trabecular Meshwork Cells by Rac GTPase and their influence on Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P; Epstein, David L; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adherens junctions and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are presumed to influence aqueous humor (AH) drainage via the conventional route, however, their direct role in modulation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Rac GTPase signaling in basal and growth factor-induced formation of adherens junctions in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells as compared to human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, and evaluated the effects of inhibition of Rac GTPase activity on IOP in rabbits. Expression of a constitutively active Rac1 GTPase or treatment with platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), a known activator of Rac GTPase, induced formation of ?-catenin-based adherens junctions, actin cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane ruffle in HTM cells. In contrast, treatment of HTM cells with inhibitors of Rac GTPase caused cell-cell separation, a decrease in adherens junctions, and reorganization of actin stress fibers to the cell cortical regions and focal adhesion to the cell leading edges. Both, constitutively active Rac1 and PDGF stimulated generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in HTM cells, and ROS were found to increase adherens junction formation and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in HTM cells. Topical application of Rac GTPase inhibitors (EHT1864 and NSC23766), however, only marginally influenced IOP in rabbit eyes. Taken together, these data reveal that while Rac GTPase signaling plays a significant role in regulation of adherens junctions, ROS production and TEER in cells of the AH outflow pathway, Rac inhibitors showed only a marginal influence on IOP in live rabbits. PMID:24932460

  8. Concept Formation Concept Formation

    E-print Network

    Goldstone, Robert

    Concept Formation 1 Concept Formation Robert L. Goldstone Thomas T. Hills Samuel B. Day Indiana, IN. 47408 Other Correspondences: rgoldsto@indiana.edu (812) 855-4853 Keywords: Concepts, Learning, Representation, Prototypes, Exemplars #12;Concept Formation 2 Concept Formation A concept is a mentally possessed

  9. Androgen-dependent sertoli cell tight junction remodeling is mediated by multiple tight junction components.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Papia; William Buaas, F; Sharma, Manju; Smith, Benjamin E; Greenlee, Anne R; Eacker, Stephen M; Braun, Robert E

    2014-07-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) of the seminiferous epithelium create a specialized microenvironment in the testis to aid differentiation of spermatocytes and spermatids from spermatogonial stem cells. SCTJs must be chronically broken and rebuilt with high fidelity to allow the transmigration of preleptotene spermatocytes from the basal to adluminal epithelial compartment. Impairment of androgen signaling in Sertoli cells perturbs SCTJ remodeling. Claudin (CLDN) 3, a tight junction component under androgen regulation, localizes to newly forming SCTJs and is absent in Sertoli cell androgen receptor knockout (SCARKO) mice. We show here that Cldn3-null mice do not phenocopy SCARKO mice: Cldn3(-/-) mice are fertile, show uninterrupted spermatogenesis, and exhibit fully functional SCTJs based on imaging and small molecule tracer analyses, suggesting that other androgen-regulated genes must contribute to the SCARKO phenotype. To further investigate the SCTJ phenotype observed in SCARKO mutants, we generated a new SCARKO model and extensively analyzed the expression of other tight junction components. In addition to Cldn3, we identified altered expression of several other SCTJ molecules, including down-regulation of Cldn13 and a noncanonical tight junction protein 2 isoform (Tjp2iso3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to demonstrate direct androgen receptor binding to regions of these target genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CLDN13 is a constituent of SCTJs and that TJP2iso3 colocalizes with tricellulin, a constituent of tricellular junctions, underscoring the importance of androgen signaling in the regulation of both bicellular and tricellular Sertoli cell tight junctions. PMID:24825397

  10. Androgen-Dependent Sertoli Cell Tight Junction Remodeling Is Mediated by Multiple Tight Junction Components

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Papia; William Buaas, F.; Sharma, Manju; Smith, Benjamin E.; Greenlee, Anne R.; Eacker, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) of the seminiferous epithelium create a specialized microenvironment in the testis to aid differentiation of spermatocytes and spermatids from spermatogonial stem cells. SCTJs must be chronically broken and rebuilt with high fidelity to allow the transmigration of preleptotene spermatocytes from the basal to adluminal epithelial compartment. Impairment of androgen signaling in Sertoli cells perturbs SCTJ remodeling. Claudin (CLDN) 3, a tight junction component under androgen regulation, localizes to newly forming SCTJs and is absent in Sertoli cell androgen receptor knockout (SCARKO) mice. We show here that Cldn3-null mice do not phenocopy SCARKO mice: Cldn3?/? mice are fertile, show uninterrupted spermatogenesis, and exhibit fully functional SCTJs based on imaging and small molecule tracer analyses, suggesting that other androgen-regulated genes must contribute to the SCARKO phenotype. To further investigate the SCTJ phenotype observed in SCARKO mutants, we generated a new SCARKO model and extensively analyzed the expression of other tight junction components. In addition to Cldn3, we identified altered expression of several other SCTJ molecules, including down-regulation of Cldn13 and a noncanonical tight junction protein 2 isoform (Tjp2iso3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to demonstrate direct androgen receptor binding to regions of these target genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CLDN13 is a constituent of SCTJs and that TJP2iso3 colocalizes with tricellulin, a constituent of tricellular junctions, underscoring the importance of androgen signaling in the regulation of both bicellular and tricellular Sertoli cell tight junctions. PMID:24825397

  11. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.J.; Miyai, K.; Steinbach, J.H.; Hardison, W.G.M. Univ. of California, San Diego )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, ({sup 14}C)sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of ({sup 14}C)sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors (Sar{sup 1},Thr{sup 8})angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the ({sup 14}C)sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

  12. Tight junctions and the modulation of barrier function in disease

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions create a paracellular barrier in epithelial and endothelial cells protecting them from the external environment. Two different classes of integral membrane proteins constitute the tight junction strands in epithelial cells and endothelial cells, occludin and members of the claudin protein family. In addition, cytoplasmic scaffolding molecules associated with these junctions regulate diverse physiological processes like proliferation, cell polarity and regulated diffusion. In many diseases, disruption of this regulated barrier occurs. This review will briefly describe the molecular composition of the tight junctions and then present evidence of the link between tight junction dysfunction and disease. PMID:18415116

  13. Phase synchronization in an array of driven Josephson junctions

    E-print Network

    Chitra R. N.; V. C. Kuriakose

    2008-05-22

    We consider an array of N Josephson junctions connected in parallel and explore the condition for chaotic synchronization. It is found that the outer junctions can be synchronized while they remain uncorrelated to the inner ones when an external biasing is applied. The stability of the solution is found out for the outer junctions in the synchronization manifold. Symmetry considerations lead to a situation wherein the inner junctions can synchronize for certain values of parameter. In the presence of a phase difference between the applied fields, all the junctions exhibit phase synchronization. It is also found that chaotic motion changes to periodic in the presence of phase differences.

  14. Measuring twin dependent triple junctions from a single section plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, G. B.; Field, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Given that polycrystalline triple junctions are significant contributors to material properties, they are frequently becoming the focus of emerging research. Despite this interest, the tools to quickly and quantitatively analyze triple junction textures remain severely limited. To enable characterization of triple junctions on a large scale, the parameters, space, and conventions of twin dependent triple junction distributions have been developed. In addition, by adopting grain boundary stereological techniques, triple junction distributions have been generated from a single section plane for triple junctions containing a coherent twin boundary. This methodology has been validated using simulated microstructures and, with further experimental development, will provide insight into actual triple junction structures. This technique also establishes the foundation for a generalized non-twin dependent approach in the future.

  15. Anillin regulates cell-cell junction integrity by organizing junctional accumulation of Rho-GTP and actomyosin.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Ciara C; Jin, Meiyan; Breznau, Elaina B; Espino, Rhogelyn; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Goryachev, Andrew B; Miller, Ann L

    2014-06-01

    Anillin is a scaffolding protein that organizes and stabilizes actomyosin contractile rings and was previously thought to function primarily in cytokinesis [1-10]. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as a model system to examine Anillin's role in the intact vertebrate epithelium, we find that a population of Anillin surprisingly localizes to epithelial cell-cell junctions throughout the cell cycle, whereas it was previously thought to be nuclear during interphase [5, 11]. Furthermore, we show that Anillin plays a critical role in regulating cell-cell junction integrity. Both tight junctions and adherens junctions are disrupted when Anillin is knocked down, leading to altered cell shape and increased intercellular spaces. Anillin interacts with Rho, F-actin, and myosin II [3, 8, 9], all of which regulate cell-cell junction structure and function. When Anillin is knocked down, active Rho (Rho-guanosine triphosphate [GTP]), F-actin, and myosin II are misregulated at junctions. Indeed, increased dynamic "flares" of Rho-GTP are observed at cell-cell junctions, whereas overall junctional F-actin and myosin II accumulation is reduced when Anillin is depleted. We propose that Anillin is required for proper Rho-GTP distribution at cell-cell junctions and for maintenance of a robust apical actomyosin belt, which is required for cell-cell junction integrity. These results reveal a novel role for Anillin in regulating epithelial cell-cell junctions. PMID:24835458

  16. New advances in on-line sample preconcentration by capillary electrophoresis using dynamic pH junction.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2008-12-01

    The small injection volumes and narrow dimensions characteristic of microseparation techniques place constraints on concentration sensitivity that is required for trace chemical analyses. On-line sample preconcentration techniques using dynamic pH junction and its variants have emerged as simple yet effective strategies for enhancing concentration sensitivity of weakly ionic species by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Dynamic pH junction offers a convenient format for electrokinetic focusing of dilute sample plugs directly in-capillary for improved detection without off-line sample pretreatment. In this report, we highlight new advances in dynamic pH junction which have been reported to enhance method performance while discussing challenges for future research. PMID:19082065

  17. Electron Holography Characterization of Shallow Junction Fabricated By Diffusion-less Process for Sub-30 nm Gate-Length MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Ikarashi, Nobuyuki; Toda, Akio; Uejima, Kazuya; Fukai, Toshinori; Hane, Masami; Ikezawa, Takeo

    2008-11-03

    Cross-sectional electron holography was used for two-dimensional potential mapping of source/drain extensions (SDEs) in scaled MOSFETs fabricated using state-of-the-art junction formation technology. First, we show that specimen-preparation artifacts, which have prevented detailed examinations of scaled SDEs, are significantly reduced by using low-energy backside Ar{sup +} milling. Next, we demonstrate that electron holography clearly reveals very shallow (10-nm-deep) SDE junction profiles. We also show that the experimental examinations, in conjunction with doping-process simulations, allow examinations of how dopant distribution, such as junction depth and abruptness, affect the potential distribution in planar-bulk MOSFETs approaching the scaling limit.

  18. Regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication by TCDD in HMEC and MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gakhar, Gunjan Schrempp, Diane Nguyen, Thu Annelise

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that many neoplastic tissues exhibit a decrease in gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Many hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds are environmental pollutants known to be carcinogenic. The effect of an organochlorine compound, TCDD, on GJIC in human breast cell lines has not been established. In the present study, we showed that TCDD causes an inhibition in the gap junctional activity in MCF-7 (breast cancer cells). In MCF-7 cells, an increase in the phosphorylated form of gap junctional protein, connexin 43 (Cx43), and PKC {alpha} was seen in the presence of TCDD. Gap junctional plaque formation was significantly decreased in MCF-7 cells in the presence of TCDD. Immunoprecipitation studies of PKC {alpha} showed that TCDD caused a significant 40% increase in the phosphorylated Cx43 in MCF-7 cells. TCDD also modulated the translocation of PKC {alpha} from the cytosol to the membrane and caused a 2-fold increase in the PKC {alpha} activity at 50 nM TCDD in MCF-7 cells. Calphostin C, an inhibitor of PKC {alpha}, showed a significant inhibition of PKC {alpha} activity in the presence of TCDD. Furthermore, TCDD also caused a decrease in the gap junctional activity and Cx43 protein in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). However, we observed a shift in the Cx43 plaques towards the perinuclear membrane in the presence of TCDD by confocal microscopy and Western blot. Overall, these results conclude that TCDD decreases GJIC by phosphorylating Cx43 via PKC {alpha} signaling pathway in MCF-7 cells; however, TCDD decreases the GJIC by affecting the localization of Cx43 in HMEC. These new findings elucidate the differential mode of effect of TCDD in the downregulation of GJIC in HMEC and MCF-7 cells.

  19. Complementary GaAs junction-gated heterostructure field effect transistor fabrication for integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Klem, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    A new GaAs junction-gated complementary logic technology that integrates a modulation doped p-channel heterostructure field effect transistor (pHFET) and a fully ion implanted n-channel JFET has recently been fabricated. High-speed, low-power operation has been demonstrated with loaded ring oscillators that show gate delays of 179 ps/stage for a power-delay product of 28 fJ at 1.2 V operation and 320 ps/stage and 8.9 fJ at 0.8 V operation. The principal advantages of this technology include the ability to independently set the threshold voltage of n- and p-channel devices and to independently design the pHFET for high performance. A self-aligned refractory gate process based on tungsten and tungsten silicide gate metal has been used to fabricate the FETs. Novel aspects of the fabrication include the simultaneous formation of non-alloyed, refractory ohmic contacts for the junction gates and the formation of shallow p-n junctions by ion implantation.

  20. Fibrinogen Induces Alterations of Endothelial Cell Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    PATIBANDLA, PHANI K.; TYAGI, NEETU; DEAN, WILLIAM L.; TYAGI, SURESH C.; ROBERTS, ANDREW M.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that an elevated content of fibrinogen (Fg) increased formation of filamentous actin and enhanced endothelial layer permeability. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that Fg binding to endothelial cells (ECs) alters expression of actin-associated endothelial tight junction proteins (TJP). Rat cardiac microvascular ECs were grown in gold plated chambers of an electrical cell-substrate impedance system, 8-well chambered, or in 12-well plates. Confluent ECs were treated with Fg (2 or 4 mg/ml), Fg (4 mg/ml) with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) kinase inhibitors (PD98059 or U0126), Fg (4 mg/ml) with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or BQ788 (endothelin type B receptor blocker), endothelin-1, endothelin-1 with BQ788, or medium alone for 24 h. Fg induced a dose-dependent decrease in EC junction integrity as determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Western blot analysis and RT-PCR data showed that the higher dose of Fg decreased the contents of TJPs, occludin, zona occluden-1 (ZO-1), and zona occluden-2 (ZO-2) in ECs. Fg-induced decreases in contents of the TJPs were blocked by PD98059, U0126, or anti-ICAM-1 antibody. While BQ788 inhibited endothelin-1-induced decrease in TEER, it did not affect Fg-induced decrease in TEER. These data suggest that Fg increases EC layer permeability via the MEK kinase signaling pathway by affecting occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2, TJPs, which are bound to actin filaments. Therefore, increased binding of Fg to its major EC receptor, ICAM-1, during cardiovascular diseases may increase microvascular permeability by altering the content and possibly subcellular localization of endothelial TJPs. PMID:19507189

  1. Functional ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Shengwei; Han, Kun; Huang, Lisen; Schlom, Darrell G.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando; Chen, Jingsheng

    2015-07-01

    The quest for solid state non-volatility memory devices on silicon with high storage density, high speed, low power consumption has attracted intense research on new materials and novel device architectures. Although flash memory dominates in the non-volatile memory market currently, it has drawbacks, such as low operation speed, and limited cycle endurance, which prevents it from becoming the “universal memory”. In this report, we demonstrate ferroelectric tunnel junctions (Pt/BaTiO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3) epitaxially grown on silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope images prove the high epitaxial quality of the single crystal perovskite films grown on silicon. Furthermore, the write speed, data retention and fatigue properties of the device compare favorably with flash memories. The results prove that the silicon-based ferroelectric tunnel junction is a very promising candidate for application in future non-volatile memories.

  2. Conductance spectroscopy of topological superconductor wire junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, F.; Brydon, P. M. R.; Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2015-06-01

    We study the zero-temperature transport properties of one-dimensional normal metal-superconductor (NS) junctions with topological superconductors across their topological transitions. Working within the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) formalism generalized for topological NS junctions, we analytically calculate the differential conductance for tunneling into two models of a topological superconductor: a spinless intrinsic p -wave superconductor and a spin-orbit-coupled s -wave superconductor in a Zeeman field. In both cases we verify that the zero-bias conductance is robustly quantized at 2 e2/h in the topological regime, while it takes nonuniversal values in the nontopological phase. The conductance spectra in the topological state develops a peak at zero bias for certain parameter regimes, with the peak width controlled by the strength of spin-orbit coupling and barrier transparency.

  3. Tunneling in Organic Conductor/superconductor Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Sato, K.; Friedman, B.

    2003-03-01

    We report the nonequilibrium effect of polaronic quasiparticle (QP) injection using an organic injector in a high Tc three terminal device. The organic, copper (II) phthalocyanine (Cu-Pc), used as the injector, is a photoconductor and a p-type semiconductor. The transport properties of Au/Cu-Pc/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d (BSCCO) tunnel junctions were investigated in the dark and under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We observed that the injection of polaronic QP from the organic Cu-Pc film into the BSCCO film generated a substantially larger nonequilibrium effect as compared to the normal QP injection current. We could increase the current gain by UV excitation of the organic photoconductor injector. The tunneling spectroscopy of a Cu-Pc/BSCCO junction exhibited a small enhancement of the zero bias conductance peak under the UV excitation. The above phenomena are of importance in developing optically controlled three terminal superconducting devices.

  4. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    SciTech Connect

    De la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego E-mail: peter.dunsby@uct.ac.za

    2014-12-01

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results.

  5. Vibrational Heat Transport in Molecular Junctions

    E-print Network

    Segal, Dvira

    2015-01-01

    We review studies of vibrational energy transfer in a molecular junction geometry, consisting of a molecule bridging two heat reservoirs, solids or large chemical compounds. This setup is of interest for applications in molecular electronics, thermoelectrics, and nanophononics, and for addressing basic questions in the theory of classical and quantum transport. Calculations show that system size, disorder, structure, dimensionality, internal anharmonicities, contact interaction, and quantum coherent effects, are factors that interplay to determine the predominant mechanism (ballistic/diffusive), effectiveness (poor/good) and functionality (linear/nonlinear) of thermal conduction at the nanoscale. We review recent experiments and relevant calculations of quantum heat transfer in molecular junctions. We recount the Landauer approach, appropriate for the study of elastic (harmonic) phononic transport, and outline techniques which incorporate molecular anharmonicities. Theoretical methods are described along with...

  6. An epitaxial ferroelectric tunnel junction on silicon.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Guo, Xiao; Lu, Hui-Bin; Zhang, Zaoli; Song, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shaobo; Bosman, Michel; Zhu, Jing; Dong, Zhili; Zhu, Weiguang

    2014-11-12

    Epitaxially grown functional perovskites on silicon (001) and the ferroelectricity of a 3.2 nm thick BaTiO3 barrier layer are demonstrated. The polarization-switching-induced change in tunneling resistance is measured to be two orders of magnitude. The obtained results suggest the possibility of integrating ferroelectric tunnel junctions as binary data storage media in non-volatile memory cells on a silicon platform. PMID:25200550

  7. Josephson Junctions Help Measure Resonance And Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid H. S.; Mcgrath, William R.; Bumble, Bruce; Leduc, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of superconducting microstrip transmission lines measured at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Submicron Josephson (super-conductor/insulator/superconductor) junctions used as both voltage-controlled oscillators and detectors to measure frequencies (in range of hundreds of gigahertz) of high-order resonant electromagnetic modes of superconducting microstrip transmission-line resonators. This oscillator/detector approach similar to vacuum-tube grid dip meters and transistor dip meters used to probe resonances at much lower frequencies.

  8. Josephson Junctions Fabricated by Focussed Ion Beam

    E-print Network

    Hadfield, Robert Hugh

    Klushin, Alexey Ustinov, Simon Bending, Mac Beasley and John Martinis. The U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences and Research Council (EPSRC) provided financial support for this project. I gratefully acknowledge additional support from the Trinity... superconducting wavefunction l electronic mean free path ? superconducting energy gap parameter vF Fermi velocity t film thickness Abbreviations BCS Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (theory) FIB focused ion beam GBJ grain boundary junction HF high...

  9. Electron microscopic single particle analysis of a tetrameric RuvA/RuvB/Holliday junction DNA complex

    SciTech Connect

    Mayanagi, Kouta Fujiwara, Yoshie; Miyata, Tomoko; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2008-01-11

    During the late stage of homologous recombination in prokaryotes, RuvA binds to the Holliday junction intermediate and executes branch migration in association with RuvB. The RuvA subunits form two distinct complexes with the Holliday junction: complex I with the single RuvA tetramer on one side of the four way junction DNA, and complex II with two tetramers on both sides. To investigate the functional roles of complexes I and II, we mutated two residues of RuvA (L125D and E126K) to prevent octamer formation. An electron microscopic analysis indicated that the mutant RuvA/RuvB/Holliday junction DNA complex formed the characteristic tripartite structure, with only one RuvA tetramer bound to one side of the Holliday junction, demonstrating the unexpected stability of this complex. The novel bent images of the complex revealed an intriguing morphological similarity to the structure of SV40 large T antigen, which belongs to the same AAA+ family as RuvB.

  10. Innexin7a forms junctions that stabilize the basal membrane during cellularization of the blastoderm in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Maurijn; Benton, Matthew A; Vazquez-Faci, Tania; Lamers, Gerda E M; Jacobs, Chris G C; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-06-15

    In insects, the fertilized egg undergoes a series of rapid nuclear divisions before the syncytial blastoderm starts to cellularize. Cellularization has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, but its thick columnar blastoderm is unusual among insects. We therefore set out to describe cellularization in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the embryos of which exhibit a thin blastoderm of cuboidal cells, like most insects. Using immunohistochemistry, live imaging and transmission electron microscopy, we describe several striking differences to cellularization in Drosophila, including the formation of junctions between the forming basal membrane and the yolk plasmalemma. To identify the nature of this novel junction, we used the parental RNAi technique for a small-scale screen of junction proteins. We find that maternal knockdown of Tribolium innexin7a (Tc-inx7a), an ortholog of the Drosophila gap junction gene Innexin 7, leads to failure of cellularization. In Inx7a-depleted eggs, the invaginated plasma membrane retracts when basal cell closure normally begins. Furthermore, transiently expressed tagged Inx7a localizes to the nascent basal membrane of the forming cells in wild-type eggs. We propose that Inx7a forms the newly identified junctions that stabilize the forming basal membrane and enable basal cell closure. We put forward Tribolium as a model for studying a more ancestral mode of cellularization in insects. PMID:26015545

  11. Fermi edge singularity in a tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Sherkunov, Yury; D'Ambrumenil, Nicholas; Muzykantskii, Boris

    2010-03-01

    We present results on the non-equilibrium Fermi edge singularity (FES) problem in tunnel junctions. The FES, which is present in a Fermi gas subject to any sudden change of potential, manifests itself in the final state many body interaction between the electrons in the leads [1]. We establish a connection between the FES problem in a tunnel junction and the Full Counting Statistics (FCS) for the device [2]. We find that the exact profile of the changing potential (or the profile for the barrier opening and closing in the tunnel junction case) strongly affects the overlap between the initial and final state of the Fermi gas. We factorize the contribution to the FES into two approximately independent terms: one is connected with the short time opening process while the other is concerned with the long time asymptotic effect, namely the Anderson orthogonality catastrophe. We consider applications to a localized level coupled through a tunnel barrier to a 1D lead driven out of equilibrium [3]. References: [1] G. Mahan, Phys. Rev. 163, 1612 (1967); P. Nozieres and C. T. De Dominicis, Phys. Rev. 178, 1079 (1969); P. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 1049 (1967) [2] J. Zhang, Y. Sherkunov, N. d'Ambrumenil, and B. Muzykantskii, ArXiv:0909.3427 [3] D. Abanin and L. Levitov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186803 (2005)

  12. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2015-10-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method relies on four-point probe measurements performed with a range of different probe pitches and was originally developed for infinite samples. Using the method of images, we derive a modified CIPT model, which compensates for the insulating boundaries of a finite rectangular sample geometry. We measure on square tunnel junction pads with varying sizes and analyze the measured data using both the original and the modified CIPT model. Thus, we determine in which sample size range the modified CIPT model is needed to ensure validity of the extracted sample parameters, RA and TMR. In addition, measurements as a function of position on a square tunnel junction pad are used to investigate the sensitivity of the measurement results to probe misalignment.

  13. Josephson Effect in SFNS Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karminskaya, T. Yu.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Golubov, A. A.; Sidorenko, A. S.

    The critical current, I C, of Josephson junctions both in ramp-type (S-FN-S) and in overlap (SNF-FN-FNS, SN-FN-NS, SNF-N-FNS) geometries has been calculated in the frame of linearized Usadel equations (S-superconductor, F-ferromagnetic, N-normal metal). For the ramp-type structures, in which S electrodes contact directly the end walls of FN bilayer, it is shown that I C may exhibit damping oscillations as a function of both the distance L between superconductors and thicknesses d F,N of ferromagnetic and normal layers. The conditions have been determined under which the decay length and period of oscillation of I C(L) at fixed d F are of the order of decay length of superconducting correlations in the N metal, ?N, that is much larger than in F film. In overlap configurations, in which S films are placed on the top of NF bilayer, the studied junctions have complex SNF or SN electrodes (N or NF bilayer are situated under a superconductor). We demonstrate that in these geometries the critical current can exceed that in ramp-type junctions. Based on these results, the choice of the most practically applicable geometry is discussed.

  14. Primary thermometry with nanoscale tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Hirvi, K.P.; Kauppinen, J.P.; Paalanen, M.A.; Pekola, J.P.

    1995-10-01

    We have found current-voltage (I-V) and conductance (dI/dV) characteristics of arrays of nanoscale tunnel junctions between normal metal electrodes to exhibit suitable features for primary thermometry. The current through a uniform array depends on the ratio of the thermal energy k{sub B}T and the electrostatic charging energy E{sub c} of the islands between the junctions and is completely blocked by Coulomb repulsion at T=0 and at small voltages eV/2 {<=} Ec. In the opposite limit, k{sub B}T {much_gt} E{sub c}, the width of the conductance minimum scales linearly and universally with T and N, the number of tunnel junctions, and qualifies as a primary thermometer. The zero bias drop in the conductance is proportional to T{sup -1} and can be used as a secondary thermometer. We will show with Monte Carlo simulations how background charge and nonuniformities of the array will affect the thermometer.

  15. Josephson junction in a thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Clem, J. R.; Mawatari, Yasunori; Mints, R. G.

    2001-04-01

    The phase difference {phi}(y) for a vortex at a line Josephson junction in a thin film attenuates at large distances as a power law, unlike the case of a bulk junction where it approaches exponentially the constant values at infinities. The field of a Josephson vortex is a superposition of fields of standard Pearl vortices distributed along the junction with the line density {phi}'(y)/2{pi}. We study the integral equation for {phi}(y) and show that the phase is sensitive to the ratio l/{Lambda}, where l={lambda}{sub J}{sup 2}/{lambda}{sub L}, {Lambda}=2{lambda}{sub L}{sup 2}/d, {lambda}{sub L}, and {lambda}{sub J} are the London and Josephson penetration depths, and d is the film thickness. For l<<{Lambda}, the vortex ''core'' of the size l is nearly temperature independent, while the phase ''tail'' scales as l{Lambda}/y{sup 2}={lambda}{sub J}2{lambda}{sub L}/d/y{sup 2}; i.e., it diverges as T{yields}T{sub c}. For l>>{Lambda}, both the core and the tail have nearly the same characteristic length l{Lambda}.

  16. Single-molecule junctions beyond electronic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aradhya, Sriharsha V.; Venkataraman, Latha

    2013-06-01

    The idea of using individual molecules as active electronic components provided the impetus to develop a variety of experimental platforms to probe their electronic transport properties. Among these, single-molecule junctions in a metal-molecule-metal motif have contributed significantly to our fundamental understanding of the principles required to realize molecular-scale electronic components from resistive wires to reversible switches. The success of these techniques and the growing interest of other disciplines in single-molecule-level characterization are prompting new approaches to investigate metal-molecule-metal junctions with multiple probes. Going beyond electronic transport characterization, these new studies are highlighting both the fundamental and applied aspects of mechanical, optical and thermoelectric properties at the atomic and molecular scales. Furthermore, experimental demonstrations of quantum interference and manipulation of electronic and nuclear spins in single-molecule circuits are heralding new device concepts with no classical analogues. In this Review, we present the emerging methods being used to interrogate multiple properties in single molecule-based devices, detail how these measurements have advanced our understanding of the structure-function relationships in molecular junctions, and discuss the potential for future research and applications.

  17. Single-molecule junctions beyond electronic transport.

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Sriharsha V; Venkataraman, Latha

    2013-06-01

    The idea of using individual molecules as active electronic components provided the impetus to develop a variety of experimental platforms to probe their electronic transport properties. Among these, single-molecule junctions in a metal-molecule-metal motif have contributed significantly to our fundamental understanding of the principles required to realize molecular-scale electronic components from resistive wires to reversible switches. The success of these techniques and the growing interest of other disciplines in single-molecule-level characterization are prompting new approaches to investigate metal-molecule-metal junctions with multiple probes. Going beyond electronic transport characterization, these new studies are highlighting both the fundamental and applied aspects of mechanical, optical and thermoelectric properties at the atomic and molecular scales. Furthermore, experimental demonstrations of quantum interference and manipulation of electronic and nuclear spins in single-molecule circuits are heralding new device concepts with no classical analogues. In this Review, we present the emerging methods being used to interrogate multiple properties in single molecule-based devices, detail how these measurements have advanced our understanding of the structure-function relationships in molecular junctions, and discuss the potential for future research and applications. PMID:23736215

  18. Local dynamics of gap-junction-coupled interneuron networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Troy; Gage, Gregory J.; Berke, Joshua D.; Zochowski, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Interneurons coupled by both electrical gap-junctions (GJs) and chemical GABAergic synapses are major components of forebrain networks. However, their contributions to the generation of specific activity patterns, and their overall contributions to network function, remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate, using computational methods, that the topological properties of interneuron networks can elicit a wide range of activity dynamics, and either prevent or permit local pattern formation. We systematically varied the topology of GJ and inhibitory chemical synapses within simulated networks, by changing connection types from local to random, and changing the total number of connections. As previously observed we found that randomly coupled GJs lead to globally synchronous activity. In contrast, we found that local GJ connectivity may govern the formation of highly spatially heterogeneous activity states. These states are inherently temporally unstable when the input is uniformly random, but can rapidly stabilize when the network detects correlations or asymmetries in the inputs. We show a correspondence between this feature of network activity and experimental observations of transient stabilization of striatal fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in electrophysiological recordings from rats performing a simple decision-making task. We suggest that local GJ coupling enables an active search-and-select function of striatal FSIs, which contributes to the overall role of cortical-basal ganglia circuits in decision-making.

  19. Effect of the fluid injection configuration on droplet size in a microfluidic T junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Odile; Funfschilling, Denis; Li, Huai Z.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of confinement on the droplet formation in T junctions was studied for three configurations of fluid injection. The sizes of the main droplets and the satellite droplets were measured in the squeezing and dripping regimes. The evolution of droplet sizes with capillary number in the continuous phase is similar to that in flow-focusing junctions, i.e., the size of the main droplets decreases with an increase of this capillary number, while the size of the satellite droplets increases with an increase of this capillary number. While in the range of flow rates investigated the injection configuration does not exhibit a significant effect on the main droplet sizes, it does have an effect on the size of the satellite droplets. The latter ones are smaller when the neck rupture of the droplet occurs on an angle of the microsystem.

  20. Morphology, properties, and performance of electrodeposited n-CdSe in liquid junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkiewicz, M.; Ling, I.; Parsons, W.S.

    1982-09-01

    The authors describe the mechanisms for galvanostatic electrodeposition of CdSe in terms of competition between chemical reactions that lead to Se formation and electrochemical reduction of Se as polyselenide, at the interfaces between selenium and selenide. This mechanism leads to a cauliflower morphology for the resulting film. This morphology is ideal for a photoanode in the liquid junction solar cell configuration, and the authors describe the performance of such an electrode. In spite of the unique morphology, solid-state properties of the film can be evaluated and the methodology for these evaluations is presented. The performance of the liquid junction solar cells is limited by the dark current and the dielectric properties of the material. The authors also describe the effects of metal ions such as Zn/sup +2/, Ru/sup +3/, and Ga/sup +3/ on the various electrode properties.

  1. Reciprocal myocardial-endocardial interactions pattern the delay in atrioventricular junction conduction

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Michael; Yang, PoAn Brian; Louie, Jonathan D.; Navetta, Alicia M.; Garriock, Robert J.; Mikawa, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Efficient blood flow depends on two developmental processes that occur within the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) of the heart: conduction delay, which entrains sequential chamber contraction; and valve formation, which prevents retrograde fluid movement. Defects in either result in severe congenital heart disease; however, little is known about the interplay between these two crucial developmental processes. Here, we show that AVJ conduction delay is locally assigned by the morphogenetic events that initiate valve formation. Our data demonstrate that physical separation from endocardial-derived factors prevents AVJ myocardium from becoming fast conducting. Mechanistically, this physical separation is induced by myocardial-derived factors that support cardiac jelly deposition at the onset of valve formation. These data offer a novel paradigm for conduction patterning, whereby reciprocal myocardial-endocardial interactions coordinate the processes of valve formation with establishment of conduction delay. This, in turn, synchronizes the electrophysiological and structural events necessary for the optimization of blood flow through the developing heart. PMID:25273084

  2. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Ager, III, Joel W. (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA)

    2011-10-18

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  3. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Ager, III, Joel W. (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA)

    2012-03-06

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  4. Germ Cell Migration across Sertoli Cell Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Benjamin E.; Braun, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier includes strands of tight junctions between somatic Sertoli cells that restricts solutes from crossing the paracellular space, creating a microenvironment within seminiferous tubules and providing immune privilege to meiotic and postmeiotic cells. Large cysts of germ cells transit the Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) without compromising their integrity. We used confocal microscopy to visualize SCTJ components during germ cell cyst migration across the SCTJs. Cysts become enclosed within a network of transient compartments fully bounded by old and new tight junctions. Dissolution of the old tight junctions releases the germ cells into the adluminal compartment, thus completing transit across the blood-testis barrier. Claudin 3, a tight junction protein, is transiently incorporated into new tight junctions and then replaced by claudin 11. PMID:22997133

  5. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Y. Austin (Middleton, WI); Yang, Jianhua Joshua (Madison, WI)

    2008-11-11

    This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.

  6. Profiling the Thermoelectric Power of Semiconductor Junctions with Nanometer Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyeo, Ho-Ki; Khajetoorians, A. A.; Shi, Li; Pipe, Kevin P.; Ram, Rajeev J.; Shakouri, Ali; Shih, C. K.

    2004-02-01

    We have probed the local thermoelectric power of semiconductor nanostructures with the use of ultrahigh-vacuum scanning thermoelectric microscopy. When applied to a p-n junction, this method reveals that the thermoelectric power changes its sign abruptly within 2 nanometers across the junction. Because thermoelectric power correlates with electronic structure, we can profile with nanometer spatial resolution the thermoelectric power, band structures, and carrier concentrations of semiconductor junctions that constitute the building blocks of thermoelectric, electronic, and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Profiling the thermoelectric power of semiconductor junctions with nanometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Lyeo, Ho-Ki; Khajetoorians, A A; Shi, Li; Pipe, Kevin P; Ram, Rajeev J; Shakouri, Ali; Shih, C K

    2004-02-01

    We have probed the local thermoelectric power of semiconductor nanostructures with the use of ultrahigh-vacuum scanning thermoelectric microscopy. When applied to a p-n junction, this method reveals that the thermoelectric power changes its sign abruptly within 2 nanometers across the junction. Because thermoelectric power correlates with electronic structure, we can profile with nanometer spatial resolution the thermoelectric power, band structures, and carrier concentrations of semiconductor junctions that constitute the building blocks of thermoelectric, electronic, and optoelectronic devices. PMID:14764872

  8. Transport Process in Multi-Junctions of Quantum Systems

    E-print Network

    Kimura, Taro

    2015-01-01

    We consider the junction of multiple one-dimensional systems and study how conserved currents transport at the junction. To characterize the transport process, we introduce reflection/transmission coefficients by applying boundary conformal field theory. We compute the reflection/transmission coefficients for some examples to derive the closed formulas. The formulas demonstrate spin-flip transport, where the spin polarization is flipped at the junction.

  9. Anti-Hyperon Enhancement through Baryon Junction Loops

    E-print Network

    Stephen E. Vance; Miklos Gyulassy

    1999-01-06

    The baryon junction exchange mechanism recently proposed to explain valence baryon number transport in nuclear collisions is extended to study midrapidity anti-hyperon production. Baryon junction-anti-junction (J anti-J) loops are shown to enhance anti-Lambda, anti-Xi, anti-Omega yields as well as lead to long range rapidity correlations. Results are compared to recent WA97 Pb + Pb -> Y + anti-Y + X data.

  10. Craniovertebral Junction Instability: A Review of Facts about Facets

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Craniovertebral junction surgery involves an appropriate philosophical, biomechanical and anatomical understanding apart from high degree of technical skill and ability of controlling venous and arterial bleeding. The author presents his 30-year experience with treating complex craniovertebral junction instability related surgical issues. The facets of atlas and axis form the primary site of movements at the craniovertebral junction. All craniovertebral junction instability is essentially localized to the atlantoaxial facet joint. Direct manipulation and fixation of the facets forms the basis of treatment for instability. PMID:26240728

  11. Synaptopodin couples epithelial contractility to ?-actinin-4-dependent junction maturation.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Nivetha; Tang, Vivian W

    2015-10-26

    The epithelial junction experiences mechanical force exerted by endogenous actomyosin activities and from interactions with neighboring cells. We hypothesize that tension generated at cell-cell adhesive contacts contributes to the maturation and assembly of the junctional complex. To test our hypothesis, we used a hydraulic apparatus that can apply mechanical force to intercellular junction in a confluent monolayer of cells. We found that mechanical force induces ?-actinin-4 and actin accumulation at the cell junction in a time- and tension-dependent manner during junction development. Intercellular tension also induces ?-actinin-4-dependent recruitment of vinculin to the cell junction. In addition, we have identified a tension-sensitive upstream regulator of ?-actinin-4 as synaptopodin. Synaptopodin forms a complex containing ?-actinin-4 and ?-catenin and interacts with myosin II, indicating that it can physically link adhesion molecules to the cellular contractile apparatus. Synaptopodin depletion prevents junctional accumulation of ?-actinin-4, vinculin, and actin. Knockdown of synaptopodin and ?-actinin-4 decreases the strength of cell-cell adhesion, reduces the monolayer permeability barrier, and compromises cellular contractility. Our findings underscore the complexity of junction development and implicate a control process via tension-induced sequential incorporation of junctional components. PMID:26504173

  12. Quantum manipulation and simulation using Josephson junction arrays

    E-print Network

    Xingxiang Zhou; Ari Mizel

    2006-05-01

    We discuss the prospect of using quantum properties of large scale Josephson junction arrays for quantum manipulation and simulation. We study the collective vibrational quantum modes of a Josephson junction array and show that they provide a natural and practical method for realizing a high quality cavity for superconducting qubit based QED. We further demonstrate that by using Josephson junction arrays we can simulate a family of problems concerning spinless electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions. These protocols require no or few controls over the Josephson junction array and are thus relatively easy to realize given currently available technology.

  13. Magic-T Junction using Microstrip/Slotline Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Doiron, Terence

    2008-01-01

    An improved broadband planar magic-T junction that incorporates microstrip/slotline transitions has been developed. In comparison with a prior broadband magic-T junction incorporating microstrip/slotline transitions, this junction offers superior broadband performance. In addition, because this junction is geometrically simpler and its performance is less affected by fabrication tolerances, the benefits of the improved design can be realized at lower fabrication cost. There are potential uses for junctions like this one in commercial microwave communication receivers, radar and polarimeter systems, and industrial microwave instrumentation. A magic-T junction is a four-port waveguide junction consisting of a combination of an H-type and an E-type junction. An E-type junction is so named because it includes a junction arm that extends from a main waveguide in the same direction as that of the electric (E) field in the waveguide. An H-type junction is so named because it includes a junction arm parallel to the magnetic (H) field in a main waveguide. A magic-T junction includes two input ports (here labeled 1 and 2, respectively) and two output ports (here labeled E and H, respectively). In an ideal case, (1) a magic-T junction is lossless, (2) the input signals add (that is, they combine in phase with each other) at port H, and (3) the input signals subtract (that is, they combine in opposite phase) at port E. The prior junction over which the present junction is an improvement affords in-phase-combining characterized by a broadband frequency response, and features a small slotline area to minimize in-band loss. However, with respect to isolation between ports 1 and 2 and return loss at port E, it exhibits narrowband frequency responses. In addition, its performance is sensitive to misalignment of microstrip and slotline components: this sensitivity is attributable to a limited number of quarter-wavelength (lambda/4) transmission-line sections for matching impedances among all four ports, and to strong parasitic couplings at the microstrip/slotline T junction, where four microstrip lines and a slotline are combined. The present improved broadband magic-T junction (see figure) includes a microstrip ring structure and two microstrip- to-slotline transitions. One of the microstrip/slotline transitions is a small T junction between the ring and a slotline; the other microstrip/slotline transition effects coupling between the slotline and port E. The smallness of the T junction and the use of minimum-size slotline terminations help to minimize radiation loss. An impedance-transformation network that includes multiple quarter-wavelength sections is used to increase the operating bandwidth and minimize the parasitic coupling around the microstrip/slotline T junction. As a result, the improved junction has greater bandwidth and lower phase imbalance at the sum and difference ports than did the prior junction.

  14. Vascular Lumen Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell–cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved. PMID:22474612

  15. Grades 1-8, Apache Junction Unified School District 43, Apache Junction, Arizona. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, David W.; Quinn, Nancy W.

    Apache Junction Unified School District, Arizona, has embarked on a 5-year program of instructional improvement using technology. PLATO Elementary reading and mathematics products were installed in the district's elementary and middle schools at the beginning of the 1999-2000 school year. This evaluation studied the use and preliminary student…

  16. Full potential of radial junction Si thin film solar cells with advanced junction materials and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shengyi; Misra, Soumyadeep; Lu, Jiawen; Yu, Zhongwei; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Ling; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2015-07-01

    Combining advanced materials and junction design in nanowire-based thin film solar cells requires a different thinking of the optimization strategy, which is critical to fulfill the potential of nano-structured photovoltaics. Based on a comprehensive knowledge of the junction materials involved in the multilayer stack, we demonstrate here, in both experimental and theoretical manners, the potential of hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells in a radial junction (RJ) configuration. Resting upon a solid experimental basis, we also assess a more advanced tandem RJ structure with radially stacking a-Si:H/nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H) PIN junctions, and show that a balanced photo-current generation with a short circuit current density of Jsc = 14.2 mA/cm2 can be achieved in a tandem RJ cell, while reducing the expensive nc-Si:H absorber thickness from 1-3 ? m (in planar tandem cells) to only 120 nm. These results provide a clearly charted route towards a high performance Si thin film photovoltaics.

  17. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cellsphysics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,

  18. Idiopathic Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis in the Craniocervical Junction

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Eo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP) is a rare disease, and it is characterized by chronic progressive inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the dura mater with resultant compression of the spinal cord or neural structure without any identifiable cause. It can occur in the intracranial or spinal dura mater alone or as a craniospinal form. The spinal form is rarer than the cranial form and the craniospinal form is extremely rare. We report a rare case of IHP in the craniocervical junction involving both the cranial and spinal dura mater and discuss the diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:26512276

  19. Plasmon Enhanced Hetero-Junction Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gen; Ching, Levine; Sadoqi, Mostafa; Xu, Huizhong

    2015-03-01

    Here we report a systematic study of plasmon-enhanced hetero-junction solar cells made of colloidal quantum dots (PbS) and nanowires (ZnO), with/without metal nanoparticles (Au). The structure of solar cell devices was characterized by AFM, SEM and profilometer, etc. The power conversion efficiencies of solar cell devices were characterized by solar simulator (OAI TriSOL, AM1.5G Class AAA). The enhancement in the photocurrent due to introduction of metal nanoparticles was obvious. We believe this is due to the plasmonic effect from the metal nanoparticles. The correlation between surface roughness, film uniformity and device performance was also studied.

  20. Nonintrusive Measurement Of Temperature Of LED Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Powers, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Temperature inferred from spectrum of emitted light. Method of determining temperature of junction based on two relevant characteristics of LED. Gap between valence and conduction electron-energy bands in LED material decreases with increasing temperature, causing wavelength of emitted photon to increase with temperature. Other, as temperature increases, non-radiative processes dissipate more of input electrical energy as heat and less as photons in band-gap wavelenth region; optical and quantum efficiencies decrease with increasing temperature. In principal, either characteristic alone used to determine temperature. However, desirable to use both to obtain indication of uncertainty.

  1. Phonon interference effects in molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Markussen, Troels

    2013-12-28

    We study coherent phonon transport through organic, ?-conjugated molecules. Using first principles calculations and Green's function methods, we find that the phonon transmission function in cross-conjugated molecules, like meta-connected benzene, exhibits destructive quantum interference features very analogous to those observed theoretically and experimentally for electron transport in similar molecules. The destructive interference features observed in four different cross-conjugated molecules significantly reduce the thermal conductance with respect to linear conjugated analogues. Such control of the thermal conductance by chemical modifications could be important for thermoelectric applications of molecular junctions.

  2. Specific twin junctions in doped zirconia.

    PubMed

    Morales, F M; Rühle, M

    2006-10-01

    The effect of different dopant cations on the phase transformations of the initially stabilized supersaturated tetragonal ZrO(2) phase during various heat treatments has been studied. The obtained fraction of monoclinic grains develop twinned structures, but there is still a lack of information about the character of grain boundaries formed in doped monoclinic solid solutions. The inspection of particular selected-area electron diffraction patterns provides an alternative method with respect to high-resolution electron microscopy or electron back-scattered diffraction for characterizing different twin junctions in various doped zirconia systems. The classification of these special twins is based on the coincidence site lattice concept. PMID:16983157

  3. Switching and Rectification in Carbon-Nanotube Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Menon, Madhu; Chernozatonskii, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    Multi-terminal carbon-nanotube junctions are under investigation as candidate components of nanoscale electronic devices and circuits. Three-terminal "Y" junctions of carbon nanotubes (see Figure 1) have proven to be especially interesting because (1) it is now possible to synthesize them in high yield in a controlled manner and (2) results of preliminary experimental and theoretical studies suggest that such junctions could exhibit switching and rectification properties. Following the preliminary studies, current-versus-voltage characteristics of a number of different "Y" junctions of single-wall carbon nanotubes connected to metal wires were computed. Both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes of various chiralities were considered. Most of the junctions considered were symmetric. These computations involved modeling of the quantum electrical conductivity of the carbon nanotubes and junctions, taking account of such complicating factors as the topological defects (pentagons, heptagons, and octagons) present in the hexagonal molecular structures at the junctions, and the effects of the nanotube/wire interfaces. A major component of the computational approach was the use of an efficient Green s function embedding scheme. The results of these computations showed that symmetric junctions could be expected to support both rectification and switching. The results also showed that rectification and switching properties of a junction could be expected to depend strongly on its symmetry and, to a lesser degree, on the chirality of the nanotubes. In particular, it was found that a zigzag nanotube branching at a symmetric "Y" junction could exhibit either perfect rectification or partial rectification (asymmetric current-versus-voltage characteristic, as in the example of Figure 2). It was also found that an asymmetric "Y" junction would not exhibit rectification.

  4. Tricellulin regulates junctional tension of epithelial cells at tricellular contacts through Cdc42.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yukako; Otani, Tetsuhisa; Ikenouchi, Junichi; Furuse, Mikio

    2014-10-01

    When the surface view of each epithelial cell is compared with a polygon, its sides correspond to cell-cell junctions, whereas its vertices correspond to tricellular contacts, whose roles in epithelial cell morphogenesis have not been well studied. Here, we show that tricellulin (also known as MARVELD2), which is localized at tricellular contacts, regulates F-actin organization through Cdc42. Tricellulin-knockdown epithelial cells exhibit irregular polygonal shapes with curved cell borders and impaired organization of F-actin fibers around tricellular contacts during cell-cell junction formation. The N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of tricellulin binds to the Cdc42 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) Tuba (also known as DNMBP and ARHGEF36), and activates Cdc42. A tricellulin mutant that lacks the ability to bind Tuba cannot rescue the curved cell border phenotype of tricellulin-knockdown cells. These findings indicate that tricellular contacts play crucial roles in regulating the actomyosin-mediated apical junctional complex tension through the tricellulin-Tuba-Cdc42 system. PMID:25097232

  5. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Bibliographic index of Grand Junction office uranium reports

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.B.

    1981-05-01

    In October 1978, Mesa College entered into subcontract with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) to prepare a bibliographic index of the uranium raw materials reports issued by the Grand Junction Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Bendix, prime contractor to the Grand Junction Office, operates the Technical Library at the DOE facility. Since the early 1950s, approximately 2700 reports have been issued by the Grand Junction Office. These reports were the results of uranium investigations conducted by federal agencies and their subcontractors. The majority of the reports cover geology, mineralogy, and metallurgy of uranium and/or thorium. No single, complete list of these reports existed. The purpose of this subcontract was to compile a comprehensive index to these reports. The Mesa College geology faculty worked with the BFEC and DOE staffs to develop the format for the index. Undergraduate geology students from Mesa compiled a master record sheet for each report. All reports issued up to January 1, 1979 were included in the bibliography. The bibliography is in preliminary, unedited form. It is being open-filed at this time, on microfiche, to make the information available to the public on a timely basis. The bibliography is divided into a master record list arranged in alpha-numeric order by report identification number, with separate indices arranged by title, author, state and county, 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangle, key words, and exploration area.

  6. GEN1 promotes Holliday junction resolution by a coordinated nick and counter-nick mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ying Wai; West, Stephen

    2015-12-15

    Holliday junctions (HJs) that physically link sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes are formed as intermediates during DNA repair by homologous recombination. Persistent recombination intermediates are acted upon by structure-selective endonucleases that are required for proper chromosome segregation at mitosis. Here, we have purified full-length human GEN1 protein and show that it promotes Holliday junction resolution by a mechanism that is analogous to that exhibited by the prototypic HJ resolvase E. coli RuvC. We find that GEN1 cleaves HJs by a nick and counter-nick mechanism involving dual co-ordinated incisions that lead to the formation of ligatable nicked duplex products. As observed with RuvC, cleavage of the first strand is rate limiting, while second strand cleavage is rapid. In contrast to RuvC, however, GEN1 is largely monomeric in solution, but dimerizes on the HJ. Using HJs containing non-cleavable phosphorothioate-containing linkages in one strand, we show that the two incisions can be uncoupled and that the first nick occurs upon GEN1 dimerization at the junction. These results indicate that the mechanism of HJ resolution is largely conserved from bacteria to man, despite a lack of sequence homology between the resolvases. PMID:26578604

  7. Protein myozap--a late addition to the molecular ensembles of various kinds of adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Rickelt, Steffen; Kuhn, Caecilia; Winter-Simanowski, Stefanie; Zimbelmann, Ralf; Frey, Norbert; Franke, Werner Wilhelm

    2011-12-01

    The protein myozap, a polypeptide of 54 kDa, has recently been identified as a component of the cytoplasmic plaques of the composite junctions (areae compositae) in the myocardiac intercalated disks and of the adherens junctions (AJs) in vascular endothelia. Now we report that using very sensitive new antibodies and drastic localization methods, we have also identified this protein as a component of the AJ plaques in simple and complex epithelia, in the adluminal cell layer of the transitional epithelium of the urinary tract and in certain cell layers of diverse stratified epithelia, including gingiva, tongue, pharynx and esophagus, cervix, vagina and epidermis. Myozap has not been identified in desmosomal and tight junction plaques. We have also detected protein myozap in AJ structures of carcinomas. The discovery of a novel major protein in AJ plaques now calls for re-examinations of molecular interactions in AJ formation and maintenance and also offers a new marker for diagnostic immunocytochemistry. We also discuss the need for progressive unravelling, extractive treatments and buffer rinses of sections and cultured cells to reveal obscured or masked antigens, before definitive negative conclusions in immunohistochemistry can be made. PMID:22160502

  8. GEN1 promotes Holliday junction resolution by a coordinated nick and counter-nick mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ying Wai; West, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) that physically link sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes are formed as intermediates during DNA repair by homologous recombination. Persistent recombination intermediates are acted upon by structure-selective endonucleases that are required for proper chromosome segregation at mitosis. Here, we have purified full-length human GEN1 protein and show that it promotes Holliday junction resolution by a mechanism that is analogous to that exhibited by the prototypic HJ resolvase E. coli RuvC. We find that GEN1 cleaves HJs by a nick and counter-nick mechanism involving dual co-ordinated incisions that lead to the formation of ligatable nicked duplex products. As observed with RuvC, cleavage of the first strand is rate limiting, while second strand cleavage is rapid. In contrast to RuvC, however, GEN1 is largely monomeric in solution, but dimerizes on the HJ. Using HJs containing non-cleavable phosphorothioate-containing linkages in one strand, we show that the two incisions can be uncoupled and that the first nick occurs upon GEN1 dimerization at the junction. These results indicate that the mechanism of HJ resolution is largely conserved from bacteria to man, despite a lack of sequence homology between the resolvases. PMID:26578604

  9. Role for Traf4 in Polarizing Adherens Junctions as a Prerequisite for Efficient Cell Shape Changes ?

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sam J.; Rembold, Martina; Leptin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Apical constriction of epithelial cells is a widely used morphogenetic mechanism. In the Drosophila embryo, the apical constrictions that internalize the mesoderm are controlled by the transcription factor Twist and require intact adherens junctions and a contractile acto-myosin network. We find that adherens junctions in constricting mesodermal cells undergo extensive remodeling. A Twist target gene encoding a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family, Traf4, is involved in this process. While TRAFs are best known for their functions in inflammatory responses, Traf4 appears to have a different role, and its mechanism of action is poorly understood. We show that Traf4 is required for efficient apical constriction during ventral furrow formation and for proper localization of Armadillo to the apical position in constricting cells. Traf4 and Armadillo interact with each other physically and functionally. Traf4 acts in a TNF receptor- and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-independent manner to fine-tune the assembly of adherens junctions in the invaginating mesodermal cells. PMID:21986496

  10. Bifunctional DNA architectonics: three-way junctions with sticky perylene bisimide caps and a central metal lock.

    PubMed

    Stubinitzky, Claudia; Bijeljanin, Andrea; Antusch, Linda; Ebeling, Daniel; Hölscher, Hendrik; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2014-09-15

    A new type of a bifunctional DNA architecture based on a three?way junction is developed that combines the structural motif of sticky perylene bisimide caps with a tris-bipyridyl metal ion lock in the center part. A clear stabilizing effect was observed in the presence of Fe(3+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) by the formation of corresponding bipyridyl complexes in the branching part of the DNA three way junctions. The dimerization of the 5'-terminally attached perylene diimides (PDI) chromophores by hydrophobic interactions can be followed by significant changes in the UV/Vis absorption and steady-state fluorescence. The PDI-mediated DNA assembly occurs at temperatures below the melting temperature and is not influenced by the metal-ion bipyridyl locks in the central part. The corresponding AFM images revealed the formation of higher-ordered structures as the result of DNA assemblies mediated by the PDI interactions. PMID:25098549

  11. The cell-cell junctions of mammalian testes: I. The adhering junctions of the seminiferous epithelium represent special differentiation structures.

    PubMed

    Domke, Lisa M; Rickelt, Steffen; Dörflinger, Yvette; Kuhn, Caecilia; Winter-Simanowski, Stefanie; Zimbelmann, Ralf; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina; Heid, Hans; Franke, Werner W

    2014-09-01

    The seminiferous tubules and the excurrent ducts of the mammalian testis are physiologically separated from the mesenchymal tissues and the blood and lymph system by a special structural barrier to paracellular translocations of molecules and particles: the "blood-testis barrier", formed by junctions connecting Sertoli cells with each other and with spermatogonial cells. In combined biochemical as well as light and electron microscopical studies we systematically determine the molecules located in the adhering junctions of adult mammalian (human, bovine, porcine, murine, i.e., rat and mouse) testis. We show that the seminiferous epithelium does not contain desmosomes, or "desmosome-like" junctions, nor any of the desmosome-specific marker molecules and that the adhering junctions of tubules and ductules are fundamentally different. While the ductules contain classical epithelial cell layers with E-cadherin-based adherens junctions (AJs) and typical desmosomes, the Sertoli cells of the tubules lack desmosomes and "desmosome-like" junctions but are connected by morphologically different forms of AJs. These junctions are based on N-cadherin anchored in cytoplasmic plaques, which in some subforms appear thick and dense but in other subforms contain only scarce and loosely arranged plaque structures formed by ?- and ?-catenin, proteins p120, p0071 and plakoglobin, together with a member of the striatin family and also, in rodents, the proteins ZO-1 and myozap. These N-cadherin-based AJs also include two novel types of junctions: the "areae adhaerentes", i.e., variously-sized, often very large cell-cell contacts and small sieve-plate-like AJs perforated by cytoplasm-to-cytoplasm channels of 5-7 nm internal diameter ("cribelliform junctions"). We emphasize the unique character of this epithelium that totally lacks major epithelial marker molecules and structures such as keratin filaments and desmosomal elements as well as EpCAM- and PERP-containing junctions. We also discuss the nature, development and possible functions of these junctions. PMID:24907851

  12. Handout 2 for EE-203 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

    E-print Network

    Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

    that `iC' is independent of VCB , for VCB 0. So collector behaves as an ideal constant current sourceHandout 2 for EE-203 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Sheikh Sharif Iqbal (Ref: Text book in the Syllabus) #12;Chapter 5: Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Saturation Cutoff Active Mode Table 5.1: BJT

  13. Conformational Flexibility of Four-way Junctions Sungchul Hohng1

    E-print Network

    Hohng, Sung Chul

    Conformational Flexibility of Four-way Junctions in RNA Sungchul Hohng1 , Timothy J. Wilson2. In the presence of Mg2þ , the junction samples parallel and antiparallel conformations and both stacking conformers, with a bias towards one antiparallel stacking conformer. There is continual interconversion

  14. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    TEMPORAL CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY *

    The objective of this study was to examine the reduction in gap junction communication (GJC) in primary hepatocytes due to coincident melatonin and magnetic field treatments to determine if these conditions could prov...

  15. Chaos synchronization between Josephson junctions coupled with time delays

    E-print Network

    E. M. Shahverdiev; L. H. Hashimova; P. A. Bayramov; R. A. Nuriev

    2015-06-08

    We investigate chaos synchronization between Josephson junctions coupled uni-directionally with time-delay. We demonstrate the possibility of high quality synchronization with numerical simulations of such systems. The results are of certain importance for obtaining the high power system of Josephson junctions, which is promising for practical applications.

  16. Processing of Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Josephson Edge Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical behavior of epitaxial superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson edge junctions is strongly affected by processing conditions. Ex-situ processes, utilizing photoresist and polyimide/photoresist mask layers, are employed for ion milling edges for junctions with Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) electrodes and primarily Co-doped YBCO interlayers.

  17. Claudins and the Modulation of Tight Junction Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Günzel, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Claudins are tight junction membrane proteins that are expressed in epithelia and endothelia and form paracellular barriers and pores that determine tight junction permeability. This review summarizes our current knowledge of this large protein family and discusses recent advances in our understanding of their structure and physiological functions. PMID:23589827

  18. 10. VIEW UPSTREAM OF PIPELINE SECTION AT JUNCTION OF HUME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW UPSTREAM OF PIPELINE SECTION AT JUNCTION OF HUME CEMENT PIPE AND CAST-IRON (460'). NOTE CYLINDRICAL COLLAR OF CEMENT SECTIONS AND BELL JUNCTIONS OF IRON PIPE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  19. Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia: A Novel Recessive Brain Malformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Maha S.; Saleem, Sahar N.; Dobyns, William B.; Barkovich, A. James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with a characteristic "butterfly"-like contour of the midbrain on…

  20. Josephson junctions in high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Falco, C.M.; Lee, T.W.

    1981-01-14

    The invention includes a high T/sub c/ Josephson sperconducting junction as well as the method and apparatus which provides the junction by application of a closely controlled and monitored electrical discharge to a microbridge region connecting two portions of a superconducting film.

  1. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Junction, in overcoming objections raised by the FAA to the activation of this allotment. See 75 FR 30756... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal...

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Convergent Modulation at a Crustacean Neuromuscular Junction

    E-print Network

    Abbott, Laurence

    Temporal Dynamics of Convergent Modulation at a Crustacean Neuromuscular Junction JUAN CARLOS JORGE mod- (Flamm and Harris-Warrick 1986b; Hooper and Marder ulation at a crustacean neuromuscular junction; Evans and Siegler 1982), crustacean EJPs in gm4 have a large initial amplitude and show relatively

  3. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in spin filter ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    E-print Network

    Massarotti, D.; Pal, A.; Rotoli, G.; Longobordi, L.; Blamire, M. G.; Tafuri, F.

    2015-06-09

    junctions. Phys. Rev. B 76, 224523 (2007). 28. Sickinger, H. et al. Experimental evidence of a j Josephson junction. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107002 (2012). 29. Goldobin, E., Kleiner, R., Koelle, D. & Mints, R. G. Phase retrapping in a pointlike j Josephson...

  4. MICROSIMULATION ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE MERGE JUNCTIONS UNDER AUTONOMOUS AHS OPERATION

    E-print Network

    Girault, Alain

    MICROSIMULATION ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE MERGE JUNCTIONS UNDER AUTONOMOUS AHS OPERATION Marco for autonomous automated vehicles driving on a highway with multiple merge junctions. The algorithm is distributed and it controls both merging and yielding oper­ ations of vehicles in the merge lane and main lane

  5. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ?0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numerically by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, we identify a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons which resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q that is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The calculated current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q?=??0/2? is the lowest energy state starting from zero ?0 - until ?0?>?? - then the alternative group of solitons with Q?=??0/2??-?1 takes place and switches the polarity of CPR. PMID:26511770

  6. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ?0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numerically by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, we identify a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons which resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q that is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The calculated current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q?=??0/2? is the lowest energy state starting from zero ?0 – until ?0?>?? – then the alternative group of solitons with Q?=??0/2????1 takes place and switches the polarity of CPR.

  7. Functional ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Shengwei; Han, Kun; Huang, Lisen; Schlom, Darrell G.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando, A; Chen, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The quest for solid state non-volatility memory devices on silicon with high storage density, high speed, low power consumption has attracted intense research on new materials and novel device architectures. Although flash memory dominates in the non-volatile memory market currently, it has drawbacks, such as low operation speed, and limited cycle endurance, which prevents it from becoming the “universal memory”. In this report, we demonstrate ferroelectric tunnel junctions (Pt/BaTiO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3) epitaxially grown on silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope images prove the high epitaxial quality of the single crystal perovskite films grown on silicon. Furthermore, the write speed, data retention and fatigue properties of the device compare favorably with flash memories. The results prove that the silicon-based ferroelectric tunnel junction is a very promising candidate for application in future non-volatile memories. PMID:26215429

  8. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ?0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numerically by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, we identify a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons which resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q that is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The calculated current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q?=??0/2? is the lowest energy state starting from zero ?0 – until ?0?>?? – then the alternative group of solitons with Q?=??0/2????1 takes place and switches the polarity of CPR. PMID:26511770

  9. Functional ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Shengwei; Han, Kun; Huang, Lisen; Schlom, Darrell G; Venkatesan, T; Ariando; Chen, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The quest for solid state non-volatility memory devices on silicon with high storage density, high speed, low power consumption has attracted intense research on new materials and novel device architectures. Although flash memory dominates in the non-volatile memory market currently, it has drawbacks, such as low operation speed, and limited cycle endurance, which prevents it from becoming the "universal memory". In this report, we demonstrate ferroelectric tunnel junctions (Pt/BaTiO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3) epitaxially grown on silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope images prove the high epitaxial quality of the single crystal perovskite films grown on silicon. Furthermore, the write speed, data retention and fatigue properties of the device compare favorably with flash memories. The results prove that the silicon-based ferroelectric tunnel junction is a very promising candidate for application in future non-volatile memories. PMID:26215429

  10. Macroscopic Subkelvin Refrigerator Employing Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Lowell, Peter J.; Wilson, Brandon L.; O'Neil, Galen C.; Ullom, Joel N.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a general-purpose macroscopic refrigerator based on the transport of electrons through superconducting tunnel junctions. Our refrigerator is intended to provide access to temperatures below those achievable using pumped 3He. The refrigerator is cooled by 96 normal-metal-insulator-superconductor (N -I -S ) junctions divided among three separate silicon substrates. The use of thin-film devices on different substrates shows the potential to achieve higher cooling powers by connecting N -I -S devices in parallel. Improving on previous work by Lowell et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 082601 (2013)], we demonstrate a larger temperature reduction, a more robust mechanical suspension, and a new electromechanical heat switch that will make it easier to integrate our refrigerator into other cryostats. The electromechanical heat switch has a measured thermal conductance in the on state of 1.2 ±0.3 ? W /K at 300 mK and no measurable thermal conductance in the off state. We observe a temperature reduction from 291 to 233 mK and infer cooling to 228 mK on longer time scales. The cooled payload is a metal stage whose mass exceeds 150 g and with 28 cm2 of area for attaching user-supplied devices. Using the product of the cooled mass and the temperature reduction as a performance metric, this work is a more than tenfold advance over previous efforts.

  11. Structured chaos in a devil's staircase of the Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Botha, A. E.; Medvedeva, S. Yu.; Kolahchi, M. R.; Irie, A.

    2014-09-01

    The phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) under external electromagnetic radiation is studied through numerical simulations. Current-voltage characteristics, Lyapunov exponents, and Poincaré sections are analyzed in detail. It is found that the subharmonic Shapiro steps at certain parameters are separated by structured chaotic windows. By performing a linear regression on the linear part of the data, a fractal dimension of D?=?0.868 is obtained, with an uncertainty of ±0.012. The chaotic regions exhibit scaling similarity, and it is shown that the devil's staircase of the system can form a backbone that unifies and explains the highly correlated and structured chaotic behavior. These features suggest a system possessing multiple complete devil's staircases. The onset of chaos for subharmonic steps occurs through the Feigenbaum period doubling scenario. Universality in the sequence of periodic windows is also demonstrated. Finally, the influence of the radiation and JJ parameters on the structured chaos is investigated, and it is concluded that the structured chaos is a stable formation over a wide range of parameter values.

  12. Profiling the Thermoelectric Power of Semiconductor Junctions with Nanometer Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyeo, Ho-Ki; Khajetoorians, A. A.; Shi, Li; Pipe, Kevin; Ram, Rajeev; Shakouri, Ali; Shih, C. K.

    2004-03-01

    We have probed the local thermoelectric power of semiconductor nanostructures using an ultra high vacuum scanning thermoelectric microscopy (SThEM) method. When applied to a p-n junction, this method reveals the abrupt sign change of thermoelectric power within 2 nanometers across the junction and the divergence on either side of the junction. We also find a direct correlation between the inter-dopant distance and the minimum length scale at which S can be measured in semiconductor devices that usually have high doping concentrations. As the thermoelectric power correlates with the electronic structure, we can profile with nanometer spatial resolution the thermoelectric power, band structures, precise locations of electronic junctions, and carrier concentrations of semiconductor junctions that constitute the building blocks of thermoelectric, electronic, and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Suppression of conductance in a topological insulator nanostep junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alos-Palop, M.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Blaauboer, M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate quantum transport via surface states in a nanostep junction on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator that involves two different side surfaces. We calculate the conductance across the junction within the scattering matrix formalism and find that as the bias voltage is increased, the conductance of the nanostep junction is suppressed by a factor of (1)/(3) (independent of the system parameters) as compared to the conductance of a similar planar junction based on a single surface of a topological insulator. We also calculate and analyze the Fano factor of the nanostep junction and predict that the Fano factor saturates at (1)/(5), five times smaller than for a Poisson process.

  14. Fixed-Gap Tunnel Junction for Reading DNA Nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Previous measurements of the electronic conductance of DNA nucleotides or amino acids have used tunnel junctions in which the gap is mechanically adjusted, such as scanning tunneling microscopes or mechanically controllable break junctions. Fixed-junction devices have, at best, detected the passage of whole DNA molecules without yielding chemical information. Here, we report on a layered tunnel junction in which the tunnel gap is defined by a dielectric layer, deposited by atomic layer deposition. Reactive ion etching is used to drill a hole through the layers so that the tunnel junction can be exposed to molecules in solution. When the metal electrodes are functionalized with recognition molecules that capture DNA nucleotides via hydrogen bonds, the identities of the individual nucleotides are revealed by characteristic features of the fluctuating tunnel current associated with single-molecule binding events. PMID:25380505

  15. Quasi-optical Josephson-junction oscillator arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, J. A.; Leduc, H. G.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1993-01-01

    Josephson junctions are natural voltage-controlled oscillators capable of generating submillimeter-wavelength radiation, but a single junction usually can produce only 100 nW of power and often has a broad spectral linewidth. The authors are investigating 2D quasi-optical power combining arrays of 103 and 104 NbN/MgO/NbN and Nb/Al-AlO(x)/Nb junctions to overcome these limitations. The junctions are dc-biased in parallel and are distributed along interdigitated lines. The arrays couple to a resonant mode of a Fabry-Perot cavity to achieve mutual phase-locking. The array configuration has a relatively low impedance, which should allow the capacitance of the junctions to be tuned out at the oscillation frequency.

  16. Short chain molecular junctions: Charge transport versus dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikram, I. Mohamed; Rabinal, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    The investigation of the influence of dipole moment of short chain organic molecules having three carbon atoms varying in end group on silicon surface was carried on. Here, we use three different molecules of propargyl series varying in dipole moment and its orientation to constitute molecular junctions. The charge transport mechanism in metal-molecules-semiconductor (MMS) junction obtained from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics shows the rectification behavior for two junctions whereas the other junction shows a weak rectification. The electronic properties of the molecules were calculated using Gaussian software package. The observed rectification behavior of these junctions is examined and found to be accounted to the orientation of dipole moment and electron cloud density distribution inside the molecules.

  17. A multilayered approach to superconducting tunnel junction x ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippert, E. D.; Song, S. N.; Ketterson, J. B.; Maglic, S. R.; Lomatch, S.; Thomas, C.; Cheida, M. A.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1992-12-01

    'First generation' superconducting tunnel junction X-ray detectors (characterized by a single tunnel junction in direct contact with its substrate, with totally external amplification) remain more than an order of magnitude away from their theoretical energy resolutions which are in the order of eV's. The difficulties that first generation devices are encountering are being attacked by a 'second generation' of superconducting X-ray detector designs including quasiparticle trapping configurations and Josephson junction arrays. A second generation design concept, the multilayered superconducting tunnel junction X-ray detector, consisting of tens to hundreds of tunnel junctions stacked on top of one another (a superlattice), is presented. Some of the possibilities of this engineered materials approach include the tuning of phonon transmission characteristics of the material, suppression of parasitic quasiparticle trapping and intrinsic amplification.

  18. Design of Steerable Wavelets to Detect Multifold Junctions.

    PubMed

    Puspoki, Zsuzsanna; Uhlmann, Virginie; Vonesch, Cedric; Unser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    We propose a framework for the detection of junctions in images. Although the detection of edges and key points is a well examined and described area, the multiscale detection of junction centers, especially for odd orders, poses a challenge in pattern analysis. The goal of this paper is to build optimal junction detectors based on 2D steerable wavelets that are polar-separable in the Fourier domain. The approaches we develop are general and can be used for the detection of arbitrary symmetric and asymmetric junctions. The backbone of our construction is a multiscale pyramid with a radial wavelet function where the directional components are represented by circular harmonics and encoded in a shaping matrix. We are able to detect M -fold junctions in different scales and orientations. We provide experimental results on both simulated and real data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:26685237

  19. Hybrid magnetic tunnel junction/spin filter device

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.; Wong, F.; Chopdekar, R.; Arenholz, E.; Chi, Miaofang; Browning, Nigel

    2008-07-10

    Surfaces and interfaces of complex oxides materials provide a rich playground for the exploration of novel magnetic properties not found in the bulk but also the development of functional interfaces to be incorporated into applications. We have recently been able to demonstrate a new type of hybrid spin filter/ magnetic tunnel junction. Our hybrid spin-filter/magnetic-tunnel junction devices are epitaxial oxide junctions of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} electrodes with magnetic NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} barrier layers. Depending on whether the barrier is in a paramagnetic or ferromagnetic state, the junction exhibits magnetic tunnel junction behavior where the spin polarized conduction is dominated by the electrode-barrier interface or spin filter behavior where conduction is dominated by barrier layer magnetism.

  20. Junction Conditions and Consequences of Quasi-Spherical Space-Time with Electro-Magnetic Field and Vaidya Matric

    E-print Network

    Nath, Soma; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2007-01-01

    In this work the junction conditions between the exterior Reissner-Nordstrom-Vaidya space-time with the interior quasi-spherical Szekeres space-time have been studied for analyzing gravitational collapse in the presence of a magneto-hydrodynamic fluid undergoing dissipation in the form of heat flow. We have discussed about the apparent horizon and have evaluated the time difference between the formation of apparent horizon and central singularity.

  1. Junction Conditions and Consequences of Quasi-Spherical Space-Time with Electro-Magnetic Field and Vaidya Matric

    E-print Network

    Soma Nath; Ujjal Debnath; Subenoy Chakraborty

    2007-11-07

    In this work the junction conditions between the exterior Reissner-Nordstrom-Vaidya space-time with the interior quasi-spherical Szekeres space-time have been studied for analyzing gravitational collapse in the presence of a magneto-hydrodynamic fluid undergoing dissipation in the form of heat flow. We have discussed about the apparent horizon and have evaluated the time difference between the formation of apparent horizon and central singularity.

  2. The Loss of Cellular Junctions in Epithelial Lung Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke Is Attenuated by Corilagin

    PubMed Central

    Muresan, Ximena M.; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Chui, Chung Hin; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) contains over 4700 compounds, many of which can affect cellular redox balance through free radicals production or through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes. The respiratory tract is one of the organs directly exposed to CS and it is known that CS can damage the integrity of lung epithelium by affecting cell junctions and increasing epithelium permeability. In this study, we have used a human lung epithelial cell line, Calu-3, to evaluate the effect of CS on lung epithelial cell junctions levels, with special focus on the expression of two proteins involved in intercellular communication: connexins (Cx) 40 and 43. CS exposure increased Cx40 gene expression but not of Cx43. CS also induced NF?B activation and the formation of 4HNE-Cxs adducts. Since corilagin, a natural polyphenol, is able to inhibit NF?B activation, we have determined whether corilagin could counteract the effect of CS on Cxs expression. Corilagin was able to diminish CS induced Cx40 gene expression, 4HNE-Cx40 adducts formation, and NF?B activation. The results of this study demonstrated that CS induced the loss of cellular junctions in lung epithelium, possibly as a consequence of Cx-4HNE adducts formation, and corilagin seems to be able to abolish these CS induced alterations. PMID:25802682

  3. Methods to examine tight junction physiology in cancer stem cells: TEER, paracellular permeability, and dilution potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Buchert, Michael; Turksen, Kursad; Hollande, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Our understanding of the essential role played by cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells in epithelial cell-derived tumor types is rapidly advancing. Nevertheless, the identification and characterization of these cells pose a considerable challenge. Among changes in the epithelium in oncogenesis are changes in the permeability barrier, a phenotypic trait based on tight junction formation and function. Tight junctions regulate the movement of solutes, ions and water across the paracellular space. On a cellular level, they maintain cell polarity by limiting the lateral diffusion of membrane components. Depending on the type of epithelial tissue, the barrier characteristics with respect to electrical resistance, size and ion charge selectivity vary quite significantly. Thus, elucidating changes in expression of Claudins, an essential component of tight junctions, has become a very active area of investigation in oncogenesis. This chapter provides detailed protocols on how to quantify three aspects of tight junction physiology using in vitro cell culture systems that are particularly applicable to analysis and comparison of cancer stem cells and their normal counterparts. PMID:22134928

  4. Macroglobulin complement-related encodes a protein required for septate junction organization and paracellular barrier function in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sonia; Bone, Courtney; Oshima, Kenzi; Zhang, Liang; McGraw, Molly; Lucas, Bethany; Fehon, Richard G.; Ward, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized epithelia play crucial roles as barriers to the outside environment and enable the formation of specialized compartments for organs to carry out essential functions. Barrier functions are mediated by cellular junctions that line the lateral plasma membrane between cells, principally tight junctions in vertebrates and septate junctions (SJs) in invertebrates. Over the last two decades, more than 20 genes have been identified that function in SJ biogenesis in Drosophila, including those that encode core structural components of the junction such as Neurexin IV, Coracle and several claudins, as well as proteins that facilitate the trafficking of SJ proteins during their assembly. Here we demonstrate that Macroglobulin complement-related (Mcr), a gene previously implicated in innate immunity, plays an essential role during embryonic development in SJ organization and function. We show that Mcr colocalizes with other SJ proteins in mature ectodermally derived epithelial cells, that it shows interdependence with other SJ proteins for SJ localization, and that Mcr mutant epithelia fail to form an effective paracellular barrier. Tissue-specific RNA interference further demonstrates that Mcr is required cell-autonomously for SJ organization. Finally, we show a unique interdependence between Mcr and Nrg for SJ localization that provides new insights into the organization of the SJ. Together, these studies demonstrate that Mcr is a core component of epithelial SJs and also highlight an interesting relationship between innate immunity and epithelial barrier functions. PMID:24496625

  5. Tunable ±? ,?0, and ?0±? Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.

    2015-06-01

    We study a 0-? dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with asymmetric inductances and critical currents of the two Josephson junctions (JJs). By considering such a dc SQUID as a black box with two terminals, we calculate its effective current-phase relation Is(? ) and the Josephson energy U (? ) , where ? is the Josephson phase across the terminals. We show that there is a domain of parameters where the black box has the properties of a ? JJ with degenerate ground state phases ? =±? . The ? domain is rather large, so one can easily construct a ? JJ experimentally. We derive the current phase relation and show that it can be tuned in situ by applying an external magnetic flux resulting in a continuous transition between the systems with static solutions ? =±? ,? =?0 (?0?0 ,? ) and even ? =?0±? . The dependence of ?0 on applied magnetic flux is not 2 ? (one flux quantum) periodic.

  6. Field-effect P-N junction

    DOEpatents

    Regan, William; Zettl, Alexander

    2015-05-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to field-effect p-n junctions. In one aspect, a device includes an ohmic contact, a semiconductor layer disposed on the ohmic contact, at least one rectifying contact disposed on the semiconductor layer, a gate including a layer disposed on the at least one rectifying contact and the semiconductor layer and a gate contact disposed on the layer. A lateral width of the rectifying contact is less than a semiconductor depletion width of the semiconductor layer. The gate contact is electrically connected to the ohmic contact to create a self-gating feedback loop that is configured to maintain a gate electric field of the gate.

  7. Guiding chemical pulses through geometry: Y junctions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L; Kevrekidis, I G; Punckt, C; Rotermund, H H

    2006-03-01

    We study computationally and experimentally the propagation of chemical pulses in complex geometries. The reaction of interest, CO oxidation, takes place on single crystal Pt(110) surfaces that are microlithographically patterned; they are also addressable through a focused laser beam, manipulated through galvanometer mirrors, capable of locally altering the crystal temperature and thus affecting pulse propagation. We focus on sudden changes in the domain shape (corners in a Y-junction geometry) that can affect the pulse dynamics; we also show how brief, localized temperature perturbations can be used to control reactive pulse propagation. The computational results are corroborated through experimental studies in which the pulses are visualized using reflection anisotropy microscopy. PMID:16605643

  8. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  9. Tunnel junctions in a polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschen, S.; Bussac, M. N.; Zuppiroli, L.; Minder, E.; Hilti, B.

    1995-09-01

    A transparent film of polycarbonate is conducting when it contains long and thin needles of the organic conductor (TSeT)2Cl. Film conductivity of the order of 1 S/cm can be achieved with a content as low as 0.5 vol % of the conducting charge-transfer complex, provided that the needles are obtained by in situ complexation and crystallization during the solution casting of the polymer. We have measured the current/voltage characteristics at different temperatures from 2 to 300 K on both the composite films and on model junctions produced between two needles only. All these data can be understood and fitted to a new three parameter model which is an extension of Sheng's fluctuation-induced tunnelling idea to arbitrary temperatures and fields.

  10. Studies of silicon pn junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications of the basic Shockley equations that result from the random and nonrandom spatial variations of the chemical composition of a semiconductor were developed. These modifications underlie the existence of the extensive emitter recombination current that limits the voltage over the open circuit of solar cells. The measurement of parameters, series resistance and the base diffusion length is discussed. Two methods are presented for establishing the energy bandgap narrowing in the heavily-doped emitter region. Corrections that can be important in the application of one of these methods to small test cells are examined. Oxide-charge-induced high-low-junction emitter (OCI-HLE) test cells which exhibit considerably higher voltage over the open circuit than was previously seen in n-on-p solar cells are described.

  11. Two Bayesian methods for junction classification.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Miguel A; Escolano, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    We propose two Bayesian methods for junction classification which evolve from the Kona method: a region-based method and an edge-based method. Our region-based method computes a one-dimensional (1-D) profile where wedges are mapped to intervals with homogeneous intensity. These intervals are found through a growing-and-merging algorithm driven by a greedy rule. On the other hand, our edge-based method computes a different profile which maps wedge limits to peaks of contrast, and these peaks are found through thresholding followed by nonmaximum suppression. Experimental results show that both methods are more robust and efficient than the Kona method, and also that the edge-based method outperforms the region-based one. PMID:18237911

  12. Topological aspects of ? phase winding junctions in superconducting wires.

    PubMed

    Spånslätt, Christian; Ardonne, Eddy; Budich, Jan Carl; Hansson, T H

    2015-10-14

    We theoretically investigate Josephson junctions with a phase shift of ? in various proximity induced one-dimensional superconductor models. One of the salient experimental signatures of topological superconductors, namely the fractionalized 4? periodic Josephson effect, is closely related to the occurrence of a characteristic zero energy bound state in such junctions. We make a detailed analysis of a more general type of ?-junctions coined 'phase winding junctions' where the phase of the order parameter rotates by an angle ? while its absolute value is kept finite. Such junctions have different properties, also from a topological viewpoint, and there are no protected zero energy modes. We compare the phenomenology of such junctions in topological (p-wave) and trivial (s-wave) superconducting wires, and briefly discuss possible experimental probes. Furthermore, we propose a topological field theory that gives a minimal description of a wire with defects corresponding to ?-junctions. This effective theory is a one-dimensional version of similar theories describing Majorana bound states in half-vortices of two-dimensional topological superconductors. PMID:26401828

  13. Pallidal gap junctions-triggers of synchrony in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Bettina C; Heida, Tjitske; Zhao, Yan; van Gils, Stephan A; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2014-01-01

    Although increased synchrony of the neural activity in the basal ganglia may underlie the motor deficiencies exhibited in Parkinson's disease (PD), how this synchrony arises, propagates through the basal ganglia, and changes under dopamine replacement remains unknown. Gap junctions could play a major role in modifying this synchrony, because they show functional plasticity under the influence of dopamine and after neural injury. In this study, confocal imaging was used to detect connexin-36, the major neural gap junction protein, in postmortem tissues of PD patients and control subjects in the putamen, subthalamic nucleus (STN), and external and internal globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively). Moreover, we quantified how gap junctions affect synchrony in an existing computational model of the basal ganglia. We detected connexin-36 in the human putamen, GPe, and GPi, but not in the STN. Furthermore, we found that the number of connexin-36 spots in PD tissues increased by 50% in the putamen, 43% in the GPe, and 109% in the GPi compared with controls. In the computational model, gap junctions in the GPe and GPi strongly influenced synchrony. The basal ganglia became especially susceptible to synchronize with input from the cortex when gap junctions were numerous and high in conductance. In conclusion, connexin-36 expression in the human GPe and GPi suggests that gap junctional coupling exists within these nuclei. In PD, neural injury and dopamine depletion could increase this coupling. Therefore, we propose that gap junctions act as a powerful modulator of synchrony in the basal ganglia. PMID:25124148

  14. High electronic couplings of single mesitylene molecular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Yuki; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport properties of single mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) molecular junctions. The electronic conductance and the current–voltage characteristics of mesitylene molecules wired into Au electrodes were measured by a scanning tunnelling microscopy-based break-junction method at room temperature in a liquid environment. We found the molecular junctions exhibited two distinct conductance states with high conductance values of ca. 10?1 G 0 and of more than 10?3 G 0 (G 0 = 2e 2/h) in the electronic conductance measurements. We further performed a statistical analysis of the current–voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions in the two states. Within a single channel resonant tunnelling model, we obtained electronic couplings in the molecular junctions by fitting the current–voltage characteristics to the single channel model. The origin of the high conductance was attributed to experimentally obtained large electronic couplings of the direct ?-bonded molecular junctions (ca. 0.15 eV). Based on analysis of the stretch length of the molecular junctions and the large electronic couplings obtained from the I–V analysis, we proposed two structural models, in which (i) mesitylene binds to the Au electrode perpendicular to the charge transport direction and (ii) mesitylene has tilted from the perpendicular orientation.

  15. Mechanical deformations of boron nitride nanotubes in crossed junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yadong; Chen, Xiaoming; Ke, Changhong; Park, Cheol; Fay, Catharine C.; Stupkiewicz, Stanislaw

    2014-04-28

    We present a study of the mechanical deformations of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in crossed junctions. The structure and deformation of the crossed tubes in the junction are characterized by using atomic force microscopy. Our results show that the total tube heights are reduced by 20%–33% at the crossed junctions formed by double-walled BNNTs with outer diameters in the range of 2.21–4.67?nm. The measured tube height reduction is found to be in a nearly linear relationship with the summation of the outer diameters of the two tubes forming the junction. The contact force between the two tubes in the junction is estimated based on contact mechanics theories and found to be within the range of 4.2–7.6 nN. The Young's modulus of BNNTs and their binding strengths with the substrate are quantified, based on the deformation profile of the upper tube in the junction, and are found to be 1.07?±?0.11 TPa and 0.18–0.29 nJ/m, respectively. Finally, we perform finite element simulations on the mechanical deformations of the crossed BNNT junctions. The numerical simulation results are consistent with both the experimental measurements and the analytical analysis. The results reported in this paper contribute to a better understanding of the structural and mechanical properties of BNNTs and to the pursuit of their applications.

  16. Structure activity relationship of synaptic and junctional neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Chemical neurotransmission may include transmission to local or remote sites. Locally, contact between ‘bare’ portions of the bulbous nerve terminal termed a varicosity and the effector cell may be in the form of either synapse or non-synaptic contact. Traditionally, all local transmissions between nerves and effector cells are considered synaptic in nature. This is particularly true for communication between neurons. However, communication between nerves and other effectors such as smooth muscles has been described as nonsynaptic or junctional in nature. Nonsynaptic neurotransmission is now also increasing recognized in the CNS. This review focuses on the relationship between structure and function that orchestrate synaptic and junctional neurotransmissions. A synapse is a specialized focal contact between the presynaptic active zone capable for ultrafast release of soluble transmitters and the postsynaptic density that cluster ionotropic receptors. The presynaptic and the postsynaptic areas are separated by the ‘closed’ synaptic cavity. The physiological hallmark of the synapse is ultrafast postsynaptic potentials lasting in milliseconds. In contrast, junctions are juxtapositions of nerve terminals and the effector cells without clear synaptic specializations and the junctional space is ‘open’ to the extracellular space. Based on the nature of the transmitters, postjunctional receptors and their separation from the release sites, the junctions can be divided into ‘close’ and ‘wide’ junctions. Functionally, the ‘close’ and the ‘wide’ junctions can be distinguished by postjunctional potentials lasting ~1 second and 10s of seconds, respectively. Both synaptic and junctional communications are common between neurons; however, junctional transmission is the rule at many neuro-non-neural effectors. PMID:23535140

  17. Mapping thermoelectric power of semiconductor junctions with nanometer resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyeo, Ho-Ki

    Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) Scanning Thermoelectric Microscopy (SThEM) method has been developed to probe the local thermoelectric power of semiconductor nanostructures. When applied to a p-n junction, this method reveals a nanometer-scale abrupt polarity change of the thermoelectric power across the junction. Since the thermoelectric power correlates with the electronic structure, the SThEM allows for nanoscale profiling of the bandstructure and carrier concentrations of homo- and hetero-junctions that constitute the fundamental building blocks of electronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric devices.

  18. Study of Gap Junctions in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C B

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been described in different cell types including stem cells and has been involved in different biological events. GJIC is required for mouse embryonic stem cell maintenance and proliferation and various studies suggest that functional GJIC is a common characteristic of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) maintained in different culture conditions. This chapter introduces methods to study gap junctions in hESC, from expression of gap junction proteins to functional study of GJIC in hESC proliferation, apoptosis, colony growth, and pluripotency. PMID:24859928

  19. Junction Temperature Measurement of IGBTs Using Short Circuit Current

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Zhuxian; Ning, Puqi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed to measure the junction temperatures of IGBT discrete devices and modules using short circuit current. Experimental results show that the short circuit current has good sensitivity, linearity and selectivity, which is suitable to be used as temperature sensitive electrical parameters (TSEP). Test circuit and hardware design are proposed for junction temperature measurement in single phase and three phase convertes. By connecting a temperature measurement unit to the converter and giving a short circuit pulse, the IGBT junction temperature can be measured.

  20. Selective niobium anodization process for fabricating Josephson tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroger, H.; Smith, L. N.; Jillie, D. W.

    1981-08-01

    A novel process for fabricating refractory sperconducting tunnel junctions is described, which is useful with both deposited and native oxide barriers. The distinguishing feature of the method is that the entire superconductor-barrier-superconductor sandwich is formed before the patterning of any layer. Isolated Josephson junctions are then formed by anodizing through the upper electrode, while the devices themselves are protected by a photoresist mask. Using this process, Nb-Si:H-Nb junctions have been fabricated, whose product of critical current and subgap resistance exceeds 10 mV and whose critical current density varies by about 50% over a 2-in. diameter wafer.

  1. Gap junction modulation and its implications for heart function

    PubMed Central

    Kurtenbach, Stefan; Kurtenbach, Sarah; Zoidl, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Gap junction communication (GJC) mediated by connexins is critical for heart function. To gain insight into the causal relationship of molecular mechanisms of disease pathology, it is important to understand which mechanisms contribute to impairment of gap junctional communication. Here, we present an update on the known modulators of connexins, including various interaction partners, kinases, and signaling cascades. This gap junction network (GJN) can serve as a blueprint for data mining approaches exploring the growing number of publicly available data sets from experimental and clinical studies. PMID:24578694

  2. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to ?=2?2/d;? is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  3. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to ?=2?2/d;? is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  4. Efficient use of the slar spectrum through the multiple junction cascade solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bedair, S.M.; Phatak, S.B.; Andrews, J.E.; Timmons, M.L.; Lamorte, M.F.; Simons, M.; Hauser, J.R.; Chiang, J.

    1980-01-01

    Multiple junction solar cells offer the potential of achieving significantly higher efficiency values than single junction cells. Theoretical calculations for a two junction cell give AMO, 1 sun efficiencies of 30 or more at 300 K. The general requirements for a two junction monolithic cascade cell are reviewed, and recent progress made in the experimental development of such a cell is described.

  5. Effects of geometric configuration on droplet generation in Y-junctions and anti-Y-junctions microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao-Miao; Liu, Li-Kun; Shen, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Droplets generation in Y-junctions and anti-Y-junctions microchannels are experimentally studied using a high speed digital microscopic system and numerical simulation. Geometric configuration of a microchannel, such as Y-angle (90°, 135°, -90° and -135°), channel depth and other factors have been taken into consideration. It is found that droplets generated in anti-Y-junctions have a smaller size and a shorter generation cycle compared with those in Y-junctions under the same experimental conditions. Through observing the internal velocity field, the vortex appearing in continuous phase in anti-Y-junctions is one of the key factors for the difference of droplet size and generation cycle. It is found that droplet size is bigger and generation cycle is longer when the absolute angle value of the intersection between the continuous and the dispersed phases (i.e., the angle between the main channel and the continuous phase or the dispersed phase channel) increases. The droplet's size is influenced by the Y-angle, which varies with the channel depth in Y-junctions. The Y-angle has a positive effect on the droplet generation cycle, but a smaller height-width ratio will enhance the impact of a continuous and dispersed phase's intersection angle on the droplet generation cycle in Y-junctions microchannels.

  6. MgcRacGAP restricts active RhoA at the cytokinetic furrow and both RhoA and Rac1 at cell–cell junctions in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Breznau, Elaina B.; Semack, Ansley C.; Higashi, Tomohito; Miller, Ann L.

    2015-01-01

    Localized activation of Rho GTPases is essential for multiple cellular functions, including cytokinesis and formation and maintenance of cell–cell junctions. Although MgcRacGAP (Mgc) is required for spatially confined RhoA-GTP at the equatorial cortex of dividing cells, both the target specificity of Mgc's GAP activity and the involvement of phosphorylation of Mgc at Ser-386 are controversial. In addition, Mgc's function at cell–cell junctions remains unclear. Here, using gastrula-stage Xenopus laevis embryos as a model system, we examine Mgc's role in regulating localized RhoA-GTP and Rac1-GTP in the intact vertebrate epithelium. We show that Mgc's GAP activity spatially restricts accumulation of both RhoA-GTP and Rac1-GTP in epithelial cells—RhoA at the cleavage furrow and RhoA and Rac1 at cell–cell junctions. Phosphorylation at Ser-386 does not switch the specificity of Mgc's GAP activity and is not required for successful cytokinesis. Furthermore, Mgc regulates adherens junction but not tight junction structure, and the ability to regulate adherens junctions is dependent on GAP activity and signaling via the RhoA pathway. Together these results indicate that Mgc's GAP activity down-regulates the active populations of RhoA and Rac1 at localized regions of epithelial cells and is necessary for successful cytokinesis and cell–cell junction structure. PMID:25947135

  7. Incompressible Turbulent Wing-Body Junction Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Cagle, Corey D.; Chandra, S.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the optimized design of fan bypass systems in advanced turbofan engines. Increasing the engine bypass ratios have provided a major boost in engine performance improvement over the last fifty years. An engine with high bypass ratio (11-16:1) such as the Advanced Ducted Propulsion (ADP) is being developed and is expected to provide an additional 25% improvement in overall efficiency over the early turbofans. Such significant improvements in overall efficiency would reduce the cost per seat mile, which is a major government and Industry challenge for the 21th century. The research is part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program that involves a NASA, U.S. Industry and FAA partnership with the goal of a safe and highly productive global air transportation system. The immediate objective of the study is to perform numerical simulation of duct-strut interactions to elucidate the loss mechanisms associated with this configuration that is typical of advanced turbofan engines such as ADP. However, at present experimental data for a duct-strut configuration are not available. Thus, as a first step a wing-body junction flow would be studied and is the specific objective of the present study. At the outset it is to be recognized that while duct-strut interaction flow is similar to that of wing-body junction flows, there are some differences owing to the presence of a wall at both ends of the strut. Likewise, some differences are due to the sheared inflow (as opposed to a uniform inflow) velocity profile. It is however expected that some features of a wing-body junction flow would persist. Next, some of the salient aspects of the complex flow near a wing-body junction, as revealed by various studies reported in the literature will be reviewed. One of the principle characteristics of the juncture flow, is the presence of the mean flow components in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the oncoming free-stream flow. The lateral curvature of the wing/strat causes the oncoming turbulent layer to skew about am axis (x-axis) parallel to the plane (xz-plane) of the mean shear. This is the principle mechanism for the generation of secondary flow. Such skew-induced secondary flows are slow to be attenuated by Reynolds stresses. Additional contribution to the generation of secondary flow comes from anisotropies in Reynolds stresses. Upstream of the strut, the mean-vorticity is directed span wise (along the y-direction). The presence of secondary flow in the vicinity of the strut causes the vorticity to stretch around the obstacle in a horse-shoe shape, with each leg having a vorticity of the opposite sense. The blockage effect of the strut imposes a severe adverse pressure gradient on the oncoming turbulent shear layer, causing boundary layer separation ahead of the leading edge, resulting in a vortex that rolls up and flows downstream into the juncture region. The separation vortices trailing in the wake of the wing can alter the lift or drag characteristics of the surfaces downstream of the wing-body juncture. Likewise, on submarines, the wake flow behind the appendage can degrade the performance of the propeller located downstream. The complex nature of this flow is caused by the presence of all six components of Reynolds stresses. Devenport and Simpson report that in the vicinity of the horse-shoe vortex there is intense recirculation with turbulent stresses being much larger than those normally observed in turbulent flows. These features contribute to making this flow a challenge to predict numerically. Some of the past studies provide useful insights into this flow that would guide our numerical efforts. In measurements reported by Shabaka and Bradshaw, the eddy viscosity tensor is seen to be non-isotropic and has negative components in certain regions. In an effort to evaluate the closure assumptions of various turbulence models, Devenport and Simpson used their own extensive measurements in juncture flows around the nose of a wing-body junction. Measured values of me

  8. Experimental realization of Josephson junctions for an Atom SQUID

    E-print Network

    C. Ryu; A. A. Blinova; P. W. Blackburn; M. G. Boshier

    2013-11-20

    We report the creation of a pair of Josephson junctions on a toroidal dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a configuration that is the cold atom analog of the well-known dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We observe Josephson effects, measure the critical current of the junctions, and find dynamic behavior that is in good agreement with the simple Josephson equations for a tunnel junction with the ideal sinusoidal current-phase relation expected for the parameters of the experiment. The junctions and toroidal trap are created with the painted potential, a time-averaged optical dipole potential technique which will allow scaling to more complex BEC circuit geometries than the single atom-SQUID case reported here. Since rotation plays the same role in the atom SQUID as magnetic field does in the dc SQUID magnetometer, the device has potential as a compact rotation sensor.

  9. High thermopower of mechanically stretched single-molecule junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; He, Yuhui; Arima, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Metal-molecule-metal junction is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications that utilizes quantum confinement effects in the chemically defined zero-dimensional atomic structure to achieve enhanced dimensionless figure of merit ZT. A key issue in this new class of thermoelectric nanomaterials is to clarify the sensitivity of thermoelectricity on the molecular junction configurations. Here we report simultaneous measurements of the thermoelectric voltage and conductance on Au-1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT)-Au junctions mechanically-stretched in-situ at sub-nanoscale. We obtained the average single-molecule conductance and thermopower of 0.01 G0 and 15??V/K, respectively, suggesting charge transport through the highest occupied molecular orbital. Meanwhile, we found the single-molecule thermoelectric transport properties extremely-sensitive to the BDT bridge configurations, whereby manifesting the importance to design the electrode-molecule contact motifs for optimizing the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions. PMID:26112999

  10. Microwave-induced phase escape in a Josephson tunnel junction

    E-print Network

    Guozhu, Sun; Yiwen, Wang; Junyu, Cao; Jian, Chen; Zhengming, Ji; Lin, Kang; Weiwei, Xu; Yang, Yu; Han, Siyuan; Peiheng, Wu

    2008-03-28

    We perform both theoretical and experimental investigations on the phase escape of a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction under microwave irradiation. The switching current distributions exhibit abundant nonlinear ...

  11. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in spin filter ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Massarotti, D.; Pal, A.; Rotoli, G.; Longobardi, L.; Blamire, M. G.; Tafuri, F.

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial coupling of two materials with different ordered phases, such as a superconductor (S) and a ferromagnet (F), is driving new fundamental physics and innovative applications. For example, the creation of spin-filter Josephson junctions and the demonstration of triplet supercurrents have suggested the potential of a dissipationless version of spintronics based on unconventional superconductivity. Here we demonstrate evidence for active quantum applications of S-F-S junctions, through the observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in Josephson junctions with GdN ferromagnetic insulator barriers. We show a clear transition from thermal to quantum regime at a crossover temperature of about 100?mK at zero magnetic field in junctions, which present clear signatures of unconventional superconductivity. Following previous demonstration of passive S-F-S phase shifters in a phase qubit, our result paves the way to the active use of spin filter Josephson systems in quantum hybrid circuits. PMID:26054495

  12. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in spin filter ferromagnetic Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Massarotti, D; Pal, A; Rotoli, G; Longobardi, L; Blamire, M G; Tafuri, F

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial coupling of two materials with different ordered phases, such as a superconductor (S) and a ferromagnet (F), is driving new fundamental physics and innovative applications. For example, the creation of spin-filter Josephson junctions and the demonstration of triplet supercurrents have suggested the potential of a dissipationless version of spintronics based on unconventional superconductivity. Here we demonstrate evidence for active quantum applications of S-F-S junctions, through the observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in Josephson junctions with GdN ferromagnetic insulator barriers. We show a clear transition from thermal to quantum regime at a crossover temperature of about 100 mK at zero magnetic field in junctions, which present clear signatures of unconventional superconductivity. Following previous demonstration of passive S-F-S phase shifters in a phase qubit, our result paves the way to the active use of spin filter Josephson systems in quantum hybrid circuits. PMID:26054495

  13. Thermoelectricity in atom-sized junctions at room temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; Arima, Akihide; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2013-01-01

    Atomic and molecular junctions are an emerging class of thermoelectric materials that exploit quantum confinement effects to obtain an enhanced figure of merit. An important feature in such nanoscale systems is that the electron and heat transport become highly sensitive to the atomic configurations. Here we report the characterization of geometry-sensitive thermoelectricity in atom-sized junctions at room temperatures. We measured the electrical conductance and thermoelectric power of gold nanocontacts simultaneously down to the single atom size. We found junction conductance dependent thermoelectric voltage oscillations with period 2e(2)/h. We also observed quantum suppression of thermovoltage fluctuations in fully-transparent contacts. These quantum confinement effects appeared only statistically due to the geometry-sensitive nature of thermoelectricity in the atom-sized junctions. The present method can be applied to various nanomaterials including single-molecules or nanoparticles and thus may be used as a useful platform for developing low-dimensional thermoelectric building blocks. PMID:24270238

  14. High thermopower of mechanically stretched single-molecule junctions.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; He, Yuhui; Arima, Akihide; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2015-01-01

    Metal-molecule-metal junction is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications that utilizes quantum confinement effects in the chemically defined zero-dimensional atomic structure to achieve enhanced dimensionless figure of merit ZT. A key issue in this new class of thermoelectric nanomaterials is to clarify the sensitivity of thermoelectricity on the molecular junction configurations. Here we report simultaneous measurements of the thermoelectric voltage and conductance on Au-1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT)-Au junctions mechanically-stretched in-situ at sub-nanoscale. We obtained the average single-molecule conductance and thermopower of 0.01 G0 and 15??V/K, respectively, suggesting charge transport through the highest occupied molecular orbital. Meanwhile, we found the single-molecule thermoelectric transport properties extremely-sensitive to the BDT bridge configurations, whereby manifesting the importance to design the electrode-molecule contact motifs for optimizing the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions. PMID:26112999

  15. The influence of the instabilities in modelling arteriovenous junction haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Stephen P; Houston, J Graeme; Walsh, Michael T

    2015-10-15

    The arteriovenous junction is characterised by high flow rates, large pressure difference and typically a palpable thrill or audible bruit, associated with turbulent flow. However, the arteriovenous junction is frequently studied with the assumption of streamline flow. This assumption is based on the Reynolds number calculation, although other factors can contribute to turbulent generation. In this study, the presence of instabilities is examined and the influencing factors discussed. This was performed using a pseudo-realistic geometry with adapted graft angles, vein diameter, outflow split ratio and graft inlet velocity values. Correlation was performed between steady and unsteady averaged simulation cases with correlation performance ranked. Overall the arteriovenous junction is capable of possessing highly disturbed flows, in which strict modelling requirements are necessary to capture such instabilities and avoid erroneous conclusions. Vein diameter and flow split ratio contribute to turbulent generation, thus Reynolds number cannot be used as a sole turbulent criterion in the arteriovenous junction. PMID:26315920

  16. Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; May, Brelon J.; Deitz, Julia I.; Grassman, Tyler J.; McComb, David W.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2015-09-01

    Polarization engineered interband tunnel junctions (TJs) are integrated in nanowire ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs). A ˜6 V reduction in turn-on voltage is achieved by the integration of tunnel junction at the base of polarization doped nanowire UV LEDs. Moreover, efficient hole injection into the nanowire LEDs leads to suppressed efficiency droop in TJ integrated nanowire LEDs. The combination of both reduced bias voltage and increased hole injection increases the wall plug efficiency in these devices. More than 100 ?W of UV emission at ˜310 nm is measured with external quantum efficiency in the range of 4-6 m%. The realization of tunnel junction within the nanowire LEDs opens a pathway towards the monolithic integration of cascaded multi-junction nanowire LEDs on silicon.

  17. Mechanical tuning of conductance and thermopower in helicene molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Vacek, Jaroslav; Chocholoušová, Jana Vacek; Stará, Irena G; Starý, Ivo; Dubi, Yonatan

    2015-05-21

    Helicenes are inherently chiral polyaromatic molecules composed of all-ortho fused benzene rings possessing a spring-like structure. Here, using a combination of density functional theory and tight-binding calculations, it is demonstrated that controlling the length of the helicene molecule by mechanically stretching or compressing the molecular junction can dramatically change the electronic properties of the helicene, leading to a tunable switching behavior of the conductance and thermopower of the junction with on/off ratios of several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, control over the helicene length and number of rings is shown to lead to more than an order of magnitude increase in the thermopower and thermoelectric figure-of-merit over typical molecular junctions, presenting new possibilities of making efficient thermoelectric molecular devices. The physical origin of the strong dependence of the transport properties of the junction is investigated, and found to be related to a shift in the position of the molecular orbitals. PMID:25905658

  18. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable...

  20. Magnetoanisotropic Andreev Reflection in Ferromagnet-Superconductor Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högl, Petra; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Žuti?, Igor; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2015-09-01

    Andreev reflection spectroscopy of ferromagnet-supercondutor (FS) junctions is an important probe of spin polarization. We theoretically investigate spin-polarized transport in FS junctions in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus interfacial spin-orbit fields and show that Andreev reflection can be controlled by changing the magnetization orientation. We predict a giant in- and out-of-plane magnetoanisotropy of the junction conductance. If the ferromagnet is highly spin polarized—in the half-metal limit—the magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection depends universally on the spin-orbit fields only. Our results show that Andreev reflection spectroscopy can be used for sensitive probing of interfacial spin-orbit fields in a FS junction.

  1. Electroluminescence from novel porous silicon p-n junction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jieming; Diaz, D. C.; Guan, H.; Das, Biswajit; Yin, A.; Dobrowolska, M.

    1994-05-01

    The electroluminescent properties of various porous silicon pn junction devices have been investigated. Devices were fabricated by constant current anodization method as well as a novel method developed for anodizing heavily doped pn junctions. The constant current anodized devices show electroluminescence only under reverse bias condition. The light emission mechanism in these devices is believed to be similar to the hot electron relaxation mechanism observed in a surface-treated crystalline silicon pn junction diode at breakdown. The pn junctions fabricated by the novel anodization technique show electroluminescence under forward bias condition. The light emission mechanism in these devices is believed to be due to electron-hole injection in the silicon quantum wires.

  2. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in spin filter ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarotti, D.; Pal, A.; Rotoli, G.; Longobardi, L.; Blamire, M. G.; Tafuri, F.

    2015-06-01

    The interfacial coupling of two materials with different ordered phases, such as a superconductor (S) and a ferromagnet (F), is driving new fundamental physics and innovative applications. For example, the creation of spin-filter Josephson junctions and the demonstration of triplet supercurrents have suggested the potential of a dissipationless version of spintronics based on unconventional superconductivity. Here we demonstrate evidence for active quantum applications of S-F-S junctions, through the observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in Josephson junctions with GdN ferromagnetic insulator barriers. We show a clear transition from thermal to quantum regime at a crossover temperature of about 100 mK at zero magnetic field in junctions, which present clear signatures of unconventional superconductivity. Following previous demonstration of passive S-F-S phase shifters in a phase qubit, our result paves the way to the active use of spin filter Josephson systems in quantum hybrid circuits.

  3. Chaos synchronization in gap-junction-coupled neurons

    E-print Network

    Masahiko Yoshioka

    2005-05-25

    Depending on temperature the modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) equations exhibit a variety of dynamical behavior including intrinsic chaotic firing. We analyze synchronization in a large ensemble of MHH neurons that are interconnected with gap junctions. By evaluating tangential Lyapunov exponents we clarify whether synchronous state of neurons is chaotic or periodic. Then, we evaluate transversal Lyapunov exponents to elucidate if this synchronous state is stable against infinitesimal perturbations. Our analysis elucidates that with weak gap junctions, stability of synchronization of MHH neurons shows rather complicated change with temperature. We, however, find that with strong gap junctions, synchronous state is stable over the wide range of temperature irrespective of whether synchronous state is chaotic or periodic. It turns out that strong gap junctions realize the robust synchronization mechanism, which well explains synchronization in interneurons in the real nervous system.

  4. Interface Structure and Transport of Complex Oxide Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Wong, F.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Chi, M.; Arenholz, E.; Browning, N. D.; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-02-01

    The interface structure and magnetism of hybrid magnetic tunnel junction-spin filter devices have been investigated and correlated with the transport behavior exhibited. Magnetic tunnel junctions made of theoretically predicted half-metallic electrodes (perovskite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and spinel Fe3O4) sandwiching a spinel NiMn2O4 tunnel barrier exhibit very high crystalline quality as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Structurally abrupt interfaces allow for the distinct magnetic switching of the electrodes as well as large junction magnetoresistance. The change in the magnetic anisotropy observed at the spinel-spinel interface supports the presence of limited interdiffusion and the creation of a magnetically soft interfacial layer, whose strong exchange coupling to the Fe3O4 electrode likely accounts for the low background magnetoresistance observed in these junctions, and the successful spin filtering when the barrier layer is ferrimagnetic.

  5. 17. View showing junction of lower chord with floor beam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View showing junction of lower chord with floor beam and sway braces at underside of west truss of north span, looking from the east - Bridge No. 4900, Spanning Root River at Trunk Highway 16, Rushford, Fillmore County, MN

  6. 13. View showing junction of north span (fixed end) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View showing junction of north span (fixed end) and center span (expansion end) at north pier (pier #2), looking from the east - Bridge No. 4900, Spanning Root River at Trunk Highway 16, Rushford, Fillmore County, MN

  7. Cambridge Grand Junction transit implementation : alternatives, scheduling, cost, and performance

    E-print Network

    Iglesias Cuervo, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    The Grand Junction railroad lies at the heart of East Cambridge adjacent to the Kendall Square business district and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus. Over the last one hundred years the railroad has gone ...

  8. 17. Junction of old Crosscut Canal with Grand Canal, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Junction of old Crosscut Canal with Grand Canal, view to north; Crosscut enters from upper right, control gates of Grand Canal at left. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Manipulating Josephson junctions in thin-films by nearby vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V G; Mints, R G

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that a vortex trapped in one of the banks of a planar edge-type Josephson junction in a narrow thin-film superconducting strip can change drastically the dependence of the junction critical current on the applied field, I-c(H). When the vortex is placed at certain discrete positions in the strip middle, the pattern I-c(H) has zero at H = 0 instead of the traditional maximum of '0-type' junctions. The number of these positions is equal to the number of vortices trapped at the same location. When the junction-vortex separation exceeds similar to W, the strip width, I-c(H) is no longer sensitive to the vortex presence. The same is true for any separation if the vortex approaches the strip edges. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies of silicon p-n junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugroschel, A.; Lindholm, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    To provide theoretical support for investigating different ways to obtain high open-circuit voltages in p-n junction silicon solar cells, an analytical treatment of heavily doped transparent-emitter devices is presented that includes the effects of bandgap narrowing, Fermi-Dirac statistics, a doping concentration gradient, and a finite surface recombination velocity at the emitter surface. Topics covered include: (1) experimental determination of bandgap narrowing in the emitter of silicon p-n junction devices; (2) heavily doped transparent regions in junction solar cells, diodes, and transistors; (3) high-low-emitter solar cell; (4) determination of lifetimes and recombination currents in p-n junction solar cells; (5) MOS and oxide-charged-induced BSF solar cells; and (6) design of high efficiency solar cells for space and terrestrial applications.

  11. Superconducting switch made of graphene-nanoribbon junctions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qifeng; Dong, Jinming

    2008-09-01

    The transmission of superconductor-graphene nanoribbon-superconductor junctions (SGS) has been studied by the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the on-site potential U in the center zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) of the SGS junction plays an important role in the magnitude of the supercurrent I(c). As the effective Fermi energy ?(eff) (?(eff) = ?(F)-U) goes from negative to positive, the SGS junction would suddenly transform from an 'OFF' state to an 'ON' state. And, as ?(eff) increases further, the I(c) will continue to increase. This switching behavior of the SGS junction shares the same origin with the zigzag GNR valley-isospin valve (Rycerz et al 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 172). Besides the valley-isospin, the density of states will also have an effect on the suppression of I(c). PMID:21828860

  12. High thermopower of mechanically stretched single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; He, Yuhui; Arima, Akihide; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2015-06-01

    Metal-molecule-metal junction is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications that utilizes quantum confinement effects in the chemically defined zero-dimensional atomic structure to achieve enhanced dimensionless figure of merit ZT. A key issue in this new class of thermoelectric nanomaterials is to clarify the sensitivity of thermoelectricity on the molecular junction configurations. Here we report simultaneous measurements of the thermoelectric voltage and conductance on Au-1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT)-Au junctions mechanically-stretched in-situ at sub-nanoscale. We obtained the average single-molecule conductance and thermopower of 0.01 G0 and 15??V/K, respectively, suggesting charge transport through the highest occupied molecular orbital. Meanwhile, we found the single-molecule thermoelectric transport properties extremely-sensitive to the BDT bridge configurations, whereby manifesting the importance to design the electrode-molecule contact motifs for optimizing the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions.

  13. Thermoelectricity in atom-sized junctions at room temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; Arima, Akihide; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2013-01-01

    Atomic and molecular junctions are an emerging class of thermoelectric materials that exploit quantum confinement effects to obtain an enhanced figure of merit. An important feature in such nanoscale systems is that the electron and heat transport become highly sensitive to the atomic configurations. Here we report the characterization of geometry-sensitive thermoelectricity in atom-sized junctions at room temperatures. We measured the electrical conductance and thermoelectric power of gold nanocontacts simultaneously down to the single atom size. We found junction conductance dependent thermoelectric voltage oscillations with period 2e2/h. We also observed quantum suppression of thermovoltage fluctuations in fully-transparent contacts. These quantum confinement effects appeared only statistically due to the geometry-sensitive nature of thermoelectricity in the atom-sized junctions. The present method can be applied to various nanomaterials including single-molecules or nanoparticles and thus may be used as a useful platform for developing low-dimensional thermoelectric building blocks. PMID:24270238

  14. Oncostatin M induces upregulation of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes coinciding with changes in morphology and function of tight junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Masafumi; Kojima, Takashi . E-mail: ktakashi@sapmed.ac.jp; Lan, Mengdong; Son, Seiichi; Murata, Masaki; Osanai, Makoto; Chiba, Hideki; Hirata, Koichi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2007-05-15

    In rodent livers, integral tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1, -2, -3, -5 and -14 are detected and play crucial roles in the barrier to keep bile in bile canaculi away from the blood circulation. Claudin-2 shows a lobular gradient increasing from periportal to pericentral hepatocytes, whereas claudin-1 and -3 are expressed in the whole liver lobule. Although claudin-2 expression induces cation-selective channels in tight junctions of epithelial cells, the physiological functions and regulation of claudin-2 in hepatocytes remain unclear. Oncostatin M (OSM) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in the differentiation of hepatocytes that induces formation of E-cadherin-based adherens junctions in fetal hepatocytes. In this study, we examined whether OSM could induce expression and function of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes, immortalized mouse and primary cultured proliferative rat hepatocytes. In the immortalized mouse and primary cultured proliferative rat hepatocytes, treatment with OSM markedly increased mRNA and protein of claudin-2 together with formation of developed networks of TJ strands. The increase of claudin-2 enhanced the paracellular barrier function which depended on molecular size. The increase of claudin-2 expression induced by OSM in rodent hepatocytes was regulated through distinct signaling pathways including PKC. These results suggest that expression of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes may play a specific role as controlling the size of paracellular permeability in the barrier to keep bile in bile canaculi.

  15. RWGSCAT/CWGSCAT - RECTANGULAR AND CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE JUNCTION SCATTERING PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate computer modeling of passive circular or rectangular waveguide components is often required during the design phase for optimizing frequency response and/or determining the tolerance required on components in order to meet radio frequency specifications. RWGSCAT/CWGSCAT is capable of modeling both types of waveguide components. The Scattering Matrix Program for Circular Waveguide Junctions, CWGSCAT, computes the scattering matrix for a circular waveguide. This includes a dual mode horn and certain types of corrugated horns. RWGSCAT, Rectangular WaveGuide junction SCATtering program, solves for the scattering properties of a rectangular waveguide device, such as a smooth or corrugated rectangular horn, step transformer, or filter. RWGSCAT and CWGSCAT are also available separately as NPO-19091 and NPO-18708, respectively. Many circular waveguide devices can be represented either exactly or approximately as a series of circular waveguide sections which have a common center. In addition, smooth tapers and horns of arbitrary profile may be approximated by a series of small steps. Devices that may be analyzed in this fashion include a simple waveguide step discontinuity, such as that used in a dual mode horn, a stepped matching section, or a corrugated waveguide section with constant varying slot depth. CWGSCAT will accurately predict the reflection and transmission characteristics of such devices, taking into account higher order mode excitation if it occurs as well as multiple reflections and stored energy at each discontinuity. For large devices, with respect to a wavelength where many modes may propagate, the reflection and transmission properties may be required for a higher order mode or series of modes exciting the device. Such interactions are represented best by defining a scattering matrix for the device. The matrix can be determined by using mode matching at each discontinuity present. The results for individual discontinuities are then cascaded to get the matrix for the entire device. Frequently, rectangular waveguide components may be represented either exactly or approximately as a number of different size rectangular waveguides which are connected in series. RWGSCAT will model such devices and accurately predict the reflection and transmission characteristics, taking into account higher order (other than dominant TE 10) mode excitation if it occurs, as well as multiple reflections and stored energy at each discontinuity. For devices which are large with respect to the wavelength of operation, the characteristics of the device may be required for computing a higher order mode or a number of higher order modes exciting the device. Such interactions can be represented by defining a scattering matrix for each discontinuity in the device, and then cascading the individual scattering matrices in order to determine the scattering matrix for the overall device. The individual matrices are obtained using the mode matching method. RWGSCAT and CWGSCAT are written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. They have been successfully compiled and implemented using Lahey FORTRAN 77 under MS-DOS. Sample MS-DOS executables and sample input data files are provided on the distribution media. RWGSCAT requires 377K of RAM for execution. CWGSCAT requires 355K of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for this program is a set of two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The contents of the diskettes are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the distribution medium in LaTEX format. RWGSCAT was developed in 1993. CWGSCAT was developed in 1987, and this version was released in 1991. RWGSCAT and CWGSCAT are copyrighted works with all copyrights vested in NASA.

  16. Prism-coupled light emission from tunnel junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ushioda, S.; Rutledge, J. E.; Pierce, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Completely p-polarized light emission has been observed from smooth Al-AlO(x)-Au tunnel junctions placed on a prism coupler. The angle and polarization dependence demonstrate unambiguously that the emitted light is radiated by the fast-mode surface plasmon polariton. The emission spectra suggest that the dominant process for the excitation of the fast mode is through conversion of the slow mode to the fast mode mediated by residual roughness on the junction surface.

  17. Magnetic anisotropy in strained manganite films and bicrystal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. V.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Petrzhik, A. M.; Borisenko, I. V.; Shadrin, A. V.; Gunnarsson, R.

    2013-04-01

    Transport and magnetic properties of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) manganite thin films and bicrystal junctions were investigated. Epitaxial manganite films were grown on SrTiO3, LaAlO3, NdGaO3 (NGO), and (LaAlO3)0.3 + (Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 substrates, and their magnetic anisotropy were determined by two independent techniques of magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that by using these techniques, a small (0.3%) anisotropy of crystal structure at the (110) surface plane of the orthorhombic NGO substrate leads to uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the films in the plane of the substrate at least at the room temperature. It was found that on vicinal NGO substrates, the value of magnetic anisotropy strength can be varied in the range 100-200 Oe at T = 295 K by changing the substrate vicinal angle from 0° to 25°. Measurement of the magnetic anisotropy of manganite bicrystal junction demonstrated the presence of two ferromagnetic spin subsystems for both types of bicrystal boundaries with tilting of basal plane of manganite tilted bicrystal (TB-junction) and with rotation of crystallographic axes (RB-junction) used for comparison. The magnetoresistance of TB-junctions increases with decreasing temperature and the misorientation angle. Variation of bicrystal misorientation angle does not lead to change of misorientation of easy magnetic axes in the film parts forming TB-junction. Analysis of the voltage dependencies of bicrystal junction conductivity show that the low value of the magnetoresistance for the LSMO bicrystal junctions can be caused by two scattering mechanisms. The first one is the spin-flip of spin-polarized carriers due to the strong electron-electron interactions in a disordered layer at the bicrystal boundary at low temperatures and the second one is spin-flip by antiferromagnetic magnons at high temperatures.

  18. Three String Junction and N=4 Dyon Spectrum

    E-print Network

    Ashoke Sen

    2007-08-28

    The exact spectrum of dyons in a class of N=4 supersymmetric string theories gives us information about dyon spectrum in N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories. This in turn can be translated into prediction about the BPS spectrum of three string junctions on a configuration of three parallel D3-branes. We show that this prediction agrees with the known spectrum of three string junction in different domains in the moduli space separated by walls of marginal stability.

  19. Quantum statistical theory of semiconductor junctions in thermal equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1977-01-01

    Free carrier and electric field distributions of one-dimensional semiconductor junctions are evaluated using a quantum mechanical phase-space distribution and its corresponding Boltzmann equation. Attention is given to quantum and exchange corrections in cases of high doping concentrations when carrier densities become degenerate. Quantitative differences between degenerate and classical junction characteristics, e.g., maximum electric field and built-in voltage and carrier concentration within the transition region, are evaluated numerically.

  20. Raman Scattering at Plasmonic Junctions Shorted by Conductive Molecular Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hu, Dehong; Apkarian, V. Ara; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-04-10

    Intensity spikes in Raman scattering, accompanied by switching between line spectra and band spectra, can be assigned to shorting the junction plasmon through molecular conductive bridges. This is demonstrated through Raman trajectories recorded at a plasmonic junction formed by a gold AFM tip in contact with a silver surface coated either with biphenyl-4,4’-dithiol or biphenyl-4-thiol. The fluctuations are absent in the monothiol. In effect, the making and breaking of chemical bonds is tracked.

  1. SOITEC's 4 junction solar cell module one year on sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerster, Eckart; Gerstmaier, Tobias; Gombert, Andreas; Krause, Rainer; van Riesen, Sascha; Wanka, Sven; Zech, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    During the last years SOITEC has co-developed a 4-junction solar cell (SmartCell™) with world record conversion efficiency. To verify suitability for concentrator application in SOITEC's Concentrix™ CPV module, early long-term outdoor performance monitoring was initiated. To date, some module prototypes have been already exposed for more than one year in desert environment; no performance degradation is observable. Accelerated ageing testing executed on the cells also indicates comparable reliability performance to standard triple junction concentrator solar cells.

  2. Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on New Trabecular Bone during Bone–Tendon Junction Healing in a Rabbit Model: A Synchrotron Radiation Micro-CT Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hongbin; Zheng, Cheng; Wang, Zhanwen; Chen, Can; Chen, Huabin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration during the bone–tendon junction healing process and to explore the application of synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography in three dimensional visualization of the bone–tendon junction to evaluate the microarchitecture of new trabecular bone. Twenty four mature New Zealand rabbits underwent partial patellectomy to establish a bone–tendon junction injury model at the patella–patellar tendon complex. Animals were then divided into low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment (20 min/day, 7 times/week) and placebo control groups, and were euthanized at week 8 and 16 postoperatively (n = 6 for each group and time point). The patella–patellar tendon specimens were harvested for radiographic, histological and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography detection. The area of the newly formed bone in the ultrasound group was significantly greater than that of control group at postoperative week 8 and 16. The high resolution three dimensional visualization images of the bone–tendon junction were acquired by synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment promoted dense and irregular woven bone formation at week 8 with greater bone volume fraction, number and thickness of new trabecular bone but with lower separation. At week 16, ultrasound group specimens contained mature lamellar bone with higher bone volume fraction and thicker trabeculae than that of control group; however, there was no significant difference in separation and number of the new trabecular bone. This study confirms that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment is able to promot bone formation and remodeling of new trabecular bone during the bone–tendon junction healing process in a rabbit model, and the synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography could be applied for three dimensional visualization to quantitatively evaluate the microarchitecture of new bone in bone–tendon junction. PMID:25874957

  3. Symplekin, a novel type of tight junction plaque protein

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Using a monoclonal antibody we have identified and cDNA-cloned a novel type of protein localized, by light and electron microscopy, to the plaque associated with the cytoplasmic face of the tight junction- containing zone (zonula occludens) of polar epithelial cells and of Sertoli cells of testis, but absent from the junctions of vascular endothelia. The approximately 3.7-kb mRNA encodes a polypeptide of 1142 amino acids (calculated molecular weight 126.5 kD, pI 6.25), for which the name "symplekin" (from Greek sigma upsilon mu pi lambda epsilon kappa epsilon iota, nu, to tie together, to weave, to be intertwined) is proposed. However, both the mRNA and the protein can also be detected in a wide range of cell types that do not form tight junctions or are even completely devoid of any stable cell contacts. Careful analyses have revealed that the protein occurs in all these diverse cells in the nucleoplasm, and only in those cells forming tight junctions is it recruited, partly but specifically, to the plaque structure of the zonula occludens. We discuss symplekin as a representative of a group of dual residence proteins which occur and probably function in the nucleus as well as in the plaques exclusive for either tight junctions, adherens junctions, or desmosomes. PMID:8769423

  4. Anchored PKA as a gatekeeper for gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Taskén, Kjetil

    2015-01-01

    Anchored protein kinase A (PKA) bound to A Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) mediates effects of localized increases in cAMP in defined subcellular microdomains and retains the specificity in cAMP-PKA signaling to distinct extracellular stimuli. Gap junctions are pores between adjacent cells constituted by connexin proteins that provide means of communication and transfer of small molecules. While the PKA signaling is known to promote human trophoblast cell fusion, the gap junction communication through connexin 43 (Cx43) is a prerequisite for this process. We recently demonstrated that trophoblast fusion is regulated by ezrin, a known AKAP, which binds to Cx43 and delivers PKA in the vicinity gap junctions. We found that disruption of the ezrin-Cx43 interaction abolished PKA-dependent phosphorylation of Cx43 as well as gap junction communication and subsequently cell fusion. We propose that the PKA-ezrin-Cx43 macromolecular complex regulating gap junction communication constitutes a general mechanism to control opening of Cx43 gap junctions by phosphorylation in response to cAMP signaling in various cell types. PMID:26478781

  5. Intraepithelial lymphocytes express junctional molecules in murine small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki-Ohara, Kyoko . E-mail: INAGAKI@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Sawaguchi, Akira; Suganuma, Tatsuo; Matsuzaki, Goro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2005-06-17

    Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that reside at basolateral site regulate the proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells (EC) for providing a first line of host defense in intestine. However, it remains unknown how IEL interact and communicate with EC. Here, we show that IEL express junctional molecules like EC. We identified mRNA expression of the junctional molecules in IEL such as zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) (tight junction), {beta}-catenin and E-cadherin (adherens junction), and connexin26 (gap junction). IEL constitutively expressed occludin and E-cadherin at protein level, while other T cells in the thymus, spleen, liver, mesenteric lymph node, and Peyer's patches did not. {gamma}{delta} IEL showed higher level of these expressions than {alpha}{beta} IEL. The expression of occludin was augmented by anti-CD3 Ab stimulation. These results suggest the possibility of a novel role of IEL concerning epithelial barrier and communication between IEL and EC.

  6. Regulation of tight junctions in upper airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takashi; Go, Mitsuru; Takano, Ken-ichi; Kurose, Makoto; Ohkuni, Tsuyoshi; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Kamekura, Ryuta; Ogasawara, Noriko; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Fuchimoto, Jun; Obata, Kazufumi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Keira, Takashi; Miyata, Ryou; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal barrier of the upper respiratory tract including the nasal cavity, which is the first site of exposure to inhaled antigens, plays an important role in host defense in terms of innate immunity and is regulated in large part by tight junctions of epithelial cells. Tight junction molecules are expressed in both M cells and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells of upper airway. Various antigens are sampled, transported, and released to lymphocytes through the cells in nasal mucosa while they maintain the integrity of the barrier. Expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are affected by various stimuli including growth factor, TLR ligand, and cytokine. In addition, epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, enhances the barrier function together with an increase of tight junction molecules in HNECs. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus infection in HNECs in vitro induces expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function together with proinflammatory cytokine release. This paper summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of tight junctions in the upper airway epithelium under normal, allergic, and RSV-infected conditions. PMID:23509817

  7. Regulation of Tight Junctions in Upper Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Takashi; Go, Mitsuru; Takano, Ken-ichi; Kurose, Makoto; Ohkuni, Tsuyoshi; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Kamekura, Ryuta; Ogasawara, Noriko; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Fuchimoto, Jun; Obata, Kazufumi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Keira, Takashi; Miyata, Ryou; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal barrier of the upper respiratory tract including the nasal cavity, which is the first site of exposure to inhaled antigens, plays an important role in host defense in terms of innate immunity and is regulated in large part by tight junctions of epithelial cells. Tight junction molecules are expressed in both M cells and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells of upper airway. Various antigens are sampled, transported, and released to lymphocytes through the cells in nasal mucosa while they maintain the integrity of the barrier. Expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are affected by various stimuli including growth factor, TLR ligand, and cytokine. In addition, epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, enhances the barrier function together with an increase of tight junction molecules in HNECs. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus infection in HNECs in vitro induces expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function together with proinflammatory cytokine release. This paper summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of tight junctions in the upper airway epithelium under normal, allergic, and RSV-infected conditions. PMID:23509817

  8. Ultimate efficiency limit of single-junction perovskite and dual-junction perovskite/silicon two-terminal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansouri, Ibraheem; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Green, Martin A.

    2015-08-01

    Theoretical calculation based on detailed balance and incorporating different realistic optical and electrical losses predicts conversion efficiency beyond 22% for single-junction perovskite devices. In dual-junction perovskite/silicon devices, theoretical conversion efficiency around 40% is been determined. However, dramatic drop in the conversion efficiency is shown to be due to the glass reflection and FTO parasitic absorption losses. Additionally, practical conversion efficiency limits of dual-junction two-terminal perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell of 30% are achievable as reported in this work using state-of-the-art demonstrated devices. Additionally, various crystalline silicon (industry and laboratory demonstrated) technologies are used as the bottom cell for the current matched tandem cell stacks with higher relative improvements when using commercial c-Si solar cells. Moreover, the effect of eliminating the parasitic resistances and enhancing the external radiative efficiency (ERE) in the perovskite junction on tandem performance are also investigated enhancing the stack efficiencies.

  9. A Three-Isocenter Jagged-Junction IMRT Approach for Craniospinal Irradiation Without Beam Edge Matching for Field Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Fred; Ramaseshan, Ramani; Corns, Robert; Harrop, Sheryl; Nuraney, Nimet; Steiner, Peter; Aldridge, Stephanie; Liu, Mitchell; Carolan, Hannah; Agranovich, Alex; Karvat, Anand

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Traditionally craniospinal irradiation treats the central nervous system using two or three adjacent field sets. We propose a technique using a three-isocenter intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan (jagged-junction IMRT) which overcomes problems associated with field junctions and beam edge matching and improves planning and treatment setup efficiencies with homogenous target dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Treatments for 3 patients with a prescription of 36 Gy in 20 fractions were retrospectively planned with jagged-junction IMRT and compared to conventional treatment plans. Planning target volume (PTV) included the whole brain and spinal canal to the S3 vertebral level. The plan used three field sets, each with a unique isocenter. One field set with seven fields treated the cranium. Two field sets treated the spine, each set using three fields. Fields from adjacent sets were overlapped, and the optimization process smoothly integrated the dose inside the overlapped junction. Results: For jagged-junction IMRT plans vs. conventional technique, the average homogeneity index equaled 0.08 {+-} 0.01 vs. 0.12 {+-} 0.02, respectively, and conformity number equaled 0.79 {+-} 0.01 vs. 0.47 {+-} 0.12, respectively. The 95% isodose surface covered (99.5 {+-} 0.3)% of the PTV vs. (98.1 {+-} 2.0)%, respectively. Both jagged-junction IMRT plans and the conventional plans had good sparing of organs at risk. Conclusions: Jagged-junction IMRT planning provided good dose homogeneity and conformity to the target while maintaining a low dose to organs at risk. Results from jagged-junction IMRT plans were better than or equivalent to those from the conventional technique. Jagged-junction IMRT optimization smoothly distributed dose in the junction between field sets. Because there was no beam matching, this treatment technique is less likely to produce hot or cold spots at the junction, in contrast to conventional techniques. The planning process is also simplified as only one IMRT plan is required for the entire target volume.

  10. Photoinduced carrier annihilation in silicon pn junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Toshiyuki; Motoki, Takayuki; Yasuda, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hasumi, Masahiko; Mizuno, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    We report analysis of the photo-induced minority carrier effective lifetime (?eff) in a p+n junction formed on the top surfaces of a n-type silicon substrate by ion implantation of boron and phosphorus atoms at the top and bottom surfaces followed by activation by microwave heating. Bias voltages were applied to the p+ boron-doped surface with n+ phosphorus-doped surface kept at 0 V. The values of ?eff were lower than 1 × 10-5 s under the reverse-bias condition. On the other hand, ?eff markedly increased to 1.4 × 10-4 s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V and then it leveled off when continuous-wave 635 nm light was illuminated at 0.74 mW/cm2 on the p+ surface. The carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{p + } at the p+ surface region was numerically estimated from the experimental ?eff. S\\text{p + } ranged from 4000 to 7200 cm/s under the reverse-bias condition when the carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{n + } at the n+ surface region was assumed to be a constant value of 100 cm/s. S\\text{p + } markedly decreased to 265 cm/s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V.

  11. Room-temperature single-electron junction.

    PubMed Central

    Facci, P; Erokhin, V; Carrara, S; Nicolini, C

    1996-01-01

    The design, realization, and test performances of an electronic junction based on single-electron phenomena that works in the air at room temperature are hereby reported. The element consists of an electrochemically etched sharp tungsten stylus over whose tip a nanometer-size crystal was synthesized. Langmuir-Blodgett films of cadmium arachidate were transferred onto the stylus and exposed to a H2S atmosphere to yield CdS nanocrystals (30-50 angstrom in diameter) imbedded into an organic matrix. The stylus, biased with respect to a flat electrode, was brought to the tunnel distance from the film and a constant gap value was maintained by a piezo-electric actuator driven by a feedback circuit fed by the tunneling current. With this set-up, it is possible to measure the behavior of the current flowing through the quantum dot when a bias voltage is applied. Voltage-current characteristics measured in the system displayed single-electron trends such as a Coulomb blockade and Coulomb staircase and revealed capacitance values as small as 10(-19) F. PMID:11607710

  12. Ac Josephson Effect in Topological Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Julia; Badiane, Driss; Houzet, Manuel; Glazman, Leonid

    2014-03-01

    Topological superconductors admit zero-energy Majorana bound states at their boundaries. In Josephson junctions between two topological superconductors, the presence of these states gives rise to an Andreev bound state whose energy varies 4 ? -periodically in the superconducting phase difference. An applied voltage bias leads to a dynamically varying phase according to the Josephson relation. Furthermore, it leads to dynamics of the occupation of the bound state via its non-adiabatic coupling to the continuum. While the Josephson relation suggests a fractional Josephson effect due to the 4 ? -periodicity of the bound state, its observability relies on the conservation of the occupation of the bound state on the experimentally probed time scale. We study the lifetime of the bound state and identify the time scales it has to be compared to. In particular, we are interested in signatures of the fractional Josephson effect in the Shapiro steps and in current noise measurements. This work was supported through ANR Grants No. ANR-11-JS04-003-01 and No. ANR-12-BS04-0016-03, an EU-FP7 Marie Curie IRG, and by DOE BES under Contract No. DEFG02-08ER46482.

  13. Superconducting qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, K. D.; Larsen, T. W.; Kuemmeth, F.; Jespersen, T. S.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.; Marcus, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting transmon qubits are a promising basis for a scalable quantum information processor. The recent development of semiconducting InAs nanowires with in situ molecular beam epitaxy-grown Al contacts presents new possibilities for building hybrid superconductor/semiconductor devices using precise bottom up fabrication techniques. Here, we take advantage of these high quality materials to develop superconducting qubits with superconductor-normal-superconductor Josephson junctions (JJs) where the normal element is an InAs semiconductor nanowire. We have fabricated transmon qubits in which the conventional Al-Al2O3-Al JJs are replaced by a single gate-tunable nanowire JJ. Using spectroscopy to probe the qubit we observe fluctuations in its level splitting with gate voltage that are consistent with universal conductance fluctuations in the nanowire's normal state conductance. Our gate-tunable nanowire transmons may enable new means of control for large scale qubit architectures and hybrid topological quantum computing schemes. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation and the European Commission.

  14. Connexins, gap junctions and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kleopa, Kleopas A; Sargiannidou, Irene

    2015-06-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) have emerged as an important molecular component of peripheral myelinated fibers following the discovery of mutations affecting the GJ protein connexin32 (Cx32) in patients with the X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT1X). CMT1X is the second most common CMT form and is caused by over 400 different mutations in the GJB1 gene encoding Cx32. In peripheral nerves, Cx32 is expressed by Schwann cells and forms reflexive GJs through non-compact myelin areas, which allow the diffusion of ions and small molecules including second messengers across apposed cell membranes connecting directly the Schwann cell perinuclear cytoplasm with the adaxonal cell compartment inside the myelin sheath. GJs formed by Cx32 play an important role in the homeostasis of myelinated axons. Patients with CMT1X typically present with a progressive peripheral neuropathy characterized by mixed demyelinating and axonal features electrophysiologically and pathologically, which may be accompanied by transient or chronic CNS myelin dysfunction. Both in vitro and in vivo models of the disease indicate that most Cx32 mutations cause loss of function and inability of the mutant Cx32 to form functional GJs. Increased understanding of CMT1X pathogenesis will lead to the development of effective therapies for this currently incurable disease. PMID:25449862

  15. RECQ4 selectively recognizes Holliday junctions.

    PubMed

    Sedlackova, Hana; Cechova, Barbora; Mlcouskova, Jarmila; Krejci, Lumir

    2015-06-01

    The RECQ4 protein belongs to the RecQ helicase family, which plays crucial roles in genome maintenance. Mutations in the RECQ4 gene are associated with three insidious hereditary disorders: Rothmund-Thomson, Baller-Gerold, and RAPADILINO syndromes. These syndromes are characterized by growth deficiency, radial ray defects, red rashes, and higher predisposition to malignancy, especially osteosarcomas. Within the RecQ family, RECQ4 is the least characterized, and its role in DNA replication and repair remains unknown. We have identified several DNA binding sites within RECQ4. Two are located at the N-terminus and one is located within the conserved helicase domain. N-terminal domains probably cooperate with one another and promote the strong annealing activity of RECQ4. Surprisingly, the region spanning 322-400aa shows a very high affinity for branched DNA substrates, especially Holliday junctions. This study demonstrates biochemical activities of RECQ4 that could be involved in genome maintenance and suggest its possible role in processing replication and recombination intermediates. PMID:25769792

  16. Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT With Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C.; Gidding, Corrie E.M.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Janssens, Geert O.R.J.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with daily intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.

  17. The Effects of VoltageGated Gap Junctions on PhaseLocking in NeuronalJunctions on Phase Locking in Neuronal

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Timothy

    : Voltage gating of (homotypic) Cx36 gap junctions expressed in Xenopus Oocytes (A,B) and transfected HeLa cells (C). (A,C) initial and steady state normalized gap junction conductance (filled and open symbols: Explore the effects of gap junction voltagegating on phaselocking in networks of coupled cells. Model

  18. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret; Kusch, Angelika; Korenbaum, Elena; Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  19. MLN0264 in Previously Treated Asian Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoma or Metastatic or Recurrent Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma Expressing Guanylyl Cyclase C

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-29

    Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoma; Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoma

  20. Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance of a Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistor Measured

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2006-01-01

    Junction temperature of a prototype SiC-based bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was estimated by using the base-emitter voltage (V(sub BE)) characteristic for thermometry. The V(sub BE) was measured as a function of the base current (I(sub B)) at selected temperatures (T), all at a fixed collector current (I(sub C)) and under very low duty cycle pulse conditions. Under such conditions, the average temperature of the chip was taken to be the same as that of the temperature-controlled case. At increased duty cycle such as to substantially heat the chip, but same I(sub C) pulse height, the chip temperature was identified by matching the V(sub BE) to the thermometry curves. From the measured average power, the chip-to-case thermal resistance could be estimated, giving a reasonable value. A tentative explanation for an observed bunching with increasing temperature of the calibration curves may relate to an increasing dopant atom ionization. A first-cut analysis, however, does not support this.

  1. Intercellular Diffusion of a Fluorescent Sucrose Analog via the Septal Junctions in a Filamentous Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberg, Dennis J.; Mariscal, Vicente; Bornikoel, Jan; Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Krauß, Norbert; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many filamentous cyanobacteria produce specialized nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts, which are located at semiregular intervals along the filament with about 10 to 20 photosynthetic vegetative cells in between. Nitrogen fixation in these complex multicellular bacteria depends on metabolite exchange between the two cell types, with the heterocysts supplying combined-nitrogen compounds but dependent on the vegetative cells for photosynthetically produced carbon compounds. Here, we used a fluorescent tracer to probe intercellular metabolite exchange in the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We show that esculin, a fluorescent sucrose analog, is incorporated by a sucrose import system into the cytoplasm of Anabaena cells. The cytoplasmic esculin is rapidly and reversibly exchanged across vegetative-vegetative and vegetative-heterocyst cell junctions. Our measurements reveal the kinetics of esculin exchange and also show that intercellular metabolic communication is lost in a significant fraction of older heterocysts. SepJ, FraC, and FraD are proteins located at the intercellular septa and are suggested to form structures analogous to gap junctions. We show that a ?sepJ ?fraC ?fraD triple mutant shows an altered septum structure with thinner septa but a denser peptidoglycan layer. Intercellular diffusion of esculin and fluorescein derivatives is impaired in this mutant, which also shows a greatly reduced frequency of nanopores in the intercellular septal cross walls. These findings suggest that FraC, FraD, and SepJ are important for the formation of junctional structures that constitute the major pathway for feeding heterocysts with sucrose. PMID:25784700

  2. Regulation of gap junction function and Connexin 43 expression by cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Polusani, Srikanth R.; Kar, Rekha; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Masters, Bettie Sue; Panda, Satya P.

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Humans with severe forms of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) mutations show bone defects as observed in Antley-Bixler Syndrome. {yields} First report showing knockdown of CYPOR in osteoblasts decreased Connexin 43 (Cx43) protein levels. Cx43 is known to play an important role in bone modeling. {yields} Knockdown of CYPOR decreased Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and hemichannel activity. {yields} Knockdown of CYPOR decreased Cx43 in mouse primary calvarial osteoblasts. {yields} Decreased Cx43 expression was observed at the transcriptional level. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is a microsomal electron-transferring enzyme containing both FAD and FMN as co-factors, which provides the reducing equivalents to various redox partners, such as cytochromes P450 (CYPs), heme oxygenase (HO), cytochrome b{sub 5} and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with severe forms of CYPOR mutation show bone defects such as cranio- and humeroradial synostoses and long bone fractures, known as Antley-Bixler-like Syndrome (ABS). To elucidate the role of CYPOR in bone, we knocked-down CYPOR in multiple osteoblast cell lines using RNAi technology. In this study, knock-down of CYPOR decreased the expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43), known to play a critical role in bone formation, modeling, and remodeling. Knock-down of CYPOR also decreased Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) and hemichannel activity. Promoter luciferase assays revealed that the decrease in expression of Cx43 in CYPOR knock-down cells was due to transcriptional repression. Primary osteoblasts isolated from bone specific Por knock-down mice calvariae confirmed the findings in the cell lines. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of gap junction function by CYPOR and suggests that Cx43 may play an important role(s) in CYPOR-mediated bone defects seen in patients.

  3. Long-range gap junctional signaling controls oncogene-mediated tumorigenesis in Xenopus laevis embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chernet, Brook T.; Fields, Chris; Levin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the immediate microenvironment, long-range signaling may be an important component of cancer. Molecular-genetic analyses have implicated gap junctions—key mediators of cell-cell communication—in carcinogenesis. We recently showed that the resting voltage potential of distant cell groups is a key determinant of metastatic transformation and tumor induction. Here, we show in the Xenopus laevis model that gap junctional communication (GJC) is a modulator of the long-range bioelectric signaling that regulates tumor formation. Genetic disruption of GJC taking place within tumors, within remote host tissues, or between the host and tumors significantly lowers the incidence of tumors induced by KRAS mutations. The most pronounced suppression of tumor incidence was observed upon GJC disruption taking place farther away from oncogene-expressing cells, revealing a role for GJC in distant cells in the control of tumor growth. In contrast, enhanced GJC communication through the overexpression of wild-type connexin Cx26 increased tumor incidence. Our data confirm a role for GJC in tumorigenesis, and reveal that this effect is non-local. Based on these results and on published data on movement of ions through GJs, we present a quantitative model linking the GJC coupling and bioelectrical state of cells to the ability of oncogenes to initiate tumorigenesis. When integrated with data on endogenous bioelectric signaling during left-right patterning, the model predicts differential tumor incidence outcomes depending on the spatial configurations of gap junction paths relative to tumor location and major anatomical body axes. Testing these predictions, we found that the strongest influence of GJ modulation on tumor suppression by hyperpolarization occurred along the embryonic left-right axis. Together, these data reveal new, long-range aspects of cancer control by the host's physiological parameters. PMID:25646081

  4. Egg Formation in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Telfer, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive biology in the Twentieth Century produced comprehensive descriptions of the mechanisms of egg formation in most of the major orders of insects. While many general principles of ovarian development and physiology emerged, every order turned out to have a set of its own special motifs. Discovery of the lepidopteran motifs is summarized in this essay. The emphasis is on developmental mechanisms, beginning with the early growth and differentiation of female germ cells and ending, after many turns in morphogenesis, physiology and biosynthesis, with eggs that are filled with yolk and encased in chorions. Examples of uniquely lepidopteran traits include the cellular composition of ovarian follicles, the number of tubular ovarioles in which they mature, the functions of cell-to-cell junctional complexes in their maturation, their use of glycosaminoglycans to maintain intercellular patency during vitellogenesis, the role of proton and calcium pumps in their ion physiology, a separate postvitellogenic period of water and inorganic ion uptake, and the fine structure and protein composition of their chorions. Discovery of this combination of idiosyncracies was based on advances in the general concepts and techniques of cell and molecular biology and on insights borrowed from studies on other insects. The lepidopteran ovary in turn has contributed much to the understanding of egg formation in insects generally. PMID:20050770

  5. Quantitative determination of gap junctional permeability in the lens cortex.

    PubMed

    Eckert, R; Adams, B; Kistler, J; Donaldson, P

    1999-05-15

    We have developed a simple dye transfer method, which allows the gap junction permeability of lens fiber cells to be quantified. Two fixable fluorescent dyes (Lucifer yellow and rhodamine-dextran) were introduced into peripheral lens fiber cells via mechanical damage induced by removing the lens capsule. After a defined incubation period, lenses were fixed, sectioned, and the distribution of the dye recorded using confocal microscopy. Rhodamine-dextran and Lucifer yellow both labeled the extracellular space between fiber cells and the cytoplasm of fiber cells that had been damaged by capsule removal. For the gap junctional permeable dye Lucifer yellow, however, labeling was not confined to the damaged cells and exhibited intercellular diffusion away from the damaged cells. The extent of dye diffusion was quantified by collecting radial dye intensity profiles from the confocal images. Effective diffusion coefficients (D eff) for Lucifer yellow were then calculated by fitting the profiles to a series of model equations, which describe radial diffusion in a sphere. D eff is the combination of dye diffusion through the cytoplasm and through gap junction channels. To calculate the gap junctional permeability (Pj) an estimate of the cytoplasmic diffusion coefficient (Dcyt = 0.7 x 10(-6) cm2/sec) was obtained by observing the time course of dye diffusion in isolated elongated fiber cells loaded with Lucifer yellow via a patch pipette. Using this approach, we have obtained a value for Pj of 31 x 10(-5) cm/sec for fiber-fiber gap junctions. This value is significantly larger than the value of Pj of 4.4 x 10(-6) cm/sec reported by Rae and coworkers for epithelial-fiber junctions (Rae et al., 1996. J. Membrane Biol. 150:89-103), and most likely reflects the high abundance of gap junctions between lens fiber cells. PMID:10341031

  6. Quaternary Evolution of Karliova Triple Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabc?, Cengiz; Akyüz, H. Serdar

    2013-04-01

    The arguments to explain Quaternary evolution of Karl?ova Triple Junction (KTJ) depends upon two different analogue models. The compressional type of Prandtl Cell Model (PCM) and 60 km wide shear zone with concomitant counter clockwise block rotation used to modelled for west and east of the KTJ respectively. The data for the model of west of the KTJ acquired by extensive field studies, and quantified geomorphic features. Compressional PCM put forward that behavior of slip lines controlled by boundary faults. But the model is not enough to explain slip distribution, age relation of them. At west of the KTJ boundary faults presented by eastern most segments of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). Slip lines, however, presented by Bahçeli and Toklular faults. Both field studies and morphometric analyses undisputedly set forth that there are two different fault types between the NAFZ and EAFZ. The most strain loaded fault type, which are positioned near the NAFZ, start as a strike-slip fault and when it turn to SE its sense of motion change to oblique normal due to changing orientation of principal stress axes. The new orientation of stress axes exposed in the field as a special kind of caprock -cuesta-. The younger slip lines formed very close to junction point and accommodate less slip. Even though slip trajectories started from the boundary faults in compressional PCM, at the west of KTJ, right lateral trajectories more clearly formed close the NAFZ and left lateral trajectories, relatively less strain loaded fault type, are poorly formed close the EAFZ . We think that, this differences between KTJ and compressional PCM result from the distinction of velocity of boundary faults. East of the KTJ governed by completely different mechanism. The region controlled two main fault systems. The Varto Fault Zone (VFZ), the eastern branch of the KTJ, and Murat Fault (MF) delimited the region from north and south respectively. The region also delimited at west by the EAFZ. All secondary faults between these three faults are strike slip faults. The faults which are positioned NW-SE and nearly parallel to the N70W oriented VFZ are dextral, whereas sinistral faults are N-S oriented and nearly orthogonal to NW-SE trending right lateral faults. Sinistral faults develop in the overlap area between adjacent left stepping of dextral faults which are arranged in an en echelon pattern. This configuration formed under shear zone regime with one Previous shear zone model studies proposed that right lateral faults form the 17-24 degree to principal displacement zone. Paleo-magnetic studies of Plio-Quaternary rocks, which covered the all region, show that there is a counterclockwise block rotation between 18 to 23 degree that is clearly explain position of the secondary right lateral faults.

  7. Charge transfer in tunnel-junction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. R.

    Numerical modeling was used to study charge transfer in tunnel junction arrays. The effects of various configurations of background charge were considered, with the ultimate goal of making predictions about the possibility of device design. First the uniform (no background charge) arrays were considered. In this case solitonantisoliton avalanches were observed. Though the time duration of any avalanche, and the total charge DeltaQ = ne transferred across the array during the avalanche, are always finite, in arrays with length N larger than certain critical value Lc and large width M >> f(N), the avalanche magnitude n may be exponentially large, resulting in particular in a giant increase of shot noise. Next a special distribution of background charge was found, such that the array's Coulomb blockade is completely suppressed and shot noise is reduced substantially at low applied voltages. In particular the Fano factor F can approach the minimum value Fmin = 1/N << 1 (where N is the array length). Finally, the effects of the fully random q = [-e/2; + e/2] background charge were studied. Density of states at zero energy was found to have a dramatically different dependence on the array size in 1D and 2D. Also, in 2D systems a soft Coulomb gap was observed, whit DoS value at low energy diminishing rapidly with the array size. The effects of background charge on shot noise were also studied. At zero temperature and low current in 2D systems a strong increase in shot noise was observed, while addition of moderately low (T < eVt/N) temperature suppresses the noise. Results are discussed in the context of their possible application to single-electron devices.

  8. Silicon-based molecular switch junctions

    E-print Network

    Daijiro Nozaki; Gianaurelio Cuniberti

    2009-07-01

    In contrast to the static operations of conventional semiconductor devices, the dynamic conformational freedom in molecular devices opens up the possibility of using molecules as new types of devices such as a molecular conformational switch or for molecular data storage. Bistable molecules, with e.g. two stable cis and trans isomeric configurations, could provide, once clamped between two electrodes, a switching phenomenon in the nonequilibrium current response. Here, we model molecular switch junctions formed at silicon contacts and demonstrate the potential of tunable molecular switches in electrode/molecule/electrode configurations. Using the non equilibrium Green function approach implemented with the density-functional-based tight-binding theory, a series of properties such as electron transmissions, I-V characteristics in the different isomer-conformations, and potential energy surfaces as a function of the reaction coordinates along the trans to cis transition were calculated. Furthermore, in order to investigate stability of molecular switches in ambient conditions, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at room temperature were performed and time- dependent fluctuations of the conductance along the MD pathways were calculated. Our numerical results show that the transmission spectra of the cis isomers are more conductive than trans counterparts inside the bias window for all two model molecules. The current-voltage characteristics consequently show the same trends. Additionally, the calculations of time-dependent transmission fluctuations along the MD pathways have shown that the transmission in cis isomers is always significantly larger than that of trans counterparts showing that molecular switches can be expected to work as robust molecular switching components.

  9. Gap Junctions in Developing Thalamic and Neocortical Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Niculescu, Dragos; Lohmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The presence of direct, cytoplasmatic, communication between neurons in the brain of vertebrates has been demonstrated a long time ago. These gap junctions have been characterized in many brain areas in terms of subunit composition, biophysical properties, neuronal connectivity patterns, and developmental regulation. Although interesting findings emerged, showing that different subunits are specifically regulated during development, or that excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks exhibit various electrical connectivity patterns, gap junctions did not receive much further interest. Originally, it was believed that gap junctions represent simple passageways for electrical and biochemical coordination early in development. Today, we know that gap junction connectivity is tightly regulated, following independent developmental patterns for excitatory and inhibitory networks. Electrical connections are important for many specific functions of neurons, and are, for example, required for the development of neuronal stimulus tuning in the visual system. Here, we integrate the available data on neuronal connectivity and gap junction properties, as well as the most recent findings concerning the functional implications of electrical connections in the developing thalamus and neocortex. PMID:23843439

  10. Gap junctions in developing thalamic and neocortical neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, Dragos; Lohmann, Christian

    2014-12-01

    The presence of direct, cytoplasmatic, communication between neurons in the brain of vertebrates has been demonstrated a long time ago. These gap junctions have been characterized in many brain areas in terms of subunit composition, biophysical properties, neuronal connectivity patterns, and developmental regulation. Although interesting findings emerged, showing that different subunits are specifically regulated during development, or that excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks exhibit various electrical connectivity patterns, gap junctions did not receive much further interest. Originally, it was believed that gap junctions represent simple passageways for electrical and biochemical coordination early in development. Today, we know that gap junction connectivity is tightly regulated, following independent developmental patterns for excitatory and inhibitory networks. Electrical connections are important for many specific functions of neurons, and are, for example, required for the development of neuronal stimulus tuning in the visual system. Here, we integrate the available data on neuronal connectivity and gap junction properties, as well as the most recent findings concerning the functional implications of electrical connections in the developing thalamus and neocortex. PMID:23843439

  11. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  12. Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of Hybrid Nanoparticle-Single-Molecule Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerah-Harush, Elinor; Dubi, Yonatan

    2015-06-01

    It was recently suggested that molecular junctions would be excellent elements for efficient and high-power thermoelectric energy-conversion devices. However, experimental measurements of thermoelectric conversion in molecular junctions indicate rather poor efficiency, raising the question of whether it is indeed possible to design a setup for molecular junctions that will exhibit enhanced thermoelectric performance. Here we suggest that hybrid single-molecule-nanoparticle junctions can serve as efficient thermoelectric converters. The introduction of a semiconducting nanoparticle introduces new tuning capabilities, which are absent in conventional metal-molecule-metal junctions. Using a generic model for the molecule and nanoparticle with realistic parameters, we demonstrate that the thermopower can be of the order of hundreds of microvolts per degree kelvin and that the thermoelectric figure of merit can reach values close to 1, an improvement of 4 orders of magnitude over existing measurements. This favorable performance persists over a wide range of experimentally relevant parameters and is robust against disorder (in the form of surface-attached molecules) and against electron decoherence at the nanoparticle-molecule interface.

  13. Regulation of Endothelial Adherens Junctions by Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Alejandro Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells form a semipermeable, regulated barrier that limits the passage of fluid, small molecules, and leukocytes between the bloodstream and the surrounding tissues. The adherens junction, a major mechanism of intercellular adhesion, is comprised of transmembrane cadherins forming homotypic interactions between adjacent cells and associated cytoplasmic catenins linking the cadherins to the cytoskeleton. Inflammatory conditions promote the disassembly of the adherens junction and a loss of intercellular adhesion, creating openings or gaps in the endothelium through which small molecules diffuse and leukocytes transmigrate. Tyrosine kinase signaling has emerged as a central regulator of the inflammatory response, partly through direct phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the adherens junction components. This review discusses the findings that support and those that argue against a direct effect of cadherin and catenin phosphorylation in the disassembly of the adherens junction. Recent findings indicate a complex interaction between kinases, phosphatases, and the adherens junction components that allow a fine regulation of the endothelial permeability to small molecules, leukocyte migration, and barrier resealing. PMID:26556953

  14. Role of magnetic anisotropy in spin-filter junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chopdekar, R.V.; Wong, F.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2011-01-10

    We have fabricated oxide-based spin-filter junctions in which we demonstrate that magnetic anisotropy can be used to tune the transport behavior of spin-filter junctions. We have demonstrated spin-filtering behavior in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} junctions where the interface anisotropy plays a significant role in determining transport behavior. Detailed studies of chemical and magnetic structure at the interfaces indicate that abrupt changes in magnetic anisotropy across the nonisostructural interface is the cause of the significant suppression of junction magnetoresistance in junctions with MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} barrier layers.

  15. Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Uzzau, S; Goldblum, S E; Fasano, A

    2000-12-01

    Intercellular tight junctions are dynamic structures involved in vectorial transport of water and electrolytes across the intestinal epithelium. Zonula occludens toxin derived from Vibrio cholerae interacts with a specific intestinal epithelial surface receptor, with subsequent activation of a complex intracellular cascade of events that regulate tight junction permeability. We postulated that this toxin may mimic the effect of a functionally and immunologically related endogenous modulator of intestinal tight junctions. Affinity-purified anti-zonula occludens toxin antibodies and the Ussing chamber assay were used to screen for one or more mammalian zonula occludens toxin analogues in both fetal and adult human intestine. A novel protein, zonulin, was identified that induces tight junction disassembly in non-human primate intestinal epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Comparison of amino acids in the active zonula occludens toxin fragment and zonulin permitted the identification of the putative receptor binding domain within the N-terminal region of the two proteins. Zonulin likely plays a pivotal role in tight junction regulation during developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including tissue morphogenesis, movement of fluid, macromolecules and leukocytes between the intestinal lumen and the interstitium, and inflammatory/autoimmune disorders. PMID:11082037

  16. Molecular mechanisms of gap junction mutations in myelinating cells.

    PubMed

    Sargiannidou, Irene; Markoullis, Kyriaki; Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2010-09-01

    There is an emerging group of neurological disorders that result from genetic mutations affecting gap junction proteins in myelinating cells. The X-linked form of Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT1X) is caused by numerous mutations in the GJB1 gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin32 (Cx32), which is expressed in both Schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS. Patients with CMT1X present mainly with a progressive peripheral neuropathy, showing mixed axonal and demyelinating features. In many cases there is also clinical or subclinical involvement of the CNS with acute or chronic phenotypes of encephalopathy. Furthermore, mutations in the GJA12/GJC2 gene encoding the gap junction protein Cx47, which is expressed in oligodendrocytes, have been identified in families with progressive leukodystrophy, known as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, as well as in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia. Recent studies have provided insights into the pattern of gap junction protein expression and function in CNS and PNS myelinating cells. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo disease models have clarified some of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these disorders. Here we provide an overview of the clinical, genetic, and neurobiological aspects of gap junction disorders affecting the nervous system. PMID:20607661

  17. Arrays of Nano Tunnel Junctions as Infrared Image Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-Ah; Moon, Jeong S.; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Infrared image sensors based on high density rectangular planar arrays of nano tunnel junctions have been proposed. These sensors would differ fundamentally from prior infrared sensors based, variously, on bolometry or conventional semiconductor photodetection. Infrared image sensors based on conventional semiconductor photodetection must typically be cooled to cryogenic temperatures to reduce noise to acceptably low levels. Some bolometer-type infrared sensors can be operated at room temperature, but they exhibit low detectivities and long response times, which limit their utility. The proposed infrared image sensors could be operated at room temperature without incurring excessive noise, and would exhibit high detectivities and short response times. Other advantages would include low power demand, high resolution, and tailorability of spectral response. Neither bolometers nor conventional semiconductor photodetectors, the basic detector units as proposed would partly resemble rectennas. Nanometer-scale tunnel junctions would be created by crossing of nanowires with quantum-mechanical-barrier layers in the form of thin layers of electrically insulating material between them (see figure). A microscopic dipole antenna sized and shaped to respond maximally in the infrared wavelength range that one seeks to detect would be formed integrally with the nanowires at each junction. An incident signal in that wavelength range would become coupled into the antenna and, through the antenna, to the junction. At the junction, the flow of electrons between the crossing wires would be dominated by quantum-mechanical tunneling rather than thermionic emission. Relative to thermionic emission, quantum mechanical tunneling is a fast process.

  18. The effects of connexin phosphorylation on gap junctional communication

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Paul D.; Lau, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Gap junctions are specialized membrane domains composed of collections of channels that directly connect neighboring cells providing for the cell-to-cell diffusion of small molecules, including ions, amino acids, nucleotides, and second messengers. Vertebrate gap junctions are composed of proteins encoded by the “connexin” gene family. In most cases examined, connexins are modified post-translationally by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation has been implicated in the regulation of gap junctional communication at several stages of the connexin “lifecycle”, such as the trafficking, assembly/disassembly, degradation, as well as, the gating of gap junction channels. Since connexin43 (Cx43) is widely expressed in tissues and cell lines, we understand the most about how it is regulated, and thus, connexin43 phosphorylation is a major focus of this review. Recent reports utilizing new methodologies combined with the latest genome information have shown that activation of several kinases including protein kinase A, protein kinase C, p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase, casein kinase 1, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and pp60src kinase can lead to phosphorylation at 12 of the 21 serine and two of the six tyrosine residues in the C-terminal region of connexin43. In several cases, use of site-directed mutants of these sites have shown that these specific phosphorylation events can be linked to changes in gap junctional communication. PMID:15109565

  19. Oncogenic extracellular HSP70 disrupts the gap-junctional coupling between capillary cells

    PubMed Central

    Thuringer, Dominique; Berthenet, Kevin; Cronier, Laurent; Jego, Gaetan; Solary, Eric; Garrido, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    High levels of circulating heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are detected in many cancers. In order to explore the effects of extracellular HSP70 on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), we initially used gap-FRAP technique. Extracellular human HSP70 (rhHSP70), but not rhHSP27, blocks the gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between HMEC, disrupts the structural integrity of HMEC junction plaques, and decreases connexin43 (Cx43) expression, which correlates with the phosphorylation of Cx43 serine residues. Further exploration of these effects identified a rapid transactivation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in a Toll-Like Receptor 4-dependent manner, preceding its internalization. In turn, cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations are generated. Both GJIC blockade and Ca2+ mobilization partially depend on ATP release through Cx43 and pannexin (Panx-1) channels, as demonstrated by blocking activity or expression of channels, and inactivating extracellular ATP. By monitoring dye-spreading into adjacent cells, we show that HSP70 released from human monocytes in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor, prevents the formation of GJIC between monocytes and HMEC. Therapeutic manipulation of this pathway could be of interest in inflammatory and tumor growth. PMID:25868858

  20. Charge transport in vertically aligned, self-assembled peptide nanotube junctions.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Mordechay; Zakrassov, Alexander; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2012-01-21

    The self-assembly propensity of peptides has been extensively utilized in recent years for the formation of supramolecular nanostructures. In particular, the self-assembly of peptides into fibrils and nanotubes makes them promising building blocks for electronic and electro-optic applications. However, the mechanisms of charge transfer in these wire-like structures, especially in ambient conditions, are not yet fully understood. We describe here a layer-by-layer deposition methodology of short self-assembled cyclic peptide nanotubes, which results in vertically oriented nanotubes on gold substrates. Using this novel deposition methodology, we have fabricated molecular junctions with a conductive atomic force microscopy tip as a second electrode. Studies of the junctions' current-voltage characteristics as a function of the nanotube length revealed an efficient charge transfer in these supramolecular structures, with a low current attenuation constant of 0.1 Å(-1), which indicate that electron transfer is dominated by hopping. Moreover, the threshold voltage to field-emission dominated transport was found to increase with peptide length in a manner that depends on the nature of the contact with the electrodes. The flexibility in the design of the peptide monomers and the ability to control their sequential order over the nanotube by means of the layer-by-layer assembly process, which is demonstrated in this work, can be used to engineer the electronic properties of self-assembled peptide nanotubes toward device applications. PMID:22116517

  1. Tumor Suppressor Scribble Regulates Assembly of Tight Junctions in the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I.; Young, Cheryl; Beste, Kyle Den; Capaldo, Christopher T.; Humbert, Patrick O.; Brennwald, Patrick; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2010-01-01

    Formation of the epithelial barrier and apico-basal cell polarity represent two characteristics and mutually dependent features of differentiated epithelial monolayers. They are controlled by special adhesive structures, tight junctions (TJs), and polarity protein complexes that define the apical and the basolateral plasma membrane. The functional interplay between TJs and polarity complexes remains poorly understood. We investigated the role of Scribble, a basolateral polarity protein and known tumor suppressor, in regulating TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Scribble was enriched at TJs in T84 and SK-CO15 intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and sections of normal human colonic mucosa. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Scribble in SK-CO15 cells attenuated development of epithelial barrier and inhibited TJ reassembly independently of other basolateral polarity proteins Lgl-1 and Dlg-1. Scribble selectively co-imunoprecipitated with TJ protein ZO-1, and ZO-1 was important for Scribble recruitment to intercellular junctions and TJ reassembly. Lastly, Scribble was mislocalized from TJs and its expression down-regulated in interferon-?-treated T84 cell monolayers and inflamed human intestinal mucosa in vivo. We conclude that Scribble is an important regulator of TJ functions and plasticity in the intestinal epithelium. Down-regulation of Scribble may mediate mucosal barrier breakdown during intestinal inflammation. PMID:19959811

  2. Drosophila S6 Kinase Like Inhibits Neuromuscular Junction Growth by Downregulating the BMP Receptor Thickveins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoli; Wu, Yingga; Du, Li; Li, Wenhua; Xiong, Ying; Yao, Aiyu; Wang, Qifu; Zhang, Yong Q.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic connections must be precisely controlled to ensure proper neural circuit formation. In Drosophila melanogaster, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) promotes growth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by binding and activating the BMP ligand receptors wishful thinking (Wit) and thickveins (Tkv) expressed in motor neurons. We report here that an evolutionally conserved, previously uncharacterized member of the S6 kinase (S6K) family S6K like (S6KL) acts as a negative regulator of BMP signaling. S6KL null mutants were viable and fertile but exhibited more satellite boutons, fewer and larger synaptic vesicles, larger spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potential (mEJP) amplitudes, and reduced synaptic endocytosis at the NMJ terminals. Reducing the gene dose by half of tkv in S6KL mutant background reversed the NMJ overgrowth phenotype. The NMJ phenotypes of S6KL mutants were accompanied by an elevated level of Tkv protein and phosphorylated Mad, an effector of the BMP signaling pathway, in the nervous system. In addition, Tkv physically interacted with S6KL in cultured S2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of S6KL enhanced Tkv expression, while S6KL overexpression downregulated Tkv in cultured S2 cells. This latter effect was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Our results together demonstrate for the first time that S6KL regulates synaptic development and function by facilitating proteasomal degradation of the BMP receptor Tkv. PMID:25748449

  3. Preparation of novel HTS films and tunnel junctions for advanced C3I sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Benjamin J.; Emery, Teresa H.; Berggren, Susan A. E.; Leese de Escobar, Anna M.; Jeon, Inho; Maple, M. B.

    2015-05-01

    Research into the development of advanced RF electronics and devices having high-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) circuitry is being carried out in the Cryogenic Exploitation of RF (CERF) laboratory at SPAWAR Systems Center (SSC) - Pacific. Recently, we have developed a novel annealing process wherein a film of YBa2Cu3Ox is produced having a gradient of oxygen composition along a given direction which we refer to as YBa2Cu3O?x. Such samples are intended for rapid experimental investigation of the evolution of electronic properties within the compound and in combination with structurally compatible functional oxide materials as integrated sensor devices. We present here an investigation as to the extent to which local oxygen content affects the ion milling process in the formation of Josephson junctions in the HTS compound YBa2Cu3O?x. We find an abrupt transition in the profile and depth of ion milled trenches at oxygen concentrations at and below the well ordered oxygen level, O6.72. The method described here shows good potential for use in the fabrication of large numbers of uniform Josephson junctions in films of YBa2Cu3Ox, as either a complementary processing tool for grain boundary, step edge, or ion damaged formed JJs, or as a stand alone method for producing nano-bridge JJ's.

  4. Junction optimization in HgCdTe: Shockley-Read-Hall generation-recombination suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, J.; DeWames, R. E.; DeCuir, E. A.; Bellotti, E.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

    2015-07-01

    Heterojunction device design concepts are leveraged to reduce depletion layer generation-recombination (G-R) dark current in planar P+-on-n SWIR HgCdTe infrared detectors. Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) depletion dark current (when present) is expected to be the dominant dark current component at low temperatures, and in fact, it is beneficial for the transition from diffusion to G-R to be at such relatively low temperatures. However, it is empirically observed that even for relatively long values of the SRH lifetime ( 20 ? s ), the transition occurs at relatively high temperatures (>200 K) for material with a cut-off wavelength of 2.5 ? m . A key device design parameter of P+-on-n photodiodes is the position of the electrical junction relative to the hetero-metallurgical interface. Junction formation via p-type arsenic implantation into the narrow-gap absorber layer is typically chosen for efficient collection of diffusion current, however, other configurations are possible as well. In this letter, we numerically explore the conditions that reduce depletion dark current without reducing the quantum efficiency (QE). The findings support the assertion that device design conditions exist in SWIR HgCdTe that essentially eliminate the depletion dark current without significantly reducing the QE.

  5. MAGUKs, scaffolding proteins at cell junctions, are substrates of different proteases during apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, S; Gregorc, U; Vidergar, N; Javier, R; Bredt, D S; Vandenabeele, P; Pardo, J; Simon, M M; Turk, V; Banks, L; Turk, B

    2011-01-01

    A major feature of apoptotic cell death is gross structural changes, one of which is the loss of cell–cell contacts. The caspases, executioners of apoptosis, were shown to cleave several proteins involved in the formation of cell junctions. The membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs), which are typically associated with cell junctions, have a major role in the organization of protein–protein complexes at plasma membranes and are therefore potentially important caspase targets during apoptosis. We report here that MAGUKs are cleaved and/or degraded by executioner caspases, granzyme B and several cysteine cathepsins in vitro. When apoptosis was induced by UV-irradiation and staurosporine in different epithelial cell lines, caspases were found to efficiently cleave MAGUKs in these cell models, as the cleavages could be prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)fluoromethylketone. Using a selective lysosomal disrupting agent -leucyl--leucine methyl ester, which induces apoptosis through the lysosomal pathway, it was further shown that MAGUKs are also cleaved by the cathepsins in HaCaT and CaCo-2 cells. Immunohistological data showed rapid loss of MAGUKs at the sites of cell–cell contacts, preceding actual cell detachment, suggesting that cleavage of MAGUKs is an important step in fast and efficient cell detachment. PMID:21368887

  6. 76 FR 10938 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction: Clackamas County, OR...project, Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction, Clackamas County, Oregon...587-4716. The Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction Final Environmental...

  7. Cofilin mediates tight-junction opening by redistributing actin and tight-junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Nagumo, Yoko; Han, Junkyu; Bellila, Amor; Isoda, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshiyuki

    2008-12-19

    We previously found that capsaicin induces tight-junction (TJ) opening accompanied with cofilin dephosphorylation/activation in intestinal Caco-2 cells. Here, we examined the role of cofilin in TJ regulation, and analyzed the structural events that lead to TJ opening. We transfected Caco-2 cells with wild-type cofilin [cofilin(wt)] or its constitutively active mutant cofilin(S3A). We found that the decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was slower in cofilin(wt) transfectants and faster in cofilin(S3A) mutants than in vector controls. Moreover, cofilin dephosphorylation corresponded to the rate of TER decrease. Capsaicin treatment changed the localization of TJ proteins and altered the F-actin structure, but in a manner different from those depend on myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). These results strongly support the importance of cofilin in TJ opening, suggesting cofilin as a target for TJ permeability regulation in epithelial cells. PMID:18952063

  8. Target-regulated proximity hybridization with three-way DNA junction for in situ enhanced electronic detection of marine biotoxin based on isothermal cycling signal amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Jinfeng; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Lan; Tang, Dianping

    2015-07-15

    A new signal amplification strategy based on target-regulated DNA proximity hybridization (TRPH) reaction accompanying formation of three-way DNA junction was designed for electronic detection of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR used in this case), coupling with junction-induced isothermal cycling signal amplification. Initially, a sandwiched-type immunoreaction was carried out in a low-cost PCR tube between anti-MC-LR mAb1 antibody-labeled DNA1 (mAb1-DNA1) and anti-MC-LR mAb2-labeled DNA2 (mAb2-DNA2) in the presence of target to form a three-way DNA junction. Then, the junction could undergo an unbiased strand displacement reaction on an h-like DNA nanostructure-modified electrode (labeled with methylene blue redox tag on the short DNA strand), thereby resulting in the dissociation of methylene blue-labeled signal DNA from the electrode. The newly formed double-stranded DNA could be cleaved again by exonuclease III, and the released three-way DNA junction retriggered the strand-displacement reaction with h-like DNA nanostructures for junction recycling. During the strand-displacement reaction, numerous methylene blue-labeled DNA strands were far away from the electrode, thus decreasing the detectable electrochemical signal within the applied potentials. Under optimal conditions, the TRPH-based immunosensing system exhibited good electrochemical responses for detecting target MC-LR at a concentration as low as 1.0ngkg(-1) (1.0ppt). Additionally, the precision, reproducibility, specificity and method accuracy were also investigated with acceptable results. PMID:25747510

  9. Parallel fabrication of magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars by nanosphere lithography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W. G.; Pearse, A.; Li, M.; Hageman, S.; Chen, A. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Chien, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method for fabricating magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars that uses polystyrene nanospheres as a lithographic template. Unlike the common approaches, which depend on electron beam lithography to sequentially fabricate each nanopillar, this method is capable of patterning a large number of nanopillars simultaneously. Both random and ordered nanosphere patterns have been explored for fabricating high quality tunneling junctions with magnetoresistance in excess of 100%, employing ferromagnetic layers with both out-of-plane and in-plane easy axis. Novel voltage induced switching has been observed in these structures. This method provides a cost-effective way of rapidly fabricating a large number of tunnel junction nanopillars in parallel. PMID:23739347

  10. Recovery by triple junction motion in heavily deformed metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.

    2015-08-01

    A number of processes may occur during recovery, which reduce the stored energy and coarsen the structure, paving the way for the nucleation of recrystallization. In this review, recovery is discussed based on the initial deformed structure. Recovery in samples deformed to low-to-medium strains is briefly considered, whereas recovery in samples deformed to much higher strains is discussed in more detail. An example is Al, where a new and important recovery mechanism is triple junction motion, which can remove thin lamellae and consequently increase the thickness of neighbouring lamellae. This recovery mechanism therefore coarsens the structure and causes a gradual transition from a lamellar to a near equiaxed structure preceding recrystallization. This mechanism is discussed in conjunction with structural pinning, which stabilizes the coarsening microstructure, thereby balancing the forces controlling the rate of recovery by triple junction motion. Operation of triple junction motion in other heavily deformed metals, such as Ni and Cu, is also briefly discussed.

  11. Advanced materials development for multi-junction monolithic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, L.R.; Reno, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    We report results in three areas of research relevant to the fabrication of monolithic multi-junction photovoltaic devices. (1) The use of compliant intervening layers grown between highly mismatched materials, GaAs and GaP (same lattice constant as Si), is shown to increase the structural quality of the GaAs overgrowth. (2) The use of digital alloys applied to the MBE growth of GaAs{sub x}Sb{sub l-x} (a candidate material for a two junction solar cell) provides increased control of the alloy composition without degrading the optical properties. (3) A nitrogen plasma discharge is shown to be an excellent p-type doping source for CdTe and ZnTe, both of which are candidate materials for a two junction solar cell.

  12. Correlation of breaking forces, conductances and geometries of molecular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Koji; Pobelov, Ilya V.; Manrique, David Zsolt; Pope, Thomas; Mészáros, Gábor; Gulcur, Murat; Bryce, Martin R.; Lambert, Colin J.; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Electrical and mechanical properties of elongated gold-molecule-gold junctions formed by tolane-type molecules with different anchoring groups (pyridyl, thiol, amine, nitrile and dihydrobenzothiophene) were studied in current-sensing force spectroscopy experiments and density functional simulations. Correlations between forces, conductances and junction geometries demonstrate that aromatic tolanes bind between electrodes as single molecules or as weakly-conductive dimers held by mechanically-weak ? ? ? stacking. In contrast with the other anchors that form only S-Au or N-Au bonds, the pyridyl ring also forms a highly-conductive cofacial link to the gold surface. Binding of multiple molecules creates junctions with higher conductances and mechanical strengths than the single-molecule ones. PMID:25758349

  13. Rectifying behaviour of spin coated pn hetero-junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogamalar, N. Rajeswari; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Rectifying pn hetero- junction is fabricated with an acceptor p-type organic semiconductor namely tetra- chloro dihydroxy tetra-iodo fluorescein (Rose Bengal (RB)) followed by an inorganic n-type ZnO semiconductor on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The n-type ZnO films are formed by unintentional doping and doping with aluminium (Al) and yttrium (Y) donors. The surface morphology and the distribution of grains are observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the rectifying diode is measured to characterize the junction properties. The I-V plots obtained from the hetero- junction with electric contact shows a diode characteristic different from that of an ideal behavior. The overall efficiency of the diode exhibits a greater dependency on the film crystallinity, carrier concentration, and reverse saturation current.

  14. Length and energy gap dependences of thermoelectricity in nanostructured junctions.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-17

    The possibilities of an enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit value, ZT, in a nanostructured junction are examined for a wide range of parameter values in a theoretical model. Our research shows that the figure of merit can take a very large maximum, which depends both on the length and the energy gap values. The maximum of ZT is achieved when the Fermi level of the electrodes is aligned to the edge of the electronic transmission function of the junction, where both the conductance and the Seebeck constant are significantly enhanced. On the basis of our results, we conclude that nanowires and molecular junctions form a special class of systems where a large ZT can be expected in some cases. PMID:23528878

  15. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

  16. Supercurrents in InSb nanowire Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Yu, Peng; Plissard, Sébastien; Car, Diana; Mourik, Vincent; Zuo, Kun; van Woerkom, David; Szombati, Daniel; Kouwenhoven, Leo; Bakkers, Erik; Frolov, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Majorana fermions have been predicted in one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit interactions coupled to superconductors. Effects such as odd number Shapiro steps disappearing and critical currents oscillating in magnetic field have been proposed as signatures of Majorana fermions in Josephson junctions. Here we investigate supercurrents in NbTiN-InSb nanowire-NbTiN Josephson junctions as a function of back gate and magnetic field. When an external magnetic field was applied along the nanowire, we observe gate-tunable oscillations in the critical current. To clarify the origin of this oscillating critical current, we are studying the spectra of Shapiro steps, which may give us a better understanding of such Josephson junctions and guide the search for additional signatures of Majorana fermions.

  17. Superpoissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cascales, Juan Pedro; Martinez, Isidoro; Aliev, Farkhad G.; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Lin, Minn-Tsong; Szczepa?ski, Tomasz; Dugaev, Vitalii K.; Barna?, Józef

    2014-12-08

    Organic molecules have recently revolutionized ways to create new spintronic devices. Despite intense studies, the statistics of tunneling electrons through organic barriers remains unclear. Here, we investigate conductance and shot noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) barriers a few nm thick. For junctions in the electron tunneling regime, with magnetoresistance ratios between 10% and 40%, we observe superpoissonian shot noise. The Fano factor exceeds in 1.5–2 times the maximum values reported for magnetic tunnel junctions with inorganic barriers, indicating spin dependent bunching in tunneling. We explain our main findings in terms of a model which includes tunneling through a two level (or multilevel) system, originated from interfacial bonds of the PTCDA molecules. Our results suggest that interfaces play an important role in the control of shot noise when electrons tunnel through organic barriers.

  18. Unconventional resistive switching behavior in ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Mao, H J; Song, C; Xiao, L R; Gao, S; Cui, B; Peng, J J; Li, F; Pan, F

    2015-04-21

    We investigate an unconventional resistive switching (RS) behavior in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/BaTiO3/metal (LSMO/BTO) ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs), which is dominated by the variation of the barrier potential profile modulated by the migration of oxygen vacancies in the p-LSMO/n-BTO junction. The LSMO/BTO/Co junction exhibits a remarkable self-rectifying effect ascribed to the high-density interface state at the BTO/Co interface, in contrast to the symmetric conductivity when the top metal electrode is inert Pt. The effects of ferroelectric polarization on the RS behavior are also emphasized. Our work builds a bridge between FTJs and resistive random access memory devices. PMID:25789877

  19. Craniocervical junction tuberculosis: Usual pathology at an unusual site

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Biswaranjan; Patnaik, Sanjeev; Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Biswal, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of the craniocervical junction is rare even where the condition is endemic. It poses problems in both diagnosis and management if not managed in time it may cause life-threatening complications. Case Description: An 18-year-old male patient presented with pain in the nape of the neck since 12 months duration which was not improving with medication. After magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spine, he was diagnosed as craniocervical junction TB. We did a transoral decompression of abscess with biopsy along with posterior decompression of cord and occipitocervical fusion. Biopsy of pathological material came as TB. He was advised for anti-tubercular therapy for 18 months. Conclusion: Although craniocervical junction TB is a rare disease, the outcome of treatment is good. Antituberculous drug therapy remains the mainstay of treatment after confirming the diagnosis. The surgical management options include transoral decompression with or without posterior fusion, depending upon the presence and persistence of atlantoaxial instability. PMID:26229730

  20. Interface Structure and Transport of Complex Oxide Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Wong, F.; Chopdekar, R.V.; Chi, M.; Arenholz, E.; Browning, N.D; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-11-05

    The interface structure and magnetism of hybrid magnetic tunnel junction-spin filter devices have been investigated and correlated with their transport properties. Magnetic tunnel junctions made of a spinel NiMn2O4 tunnel barrier sandwiched by theoretically predicted half-metallic electrodes, perovskite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and spinel Fe3O4, exhibit very high crystalline quality as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Structurally abrupt interfaces allow for the distinct magnetic switching of the electrodes as well as large junction magnetoresistance. The change in the magnetic anisotropy observed at the spinel-spinel interface is indicative of a thin interdiffused magnetically soft interfacial layer. The strong exchange coupling at this interface allows for low background magnetoresistance, and a spin-filter effect with when the barrier is ferrimagnetic.

  1. Rat liver gap junction protein: properties and partial sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, B J; Hunkapiller, M W; Grim, L B; Hood, L E; Revel, J P

    1981-01-01

    Gap junctions, strongly implicated as channels for direct cell-to-cell communication, have been isolated from rat liver in high yield and purity. These gap junction fractions contain few morphologically recognizable contaminants, but NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals a number of polypeptides. With the exception of a nonjunctional component of Mr 38,000 and some poorly soluble material, including collagen, all the polypeptides have very similar or identical two-dimensional peptide maps and arise from proteolytic cleavage of the COOH-terminus or aggregation of a Mr 28,000 protein. We report the sequence of the NH2-terminal 52 amino acids of this protein. The polypeptide (Mr approximately equal to 10,000) characteristic of trypsin-treated gap junction preparations is shown to be two distinct polypeptides, both derived from the Mr 28,000 protein. Images PMID:6278482

  2. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A processing system capable of producing solar cell junctions by ion implantation followed by pulsed electron beam annealing was developed and constructed. The machine was to be capable of processing 4-inch diameter single-crystal wafers at a rate of 10(7) wafers per year. A microcomputer-controlled pulsed electron beam annealer with a vacuum interlocked wafer transport system was designed, built and demonstrated to produce solar cell junctions on 4-inch wafers with an AMI efficiency of 12%. Experiments showed that a non-mass-analyzed (NMA) ion beam could implant 10 keV phosphorous dopant to form solar cell junctions which were equivalent to mass-analyzed implants. A NMA ion implanter, compatible with the pulsed electron beam annealer and wafer transport system was designed in detail but was not built because of program termination.

  3. Mesoscopic Josephson junctions with switchable current-phase relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strambini, E.; Bergeret, F. S.; Giazotto, F.

    2015-10-01

    We propose and analyze a mesoscopic Josephson junction consisting of two ferromagnetic insulator-superconductors (FI-Ss) coupled through a normal metal (N) layer. The Josephson current of the junction is non-trivially affected by the spin-splitting field induced by the FIs in the two superconductors. In particular, it shows sizeable enhancement by increasing the amplitude of the exchange field (hex) and displays a switchable current-phase relation which depends on the relative orientation of h ex in the FIs. In a realistic EuS/Al-based setup this junction can be exploited as a high-resolution threshold sensor for the magnetic field as well as an on-demand tunable kinetic inductor.

  4. Field-free junctions for surface electrode ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, Robert; Schmied, R.; Blain, M. G.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D.

    2015-05-01

    Intersections between transport guides in a network of RF ion traps are a key ingredient to many implementations of scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Several junction architectures demonstrated so far are limited by varying radial secular frequencies, a reduced trap depth, or a non-vanishing RF field along the transport channel. We report on the design and progress in implementing a configurable microfabricated surface electrode Y-junction that employs switchable RF electrodes. An essentially RF-field-free pseudopotential guide between any two legs of the junction can be established by applying RF potential to a suitable pair of electrodes. The transport channel's height above the electrodes, its depth and radial curvature are constant to within 15%. Supported by IARPA, Sandia, NSA, ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  5. Morphodynamic model validation for tropical river junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Nicholas, Andrew; Sambrook Smith, Greg

    2015-04-01

    The use of morphodynamic numerical modelling as an exploratory tool for understanding tropical braided river evolution and processes is well established. However there remains a challenge in confirming how well complex numerical models are representing reality. Complete validation of morphodynamic models is likely to prove impossible with confirmation of model predictions inherently partial and validation only ever possible in relative terms. Within these limitations it is still vital for researchers to confirm that models are accurately representing morphodynamic processes and that model output is shown to match to a variety of field observations to increase the probability the model is performing correctly. To date the majority of morphodynamic model validation has focused on comparing planform features or statistics from a single time slice. Furthermore, these approaches have also usually only discriminated between "wet" and "dry" parts of the system with no account for vegetation. There is therefore a need for a robust method to compare the morphological evolution of tropical braided rivers to model output. In this presentation we describe a method for extracting land cover classification data from Landsat imagery using a supervised classification system. By generating land cover classifications, including vegetation, for multiple years we are then able to generate areas of erosion and deposition between years. These data allow comparison between the predictions generated by an established morphodynamic model (HSTAR) and field data between time-steps, as well as for individual time steps. This effectively allows the "dynamic" aspect of the morphodynamic model predictions to be compared to observations. We further advance these comparisons by using image analysis techniques to compare the: planform, erosional and depositional shapes generated by the model and from field observations. Using this suite of techniques we are able to dramatically increase the number and detail of our observational data and the robustness of resulting comparisons to model predictions. By increasing our confidence in model output we are able to subsequently use numerical modelling as a heuristic tool to investigate tropical river processes and morphodynamics at large river junctions.

  6. Mechanosensitive Adaptation of E-Cadherin Turnover across adherens Junctions

    PubMed Central

    de Beco, Simon; Perney, Jean-Baptiste; Coscoy, Sylvie; Amblard, François

    2015-01-01

    In the natural and technological world, multi-agent systems strongly depend on how the interactions are ruled between their individual components, and the proper control of time-scales and synchronization is a key issue. This certainly applies to living tissues when multicellular assemblies such as epithelial cells achieve complex morphogenetic processes. In epithelia, because cells are known to individually generate actomyosin contractile stress, each individual intercellular adhesive junction line is subjected to the opposed stresses independently generated by its two partner cells. Contact lines should thus move unless their two partner cells mechanically match. The geometric homeostasis of mature epithelia observed at short enough time-scale thus raises the problem to understand how cells, if considered as noisy individual actuators, do adapt across individual intercellular contacts to locally balance their time-average contractile stress. Structural components of adherens junctions, cytoskeleton (F-actin) and homophilic bonds (E-cadherin) are quickly renewed at steady-state. These turnovers, if they depend on forces exerted at contacts, may play a key role in the mechanical adaptation of epithelia. Here we focus on E-cadherin as a force transducer, and we study the local regulation and the mechanosensitivity of its turnover in junctions. We show that E-cadherin turnover rates match remarkably well on either side of mature intercellular contacts, despite the fact that they exhibit large fluctuations in time and variations from one junction to another. Using local mechanical and biochemical perturbations, we find faster turnover rates with increased tension, and asymmetric rates at unbalanced junctions. Together, the observations that E-cadherin turnover, and its local symmetry or asymmetry at each side of the junction, are mechanosensitive, support the hypothesis that E-cadherin turnover could be involved in mechanical homeostasis of epithelia. PMID:26046627

  7. Environmental Audit of the Grand Junction Projects Office

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is located in Mesa County, Colorado, immediately south and west of the Grand Junction city limits. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Colorado Raw Materials Office at the present-day Grand Junction Projects Office in 1947, to aid in the development of a viable domestic uranium industry. Activities at the site included sampling uranium concentrate; pilot-plant milling research, including testing and processing of uranium ores; and operation of a uranium mill pilot plant from 1954 to 1958. The last shipment of uranium concentrate was sent from GJPO in January, 1975. Since that time the site has been utilized to support various DOE programs, such as the former National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and the Technical Measurements Center (TMC). All known contamination at GJPO is believed to be the result of the past uranium milling, analyses, and storage activities. Hazards associated with the wastes impounded at GJPO include surface and ground-water contamination and potential radon and gamma-radiation exposure. This report documents the results of the Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) located in Grand Junction, Colorado. The Grand Junction Baseline Environmental Audit was conducted from May 28 to June 12, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at GJPO, as well as GJPO activities at the State-Owned Temporary Repository. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Annexin A2 is Required for Endothelial Cell Junctional Response to S1P 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Rebecca

    2014-01-14

    coverslips in addition to fibronectin. We characterized these reticular junctions temporally, showing the number of reticular junctions increased over time, particularly after 8 hours in low serum culture medium. Levels of VE-cadherin and zonula occludens-1...

  9. Summary of mathematical models for a conventional and vertical junction photoconverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The geometry and computer programming for mathematical models of a one-dimensional conventional photoconverter, a one-dimensional vertical junction photoconverter, a three-dimensional conventinal photoconverter, and a three-dimensional vertical junction solar cell are discussed.

  10. Regulation of specific connexins differentially alters gap junction permeability and endothelial cell function

    E-print Network

    Elihu, David Morad

    2006-01-01

    While many have explored how vascular processes alter gap junction communication and composition few have analyzed the role of specific gap junction connexin proteins in regulating cellular communication and wound healing. ...

  11. 77 FR 38705 - Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ...Administration Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction...the Draft ``Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction...standards and recommendations for airport light bases, transformer housings,...

  12. Interaction of Josephson Junction and Distant Vortex in Narrow Thin-Film Superconducting Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-01-31

    The phase difference between the banks of an edge-type planar Josephson junction crossing the narrow thin-film strip depends on wether or not vortices are present in the junction banks. For a vortex close to the junction this effect has been seen by Golod, Rydh, and Krasnov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 227003 (2010)], who showed that the vortex may turn the junction into ? type. It is shown here that even if the vortex is far away from the junction, it still changes the 0 junction to a ? junction when situated close to the strip edges. Within the approximation used, the effect is independent of the vortex-junction separation, a manifestation of the topology of the vortex phase which extends to macroscopic distances of superconducting coherence.

  13. Experimental Testing and Modeling Analysis of Solute Mixing at Water Distribution Pipe Junctions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. Here we have categorized pipe junctions into five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for describing the solute mixing ...

  14. Analysis of Waveguide Junction Discontinuities Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.

    1997-01-01

    A Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to determine reflection and transmission coefficients of rectangular waveguide junction discontinuities. An H-plane discontinuity, an E-plane ridge discontinuity, and a step discontinuity in a concentric rectangular waveguide junction are analyzed using the FEM procedure. Also, reflection and transmission coefficients due to presence of a gap between two sections of a rectangular waveguide are determined using the FEM. The numerical results obtained by the present method are in excellent agreement with the earlier published results. The numerical results obtained by the FEM are compared with the numerical results obtained using the Mode Matching Method (MMM) and also with the measured data.

  15. Photoemission induced bias in two-dimensional silicon pn junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lavayssiere, M.; Renault, O.; Mariolle, D.; Veillerot, M.; Barnes, J. P.; Hartmann, J. M.; Leroy, J.; Barrett, N.

    2011-11-14

    Spectroscopic x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy was used to study the role of the pn junction on imaging of micron scale n- and p-doped silicon patterns epitaxially grown on p- and n-type substrates, respectively. In the closed n-doped patterns, contrast with respect to open patterns is observed in both work function and Si 2p binding energy. Reverse bias at the junction creates a shift of electrical potential induced by photoemission in the closed patterns. No shift is observed for p-doped patterns on n substrate, pointing to the importance of doping combination and pattern geometry in the contrast observed in electron microscopy.

  16. Observation of negative absolute resistance in a Josephson junction

    E-print Network

    J. Nagel; D. Speer; T. Gaber; A. Sterck; R. Eichhorn; P. Reimann; K. Ilin; M. Siegel; D. Koelle; R. Kleiner

    2008-01-28

    We experimentally demonstrate the occurrence of negative absolute resistance (NAR) up to about $-1\\Omega$ in response to an externally applied dc current for a shunted Nb-Al/AlO$_x$-Nb Josephson junction, exposed to a microwave current at frequencies in the GHz range. The realization (or not) of NAR depends crucially on the amplitude of the applied microwave current. Theoretically, the system is described by means of the resistively and capacitively shunted junction model in terms of a moderately damped, classical Brownian particle dynamics in a one-dimensional potential. We find excellent agreement of the experimental results with numerical simulations of the model.

  17. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions for information storage and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Vincent; Bibes, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Computer memory that is non-volatile and therefore able to retain its information even when switched off enables computers that do not need to be booted up. One of the technologies for such applications is ferroelectric random access memories, where information is stored as ferroelectric polarization. To miniaturize such devices to the size of a few nanometres, ferroelectric tunnel junctions have seen considerable interest. There, the electric polarization determines the electrical resistance of these thin films, switching the current on and off. With control over other parameters such as magnetism also being possible, ferroelectric tunnel junctions represent a promising and flexible device design.

  18. Microwave signatures of Majorana states in a topological Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väyrynen, Jukka I.; Rastelli, Gianluca; Belzig, Wolfgang; Glazman, Leonid I.

    2015-10-01

    We find the admittance of a topological Josephson junction Y (? ,?0,T ) as a function of frequency ? , the static phase bias ?0 applied to the superconducting leads, and temperature T . The dissipative part of Y allows for spectroscopy of the subgap states in the junction. The resonant frequencies ?M ,n(?0) for transitions involving the Majorana (M ) doublet exhibit characteristic kinks in the ?0 dependence at ?0=? . The kinks, associated with decoupled Majorana states, remain sharp and the corresponding spectroscopic lines are bright at any temperature, as long as the leads are superconducting. The developed theory may help with regard to extracting quantitative information about Majorana states from microwave spectroscopy.

  19. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions for information storage and processing.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Vincent; Bibes, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Computer memory that is non-volatile and therefore able to retain its information even when switched off enables computers that do not need to be booted up. One of the technologies for such applications is ferroelectric random access memories, where information is stored as ferroelectric polarization. To miniaturize such devices to the size of a few nanometres, ferroelectric tunnel junctions have seen considerable interest. There, the electric polarization determines the electrical resistance of these thin films, switching the current on and off. With control over other parameters such as magnetism also being possible, ferroelectric tunnel junctions represent a promising and flexible device design. PMID:25056141

  20. Pump-Probe Noise Spectroscopy of Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Maicol A; Selzer, Yoram; Peskin, Uri; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The slow response of electronic components in junctions limits the direct applicability of pump-probe type spectroscopy in assessing the intramolecular dynamics. Recently the possibility of getting information on a sub-picosecond time scale from dc current measurements was proposed. We revisit the idea of picosecond resolution by pump-probe spectroscopy from dc measurements and show that any intramolecular dynamics not directly related to charge transfer in the current direction is missed by current measurements. We propose a pump-probe dc shot noise spectroscopy as a suitable alternative. Numerical examples of time-dependent and average responses of junctions are presented for generic models. PMID:26261965