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Sample records for ultra-shallow junction formation

  1. Carbon co-implantation for ultra-shallow P{sup +}-N junction formation

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, M.; Sultan, A.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Carbon co-implantation in silicon has been studied as an approach for achieving ultra-shallow dopant profiles. Carbon implants to a dose of 1{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} were performed in conjunction with 2 and 5 keV boron and BF{sub 2} implants. Annealed samples implanted with carbon and boron exhibited junction depths up to 250{angstrom} shallower than control samples. However, no change was observed in dopant profiles when BF{sub 2} was used as the implanted dopant species. Residual defect analysis and electrical characterization of boron implanted samples suggest that enhanced carbon levels inhibit defect dissolution mechanisms thereby degrading electrical properties of the junctions. Alternatively, carbon and BF{sub 2} implanted samples exhibit no changes in these parameters from control samples.

  2. Formation and characterizations of ultra-shallow p +-n junctions using B 10H 14 ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, G. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Whang, C. N.; Im, S.; Song, J.-H.; Song, J. H.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, H. K.

    2003-05-01

    We report on the ultra-shallow p +-n junction formation by decaborane (B 10H 14) ion implantation into n-Si(1 0 0) substrates. The implantation energies of 5, 10 and 15 keV were used with the doses of 1 10 12 and 1 10 13 cm -2. The implanted samples were then subject to activation-annealing at 800, 900 and 1000 C for 10 s. According to the results of secondary ion mass spectrometry, the p + layer thinner than 50 nm formed in most of the samples. Current-voltage ( I- V) measurements performed on the p +-n junction exhibited that the minimum leakage current density at -5 V was 10 -6 A/cm 2 when the decaborane of 1 10 13 cm -2 was implanted, while the maximum activated carrier dose of p + layers was measured up to 8.1 10 13 cm -2 by Hall measurements.

  3. Formation of Ultra-Shallow Junctions by Advanced Plasma Doping Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Papasouliotis, G. D.; Godet, L.; Singh, V.; Miura, R.; Ito, H.

    2011-01-07

    The fabrication of advanced CMOS devices calls for production worthy doping solutions to address requirements for increasingly shallow and abrupt junctions, while maintaining high dopant activation to meet series resistance requirements. Plasma Doping (PLAD), which has already been adopted in high volume manufacturing in the ultra high dose, low energy regime for advanced DRAM technology nodes, is now being investigated for source drain extension (SDE) implants, where precise and repeatable dopant placement is critical for maintaining control over device parameters. In this article, we investigate the process performance of SDE implants carried out in a VIISta registered PLAD system using p- type dopant precursors. Key metrics, such as junction depth, profile abruptness and sheet resistance are reported for as-implanted junctions, as well as samples processed with low thermal budget anneal techniques. Device performance data demonstrating the feasibility of the approach are presented. The advanced control features in the PLAD system are critical in enabling the process performance required for SDE implants.

  4. Carbon and fluorine co-implantation for boron diffusion suppression in extremely ultra shallow junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miakonkikh, Andrey V.; Rogozhin, Aleksander E.; Rudakov, Valeriy I.; Rudenko, Konstantin V.; Lukichev, Vladimir F.

    2014-12-01

    Formation of ultra shallow p+-junctions in silicon by plasma immersion ion implantation were investigated. The effect of carbon and fluorine coimplantation were studied experimentally. Dependence of this effect from carbon concentration was studied, as well as positive role of multistep annealing for pure boron implanted samples.

  5. Ultra-Shallow P{sup +}/N Junction Formation in Si Using Low Temperature Solid Phase Epitaxy Assisted with Laser Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Shuhei; Tanaka, Yuki; Fukaya, Takumi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Fuse, Genshu; Kudo, Toshio; Sakuragi, Susumu

    2008-11-03

    A combination of Ge pre-amorphization implantation (Ge-PAI), low-energy B implantation and laser annealing is a promising method to form highly-activated, abrupt and ultra-shallow junctions (USJ). In our previous report of IIT 2006, we succeeded in forming pn junctions less than 10 nm using non-melt double-pulsed green laser. However, a large leakage current under reverse bias was observed consequently due to residual defects in the implanted layer. In this study, a method to form USJ is proposed: a combination of low-temperature solid phase epitaxy and non-melt laser irradiation for B activation. Ge pre-amorphization implantation was performed at energy of 6 keV with a dose of 3x10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. Then B implantation was performed at energy of 0.2 keV with a dose of 1.2x10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}. Samples were annealed at 400 deg. C for 10 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, non-melt laser irradiation was performed at energy of 690 mJ/cm{sup 2} and pulse duration of 100 ns with intervals of 300 ns. As a result, USJ around 10 nm with better crystallinity was successfully formed. And the leakage current of pn diodes was reduced significantly. Moreover, it is proven from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis that transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of B is specifically suppressed.

  6. Depth profile characterization of ultra shallow junction implants.

    PubMed

    Hnicke, Philipp; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Kolbe, Michael; Giubertoni, Damiano; van den Berg, Jaap; Pepponi, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    A need for analysis techniques, complementary to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), for depth profiling dopants in silicon for ultra shallow junction (USJ) applications in CMOS technologies has recently emerged following the difficulties SIMS is facing there. Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis in the soft X-ray range is a high-potential tool for this purpose. It provides excellent conditions for the excitation of the B-K and the As-L(iii,ii) shells. The X-ray standing wave (XSW) field associated with GIXRF on flat samples is used here as a tunable sensor to obtain information about the implantation profile because the in-depth changes of the XSW intensity are dependent on the angle of incidence. This technique is very sensitive to near-surface layers and is therefore well suited for the analysis of USJ distributions. Si wafers implanted with either arsenic or boron at different fluences and implantation energies were used to compare SIMS with synchrotron radiation-induced GIXRF analysis. GIXRF measurements were carried out at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II using monochromatized undulator radiation of well-known radiant power and spectral purity. The use of an absolutely calibrated energy-dispersive detector for the acquisition of the B-Kalpha and As-Lalpha fluorescence radiation enabled the absolute determination of the total retained dose. The concentration profile was obtained by ab initio calculation and comparison with the angular measurements of the X-ray fluorescence. PMID:19941133

  7. Formation of Ultra-Shallow and Low-Reverse-Bias-Current Tantalum-Silicided Junctions Using a Si-Encapsulated Silicidation Technique and Low-Temperature Furnace Annealing below 550C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, Kazuhide; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    1998-08-01

    Low-temperature processing, below 550C, has been developed to form ultra-shallow, low-leakage, and low-contact-resistance junctions with tantalum silicide. We have experimentally demonstrated that the amount of residual defects after ion implantation and subsequent low-temperature annealing is strongly dependent on the substrate dopant concentration for both n+p and p+n junctions. It is also confirmed that ion implantation through Ta is not the main factor inducing larger leakage due to metal-knock-on. As a result, ultra-low leakage current (7.810-10 A/cm2 and 6.610-10 A/cm2 for n+p and p+n junctions at reverse-bias of 5 V) and ultra-shallow junction depth (70 nm and 40 nm for n+p and p+n junctions) have been achieved in Ta-silicided junctions at an annealing temperature of as low as 550C, by employing an ultraclean ion implanter, Si-encapsulated silicidation, and low-dopant-concentration substrate.

  8. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  9. Advanced Use of Therma-Probe for Ultra-Shallow Junction Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanowicz, Janusz; Clarysse, Trudo; Smets, Gerrit; Rosseel, Erik; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2011-11-01

    Therma-Probe (TP) is widely used in the semiconductor industry for the Statistical Process Control (SPC) monitoring of the various ion implantation steps included in the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor process. This fully optical, hence non-destructive and fast, pump-probe technique measures the probe laser reflectance (DC reflectance) as well as the pump-laser-induced changes in probe reflectance (AC reflectance, also called TW signal). In this paper, we report on the latest advances in the use of TP for the monitoring of ultra-shallow junctions both before and after annealing of the implanted layers.

  10. Dopant Activation and Defect Analysis of Ultra-Shallow Junctions Made by Gas Cluster Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yan; Hautala, John; Larson, Larry; Jain, Amitabh

    2008-11-03

    A long-standing problem in the fabrication of junctions by ion implantation is the enhanced diffusion caused by interstitial agglomeration and dissolution on annealing. Another side effect is residual damage that leads to junction leakage. The gas cluster ion beam technique (GCIB) offers a means of introducing dopant atoms without the creation of interstitials due to the low energy non-ballistic nature of the individual atoms and the localized thermal spike associated with the collision event between the large cluster and the silicon surface. We have employed cluster ion beams to infuse B into Si substrates to fabricate ultra-shallow junctions. Various annealing techniques were used to investigate GCIB B activation. We find that annealing at temperatures around 950 deg. C results in profiles that do not exhibit the extended tail characteristic of enhanced diffusion. This is in contrast to profiles in ion implanted samples, which inevitably result in enhanced diffusion. For laser and flash anneal, because the time scale of process is short, multiple anneal passes are needed in order to achieve low sheet resistance with little diffusion. We have shown that control of interfacial and surface smoothness is critical in improving junction characteristics.

  11. Evaluation of Si pre-amorphization for obtaining ultra-shallow junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, A.; Banerjee, S.; List, S.

    1996-12-31

    Two pre-amorphization techniques, shallow and deep amorphization using Si implants have been evaluated for obtaining shallow p-type junctions using B or BF2 implants followed by a Rapid Thermal Anneal (RTA) step. The effect on diffusion behavior and evolution of end-of-range dislocation loops has been studied experimentally using secondary ion mass spectrometry and planar and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The shallow pre-amorphization followed by the dopant implant does not help in reduction of junction depth for either B or BF{sub 2} implants. Deep amorphization does help reduce junction depth. The pMOSFET leakage for deep amorphization scheme under a drain bias of 2.5 V is low ({approximately}pA/{mu}m). However, the reverse diode leakage for different diode structures for deep pre-amorphization is high ({approximately}nA) for a reverse bias of 3.6 V.

  12. Fabrication of Ultra-Shallow Junctions on 300 mm Wafers Using the Plasma Immersion Implanter PULSION registered Followed by Spike Annealing Using LEVITOR Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Torregrosa, Frank; Etienne, Hasnaa; Sempere, Guillaume; Mathieu, Gilles; Roux, Laurent; Milesi, Frederic; Gonzatti, Frederic

    2008-11-03

    Thanks to the European Project SEA-NET, an industrial version of the IBS Plasma Ion Implantation tool has been installed in LETI for the fabrication of Ultra-Shallow Junction for 45 and 32 nm CMOS on 200 and 300 mm wafers. In this study, we present first doping results on 300 mm wafers using BF{sub 3} plasma. Annealing after PULSION implantation is performed by the ASM furnace LEVITOR. This tool, which works on conduction heating is emissivity independent for temperature control and allows reaching high ramp up and ramp down speeds (up to 900 deg. C/s). Main characteristics of as implanted wafers are presented (metal contamination 2E10/cm{sup 2}, SIMS depth profiles down to 5 nm). Then the effect of convection gas in the annealing process on sheet resistance, junction depth and uniformity is presented.

  13. Enabling Solutions for 28 nm CMOS Advanced Junction Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. I.; Kuo, P.; Lai, H. H.; Ma, K.; Liu, R.; Wu, H. H.; Chan, M.; Yang, C. L.; Wu, J. Y.; Guo, B. N.; Colombeau, B.; Thirumal, T.; Arevalo, E.; Toh, T.; Shim, K. H.; Sun, H. L.; Wu, T.; Lu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling short channel effects for further scaled CMOS is required to take full advantage of the introduction of high K/metal gate or stress induced carrier mobility enhancement. Ultra-Shallow junction formation is necessary to minimize the short channel effects. In this paper, we will discuss the challenges for 28 nm Ultra-Shallow Junction formations in terms of figure of merits of Rs/Xj and junction leakage. We will demonstrate that by adopting and integrating Carborane (CBH, C2B10H12) molecular implant and Phosphorus along with co-implantation and PTC II (VSEA Process Temperature Control) technology, sub-32 nm pLDD and nLDD junction targets can be timely achieved using traditional anneals. Those damage engineering solutions can be readily implemented on state-of-the-art 28 nm device manufacturing.

  14. Junction formation during desiccation cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toga, K. B.; Alaca, B. Erdem

    2006-08-01

    In order to provide a sound physical basis for the understanding of the formation of desiccation crack networks, an experimental study is presented addressing junction formation. Focusing on junctions, basic features of the network determining the final pattern, provides an elemental approach and imparts conceptual clarity to the rather complicated problem of the evolution of crack patterns. Using coffee-water mixtures a clear distinction between junction formation during nucleation and propagation is achieved. It is shown that for the same drying suspension, one can switch from the well-known symmetric triple junctions that are unique to the nucleation phase to propagation junctions that are purely dictated by the variations of the stress state. In the latter case, one can even manipulate the path of a propagating crack in a deterministic fashion by changing the stress state within the suspension. Clear microscopic evidence is provided for the formation of propagation junctions, and material inhomogeneity is observed to be reflected by a broad distribution of angles, in stark contrast to shrinkage cracks in homogeneous solid films.

  15. Ultra-shallow box-like profiles fabricated by pulsed UV-laser doping process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, E.; Sigmon, T.W.; Weiner, K.H.

    1993-03-23

    Ultra-shallow, box-like impurity profiles are produced using Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) and then analyzed by spreading resistance profilometry (SRP) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine the impurity distribution. At high concentrations, the profiles obtained by SRP exhibit the expected box-like shape over the entire range of junction depths: The measured concentration within the junction region is uniform while the dopant gradient at the junction exceeds 0.5 decades/nm. In comparison, the same profiles analyzed by SIMS show a broader transition at the metallurgical junction. Caused by knock-ons and ion mixing during the sputtering process, this inaccuracy is reduced, but not eliminated by lowering the acceleration energy of the primary Cs{sup +} ion beam. At lower concentrations (< 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3}), profiles analyzed by SRP exhibit shallower junctions than expected. Electrical measurements of diodes and Hall structures show that high-quality, ultra-shallow n{sup +}p, np and pn are fabricated with good dose control using GILD. For complete characterization of GILD, accurate measurement of both chemical and electrically-active dopant profiles are required. At present, neither SIMS nor SRP provides an entirely accurate impurity profile.

  16. Detailed analysis and computationally efficient modeling of ultra-shallow as-implanted profiles obtained by low energy B, BF{sub 2} and As ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Parab, K.B.; Morris, M.F.; Yang, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    With increasing levels of integration, future generations of integrated circuit technology will require extremely shallow dopant profiles. Ion implantation has long been used in semiconductor material processing and will be a vitally important technique for obtaining ultra-shallow dopant profiles. However, implant channeling for low energy ion implantation must be understood and minimized. We report the results of a detailed experimental analysis of 275 ultra-shallow boron, BF{sub 2}, and arsenic as-implanted profiles, and the development of an accurate and computationally efficient model for ultra-shallow B, BF{sub 2}, and As implants. The ultra-shallow dopant profiles have been modeled by using the Dual-Pearson approach, which employs a weighted sum of two Pearson functions to simulate the profiles. The computationally efficient model covers the following range of implant parameters: implant species B, BF{sub 2}, As; implant energies from 1 keV to 15 keV; any dose; tilt angles from (0{degrees}-10{degrees}); all rotation angles (0{degrees}-360{degrees}). This experimental analysis is important for the development of scaled devices with ultra-shallow junctions, and the computationally efficient model will enable process simulators to predict ultra-shallow as-implanted profiles accurately.

  17. Electrical activation of ultra-shallow B and BF 2 implanted silicon by flash anneal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Woo Sik; Kang, Kitaek

    2005-08-01

    Ultra-shallow ion implanted Si wafers, both with and without Ge pre-amorphization, were annealed using xenon arc flash lamps. The duration of flash illumination was controlled between 1 ms and 20 ms. Changes in sheet resistance and dopant profiles after flash anneal were measured and investigated, along with crystal defect densities. Sheet resistance was measured using a four-point probe. Dopant depth profiling and defect characterization were done using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Sheet resistance values of 250-350 ?/sq. at a junction depth of 24 nm (at B concentration of 1.0 1018 cm-3) were achieved. No significant dopant diffusion was observed after the Xe arc flash lamp annealing.

  18. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +}-implants in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, B. R.; Darby, B. L.; Jones, K. S.; Petersen, D. H.; Hansen, O.; Lin, R.; Nielsen, P. F.; Doyle, B. L.; Kontos, A.

    2012-12-15

    The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized Ge (PA-Ge) following rapid thermal annealing was investigated using micro Hall effect and ion beam analysis techniques. The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23.2%, 21.4%, and 17.6% due to ion backscattering for 2, 4, and 6 keV implants in Ge, respectively. The electrical activation of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants at 2, 4, and 6 keV to fluences ranging from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} was studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400-600 Degree-Sign C for 60 s. For both c-Ge and PA-Ge, a large fraction of the implanted dose is rendered inactive due to the formation of a presumable B-Ge cluster. The B lattice location in samples annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C for 60 s was characterized by channeling analysis with a 650 keV H{sup +} beam by utilizing the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha})2{alpha} nuclear reaction and confirmed the large fraction of off-lattice B for both c-Ge and PA-Ge. Within the investigated annealing range, no significant change in activation was observed. An increase in the fraction of activated dopant was observed with increasing energy which suggests that the surface proximity and the local point defect environment has a strong impact on B activation in Ge. The results suggest the presence of an inactive B-Ge cluster for ultra-shallow implants in both c-Ge and PA-Ge that remains stable upon annealing for temperatures up to 600 Degree-Sign C.

  19. Method for shallow junction formation

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, K.H.

    1996-10-29

    A doping sequence is disclosed that reduces the cost and complexity of forming source/drain regions in complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit technologies. The process combines the use of patterned excimer laser annealing, dopant-saturated spin-on glass, silicide contact structures and interference effects creates by thin dielectric layers to produce source and drain junctions that are ultrashallow in depth but exhibit low sheet and contact resistance. The process utilizes no photolithography and can be achieved without the use of expensive vacuum equipment. The process margins are wide, and yield loss due to contact of the ultrashallow dopants is eliminated. 8 figs.

  20. Method for shallow junction formation

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A doping sequence that reduces the cost and complexity of forming source/drain regions in complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit technologies. The process combines the use of patterned excimer laser annealing, dopant-saturated spin-on glass, silicide contact structures and interference effects creates by thin dielectric layers to produce source and drain junctions that are ultrashallow in depth but exhibit low sheet and contact resistance. The process utilizes no photolithography and can be achieved without the use of expensive vacuum equipment. The process margins are wide, and yield loss due to contact of the ultrashallow dopants is eliminated.

  1. Processing Ultra-Shallow Reflection Data in Areas with Laterally Varying Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, P. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.; Sloan, S. D.; Steeples, D. W.

    2004-12-01

    Ultra-shallow seismic reflection methods have proven effective as non-invasive subsurface characterization and monitoring tools, particularly in areas of high electrical conductivity where ground-penetrating radar is ineffective. Hydrologists often rely on geophysical methods to sense the properties of the near surface, at times in shallow layers that exhibit rapid lateral variation caused by saturated and unsaturated sand lenses, clay lenses, and unevenly weathered bedrock formations. Under these conditions, methods traditionally used to collect and process seismic reflection data must be examined for validity prior to application. In this study we present 2-D common-midpoint (CMP) ultra-shallow seismic reflection data collected in a flood plain near a tributary stream channel outside of Lawrence, Kansas. The 20-m long survey line intersected a visually identified abandoned stream channel roughly paralleling the current stream. Near-source first-arrival analysis shows that the P-wave velocities near the surface double over a horizontal span of 15 m, and a 5 m deep reflection that dominates shot gathers at one end of the survey is not evident in shot gathers at the other end. Such heterogeneity negates the equivalency of pseudo-walkaway and walkaway data, and makes normal-moveout (NMO) based CMP processing difficult. Walkaway surveys are often used in conjunction with CMP surveys to determine seismic velocity. We show that a drastic difference can be encountered when a pseudo-walkaway is substituted for a walkaway in the presence of significant lateral velocity variations. We also compare the final time-to-depth converted stacked sections created when a variety of source-to-receiver offset ranges are NMO corrected and stacked using several different velocity functions.

  2. PLAsma Doping For P+ Junction Formation In 90 nm NOR Flash Memory Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bigarella, Dario; Soncini, Valter; Raj, Deven; Singh, Vikram; Walther, Steve

    2006-11-13

    For MOS devices belonging to 65 nm technology node and beyond, ultra-shallow LDD junctions are needed in order to match requirements in terms of sheet resistance and doping profile. PLAsma Doping has been proposed and developed as an effective and viable technology capable to produce such junctions, while keeping high productivity. Furthermore, as the equipment is simpler and smaller than a common implanter, PLAsma Doping can be considered, from the cost of ownership point of view, an attractive solution also for those applications whose requirements are not so demanding; an example can be the junctions of a Flash Memory. Aim of this study is to evaluate, electrically, the compatibility of PLAsma Doping with a NOR Flash Memory belonging to 90 nm technology node. Results of PLAsma Doping experiment concerning the matching of the device parameters will be here presented. Further investigation is needed in order to exclude any possible effect on device reliability.

  3. Loss of implanted heavy elements during annealing of ultra-shallow ion-implanted silicon: The complete picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. K.; Koh, S. Y.; Fang, V.; Markwitz, A.; Osipowicz, T.

    2014-09-01

    From the observations of the annealing process of ultra-shallow Sn and Pb implanted Si, we propose the mechanism and the triggering conditions for the dopant dose loss effect commonly observed in heavy ion-implanted silicon. The results of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. With these results, we construct a complete chain of events that leads to the loss of most of the implanted ions. First, the implanted atoms agglomerate into liquid melts during high temperature electron beam annealing, causing polycrystalline phase formation. Next, liquid phase movement takes place along grain boundaries, and the implanted atoms are forced out of the surface layer as the grain boundaries disappear during grain growth, leaving behind low concentrations of residual atoms. The specific conditions that trigger such a sequence of processes are identified.

  4. PULSION registered: A Versatile 200 to 300 mm Bridge Tool Plasma Immersion Ion Implanter for Ultra-Shallow Doping and Nanotechology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Torregrosa, Frank; Etienne, Hasnaa; Sempere, Guillaume; Mathieu, Gilles; Roux, Laurent; Milesi, Frederic; Gonzatti, Frederic

    2008-11-03

    Thanks to the European Projects SEA-NET and PULLNANO, an industrial version of the IBS Plasma Ion Implantation tool has been installed in LETI for the fabrication of Ultra-Shallow Junctions for 45 and 32 nm CMOS on 200 and 300 mm wafers. In this paper, we present the main machine characteristics (layout, contamination, homogeneity, reproducibility, uptime) and we show that implanted wafers are compatible with the 32 nm nodes requirements. Then doping results (sheet resistance vs junction depth and leakage current) using several annealing technics are presented (laser, flash and spike anneals). In the second part of the paper, versatility of the tool is demonstrated with its use for other applications (3D doping, hydrogenation, solar cells...)

  5. Semiconductor junction formation by directed heat

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Robert B.

    1988-03-24

    The process of the invention includes applying precursors 6 with N- and P-type dopants therein to a silicon web 2, with the web 2 then being baked in an oven 10 to drive off excessive solvents, and the web 2 is then heated using a pulsed high intensity light in a mechanism 12 at 1100.degree.-1150.degree. C. for about 10 seconds to simultaneously form semiconductor junctions in both faces of the web.

  6. Photocarrier Radiometry Characterization of Ultra-shallow Junctions (USJ) in Silicon with Excimer Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng; Ren, Shengdong; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The activation and recrystallization in arsenic ion-implanted silicon under excimer laser (193 nm) irradiation is investigated using photocarrier radiometry (PCR). Arsenic ion-implanted silicon wafers with a dose of and an energy of 1 keV were irradiated at different laser parameters, such as the laser fluence, shot number, and repetition rate. The excimer laser irradiation-induced enhancement of PCR signals of implanted silicon samples showed that the implantation-induced crystalline structural damage was reduced and the implanted ions were effectively activated.

  7. Boron-enhanced-diffusion of boron: The limiting factor for ultra-shallow junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A. |; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C.; Haynes, T.E.; Erokhin, Y.; Simonton, R.

    1997-12-01

    Reducing implant energy is an effective way to eliminate transient enhanced diffusion (TED) due to excess interstitials from the implant. It is shown that TED from a fixed Si dose implanted at energies from 0.5 to 20 keV into boron doping-superlattices decreases linearly with decreasing Si ion range, virtually disappearing at sub-keV energies. However, for sub-keV B implants diffusion remains enhanced and x{sub j} is limited to {ge} 100 nm at 1,050 C. The authors term this enhancement, which arises in the presence of B atomic concentrations at the surface of {approx} 6%, Boron-Enhanced-Diffusion (BED).

  8. Medium energy ion scattering analysis of the evolution and annealing of damage and associated dopant redistribution of ultra shallow implants in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, J. A.; Reading, M. A.; Armour, D. G.; Carter, G.; Zalm, P. C.; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T. C. Q.

    As junction depths in advanced semiconductor devices move to below 20 nm, the process of disorder evolution during ion implantation at ultra low energies becomes increasingly influenced by the surface. This may also hold for shallow regrowth and dopant redistribution processes during subsequent thermal annealing of the substrate. The investigation of these near-surface processes requires analytical techniques with a depth resolution of≤1 nm. Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) has the unique capability of simultaneously providing quantitative, high-resolution depth distributions of implant disorder (displaced Si lattice atoms) and of implanted atoms, albeit not of light species. We report here a comparative MEIS investigation into the growth mode of shallow disordered/amorphised layers during≤1 keV B+ and 2.5 keV As+ ion implantation into Si. In both cases the growth of the damage depth profiles differs significantly from the energy deposition function, as it is strongly determined on the one hand by the proximity of the surface acting as a nucleation site for migrating point defects formed during implantation, which results in planar growth of the amorphous layer, and on the other by the dynamic annealing processes operating at room temperature. When such defect recombination processes are inhibited, e.g. for low dose, ultra shallow 200 eV B+ implants, MEIS shows that defect production yields exceeding the Kinchin-Pease model predictions are achieved. For As implants, a correlation is observed between the movement of the As and the depth of the growing, planar amorphous layer. Thermal annealing of As implanted samples at different temperatures and durations leads to solid phase epitaxial regrowth. During regrowth, MEIS shows that there is a close correlation between damage dissolution, the movement of nearly half of the As dopant into substitutional sites and the snowploughing of a fraction of the As in front of the advancing amorphous/crystalline interface leading to the formation of a less than 1 nm wide As pile-up layer trapped under the oxide.

  9. Dose Measurements of Ultra-Shallow Implanted As and B in Si by RBS and ERD

    SciTech Connect

    Pelicon, P.; Ravi Prasad, G.V.; El Bouanani, M.; Guo, B.N.; Birt, D.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D.

    2003-08-26

    Continuous miniaturization of integrated circuits requires narrower dopant profile depth in the Si channel and consequently the use of ultra-shallow implants in the manufacturing process. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) is routinely used to measure the boron depth concentration profiles. However, due to the altered nature of the near-surface sputtering process inherent to SIMS, it underestimates the B implanted doses for implantation energies below 2 keV. Alternate ion beam methods for absolute dose measurements of ultra-shallow implanted As and B in Si are presented in this study. The dopant implant energies ranged from 250 eV, to 5 keV for boron and from 500 eV to 5 keV for arsenic. Implanted doses for both B and As varied from 2 x 1013 to 1 x 1015 atoms/cm2. The arsenic implants were studied with Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) using 2 MeV carbon ions. The absolute arsenic implanted doses were measured to an accuracy of better than 5%. The 1 keV arsenic implants were extensively studied for radiation damage with a 12C beam. No appreciable arsenic dose loss was observed during C irradiation for an integrated charge of {<=} 80 {mu}C, which was the maximum used for these studies. For the B implants, Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) was used with 14 MeV F4+ ions. A 9.4 {mu}m Mylar foil was found to adequately stop the scattered 19F ions and give good energy separation for the 11B recoiled ions. The absolute dose measurements are {approx} 5% for the 5 keV 11B implants. Significant radiation damage was observed for the ultra shallow implants and the measured B dose has been obtained by extrapolation to the zero integrated charge of the beam. The absolute boron dose measurements of the ultra shallow (250 eV) implants were determined with an accuracy better than 10%.

  10. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation applied to P+N junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vervisch, Vanessa; Barakel, D.; Ottaviani, L.; Pasquinelli, M.; Torregrosa, F.

    2006-11-13

    Plasma immersion ion implantation is an alternative doping technique for the formation of Ultra Shallow Junctions in semiconductor. In this study, we present the PIII technology developed by the company Ion Beam Services and called PULSION registered . We explain the advantages of PIII for the conception of thin emitter solar cells and the use of N type silicon in the fabrication of photodiode. Electrical characterisations of solar cells prepared by immersion of silicon wafer in BF3 plasma are presented, showing a satisfying photovoltaic behaviour and more specially an increase of internal quantum efficiency in the short wavelength range, due to the thickness of the emitter.

  11. Shallow junction formation by polyatomic cluster ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Daisuke; Shimada, Norihiro; Matsuo, Jiro; Yamada, Isao

    1996-12-31

    Recent integrated circuits require shallow junctions which are less than 0.1 {mu}m depth. This creates a strong demand for low energy ion beam techniques. Equivalent low-energy and high-current ion beams can be realized quite easily with clusters, because the kinetic energy of the cluster is shared between the constituent atoms. Additionally, cluster-ion beams avoid damage due to excessive charge. We have used polyatomic clusters, decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}), as a kind of B cluster, in order to form a very shallow p{sup +} junction. A B SIMS profile of B{sub 10}H{sub 14} implanted into Si (100) at 20keV was quite similar to that of B implanted at 2keV. These SIMS measurements revealed that the cluster ion beam can realize equivalent low-energy implantation quite easily. The implantation efficiency achieved was about 90%. The damage induced by B{sub 10}H{sub 14} implantation was completely removed by a 600{degrees}C furnace anneal for 30 min, and implanted B atoms were electrically activated. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 900{degrees}C of a sample prepared with a close of 5{times}10{sup 13} ion/cm{sup 2}, the sheet resistance decreased to about 600W/sq. and the activation efficiency was about 50%. These results show that a polyatomic cluster ion beam is useful for shallow junction formation.

  12. Shallow junction formation by polyatomic cluster ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, D.; Shimada, N.; Matsuo, J.; Yamada, I.

    1997-01-01

    Recent integrated circuits require shallower junctions which are less than 0.1 ?m depth. Therefore, there is a strong demand for low energy ion beam techniques. Equivalent low-energy and high-current ion beams can be realized quite easily with cluster, because the kinetic energy of the cluster is shared between the constituent atoms. Additionally, cluster-ion beams avoid damage due to excessive charge. We have used polyatomic clusters, decaborane (B 10H 14), as a kind of B cluster, in order to form a very shallow {p +}/{n} junction. B SIMS profile of B 10H 14 implanted into Si (100) at 20 keV was quite similar to that of B implanted at 2 keV. These SIMS measurements revealed that the cluster ion beam can realize equivalent low-energy implantation quite easily. The implantation efficiency achieved was about 90%. The damage induced by B 10H 14 implantation was completely removed by a 600C furnace anneal for 30 min, and implanted B atoms were electrically activated. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 900C of a sample prepared with a dose of 5 10 13 ions/cm 2, the sheet resistance decreased to about 600 ?/sq. and the activation efficiency was about 50%. These results show that a polyatomic cluster ion beam is useful for shallow junction formation.

  13. The Onecut Transcription Factor HNF-6 Regulates in Motor Neurons the Formation of the Neuromuscular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Audouard, Emilie; Schakman, Olivier; René, Frédérique; Huettl, Rosa-Eva; Huber, Andrea B.; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Gailly, Philippe; Clotman, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The neuromuscular junctions are the specialized synapses whereby spinal motor neurons control the contraction of skeletal muscles. The formation of the neuromuscular junctions is controlled by a complex interplay of multiple mechanisms coordinately activated in motor nerve terminals and in their target myotubes. However, the transcriptional regulators that control in motor neurons the genetic programs involved in neuromuscular junction development remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the Onecut transcription factor HNF-6 regulates in motor neurons the formation of the neuromuscular junctions. Indeed, adult Hnf6 mutant mice exhibit hindlimb muscle weakness and abnormal locomotion. This results from defects of hindlimb neuromuscular junctions characterized by an abnormal morphology and defective localization of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin at the motor nerve terminals. These defects are consequences of altered and delayed formation of the neuromuscular junctions in newborn mutant animals. Furthermore, we show that the expression level of numerous regulators of neuromuscular junction formation, namely agrin, neuregulin-2 and TGF-ß receptor II, is downregulated in the spinal motor neurons of Hnf6 mutant newborn animals. Finally, altered formation of neuromuscular junction-like structures in a co-culture model of wildtype myotubes with mutant embryonic spinal cord slices is rescued by recombinant agrin and neuregulin, indicating that depletion in these factors contributes to defective neuromuscular junction development in the absence of HNF-6. Thus, HNF-6 controls in spinal motor neurons a genetic program that coordinates the formation of hindlimb neuromuscular junctions. PMID:23227180

  14. Fabrication of sub-40-nm p-n junctions for 0.18 {mu}m MOS device applications using a cluster-tool-compatible, nanosecond thermal doping technique

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, K.H.; McCarthy, A.M.

    1993-09-20

    In this paper, we introduced an alternative deep-submicrometer doping technology, Projection Gas Immersion Laser Doping (P-GILD). Representing the marriage of lithography and diffusion, P-GILD is a resistless, step-and-repeat doping process that utilizes excimer laser light patterned by a dielectric reticle to selectively heat and, thereby, dope regions of an integrated circuit. Results of physical and electrical characterization are presented for ultra-shallow p{sup +} {minus}n and n{sup +} {minus}p junctions produced by gas immersion laser doping (GILD), a phenomenologically identical technique that utilizes an aluminum contact mask rather than a dielectric reticle to pattern the beam. Junctions produced using GILD exhibit uniformly-doped, abrupt impurity profiles with no apparent defect formation in the silicon. Electrically, sheet and contact resistivities of the ultra-shallow junctions are less than 100{Omega}/sheet and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} {Omega}{sm_bullet}cm{sup 2}, respectively, while n{sup +} {minus}p and p{sup +} {minus}n diodes exhibit nearly ideal forward bias behavior and reverse leakage current densities less than 5 nA/cm{sup 2} at {minus}5V. Uniformity of both diode characteristics and sheet resistance for junctions produced by the step-and-repeat process is also shown to be better than {plus_minus}5% across a 4-inch wafer.

  15. Adherens Junction Formation Inhibits Lentivirus Entry and Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Padmashali, Roshan; You, Hui; Karnik, Nikhila; Lei, Pedro; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2013-01-01

    Although cellular signaling pathways that affect lentivirus infection have been investigated, the role of cell-cell interactions in lentiviral gene delivery remains elusive. In the course of our studies we observed that lentiviral gene transfer was a strong function of the position of epithelial cells within colonies. While peripheral cells were transduced efficiently, cells in the center of colonies were resistant to gene transfer. In addition, gene delivery was enhanced significantly under culture conditions that disrupted adherens junctions (AJ) but decreased upon AJ formation. In agreement, gene knockdown and gain-of-function approaches showed that ?-catenin, a key component of the AJ complex prevented lentivirus gene transfer. Using a doxycycline regulatable system we showed that expression of dominant negative E-cadherin enhanced gene transfer in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, dissolution of AJ by doxycycline increased entry of lentiviral particles into the cell cytoplasm in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together our results demonstrate that AJ formation renders cells non-permissive to lentiviral gene transfer and may facilitate development of simple means to enhance gene delivery or combat virus infection. PMID:24236116

  16. ZO-1 controls endothelial adherens junctions, cell-cell tension, angiogenesis, and barrier formation.

    PubMed

    Tornavaca, Olga; Chia, Minghao; Dufton, Neil; Almagro, Lourdes Osuna; Conway, Daniel E; Randi, Anna M; Schwartz, Martin A; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S

    2015-03-16

    Intercellular junctions are crucial for mechanotransduction, but whether tight junctions contribute to the regulation of cell-cell tension and adherens junctions is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the tight junction protein ZO-1 regulates tension acting on VE-cadherin-based adherens junctions, cell migration, and barrier formation of primary endothelial cells, as well as angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. ZO-1 depletion led to tight junction disruption, redistribution of active myosin II from junctions to stress fibers, reduced tension on VE-cadherin and loss of junctional mechanotransducers such as vinculin and PAK2, and induced vinculin dissociation from the ?-catenin-VE-cadherin complex. Claudin-5 depletion only mimicked ZO-1 effects on barrier formation, whereas the effects on mechanotransducers were rescued by inhibition of ROCK and phenocopied by JAM-A, JACOP, or p114RhoGEF down-regulation. ZO-1 was required for junctional recruitment of JACOP, which, in turn, recruited p114RhoGEF. ZO-1 is thus a central regulator of VE-cadherin-dependent endothelial junctions that orchestrates the spatial actomyosin organization, tuning cell-cell tension, migration, angiogenesis, and barrier formation. PMID:25753039

  17. Synergistic effect of ATP for RuvA–RuvB–Holliday junction DNA complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Takuma; Han, Yong-Woon; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Yokota, Hiroaki; Nakao, Kimiko; Yokokawa, Ryuji; Ono, Teruo; Harada, Yoshie

    2015-01-01

    The Escherichia coli RuvB hexameric ring motor proteins, together with RuvAs, promote branch migration of Holliday junction DNA. Zero mode waveguides (ZMWs) constitute of nanosized holes and enable the visualization of a single fluorescent molecule under micromolar order of the molecules, which is applicable to characterize the formation of RuvA–RuvB–Holliday junction DNA complex. In this study, we used ZMWs and counted the number of RuvBs binding to RuvA–Holliday junction DNA complex. Our data demonstrated that different nucleotide analogs increased the amount of Cy5-RuvBs binding to RuvA–Holliday junction DNA complex in the following order: no nucleotide, ADP, ATPγS, and mixture of ADP and ATPγS. These results suggest that not only ATP binding to RuvB but also ATP hydrolysis by RuvB facilitates a stable RuvA–RuvB–Holliday junction DNA complex formation. PMID:26658024

  18. Benefits of Damage Engineering for PMOS Junction Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd

    2011-01-01

    As CMOS devices continue to shrink, the formation of ultra shallow junction (USJ) in the source/drain extension remains to be a key challenge requiring high dopant activation, shallow dopant profile and abrupt junctions. The next generations of sub nano-CMOS devices impose a new set of challenges such as elimination of residual defects resulting in higher leakage, difficulty to control lateral diffusion, junction stability post anneal and junction formation in new materials. To address these challenges for advanced technological nodes beyond 32 nm, it is imperative to explore novel species and techniques. Molecular species such as Carborane (C2B10H12), a novel doping species and a promising alternative to monomer Boron is of considerable interest due to the performance boost for 22 nm low power and high performance devices. Also, to reduce residual defects, damage engineering methodologies have generated a lot of attention as it has demonstrated significant benefits in device performance. Varian proprietary techniques to perform implants at cold temperatures (PTC II) have demonstrated lower junction leakage, enhanced activation, reduced dopant diffusion and less dopant deactivation due to the reduction of self-interstitial atoms present at the end-of-range (EOR) with low implant temperatures. In this paper, for the first time, there is a comprehensive study of the effect of implant temperature on defect engineering affecting deactivation/reactivation, and it is well established in this paper that colder the implant temperature the better it is for damage engineering with reduced EOR defects and better amorphization. The effect has been studied over a wide range of implant temperature. To understand any difference in deactivation between molecular and monomer Boron and to provide direct comparison equivalent Boron implants, co-implanted with Carbon were also studied. Implants with wide range of temperatures are implemented using PTC II. This paper will also show how damage reduction correlates with optimum junction formation and stability.

  19. Benefits of Damage Engineering for PMOS Junction Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd

    2011-01-07

    As CMOS devices continue to shrink, the formation of ultra shallow junction (USJ) in the source/drain extension remains to be a key challenge requiring high dopant activation, shallow dopant profile and abrupt junctions. The next generations of sub nano-CMOS devices impose a new set of challenges such as elimination of residual defects resulting in higher leakage, difficulty to control lateral diffusion, junction stability post anneal and junction formation in new materials. To address these challenges for advanced technological nodes beyond 32 nm, it is imperative to explore novel species and techniques. Molecular species such as Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}), a novel doping species and a promising alternative to monomer Boron is of considerable interest due to the performance boost for 22 nm low power and high performance devices. Also, to reduce residual defects, damage engineering methodologies have generated a lot of attention as it has demonstrated significant benefits in device performance. Varian proprietary techniques to perform implants at cold temperatures (PTC II) have demonstrated lower junction leakage, enhanced activation, reduced dopant diffusion and less dopant deactivation due to the reduction of self-interstitial atoms present at the end-of-range (EOR) with low implant temperatures. In this paper, for the first time, there is a comprehensive study of the effect of implant temperature on defect engineering affecting deactivation/reactivation, and it is well established in this paper that colder the implant temperature the better it is for damage engineering with reduced EOR defects and better amorphization. The effect has been studied over a wide range of implant temperature. To understand any difference in deactivation between molecular and monomer Boron and to provide direct comparison equivalent Boron implants, co-implanted with Carbon were also studied. Implants with wide range of temperatures are implemented using PTC II. This paper will also show how damage reduction correlates with optimum junction formation and stability.

  20. SOS1 and Ras regulate epithelial tight junction formation in the human airway through EMP1.

    PubMed

    Durgan, Joanne; Tao, Guangbo; Walters, Matthew S; Florey, Oliver; Schmidt, Anja; Arbelaez, Vanessa; Rosen, Neal; Crystal, Ronald G; Hall, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The human airway is lined with respiratory epithelial cells, which create a critical barrier through the formation of apical tight junctions. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, an RNAi screen for guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) was performed in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We report that SOS1, acting through the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway, is essential for tight junction formation. Global microarray analysis identifies epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1), an integral tetraspan membrane protein, as a major transcriptional target. EMP1 is indispensable for tight junction formation and function in 16HBE cells and in a human airway basal progenitor-like cell line (BCi-NS1.1). Furthermore, EMP1 is significantly downregulated in human lung cancers. Together, these data identify important roles for SOS1/Ras and EMP1 in tight junction assembly during airway morphogenesis. PMID:25394671

  1. Formation and stability of ridge-ridge-ridge triple junctions in rheologically realistic lithosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras; Burov, Evgueni

    2015-04-01

    Triple junctions are probably the most remarkable features of plate boundaries since their presence constitutes one of the major demonstrations of plate tectonics theory. Divergent (R-R-R) triple junctions (at 120° and T junctions) are particular ones since their stability depends on the exact values of the relative velocities of plate divergence and hence is strongly affected by plate rheology and processes of crustal accretion. The mechanisms of their formation and long-term steadiness are not well understood even though it is commonly accepted, generally based on common sense, that the geometry and stability of triple junctions should be related to the intuitively acceptable geometric considerations that 3-branch configurations should be "stable" over the time on a 3D Earth surface. That said, most plate boundaries are in fact 2D in terms that they involve only two plates, while junctions with 3 and more branches, if even mechanically not excluded, are generally short-lived and hence rarely observed at tectonic scale. Indeed, it has been long-time suggested that triple junctions result from evolution of short-lived quadruple junctions, yet, without providing a consistent mechanical explanation or experimental demonstration of this process, due to the rheological complexity of the lithosphere and that of strain localization and crustal accretion processes. For example, it is supposed that R-R-R junctions form as result of axisymmetric mantle upwellings. However, impingement of buoyant fluid on a non-pre-stressed lithosphere should result in multiple radial cracks, as is well known from previous analog and numerical experiments. In case of uni-directionally pre-stressed lithosphere, it has also shown that linear 2D rift structures should be formed. Therefore, a complete 3D thermos-mechanically consistent approach is needed to understand the processes of formation of multi-branch junctions. With this goal we here reproduce and study the processes of multi-branch junction formation and evolution by using high-resolution 3D numerical mechanical experiments that take into account realistic thermo-rheological structure and rheology of the lithosphere. We find that two major types of quadruple and triple junctions are formed under bi-directional or multidirectional far-field stress field: (i) plate rifting junctions are formed by the initial plate fragmentation and can be subsequently re-arranged into (ii) oceanic spreading junctions controlled by the new oceanic crust accretion. In particular, we document initial formation and destabilization of quadruple R-R-R-R junctions as initial plate rifting structures under bi-directional extension. In most cases, quadruple plate rifting junctions rapidly (typically within 1-2 Myr) evolve towards formation of two diverging triple oceanic spreading junctions connected by a linear spreading center lengthening with time. This configuration remains stable over long time scales. However, under certain conditions, quadruple junctions may also remain relatively stable. Asymmetric stretching results in various configurations, for example formation of "T-junctions" with trans-extensional components and combination of fast and slow spreading ridges. Combined with plume impingement, this scenario evolves in realistic patterns closely resembling observed plate dynamics. In particular, opening of the Red Sea and of the Afar rift system find a logical explanation within a single model. Numerical experiments also suggest that several existing oceanic spreading junctions form as the result of plate motions rearrangements after which only one of two plates spreading along the ridge become subjected to bi-directional spreading.

  2. Ultra-Shallow Depth Profiling of Arsenic Implants in Silicon by Hydride Generation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Atsuko; Kojima, Hisao; Itoga, Toshihiko; Kanehori, Keiichi

    1995-08-01

    High resolution depth profiling of arsenic (As) implanted into silicon wafers by a chemical technique is described. Silicon wafers are precisely etched through repeated oxidation by hydrogen peroxide solution and dissolution of the oxide by hydrofluoric acid solution. The etched silicon thickness is determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Arsenic concentration is determined by hydride generation ICP-AES (HG-ICP-AES) with prereduction using potassium iodide. The detection limit of As in a 4-inch silicon wafer is 2.4×1018 atoms/cm3. The etched silicon thickness is controlled to less than 4±2 atomic layers. Depth profiling of an ultra-shallow As diffusion layer with the proposed method shows good agreement with profiling using the four-probe method or secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  3. V(D)J recombination coding junction formation without DNA homology: processing of coding termini.

    PubMed Central

    Boubnov, N V; Wills, Z P; Weaver, D T

    1993-01-01

    Coding junction formation in V(D)J recombination generates diversity in the antigen recognition structures of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor molecules by combining processes of deletion of terminal coding sequences and addition of nucleotides prior to joining. We have examined the role of coding end DNA composition in junction formation with plasmid substrates containing defined homopolymers flanking the recombination signal sequence elements. We found that coding junctions formed efficiently with or without terminal DNA homology. The extent of junctional deletion was conserved independent of coding ends with increased, partial, or no DNA homology. Interestingly, G/C homopolymer coding ends showed reduced deletion regardless of DNA homology. Therefore, DNA homology cannot be the primary determinant that stabilizes coding end structures for processing and joining. PMID:8413286

  4. Functional formation of heterotypic gap junction channels by connexins-40 and -43

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xianming; Xu, Qin; Veenstra, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43) are co-expressed in the cardiovascular system, yet their ability to form functional heterotypic Cx43/Cx40 gap junctions remains controversial. We paired Cx43 or Cx40 stably-transfected N2a cells to examine the formation and biophysical properties of heterotypic Cx43/Cx40 gap junction channels. Dual whole cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated that Cx43 and Cx40 form functional heterotypic gap junctions with asymmetric transjunctional voltage (Vj) dependent gating properties. The heterotypic Cx43/Cx40 gap junctions exhibited less Vj gating when the Cx40 cell was positive and pronounced gating when negative. Endogenous N2a cell connexin expression levels were 1,000-fold lower than exogenously expressed Cx40 and Cx43 levels, measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting methods, suggestive of heterotypic gap junction formation by exogenous Cx40 and Cx43. Imposing a [KCl] gradient across the heterotypic gap junction modestly diminished the asymmetry of the macroscopic normalized junctional conductance – voltage (Gj-Vj) curve when [KCl] was reduced by 50% on the Cx43 side and greatly exacerbated the Vj gating asymmetries when lowered on the Cx40 side. Pairing wild-type (wt) Cx43 with the Cx40 E9,13K mutant protein produced a nearly symmetrical heterotypic Gj-Vj curve. These studies conclusively demonstrate the ability of Cx40 and Cx43 to form rectifying heterotypic gap junctions, owing primarily to alternate amino-terminal (NT) domain acidic and basic amino acid differences that may play a significant role in the physiology and/or pathology of the cardiovascular tissues including cardiac conduction properties and myoendothelial intercellular communication. PMID:25483586

  5. Y-junction carbon nanocoils: synthesis by chemical vapor deposition and formation mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Er-Xiong; Wang, Jing; Geng, Hong-Zhang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ze-Chen; Luo, Zhi-Jia; Yang, Hai-Jie; Zou, Cheng-Xiong; Kang, Jianli; Pan, Lujun

    2015-01-01

    Y-junction carbon nanocoils (Y-CNCs) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition using Ni catalyst prepared by spray-coating method. According to the emerging morphologies of Y-CNCs, several growth models were advanced to elucidate their formation mechanisms. Regarding the Y-CNCs without metal catalyst in the Y-junctions, fusing of contiguous CNCs and a tip-growth mechanism are considered to be responsible for their formation. However, as for the Y-CNCs with catalyst presence in the Y-junctions, the formation can be ascribed to nanoscale soldering/welding and bottom-growth mechanism. It is found that increasing spray-coating time for catalyst preparation generates agglomerated larger nanoparticles strongly adhering to the substrate, resulting in bottom-growth of CNCs and appearance of the metal catalyst in the Y-junctions. In the contrary case, CNCs catalyzed by isolated smaller nanoparticles develop Y-junctions with an absence of metal catalyst by virtue of weaker adhesion of catalyst with the substrate and tip-growth of CNCs. PMID:26063127

  6. Y-junction carbon nanocoils: synthesis by chemical vapor deposition and formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Er-Xiong; Wang, Jing; Geng, Hong-Zhang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ze-Chen; Luo, Zhi-Jia; Yang, Hai-Jie; Zou, Cheng-Xiong; Kang, Jianli; Pan, Lujun

    2015-01-01

    Y-junction carbon nanocoils (Y-CNCs) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition using Ni catalyst prepared by spray-coating method. According to the emerging morphologies of Y-CNCs, several growth models were advanced to elucidate their formation mechanisms. Regarding the Y-CNCs without metal catalyst in the Y-junctions, fusing of contiguous CNCs and a tip-growth mechanism are considered to be responsible for their formation. However, as for the Y-CNCs with catalyst presence in the Y-junctions, the formation can be ascribed to nanoscale soldering/welding and bottom-growth mechanism. It is found that increasing spray-coating time for catalyst preparation generates agglomerated larger nanoparticles strongly adhering to the substrate, resulting in bottom-growth of CNCs and appearance of the metal catalyst in the Y-junctions. In the contrary case, CNCs catalyzed by isolated smaller nanoparticles develop Y-junctions with an absence of metal catalyst by virtue of weaker adhesion of catalyst with the substrate and tip-growth of CNCs. PMID:26063127

  7. The TRPV4 Channel Contributes to Intercellular Junction Formation in Keratinocytes*♦

    PubMed Central

    Sokabe, Takaaki; Fukumi-Tominaga, Tomoko; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Mizuno, Atsuko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel is a physiological sensor for hypo-osmolarity, mechanical deformation, and warm temperature. The channel activation leads to various cellular effects involving Ca2+ dynamics. We found that TRPV4 interacts with β-catenin, a crucial component linking adherens junctions and the actin cytoskeleton, thereby enhancing cell-cell junction development and formation of the tight barrier between skin keratinocytes. TRPV4-deficient mice displayed impairment of the intercellular junction-dependent barrier function in the skin. In TRPV4-deficient keratinocytes, extracellular Ca2+-induced actin rearrangement and stratification were delayed following significant reduction in cytosolic Ca2+ increase and small GTPase Rho activation. TRPV4 protein located where the cell-cell junctions are formed, and the channel deficiency caused abnormal cell-cell junction structures, resulting in higher intercellular permeability in vitro. Our results suggest a novel role for TRPV4 in the development and maturation of cell-cell junctions in epithelia of the skin. PMID:20413591

  8. Active zones of mammalian neuromuscular junctions: formation, density, and aging.

    PubMed

    Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Presynaptic active zones are synaptic vesicle release sites that play essential roles in the function and pathology of mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The molecular mechanisms of active zone organization use presynaptic voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in NMJs as scaffolding proteins. VDCCs interact extracellularly with the muscle-derived synapse organizer, laminin ?2 and interact intracellularly with active zone-specific proteins, such as Bassoon, CAST/Erc2/ELKS2alpha, ELKS, Piccolo, and RIMs. These molecular mechanisms are supported by studies in P/Q- and N-type VDCCs double-knockout mice, and they are consistent with the pathological conditions of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and Pierson syndrome, which are caused by autoantibodies against VDCCs or by a laminin ?2 mutation. During normal postnatal maturation, NMJs maintain the density of active zones, while NMJs triple their size. However, active zones become impaired during aging. Propitiously, muscle exercise ameliorates the active zone impairment in aged NMJs, which suggests the potential for therapeutic strategies. PMID:23252894

  9. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng-han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan-Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell?cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (E-cad-ECD) in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit ?-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role. PMID:26290581

  10. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan -Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.

  11. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan -Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; et al

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore » the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  12. Basic Aspects of the Formation and Activation of Boron Junctions Using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschtzsch, G.; Vandervorst, W.; Hoffmann, T.; Goossens, J.; Everaert, J.-L.; del Agua Borniquel, J. I.; Poon, T.

    2008-11-01

    This study investigates the basic aspects of junction formation using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation using BF3 and addresses the role of (pre)amorphization, C(F)-co-implantation, plasma parameters (bias, dose) and the thermal anneal cycle (spike versus msec laser anneal). The basic physics are studied using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, sheet resistance and using four point probe and RsL. Profiles with junction depths ranging from 10-12 nm and sheet resistance values below 800 Ohm/sq are readily achievable.

  13. Basic Aspects of the Formation and Activation of Boron Junctions Using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zschaetzsch, G.; Vandervorst, W.; Hoffmann, T.; Goossens, J.; Everaert, J.-L.; Agua Borniquel, J. I. del; Poon, T.

    2008-11-03

    This study investigates the basic aspects of junction formation using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation using BF{sub 3} and addresses the role of (pre)amorphization, C(F)-co-implantation, plasma parameters (bias, dose) and the thermal anneal cycle (spike versus msec laser anneal). The basic physics are studied using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, sheet resistance and using four point probe and RsL. Profiles with junction depths ranging from 10-12 nm and sheet resistance values below 800 Ohm/sq are readily achievable.

  14. IQGAP1 controls tight junction formation through differential regulation of claudin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Tanos, Barbara E; Perez Bay, Andres E; Salvarezza, Susana; Vivanco, Igor; Mellinghoff, Ingo; Osman, Mahasin; Sacks, David B; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    IQGAP1 is a scaffolding protein previously implicated in adherens junction formation. However, its role in the establishment or maintenance of tight junctions (TJs) has not been explored. We hypothesized that IQGAP1 could regulate TJ formation by modulating the expression and/or localization of junctional proteins, and we systematically tested this hypothesis in the model Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. We find that IQGAP1 silencing enhances a transient increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) observed during the early stages of TJ formation (Cereijido et al., 1978). Quantitative microscopy and biochemical experiments suggest that this effect of IQGAP1 on TJ assembly is accounted for by reduced expression and TJ recruitment of claudin 2, and increased TJ recruitment of claudin 4. Furthermore, we show that IQGAP1 also regulates TJ formation through its interactor CDC42, because IQGAP1 knockdown increases the activity of the CDC42 effector JNK and dominant-negative CDC42 prevents the increase in TER caused by IQGAP1 silencing. Hence, we provide evidence that IQGAP1 modulates TJ formation by a twofold mechanism: (1) controlling the expression and recruitment of claudin 2 and recruitment of claudin 4 to the TJ, and (2) transient inhibition of the CDC42-JNK pathway. PMID:25588839

  15. IQGAP1 controls tight junction formation through differential regulation of claudin recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Tanos, Barbara E.; Perez Bay, Andres E.; Salvarezza, Susana; Vivanco, Igor; Mellinghoff, Ingo; Osman, Mahasin; Sacks, David B.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT IQGAP1 is a scaffolding protein previously implicated in adherens junction formation. However, its role in the establishment or maintenance of tight junctions (TJs) has not been explored. We hypothesized that IQGAP1 could regulate TJ formation by modulating the expression and/or localization of junctional proteins, and we systematically tested this hypothesis in the model Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. We find that IQGAP1 silencing enhances a transient increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) observed during the early stages of TJ formation (Cereijido et al., 1978). Quantitative microscopy and biochemical experiments suggest that this effect of IQGAP1 on TJ assembly is accounted for by reduced expression and TJ recruitment of claudin 2, and increased TJ recruitment of claudin 4. Furthermore, we show that IQGAP1 also regulates TJ formation through its interactor CDC42, because IQGAP1 knockdown increases the activity of the CDC42 effector JNK and dominant-negative CDC42 prevents the increase in TER caused by IQGAP1 silencing. Hence, we provide evidence that IQGAP1 modulates TJ formation by a twofold mechanism: (1) controlling the expression and recruitment of claudin 2 and recruitment of claudin 4 to the TJ, and (2) transient inhibition of the CDC42–JNK pathway. PMID:25588839

  16. The formation of excess free volume in triple junctions of <111> and <100> tilt boundaries in Ni at crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletaev, Gennady; Novoselova, Darya; Kaygorodova, Valentina; Starostenkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The formation of excess free volume in triple junctions of <111> and <100> tilt boundaries in Ni at crystallization was studied by the method of molecular dynamics. It is shown that the triple junctions, containing excess free volume, mainly forms during crystallization process in the result of "locking" of the liquid phase density at a meeting of the three crystallization fronts and, as a consequence, of the concentration of excess free volume in the triple junction after solidification. The calculation of excess free volume formed in the triple junctions during crystallization was carried out. The peculiarities of formation of the free volume in the triple junctions of low and large-angle <111> and <100> tilt boundaries were studied using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that the main part of the free volume is accumulated during crystallization in the area of the grain boundaries and the triple junctions.

  17. tal1 Regulates the formation of intercellular junctions and the maintenance of identity in the endocardium.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jennifer A; Bloomekatz, Joshua; Garavito-Aguilar, Zayra V; Yelon, Deborah

    2013-11-15

    The endocardium forms the inner lining of the heart tube, where it enables blood flow and also interacts with the myocardium during the formation of valves and trabeculae. Although a number of studies have identified regulators in the morphogenesis of the myocardium, relatively little is known about the molecules that control endocardial morphogenesis. Prior work has implicated the bHLH transcription factor Tal1 in endocardial tube formation: in zebrafish embryos lacking Tal1, endocardial cells form a disorganized mass within the ventricle and do not populate the atrium. Through blastomere transplantation, we find that tal1 plays a cell-autonomous role in regulating endocardial extension, suggesting that Tal1 activity influences the behavior of individual endocardial cells. The defects in endocardial behavior in tal1-deficient embryos originate during the earliest steps of endocardial morphogenesis: tal1-deficient endocardial cells fail to generate a cohesive monolayer at the midline and instead pack tightly together into a multi-layered aggregate. Moreover, the tight junction protein ZO-1 is mislocalized in the tal1-deficient endocardium, indicating a defect in intercellular junction formation. In addition, we find that the tal1-deficient endocardium fails to maintain its identity; over time, a progressively increasing number of tal1-deficient endocardial cells initiate myocardial gene expression. However, the onset of defects in intercellular junction formation precedes the onset of ectopic myocardial gene expression in the tal1-deficient endocardium. We therefore propose a model in which Tal1 has distinct roles in regulating the formation of endocardial intercellular junctions and maintaining endocardial identity. PMID:24075907

  18. The spontaneous formation of single-molecule junctions via terminal alkynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Vilanova, Pepita; Aragonès, Albert C.; Ciampi, Simone; Sanz, Fausto; Darwish, Nadim; Diez-Perez, Ismael

    2015-09-01

    Herein, we report the spontaneous formation of single-molecule junctions via terminal alkyne contact groups. Self-assembled monolayers that form spontaneously from diluted solutions of 1, 4-diethynylbenzene (DEB) were used to build single-molecule contacts and assessed using the scanning tunneling microscopy-break junction technique (STM-BJ). The STM-BJ technique in both its dynamic and static approaches was used to characterize the lifetime (stability) and the conductivity of a single-DEB wire. It is demonstrated that single-molecule junctions form spontaneously with terminal alkynes and require no electrochemical control or chemical deprotonation. The alkyne anchoring group was compared against typical contact groups exploited in single-molecule studies, i.e. amine (benzenediamine) and thiol (benzendithiol) contact groups. The alkyne contact showed a conductance magnitude comparable to that observed with amine and thiol groups. The lifetime of the junctions formed from alkynes were only slightly less than that of thiols and greater than that observed for amines. These findings are important as (a) they extend the repertoire of chemical contacts used in single-molecule measurements to 1-alkynes, which are synthetically accessible and stable and (b) alkynes have a remarkable affinity toward silicon surfaces, hence opening the door for the study of single-molecule transport on a semiconducting electronic platform.

  19. In situ Formation of Highly Conducting Covalent Au-C Contacts for Single-Molecule Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Z.L.; Hybertsen, M.; Skouta, R.; Vazquez, H.; Widawsky, J.R.; Schneebeli, S.; Chen, W.; Breslow, R.; Venkataraman, L.

    2011-06-01

    Charge transport across metal-molecule interfaces has an important role in organic electronics. Typically, chemical link groups such as thiols or amines are used to bind organic molecules to metal electrodes in single-molecule circuits, with these groups controlling both the physical structure and the electronic coupling at the interface. Direct metal-carbon coupling has been shown through C60, benzene and {pi}-stacked benzene but ideally the carbon backbone of the molecule should be covalently bonded to the electrode without intervening link groups. Here, we demonstrate a method to create junctions with such contacts. Trimethyl tin (SnMe{sub 3})-terminated polymethylene chains are used to form single-molecule junctions with a break-junction technique. Gold atoms at the electrode displace the SnMe{sub 3} linkers, leading to the formation of direct Au-C bonded single-molecule junctions with a conductance that is {approx}100 times larger than analogous alkanes with most other terminations. The conductance of these Au-C bonded alkanes decreases exponentially with molecular length, with a decay constant of 0.97 per methylene, consistent with a non-resonant transport mechanism. Control experiments and ab initio calculations show that high conductances are achieved because a covalent Au-C sigma ({sigma}) bond is formed. This offers a new method for making reproducible and highly conducting metal-organic contacts.

  20. Gating of single molecule junction conductance by charge transfer complex formation.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Andrea; Grace, Iain; Brooke, Carly; Wang, Kun; Lambert, Colin J; Xu, Bingqian; Nichols, Richard J; Higgins, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference. PMID:26510687

  1. Effects of Intercellular Junction Protein Expression on Intracellular Ice Formation in Mouse Insulinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, AdamZ.; Karlsson, JensO.M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of cryopreservation procedures for tissues has proven to be difficult in part because cells within tissue are more susceptible to intracellular ice formation (IIF) than are isolated cells. In particular, previous studies suggest that cell-cell interactions increase the likelihood of IIF by enabling propagation of ice between neighboring cells, a process thought to be mediated by gap junction channels. In this study, we investigated the effects of cell-cell interactions on IIF using three genetically modified strains of the mouse insulinoma cell line MIN6, each of which expressed key intercellular junction proteins (connexin-36, E-cadherin, and occludin) at different levels. High-speed video cryomicroscopy was used to visualize the freezing process in pairs of adherent cells, revealing that the initial IIF event in a given cell pair was correlated with a hitherto unrecognized precursor phenomenon: penetration of extracellular ice into paracellular spaces at the cell-cell interface. Such paracellular ice penetration occurred in the majority of cell pairs observed, and typically preceded and colocalized with the IIF initiation events. Paracellular ice penetration was generally not observed at temperatures >?5.65C, which is consistent with a penetration mechanism via defects in tight-junction barriers at the cell-cell interface. Although the maximum temperature of paracellular penetration was similar for all four cell strains, genetically modified cells exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ice penetration and a higher mean IIF temperature than did wild-type cells. A four-state Markov chain model was used to quantify the rate constants of the paracellular ice penetration process, the penetration-associated IIF initiation process, and the intercellular ice propagation process. In the initial stages of freezing (>?15C), junction protein expression appeared to only have a modest effect on the kinetics of propagative IIF, and even cell strains lacking the gap junction protein connexin-36 exhibited nonnegligible ice propagation rates. PMID:24209845

  2. Ultrashallow Junction Formation Using Low-Temperature Selective Si1-xGex Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Fumitaka; Murota, Junichi; Goto, Kinya; Maeda, Takahiro; Sawada, Yasuji

    1994-04-01

    In situ B doping and selective epitaxy on Si at 550 C in Si1- xGe x chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been investigated for forming high-performance ultrashallow junctions. It was found that the incorporation rate of B increased proportionally with increasing B2H6 partial pressure, and was higher for the film with a higher Ge fraction x. Using Si3N4, thermal SiO2, phosphosilicate glass (PSG) and borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) as mask film materials, about 40-nm-, 100-nm-, 150-nm- and 150-nm-thick B-doped Si0.5Ge0.5 films, respectively, were grown selectively on Si(100). Using this low-temperature selective Si1- xGe x CVD, a high-performance self-aligned ultrashallow junction formation has been achieved with a very low reverse current density, in the range of 10-10 A/cm2, without heat treatment.

  3. Analysis of USJ formation with combined RTA/laser annealing conditions for 28 nm high-k/metal gate CMOS technology using advanced TCAD for process and device simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazizi, E. M.; Zaka, A.; Benistant, F.

    2013-05-01

    TCAD process and device simulations are used to gain physical understanding for the integration of laser-annealed junctions into a 28 nm high-k/metal gate first process flow. Spike-RTA (Rapid Thermal Annealing) scaling used for transient enhanced diffusion (TED) suppression and shallow extension formation is investigated. In order to overcome the performance loss due to a reduced RTA, laser anneal (lsa) is introduced after Spike-RTA to form highly activated and ultra shallow junctions (USJs). In this work, the impact of different annealing conditions on the performance of NMOS and PMOS devices is investigated in terms of Vth and Ion/Ioff, considering lateral dopant diffusion and activation.

  4. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch H.; Wang, Fei; Yates, Bradley R.; Jones, Kevin S.; Hansen, Ole; Kontos, Alex; Nielsen, Peter F.

    2012-11-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations.

  5. Fluid displacement during droplet formation at microfluidic flow-focusing junction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Microdroplets and microcapsules have been widely produced using microfluidic flow-focusing junction for biomedical and chemical applications. However, the multiphase microfluidic flow at the flow-focusing junction has not been well investigated. In this study, the displacement of two (core and shell) aqueous fluids that disperse into droplets altogether in a carrier oil emulsion was investigated both numerically and experimentally. It was found that extensive displacement of the two aqueous fluids within the droplet during its formation could occur as a result of the shear effect of the carrier fluid and the capillary effect of interfacial tension. We further identified that the two mechanisms of fluid displacement can be evaluated by two dimensionless parameters. The quantitative relationship between the degree of fluid displacement and these two dimensionless parameters was determined experimentally. Finally, we demonstrated that the degree of fluid displacement could be controlled to generate hydrogel microparticles of different morphologies using planar or nonplanar flow-focusing junctions. These findings should provide useful guidance to the microfluidic production of microscale droplets or capsules for various biomedical and chemical applications. PMID:26381220

  6. Gating of single molecule junction conductance by charge transfer complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Andrea; Grace, Iain; Brooke, Carly; Wang, Kun; Lambert, Colin J.; Xu, Bingqian; Nichols, Richard J.; Higgins, Simon J.

    2015-11-01

    The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference.The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of 1c; experimental details of conductance measurements, formation of charge transfer complexes of 1c and 2 in solution; further details of theoretical methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04420k

  7. Formation of adherens junctions leads to the emergence of a tissue-level tension in epithelial monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew R.; Daeden, Alicia; Charras, Guillaume T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adherens junctions and desmosomes integrate the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells into a mechanical syncitium. In doing so, intercellular junctions endow tissues with the strength needed to withstand the mechanical stresses encountered in normal physiology and to coordinate tension during morphogenesis. Though much is known about the biological mechanisms underlying junction formation, little is known about how tissue-scale mechanical properties are established. Here, we use deep atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation to measure the apparent stiffness of epithelial monolayers reforming from dissociated cells and examine which cellular processes give rise to tissue-scale mechanics. We show that the formation of intercellular junctions coincided with an increase in the apparent stiffness of reforming monolayers that reflected the generation of a tissue-level tension. Tension rapidly increased, reaching a maximum after 150 min, before settling to a lower level over the next 3 h as monolayers established homeostasis. The emergence of tissue tension correlated with the formation of adherens junctions but not desmosomes. As a consequence, inhibition of any of the molecular mechanisms participating in adherens junction initiation, remodelling and maturation significantly impeded the emergence of tissue-level tension in monolayers. PMID:24659804

  8. Formation of adherens junctions leads to the emergence of a tissue-level tension in epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Andrew R; Daeden, Alicia; Charras, Guillaume T

    2014-06-01

    Adherens junctions and desmosomes integrate the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells into a mechanical syncitium. In doing so, intercellular junctions endow tissues with the strength needed to withstand the mechanical stresses encountered in normal physiology and to coordinate tension during morphogenesis. Though much is known about the biological mechanisms underlying junction formation, little is known about how tissue-scale mechanical properties are established. Here, we use deep atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation to measure the apparent stiffness of epithelial monolayers reforming from dissociated cells and examine which cellular processes give rise to tissue-scale mechanics. We show that the formation of intercellular junctions coincided with an increase in the apparent stiffness of reforming monolayers that reflected the generation of a tissue-level tension. Tension rapidly increased, reaching a maximum after 150 min, before settling to a lower level over the next 3 h as monolayers established homeostasis. The emergence of tissue tension correlated with the formation of adherens junctions but not desmosomes. As a consequence, inhibition of any of the molecular mechanisms participating in adherens junction initiation, remodelling and maturation significantly impeded the emergence of tissue-level tension in monolayers. PMID:24659804

  9. ATP requirement for induced tight junction formation in HT 29 adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mückter, H; Ben-Shaul, Y; Bacher, A

    1987-10-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) of the fascia occludens type can be rapidly assembled in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT 29 under the influence of trypsin or ammonium sulfate. We have studied the influence of the metabolic inhibitors, dinitrophenol (DNP) and deoxyglucose (DG), on the induced formation of TJ in this cell line. A reduction of the ATP level by DG treatment to 20% of control values did not affect the amount and complexity of induced TJ fibrils. However, under conditions of severe ATP depletion obtained by DNP, the velocity of TJ formation was substantially reduced, and the arrangement of the TJ fibrils as observed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy showed characteristic changes. PMID:3691550

  10. Trpm7 Protein Contributes to Intercellular Junction Formation in Mouse Urothelium.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaki; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-12-11

    Trpm7 is a divalent cation-permeable channel that has been reported to be involved in magnesium homeostasis as well as cellular adhesion and migration. We generated urothelium-specific Trpm7 knock-out (KO) mice to reveal the function of Trpm7 in vivo. A Trpm7 KO was induced by tamoxifen and was confirmed by genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. By using patch clamp recordings in primary urothelial cells, we observed that Mg(2+)-inhibitable cation currents as well as acid-inducible currents were significantly smaller in Trpm7 KO urothelial cells than in cells from control mice. Assessment of voiding behavior indicated a significantly smaller voided volume in Trpm7 KO mice (mean voided volume 0.28 ± 0.08 g in KO mice and 0.36 ± 0.04 g in control mice, p < 0.05, n = 6-8). Histological analysis showed partial but substantial edema in the submucosal layer of Trpm7 KO mice, most likely due to inflammation. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly higher in Trpm7 KO bladders than in controls. In transmission electron microscopic analysis, immature intercellular junctions were observed in Trpm7 KO urothelium but not in control mice. These results suggest that Trpm7 is involved in the formation of intercellular junctions in mouse urothelium. Immature intercellular junctions in Trpm7 knock-out mice might lead to a disruption of barrier function resulting in inflammation and hypersensitive bladder afferent nerves that may affect voiding behavior in vivo. PMID:26504086

  11. ALCAM Regulates Motility, Invasiveness, and Adherens Junction Formation in Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jannie, Karry M.; Stipp, Christopher S.; Weiner, Joshua A.

    2012-01-01

    ALCAM, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, has been implicated in numerous developmental events and has been repeatedly identified as a marker for cancer metastasis. Previous studies addressing ALCAMs role in cancer have, however, yielded conflicting results. Depending on the tumor cell type, ALCAM expression has been reported to be both positively and negatively correlated with cancer progression and metastasis in the literature. To better understand how ALCAM might regulate cancer cell behavior, we utilized a panel of defined uveal melanoma cell lines with high or low ALCAM levels, and directly tested the effects of manipulating these levels on cell motility, invasiveness, and adhesion using multiple assays. ALCAM expression was stably silenced by shRNA knockdown in a high-ALCAM cell line (MUM-2B); the resulting cells displayed reduced motility in gap-closure assays and a reduction in invasiveness as measured by a transwell migration assay. Immunostaining revealed that the silenced cells were defective in the formation of adherens junctions, at which ALCAM colocalizes with N-cadherin and -catenin in native cells. Additionally, we stably overexpressed ALCAM in a low-ALCAM cell line (MUM-2C); intriguingly, these cells did not exhibit any increase in motility or invasiveness, indicating that ALCAM is necessary but not sufficient to promote metastasis-associated cell behaviors. In these ALCAM-overexpressing cells, however, recruitment of -catenin and N-cadherin to adherens junctions was enhanced. These data confirm a previously suggested role for ALCAM in the regulation of adherens junctions, and also suggest a mechanism by which ALCAM might differentially enhance or decrease invasiveness, depending on the type of cadherin adhesion complexes present in tissues surrounding the primary tumor, and on the cadherin status of the tumor cells themselves. PMID:22745734

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell-dependent formation of heterotopic tendon-bone insertions (osteotendinous junctions).

    PubMed

    Shahab-Osterloh, Sandra; Witte, Frank; Hoffmann, Andrea; Winkel, Andreas; Laggies, Sandra; Neumann, Berit; Seiffart, Virginia; Lindenmaier, Werner; Gruber, Achim D; Ringe, Jochen; Hupl, Thomas; Thorey, Fritz; Willbold, Elmar; Corbeau, Pierre; Gross, Gerhard

    2010-09-01

    Ligament-to-bone and tendon-to-bone interfaces (entheses, osteotendinous junctions [OTJs]) serve to dissipate stress between soft tissue and bone. Surgical reconstruction of these interfaces is an issue of considerable importance as they are prone to injury and the integration of bone and tendon/ligament is in general not satisfactory. We report here the stem cell-dependent spontaneous formation of fibrocartilaginous and fibrous entheses in heterotopic locations of the mouse if progenitors possess a tenogenic and osteo-/chondrogenic capacity. This study followed the hypothesis that enhanced Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-signaling in adult mesenchymal stem cells that are induced for tendon formation may overcome the tendon-inherent interference with bone formation and may thus allow the stem cell-dependent formation of tendon-bone interfaces. The tenogenic and osteo-/chondrogenic competence was mediated by the adeno- and/or lentiviral expression of the biologically active Smad8 signaling mediator (Smad8ca) and of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2). Modified mesenchymal progenitors were implanted in subcutaneous or intramuscular sites of the mouse. The stem cell-dependent enthesis formation was characterized histologically by immunohistological approaches and by in situ hybridization. Transplantation of modified murine stem cells resulted in the formation of tendinous and osseous structures exhibiting fibrocartilage-type OTJs, while, in contrast, the viral modification of primary human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells showed evidence of fibrous tendon-bone interface formation. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that Smad8ca expression alone was sufficient for the formation of tendon/ligament-like structures. These findings may contribute to the establishment of stem cell-dependent regenerative therapies involving tendon/ligaments and to the improvement of the insertion of tendon grafts at bony attachment sites, eventually. PMID:20882636

  13. PAR6B is required for tight junction formation and activated PKCζ localization in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cunliffe, Heather E; Jiang, Yuan; Fornace, Kimberly M; Yang, Fan; Meltzer, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of mechanisms that govern the control of epithelial cell polarity, morphology and plasticity are emerging as key processes in tumor progression. In this study we report amplification and overexpression of PAR6B, an essential component in epithelial cell tight junction (TJ) formation and maintenance of apico-basal polarity, in breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of chromosome 20q13.13 in 11 breast cancer cell lines by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified a novel small amplicon centered at PARD6B in 5 cell lines, with copy number ranging from 7 to 27. The presence of the PARD6B amplicon correlated with PARD6B transcript and PAR6B protein abundance. Expression of related isoforms PARD6A and PARD6G were detectable at significantly lower levels. PARD6B overexpression correlated with TJ network formation in cultured cell monolayers. SiRNA-mediated inhibition of PAR6B in MCF7 resulted in loss of TJ assembly and membrane localization of atypical PKCζ (aPKC), but did not affect adherens junction formation. SiRNA-mediated inhibition of CDC42 in MCF7 also resulted in loss of TJ networks, confirming the requirement of a complete PAR6-aPKC-CDC42-PAR3 complex to activate and stabilize TJs. Immunohistochemical analysis of PAR6B expression on breast tumor microarrays indicated exquisite epithelial cell-specificity. Few quantitative differences in staining were observed between normal epithelium and adjacent tumor margins. However staining appeared reduced and cytoplasmic in more poorly differentiated tumors. We propose that quantitative imbalances in the components of pathways governing normal epithelial cell polarity arising from gain or loss of function may radically alter epithelial cell architecture and contribute to tumor progression. PMID:22957302

  14. Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia: a disease apparently of desmosome and gap junction formation.

    PubMed Central

    Witkop, C J; White, J G; King, R A; Dahl, M V; Young, W G; Sauk, J J

    1979-01-01

    A previously unrecognized autosomal dominant syndrome affecting oral, nasal, vaginal, urethral, anal, bladder, and conjunctival mucosa with cataracts, follicular keratosis, nonscarring alopecia, and terminal lung disease is described in a four-generation kindred of German extraction. Severe photophobia, tearing, and nystagmus in infancy heralds the development of keratitis, corneal vascularization, and lens cataracts. Repeated corneal transplants have failed. Red, periorificial mucosal lesions involving the above structures are noted by 1 year of age and may persist throughout life. Chronic rhinorrhea and repeated upper respiratory infections frequently progress to bilateral pneumonia accompanied by loss of hair, diarrhea, occasional melena, enuresis, pyuria, and hematuria. Spontaneous pneumothorax is frequent, terminating in fibrocystic-type lung disease and cor pulmonale. Women have had repeated abnormal vaginal PAP smears. Histologically the mucosal epithelium shows dyshesion, thinning of the epithelial layer, and dyskeratosis. Mucosal PAP smears show lack of epithelial maturation, cytoplasmic vacuoles and inclusions, and individual cell dyskeratosis. Histochemically there is a lack of cornification and keratinization. Ultrastructural studies show lack of keratohyalin granules, a paucity of desmosomes, intercellular accumulations, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and formation of bands and aggregates of filamentous fibers and structures in the cytoplasm resembling desmosomes and gap junctions. The condition is probably a panepithelial cell defect of desmosomal and gap junction structure most prominently affecting mucosal epithelia associated with an increased susceptibility to a variety of adventitious organisms. Images Fig. 2-5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:484550

  15. Kartogenin induces cartilage-like tissue formation in tendonbone junction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    Tendonbone junctions (TBJs) are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. Healing of TBJ injuries is slow and is often repaired with scar tissue formation that compromises normal function. This study explored the feasibility of using kartogenin (KGN), a biocompound, to enhance the healing of injured TBJs. We first determined the effects of KGN on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and patellar tendon stem/progenitor cells (PTSCs) in vitro. KGN enhanced cell proliferation in both cell types in a concentration-dependent manner and induced chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, as demonstrated by high expression levels of chondrogenic markers aggrecan, collagen II and Sox-9. Besides, KGN induced the formation of cartilage-like tissues in cell cultures, as observed through the staining of abundant proteoglycans, collagen II and osteocalcin. When injected into intact rat patellar tendons in vivo, KGN induced cartilage-like tissue formation in the injected area. Similarly, when KGN was injected into experimentally injured rat Achilles TBJs, wound healing in the TBJs was enhanced, as evidenced by the formation of extensive cartilage-like tissues. These results suggest that KGN may be used as an effective cell-free clinical therapy to enhance the healing of injured TBJs. PMID:25419468

  16. Afadin regulates puncta adherentia junction formation and presynaptic differentiation in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Daisaku; Mandai, Kenji; Maruo, Tomohiko; Supriyanto, Irwan; Togashi, Hideru; Inoue, Takahito; Mori, Masahiro; Takai, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    The formation and remodeling of mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses in the stratum lucidum of the hippocampus are implicated in the cellular basis of learning and memory. Afadin and its binding cell adhesion molecules, nectin-1 and nectin-3, together with N-cadherin, are concentrated at puncta adherentia junctions (PAJs) in these synapses. Here, we investigated the roles of afadin in PAJ formation and presynaptic differentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. At these synapses in the mice in which the afadin gene was conditionally inactivated before synaptogenesis by using nestin-Cre mice, the immunofluorescence signals for the PAJ components, nectin-1, nectin-3 and N-cadherin, disappeared almost completely, while those for the presynaptic components, VGLUT1 and bassoon, were markedly decreased. In addition, these signals were significantly decreased in cultured afadin-deficient hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the interevent interval of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents was prolonged in the cultured afadin-deficient hippocampal neurons compared with control neurons, indicating that presynaptic functions were suppressed or a number of synapse was reduced in the afadin-deficient neurons. Analyses of presynaptic vesicle recycling and paired recordings revealed that the cultured afadin-deficient neurons showed impaired presynaptic functions. These results indicate that afadin regulates both PAJ formation and presynaptic differentiation in most mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses, while in a considerable population of these neurons, afadin regulates only PAJ formation but not presynaptic differentiation. PMID:24587018

  17. A numerical study on the dynamics of droplet formation in a microfluidic double T-junction.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ich-Long; Dang, Trung-Dung; Byon, Chan; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, droplet formations in microfluidic double T-junctions (MFDTD) are investigated based on a two-dimensional numerical model with volume of fluid method. Parametric ranges for generating alternating droplet formation (ADF) are identified. A physical background responsible for the ADF is suggested by analyzing the dynamical stability of flow system. Since the phase discrepancy between dispersed flows is mainly caused by non-symmetrical breaking of merging droplet, merging regime becomes the alternating regime at appropriate conditions. In addition, the effects of channel geometries on droplet formation are studied in terms of relative channel width. The predicted results show that the ADF region is shifted toward lower capillary numbers when channel width ratio is less than unity. The alternating droplet size increases with the increase of channel width ratio. When this ratio reaches unity, alternating droplets can be formed at very high water fraction (wf?=?0.8). The droplet formation in MFDTD depends significantly on the viscosity ratio, and the droplet size in ADF decreases with the increase of the viscosity ratio. The understanding of underlying physics of the ADF phenomenon is useful for many applications, including nanoparticle synthesis with different concentrations, hydrogel bead generation, and cell transplantation in biomedical therapy. PMID:25825622

  18. Bimetallic junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcella, F. G.; Lessmann, G. G.; Lindberg, R. A. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    The formation of voids through interdiffusion in bimetallic welded structures exposed to high operating temperatures is inhibited by utilizing an alloy of the parent materials in the junction of the parent materials or by preannealing the junction at an ultrahigh temperature. These methods are also used to reduce the concentration gradient of a hardening agent.

  19. Laser annealing of ion implanted CZ silicon for solar cell junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzeff, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of large spot size pulsed laser annealing of phosphorus implanted, Czochralski grown silicon for function formation of solar cells are evaluated. The feasibility and requirements are also determined to scale-up a laser system to anneal 7.62 cm diameter wafers at a rate of one wafer/second. Results show that laser annealing yields active, defect-free, shallow junction devices. Functional cells with AM 1 conversion efficiencies up to 15.4% for 2 x 2 cm and 2 x 4 cm sizes were attained. For larger cells, 7.62 cm dia., conversion efficiencies ranged up to 14.5%. Experiments showed that texture etched surfaces are not compatible with pulsed laser annealing due to the surface melting caused by the laser energy. When compared with furnace annealed cells, the laser annealed cells generally exhibited conversion efficiencies which were equal to or better than those furnace annealed. In addition, laser annealing has greater throughput potential.

  20. Local electrical stress-induced doping and formation of monolayer graphene P-N junction

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Tianhua; Liang Chenwei; Kim, Changdong; Yu Bin

    2011-06-13

    We demonstrated doping in monolayer graphene via local electrical stressing. The doping, confirmed by the resistance-voltage transfer characteristics of the graphene system, is observed to continuously tunable from N-type to P-type as the electrical stressing level (voltage) increases. Two major physical mechanisms are proposed to interpret the observed phenomena: modifications of surface chemistry for N-type doping (at low-level stressing) and thermally-activated charge transfer from graphene to SiO{sub 2} substrate for P-type doping (at high-level stressing). The formation of P-N junction on two-dimensional graphene monolayer is demonstrated with complementary doping based on locally applied electrical stressing.

  1. Transcription factor AP-2? is a core regulator of tight junction biogenesis and cavity formation during mouse early embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inchul; Carey, Timothy S.; Wilson, Catherine A.; Knott, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    The trophectoderm epithelium is the first differentiated cell layer to arise during mammalian development. Blastocyst formation requires the proper expression and localization of tight junction, polarity, ion gradient and H2O channel proteins in the outer cell membranes. However, the underlying transcriptional mechanisms that control their expression are largely unknown. Here, we report that transcription factor AP-2? (Tcfap2c) is a core regulator of blastocyst formation in mice. Bioinformatics, chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcriptional analysis revealed that Tcfap2c binds and regulates a diverse group of genes expressed during blastocyst formation. RNA interference experiments demonstrated that Tcfap2c regulates genes important for tight junctions, cell polarity and fluid accumulation. Functional and ultrastructural studies revealed that Tcfap2c is necessary for tight junction assembly and paracellular sealing in trophectoderm epithelium. Aggregation of control eight-cell embryos with Tcfap2c knockdown embryos rescued blastocyst formation via direct contribution to the trophectoderm epithelium. Finally, we found that Tcfap2c promotes cellular proliferation via direct repression of p21 transcription during the morula-to-blastocyst transition. We propose a model in which Tcfap2c acts in a hierarchy to facilitate blastocyst formation through transcriptional regulation of core genes involved in tight junction assembly, fluid accumulation and cellular proliferation. PMID:23136388

  2. Effect of F on B penetration through gate oxide for BF{sub 2} implants used to obtain ultra-shallow junctions by RTA

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, A.; Craig, M.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-12-31

    We have studied enhancement of B penetration due to the presence of F, when BF{sub 2} implants are used for s/d extension implants in p{sup +} poly gate PMOS devices. A 0.35 {mu}m CMOS full flow is used to characterize the change in linear and saturation threshold voltage due to increased B penetration. The effect of F on other device characteristics is also examined. Contrary to previous concerns, it is found that the threshold voltage shift is quite small (18 mV) for the realistic conditions studied (2{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} or BF{sub 2} dose). The presence of F does not degrade other electrical characteristics such as leakage current, sub-threshold slope or transconductance.

  3. Boron Profile Sharpening in Ultra-Shallow p{sup +}-n Junction Produced by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation from BF{sub 3} Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lukichev, V.; Rudenko, K.; Orlikovsky, A.; Pustovit, A.; Vyatkin, A.

    2008-11-03

    We have investigated plasma immersion ion implantation (PI{sup 3}) of boron with energies of 500 eV (doses up to 2x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}) from BF{sub 3} plasma with He pre-amorphizing implantation (PAI)(energy 3 keV, dose 5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}). Implanted samples were subjected to RTA (T = 900 to 1050 deg. C, t = 2 to 24 sec and spike anneal). SIMS analysis of boron profiles revealed its anomalous behavior. For short RTA times the profile tail (below 5x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) moves toward the surface and then, as in the usual diffusion, toward the bulk at longer annealing times.

  4. Neuromuscular Junction Formation in Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Augments Contractile Function and Improves Cytoskeletal Organization

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil R.W.; Passey, Samantha L.; Player, Darren J.; Mudera, Vivek; Baar, Keith; Greensmith, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases are conditions that affect both motor neurons and the underlying skeletal muscle tissue. At present, the majority of neuromuscular research utilizes animal models and there is a growing need to develop novel methodologies that can be used to help understand and develop treatments for these diseases. Skeletal muscle tissue-engineered constructs exhibit many of the characteristics of the native tissue such as accurate fascicular structure and generation of active contractions. However, to date, there has been little consideration toward the integration of engineered skeletal muscle with motor neurons with the aim of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation, which would provide a model to investigate neuromuscular diseases and basic biology. In the present work we isolated primary embryonic motor neurons and neonatal myoblasts from Sprague-Dawley rats, and cocultured the two cell types in three-dimensional tissue-engineered fibrin hydrogels with the aim of NMJ formation. Immunohistochemistry revealed myotube formation in a fascicular arrangement and neurite outgrowth from motor neuron cell bodies toward the aligned myotubes. Furthermore, colocalization of pre- and postsynaptic proteins and chemical inhibition of spontaneous myotube twitch indicated the presence of NMJs in the innervated constructs. When electrical field stimulation was employed to evoke isometric contractions, maximal twitch and tetanic force were higher in the constructs cocultured with motor neurons, which may, in part, be explained by improved myotube cytoskeletal organization in these constructs. The fabrication of such constructs may be useful tools for investigating neuromuscular pharmaceuticals and improving the understanding of neuromuscular pathologies. PMID:26166548

  5. Neuromuscular Junction Formation in Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Augments Contractile Function and Improves Cytoskeletal Organization.

    PubMed

    Martin, Neil R W; Passey, Samantha L; Player, Darren J; Mudera, Vivek; Baar, Keith; Greensmith, Linda; Lewis, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    Neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases are conditions that affect both motor neurons and the underlying skeletal muscle tissue. At present, the majority of neuromuscular research utilizes animal models and there is a growing need to develop novel methodologies that can be used to help understand and develop treatments for these diseases. Skeletal muscle tissue-engineered constructs exhibit many of the characteristics of the native tissue such as accurate fascicular structure and generation of active contractions. However, to date, there has been little consideration toward the integration of engineered skeletal muscle with motor neurons with the aim of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation, which would provide a model to investigate neuromuscular diseases and basic biology. In the present work we isolated primary embryonic motor neurons and neonatal myoblasts from Sprague-Dawley rats, and cocultured the two cell types in three-dimensional tissue-engineered fibrin hydrogels with the aim of NMJ formation. Immunohistochemistry revealed myotube formation in a fascicular arrangement and neurite outgrowth from motor neuron cell bodies toward the aligned myotubes. Furthermore, colocalization of pre- and postsynaptic proteins and chemical inhibition of spontaneous myotube twitch indicated the presence of NMJs in the innervated constructs. When electrical field stimulation was employed to evoke isometric contractions, maximal twitch and tetanic force were higher in the constructs cocultured with motor neurons, which may, in part, be explained by improved myotube cytoskeletal organization in these constructs. The fabrication of such constructs may be useful tools for investigating neuromuscular pharmaceuticals and improving the understanding of neuromuscular pathologies. PMID:26166548

  6. Porous silicon formation by hole injection from a back side p+/n junction for electrical insulation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fvre, A.; Menard, S.; Defforge, T.; Gautier, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to study the formation of porous silicon (PS) in low doped (1 1014 cm-3) n-type silicon through hole injection from a back side p+/n junction in the dark. This technique is investigated within the framework of electrical insulation. Three different types of junctions are investigated. The first one is an epitaxial n-type layer grown on p+ doped silicon wafer. The two other junctions are carried out by boron diffusion leading to p+ regions with junction depths of 20 and 115 ?m. The resulting PS morphology is a double layer with a nucleation layer (NL) and macropores fully filled with mesoporous material. This result is unusual for low doped n-type silicon. Morphology variations are described depending on the junction formation process, the electrolyte composition, the anodization current density and duration. In order to validate the more interesting industrial potentialities of the p+/n injection technique, a comparison is achieved with back side illumination in terms of resulting morphology and experiments confirm comparable results. Electrical characterizations of the double layer, including NL and fully filled macropores, are then performed. To our knowledge, this is the first electrical investigation in low doped n type silicon with this morphology. Compared to the bulk silicon, the measured electrical resistivities are 6-7 orders of magnitude higher at 373 K.

  7. Na,K-ATPase activity is required for formation of tight junctions, desmosomes, and induction of polarity in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S A; Palmer, L G; Moon, S Y; Peralta Soler, A; Apodaca, G L; Harper, J F; Zheng, Y; Rajasekaran, A K

    2001-12-01

    Na,K-ATPase is a key enzyme that regulates a variety of transport functions in epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate a role for Na,K-ATPase in the formation of tight junctions, desmosomes, and epithelial polarity with the use of the calcium switch model in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Inhibition of Na,K-ATPase either by ouabain or potassium depletion prevented the formation of tight junctions and desmosomes and the cells remained nonpolarized. The formation of bundled stress fibers that appeared transiently in control cells was largely inhibited in ouabain-treated or potassium-depleted cells. Failure to form stress fibers correlated with a large reduction of RhoA GTPase activity in Na,K-ATPase-inhibited cells. In cells overexpressing wild-type RhoA GTPase, Na,K-ATPase inhibition did not affect the formation of stress fibers, tight junctions, or desmosomes, and epithelial polarity developed normally, suggesting that RhoA GTPase is an essential component downstream of Na,K-ATPase-mediated regulation of these junctions. The effects of Na,K-ATPase inhibition were mimicked by treatment with the sodium ionophore gramicidin and were correlated with the increased intracellular sodium levels. Furthermore, ouabain treatment under sodium-free condition did not affect the formation of junctions and epithelial polarity, suggesting that the intracellular Na(+) homeostasis plays a crucial role in generation of the polarized phenotype of epithelial cells. These results thus demonstrate that the Na,K-ATPase activity plays an important role in regulating both the structure and function of polarized epithelial cells. PMID:11739775

  8. Claudin-16 Deficiency Impairs Tight Junction Function in Ameloblasts, Leading to Abnormal Enamel Formation.

    PubMed

    Bardet, Claire; Courson, Frédéric; Wu, Yong; Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Ribes, Sandy; Thumfart, Julia; Yamaguti, Paulo M; Rochefort, Gael Y; Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Breiderhoff, Tilman; Garcia-Castaño, Alejandro; Vallée, Benoit; Le Denmat, Dominique; Baroukh, Brigitte; Guilbert, Thomas; Schmitt, Alain; Massé, Jean-Marc; Bazin, Dominique; Lorenz, Georg; Morawietz, Maria; Hou, Jianghui; Carvalho-Lobato, Patricia; Manzanares, Maria Cristina; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Talmud, Deborah; Demontis, Renato; Neves, Francisco; Zenaty, Delphine; Berdal, Ariane; Kiesow, Andreas; Petzold, Matthias; Menashi, Suzanne; Linglart, Agnes; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Müller, Dominik; Houillier, Pascal; Chaussain, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Claudin-16 protein (CLDN16) is a component of tight junctions (TJ) with a restrictive distribution so far demonstrated mainly in the kidney. Here, we demonstrate the expression of CLDN16 also in the tooth germ and show that claudin-16 gene (CLDN16) mutations result in amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in the 5 studied patients with familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC). To investigate the role of CLDN16 in tooth formation, we studied a murine model of FHHNC and showed that CLDN16 deficiency led to altered secretory ameloblast TJ structure, lowering of extracellular pH in the forming enamel matrix, and abnormal enamel matrix protein processing, resulting in an enamel phenotype closely resembling human AI. This study unravels an association of FHHNC owing to CLDN16 mutations with AI, which is directly related to the loss of function of CLDN16 during amelogenesis. Overall, this study indicates for the first time the importance of a TJ protein in tooth formation and underlines the need to establish a specific dental follow-up for these patients. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26426912

  9. Rho1 regulates adherens junction remodeling by promoting recycling endosome formation through activation of myosin II

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Hanako; Loza, Andrew J.; Skeath, James B.; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Once adherens junctions (AJs) are formed between polarized epithelial cells they must be maintained because AJs are constantly remodeled in dynamic epithelia. AJ maintenance involves endocytosis and subsequent recycling of E-cadherin to a precise location along the basolateral membrane. In the Drosophila pupal eye epithelium, Rho1 GTPase regulates AJ remodeling through Drosophila E-cadherin (DE-cadherin) endocytosis by limiting Cdc42/Par6/aPKC complex activity. We demonstrate that Rho1 also influences AJ remodeling by regulating the formation of DE-cadherin–containing, Rab11-positive recycling endosomes in Drosophila postmitotic pupal eye epithelia. This effect of Rho1 is mediated through Rok-dependent, but not MLCK-dependent, stimulation of myosin II activity yet independent of its effects upon actin remodeling. Both Rho1 and pMLC localize on endosomal vesicles, suggesting that Rho1 might regulate the formation of recycling endosomes through localized myosin II activation. This work identifies spatially distinct functions for Rho1 in the regulation of DE-cadherin–containing vesicular trafficking during AJ remodeling in live epithelia. PMID:25079692

  10. Rho1 regulates adherens junction remodeling by promoting recycling endosome formation through activation of myosin II.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Hanako; Loza, Andrew J; Skeath, James B; Longmore, Gregory D

    2014-10-01

    Once adherens junctions (AJs) are formed between polarized epithelial cells they must be maintained because AJs are constantly remodeled in dynamic epithelia. AJ maintenance involves endocytosis and subsequent recycling of E-cadherin to a precise location along the basolateral membrane. In the Drosophila pupal eye epithelium, Rho1 GTPase regulates AJ remodeling through Drosophila E-cadherin (DE-cadherin) endocytosis by limiting Cdc42/Par6/aPKC complex activity. We demonstrate that Rho1 also influences AJ remodeling by regulating the formation of DE-cadherin-containing, Rab11-positive recycling endosomes in Drosophila postmitotic pupal eye epithelia. This effect of Rho1 is mediated through Rok-dependent, but not MLCK-dependent, stimulation of myosin II activity yet independent of its effects upon actin remodeling. Both Rho1 and pMLC localize on endosomal vesicles, suggesting that Rho1 might regulate the formation of recycling endosomes through localized myosin II activation. This work identifies spatially distinct functions for Rho1 in the regulation of DE-cadherin-containing vesicular trafficking during AJ remodeling in live epithelia. PMID:25079692

  11. Operational mechanism of light-emitting devices based on Ru(II) complexes: Evidence for electrochemical junction formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, Hartmut; Shimada, Satoru; Rubner, Michael F.

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the operational mechanism of single-layer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on the small molecule tris(2,2' bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(II)] was investigated using capacitance and resistance measurements. The current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of such devices suggest that an electrochemical junction is formed during operation with a high electric field across the junction. A similar mechanism has been proposed for polymer LECs. In the case of Ru(II) devices, electrically conducting regions adjacent to the electrodes are the result of mixed-valent states that form due to oxidation and reduction of the complex. The junction thickness is a function of the type of counterions used and the operating voltage. Thinner junctions were observed for devices with high ionic conductivity and at higher operating voltages. Transient capacitance and resistance measurements show that the junction formation is faster in devices with higher ion mobility and during higher operating voltages. In addition, the capacitance and resistance exhibit a relaxation time after the device is turned off. This relaxation shows that the electrochemical junction stays present in a device for some time (several seconds to minutes) once a device is turned off. The electrochemical junction disappears as the counterions relax back. Furthermore, a theoretical model is presented, which shows that due to the concentration gradient of mixed-valent states during operation, an electric field has to be present in the device. The model also shows that there can be no local charge neutrality in the bulk of the device during operation.

  12. Nano-welding and junction formation in hydrogen titanate nanowires by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhal, Satyanarayan; Chatterjee, Shyamal; Sarkar, Subhrangsu; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Bapat, Rudheer; Ayyub, Pushan

    2015-06-01

    Crystalline hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7) nanowires were irradiated with N+ ions of different energies and fluences. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that at relatively lower fluence the nanowires are bent and start to adhere strongly to one another as well as to the silicon substrate. At higher fluence, the nanowires show large-scale welding and form a network of mainly X and Y junctions. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering studies confirm a high degree of amorphization of the nanowire surface after irradiation. We suggest that while ion-irradiation induced defect formation and dangling bonds may lead to chemical bonding between nanowires, the large scale nano-welding and junction network formation can be ascribed to localized surface melting due to heat spike. Our results demonstrate that low energy ion irradiation with suitable choice of fluence may provide an attractive route to the formation and manipulation of large-area nanowire-based devices.

  13. Nano-welding and junction formation in hydrogen titanate nanowires by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dhal, Satyanarayan; Chatterjee, Shyamal; Sarkar, Subhrangsu; Tribedi, Lokesh C; Bapat, Rudheer; Ayyub, Pushan

    2015-06-12

    Crystalline hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7) nanowires were irradiated with N(+) ions of different energies and fluences. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that at relatively lower fluence the nanowires are bent and start to adhere strongly to one another as well as to the silicon substrate. At higher fluence, the nanowires show large-scale welding and form a network of mainly 'X' and 'Y' junctions. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering studies confirm a high degree of amorphization of the nanowire surface after irradiation. We suggest that while ion-irradiation induced defect formation and dangling bonds may lead to chemical bonding between nanowires, the large scale nano-welding and junction network formation can be ascribed to localized surface melting due to heat spike. Our results demonstrate that low energy ion irradiation with suitable choice of fluence may provide an attractive route to the formation and manipulation of large-area nanowire-based devices. PMID:25990259

  14. A lattice Boltzmann study of the effects of viscoelasticity on droplet formation in microfluidic cross-junctions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anupam; Sbragaglia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Based on mesoscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) numerical simulations, we investigate the effects of viscoelasticity on the break-up of liquid threads in microfluidic cross-junctions, where droplets are formed by focusing a liquid thread of a dispersed (d) phase into another co-flowing continuous (c) immiscible phase. Working at small Capillary numbers, we investigate the effects of non-Newtonian phases in the transition from droplet formation at the cross-junction (DCJ) to droplet formation downstream of the cross-junction (DC) (Liu and Zhang, Phys. Fluids. 23, 082101 (2011)). We will analyze cases with Droplet Viscoelasticity (DV), where viscoelastic properties are confined in the dispersed phase, as well as cases with Matrix Viscoelasticity (MV), where viscoelastic properties are confined in the continuous phase. Moderate flow-rate ratios [Formula: see text] of the two phases are considered in the present study. Overall, we find that the effects are more pronounced with MV, where viscoelasticity is found to influence the break-up point of the threads, which moves closer to the cross-junction and stabilizes. This is attributed to an increase of the polymer feedback stress forming in the corner flows, where the side channels of the device meet the main channel. Quantitative predictions on the break-up point of the threads are provided as a function of the Deborah number, i.e., the dimensionless number measuring the importance of viscoelasticity with respect to Capillary forces. PMID:26794502

  15. Tight junction protein ZO-2 expression and relative function of ZO-1 and ZO-2 during mouse blastocyst formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, Bhavwanti; Nowak, Rachael L.; Anderson, Rebecca; Kwong, Wing Yee; Papenbrock, Thomas; Fleming, Tom P.

    2008-11-01

    Apicolateral tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells are multiprotein complexes regulating membrane polarity and paracellular transport and also contribute to signalling pathways affecting cell proliferation and gene expression. ZO-2 and other ZO family members form a sub-membranous scaffold for binding TJ constituents. We investigated ZO-2 contribution to TJ biogenesis and function during trophectoderm epithelium differentiation in mouse preimplantation embryos. Our data indicate that ZO-2 is expressed from maternal and embryonic genomes with maternal ZO-2 protein associated with nuclei in zygotes and particularly early cleavage stages. Embryonic ZO-2 assembled at outer blastomere apicolateral junctional sites from the late 16-cell stage. Junctional ZO-2 first co-localised with E-cadherin in a transient complex comprising adherens junction and TJ constituents before segregating to TJs after their separation from the blastocyst stage (32-cell onwards). ZO-2 siRNA microinjection into zygotes or 2-cell embryos resulted in specific knockdown of ZO-2 mRNA and protein within blastocysts. Embryos lacking ZO-2 protein at trophectoderm TJs exhibited delayed blastocoel cavity formation but underwent normal cell proliferation and outgrowth morphogenesis. Quantitative analysis of trophectoderm TJs in ZO-2-deficient embryos revealed increased assembly of ZO-1 but not occludin, indicating ZO protein redundancy as a compensatory mechanism contributing to the mild phenotype observed. In contrast, ZO-1 knockdown, or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 knockdown, generated a more severe inhibition of blastocoel formation indicating distinct roles for ZO proteins in blastocyst morphogenesis.

  16. Formation of Satellite and subsatellite droplets in a flow-focusing junction for viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funfschilling, Denis; Carrier, Odile; Li, Huai-Zhi

    2011-11-01

    The formation of a cascade of satellite and subsatellite oil droplets is observed in a flow-focusing microfluidic junction (250 micrometer of characteristic length) in the presence of surfactant (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate), and polymer (100 to 1000 ppm of PAAm of high molecular mass). The size and distribution of the satellite and subsatellite droplets is quite reproducible. One and only one satellite droplet is formed in the dripping regime in case of Newtonian fluids. When PAAm is added to the solution, the viscosity becomes viscoelastic and satellite droplets are many. The mechanism of breakup leading to multiple satellite droplets is self-repeating, as observed in previous work,. At low frequency, the number of satellite droplet can go up to 7 or more. The distribution is generally very structured: a unique mother satellite droplet is surrounded by two daughter droplets, each of these daughter droplet is surrounded again by two grand-daughter droplets so that there are 4 daughter droplets in total. The ratio in volume between each generation is about 30.

  17. Physical understanding of cryogenic implant benefits for electrical junction stability

    SciTech Connect

    Adeni Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd

    2012-03-12

    We investigate the effect of cryogenic temperature implants on electrical junction stability for ultra shallow junction applications for sub-32 nm technology nodes and beyond. A comprehensive study was conducted to gain physical understanding of the impact of cryogenic temperature implants on dopant-defect interactions. Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) molecule, a potential alternative to monomer boron was implanted in carbon preamorphized silicon substrates at cryogenic implant temperatures. Results indicate implants at cryogenic temperatures increase dopant activation with reduced diffusion, resulting in lower sheet resistance for a lower junction depth. Further, this study emphasizes the benefits of co-implants performed at cryogenic temperatures as alternative to traditional preamorphizing implants.

  18. EpCAM contributes to formation of functional tight junction in the intestinal epithelium by recruiting claudin proteins.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zili; Maeda, Takako; Tamura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Yashiro, Kenta; Tsukita, Sachiko; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2012-11-15

    Tight junctions (TJs) connect epithelial cells and form a semipermeable barrier that only allows selective passage of ions and solutes across epithelia. Here we show that mice lacking EpCAM, a putative cell adhesion protein frequently overexpressed in human cancers, manifest intestinal barrier defects and die shortly after birth as a result of intestinal erosion. EpCAM was found to be highly expressed in the developing intestinal epithelium of wild-type mice and to localize to cell-cell junctions including TJs. Claudin-7 colocalized with EpCAM at cell-cell junctions, and the two proteins were found to associate with each other. Claudins 2, 3, 7, and 15 were down-regulated in the intestine of EpCAM mutant mice, with claudin-7 being reduced to undetectable levels. TJs in the mutant intestinal epithelium were morphologically abnormal with the network of TJ strands scattered and dispersed. Finally, the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium was impaired in the mutant animals. These results suggest that EpCAM contributes to formation of intestinal barrier by recruiting claudins to cell-cell junctions. PMID:22819673

  19. Arc/Forearc Lengthening at Plate Triple Junctions and the Formation of Ophiolitic Soles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, John; Dewey, John

    2013-04-01

    The principal enigma of large obducted ophiolite slabs is that they clearly must have been generated by some form of organized sea-floor spreading/plate-accretion, such as may be envisioned for the oceanic ridges, yet the volcanics commonly have arc affinity (Miyashiro) with boninites (high-temperature/low-pressure, high Mg and Si andesites), which are suggestive of a forearc origin. PT conditions under which boninites and metamorphic soles form and observations of modern forearc systems lead us to the conclusion that ophiolite formation is associated with overidding plate spreading centers that intersect the trench to form ridge-trench-trench of ridge-trench-tranform triple junctions. The spreading centers extend and lengthen the forearc parallel to the trench and by definition are in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings. Many ophiolites likewise have complexly-deformed associated mafic-ultramafic assemblages that suggest fracture zone/transform t along their frontal edges, which in turn has led to models involving the nucleation of subduction zones on fracture zones or transpressional transforms. Hitherto, arc-related sea-floor-spreading has been considered to be either pre-arc (fore-arc boninites) or post-arc (classic Karig-style back arc basins that trench-parallell split arcs). Syn-arc boninites and forearc oceanic spreading centers that involve a stable ridge/trench/trench triple or a ridge-trench-transform triple junction, the ridge being between the two upper plates, are consistent with large slab ophiolite formation in a readied obduction settting. The direction of subduction must be oblique with a different sense in the two subduction zones and the oblique subduction cannot be partitioned into trench orthogonal and parallel strike-slip components. As the ridge spreads, new oceanic lithosphere is created within the forearc, the arc and fore-arc lengthen significantly, and a syn-arc ophiolite forearc complex is generated by this mechanism. The ophiolite ages along arc-strike; a distinctive diachronous MORB-like to boninitic to arc volcanic stratigraphy develops vertically in the forearc and eruption centers progressively migrate from the forearc back to the main arc massif with time. Dikes in the ophiolite are highly oblique to the trench (as are back-arc magnetic anomalies. Boninites and high-mg andesites are generated in the fore-arc under the aqueous, low pressure/high temperature, regime at the ridge above the instantaneously developed subducting and dehydrating slab. Subducted slab refrigeration of the hanging wall ensues and accretion of MORB metabasites to the hanging wall of the subduction channel initiates. Mafic protolith garnet/two pyroxene granulites to greenschists accrete and form the inverted P and T metamorphic sole prior to obduction. Sole accretion of lithosphere begins at about 1000°C and the full retrogressive sole may be fully formed within ten to fifteen million years of accretion, at which time low grade subduction melanges accrete. Obduction of the SSZ forearc ophiolite with its subjacent metamorphic sole occurs whenever the oceanic arc attempts subduction of a stable buoyant continental or back arc margin.

  20. Study of silicon-germanium junction formation for SOI based CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yan

    Si1-xGex source/drain technology has been sucessfully applied to bulk metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Both channel mobility and source/drain contact resistivity are substantially improved with this technology. In this dissertation, Si1-xGex junction formation for silicon on insulator (SOI) based CMOS technology was investigated. Strain in epitaxially grown films on SOI films and silicon nanowires is studied using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). For epitaxially grown Si1-xGe x film on SOI, there is lower degree of strain development in the SOI layer due to the rigid interface between the SOI and the burried oxide as compared to bulk. However, for silicon nanowires on oxide, the situation is different since nanowires serve as compliant substrates. Part of the strain energy is transferred to silicon nanowires. The consistency between synthesized Raman peak shifts and the experimental measurements verified the strain sharing between the epitaxially grown Si1-xGe x films and the silicon nanowires. Splittings of high order Laue zone line (HOLZ) from a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern was quantified to study the strain distribution in epitaxial Si1- xGex films grown on silicon nanowires. It was found out in this study that elastic deformation of epitaxial Si 1-xGex at free surfaces leads to strain relaxation at these surfaces. This phenomenon is detrimental to strain engineering in a nanowire MOSFET and provides new challenges to develop smart designs for constraining strain in the nano-structures. Moreover, atomic layer deposition (ALD) Platinum is proposed for metal deposition on 3D epitaxial Si1-xGex source/drain. The uniform deposition around 3D Si1- xGex films effectively increases the contact surface area which is highly desired in the FinFET application.

  1. LSR/angulin-1 is a tricellular tight junction protein involved in bloodbrain barrier formation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Christina; Munji, Roeben N.; Lee, Seo Yeon; Ruderisch, Nadine; Soung, Allison; Arnold, Thomas D.; Derugin, Nikita; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Yen, Frances T.

    2015-01-01

    The bloodbrain barrier (BBB) is a term used to describe the unique properties of central nervous system (CNS) blood vessels. One important BBB property is the formation of a paracellular barrier made by tight junctions (TJs) between CNS endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we show that Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR), a component of paracellular junctions at points in which three cell membranes meet, is greatly enriched in CNS ECs compared with ECs in other nonneural tissues. We demonstrate that LSR is specifically expressed at tricellular junctions and that its expression correlates with the onset of BBB formation during embryogenesis. We further demonstrate that the BBB does not seal during embryogenesis in Lsr knockout mice with a leakage to small molecules. Finally, in mouse models in which BBB was disrupted, including an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke, LSR was down-regulated, linking loss of LSR and pathological BBB leakage. PMID:25753034

  2. LSR/angulin-1 is a tricellular tight junction protein involved in blood-brain barrier formation.

    PubMed

    Sohet, Fabien; Lin, Christina; Munji, Roeben N; Lee, Seo Yeon; Ruderisch, Nadine; Soung, Allison; Arnold, Thomas D; Derugin, Nikita; Vexler, Zinaida S; Yen, Frances T; Daneman, Richard

    2015-03-16

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a term used to describe the unique properties of central nervous system (CNS) blood vessels. One important BBB property is the formation of a paracellular barrier made by tight junctions (TJs) between CNS endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we show that Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR), a component of paracellular junctions at points in which three cell membranes meet, is greatly enriched in CNS ECs compared with ECs in other nonneural tissues. We demonstrate that LSR is specifically expressed at tricellular junctions and that its expression correlates with the onset of BBB formation during embryogenesis. We further demonstrate that the BBB does not seal during embryogenesis in Lsr knockout mice with a leakage to small molecules. Finally, in mouse models in which BBB was disrupted, including an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke, LSR was down-regulated, linking loss of LSR and pathological BBB leakage. PMID:25753034

  3. Focused Ion Beam Process for Formation of a Metal/Insulator/Metal Double Tunnel Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Masayoshi; Yanagisawa, Junichi; Wakaya, Fujio; Gamo, Kenji

    1999-12-01

    An improved method to fabricate a small lateral double tunnel junction which utilizes focused ion beam (FIB) etching and lift-off techniques is proposed. A double layer resist consisting of nitrocellulose and germanium layers was used. Narrow grooves with widths comparable to or narrower than the FIB diameter were formed in a ferromagnetic layer of Ni, and Ni/Ni-oxide/Au/Ni-oxide/Ni and Al/Al-oxide/Ni/Al-oxide/Al double junction structures were fabricated using the proposed method. The measured voltage and current characteristics of the latter structures indicated that double tunnel junctions with a barrier height of 0.61 eV were fabricated and suggest that this is a promising method to fabricate island structures for devices utilizing Coulomb blockade or spin blockade effects.

  4. Formation of p-n-p junction with ionic liquid gate in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xin; Tang, Ning E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn Duan, Junxi; Zhang, Yuewei; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin; Gao, Li; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Ge, Weikun E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-04-07

    Ionic liquid gating is a technique which is much more efficient than solid gating to tune carrier density. To observe the electronic properties of such a highly doped graphene device, a top gate made of ionic liquid has been used. By sweeping both the top and back gate voltage, a p-n-p junction has been created. The mechanism of forming the p-n-p junction has been discussed. Tuning the carrier density by ionic liquid gate can be an efficient method to be used in flexible electronics.

  5. Junction formation and current transport mechanisms in hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Jäckle, Sara; Mattiza, Matthias; Liebhaber, Martin; Brönstrup, Gerald; Rommel, Mathias; Lips, Klaus; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-01-01

    We investigated hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells combining monocrystalline n-type silicon (n-Si) and a highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The build-in potential, photo- and dark saturation current at this hybrid interface are monitored for varying n-Si doping concentrations. We corroborate that a high build-in potential forms at the hybrid junction leading to strong inversion of the n-Si surface. By extracting work function and valence band edge of the polymer from ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, a band diagram of the hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction is presented. The current-voltage characteristics were analyzed using Schottky and abrupt pn-junction models. The magnitude as well as the dependence of dark saturation current on n-Si doping concentration proves that the transport is governed by diffusion of minority charge carriers in the n-Si and not by thermionic emission of majorities over a Schottky barrier. This leads to a comprehensive explanation of the high observed open-circuit voltages of up to 634 mV connected to high conversion efficiency of almost 14%, even for simple planar device structures without antireflection coating or optimized contacts. The presented work clearly shows that PEDOT:PSS forms a hybrid heterojunction with n-Si behaving similar to a conventional pn-junction and not, like commonly assumed, a Schottky junction. PMID:26278010

  6. Reliable Formation of Single Molecule Junctions with Air-Stable Diphenylphosphine Linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Parameswaran, R.; Hybertsen, M.; Widawsky, J.R.; Vázquez H.; Park, Y.S.; Boardman, B.M.; Nuckolls, C.; Steigerwald, M.L.; Venkataraman, L.

    2010-07-15

    We measure the conductance of single Au-molecule-Au junctions with a series of air-stable diphenylphosphine-terminated molecules using the scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction technique. Thousands of conductance versus displacement traces collected for each molecule are used to statistically analyze junction conductance and evolution upon elongation. Measured conductances for a series of alkane-based molecules exhibit an exponential decrease with increasing length, as expected for saturated molecules, with a tunneling decay constant of 0.98 {+-} 0.04. Measurements of junction elongation indicate strong metal-molecule binding, with a length that increases with the number of methylene groups in the backbone. Measured conductance histograms for four molecules with short, unsaturated backbones (e.g., benzene) are much broader with less well-defined peaks. These measurements are supported by density function theory calculations. The phosphine binds selectively to under-coordinated gold atoms through a donor-acceptor bond with a binding energy of about 1 eV. The calculated tunnel coupling correlates very well with experiment.

  7. Junction formation and current transport mechanisms in hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jckle, Sara; Mattiza, Matthias; Liebhaber, Martin; Brnstrup, Gerald; Rommel, Mathias; Lips, Klaus; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-08-01

    We investigated hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells combining monocrystalline n-type silicon (n-Si) and a highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The build-in potential, photo- and dark saturation current at this hybrid interface are monitored for varying n-Si doping concentrations. We corroborate that a high build-in potential forms at the hybrid junction leading to strong inversion of the n-Si surface. By extracting work function and valence band edge of the polymer from ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, a band diagram of the hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction is presented. The current-voltage characteristics were analyzed using Schottky and abrupt pn-junction models. The magnitude as well as the dependence of dark saturation current on n-Si doping concentration proves that the transport is governed by diffusion of minority charge carriers in the n-Si and not by thermionic emission of majorities over a Schottky barrier. This leads to a comprehensive explanation of the high observed open-circuit voltages of up to 634?mV connected to high conversion efficiency of almost 14%, even for simple planar device structures without antireflection coating or optimized contacts. The presented work clearly shows that PEDOT:PSS forms a hybrid heterojunction with n-Si behaving similar to a conventional pn-junction and not, like commonly assumed, a Schottky junction.

  8. Prediction of low-energy boron doping profile for ultrashallow junction formation by hybrid molecular dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuhara, Hidehiko; Miyamoto, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Our original hybrid method combining tight-binding quantum chemical and classical molecular dynamics was first applied to the low-energy doping process of boron into a silicon substrate, which has a depth of more than 10 nm that is needed to evaluate an ultrashallow junction position. Tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics calculation was used for an injected boron atom and surrounding silicon atoms within a sphere with a radius of 0.5 nm centered at the boron atom. This method is advantageous in treating the many-body collision effect and electronelectron interaction, which are more important in low-energy doping, compared with the Monte Carlo method with binary collision approximation. A comparison with a plasma doping experiment was also carried out. The junction positions were 6.2 nm for boron doping at an initial kinetic energy of 200 eV in the simulation results and 6.4 nm for 200 eV in the experimental results. Good agreement between simulation and experimental results indicates that our hybrid molecular dynamics method is applicable to doping profile prediction in a silicon structure with a depth of more than 10 nm that is needed to evaluate ultrashallow junction formation.

  9. Gap junctions composed of connexins 41.8 and 39.4 are essential for colour pattern formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Irion, Uwe; Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Krauss, Jana; Çolak Champollion, Tuǧba; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Weiler, Christian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between all three pigment cell types are required to form the stripe pattern of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), but their molecular nature is poorly understood. Mutations in leopard (leo), encoding Connexin 41.8 (Cx41.8), a gap junction subunit, cause a phenotypic series of spotted patterns. A new dominant allele, leo(tK3), leads to a complete loss of the pattern, suggesting a dominant negative impact on another component of gap junctions. In a genetic screen, we identified this component as Cx39.4 (luchs). Loss-of-function alleles demonstrate that luchs is required for stripe formation in zebrafish; however, the fins are almost not affected. Double mutants and chimeras, which show that leo and luchs are only required in xanthophores and melanophores, but not in iridophores, suggest that both connexins form heteromeric gap junctions. The phenotypes indicate that these promote homotypic interactions between melanophores and xanthophores, respectively, and those cells instruct the patterning of the iridophores. PMID:25535837

  10. Time-resolved mixing and flow-field measurements during droplet formation in a flow-focusing junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Odile; Gökhan Ergin, F.; Li, Huai-Zhi; Watz, Bo B.; Funfschilling, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Highly monodispersed emulsions can be produced in microfluidic flow-focusing junctions (Anna et al 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 364-6, Baroud et al 2010 Lab Chip 10 2032-45). This is the reason why many industrial processes in the medical industry among others are based on droplet manipulation and involve at some point a step of dripping within a junction. However, only a few studies have focused on the flow field inside and outside the droplet, even though it is a necessary step for understanding the physical mechanism involved and for modeling the droplet formation process. Water-in-oil emulsions are produced in flow-focusing junctions of square cross sections. The fluids constituting the emulsion are (i) a 5.0 mPa·s silicon oil for the oil phase and (ii) distilled water containing 2.0 wt% of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant for the aqueous phase. Time-resolved shadow particle images are acquired using a microscale particle image velocimetry (µPIV) system and flow fields are calculated using an adaptive PIV algorithm in combination with dynamic masking. Inside the microchannel and in the permanent regime, the droplet has an internal circulation that has been well established by Sarrazin et al (AICHE J. 52 4061-70). But during the formation of a droplet in a flow-focusing junction, the flow field is not so well known, and the circulation in the finger flows forward along the sides and returns along the center. The mechanism can be described in terms of four distinct steps: droplet growth, necking, rupture, and recoil. The liquid expelled from the neck just before rupture is also well observed. The flow field and mixing are measured in detail during a complete cycle of formation of a main droplet and satellite droplets using high-speed imaging. This allows us to develop a better understanding of the different forces that are present and of the physical mechanism of droplet formation.

  11. Zurek-Kibble domain structures: the dynamics of spontaneous vortex formation in annular Josephson tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Monaco, R; Mygind, J; Rivers, R J

    2002-08-19

    Phase transitions create a domain structure with defects, which has been argued by Zurek and Kibble (ZK) to depend in a characteristic way on the quench rate. We present an experiment to measure the ZK scaling exponent sigma. Using long symmetric Josephson tunnel junctions, for which the predicted index is sigma=0.25, we find sigma=0.27+/-0.05. Further, we agree with the ZK prediction for the overall normalization. PMID:12190452

  12. Role of grainyhead-like 2 in the formation of functional tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cells develop intercellular junctions, including tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). In epithelial tissues, TJs act as barriers that protect bodies from dehydration, infection and toxic substances. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the establishment of functional TJs during organogenesis remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2) as a transcription factor that is specifically expressed in cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells lining the bile duct tubules in the liver. Using our three-dimensional (3D) culture system of hepatic progenitor cells, we demonstrated that Grhl2 enhanced barrier functions of hepatic progenitor cells by upregulating claudin (Cldn) 3 and Cldn4, thereby promoting epithelial morphogenesis. In addition, we identified Rab25 as another target of Grhl2, which promotes the localization of Cldn4 at TJs. Our results indicate that a transcription factor promotes epithelial morphogenesis by establishing functional TJs by not only regulating the transcription of Cldns but also affecting their localization at TJs. PMID:24665375

  13. Junction formation of Cu3BiS3 investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy and surface photovoltage measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Fredy; Chamorro, William; Vallejo, William; Baier, Robert; Dittrich, Thomas; Grimm, Alexander; Lux-Steiner, Martha C

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recently, the compound semiconductor Cu3BiS3 has been demonstrated to have a band gap of ~1.4 eV, well suited for photovoltaic energy harvesting. The preparation of polycrystalline thin films was successfully realized and now the junction formation to the n-type window needs to be developed. We present an investigation of the Cu3BiS3 absorber layer and the junction formation with CdS, ZnS and In2S3 buffer layers. Kelvin probe force microscopy shows the granular structure of the buffer layers with small grains of 20100 nm, and a considerably smaller work-function distribution for In2S3 compared to that of CdS and ZnS. For In2S3 and CdS buffer layers the KPFM experiments indicate negatively charged Cu3BiS3 grain boundaries resulting from the deposition of the buffer layer. Macroscopic measurements of the surface photovoltage at variable excitation wavelength indicate the influence of defect states below the band gap on charge separation and a surface-defect passivation by the In2S3 buffer layer. Our findings indicate that Cu3BiS3 may become an interesting absorber material for thin-film solar cells; however, for photovoltaic application the band bending at the charge-selective contact has to be increased. PMID:22497001

  14. Planar Be-implanted GaAs junction formation using swept-line electron beam annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.K.; De Jule, R.Y.; Soda, K.J.

    1983-12-01

    Comparative studies of swept-line electron beam annealing and furnace annealing of Be implanted in n-GaAs doped with Si are presented. Electron beam annealing causes less Be redistribution and results in fewer traps than furnace annealing, but causes site mixing of amphoteric Si. Planar Be-implanted junctions result in a p(+)-nu-n structure for the electron beam annealed samples, similar to thermally quenched samples. It is believed that this is caused by the incorporation of amphoteric Si on Ga and As sites during transient annealing, which produces results similar to thermal quenching. 14 references.

  15. Bubble Formation in Yield Stress Fluids Using Flow-Focusing and T -Junction Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborie, Benoit; Rouyer, Florence; Angelescu, Dan E.; Lorenceau, Elise

    2015-05-01

    We study the production of bubbles inside yield stress fluids (YSFs) in axisymmetric T -junction and flow-focusing devices. Taking advantage of yield stress over capillary stress, we exhibit a robust break-up mechanism reminiscent of the geometrical operating regime in 2D flow-focusing devices for Newtonian fluids. We report that when the gas is pressure driven, the dynamics is unsteady due to hydrodynamic feedback and YSF deposition on the walls of the channels. However, the present study also identifies pathways for potential steady-state production of bubbly YSFs at large scale.

  16. The Peptidoglycan-Binding Protein SjcF1 Influences Septal Junction Function and Channel Formation in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena

    PubMed Central

    Rudolf, Mareike; Tetik, Nalan; Ramos-León, Félix; Flinner, Nadine; Ngo, Giang; Stevanovic, Mara; Burnat, Mireia; Pernil, Rafael; Flores, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria exchange nutrients and regulators between cells for diazotrophic growth. Two alternative modes of exchange have been discussed involving transport either through the periplasm or through septal junctions linking adjacent cells. Septal junctions and channels in the septal peptidoglycan are likely filled with septal junction complexes. While possible proteinaceous factors involved in septal junction formation, SepJ (FraG), FraC, and FraD, have been identified, little is known about peptidoglycan channel formation and septal junction complex anchoring to the peptidoglycan. We describe a factor, SjcF1, involved in regulation of septal junction channel formation in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. SjcF1 interacts with the peptidoglycan layer through two peptidoglycan-binding domains and is localized throughout the cell periphery but at higher levels in the intercellular septa. A strain with an insertion in sjcF1 was not affected in peptidoglycan synthesis but showed an altered morphology of the septal peptidoglycan channels, which were significantly wider in the mutant than in the wild type. The mutant was impaired in intercellular exchange of a fluorescent probe to a similar extent as a sepJ deletion mutant. SjcF1 additionally bears an SH3 domain for protein-protein interactions. SH3 binding domains were identified in SepJ and FraC, and evidence for interaction of SjcF1 with both SepJ and FraC was obtained. SjcF1 represents a novel protein involved in structuring the peptidoglycan layer, which links peptidoglycan channel formation to septal junction complex function in multicellular cyanobacteria. Nonetheless, based on its subcellular distribution, this might not be the only function of SjcF1. PMID:26126850

  17. Tropomyosin is required for cardiac morphogenesis, myofibril assembly, and formation of adherens junctions in the developing mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Caroline R.; Nowak, Roberta B.; Gokhin, David S.; Fowler, Velia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background We explored a function for tropomyosin (TM) in mammalian myofibril assembly and cardiac development by analyzing a deletion in the mouse TPM1 gene targeting ?TM1, the major striated muscle TM isoform. Results Mice lacking ?TM1 are embryonic lethal at E9.5 with enlarged, misshapen, and non-beating hearts characterized by an abnormally thin myocardium and reduced trabeculae. ?TM1-deficient cardiomyocytes do not assemble striated myofibrils, instead displaying aberrant non-striated F-actin fibrils with ?-actinin puncta dispersed irregularly along their lengths. ?TM1s binding partner, tropomodulin1 (Tmod1), is also disorganized, and both myomesin-containing thick filaments as well as titin Z1Z2 fail to assemble in a striated pattern. Adherens junctions are reduced in size in ?TM1-deficient cardiomyocytes, ?-actinin/F-actin adherens belts fail to assemble at apical cell-cell contacts, and cell contours are highly irregular, resulting in abnormal cell shapes and a highly folded cardiac surface. In addition, Tmod1-deficient cardiomyocytes exhibit failure of ?-actinin/F-actin adherens belt assembly. Conclusions Absence of ?TM1 resulting in unstable F-actin may preclude sarcomere formation and/or lead to degeneration of partially assembled sarcomeres due to unregulated actomyosin interactions. Our data also identify a novel ?TM1/Tmod1-based pathway stabilizing F-actin at cell-cell junctions, which may be required for maintenance of cell shapes during embryonic cardiac morphogenesis. PMID:24500875

  18. Formation of cristae and crista junctions in mitochondria depends on antagonism between Fcj1 and Su e/g

    PubMed Central

    Rabl, Regina; Soubannier, Vincent; Scholz, Roland; Vogel, Frank; Mendl, Nadine; Vasiljev-Neumeyer, Andreja; Körner, Christian; Jagasia, Ravi; Keil, Thomas; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Cyrklaff, Marek; Neupert, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Crista junctions (CJs) are important for mitochondrial organization and function, but the molecular basis of their formation and architecture is obscure. We have identified and characterized a mitochondrial membrane protein in yeast, Fcj1 (formation of CJ protein 1), which is specifically enriched in CJs. Cells lacking Fcj1 lack CJs, exhibit concentric stacks of inner membrane in the mitochondrial matrix, and show increased levels of F1FO–ATP synthase (F1FO) supercomplexes. Overexpression of Fcj1 leads to increased CJ formation, branching of cristae, enlargement of CJ diameter, and reduced levels of F1FO supercomplexes. Impairment of F1FO oligomer formation by deletion of its subunits e/g (Su e/g) causes CJ diameter enlargement and reduction of cristae tip numbers and promotes cristae branching. Fcj1 and Su e/g genetically interact. We propose a model in which the antagonism between Fcj1 and Su e/g locally modulates the F1FO oligomeric state, thereby controlling membrane curvature of cristae to generate CJs and cristae tips. PMID:19528297

  19. Doping Evolution and Junction Formation in Stacked Cyanine Dye Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Jenatsch, Sandra; Wang, Lei; Bulloni, Matia; Véron, Anna C; Ruhstaller, Beat; Altazin, Stéphane; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2016-03-16

    Cyanine dyes are fluorescent organic salts with intrinsic conductivity for ionic and electronic charges. Recently ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013 , 135 , 18008 - 18011 ), these features have been exploited in cyanine light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). Here, we demonstrate that stacked, constant-voltage driven trimethine cyanine LECs with various counteranions develop a p-i-n junction that is composed of p- and n-doped zones and an intrinsic region where light-emission occurs. We introduce a method that combines spectral photocurrent response measurements with optical modeling and find that at maximum current the intrinsic region is centered at ∼37% away from the anode. Transient capacitance, photoluminescence and attenuance experiments indicate a device situation with a narrow p-doped region, an undoped region that occupies ∼72% of the dye layer thickness and an n-doped region with a maximum doping concentration of 0.08 dopant/cyanine molecule. Finally, we observe that during device relaxation the parent cyanines are not reformed. We ascribe this to irreversible reactions between doped cyanine radicals. For sterically conservative cyanine dyes, this suggests that undesired radical decomposition pathways limit the LEC long-term stability in general. PMID:26914281

  20. Formation of antiwaves in gap-junction-coupled chains of neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Alexander; Ermentrout, Bard

    2012-07-01

    Using network models consisting of gap-junction-coupled Wang-Buszaki neurons, we demonstrate that it is possible to obtain not only synchronous activity between neurons but also a variety of constant phase shifts between 0 and ?. We call these phase shifts intermediate stable phase-locked states. These phase shifts can produce a large variety of wavelike activity patterns in one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional arrays of neurons, which can be studied by reducing the system of equations to a phase model. The 2? periodic coupling functions of these models are characterized by prominent higher order terms in their Fourier expansion, which can be varied by changing model parameters. We study how the relative contribution of the odd and even terms affects what solutions are possible, the basin of attraction of those solutions, and their stability. These models may be applicable to the spinal central pattern generators of the dogfish and also to the developing neocortex of the neonatal rat.

  1. Formation of antiwaves in gap-junction-coupled chains of neurons.

    PubMed

    Urban, Alexander; Ermentrout, Bard

    2012-07-01

    Using network models consisting of gap-junction-coupled Wang-Buszaki neurons, we demonstrate that it is possible to obtain not only synchronous activity between neurons but also a variety of constant phase shifts between 0 and ?. We call these phase shifts intermediate stable phase-locked states. These phase shifts can produce a large variety of wavelike activity patterns in one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional arrays of neurons, which can be studied by reducing the system of equations to a phase model. The 2? periodic coupling functions of these models are characterized by prominent higher order terms in their Fourier expansion, which can be varied by changing model parameters. We study how the relative contribution of the odd and even terms affects what solutions are possible, the basin of attraction of those solutions, and their stability. These models may be applicable to the spinal central pattern generators of the dogfish and also to the developing neocortex of the neonatal rat. PMID:23005452

  2. ATP Is Required and Advances Cytokine-Induced Gap Junction Formation in Microglia In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sez, Pablo J.; Shoji, Kenji F.; Retamal, Mauricio A.; Harcha, Paloma A.; Ramrez, Gigliola; Jiang, Jean X.; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Sez, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are the immune cells in the central nervous system. After injury microglia release bioactive molecules, including cytokines and ATP, which modify the functional state of hemichannels (HCs) and gap junction channels (GJCs), affecting the intercellular communication via extracellular and intracellular compartments, respectively. Here, we studied the role of extracellular ATP and several cytokines as modulators of the functional state of microglial HCs and GJCs using dye uptake and dye coupling techniques, respectively. In microglia and the microglia cell line EOC20, ATP advanced the TNF-?/IFN-?-induced dye coupling, probably through the induction of IL-1? release. Moreover, TNF-?/IFN-?, but not TNF-? plus ATP, increased dye uptake in EOC20 cells. Blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 HCs prevented dye coupling induced by TNF-?/IFN-?, but not TNF-? plus ATP. In addition, IL-6 prevented the induction of dye coupling and HC activity induced by TNF-?/IFN-? in EOC20 cells. Our data support the notion that extracellular ATP affects the cellular communication between microglia through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, which might affect the timing of immune response under neuroinflammatory conditions. PMID:23737642

  3. Involvement of YAP, TAZ and HSP90 in Contact Guidance and Intercellular Junction Formation in Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Joshua T.; Tuyen, Binh C.; Rose, Brad W.; Reilly, Christopher M.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular environment possesses a rich milieu of biophysical and biochemical signaling cues that are simultaneously integrated by cells and influence cellular phenotype. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (WWTR1; TAZ), two important signaling molecules of the Hippo pathway, have been recently implicated as nuclear relays of cytoskeletal changes mediated by substratum rigidity and topography. These proteins intersect with other important intracellular signaling pathways (e.g. Wnt and TGF?). In the cornea, epithelial cells adhere to the stroma through a 3-dimensional topography-rich basement membrane, with features in the nano-submicron size-scale that are capable of profoundly modulating a wide range of fundamental cell behaviors. The influences of substratum-topography, YAP/TAZ knockdown, and HSP90 inhibition on cell morphology, YAP/TAZ localization, and the expression of TGF?2 and CTGF, were investigated. The results demonstrate (a) that knockdown of TAZ enhances contact guidance in a YAP dependent manner, (b) that CTGF is predominantly regulated by YAP and not TAZ, and (c) that TGF?2 is regulated by both YAP and TAZ in these cells. Additionally, inhibition of HSP90 resulted in nuclear localization and subsequent transcriptional-activation of YAP, formation of cell-cell junctions and co-localization of E-cadherin and ?-catenin at adherens junctions. Results presented in this study reflect the complexities underlying the molecular relationships between the cytoskeleton, growth factors, heat shock proteins, and co-activators of transcription that impact mechanotransduction. The data reveal the importance of YAP/TAZ on the cell behaviors, and gene and protein expression. PMID:25290150

  4. Formation of functional gap junctions in amniotic fluid-derived stem cells induced by transmembrane co-culture with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Jennifer Petsche; Augustini, Emily; Moise, Kenneth J; Johnson, Anthony; Jacot, Jeffrey G

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) have been reported to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells and form gap junctions when directly mixed and cultured with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). This study investigated whether or not culture of AFSC on the opposite side of a Transwell membrane from NRVM, allowing for contact and communication without confounding factors such as cell fusion, could direct cardiac differentiation and enhance gap junction formation. Results were compared to shared media (Transwell), conditioned media and monoculture media controls. After a 2-week culture period, AFSC did not express cardiac myosin heavy chain or troponin T in any co-culture group. Protein expression of cardiac calsequestrin 2 was up-regulated in direct transmembrane co-cultures and media control cultures compared to the other experimental groups, but all groups were up-regulated compared with undifferentiated AFSC cultures. Gap junction communication, assessed with a scrape-loading dye transfer assay, was significantly increased in direct transmembrane co-cultures compared to all other conditions. Gap junction communication corresponded with increased connexin 43 gene expression and decreased phosphorylation of connexin 43. Our results suggest that direct transmembrane co-culture does not induce cardiomyocyte differentiation of AFSC, though calsequestrin expression is increased. However, direct transmembrane co-culture does enhance connexin-43-mediated gap junction communication between AFSC. PMID:23634988

  5. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hideki; Gotoh, Tomoko; Kojima, Takashi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Sawada, Norimasa

    2003-06-10

    F9 murine embryonal carcinoma cells provide an attractive system for facilitating molecular mechanisms for epithelial morphogenesis, since they have the capability of differentiating into polarized epithelial cells bearing an apical junctional complexes. We previously showed that a specific retinoid X receptor-retinoic acid receptor heterodimer transduced retinoid signals for biogenesis of functional tight junctions in F9 cells (Exp. Cell Res. 263, (2001) 163). In the present study we generated F9 cells expressing doxycycline-inducible hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha, a nuclear receptor. We herein show that induction of HNF-4alpha initiates differentiation of F9 cells to polarized epithelial cells, in which tight-junction proteins occludin, claudin-6, claudin-7, and ZO-1 are concentrated at the apical-most regions of lateral membranes. Expression of occludin, claudin-6, and claudin-7 was induced in the cells by doxycycline treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in terms of the amount of HNF-4alpha. In contrast, expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin were not altered by HNF-4alpha. We also demonstrate, by analysis of diffusion of labeled sphingomyelin, that the fence function of tight junctions is achieved by induction of HNF-4alpha. These findings indicate that HNF-4alpha triggers de novo formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of epithelial cell polarity. PMID:12749857

  6. Local stoichiometry and atomic interdiffusion during reactive metal/mercury-cadmium-telluride junction formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, A.; Raisanen, A.; Chang, S.; Philip, P.; Troullier, N.

    1987-10-01

    We summarize synchrotron radiation photoemission studies of Ag, Ge and Sm overlayers on Hg1-xCdxTe (110) surfaces. These metals exhibit widely different interface reactivity with Hg1-xCdxTe and yield a range of different interface morphologies. To assess the relative importance of the microscopic driving forces that determine the local composition at the interface and in the semiconductor near surface region we present a systematic comparison of our data with calculated thermodynamic parameters such as the cation-metal heat of solution, the heat of alloying from Miedema's semiempirical model, and the metal telluride formation enthalpy.

  7. [Influence of limk1 Gene Polymorphism on Learning Acquisition and Memory Formation with pCREB Distribution and Aggregate Formation in Neuromuscular Junctions in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Kaminskaya, A N; Nikitina, E A; Medvedeva, A V; Gerasimenko, M S; Chernikova, D A; Savateeva-Popova, E V

    2015-06-01

    We have shown previously that the polymorphic structure of the limk1 gene in drosophila leads to changes in LIMK1 content and to defects in courtship behavior, sound production, and learning/memory. The results of the present study of three wild-type strains and mutant agn(ts3) with altered limk1 structure demonstrate that long-term memory is normal in Canton-S and Oregon-R but is impaired in Berlin and drastically suppressed in agn(ts3). This temperature-sensitive mutant carries the S-element from the Tc1/mariner family insertion near the dlimk1 3'-UTR and, compared to Canton-S, has a reverse pCREB distribution in adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of the second dorsal imago nerve before and after learning. Moreover, only agn(ts3) demonstrates amyloid-like aggregate formation in NMJ. This suggests that this impedes pCREb transport and thereby impairs the formation of short- and long-term memory. PMID:26310031

  8. Neuromuscular Junction Formation between Human Stem cell-derived Motoneurons and Human Skeletal Muscle in a Defined System

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiufang; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Stancescu, Maria; Vandenburgh, Herman; Hickman, James

    2011-01-01

    Functional in vitro models composed of human cells will constitute an important platform in the next generation of system biology and drug discovery. This study reports a novel human-based in vitro Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ) system developed in a defined serum-free medium and on a patternable non-biological surface. The motoneurons and skeletal muscles were derived from fetal spinal stem cells and skeletal muscle stem cells. The motoneurons and skeletal myotubes were completely differentiated in the co-culture based on morphological analysis and electrophysiology. NMJ formation was demonstrated by phase contrast microscopy, immunocytochemistry and the observation of motoneuron-induced muscle contractions utilizing time lapse recordings and their subsequent quenching by D-Tubocurarine. Generally, functional human based systems would eliminate the issue of species variability during the drug development process and its derivation from stem cells bypasses the restrictions inherent with utilization of primary human tissue. This defined human-based NMJ system is one of the first steps in creating functional in vitro systems and will play an important role in understanding NMJ development, in developing high information content drug screens and as test beds in preclinical studies for spinal or muscular diseases/injuries such as muscular dystrophy, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord repair. PMID:21944471

  9. Nectin-4 mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia with syndactyly perturb the rac1 pathway and the kinetics of adherens junction formation.

    PubMed

    Fortugno, Paola; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Tsiakas, Konstantinos; Agolini, Emanuele; Cestra, Gianluca; Teson, Massimo; Santer, Ren; Castiglia, Daniele; Novelli, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Kurth, Ingo; Lopez, Marc; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brancati, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Defective nectin-1 and -4 have been implicated in ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes with variably associated features including orofacial and limb defects. In particular, nectin-1 mutations cause cleft lip/palate ED (CLPED1; OMIM#225060), whereas defective nectin-4 is associated with ED-syndactyly syndrome (EDSS1; OMIM#613573). Although the broad phenotypic overlap suggests a common mode of action of nectin-1 and -4, little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved. We report the identification of, to our knowledge, a previously undescribed nectin-4 homozygous p.Val242Met missense mutation in a patient with EDSS1. We used patient skin biopsy and primary keratinocytes, as well as nectin-4 ectopic expression in epithelial cell lines, to characterize functional consequences of p.Val242Met and p.Thr185Met mutations, the latter previously identified in compound heterozygosity with a truncating mutation. We show that nectin-4-altered expression perturbs nectin-1 clustering at keratinocyte contact sites and delays, but does not impede cell-cell aggregation and cadherin recruitment at adherens junctions (AJs). Moreover, trans-interaction of nectin-1 and -4 induces the activation of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, and regulates E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. These data outline a synergistic action of nectin-1 and -4 in the early steps of AJ formation and implicate this interaction in modulating the Rac1 signaling pathway. PMID:24577405

  10. Rab3Gap1 mediates exocytosis of Claudin-1 and tight junction formation during epidermal barrier acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, G.; Gerner, L.; Naeem, A.S.; Ralph, O.; Ono, M.; O’Neill, C.A.; O’Shaughnessy, R.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal barrier acquisition during late murine gestation is accompanied by an increase in Akt kinase activity and cJun dephosphorlyation. The latter is directed by the Ppp2r2a regulatory subunit of the Pp2a phosphatase. This was accompanied by a change of Claudin-1 localisation to the cell surface and interaction between Occludin and Claudin-1 which are thought to be required for tight junction formation. The aim of this study was to determine the nature of the barrier defect caused by the loss of AKT/Ppp2r2a function. There was a paracellular barrier defect in rat epidermal keratinocytes expressing a Ppp2r2a siRNA. In Ppp2r2a knockdown cells, Claudin-1 was located to the cytoplasm and its expression was increased. Inhibiting cJun phosphorylation restored barrier function and plasma membrane localisation of Claudin-1. Expression of the Rab3 GTPase activating protein, Rab3Gap1, was restored in Ppp2r2a siRNA cells when cJun phosphorylation was inhibited. During normal mouse epidermal development, Claudin-1 plasma membrane localisation and Rab3Gap1 cell surface expression were co-incident with Akt activation in mouse epidermis, strongly suggesting a role of Rab3Gap1 in epidermal barrier acquisition. Supporting this hypothesis, siRNA knockdown of Rab3Gap1 prevented plasma membrane Claudin-1 expression and the formation of a barrier competent epithelium. Replacing Rab3Gap1 in Ppp2r2a knockdown cells was sufficient to rescue Claudin-1 transport to the cell surface. Therefore these data suggest Rab3Gap1 mediated exocytosis of Claudin-1 is an important component of epidermal barrier acquisition during epidermal development. PMID:23685254

  11. Formation of Transverse Modes with Y-Junction Structures in Broad-Area Oxide-Confined Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Ren-Jay; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2003-07-01

    We performed experimental and theoretical investigations on the transverse-mode emission behavior of a broad-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The far-field emission pattern with y-junction structures is observed in the VCSEL with a 20-?m-diameter aperture when the injection current is significantly above the thermal roll-over point. In order to provide a quantitative understanding of these emission characteristics, we present a numerical simulation to model and fit the experimental results. The numerical simulation adopts the high-order Laguerre-Gaussian mode due to the assumptions of a parabolic refractive-index profile and ring-shaped carrier distribution in the laser. From the numerical simulation results, the formation of y-junction structures is inferred to be caused by the superposition of two high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes. The results of this numerical simulation are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  12. The role of the organic layer functionalization in the formation of silicon/organic layer/metal junctions with coinage metals.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Mara F; Soria, Federico A; Patrito, Eduardo M; Paredes-Olivera, Patricia

    2011-12-28

    The design of silicon/alkyl layer/metal junctions for the formation of optimal top metal contacts requires knowledge of the mechanistic and energetic aspects of the interactions of metal atoms with the modified surface. This involves (a) the interaction of the metal with the terminal groups of the organic layer, (b) the diffusion of metal atoms through the organic layer and (c) the reactions of metal atoms with the silicon surface atoms. The diffusion through the monolayer and the metal catalyzed breakage of Si-C bonds must be avoided to obtain high quality junctions. In this work, we performed a comprehensive density functional theory investigation to identify the reaction pathways of all these processes. In the absence of a reactive terminal group, gold atoms may penetrate through a compact alkyl monolayer on Si(111) with no energy barrier. However, the presence of thiol terminal groups introduces a high energy barrier which blocks the diffusion of metals into the monolayer. The diffusion barriers increase in the order Ag < Au < Cu and correlate with the stability of metal-thiolate complexes whereas the barriers for the formation of metal silicides increase in the order Cu < Au < Ag in correlation with the increasing metallic radii. The reactivity of gold clusters with functionalized Si(111) surfaces was also investigated. Metal silicide formation can only be avoided by a compact monolayer terminated by a reactive functional group. The mechanistic and energetic picture obtained in this work contributes to understanding of the factors that influence the quality of top metal contacts during the formation of silicon/organic layer/metal junctions. PMID:22041894

  13. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions?

    PubMed Central

    Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted elements with drastically increased confidence level. Silicon wafers implanted with Arsenic at different implantation energies were measured by XRR and GIXRF using a combined, simultaneous measurement and data evaluation procedure. The data were processed using a self-developed software package (JGIXA), designed for simultaneous fitting of GIXRF and XRR data. The results were compared with depth profiles obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). PMID:25202165

  14. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions.

    PubMed

    Ingerle, D; Meirer, F; Pepponi, G; Demenev, E; Giubertoni, D; Wobrauschek, P; Streli, C

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted elements with drastically increased confidence level. Silicon wafers implanted with Arsenic at different implantation energies were measured by XRR and GIXRF using a combined, simultaneous measurement and data evaluation procedure. The data were processed using a self-developed software package (JGIXA), designed for simultaneous fitting of GIXRF and XRR data. The results were compared with depth profiles obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). PMID:25202165

  15. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted elements with drastically increased confidence level. Silicon wafers implanted with Arsenic at different implantation energies were measured by XRR and GIXRF using a combined, simultaneous measurement and data evaluation procedure. The data were processed using a self-developed software package (JGIXA), designed for simultaneous fitting of GIXRF and XRR data. The results were compared with depth profiles obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS).

  16. High-T(sub c) Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Junctions with Polyimide-Passivated Ambient Temperature Edge Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barner, J. B.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Hunt, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to controllably fabricate High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) S-Normal-S (SNS) Josephson Juntions (JJ's) enhances the possibilities fro many applications, including digital circuits, SQUID's, and mixers. A wide variety of approaches to fabricating SNS-like junctions has been tried and analyzed in terms of proximity effect behavior.

  17. The Apical Junctional Complex in Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium, including the respiratory system, acts as a selective gate between the outside environment and underlying tissue. Epithelial cells are polarized due to the formation of the apical junctional complex, which includes adherent junctions and tight junctions. Endothelial cells are one of the most important cellular constituents of blood vessels. Endothelial junctional proteins play important roles in tissue integrity as well as in vascular permeability, leukocyte extravasation, and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the apical junctional complex in respiratory diseases. PMID:24855600

  18. In situ formation of p-n junction: a novel principle for photoelectrochemical sensor and its application for mercury(II) ion detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Liu, Kang-Li; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun; Zhang, Chi

    2014-05-27

    The discovery and development of photoelectrochemical sensors with novel principles are of great significance to realize sensitive and low-cost detection. In this paper, a new photoelectrochemial sensor based on the in situ formation of p-n junction was designed and used for the accurate determination of mercury(II) ions. Cysteine-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was assembled on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode based on the electrostatic interaction between Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and Cys-capped ZnS QDs. The in situ formation of HgS, a p-type semiconductor, on the surface of ZnS facilitated the charge carrier transport and promoted electron-hole separation, triggered an obviously enhanced anodic photocurrent of Cys-capped ZnS QDs. The formation of p-n junction was confirmed by P-N conductive type discriminator measurements and current-voltage (I-V) curves. The photoelectrochemical method was used for the sensing of trace mercuric (II) ions with a linear concentration of 0.01 to 10.0 M and a detection limit of 4.610(-9)mol/L. It is expected that the present study can serve as a foundation to the application of p-n heterojunction to photoelectrochemical sensors and it might be easily extended to more exciting sensing systems by photoelectrochemistry. PMID:24832992

  19. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    2003-01-01

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  20. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalte

    2004-12-28

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  1. Ohmic contact formation of metal/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions with an anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hanhui; Wang, Peng; Qi, Dongfeng; Li, Xin; Han, Xiang; Wang, Chen; Chen, Songyan Li, Cheng; Huang, Wei

    2014-11-10

    The modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge inserting an amorphous Ge layer has been demonstrated. It is interested that the Schottky barrier height of Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions is oscillated with increase of the a-Ge thickness from 0 to 10?nm, and when the thickness reaches above 10?nm, the Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge shows ohmic characteristics. Electron hopping through localized states of a-Ge layer, the alleviation of metal induced gap states, as well as the termination of dangling bonds at the amorphous-Ge/n-Ge interface are proposed to explain the anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height.

  2. Formation of a pn junction on an anisotropically etched GaAs surface using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, R.P.; Bailey, S.G.; Mazaris, G.A.; Williams, W.D.

    1986-10-13

    A continuous p-type GaAs epilayer has been deposited on an n-type sawtooth GaAs surface using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A wet chemical etching process was used to expose the intersecting (111)Ga and (1-bar1-bar1)Ga planes with 6 ..mu..m periodicity. Charge collection microscopy was used to verify the presence of the pn junction thus formed and to measure its depth. The ultimate goal of this work is to fabricate a V-groove GaAs cell with improved absorptivity, high short-circuit current, and tolerance to particle radiation.

  3. Josephson junction

    DOEpatents

    Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM); Plut, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material.

  4. Josephson junction

    DOEpatents

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Martens, J.S.

    1995-05-02

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material. 10 figs.

  5. The zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, controls proliferation and differentiation of colonocytes and thereby tight junction formation in the colon

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, L; Sekler, I; Hershfinkel, M

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a renewable tissue that requires precise balance between proliferation and differentiation, an essential process for the formation of a tightly sealed barrier. Zinc deficiency impairs the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and is associated with ulcerative and diarrheal pathologies, but the mechanisms underlying the role of Zn2+ are not well understood. Here, we determined a role of the colonocytic Zn2+ sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, in mediating Zn2+-dependent signaling and regulating the proliferation and differentiation of colonocytes. Silencing of ZnR/GPR39 expression attenuated Zn2+-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and AKT as well as downstream activation of mTOR/p70S6K, pathways that are linked with proliferation. Consistently, ZnR/GPR39 silencing inhibited HT29 and Caco-2 colonocyte proliferation, while not inducing caspase-3 cleavage. Remarkably, in differentiating HT29 colonocytes, silencing of ZnR/GPR39 expression inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation. Furthermore, Caco-2 colonocytes showed elevated expression of ZnR/GPR39 during differentiation, whereas silencing of ZnR/GPR39 decreased monolayer transepithelial electrical resistance, suggesting compromised barrier formation. Indeed, silencing of ZnR/GPR39 or chelation of Zn2+ by the cell impermeable chelator CaEDTA was followed by impaired expression of the junctional proteins, that is, occludin, zonula-1 (ZO-1) and E-cadherin. Importantly, colon tissues of GPR39 knockout mice also showed a decrease in expression levels of ZO-1 and occludin compared with wildtype mice. Altogether, our results indicate that ZnR/GPR39 has a dual role in promoting proliferation of colonocytes and in controlling their differentiation. The latter is followed by ZnR/GPR39-dependent expression of tight junctional proteins, thereby leading to formation of a sealed intestinal epithelial barrier. Thus, ZnR/GPR39 may be a therapeutic target for promoting epithelial function and tight junction barrier integrity during ulcerative colon diseases. PMID:24967969

  6. Time-dependent effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure argon plasma on epithelial cell attachment, viability and tight junction formation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoentsch, Maxi; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Nebe, J. Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The application of physical plasma to living tissues is expected to promote wound healing by plasma disinfection and stimulation of tissue regeneration. However, the effects of plasma on healthy cells must be studied and understood. In our experiments we used an argon plasma jet (kINPen®09) to gain insights into time-dependent plasma effects on cell attachment, viability and tight junction formation in vitro. Murine epithelial cells mHepR1 were suspended in complete cell culture medium and were irradiated with argon plasma (direct approach) for 30, 60 and 120 s. Suspecting that physical plasma may exert its effect via the medium, cell culture medium alone was first treated with argon plasma (indirect approach) and immediately afterwards, cells were added and also cultured for 24 h. Cell morphology and vitality were verified using light microscopy and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Already after 30 s of treatment the mHepR1 cells lost their capability to adhere and the cell vitality decreased with increasing treatment time. Interestingly, the same inhibitory effect was observed in the indirect approach. Furthermore, the argon plasma-treated culture medium-induced large openings of the cell's tight junctions, were verified by the zonula occludens protein ZO-1, which we observed for the first time in confluently grown epithelial cells.

  7. On the formation and evolution of the Pannonian Basin: Constraints derived from the structure of the junction area between the Carpathians and Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenco, L.; Radivojevi?, D.

    2012-12-01

    The large number and distribution of rollback systems in Mediterranean orogens infer the possibility of interacting extensional back-arc deformation driven by different slabs. The formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is generally related to the rapid Miocene rollback of a slab attached to the European continent. A key area of the entire system that is neglected by kinematic studies is the connection between the South Carpathians and Dinarides. In order to derive an evolutionary model, we interpreted regional seismic lines traversing the entire Serbian part of the Pannonian Basin. The observed deformation is dominantly expressed by the formation of Miocene extensional detachments and (half) grabens. The extensional geometries and associated synkinematic sedimentation that migrated in time and space allow the definition of a continuous and essentially asymmetric early to late Miocene extensional evolution. This evolution was followed by the formation of few uplifted areas during the subsequent latest Miocene-Quaternary inversion. The present-day extensional geometry changing the strike across the basin is an effect of the clockwise rotation of the South Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains in respect to the Dinarides. Our study infers that the Carpathian rollback is not the only mechanism responsible for the formation of the Pannonian Basin; an additional middle Miocene rollback of a Dinaridic slab is required to explain the observed structures. Furthermore, the study provides constraints for the pre-Neogene orogenic evolution of this junction zone, including the affinity of major crustal blocks, obducted ophiolitic sequences and the Sava suture zone.

  8. Electron scattering effects at physisorbed hydrogen molecules on break-junction electrodes and nanowires formation in hydrogen environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Maas, M.; Vasnyov, S.; Hendriksen, B. L. M.; Shklyarevskii, O. I.; Speller, S.

    2012-06-01

    Physisorption of hydrogen molecules on the surface of gold and other coinage metals has been studied using distance tunneling spectroscopy. We have observed that the distance dependence of the tunnel current (resistance) displays a strong N-shaped deviation from exponential behavior. Such deviations are difficult to explain within the Tersoff-Hamann approximation. We suggest the scattering of tunneling electrons by H2 molecules as an origin for the observed effect. We have found that this phenomenon is also common for strongly adsorbed organic molecules with a single anchoring group. Pulling Au, Cu and Pt nanowires at 22 K in hydrogen environment shows that the break-junction electrodes are still connected through hydrogen-metal monoatomic chains down to very low conductance values of 10-4-10-6 G0.

  9. Formation of single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon pn junctions by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiyuan, Wang; Yongguang, Huang; Dewei, Liu; Xiaoning, Zhu; Xiao, Cui; Hongliang, Zhu

    2013-06-01

    Pn junctions based on single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon were formed by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). P type silicon wafers were implanted with 245 keV 126Te+ to a dose of 2 × 1015 ions/cm2, after a PLM process (248 nm, laser fluence of 0.30 and 0.35 J/cm2, 1-5 pulses, duration 30 ns), an n+ type single crystalline tellurium supersaturated silicon layer with high carrier density (highest concentration 4.10 × 1019 cm-3, three orders of magnitude larger than the solid solution limit) was formed, it shows high broadband optical absorption from 400 to 2500 nm. Current—voltage measurements were performed on these diodes under dark and one standard sun (AM 1.5), and good rectification characteristics were observed. For present results, the samples with 4-5 pulses PLM are best.

  10. Graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites decorated with quantum tunneling junctions: preparation strategies, microstructures and formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingxiu; Wu, Xianzheng; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Zhiwen; Wang, Shilong

    2014-09-28

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) and graphene are versatile materials that are vitally important for creating new functional and smart materials. A facile, simple and efficient ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal synthesis approach has been developed to prepare graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites (GSNCs), including three samples with graphene/Sn weight ratios = 1?:?2 (GSNC-2), 1?:?1 (GSNC-1), and graphene oxide/Sn weight ratio = 1?:?1 (GOSNC-1). Low-magnification electron microscopy analysis indicated that graphene was exfoliated and adorned with SnO2 nanoparticles, which were dispersed uniformly on both the sides of the graphene nanosheets. High-magnification electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites presented network tunneling frameworks, which were decorated with the SnO2 quantum tunneling junctions. The size distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles was estimated to range from 3 to 5.5 nm. Comparing GSNC-2, GSNC-1, and GOSNC-1, GOSNC-1 was found to exhibit a significantly better the homogeneous distribution and a considerably smaller size distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles, which indicated that it was better to use graphene oxide as a supporting material and SnCl45H2O as a precursor to synthesize hybrid graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites. Experimental results suggest that the graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites with interesting SnO2 quantum tunneling junctions may be a promising material to facilitate the improvement of the future design of micro/nanodevices. PMID:25099195

  11. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  12. The role of gap junctions and mechanical loading on mineral formation in a collagen-I scaffold seeded with osteoprogenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Damaraju, Swathi; Matyas, John R; Rancourt, Derrick E; Duncan, Neil A

    2015-05-01

    Fracture nonunions represent one of many large bone defects where current treatment strategies fall short in restoring both form and function of the injured tissue. In this case, the use of a tissue-engineered scaffold for promoting bone healing offers an accessible and easy-to-manipulate environment for studying bone formation processes in vitro. We have previously shown that mechanical prestimulation using confined compression of differentiating osteoblasts results in an increase in mineralization formed in a 3D collagen-I scaffold. This study builds on this knowledge by evaluating the short and long-term effects of blocking gap junction-mediated intercellular communication among osteogenic cells on their effectiveness to mineralize collagen-I scaffolds in vitro, and in the presence and absence of mechanical stimulation. In this study, confined compression was applied in conjunction with octanol (a general communication blocker) or 18-?-glycerrhetinic acid (AGA, a specific gap junction blocker) using a modified FlexCell plate to collagen-I scaffolds seeded with murine embryonic stem cells stimulated toward osteoblast differentiation using beta-glycerol phosphate. The activity, presence, and expression of osteoblast cadherin, connexin-43, as well as various pluripotent and osteogenic markers were examined at 5-30 days of differentiation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, immunofluorescence, viability, histology assessments, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assessments revealed that inhibiting communication in this scaffold altered the lineage and function of differentiating osteoblasts. In particular, treatment with communication inhibitors caused reduced mineralization in the matrix, and dissociation between connexin-43 and integrin ?5?1. This dissociation was not restored even after long-term recovery. Thus, in order for this scaffold to be considered as an alternative strategy for the repair of large bone defects, cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix interactions must remain intact for osteoblast differentiation and function to be preserved. This study shows that within this 3D scaffold, gap junctions are essential in osteoblast response to mechanical loading, and are essential structures in producing a significant amount and organization of mineralization in the matrix. PMID:25752490

  13. Electro-Optical Characteristics of P+n In0.53Ga0.47As Hetero-Junction Photodiodes in Large Format Dense Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWames, R.; Littleton, R.; Witte, K.; Wichman, A.; Bellotti, E.; Pellegrino, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is concerned with focal plane array (FPA) data and use of analytical and three-dimensional numerical simulation methods to determine the physical effects and processes limiting performance. For shallow homojunction P+n designs the temperature dependence of dark current for T < 300 K depends on the intrinsic carrier concentration of the In0.53Ga0.47As material, implying that the dominant dark currents are generation and recombination (G-R) currents originating in the depletion regions of the double layer planar heterostructure (DLPH) photodiode. In the analytical model differences from bulk G-R behavior are modeled with a G-R like perimeter-dependent shunt current conjectured to originate at the InP/InGaAs interface. In this description the fitting property is the effective conductivity, ? eff( T), in mho cm-1. Variation in the data suggests ? eff (300 K) values of 1.2 10-11-4.6 10-11 mho cm-1). Substrate removal extends the quantum efficiency (QE) spectral band into the visible region. However, dead-layer effects limit the QE to 10% at a wavelength of 0.5 ?m. For starlight-no moon illumination conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio is estimated to be 50 at an operating temperature of 300 K. A major result of the 3D numerical simulation of the device is the prediction of a perimeter G-R current not associated with the properties of the metallurgical interface. Another is the prediction that for a junction positioned in the larger band gap InP cap layer the QE is bias-dependent and that a relatively large reverse bias ?0.9 V is needed for the QE to saturate to the shallow homojunction value. At this higher bias the dark current is larger than the shallow homojunction value. The 3D numerical model and the analytical model agree in predicting and explaining the measured radiatively limited diffusion current originating at the n-side of the junction. The calculations of the area-dependent G-R current for the condition studied are also in agreement. Unique advantages of the 3D numerical simulation are the ability to mimic real device structures, achieve deeper understanding of the real physical effects associated with the various methods of junction formation, and predict how device designs will function.

  14. Hemicentin 2 and Fibulin 1 are required for epidermal-dermal junction formation and fin mesenchymal cell migration during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Natália Martins; Zhang, Jinli; Carney, Thomas J; Metzger, Manuel; Korzh, Vladimir; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2012-09-15

    Hemicentin 1 (Hmcn1) and Hemicentin 2 (Hmcn2) belong to the fibulin family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that play pivotal roles during development and homeostasis of a variety of vertebrate tissues. Recently, we have shown that mutations in zebrafish Hmcn1, also called Fibulin 6, lead to massive fin blistering, similar to the defects caused by the Fraser syndrome gene Fras1. In contrast, the role of Hmcn2 during vertebrate development has thus far been uncharacterized. In zebrafish, hmcn2, like fibulin 1 (fbln1), another member of the fibulin family, is predominantly expressed in fin mesenchymal cells and developing somites, contrasting the strict epithelial expression of hmcn1. While antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based knockdown of hmcn2 did not yield any discernable defects, hmcn2/fbln1 double knockdown fish displayed blistering in the trunk, pointing to an essential contribution of these proteins from mesodermal sources for proper epidermal-dermal junction formation. In contrast, and unlike hmcn1 mutants, epidermal-dermal junctions in the fin folds of hmcn2/fbln1 double knockdown fish were only moderately affected. Instead, they displayed impaired migration of fin mesenchymal cells into the fin folds, pointing to a crucial role of Hmcn2 and Fbln1 to remodel the ECM of the fin fold interepidermal space, which is a prerequisite for fibroblast ingrowth. TEM analyses suggest that this ECM remodeling occurs at the level of actinotrichia, the collageneous migration substrate of mesenchymal cells, and at the level of cross fibers, which resemble mammalian microfibers. This work provides first insights into the role of Hmcn2 during vertebrate development, identifying it as an evolutionary conserved protein that acts in functional redundancy with Fbln1C and/or Fbln1D isoforms to regulate tissue adhesion and cell migration, while extending the current knowledge of the functions of vertebrate Fbln1. PMID:22771579

  15. The Relationships of Plate Triple-junction Evolution, Trench-Arc Lengthening, Boninite Generation, and SSZ Spreading Centers to Ophiolite Formation, High-Temperature Soles, and Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J.; Dewey, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    A review of modern-day island arcs, the locations of boninite eruptions, the conditions necessary for hot upper plate spreading, potential regions of shallow SSZ flux melting, and formation of high-temperature metamorphic soles along the subduction channels indicates that many future, recent and ancient large slab ophiolite obduction events can be related to triple junctions that link SSZ spreading centers with trenches. These subduction systems leading to large slab ophiolite obduction events typically face stable continental margins. Boninitic melt generation requires hydrous melting of refractory mantle peridotite under an extremely high-temperature and low-pressure condition. This condition is generally explained by the addition of slab-derived fluids into a hot young oceanic mantle asthenosphere and lithosphere, which previously likely experienced melt extraction. Metamorphic conditions associated with metamorphic soles formation likewise require a hot upper plate lithosphere that, based on sole protolith, geochronologic and thermochronologic data, rapidly heats and then refrigerates and decompresses MORB-OIB type subcreted lithosphere. Numerous examples of present-day and recent SSZ spreading centers that link with two trenches or a trench and transform are considered ideal sites for ophiolite and boninite generation. The SZZ fore-arc spreading centers that link to the trench lines and triple junctions at the front of the arc may also continue towards the arc and back arc, creating no distinction between fore-arc and back-arc spreading episodes or to the transform-linked spreading centers from fore-arc to back arc. These SSZ spreading centers, which may be transiently produced during arc evolution over short or protracted time periods, act to open gaps in the arc massif and lengthen the trench, fore-arc and the arc crustal massif. They lead to an evolving arc magmatic front that begins in the infant fore-arc where ophiolite generation occurs at, near or in the trench, followed then by migration to sites distal from the trench line where a new arc massif is established on newly created oceanic lithosphere. Modern and ancient analogues of these setting are reviewed.

  16. A tectonically controlled alluvial fan which developed into a marine fan-delta at a complex triple junction: Miocene Gildirli Formation of the Adana Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grr, Naci

    1992-12-01

    The sediments of the Gildirli Formation in the Karaisali embayment of the Adana Basin, southern Turkey, records the evolution, under tectonic control at a complex triple junction, of an alluvial fan into a fan-delta during a rapid Early Miocene transgression. The alluvial fan is represented by the lower part of the formation (akmak Member) and is characterized by an internal architecture, recording an overall progradation of the coarse proximal fan conglomerates over distal fine-grained sediments. The conglomerates contain mostly Upper Cretaceous limestone clasts of various sizes derived from the faulted mountain front of the Taurus range where this limestone is widely exposed. This active mountain front delimited the Karaisah embayment to the north and provided, during the fault activity, abundant coarse clasts to this area throughout the deposition of both the alluvial fan and the overlying fan-delta sediments. The production of fine detritus during the faulting was very limited and therefore this source contributed little fine grain detritus to the sediments. Provenance studies indicate that the fine clastics in the Gildirli Formation were carried by streams during periods of active faulting and also during periods of tectonic quiescence from a far-distant source in the hinterlands of the Taurus Mountains. The recurrent activity along the northern boundary-fault resulted in the intercalation of these fine clastics with the predominant coarse sediments in this formation. When the study area was flooded from the south by a rapidly deepening Early Miocene sea, the accumulation of all these sediments took place in a fan-delta environment. The fan-delta sediments constitute the upper parts of the Gildirli Formation (Kabalaktepe Member) and display an inverse facies pattern in which foreset beds overlie topsets and hence an upward-fining and deepening sequence. This deviation from a genetic upward-coarsening sequence of a typical marine delta was perhaps the result of a rapid relative rise in sea-level, due to tectonically induced subsidence of the area possibly coupled with a short-term global sea-level rise in the Burdigalian.

  17. Obstacle strength of binary junction due to dislocation dipole formation: An in-situ transmission electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez Haghighat, S. M.; Schublin, R.

    2015-10-01

    We report the experimental observation of the <111> edge dislocation dipole formation and annihilation in ultra-high purity Fe using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in-situ straining. The observation is confirmed by TEM image simulations. The edge dipole is formed by the interaction of a moving screw dislocation with an obstacle of dislocation character. It results from the glide of the two arms of the dislocation on two different glide planes, which stabilizes the dipole that is closed by a jog. The dipole is later released from the obstacle and disappears, presumably by gliding of the dipole's edge segments along their Burgers vector and freeing the mobile screw dislocation from the jog. This mechanism leads to enhanced obstacle strength of the immobile dislocation well above Orowan critical stress, promoting forest strength.

  18. Junction formation at the interface of CdS/CuInxGa(1 - x)Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon Mi; Kim, Tae Gun; Duck Chung, Yong; Cho, Dae-Hyung; Kim, Jeha; Kim, Kyung Joong; Yi, Yeonjin; Kim, Jeong Won

    2014-08-01

    The interfacial band alignment and chemical composition at the cadmium sulfide (CdS)/copper indium gallium diselenide (CuInx Ga1-x Se2 : CIGS) heterojunction was investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. Over the two different interfaces made by either thermal deposition of CdS on a CIGS film or step-by-step etching of a chemical-bath deposited (CBD)-CdS/CIGS film by Ar+ ions, the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum were determined using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy, respectively. Concurrently, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to trace chemical changes across the interface. Both interfaces showed a In-rich and Cu-deficient profile. The thermal deposition of CdS on CIGS induces Cd-Cu intermixing and nonstoichiometric CdS formation associated with a strong band bending and high electron injection barrier. However, the CBD-CdS layer shows a rather sharp interface and negligible electron injection barrier in the conduction band, which will show better solar cell characteristics.

  19. Schwertmannite formation at cell junctions by a new filament-forming Fe(II)-oxidizing isolate affiliated with the novel genus Acidithrix.

    PubMed

    Mori, Jiro F; Lu, Shipeng; Hndel, Matthias; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Neu, Thomas R; Iancu, Vasile Vlad; Tarcea, Nicolae; Popp, Jrgen; Ksel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    A new acidophilic iron-oxidizing strain (C25) belonging to the novel genus Acidithrix was isolated from pelagic iron-rich aggregates ('iron snow') collected below the redoxcline of an acidic lignite mine lake. Strain C25 catalysed the oxidation of ferrous iron [Fe(II)] under oxic conditions at 25?C at a rate of 3.8?mM Fe(II) day-?1 in synthetic medium and 3.0?mM Fe(II) day-?1 in sterilized lake water in the presence of yeast extract, producing the rust-coloured, poorly crystalline mineral schwertmannite [Fe(III) oxyhydroxylsulfate]. During growth, rod-shaped cells of strain C25 formed long filaments, and then aggregated and degraded into shorter fragments, building large cell-mineral aggregates in the late stationary phase. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of cells during the early growth phase revealed that Fe(III)-minerals were formed as single needles on the cell surface, whereas the typical pincushion-like schwertmannite was observed during later growth phases at junctions between the cells, leaving major parts of the cell not encrusted. This directed mechanism of biomineralization at specific locations on the cell surface has not been reported from other acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. Strain C25 was also capable of reducing Fe(III) under micro-oxic conditions which led to a dissolution of the Fe(III)-minerals. Thus, strain C25 appeared to have ecological relevance for both the formation and transformation of the pelagic iron-rich aggregates at oxic/anoxic transition zones in the acidic lignite mine lake. PMID:26506965

  20. Adherens junctions in C. elegans embryonic morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Armenti, Stephen T.; Nance, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    C. elegans provides a simplified, in vivo model system in which to study adherens junctions and their role in morphogenesis. The core adherens junction components – HMR-1/E-cadherin, HMP-2/β-catenin and HMP-1/α-catenin – were initially identified through genetic screens for mutants with body axis elongation defects. In early embryos, adherens junction proteins are found at sites of contact between blastomeres, and in epithelial cells adherens junction proteins localize to the multifaceted apical junction (CeAJ) – a single structure that combines the adhesive and barrier functions of vertebrate adherens and tight junctions. The apically localized polarity proteins PAR-3 and PAR-6 mediate formation and maturation of junctions, while the basolaterally localized regulator LET-413/Scribble ensures that junctions remain apically positioned. Adherens junctions promote robust adhesion between epithelial cells and provide mechanical resistance for the physical strains of morphogenesis. However, in contrast to vertebrates, C. elegans adherens junction proteins are not essential for general cell adhesion or for epithelial cell polarization. A combination of conserved and novel proteins localizes to the CeAJ and works together with adherens junctions proteins to mediate adhesion. PMID:22674076

  1. Ultra low energy boron implantation using cluster ions for decananometer MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugii, T.; Goto, K.; Tanaka, T.; Matsuo, J.; Yamada, I.

    1999-06-01

    Two types of applications in ultra low-energy boron implantation with decaborane (B10H14) molecules for highly miniaturized devices are presented. One is the formation of a 7-nm-deep junction. This ultra shallow junction was applied to a pMOSFET with a gate length of around 50 nm. The other application of this technique is the formation of ultra shallow channels in buried-channel pMOSFETs. We successfully fabricated this type of device, achieving a low threshold voltage and a steep subthreshold.

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum MB452 enhances the function of the intestinal barrier by increasing the expression levels of genes involved in tight junction formation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intestinal barrier function is important for preserving health, as a compromised barrier allows antigen entry and can induce inflammatory diseases. Probiotic bacteria can play a role in enhancing intestinal barrier function; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Existing studies have focused on the ability of probiotics to prevent alterations to tight junctions in disease models, and have been restricted to a few tight junction bridging proteins. No studies have previously investigated the effect of probiotic bacteria on healthy intestinal epithelial cell genes involved in the whole tight junction signalling pathway, including those encoding for bridging, plaque and dual location tight junction proteins. Alteration of tight junction signalling in healthy humans is a potential mechanism that could lead to the strengthening of the intestinal barrier, resulting in limiting the ability of antigens to enter the body and potentially triggering undesirable immune responses. Results The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum MB452 on tight junction integrity was determined by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) across Caco-2 cell layers. L. plantarum MB452 caused a dose-dependent TEER increase across Caco-2 cell monolayers compared to control medium. Gene expression was compared in Caco-2 cells untreated or treated with L. plantarum MB452 for 10 hours. Caco-2 cell RNA was hybridised to human oligonucleotide arrays. Data was analysed using linear models and differently expressed genes were examined using pathway analysis tools. Nineteen tight junction-related genes had altered expression levels in response to L. plantarum MB452 (modified-P < 0.05, fold-change > 1.2), including those encoding occludin and its associated plaque proteins that anchor it to the cytoskeleton. L. plantarum MB452 also caused changes in tubulin and proteasome gene expression levels which may be linked to intestinal barrier function. Caco-2 tight junctions were visualised by fluorescent microscopy of immuno-stained occludin, zona occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2 and cingulin. Caco-2 cells treated with L. plantarum MB452 had higher intensity fluorescence of each of the four tight junction proteins compared to untreated controls. Conclusions This research indicates that enhancing the expression of genes involved in tight junction signalling is a possible mechanism by which L. plantarum MB452 improves intestinal barrier function. PMID:21143932

  3. p-n junction formation in InSb and InAs(1-x)Sb(x) by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, P. K.; Bedair, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    p-n junctions have been fabricated in InSb and InAs(1-x)Sb(x)(0.4 less than x less than 0.7) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. These junctions showed soft breakdown in addition to forward characteristics with a diode factor greater than 2. The ternary alloy has a cut-off wavelength in the 8-11-micron range, thus providing a potential material system for detectors covering the 8-12-micron range.

  4. In Situ Formation of Disorder-Engineered TiO2(B)-Anatase Heterophase Junction for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinmeng; Wang, Yating; Zhu, Yingming; Wu, Moqing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xingang; Jiang, Zheng; Meng, Ming

    2015-11-18

    Hydrogenation of semiconductors is an efficient way to increase their photocatalytic activity by forming disorder-engineered structures. Herein, we report a facile hydrogenation process of TiO2(B) nanobelts to in situ generate TiO2(B)-anatase heterophase junction with a disordered surface shell. The catalyst exhibits an excellent performance for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under the simulated solar light irradiation (?580 ?mol h(-1), 0.02 g photocatalyst). The atomically well-matched heterophase junction, along with the disorder-engineered surface shell, promotes the separation of electron-hole and inhibits their recombination. This strategy can be further employed to design other disorder-engineered composite photocatalysts for solar energy utilization. PMID:26536137

  5. Connexin43 gap junctions in normal, regenerating, and cultured mouse bone marrow and in human leukemias: their possible involvement in blood formation.

    PubMed

    Krenacs, T; Rosendaal, M

    1998-04-01

    Communicating channels called gap junctions are thought to play a ubiquitous part in cell growth and development. Based on earlier work, we have recently found functional evidence of their presence in human and mouse bone marrow. In this study we studied the cell-type association of the gap junction channel-forming protein, connexin, in mouse and human bone marrow under different physiological and pathological conditions and tested the pathway of communication in bone marrow cultures. For high-resolution antigen demonstration we took advantage of semi-thin resin sections, antigen retrieval methods, immunofluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Connexin43 (Cx43) and its mRNA were consistently expressed in human and rodent marrow. Cx37 was found only in the arteriolar endothelium, but neither Cx32 nor -26 were expressed. In tissue sections, the immunostained junctions appeared as dots, which were digitally measured and counted. Their average size was 0.40 mm in human and 0.49 mm in mice marrow. There were at least twice as many gap junctions in the femoral midshaft of 6-week-old mice (1.75 x 10(5)/mm3) as in those older than 12 weeks (0.89 x 10(5)/mm3). Most Cx43 was associated with collagen III+ endosteal and adventitial stromal cells and with megakaryocytes. Elsewhere, they were few and randomly distributed between all kinds of hematopoietic cells. In the femoral epiphysis of juvenile mice, stromal cell processes full of Cx43 enmeshed three to six layers of hematopoietic cells near the endosteum. The same pattern was seen in the midshaft of regenerating mouse marrow 3 to 5 days after cytotoxic treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Functional tests in cultures showed the transfer of small fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5, 6-carboxyfluorescein, between stromal cells and in rare cases between stromal and hematopoietic cells too. The stromal cells were densely packed with Cx43 and we found aggregates of connexon particles in their membrane replicas. In normocellular human bone marrow, gap junctions were as rare as in adult mouse and similarly distributed, except that they were also on adipocytic membranes. In a few leukemic samples, characterized by an increased stromal/hematopoietic cell ratio, there were two- to fourfold more Cx43 (2.8 x 10(5) to 3.9 x 10(5)/mm3) than in the normal (1.0 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(5)/mm3). The cases included a hypoplastic acute lymphoblastic leukemia, an acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M4-5), a case of myelodysplastic syndrome with elevated number of megakaryocytes, and a CD34+ acute hemoblastosis, probably acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M7). Taken together, our results indicate that direct cell-cell communication may be involved in hematopoiesis, ie, in developmentally active epiphyseal bone marrow and when there is a demand for progenitors in regeneration. However, gap junctions may not play as important a role in resting adult hematopoiesis and in leukemias. PMID:9546360

  6. Connexin43 gap junctions in normal, regenerating, and cultured mouse bone marrow and in human leukemias: their possible involvement in blood formation.

    PubMed Central

    Krenacs, T.; Rosendaal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Communicating channels called gap junctions are thought to play a ubiquitous part in cell growth and development. Based on earlier work, we have recently found functional evidence of their presence in human and mouse bone marrow. In this study we studied the cell-type association of the gap junction channel-forming protein, connexin, in mouse and human bone marrow under different physiological and pathological conditions and tested the pathway of communication in bone marrow cultures. For high-resolution antigen demonstration we took advantage of semi-thin resin sections, antigen retrieval methods, immunofluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Connexin43 (Cx43) and its mRNA were consistently expressed in human and rodent marrow. Cx37 was found only in the arteriolar endothelium, but neither Cx32 nor -26 were expressed. In tissue sections, the immunostained junctions appeared as dots, which were digitally measured and counted. Their average size was 0.40 mm in human and 0.49 mm in mice marrow. There were at least twice as many gap junctions in the femoral midshaft of 6-week-old mice (1.75 x 10(5)/mm3) as in those older than 12 weeks (0.89 x 10(5)/mm3). Most Cx43 was associated with collagen III+ endosteal and adventitial stromal cells and with megakaryocytes. Elsewhere, they were few and randomly distributed between all kinds of hematopoietic cells. In the femoral epiphysis of juvenile mice, stromal cell processes full of Cx43 enmeshed three to six layers of hematopoietic cells near the endosteum. The same pattern was seen in the midshaft of regenerating mouse marrow 3 to 5 days after cytotoxic treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Functional tests in cultures showed the transfer of small fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5, 6-carboxyfluorescein, between stromal cells and in rare cases between stromal and hematopoietic cells too. The stromal cells were densely packed with Cx43 and we found aggregates of connexon particles in their membrane replicas. In normocellular human bone marrow, gap junctions were as rare as in adult mouse and similarly distributed, except that they were also on adipocytic membranes. In a few leukemic samples, characterized by an increased stromal/hematopoietic cell ratio, there were two- to fourfold more Cx43 (2.8 x 10(5) to 3.9 x 10(5)/mm3) than in the normal (1.0 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(5)/mm3). The cases included a hypoplastic acute lymphoblastic leukemia, an acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M4-5), a case of myelodysplastic syndrome with elevated number of megakaryocytes, and a CD34+ acute hemoblastosis, probably acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M7). Taken together, our results indicate that direct cell-cell communication may be involved in hematopoiesis, ie, in developmentally active epiphyseal bone marrow and when there is a demand for progenitors in regeneration. However, gap junctions may not play as important a role in resting adult hematopoiesis and in leukemias. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:9546360

  7. Altered α-defensin 5 expression in cervical squamocolumnar junction: implication in the formation of a viral/tumour-permissive microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Pascale; Herman, Ludivine; Roncarati, Patrick; Maillard, Catherine; Renoux, Virginie; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Erpicum, Charlotte; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Boniver, Jacques; Noël, Agnès; Delvenne, Philippe; Herfs, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly type 16, is causally associated with cancer of the uterine cervix, which mainly develops at the squamocolumnar (SC) junction. The progression of cervical HPV infections into (pre)neoplastic lesions suggests that viral antigens are not adequately recognized by innate immunity or presented to the adaptive immune system. Members of the defensin family have recently been found to inhibit viral and bacterial pathogens, to stimulate the migration of immune cells and to play a role in anticancer responses. In the present study, we focused on the poorly characterized human α-defensin 5 (HD-5) and its possible role in these processes. We showed that HD-5 was able to prevent HPV virion entry into cervical keratinocytes and to influence adaptive immunity. Indeed, this peptide specifically induced the chemoattraction and proliferation of both activated T lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells in a CCR2/CCR6-dependent manner and stimulated the infiltration of these professional antigen-presenting cells in a (pre)neoplastic epithelium transplanted in vivo in immunodeficient mice. No chemotactic effect was observed with plasmacytoid dendritic cells, macrophages or natural killer cells. Proliferative and angiogenic effects of HD-5 were also assessed in vitro and in vivo. However there was a striking regional disparity in expression of HD-5, being prominent in ectocervical, vaginal and vulvar neoplasia, while absent, or nearly so, in the cervical SC junction. Taken together, these results suggest one possible explanation for why the SC junction is uniquely vulnerable to both high-risk HPV infection (via reduced HD-5 expression and viral entry) and progression of neoplasia (via altered cell-mediated immune responses and altered microenvironment). PMID:25196670

  8. comK prophage junction fragments as markers for Listeria monocytogenes genotypes unique to individual meat and poultry processing plants and a model for rapid niche-specific adaptation, biofilm formation, and persistence.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Bindhu; Lok, Mei; Wen, Jia; Alessandria, Valentina; Chen, Yi; Kathariou, Sophia; Knabel, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    Different strains of Listeria monocytogenes are well known to persist in individual food processing plants and to contaminate foods for many years; however, the specific genotypic and phenotypic mechanisms responsible for persistence of these unique strains remain largely unknown. Based on sequences in comK prophage junction fragments, different strains of epidemic clones (ECs), which included ECII, ECIII, and ECV, were identified and shown to be specific to individual meat and poultry processing plants. The comK prophage-containing strains showed significantly higher cell densities after incubation at 30C for 48 h on meat and poultry food-conditioning films than did strains lacking the comK prophage (P < 0.05). Overall, the type of strain, the type of conditioning film, and the interaction between the two were all highly significant (P < 0.001). Recombination analysis indicated that the comK prophage junction fragments in these strains had evolved due to extensive recombination. Based on the results of the present study, we propose a novel model in which the concept of defective comK prophage was replaced with the rapid adaptation island (RAI). Genes within the RAI were recharacterized as "adaptons," as these genes may allow L. monocytogenes to rapidly adapt to different food processing facilities and foods. If confirmed, the model presented would help explain Listeria's rapid niche adaptation, biofilm formation, persistence, and subsequent transmission to foods. Also, comK prophage junction fragment sequences may permit accurate tracking of persistent strains back to and within individual food processing operations and thus allow the design of more effective intervention strategies to reduce contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21441318

  9. comK Prophage Junction Fragments as Markers for Listeria monocytogenes Genotypes Unique to Individual Meat and Poultry Processing Plants and a Model for Rapid Niche-Specific Adaptation, Biofilm Formation, and Persistence ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Bindhu; Lok, Mei; Wen, Jia; Alessandria, Valentina; Chen, Yi; Kathariou, Sophia; Knabel, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Different strains of Listeria monocytogenes are well known to persist in individual food processing plants and to contaminate foods for many years; however, the specific genotypic and phenotypic mechanisms responsible for persistence of these unique strains remain largely unknown. Based on sequences in comK prophage junction fragments, different strains of epidemic clones (ECs), which included ECII, ECIII, and ECV, were identified and shown to be specific to individual meat and poultry processing plants. The comK prophage-containing strains showed significantly higher cell densities after incubation at 30°C for 48 h on meat and poultry food-conditioning films than did strains lacking the comK prophage (P < 0.05). Overall, the type of strain, the type of conditioning film, and the interaction between the two were all highly significant (P < 0.001). Recombination analysis indicated that the comK prophage junction fragments in these strains had evolved due to extensive recombination. Based on the results of the present study, we propose a novel model in which the concept of defective comK prophage was replaced with the rapid adaptation island (RAI). Genes within the RAI were recharacterized as “adaptons,” as these genes may allow L. monocytogenes to rapidly adapt to different food processing facilities and foods. If confirmed, the model presented would help explain Listeria's rapid niche adaptation, biofilm formation, persistence, and subsequent transmission to foods. Also, comK prophage junction fragment sequences may permit accurate tracking of persistent strains back to and within individual food processing operations and thus allow the design of more effective intervention strategies to reduce contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21441318

  10. Zurek-Kibble mechanism for the spontaneous vortex formation in Nb-Al/Al(ox)/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions: new theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Monaco, R; Mygind, J; Aaroe, M; Rivers, R J; Koshelets, V P

    2006-05-12

    New scaling behavior has been both predicted and observed in the spontaneous production of fluxons in quenched Nb-Al/Al(ox)/Nb annular Josephson tunnel junctions (JTJs) as a function of the quench time, tau(Q). The probability f(1) to trap a single defect during the normal-metal-superconductor phase transition clearly follows an allometric dependence on tau(Q) with a scaling exponent sigma = 0.5, as predicted from the Zurek-Kibble mechanism for realistic JTJs formed by strongly coupled superconductors. This definitive experiment replaces one reported by us earlier, in which an idealized model was used that predicted sigma = 0.25, commensurate with the then much poorer data. Our experiment remains the only condensed matter experiment to date to have measured a scaling exponent with any reliability. PMID:16712355

  11. Tight junctions: molecular architecture and function.

    PubMed

    Aijaz, Saima; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Tight junctions are the most apical component of the epithelial junctional complex and are crucial for the formation and functioning of epithelial and endothelial barriers. They regulate selective diffusion of ions and solutes along the paracellular pathway and restrict apical/basolateral intramembrane diffusion of lipids. Research over the past years provided much insight into the molecular composition of tight junctions, and we are starting to understand the mechanisms that permit selective paracellular diffusion. Moreover, a complex network of proteins has been identified at tight junctions that is based on cytoskeleton-linked adaptors that recruit and thereby often regulate different types of signaling components that regulate epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and polarization. PMID:16487793

  12. Junctional adhesion molecule A promotes epithelial tight junction assembly to augment lung barrier function.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Leslie A; Ward, Christina; Kwon, Mike; Mitchell, Patrick O; Quintero, David A; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A; Koval, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial barrier function is maintained by tight junction proteins that control paracellular fluid flux. Among these proteins is junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), an Ig fold transmembrane protein. To assess JAM-A function in the lung, we depleted JAM-A in primary alveolar epithelial cells using shRNA. In cultured cells, loss of JAM-A caused an approximately 30% decrease in transepithelial resistance, decreased expression of the tight junction scaffold protein zonula occludens 1, and disrupted junctional localization of the structural transmembrane protein claudin-18. Consistent with findings in other organs, loss of JAM-A decreased β1 integrin expression and impaired filamentous actin formation. Using a model of mild systemic endoxotemia induced by i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide, we report that JAM-A(-/-) mice showed increased susceptibility to pulmonary edema. On injury, the enhanced susceptibility of JAM-A(-/-) mice to edema correlated with increased, transient disruption of claudin-18, zonula occludens 1, and zonula occludens 2 localization to lung tight junctions in situ along with a delay in up-regulation of claudin-4. In contrast, wild-type mice showed no change in lung tight junction morphologic features in response to mild systemic endotoxemia. These findings support a key role of JAM-A in promoting tight junction homeostasis and lung barrier function by coordinating interactions among claudins, the tight junction scaffold, and the cytoskeleton. PMID:25438062

  13. Junctional Adhesion Molecule A Promotes Epithelial Tight Junction Assembly to Augment Lung Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Leslie A.; Ward, Christina; Kwon, Mike; Mitchell, Patrick O.; Quintero, David A.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.; Koval, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial barrier function is maintained by tight junction proteins that control paracellular fluid flux. Among these proteins is junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), an Ig fold transmembrane protein. To assess JAM-A function in the lung, we depleted JAM-A in primary alveolar epithelial cells using shRNA. In cultured cells, loss of JAM-A caused an approximately 30% decrease in transepithelial resistance, decreased expression of the tight junction scaffold protein zonula occludens 1, and disrupted junctional localization of the structural transmembrane protein claudin-18. Consistent with findings in other organs, loss of JAM-A decreased β1 integrin expression and impaired filamentous actin formation. Using a model of mild systemic endoxotemia induced by i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide, we report that JAM-A−/− mice showed increased susceptibility to pulmonary edema. On injury, the enhanced susceptibility of JAM-A−/− mice to edema correlated with increased, transient disruption of claudin-18, zonula occludens 1, and zonula occludens 2 localization to lung tight junctions in situ along with a delay in up-regulation of claudin-4. In contrast, wild-type mice showed no change in lung tight junction morphologic features in response to mild systemic endotoxemia. These findings support a key role of JAM-A in promoting tight junction homeostasis and lung barrier function by coordinating interactions among claudins, the tight junction scaffold, and the cytoskeleton. PMID:25438062

  14. Alternative USJ formation and characterization methods for 45 nm node technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, John O.

    2005-08-01

    Several alternative methods of forming and characterizing ultra-shallow junctions for the 45 nm node (Xj = 9.5 nm) to extend planar single gate CMOS for bulk or SOI technologies are being investigated. To continue gate length scaling (Lg) and optimize gate overlap control, the industry will move from Spike/RTA annealing at the 65 nm node to diffusion-less activation using high temperature milli-second annealing (Flash/RTA or non-melt laser), low temperature SPE or their combinations to optimize Rs and Xj. This is driving the development of new high dose/low energy implanter designs with: (1) high tilt angle capabilities for gate over lap control, (2) uniform beam parallelism across 300 mm wafers to eliminate asymmetrical transistor effects and (3) high productivity at 200 eV boron equivalent energies with no energy contamination using new molecular dopant species (B10H14 and B18H22). If these techniques are unsuccessful in achieving the 45 nm node shallow p+ junctions with improved Rs dopant activation above Bss with acceptable junction leakage and device channel mobility enhancement then alternative non-implantation doping methods will be introduced such as in situ doped SEG and infusion DCD. Also, accurate characterization of these shallow junctions is critical so new non-penetrating 4PP Rs measurement techniques are being developed along with new spreading resistance depth profile analysis to determine the electrically active dopant profile as opposed to the SIMS chemical dopant profile.

  15. Septal Junctions in Filamentous Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris

    2016-02-01

    In the filaments of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, septal junctions that traverse the septal peptidoglycan join adjacent cells, allowing intercellular communication. Perforations in the septal peptidoglycan have been observed, and proteins involved in the formation of such perforations and putative protein components of the septal junctions have been identified, but their relationships are debated. PMID:26748968

  16. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4{alpha}-induced epithelial polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki . E-mail: hidchiba@sapmed.ac.jp; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-10-15

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4{alpha}-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4{alpha} led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4{alpha} provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization.

  17. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4alpha-induced epithelial polarization.

    PubMed

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-10-15

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4alpha-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4alpha led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4alpha provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization. PMID:16098509

  18. Three-junction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Ludowise, Michael J. (Cupertino, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar cell is formed in a monolithic semiconductor. The cell contains three junctions. In sequence from the light-entering face, the junctions have a high, a medium, and a low energy gap. The lower junctions are connected in series by one or more metallic members connecting the top of the lower junction through apertures to the bottom of the middle junction. The upper junction is connected in voltage opposition to the lower and middle junctions by second metallic electrodes deposited in holes 60 through the upper junction. The second electrodes are connected to an external terminal.

  19. Indian Ocean Triple Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

    1980-09-10

    The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

  20. A Kinetic Monte Carlo model for material aging: Simulations of second phase formation at Au/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} junction in oxygen environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. W.; Yang, N. Y. C.

    2014-03-14

    Electronic properties of semiconductor devices are sensitive to defects such as second phase precipitates, grain sizes, and voids. These defects can evolve over time especially under oxidation environments and it is therefore important to understand the resulting aging behavior in order for the reliable applications of devices. In this paper, we propose a kinetic Monte Carlo framework capable of simultaneous simulation of the evolution of second phases, precipitates, grain sizes, and voids in complicated systems involving many species including oxygen. This kinetic Monte Carlo model calculates the energy barriers of various events based directly on the experimental data. As a first step of our model implementation, we incorporate the second phase formation module in the parallel kinetic Monte Carlo codes SPPARKS. Selected aging simulations are performed to examine the formation of second phase precipitates at the eletroplated Au/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} interface under oxygen and oxygen-free environments, and the results are compared with the corresponding experiments.

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Stimulates Expression of Blood-Testis-Barrier Proteins Claudin-3 and -5 and Tight Junction Formation via a Gnα11-Coupled Receptor in Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Dietze, Raimund; Shihan, Mazen; Kirch, Ulrike; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a circulating sulfated steroid considered to be a pro-androgen in mammalian physiology. Here we show that at a physiological concentration (1 μM), DHEAS induces the phosphorylation of the kinase Erk1/2 and of the transcription factors CREB and ATF-1 in the murine Sertoli cell line TM4. This signaling cascade stimulates the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-3 and claudin-5. As a consequence of the increased expression, tight junction connections between neighboring Sertoli cells are augmented, as demonstrated by measurements of transepithelial resistance. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2, CREB, or ATF-1 is not affected by the presence of the steroid sulfatase inhibitor STX64. Erk1/2 phosphorylation was not observed when dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was used instead of DHEAS. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) expression by siRNA did not affect DHEAS-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, nor did it change DHEAS-induced stimulation of claudin-3 and claudin-5 expression. All of the above indicate that desulfation and conversion of DHEAS into a different steroid hormone is not required to trigger the DHEAS-induced signaling cascade. All activating effects of DHEAS, however, are abolished when the expression of the G-protein Gnα11 is suppressed by siRNA, including claudin-3 and -5 expression and TJ formation between neighboring Sertoli cells as indicated by reduced transepithelial resistance. Taken together, these results are consistent with the effects of DHEAS being mediated through a membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptor interacting with Gnα11 in a signaling pathway that resembles the non-classical signaling pathways of steroid hormones. Considering the fact that DHEAS is produced in reproductive organs, these findings also suggest that DHEAS, by acting as an autonomous steroid hormone and influencing the formation and dynamics of the TJ at the blood-testis barrier, might play a crucial role for the regulation and maintenance of male fertility. PMID:26938869

  2. Assay of Rab13 in regulating epithelial tight junction assembly.

    PubMed

    Marzesco, Anne-Marie; Zahraoui, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Rab13 is recruited to tight junctions from a cytosolic pool after cell-cell contact formation. Tight junctions are intercellular junctions that separate apical from basolateral domains and are required for the establishment/maintenance of polarized transport in epithelial cells. They form selective barriers regulating the diffusion of ions and solutes between cells. They also maintain the cell surface asymmetry by forming a "fence" that prevents apical/basolateral diffusion of membrane proteins and lipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. We generate stable MDCK cell lines expressing inactive (T22N mutant) and constitutively active (Q67L mutant) Rab13 as GFP-Rab13 chimeras. Expression of GFP-Rab13Q67L delays the formation of electrically tight epithelial monolayers, induces the leakage of small nonionic tracers from the apical domain, and disrupts the tight junction fence diffusion barrier. It also alters the tight junction strand structure and delays the localization of the tight junction transmembrane protein, claudin1. In contrast, the inactive Rab13T22N mutant does not disrupt tight junction functions, tight junction strand architecture, or claudin1 localization. Here we describe a set of assays that allows us to investigate the role of Rab13 in modulating tight junction structure and function. PMID:16473586

  3. Organization of multiprotein complexes at cellcell junctions

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The formation of stable cellcell contacts is required for the generation of barrier-forming sheets of epithelial and endothelial cells. During various physiological processes like tissue development, wound healing or tumorigenesis, cellular junctions are reorganized to allow the release or the incorporation of individual cells. Cellcell contact formation is regulated by multiprotein complexes which are localized at specific structures along the lateral cell junctions like the tight junctions and adherens junctions and which are targeted to these site through their association with cell adhesion molecules. Recent evidence indicates that several major protein complexes exist which have distinct functions during junction formation. However, this evidence also indicates that their composition is dynamic and subject to changes depending on the state of junction maturation. Thus, cellcell contact formation and integrity is regulated by a complex network of protein complexes. Imbalancing this network by oncogenic proteins or pathogens results in barrier breakdown and eventually in cancer. Here, I will review the molecular organization of the major multiprotein complexes at junctions of epithelial cells and discuss their function in cellcell contact formation and maintenance. PMID:18365233

  4. Metal Silicides: Active elements of ULSI contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, C. M.; Tsai, J. Y.; Sun, J.

    1996-11-01

    As device dimensions scale to the 0.1 urn regime, the self-aligned suicide (SALICIDE) contact technology increasingly becomes an integral part of both the ultra-shallow junction and the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor device itself. This paper will discuss the effect of suicide materials and formation processes on suicide stability, junction consumption, the ability to accurately profile shallow junctions, and contact resistance in series with the channel. The use of suicides as diffusion sources (SADS) provides an important pathway toward optimization of suicide technology. Diffusion of boron and arsenic from nearly epitaxial layers of CoSi2, formed from bilayers of Ti and Co, offer good suicide stability, ultra-shallow, low-leakage junctions, and low contact resistance.

  5. Multiterminal junctions formed by heating ultrathin single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, F. Y.; Shi, S. Q.; Xu, D. S.; Yang, R.

    2004-09-01

    Ultra-thin single-walled carbon nanotubes can be welded by heating to form molecular multi-terminal junctions at elevated temperatures without initially introducing structural defects such as vacancies and interstitials. This was demonstrated by classical molecular dynamics simulations with an empirical Brenner II potential and quantum mechanics calculation with PM3. The dynamic formation pathway of the junctions between crossed nanotube pairs was simulated. Junctions were established by forming intertube sp3 -related covalent bonds and breaking of bonds in original nanotubes. The final configuration of junctions depends on the chirality of the crossed tube pairs and reaction temperature. Junction formation from nanotubes with larger diameters requires higher temperature.

  6. Epithelial junctions and attachments.

    PubMed Central

    Labouesse, Michel

    2006-01-01

    A distinctive feature of polarized epithelial cells is their specialized junctions, which contribute to cell integrity and provide platforms to orchestrate cell shape changes. The chapter discusses the composition and assembly of C. elegans cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix junctions, proteins that anchor the cytoskeleton and mechanisms involved in establishing epithelial polarity. The focus remains cellular and does not properly deal with epithelial cells in the context of the developing embryo. PMID:18050482

  7. Primary Tunnel Junction Thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias

    2008-11-14

    We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future.

  8. Quantum junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO(2)); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. PMID:22881834

  9. Tight junctions in skin: new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Bharti; Jindal, Manish; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2012-11-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are intercellular contacts that seal the space between the individual cells of an epithelial sheet or stratifying epithelia, such as the epidermis, so that they can collectively separate tissue compartments. Intercellular junctions, such as adherens and TJs, play a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of epithelial and endothelial barriers. A variety of components including claudins, occludin, tricellulin, zonula occluden proteins and junctional adhesion molecules have been identified in complex localization patterns in mammalian epidermis. In several skin diseases that are characterized by impaired skin barrier function, altered proliferation/differentiation of the epidermis and/or infiltration of inflammatory cells, altered expression patterns of TJ proteins have been observed. This review is aimed at providing an insight into the molecular composition, tools for identification and understanding the role of TJs in skin diseases and barrier function regulation. PMID:23259250

  10. Studies of silicon PN junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon pn junction solar cells made with low-resistivity substrates show poorer performance than traditional theory predicts. The purpose of this research was to identify and characterize the physical mechanisms responsible for the discrepancy. Attention was concentrated on the open circuit voltage in shallow junction cells of 0.1 ohm-cm substrate resistivity. A number of possible mechanisms that can occur in silicon devices were considered. Two mechanisms which are likely to be of main importance in explaining the observed low values of open-circuit voltage were found: (1) recombination losses associated with defects introduced during junction formation, and (2) inhomogeneity of defects and impurities across the area of the cell. To explore these theoretical anticipations, various diode test structures were designed and fabricated and measurement configurations for characterizing the defect properties and the areal inhomogeneity were constructed.

  11. Characterization of nonconservative homologous junctions in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Desautels, L; Brouillette, S; Wallenburg, J; Belmaaza, A; Gusew, N; Trudel, P; Chartrand, P

    1990-01-01

    Homologous recombination in mammalian cells between extrachromosomal molecules, as well as between episomes and chromosomes, can be mediated by a nonconservative mechanism. It has been proposed that the key steps in this process are the generation (by double-strand cleavage) of overlapping homologous ends, the creation of complementary single-strand ends (either by strand-specific exonuclease degradation or by unwinding of the DNA helix), and finally the creation of heteroduplex DNA by the annealing of the single-strand ends. We have analyzed in detail the structure of nonconservative homologous junctions and determined the contribution of each end to the formation of the junction. We have also analyzed multiple descendants from single recombination events. Two types of junctions were found. The majority (90%) of the junctions were characterized by a single crossover site. These crossover sites were distributed randomly throughout the junction. The remaining 10% of the junctions had mosaic patterns of parental markers. Furthermore, in 9 of 10 cases, multiple descendants from a single recombination event were identical. Thus, it appears that in most cases few parental markers were involved in junction formation. This finding suggests that nonconservative homologous junctions are mediated mainly by short heteroduplexes of a few hundred base pairs or less. These results are discussed in terms of the current models of nonconservative homologous recombination. PMID:2174111

  12. Altered patterns of cardiac intercellular junction distribution in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, R.; Severs, N. J.; Gourdie, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the distribution pattern of intercellular junctions (the mechanically coupling desmosomes and the electrically coupling gap junctions) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) hearts showing myofibre disarray. DESIGN: Samples from six necropsied hearts were studied, representing the interventricular septum and the free walls of the left and right ventricles. Immunohistochemical labelling of desmoplakin was used as a marker for desmosomes, and of connexin43 as a marker for gap junctions, in single and double stainings. The slides were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Marked disorganisation of intercalated discs was observed in areas featuring myofibre disarray. Besides overall derangement, localised abnormalities in desmosome organisation were evident, which included: (1) the formation of abnormally enlarged megadiscs; (2) the presence of intersecting disc structures; and (3) aberrant side to side desmosomal connections. Gap junctional abnormalities included: (1) random distribution of gap junctions over the surface of myocytes, rather than localisation to intercalated discs; (2) abundant side to side gap junction connections between adjacent myocytes; and (3) formation of abnormally shaped gap junctions. Circles of myocytes continuously interconnected by gap junctions were also observed. Regions of the diseased hearts lacking myofibre disarray, and control hearts of normal patients and patients with other cardiac diseases, did not show these alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The disorganisation of the intercellular junctions associated with myofibre disarray in HCM may play an important role in the pathophysiological manifestations of the disease. The remodelling of gap junction distribution may underlie the formation of an arrhythmogenic substrate, thereby contributing to the generation and maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias associated with HCM. Images PMID:8944586

  13. RhoA-JNK Regulates the E-Cadherin Junctions of Human Gingival Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Kim, H J; Kim, H-M

    2016-03-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is unique with regard to its wide intercellular spaces and sparsely developed intercellular junctions. Thus, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the formation of the intercellular junctions of the junctional epithelium may be essential to understand the pathophysiology of the JE. HOK-16B cells, a normal human gingival epithelial cell line, were used to identify the molecules involved in the regulation of the formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions between human gingival epithelial cells. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) disrupted the intercellular junctions through the dissociation of E-cadherin. The role of JNK in the formation of these E-cadherin junctions was further confirmed by demonstrating that JNK inhibition induced the formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions. The upstream signaling of JNK was also examined. Activation of the small GTPase RhoA disrupted the formation of E-cadherin junctions between HOK-16B cells, which was accompanied by JNK activation. Disruption of these intercellular junctions upon RhoA activation was prevented when JNK activity was inhibited. In contrast, RhoA inactivation led to HOK-16B cell aggregation and the formation of intercellular junctions, even under conditions in which the cellular junctions were naturally disrupted by growth on a strongly adhesive surface. Furthermore, the JE of mouse molars had high JNK activity associated with low E-cadherin expression, which was reversed in the other gingival epithelia, including the sulcular epithelium. Interestingly, JNK activity was increased in cells grown on a solid surface, where cells showed higher RhoA activity than those grown on soft surfaces. Together, these results indicate that the decreased formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions within the JE may be coupled to high JNK activity, which is activated by the upregulation of RhoA on solid tooth surfaces. PMID:26635280

  14. Single naphthalene and anthracene molecular junctions using Ag and Cu electrodes in ultra high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shintaro; Kaneko, Satoshi; Chenyang, Liu; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2015-11-01

    We present a charge transport study on single naphthalene and anthracene molecular junctions wired into Ag and Cu electrodes using mechanically controllable break junction technique at 100 K under ultra-high vacuum condition. In particular we focus on effect of metal-π interaction on the formation probability of the molecular junctions. We found that the single molecular junctions of the acene molecules (e.g. naphthalene and anthracene) exhibit highly conductive character below 0.2 G0 (G0 = 2e2/h). The acene molecular junctions displayed formation probability of ca. 20% for Ag system and >40% for Cu system. The high formation probability of the molecular junctions with respect to benzene/Au junctions can be qualitatively explained by size effect, in which larger molecules of the naphthalene and anthracene can effectively bridge the gap between metal electrodes compared with small molecule such as benzene. The acene/Cu junctions displayed higher formation probability than the acene/Ag junctions. This result demonstrated that not only the size effect but the degree of the metal-π interaction have to be taken into account to quantitatively evaluate the formation probability of the molecular junctions for Ag and Cu system.

  15. Coherently controlled molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskin, Uri; Galperin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Within a generic model, we discuss the possibility of coherent control of charge fluxes in unbiased molecular junctions. The control is induced by resonances between the Rabi frequency due to a pumping laser field and internal characteristic frequencies of pre-designed molecular donor-bridge-acceptor complexes. Two models are considered: a coherently controlled molecular charge pump and a molecular switch. The study generalizes previous consideration of light induced current [M. Galperin and A. Nitzan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 206802 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.206802] and of a molecular electron pump [R. Volkovich and U. Peskin, Phys. Rev. B 83, 033403 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.033403] and accounts for the coherently driven charge transport in an unbiased molecular junction with symmetric coupling to leads. Numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the control mechanism for realistic junctions parameters.

  16. Cluster ion implantation for shallow junction formation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Jiro; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Aoki, Takaaki; Yamada, Isao

    1996-12-31

    The implantation of Ar and B into Si by cluster ion has been examined. Shallow implantation was clearly demonstrated with a high energy cluster ion. The damage layer thickness is less than 200{angstrom}, when 150keV Ar cluster ions are implanted into Si. This thickness is one order of magnitude smaller than that by Ar monomer ion bombardment with the same total energy. The thickness of the damaged layer formed by cluster ion bombardment increased with the cluster size, when the total energy of cluster ion remain the same. This is one of the non-linear effect of cluster implantation. Poly-atomic cluster-ion implantation with decaborane has also been demonstrated. Shallow implantation (<0.05 {mu}m) can be achieved by decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}) ions. The sheet resistance of the sample reached a few hundred {Omega}/{open_square} after annealing at 1000{degrees}C for 10s.

  17. Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes and Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Han, Jie; Yang, Liu; Govindan, T. R.; Jaffe, R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Metallic and semiconducting Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) have recently been characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the manipulation of individual CNT has been demonstrated. These developments make the prospect of using CNT as molecular wires and possibly as electronic devices an even more interesting one. We have been modeling various electronic properties such as the density of states and the transmission coefficient of CNT wires and junctions. These studies involve first calculating the stability of junctions using molecular dynamics simulations and then calculating the electronic properties using a pi-electron tight binding Hamiltonian. We have developed the expertise to calculate the electronic properties of both finite-sized CNT and CNT systems with semi-infinite boundary conditions. In this poster, we will present an overview of some of our results. The electronic application of CNT that is most promising at this time is their use as molecular wires. The conductance can however be greatly reduced because of reflection due to defects and contacts. We have modeled the transmission through CNT in the presence of two types of defects: weak uniform disorder and strong isolated scatterers. We find that the conductance is affected in significantly different manners due to these defects Junctions of CNT have also been imaged using STM. This makes it essential to derive rules for the formation of junctions between tubes of different chirality, study their relative energies and electronic properties. We have generalized the rules for connecting two different CNT and have calculated the transmission and density of states through CNT junctions. Metallic and semiconducting CNT can be joined to form a stable junction and their current versus voltage characteristics are asymmetric. CNT are deformed by the application of external forces including interactions with a substrate or other CNT. In many experiments, these deformation are expected to occur naturally. We will present some preliminary results of our calculations of the modification of CNT electronic properties as a result of deformations.

  18. Cytokine regulation of tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Capaldo, Christopher T.; Nusrat, Asma

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial and endothelial tight junctions act as a rate-limiting barrier between an organism and its environment. Continuing studies have highlighted the regulation of the tight junction barrier by cytokines. Elucidation of this interplay is vital for both the understanding of physiological tight junction regulation and the etiology of pathological conditions. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tight junctions modulation by cytokines. PMID:18952050

  19. Squeezable electron tunneling junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, J.; Alexander, S.; Cox, M.; Sonnenfeld, R.; Hansma, P.K.

    1983-08-15

    We report a versatile new technique for constructing electron tunneling junctions with mechanically adjusted artificial barriers. I-V curves are presented for tunneling between Ag electrodes with vacuum, gas, liquid, or solid in the barrier. An energy gap is apparent in the measured I-V curve when tunneling occurs between superconducting Pb electrodes.

  20. Brain barriers: Crosstalk between complex tight junctions and adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Unique intercellular junctional complexes between the central nervous system (CNS) microvascular endothelial cells and the choroid plexus epithelial cells form the endothelial blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the epithelial blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), respectively. These barriers inhibit paracellular diffusion, thereby protecting the CNS from fluctuations in the blood. Studies of brain barrier integrity during development, normal physiology, and disease have focused on BBB and BCSFB tight junctions but not the corresponding endothelial and epithelial adherens junctions. The crosstalk between adherens junctions and tight junctions in maintaining barrier integrity is an understudied area that may represent a promising target for influencing brain barrier function. PMID:26008742

  1. Tight junction, selective permeability, and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Krug, Susanne M; Schulzke, Jrg D; Fromm, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The tight junction forms a barrier against unlimited paracellular passage but some of the tight junction proteins just do the opposite, they form extracellular channels zigzagging between lateral membranes of neighboring cells. All of these channel-forming proteins and even some of the barrier formers exhibit selectivity, which means that they prefer certain substances over others. All channel formers exhibit at least one of the three types of selectivity: for cations (claudin-2, -10b, -15), for anions (claudin-10a, -17) or for water (claudin-2). Also some, but not all, barrier-forming claudins are charge-selective (claudin-4, -8, -14). Moreover, occludin and tricellulin turned out to be relevant for barrier formation against macromolecule passage. Tight junction proteins are dysregulated or can be genetically defective in numerous diseases, which may lead to three effects: (i) impaired paracellular transport e.g. causing magnesium loss in the kidney, (ii) increased paracellular transport of solutes and water e.g. causing leak-flux diarrhea in the intestine, and (iii) increased permeability to large molecules e.g. unwanted intestinal pathogen uptake fueling inflammatory processes. This review gives an overview on the properties of tight junction proteins featuring selective permeability, and in this context explains how these proteins induce or aggravate diseases. PMID:25220018

  2. Phosphatase regulation of intercellular junctions

    PubMed Central

    McCole, Declan F

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular junctions represent the key contact points and sites of communication between neighboring cells. Assembly of these junctions is absolutely essential for the structural integrity of cell monolayers, tissues and organs. Disruption of junctions can have severe consequences such as diarrhea, edema and sepsis, and contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Cell junctions are not static structures, but rather they represent highly dynamic micro-domains that respond to signals from the intracellular and extracellular environments to modify their composition and function. This review article will focus on the regulation of tight junctions and adherens junctions by phosphatase enzymes that play an essential role in preserving and modulating the properties of intercellular junction proteins. PMID:24868494

  3. Low Energy Implantation for Medium Current Implanter with Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Nobuo; Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Naito, Masao

    2003-08-01

    Ion implantation is now indispensable process for semiconductor device fabrication. One of the key issues for the next generation LSI device fabrication is the formation of ultra shallow junction using Boron implantation. Medium current ion implanter for LSI production use can dope ions to the device wafer with accurately controlled uniformity and incident angle at a variety of energy ranges. However, the productivity of LSI at sub-keV energy region with conventional atomic B+ implantation will quickly fall down due to the low beam current caused by the well-known space charge limitation. To achieve a high productivity in this energy region, Decaborane (B10Hx+) implantation is supposed to be an appropriate solution. We are to review the technologies used for the commercial medium current ion implanter including Decaborane implantation for ultra shallow junction formation.

  4. Wireless Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We report low temperature, microwave transmission measurements on a wireless two- dimensional network of Josephson junction arrays composed of superconductor-insulator -superconductor tunnel junctions. Unlike their biased counterparts, by removing all electrical contacts to the arrays and superfluous microwave components and interconnects in the transmission line, we observe new collective behavior in the transmission spectra. In particular we will show emergent behavior that systematically responds to changes in microwave power at fixed temperature. Likewise we will show the dynamic and collective response of the arrays while tuning the temperature at fixed microwave power. We discuss these spectra in terms of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition and Shapiro steps. We gratefully acknowledge the support Prof. Steven Anlage at the University of Maryland and Prof. Allen Goldman at the University of Minnesota. Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  5. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  6. Junctional Tourniquet Training Experience.

    PubMed

    Kragh, John F; Geracci, James J; Parsons, Donald L; Robinson, John B; Biever, Kimberlie A; Rein, Erling B; Glassberg, Elon; Strandenes, Geir; Chen, Jacob; Benov, Avi; Marcozzi, David; Shackelford, Stacy; Cox, Kevin M; Mann-Salinas, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, out-of-hospital care of junctional hemorrhage bleeding from the trunk-appendage junctions has changed, in part, due to the newly available junctional tourniquets (JTs) that have been cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration. Given four new models of JT available in 2014, several military services have begun to acquire, train, or even use such JTs in care. The ability of users to be trained in JT use has been observed by multiple instructors. The experience of such instructors has been broad as a group, but their experience as individuals has been neither long nor deep. A gathering into one source of the collective experience of trainers of JT users could permit a collation of useful information to include lessons learned, tips in skill performance, identification of pitfalls of use to avoid, and strategies to optimize user learning. The purpose of the present review is to record the experiences of several medical personnel in their JT training of users to provide a guide for future trainers. PMID:26360350

  7. Crystal Phase Transformation in Self-Assembled InAs Nanowire Junctions on Patterned Si Substrates.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Torsten; Rosenbach, Daniel; Vakulov, Daniil; Heedt, Sebastian; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the growth and structural characteristics of InAs nanowire junctions evidencing a transformation of the crystalline structure. The junctions are obtained without the use of catalyst particles. Morphological investigations of the junctions reveal three structures having an L-, T-, and X-shape. The formation mechanisms of these structures have been identified. The NW junctions reveal large sections of zinc blende crystal structure free of extended defects, despite the high stacking fault density obtained in individual InAs nanowires. This segment of zinc blende crystal structure in the junction is associated with a crystal phase transformation involving sets of Shockley partial dislocations; the transformation takes place solely in the crystal phase. A model is developed to demonstrate that only the zinc blende phase with the same orientation as the substrate can result in monocrystalline junctions. The suitability of the junctions to be used in nanoelectronic devices is confirmed by room-temperature electrical experiments. PMID:26881450

  8. Ferromagnetic planar Josephson junction with transparent interfaces: a ? junction proposal.

    PubMed

    Heim, D M; Pugach, N G; Kupriyanov, M Yu; Goldobin, E; Koelle, D; Kleiner, R

    2013-05-29

    We calculate the current-phase relation of a planar Josephson junction with a ferromagnetic weak link located on top of a thin normal metal film. Following experimental observations we assume transparent superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces. This provides the best interlayer coupling and a low suppression of the superconducting correlations penetrating from the superconducting electrodes into the ferromagnetic layer. We show that this Josephson junction is a promising candidate for experimental ? junction realization. PMID:23636963

  9. Physiology and Function of the Tight Junction

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James M.; Van Itallie, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of tight junctions has evolved from their historical perception as inert solute barriers to recognition of their physiological and biochemical complexity. Many proteins are specifically localized to tight junctions, including cytoplasmic actin-binding proteins and adhesive transmembrane proteins. Among the latter are claudins, which are critical barrier proteins. Current information suggests that the paracellular barrier is most usefully modeled as having two physiologic components: a system of charge-selective small pores, 4 Å in radius, and a second pathway created by larger discontinuities in the barrier, lacking charge or size discrimination. The first pathway is influenced by claudin expression patterns and the second is likely controlled by different proteins and signals. Recent information on claudin function and disease-causing mutations have led to a more complete understanding of their role in barrier formation, but progress is impeded by lack of high resolution structural information. PMID:20066090

  10. Assembly of the Escherichia coli RuvABC resolvasome directs the orientation of Holliday junction resolution

    PubMed Central

    van Gool, Alain J.; Hajibagheri, Nasser M.A.; Stasiak, Andrzej; West, Stephen C.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic recombination can lead to the formation of intermediates in which DNA molecules are linked by Holliday junctions. Movement of a junction along DNA, by a process known as branch migration, leads to heteroduplex formation, whereas resolution of a junction completes the recombination process. Holliday junctions can be resolved in either of two ways, yielding products in which there has, or has not, been an exchange of flanking markers. The ratio of these products is thought to be determined by the frequency with which the two isomeric forms (conformers) of the Holliday junction are cleaved. Recent studies with enzymes that process Holliday junctions in Escherichia coli, the RuvABC proteins, however, indicate that protein binding causes the junction to adopt an open square-planar configuration. Within such a structure, DNA isomerization can have little role in determining the orientation of resolution. To determine the role that junction-specific protein assembly has in determining resolution bias, a defined in vitro system was developed in which we were able to direct the assembly of the RuvABC resolvasome. We found that the bias toward resolution in one orientation or the other was determined simply by the way in which the Ruv proteins were positioned on the junction. Additionally, we provide evidence that supports current models on RuvABC action in which Holliday junction resolution occurs as the resolvasome promotes branch migration. PMID:10421637

  11. The length change of a dislocation junction in FCC-single crystals under stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurinnaya, Raisa; Zgolich, Marina; Starenchenko, Vladimir; Sadritdinova, Gulnora

    2016-01-01

    The product of dislocation reactions among dislocations of non-coplanar slip systems are dislocation junctions. The paper presents the study on the length change of dislocation junctions under stress. It is revealed that dislocation junctions can be destructed by merging of triple dislocation nodes at certain inclination angles of the glide dislocation and the forest dislocation to the junction line and the corresponding lengths of free segments of intersecting dislocations. Dislocation junctions formed at an arbitrary intersection of segments of the reacting dislocation are investigated. The geometry of the intersection of segments of reacting dislocations, at which dislocation junctions are not completely destructed under stress but cease to be an obstacle for further motion of the glide dislocation, is determined. Such junctions remain in the shear zone, presenting an obstacle to other glide dislocations. Conditions under which the length of the dislocation junction increases with an increase in the stress exceeding the original length are found. The formed extended barrier becomes too strong for the acting stress. Higher stresses are required in order to destruct it. The probability of completely destructible junctions under stress, the probability of non-destructible junctions that remain in the shear zone and replenish the density of dislocation debris, as well as the probability of formation of long strong junctions, which are barriers capable of limiting the shear zone, are determined.

  12. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    PubMed

    Torres-Flores, Jess M; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-09-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells. PMID:26404354

  13. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Flores, Jesús M.; Arias, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells. PMID:26404354

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Junctional epidermolysis bullosa On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed September 2009 What is junctional epidermolysis bullosa? Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is one of ...

  15. Tight junctions and cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kunyoo; Fogg, Vanessa C; Margolis, Ben

    2006-01-01

    The tight junction is an intracellular junctional structure that mediates adhesion between epithelial cells and is required for epithelial cell function. Tight junctions control paracellular permeability across epithelial cell sheets and also serve as a barrier to intramembrane diffusion of components between a cell's apical and basolateral membrane domains. Recent genetic and biochemical studies in invertebrates and vertebrates indicate that tight junction proteins play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. Proteins involved in epithelial cell polarization form evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complexes at the tight junction, and these protein complexes regulate the architecture of epithelia throughout the polarization process. Accumulating information regarding the regulation of these polarity proteins will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms whereby cell polarity is established. PMID:16771626

  16. Pharmacology of cardiovascular gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Herv, Jean-Claude; Dhein, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Gap junction (GJ) channels play an important role in forming a functional network or syncytium of cells by allowing the transfer of small molecules or the conduction of electrical activation. These channels can be regulated at the level of acute opening or closure as well as at the level of expression including synthesis, protein trafficking and degradation. Many of the underlying mechanisms depend on phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of connexins. A number of drugs is available to study GJ function and connexin expression. Some of these drugs have shown therapeutic effects, e.g. the anti-arrhythmic peptides AAP10 and ZP123 in the prevention of certain types of arrhythmia. Moreover, mediators involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology, e.g. angiotensin, endothelin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, fibroblast growth factor and others, affect connexin expression and can alter the Cx43/Cx40 ratio, which may contribute to the formation of an arrhythmogenic substrate. On the other hand, drugs affecting these mediators may influence GJ networking and may thus open new therapeutic horizons. PMID:16646587

  17. Electron tunneling experiments using Nb-Sn ''break'' junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, J.; Ekin, J.W.

    1985-11-15

    An Nb-Sn filament mounted on a flexible glass beam can be broken to form an electron tunneling junction between the fracture elements. Breaking the filament in liquid helium prevents oxidation of the freshly exposed fracture surfaces. A sharp superconducting energy gap in the I-V characteristics measured at 4 K indicates the formation of a high-quality tunneling barrier between the fracture elements. The resistance of the junction can be continuously adjusted by varying the surface bending strain of the beam. An estimated 0.1 nm change in the barrier thickness produces about an order of magnitude change in the resistance over the range from 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 8/ ..cap omega... The exponential character of this dependence shows that the tunnel junction is freely adjustable without intimate contact of the junction elements. ''Break'' junctions made in this way offer a new class of tunneling experiments on freshly exposed surfaces of a fractured sample without the oxide barrier previously required for junction stability. Such experiments provide a simple technique for tunneling to new materials and may eliminate complications that can be encountered during interpretation of data obtained using oxide barriers.

  18. Disordered graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-02-01

    A tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method is used to describe disordered single-layer graphene Josephson junctions. Scattering by vacancies, ripples, or charged impurities is included. We compute the Josephson current and investigate the nature of multiple Andreev reflections, which induce bound states appearing as peaks in the density of states for energies below the superconducting gap. In the presence of single-atom vacancies, we observe a strong suppression of the supercurrent, which is a consequence of strong intervalley scattering. Although lattice deformations should not induce intervalley scattering, we find that the supercurrent is still suppressed, which is due to the presence of pseudomagnetic barriers. For charged impurities, we consider two cases depending on whether the average doping is zero, i.e., existence of electron-hole puddles, or finite. In both cases, short-range impurities strongly affect the supercurrent, similar to the vacancies scenario.

  19. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

  20. Molecular architecture of tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Mitic, L L; Anderson, J M

    1998-01-01

    The tight junction creates a regulated barrier in the paracellular pathway and, together with the actin-rich adherens junction, forms a functional unit called the apical junction complex. A growing number of tight junction-associated proteins have been identified, but functions are defined for only a few. The intercellular barrier is formed by rows of the transmembrane protein occludin, which is bound on the cytoplasmic surface to ZO-1 and ZO-2. These proteins are members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family and are likely to have both structural and signaling roles. Junctional plaque proteins without known functions include cingulin, p130, and 7H6; single reports describe ZA-1TJ and symplekin. Many cellular signaling pathways affect assembly and sealing of junctions. Transducing proteins, which localize within the junction, include both heterotrimeric and rho-related GTP-binding proteins, PKC-zeta and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Control of perijunctional actin may be the unifying mechanism for regulating paracellular permeability. PMID:9558457

  1. Probing Electronic and Thermoelectric Properties of Single Molecule Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widawsky, Jonathan R.

    In an effort to further understand electronic and thermoelectric phenomenon at the nanometer scale, we have studied the transport properties of single molecule junctions. To carry out these transport measurements, we use the scanning tunneling microscope-break junction (STM-BJ) technique, which involves the repeated formation and breakage of a metal point contact in an environment of the target molecule. Using this technique, we are able to create gaps that can trap the molecules, allowing us to sequentially and reproducibly create a large number of junctions. By applying a small bias across the junction, we can measure its conductance and learn about the transport mechanisms at the nanoscale. The experimental work presented here directly probes the transmission properties of single molecules through the systematic measurement of junction conductance (at low and high bias) and thermopower. We present measurements on a variety of molecular families and study how conductance depends on the character of the linkage (metal-molecule bond) and the nature of the molecular backbone. We start by describing a novel way to construct single molecule junctions by covalently connecting the molecular backbone to the electrodes. This eliminates the use of linking substituents, and as a result, the junction conductance increases substantially. Then, we compare transport across silicon chains (silanes) and saturated carbon chains (alkanes) while keeping the linkers the same and find a stark difference in their electronic transport properties. We extend our studies of molecular junctions by looking at two additional aspects of quantum transport -- molecular thermopower and molecular current-voltage characteristics. Each of these additional parameters gives us further insight into transport properties at the nanoscale. Evaluating the junction thermopower allows us to determine the nature of charge carriers in the system and we demonstrate this by contrasting the measurement of amine-terminated and pyridine-terminated molecules (which exhibit hole transport and electron transport, respectively). We also report the thermopower of the highly conducting, covalently bound molecular junctions that we have recently been able to form, and learn that, because of their unique transport properties, the junction power factors, GS2, are extremely high. Finally, we discuss the measurement of molecular current-voltage curves and consider the electronic and physical effects of applying a large bias to the system. We conclude with a summary of the work discussed and an outlook on related scientific studies.

  2. Cadherin controls nectin recruitment into adherens junctions by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Troyanovsky, Regina B; Indra, Indrajyoti; Chen, Chi-Shuo; Hong, Soonjin; Troyanovsky, Sergey M

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism that coordinates activities of different adhesion receptors is poorly understood. We investigated this mechanism by focusing on the nectin-2 and E-cadherin adherens junction receptors. We found that, cadherin was not required for the basic process of nectin junction formation because nectin-2 formed junctions in cadherin-deficient A431D cells. Formation of nectin-2 junctions in these cells, however, became regulated by cadherin as soon as E-cadherin was re-expressed. E-cadherin recruited nectin-2 into adherens junctions, where both proteins formed distinct but tightly associated clusters. Live-cell imaging showed that the appearance of E-cadherin clusters often preceded that of nectin-2 clusters at sites of junction assembly. Inactivation of E-cadherin clustering by different strategies concomitantly suppressed the formation of nectin clusters. Furthermore, cadherin significantly increased the stability of nectin clusters, thereby making them resistant to the BC-12 antibody, which targets the nectin-2 adhesion interface. By testing different E-cadherin-?-catenin chimeras, we showed that the recruitment of nectin into chimera junctions is mediated by the actin-binding domain of ?-catenin. Our data suggests that E-cadherin regulates assembly of nectin junctions through ?-catenin-induced remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton around the cadherin clusters. PMID:25395582

  3. Epithelial junctions, cytoskeleton, and polarity.

    PubMed

    Psti, Gabriella; Labouesse, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A distinctive feature of polarized epithelial cells is their specialized junctions, which contribute to cell integrity and provide platforms to orchestrate cell shape changes. This chapter discusses the composition, assembly and remodeling of C. elegans cell-cell (CeAJ) and hemidesmosome-like cell-extracellular matrix junctions (CeHD), proteins that anchor the cytoskeleton, and mechanisms involved in establishing epithelial polarity. Major recent progress in this area has come from the analysis of mechanisms that maintain cell polarity, which involve lipids and trafficking, and on the impact of mechanical forces on junction remodeling. This chapter focuses on cellular, rather than developmental, aspects of epithelial cells. PMID:25373597

  4. "V-junction": a novel structure for high-speed generation of bespoke droplet flows.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Casadevall i Solvas, Xavier; deMello, Andrew

    2015-01-21

    We present the use of microfluidic "V-junctions" as a droplet generation strategy that incorporates enhanced performance characteristics when compared to more traditional "T-junction" formats. This includes the ability to generate target-sized droplets from the very first one, efficient switching between multiple input samples, the production of a wide range of droplet sizes (and size gradients) and the facile generation of droplets with residence time gradients. Additionally, the use of V-junction droplet generators enables the suspension and subsequent resumption of droplet flows at times defined by the user. The high degree of operational flexibility allows a wide range of droplet sizes, payloads, spacings and generation frequencies to be obtained, which in turn provides for an enhanced design space for droplet-based experimentation. We show that the V-junction retains the simplicity of operation associated with T-junction formats, whilst offering functionalities normally associated with droplet-on-demand technologies. PMID:25379571

  5. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, J.; Hilbert, C.; Hahn, E.L.; Sleator, T.

    1986-03-25

    An automatic Q-spoiler comprising at least one Josephson tunnel junction connected in an LC circuit for flow of resonant current therethrough. When in use in a system for detecting the magnetic resonance of a gyromagnetic particle system, a high energy pulse of high frequency energy irradiating the particle system will cause the critical current through the Josephson tunnel junctions to be exceeded, causing the tunnel junctions to act as resistors and thereby damp the ringing of the high-Q detection circuit after the pulse. When the current has damped to below the critical current, the Josephson tunnel junctions revert to their zero-resistance state, restoring the Q of the detection circuit and enabling the low energy magnetic resonance signals to be detected.

  6. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Hilbert, Claude (Austin, TX); Hahn, Erwin L. (Berkeley, CA); Sleator, Tycho (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic Q-spoiler comprising at least one Josephson tunnel junction connected in an LC circuit for flow of resonant current therethrough. When in use in a system for detecting the magnetic resonance of a gyromagnetic particle system, a high energy pulse of high frequency energy irradiating the particle system will cause the critical current through the Josephson tunnel junctions to be exceeded, causing the tunnel junctions to act as resistors and thereby damp the ringing of the high-Q detection circuit after the pulse. When the current has damped to below the critical current, the Josephson tunnel junctions revert to their zero-resistance state, restoring the Q of the detection circuit and enabling the low energy magnetic resonance signals to be detected.

  7. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    DOEpatents

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  8. How coherent are Josephson junctions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Hanhee

    2012-02-01

    Superconducting quantum circuits based on Josephson junctions are a promising technology to realize a electronically controlled, solid-state based large-scale quantum information processor but their future prospects rely on the intrinsic coherence of Josephson junctions and the engineering of the isolated environment for the quantum circuits. We introduce a new architecture for superconducting quantum circuits employing a single-Josephson junction in a three dimensional waveguide cavity where we carefully engineer the environment of the qubit to effectively reduce the coupling of the qubit to the environment while maintaining sufficient coupling to the control signal. With this architecture we demonstrate that Josephson junction qubits are at least an order of magnitude more coherent with T^Ramsey2 10 to 20 ?s without the use of spin echo than previously reported and highly stable, enabling us to observe the physics in a Josephson junction with a unprecedented level of precision. These results suggest that the overall quality of Josephson junctions will allow error rates of a few 10-4, approaching the error correction threshold. We will also discuss how to scale this architecture and perform two-qubit gates.

  9. Chlorpromazine reduces the intercellular communication via gap junctions in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orellana, Juan A.; Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Saez, Juan C. . E-mail: jsaez@bio.puc.cl

    2006-06-15

    In the work presented herein, we evaluated the effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on gap junctions expressed by two mammalian cell types; Gn-11 cells (cell line derived from mouse LHRH neurons) and rat cortical astrocytes maintained in culture. We also attempted to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of CPZ effects on gap junctions. CPZ, in concentrations comparable with doses used to treat human diseases, was found to reduce the intercellular communication via gap junctions as evaluated with measurements of dye coupling (Lucifer yellow). In both cell types, maximal inhibition of functional gap junctions was reached within about 1 h of treatment with CPZ, an recovery was almost complete at about 5 h after CPZ wash out. In both cell types, CPZ treatment increased the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein subunit. Moreover, CPZ reduced the reactivity of Cx43 (immunofluorescence) at cell interfaces and concomitantly increased its reactivity in intracellular vesicles, suggesting an increased retrieval from and/or reduced insertion into the plasma membrane. CPZ also caused cellular retraction reducing cell-cell contacts in a reversible manner. The reduction in contact area might destabilize existing gap junctions and abrogate formation of new ones. Moreover, the CPZ-induced reduction in gap junctional communication may depend on the connexins (Cxs) forming the junctions. If Cx43 were the only connexin expressed, MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of this connexin would induce closure of gap junction channels.

  10. Single Molecule Junctions: Probing Contact Chemistry and Fundamental Circuit Laws

    SciTech Connect

    Hybertsen M. S.

    2013-04-11

    By exploiting selective link chemistry, formation of single molecule junctions with reproducible conductance has become established. Systematic studies reveal the structure-conductance relationships for diverse molecules. I will draw on experiments from my collaborators at Columbia University, atomic-scale calculations and theory to describe progress in two areas. First, I will describe a novel route to form single molecule junctions, based on SnMe3 terminated molecules, in which gold directly bonds to carbon in the molecule backbone resulting in near ideal contact resistance [1]. Second, comparison of the conductance of junctions formed with molecular species containing either one backbone or two backbones in parallel allows demonstration of the role of quantum interference in the conductance superposition law at the molecular scale [2].

  11. MgcRacGAP interacts with cingulin and paracingulin to regulate Rac1 activation and development of the tight junction barrier during epithelial junction assembly

    PubMed Central

    Guillemot, Laurent; Guerrera, Diego; Spadaro, Domenica; Tapia, Rocio; Jond, Lionel; Citi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of Rho-family GTPases is crucial to direct the formation of cell–cell junctions and tissue barriers. Cingulin (CGN) and paracingulin (CGNL1) control RhoA activation in epithelial cells by interacting with RhoA guanidine exchange factors. CGNL1 depletion also inhibits Rac1 activation during junction assembly. Here we show that, unexpectedly, Madin–Darby canine kidney epithelial cells depleted of both CGN and CGNL1 (double-KD cells) display normal Rac1 activation and tight junction (TJ) formation, despite decreased junctional recruitment of the Rac1 activator Tiam1. The expression of the Rac1 inhibitor MgcRacGAP is decreased in double-KD cells, and the barrier development and Rac1 activation phenotypes are rescued by exogenous expression of MgcRacGAP. MgcRacGAP colocalizes with CGN and CGNL1 at TJs and forms a complex and interacts directly in vitro with CGN and CGNL1. Depletion of either CGN or CGNL1 in epithelial cells results in decreased junctional localization of MgcRacGAP but not of ECT2, a centralspindlin-interacting Rho GEF. These results provide new insight into coordination of Rho-family GTPase activities at junctions, since apical accumulation of CGN and CGNL1 at TJs during junction maturation provides a mechanism to spatially restrict down-regulation of Rac1 activation through the recruitment of MgcRacGAP. PMID:24807907

  12. Investigation of Junction Properties of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells and their Correlation to Device Properties (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dhere, R. G.; Zhang, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M.; To, B.; Noufi, R.; Gessert, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the Junction Studies are: (1) understand the nature of the junction in the CdTe/CdS device; (2) correlate the device fabrication parameters to the junction formation; and (3) develop a self consistent device model to explain the device properties. Detailed analysis of CdS/CdTe and SnO{sub 2}/CdTe devices prepared using CSS CdTe is discussed.

  13. Graphene-based tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katkov, V. L.; Osipov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    The tunneling current in a junction formed by graphene half-planes and bilayer graphene with two possible packing types and two possible orientations of the crystal lattice is calculated by the Green's function technique in the framework of the tight-binding approximation. It is shown that the band structure of graphene oriented toward the junction by the armchair-type edges leads to a power-law dependence of the tunneling current on applied voltage being specific for each specific kind of graphene. The characteristic features of this dependence are determined by the change in the number of transport channels with the growth of the applied voltage. For all junctions under study with zigzag edges oriented toward each other, it is found that the tunneling current exhibits characteristic peaks related to the existence of the localized edge states. The effects induced by the gate voltage are also studied. For the structures with zigzag edges, it is shown that the effect of switching off/on takes place for the junctions. The junctions formed by the graphene armchair edges do not exhibit any pronounced switching phenomena and the growth of the bias voltage results in higher values of the conductivity.

  14. Expression of Functional Cell-Cell Channels from Cloned Rat Liver Gap Junction Complementary DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, G.; Miller, T.; Paul, D.; Voellmy, R.; Werner, R.

    1987-06-01

    An oocyte expression system was used to test the relation between a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the liver gap junction protein and cell-cell channels. Total liver polyadenylated messenger RNA injected into oocytes induced cell-cell channels between paired oocytes. This induction was blocked by simultaneous injection of antisense RNA transcribed from the gap junction cDNA. Messenger RNA selected by hybridization to the cDNA clone and translated in oocyte pairs yielded a higher junctional conductance than unselected liver messenger RNA. Cell-cell channels between oocytes were also formed when the cloned cDNA was expressed under the control of a heat-shock promoter. A concentration-dependent induction of channels was observed in response to injection with in vitro transcribed gap junction messenger RNA. Thus, the liver gap junction cDNA encodes a protein that is essential for the formation of functional cell-cell channels.

  15. Dislocation Dynamics Simulations of Junctions in Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C; Aubry, S; Chung, P; Arsenlis, A

    2011-12-05

    The formation and strength of dislocations in the hexagonal closed packed material beryllium are studied through dislocation junctions and the critical stress required to break them. Dislocation dynamics calculations (using the code ParaDiS) of junction maps are compared to an analytical line tension approximation in order to validate our model. Results show that the two models agree very well. Also the critical shear stress necessary to break 30{sup o} - 30{sup o} and 30{sup o} - 90{sup o} dislocation junctions is computed numerically. Yield surfaces are mapped out for these junctions to describe their stability regions as function of resolved shear stresses on the glide planes. The example of two non-coplanar binary dislocation junctions with slip planes [2-1-10] (01-10) and [-12-10] (0001) corresponding to a prismatic and basal slip respectively is chosen to verify and validate our implementation.

  16. The Extracellular Architecture of Adherens Junctions Revealed by Crystal Structures of Type I Cadherins

    SciTech Connect

    O Harrison; X Jin; S Hong; F Bahna; G Ahlsen; J Brasch; Y Wu; J Vendome; K Felsovalyi; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Adherens junctions, which play a central role in intercellular adhesion, comprise clusters of type I classical cadherins that bind via extracellular domains extended from opposing cell surfaces. We show that a molecular layer seen in crystal structures of E- and N-cadherin ectodomains reported here and in a previous C-cadherin structure corresponds to the extracellular architecture of adherens junctions. In all three ectodomain crystals, cadherins dimerize through a trans adhesive interface and are connected by a second, cis, interface. Assemblies formed by E-cadherin ectodomains coated on liposomes also appear to adopt this structure. Fluorescent imaging of junctions formed from wild-type and mutant E-cadherins in cultured cells confirm conclusions derived from structural evidence. Mutations that interfere with the trans interface ablate adhesion, whereas cis interface mutations disrupt stable junction formation. Our observations are consistent with a model for junction assembly involving strong trans and weak cis interactions localized in the ectodomain.

  17. Junction array carbon nanotube bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail E.

    2013-04-01

    Vertically aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT forests) irradiated with low-intensity near-infrared laser exhibited bolometric response that became significant with decreasing temperature down from room to about 84 K. High responsivity of 42 V/W with signal bandwidth of about 2600 Hz was observed in the region with a surprisingly small temperature coefficient of resistance. This fact along with peculiar current dependences of material differential photoresistance can be explained by lifting Coulomb blockade in carbon nanotube junctions irradiated with light. A combination of significant bolometric response and nonlinear electrical transport are believed to be characteristic features of the nanostructured junction array system. Investigated material also revealed quite substantial noise with equivalent power of 3 * 10-6 WHz-1/2 that can be reduced by optimization of nanotube junction network in the forest structure.

  18. The kidney tight junction (Review)

    PubMed Central

    HOU, JIANGHUI

    2014-01-01

    The tight junction is an important subcellular organelle which plays a vital role in epithelial barrier function. Claudin, as the integral membrane component of tight junctions, creates a paracellular transport pathway for various ions to be reabsorbed by the kidneys. This review summarizes advances in claudin structure, function and pathophysiology in kidney diseases. Different claudin species confer selective paracellular permeability to each of three major renal tubular segments: the proximal tubule, the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and the distal nephron. Defects in claudin function can cause a wide spectrum of kidney diseases, such as hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, kidney stones and hypertension. Studies using transgenic mouse models with claudin mutations have recapitulated several of these renal disease phenotypes and have elucidated the underlying biological mechanisms. Modern recording approaches based upon scanning ion conductance microscopy may resolve the biophysical nature of claudin transport function and provide novel insight into tight junction architecture. PMID:25319473

  19. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.; Hilbert, C.; Hahn, E.L.; Sleator, T.

    1988-03-22

    This patent describes a detection system for detecting the gyroprecessional resonance of a specimen having a particle system with magnetic or electric dipole moments: The detection system comprises: means for irradiating the specimen with a pulse of high frequency radiation, detector means for detecting signals produced by magnetic resonance of the specimen, a dc SQUID having a superconducting ring and two shunted Josephson tunnel junctions interrupting the ring, the ring having a bias current input at one side thereof between the junctions and bias current output at the other side thereof between the junctions, means for establishing a constant magnetic flux threading the SQUID ring, means for supplying a bias current to the bias current input of the SQUID an input coil inductively coupled to the SQUID ring, and a resonant circuit coupling the detector means to the input coil.

  20. Josephson junction q-spoiler

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.; Hilbert, C.; Hahn, E.L.; Sleator, T.

    1988-03-22

    This patent describes a detection system for detecting the gyroprecessional resonance of a specimen having a particle system with magnetic or electric dipole moments comprising: means for irradiating the specimen with a pulse of high frequency radiation, detector means for detecting signals produced by magnetic resonance of the specimen, a dc SQUID having a superconducting ring and two shunted Josephson tunnel junctions interrupting the ring, the ring having a bias current input at one side thereof between the junctions and a bias current output at the other side thereof between the junctions, means for establishing a constant magnetic flux threading the SQUID ring, means for supplying a bias current to the bias current input of the SQUID, an input coil inductively coupled to the SQUID ring, and a resonant circuit coupling the detector means to the input coil.

  1. Josephson junctions in SPICE3

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on SPICE3 which is the most recent version of the venerable circuit simulator SPICE from the University of California, Berkeley. Unlike its predecessors, SPICE3 is written in the C programming language, and is designed for interactive use under a modern multitasking operating system. SPICE3, being an interactive program, offers the user great control and flexibility in performing simulations, and provides a powerful graphics capability for viewing simulation results. A C-shell like control syntax is supported, as well as such features as plotting while simulating, parameter alteration during simulation, and simulation data controlled breakpoints. Unfortunately, the Berkeley distribution of SPICE3 lacks support for Josephson junctions. As a consequence, the author has developed a customize version of SPICE3b.1 which incorporates a Josephson junction model. The model supports control current modulation, as well as a fifth order polynomial description of the quasiparticle current suitable for NbN junctions.

  2. Molecular control of neuromuscular junction development.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Elisabetta; Molinari, Francesca; Berghella, Libera

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscle innervation is a multi-step process leading to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) apparatus formation. The transmission of the signal from nerve to muscle occurs at the NMJ level. The molecular mechanism that orchestrates the organization and functioning of synapses is highly complex, and it has not been completely elucidated so far. Neuromuscular junctions are assembled on the muscle fibers at very precise locations called end plates (EP). Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusterization at the end plates is required for an accurate synaptic transmission. This review will focus on some mechanisms responsible for accomplishing the correct distribution of AChRs at the synapses. Recent evidences support the concept that a dual transcriptional control of AChR genes in subsynaptic and extrasynaptic nuclei is crucial for AChR clusterization. Moreover, new players have been discovered in the agrin-MuSK pathway, the master organizer of postsynaptical differentiation. Mutations in this pathway cause neuromuscular congenital disorders. Alterations of the postynaptic apparatus are also present in physiological conditions characterized by skeletal muscle wasting. Indeed, recent evidences demonstrate how NMJ misfunctioning has a crucial role at the onset of age-associated sarcopenia. PMID:22450265

  3. Multifunctional strands in tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Tsukita, S; Furuse, M; Itoh, M

    2001-04-01

    Tight junctions are one mode of cell-cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cellular sheets. They act as a primary barrier to the diffusion of solutes through the intercellular space, create a boundary between the apical and the basolateral plasma membrane domains, and recruit various cytoskeletal as well as signalling molecules at their cytoplasmic surface. New insights into the molecular architecture of tight junctions allow us to now discuss the structure and functions of this unique cell-cell adhesion apparatus in molecular terms. PMID:11283726

  4. Simple Electronic Analog of a Josephson Junction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, R. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that an electronic Josephson junction analog constructed from three integrated circuits plus an external reference oscillator can exhibit many of the circuit phenomena of a real Josephson junction. Includes computer and other applications of the analog. (Author/SK)

  5. GLIAL ANKYRINS FACILITATE PARANODAL AXOGLIAL JUNCTION ASSEMBLY

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kae-Jiun; Zollinger, Daniel R.; Susuki, Keiichiro; Sherman, Diane L.; Makara, Michael A.; Brophy, Peter J.; Cooper, Edward C.; Bennett, Vann; Mohler, Peter J.; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glia interactions establish functional membrane domains along myelinated axons. These include nodes of Ranvier, paranodal axoglial junctions, and juxtaparanodes. Paranodal junctions are the largest vertebrate junctional adhesion complex, are essential for rapid saltatory conduction, and contribute to assembly and maintenance of nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying paranodal junction assembly are poorly understood. Ankyrins are cytoskeletal scaffolds traditionally associated with Na+ channel clustering in neurons and important for membrane domain establishment and maintenance in many cell types. Here, we show that ankyrinB, expressed by Schwann cells, and ankyrinG, expressed by oligodendrocytes, are highly enriched at the glial side of paranodal junctions where they interact with the essential glial junctional component neurofascin 155. Conditional knockout of ankyrins in oligodendrocytes disrupts paranodal junction assembly and delays nerve conduction during early development in mice. Thus, glial ankyrins function as major scaffolds that facilitate early and efficient paranodal junction assembly in the developing central nervous system. PMID:25362471

  6. Simvastatin protects Sertoli cells against cisplatin cytotoxicity through enhanced gap junction intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingzhi; Peng, Jianxin; Huang, Huansen; Wang, Qin; Yu, Meiling; Tao, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Cisplatin, an important chemotherapeutic agent against testicular germ cell cancer, induces testicular toxicity on Leydig and Sertoli cells, leading to serious side-effects such as azoospermia and infertility. In a previous study, it was found that simvastatin enhanced the sensitivity of Leydig tumor cells to chemotherapeutic toxicity through the enhancement of gap junction functions. In the present study, the effect of simvastatin on the sensitivity of normal Sertoli cells to cisplatin and the role of gap junctions in such effects was investigated. The results showed that, simvastatin attenuated cisplatin toxicity only when cells exhibited high-density culture where gap junctional formation was possible. When gap junction function was decreased by the gap junction inhibitor or by siRNA targeting connexin 43, the protective effect of simvastatin to cisplatin toxicity was substantially attenuated. Simvastatin also enhanced gap junction functions between Sertoli cells. This effect was mediated by the reduction of PKC-mediated connexin phosphorylation, thereby increasing connexin 43 membrane localization. Thus, simvastatin-induced enhancement of gap junction?mediated intercellular communication attenuated cisplatin toxicity on Sertoli cells. This result indicated that enhancement of gap junction function by simvastatin may have bilateral beneficial effects on cisplatin?based chemotherapy, enhancing cisplatin killing on cancer while ameliorating the reproduction toxicity. PMID:26260290

  7. Molecular architecture of tight junctions of periderm differs from that of the maculae occludentes of epidermis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kazumasa; Furuse, Mikio; Yoshida, Yoko; Itoh, Masahiko; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsukita, Shoichiro; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2002-06-01

    Occludin and claudins are tetraspan-transmembrane proteins in tight junctions. Maculae occludentes, which are less-developed tight junctions, occur in the granular cell layer of the epidermis. The periderm, which overlies the developing epidermis and functions as a protective layer for the embryo, carries developed tight junctions as observed in simple epithelia. In both periderm and epidermis, occludin is expressed at the cell-cell border. To determine the difference between tight junctions of periderm and epidermis, claudin-6 expression was examined in periderm and epidermis. Immunofluorescence staining showed claudin-6 expression at the cell-cell border of the periderm, but not in the epidermis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed that claudin-6 was not expressed in mouse adult skin, whereas immunoelectron microscopy revealed that claudin-6 was localized at tight junctions of the periderm. Furthermore, L fibroblasts with stable expression of exogenous claudin-6 formed developed tight junctions at cell-cell borders. These findings indicate that molecular architecture of tight junctions of the periderm is different from that of the maculae occludentes of the epidermis, and that claudin-6 is important in the formation of tight junctions of the periderm. PMID:12060405

  8. Magnetoresistance of single molecular junctions measured by a mechanically controllable break junction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Noguchi, Motoki; Tada, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of Ni/single benzene-1,4-dithiol/Ni molecular junctions was measured by a mechanically controllable break junction method under a magnetic field. The negative magnetoresistance of the molecular junction as large as 30% and the anisotropic magnetoresistance of atomic contacts and tunnel junctions of Ni as large as 30% were observed.

  9. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2008-08-12

    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption. PMID:18685100

  10. Characterization of buried metal-molecule-metal junctions using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Babayco, Christopher B; Land, Donald P; Parikh, Atul N; Kiehl, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    We have devised an infrared spectromicroscopy based experimental configuration to enable structural characterization of buried molecular junctions. Our design utilizes a small mercury drop at the focal point of an infrared microscope to act as a mirror in studying metal-molecule-metal (MmM) junctions. An organic molecular monolayer is formed either directly on the mercury drop or on a thin, infrared (IR) semi-transparent layer of Au deposited onto an IR transparent, undoped silicon substrate. Following the formation of the monolayer, films on either metal can be examined independently using specular reflection spectroscopy. Furthermore, by bringing together the two monolayers, a buried molecular bilayer within the MmM junction can be characterized. Independent examination of each half of the junction prior to junction formation also allows probing any structural and/or conformational changes that occur as a result of forming the bilayer. Because our approach allows assembling and disassembling microscopic junctions by forming and withdrawing Hg drops onto the monolayer covered metal, spatial mapping of junctions can be performed simply by translating the location of the derivatized silicon wafer. Finally, the applicability of this technique for the longer-term studies of changes in molecular structure in the presence of electrical bias is discussed. PMID:25273743

  11. Characterization of buried metal-molecule-metal junctions using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayco, Christopher B.; Land, Donald P.; Parikh, Atul N.; Kiehl, Richard A.

    2014-09-01

    We have devised an infrared spectromicroscopy based experimental configuration to enable structural characterization of buried molecular junctions. Our design utilizes a small mercury drop at the focal point of an infrared microscope to act as a mirror in studying metal-molecule-metal (MmM) junctions. An organic molecular monolayer is formed either directly on the mercury drop or on a thin, infrared (IR) semi-transparent layer of Au deposited onto an IR transparent, undoped silicon substrate. Following the formation of the monolayer, films on either metal can be examined independently using specular reflection spectroscopy. Furthermore, by bringing together the two monolayers, a buried molecular bilayer within the MmM junction can be characterized. Independent examination of each half of the junction prior to junction formation also allows probing any structural and/or conformational changes that occur as a result of forming the bilayer. Because our approach allows assembling and disassembling microscopic junctions by forming and withdrawing Hg drops onto the monolayer covered metal, spatial mapping of junctions can be performed simply by translating the location of the derivatized silicon wafer. Finally, the applicability of this technique for the longer-term studies of changes in molecular structure in the presence of electrical bias is discussed.

  12. GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION AND CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gap Junctions (GJs) provide cell-to-cell communication (GJIC) of essential metabolites and ions. Js allow tissues to average responses, clear waste products, and minimize the effects of xenobiotics by dilution and allowing steady-state catabolism. any chemicals can adversely affe...

  13. The Yolla Bolly junction revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, M.C.; Jayko, A.S. ); Jones, D.L. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Engebretson, D.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    West of Red Bluff, California, rocks of the northern Coast Ranges, Klamath-Sierra Nevada, and Great Valley provinces come together at what has been called the Yolla Bolly junction. Mapping of the Red Bluff and Willows 1:100,000 quadrangles has greatly clarified the enigmatic features of this complex area. Terranes of the Klamath Mountains and their Cretaceous sedimentary cover have been thrust northwestward over the Elder Creek terrane and Franciscan rocks, north of the left-lateral Cold Fork fault zone. The Condrey Mountain window (Franciscan Pickett Peak terrane) provides a measure of the magnitude of this thrusting (ca 90 km). South of the Cold Fork fault zone, the Franciscan and Elder Creek terranes were driven southeastward as tectonic wedges onto Sierran-Klamath basement. Timing of this scissor-tectonics is not constrained near the junction, but further north in southwest Oregon, Lower Eocene strata were deformed by overthrusting of the Klamath block whereas Upper Eocene strata overlap the thrust, indicating that thrusting occurred between about 52 and 60 Ma. Plate reconstructions for this time interval indicate the close proximity of the Kula-Farallon-North America triple junction and that old (ca 100 m.y.) Farallon lithosphere was being subducted north of the junction whereas to the south, very young (ca 10 m.y.) Kula plate was presumably obducted onto North America.

  14. Cholera toxin notches epithelial junctions.

    PubMed

    Lemichez, Emmanuel; Stefani, Caroline

    2013-09-11

    Cholera toxin (CT) is the factor responsible for watery diarrhea associated with Vibrio cholerae infection. In this issue, Guichard et al. (2013) report that CT compromises intestinal epithelium barrier function via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced disruption of Rab11- and exocyst-dependent delivery of endocytic recycling cargo to cell-cell junctions. PMID:24034608

  15. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164... River Junction. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is River Junction. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the River...

  16. Improved Solar-Cell Tunnel Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Kachare, A.

    1986-01-01

    Efficiency of multiple-junction silicon solar cells increased by inclusion of p+/n+ tunnel junctions of highly doped GaP between component cells. Relatively low recombination velocity at GaP junction principal reason for recommending this material. Relatively wide band gap also helps increase efficiency by reducing optical losses.

  17. The development of the myotendinous junction. A review

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Benjamin; Ruggiero, Florence; Le Guellec, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Summary The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a complex specialized region located at the muscle-tendon interface that represents the primary site of force transmission. Despite their different embryologic origins, muscle and tendon morphogenesis occurs in close spatial and temporal association. After muscle attachment, muscle and tendon constitute a dynamic and functional integrated unit that transduces muscle contraction force to the skeletal system. We review here the current understanding of MTJ formation describing changes during morphogenesis and focusing on the crosstalk between muscle and tendon cells that leads to the development of a functional MTJ. Molecules involved in the formation of the linkage, both at the tendon side and at the muscle side of the junction are described. Much of this knowledge comes from studies using different animal models such as mice, zebrafish and Drosophila where powerful methods for in vivo imaging and genetic manipulations can be used to enlighten this developmental process. PMID:23738275

  18. Tunnel junction with the thin-film electrodes in a resistive phase-slip state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovsky, Andrey V.; Erganokov, Khassanby Kh.

    1996-02-01

    Resistive current state of wide superconducting tin films with the phase-slip lines has been studied experimentally. We measured the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of the junction with the electrodes-wide films in the resistive phase-slip state. Features related to the formation and evolution of the phase-slip lines in wide films have been discovered on the CVCs of the tunnel junction.

  19. Dynamic recrystallization behaviour at grain boundaries and triple junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviour and nucleation mechanisms were investigated using copper and copper alloy bicrystals, tricrystals and polycrystals. New grains were preferentially formed along grain boundaries in the bicrystals. After grain-boundary migration and bulging, nuclei appeared behind the deeply bulged grain boundary regions. The critical strain for nucleation was about one-quarter to one-half of the peak strain. The characteristics of nucleation at a grain boundary depended sensitively on grain boundary character. In copper alloy bicrystals, nucleation was much delayed due to solute drag of migrating grain boundaries. The nucleation at triple junctions, in contrast, took place at a much lower strain. New grain formation at triple junction was stimulated by development of folds. All the new grains were twin-related (?3) to the matrix and were formed behind the migrating grain boundaries. Therefore, it was revealed that the DRX mechanism in copper and copper alloys was essentially controlled by annealing twin formation. Variant selection of the twinning plane depended sensitively on the direction of the grain-boundary migration and on the geometry, however, was not affected by activated slip plane or dislocation glide. The DRX nucleation mechanisms at grain boundaries and at triple junctions are discussed with respect to grainboundary migration and annealing twin formation.

  20. Tight Junction Proteins: From Barrier to Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, E. Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-01-01

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis. PMID:23743355

  1. Autonomic neuromuscular junctions: current developments and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Burnstock, G

    1986-01-01

    (1) The autonomic neuromuscular junction has been defined, with emphasis on the role of muscle effector bundles and en passage release of transmitter from extensive terminal nerve varicosities to diffuse to muscle across variable and often wide junctional clefts. (2) A multiplicity of neurotransmitters is described in the autonomic nervous system, including purines, peptides, amino acids and monoamines. The ultrastructural identification, projections, roles and interactions of the different nerve types have been discussed. (3) It has been suggested that the part played by peripheral neuroeffector control mechanisms has been underestimated and includes cotransmission, pre- and post-junctional neuromodulation, and the participation of locally released agents. (4) A time-lapse film was shown of the formation of autonomic neuromuscular junctions in culture, introducing questions relating to long-term 'trophic' influences in the autonomic nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:3319994

  2. Promoting RNA helical stacking via A-minor junctions

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Cody; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Jaeger, Luc

    2011-01-01

    RNA molecules take advantage of prevalent structural motifs to fold and assemble into well-defined 3D architectures. The A-minor junction is a class of RNA motifs that specifically controls coaxial stacking of helices in natural RNAs. A sensitive self-assembling supra-molecular system was used as an assay to compare several natural and previously unidentified A-minor junctions by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. This class of modular motifs follows a topological rule that can accommodate a variety of interchangeable A-minor interactions with distinct local structural motifs. Overall, two different types of A-minor junctions can be distinguished based on their functional self-assembling behavior: one group makes use of triloops or GNRA and GNRA-like loops assembling with helices, while the other takes advantage of more complex tertiary receptors specific for the loop to gain higher stability. This study demonstrates how different structural motifs of RNA can contribute to the formation of topologically equivalent helical stacks. It also exemplifies the need of classifying RNA motifs based on their tertiary structural features rather than secondary structural features. The A-minor junction rule can be used to facilitate tertiary structure prediction of RNAs and rational design of RNA parts for nanobiotechnology and synthetic biology. PMID:20876687

  3. Structure of intercellular junctions in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Telò, P; Lostaglio, S; Dejana, E

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell junctions are complex structures formed by transmembrane adhesive molecules linked to a network of cytoplasmic/cytoskeletal proteins. At least three different types of endothelial junctions have been described: tight junctions, gap junctions and adherens junctions. These structures have some features and components in common with epithelium but also some which are specific for endothelium. We still know very little about the pathologic consequences of alterations in the functional behaviour or synthesis of endothelial cell junction proteins. It is possible that pathologies linked to altered endothelial permeability and vascular organization (e.g. hemangiomas, scleroderma, and other types of vasculitis) are associated with structural alterations in endothelial junction organization. In addition, changes in endothelial permeability properties are associated with the early stages of atherosclerosis and many inflammatory diseases. PMID:9501564

  4. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-05-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the best-studied. Structural proteins, notably zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and microtubules, have been found recently at gap junctions. Along with the expansion of the list of connexin-associating proteins, reports have appeared that suggest that connexins might have additional roles in addition to their channel function, such as transcriptional and cytoskeletal regulation. Here, gap junction interacting proteins are reviewed and their function is addressed. The striking similarity of proteins present at the cytoplasmic face of tight junctions, adherens junctions and gap junctions and their possible role in gene transcription and cytoskeletal anchorage is highlighted. PMID:15094344

  5. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β. PMID:25871745

  6. Meiotic resumption and gap junction modulation in the cultured rat cumulus-oocyte complex.

    PubMed

    Wert, S E; Larsen, W J

    1989-02-01

    Intercellular communication within the ovarian follicle has been implicated in the control of meiotic arrest and maturation in the mammalian oocyte. We have shown that a rapid down-regulation of cumulus cell gap junctions is correlated temporally with meiotic resumption in the intact rat follicle [Larsen et al., Dev Biol, 113:517-521]. Here this relationship has been analyzed further by incubating isolated rat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with agents known to influence germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) or that have been shown to modulate gap junction turnover in vitro. Quantitative freeze-fracture analysis revealed that cumulus cell gap junction membrane decreased significantly prior to the initiation of GVBD in COCs incubated in medium lacking serum or other additives. The addition of serum and follicle-stimulating hormone, an experimental condition that delayed GVBD, accelerated and augmented gap junction loss at both the cumulus cell and oocyte surface. The continuous elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, which stimulates gap junction formation in other systems, maintained meiotic arrest but did not interfere with gap junction loss. Conversely, the complete inhibition of junctional loss by a microfilament destabilizing agent, dihydrocytochalasin B, did not alter the course of GVBD normally seen in its absence. Subsequent freeze-fracture analysis and dye coupling experiments confirmed that cumulus and oocyte gap junctions in these preparations were intact and functional during the period of meiotic resumption. These findings suggest that factors other than cumulus and oocyte gap junction turnover are required for the control of meiotic arrest and maturation in the isolated COC. However, these results do support our earlier suggestion that gap junction loss within the cumulus oophorus is instrumental in isolating the oocyte from the regulatory influence of its underlying membrana granulosa cells during meiotic maturation in the intact preovulatory follicle [Larsen et al., Dev Biol, 122:61-71]. PMID:2496021

  7. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction

    PubMed Central

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Summary Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality. PMID:24596690

  8. Thermocouple, multiple junction reference oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of reference thermocouples at a common and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of reference thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.

  9. Occluding junctions of invertebrate epithelia.

    PubMed

    Jonusaite, Sima; Donini, Andrew; Kelly, Scott P

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity and architecture is immense. This is achieved by the organization and function of four tissue types found in most metazoan phyla-epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissue is found in all extant animals (parazoan and metazoan alike). Epithelial cells form cellular sheets that cover internal or external surfaces and regulate the passage of material between separated compartments. The transepithelial movement of biological material between compartments can occur across the transcellular pathway (i.e. across cells) or the paracellular pathway (i.e. between cells) and the latter is regulated by occluding junctions that typically link cells in a subapical domain. In this review, information on occluding junctions of invertebrate epithelia is consolidated and discussed in the context of morphology, ultrastructure and physiology. In addition, an overview of what is currently known about invertebrate occluding junction proteins and their role in maintaining the integrity of invertebrate epithelia and regulating the barrier properties of these tissues is presented. PMID:26510419

  10. Gap Junctional Communication in Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Gap junctions permit the direct passage of small molecules from the cytosol of one cell to that of its neighbor, and thus form a system of cell-cell communication that exists alongside familiar secretion/receptor signaling. Because of the rich potential for regulation of junctional conductance, and directional and molecular gating (specificity), gap junctional communication (GJC) plays a crucial role in many aspects of normal tissue physiology. However, the most exciting role for GJC is in the regulation of information flow that takes place during embryonic development, regeneration, and tumor progression. The molecular mechanisms by which GJC establishes local and long-range instructive morphogenetic cues are just beginning to be understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the involvement of GJC in the patterning of both vertebrate and invertebrate systems and discusses in detail several morphogenetic systems in which the properties of this signaling have been molecularly characterized. One model consistent with existing data in the fields of vertebrate left-right patterning and anterior-posterior polarity in flatworm regeneration postulates electrophoretically-guided movement of small molecule morphogens through long-range GJC paths. The discovery of mechanisms controlling embryonic and regenerative GJC-mediated signaling, and identification of the downstream targets of GJC-permeable molecules, represent exciting next areas of research in this fascinating field. PMID:17481700

  11. Giant tunnel magneto-resistance in graphene based molecular tunneling junction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Jianwei; Yu, Yunjin; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian; Guo, Hong

    2016-02-14

    We propose and theoretically investigate a class of stable zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) based molecular magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs). For those junctions having pentagon-connecting formations, huge tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR) is found. Different from most of the other proposed molecular junctions, the huge TMR in our structures is generic, and is not significantly affected by external parameters such as bias voltage, gate voltage, length of the molecule and width of the ZGNRs. The double pentagon-connecting formation between the molecule and ZGNRs is critical for the remarkable TMR ratio, which is as large as ?2 10(5). These molecular MTJs behave as almost perfect spin filters and spin valve devices. Other connecting formations of the ZGNR based MTJs lead to much smaller TMR. By first principles analysis, we reveal the microscopic physics responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:26790615

  12. Modeling impurity-assisted chain creation in noble-metal break junctions.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, S; Thiess, A; Blgel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the generalization of the model for chain formation in break junctions, introduced by Thiess et al (2008 Nano Lett. 8 2144), to zigzag transition-metal chains with s and p impurities. We apply this extended model to study the producibility trends for noble-metal chains with impurities, often present in break junction experiments, namely, Cu, Ag and Au chains with H, C, O and N adatoms. Providing the material-specific parameters for our model from systematic full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave first-principles calculations, we find that the presence of such impurities crucially affects the binding properties of the noble-metal chains. We reveal that both the impurity-induced bond strengthening and the formation of zigzag bonds can lead to a significantly enhanced probability for chain formation in break junctions. PMID:22392857

  13. Structural organization of the tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Paris, Luca; Tonutti, Laura; Vannini, Cristina; Bazzoni, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Tight junctions are the most apical organelle of the apical junctional complex and are primarily involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability and membrane polarity. Extensive research in the past two decades has identified not only the individual molecules of the tight junctions but also their mutual interactions, which are the focus of the present review article. While a complete map of the interactions among the tight junction molecules is probably far from being complete, the available evidence already allows outlining the general molecular architecture of the tight junctions. Here, with the aim of gaining deeper mechanistic understanding of tight junction assembly, regulation and function, we have subdivided the known molecular interactions into four major clusters that are centered on cell surface, polarity, cytoskeletal and signaling molecules. PMID:17945185

  14. Phase dynamics of two parallel stacks of coupled Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Plecenik, A.; Seidel, P.; Il?ichev, E.; Nawrocki, W.

    2014-12-01

    Two parallel stacks of coupled Josephson junctions (JJs) are investigated to clarify the physics of transitions between the rotating and oscillating states and their effect on the IV-characteristics of the system. The detailed study of phase dynamics and bias dependence of the superconducting and diffusion currents allows one to explain all features of simulated IV-characteristics and demonstrate the correspondence in their behavior. The coupling between JJ in the stacks leads to the branching of IV-characteristics and a decrease in the hysteretic region. The crucial role of the diffusion current in the formation of the IV-characteristic of the parallel stacks of coupled JJs is demonstrated. We discuss the effect of symmetry in a number of junctions in the stacks and show a decrease of the branching in the symmetrical stacks. The observed effects might be useful for development of superconducting electronic devices based on intrinsic JJs.

  15. Low-high junction theory applied to solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Baraona, C. R.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Recent use of alloying techniques for rear contact formation has yielded a new kind of silicon solar cell, the back surface field (BSF) cell, with abnormally high open circuit voltage and improved radiation resistance. Several analytical models for open circuit voltage based on the reverse saturation current are formulated to explain these observations. The zero SRV case of the conventional cell model, the drift field model, and the low-high junction (LHJ) model can predict the experimental trends. The LHJ model applies the theory of the low-high junction and is considered to reflect a more realistic view of cell fabrication. This model can predict the experimental trends observed for BSF cells. Detailed descriptions and derivations for the models are included. The correspondences between them are discussed. This modeling suggests that the meaning of minority carrier diffusion length measured in BSF cells be reexamined.

  16. Low-high junction theory applied to solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Baraona, C. R.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Recent use of alloying techniques for rear contact formation has yielded a new kind of silicon solar cell, the back surface field (BSF) cell, with abnormally high open-circuit voltage and improved radiation resistance. Several analytical models for open-circuit voltage based on the reverse saturation current are formulated to explain these observations. The zero surface recombination velocity (SRV) case of the conventional cell model, the drift field model, and the low-high junction (LHJ) model can predict the experimental trends. The LHJ model applies the theory of the low-high junction and is considered to reflect a more realistic view of cell fabrication. This model can predict the experimental trends observed for BSF cells.

  17. Optimizing boron junctions through point defect and stress engineering using carbon and germanium co-implants

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, Victor; Oh, Yong-Seog; Pramanik, Dipu; Graoui, Houda; Foad, Majeed A.

    2005-08-01

    We report the fabrication of p{sup +}/n junctions using Ge{sup +}, C{sup +}, and B{sup +} co-implantation and a spike anneal. The best junction exhibits a depth of 26 nm, vertical abruptness of 3 nm/decade, and sheet resistance of 520 Ohm/square. The junction location is defined by where the boron concentration drops to 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. These junctions are close to the International Technology Roadmap specifications for the 65 nm technology node and are achieved by careful engineering of amorphization, stresses, and point defects. Advanced simulation of boron diffusion is used to understand and optimize the process window. The simulations show that the optimum process completely suppresses the transient-enhanced diffusion of boron and the formation of boron-interstitial clusters. This increases the boron solubility to 20% above the equilibrium solid-state solubility.

  18. Organization of cellular receptors into a nanoscale junction during HIV-1 adhesion.

    PubMed

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Daniels, Brian R; Siliciano, Robert F; Sun, Sean X; Wirtz, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with its host cell is the target for new antiretroviral therapies. Viral particles interact with the flexible plasma membrane via viral surface protein gp120 which binds its primary cellular receptor CD4 and subsequently the coreceptor CCR5. However, whether and how these receptors become organized at the adhesive junction between cell and virion are unknown. Here, stochastic modeling predicts that, regarding binding to gp120, cellular receptors CD4 and CCR5 form an organized, ring-like, nanoscale structure beneath the virion, which locally deforms the plasma membrane. This organized adhesive junction between cell and virion, which we name the viral junction, is reminiscent of the well-characterized immunological synapse, albeit at much smaller length scales. The formation of an organized viral junction under multiple physiopathologically relevant conditions may represent a novel intermediate step in productive infection. PMID:20657663

  19. Do conformational biases of simple helical junctions influence RNA folding stability and specificity?

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Vincent B.; Lipfert, Jan; Bai, Yu; Pande, Vijay S.; Doniach, Sebastian; Herschlag, Daniel

    2010-02-11

    Structured RNAs must fold into their native structures and discriminate against a large number of alternative ones, an especially difficult task given the limited information content of RNA's nucleotide alphabet. The simplest motifs within structured RNAs are two helices joined by nonhelical junctions. To uncover the fundamental behavior of these motifs and to elucidate the underlying physical forces and challenges faced by structured RNAs, we computationally and experimentally studied a tethered duplex model system composed of two helices joined by flexible single- or double-stranded polyethylene glycol tethers, whose lengths correspond to those typically observed in junctions from structured RNAs. To dissect the thermodynamic properties of these simple motifs, we computationally probed how junction topology, electrostatics, and tertiary contact location influenced folding stability. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to assess our predictions. Single- or double-stranded junctions, independent of sequence, greatly reduce the space of allowed helical conformations and influencing the preferred location and orientation of their adjoining helices. A double-stranded junction guides the helices along a hinge-like pathway. In contrast, a single-stranded junction samples a broader set of conformations and has different preferences than the double-stranded junction. In turn, these preferences determine the stability and distinct specificities of tertiary structure formation. These sequence-independent effects suggest that properties as simple as a junction's topology can generally define the accessible conformational space, thereby stabilizing desired structures and assisting in discriminating against misfolded structures. Thus, junction topology provides a fundamental strategy for transcending the limitations imposed by the low information content of RNA primary sequence.

  20. Occluding junctions in cultured epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cereijido, M; Meza, I; Martínez-Palomo, A

    1981-03-01

    When MDCK cells are cultured in monolayers, they synthesize, assemble, and seal occluding junctions that limit the paracellular route. These processes may be impaired by inhibitors of the protein synthesis but not by inhibitors of the synthesis of RNA. Once established, the occluding junctions confer to the monolayer an overall electrical resistance of 80-600 omega . cm2. At the microscopical level, the resistance of individual junctions have large variations along the perimeter of a given cell. This agrees with the images of freeze-fracture electron microscopy where the network of the junction varies abruptly from 1 to 10 strands. The junctions are impermeable to macromolecular tracers, have a 9 to 1 Na+/Cl- discrimination, and a cation selectivity following the order: K+ greater than Na+ greater than Rb+ greater than Cs+ greater than Li+. Sealing requires extracellular Ca2+, but the junctions open when the concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm increases. The structural components of the cytoskeleton (microtubules and microfilaments) seem to be involved in the junctional events as revealed by staining with immunofluorescent specific antibodies. If the cells are treated with cytochalasin B, actin microfilaments disorganize, the junctions open, and the electrical resistance across the monolayers falls. The resealing of the tight junction is inhibited by this drug. PMID:7212057

  1. String junctions and holographic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Gutperle, Michael; Hung, Ling-Yan; Krym, Darya

    2011-01-15

    In this paper we study half-BPS type IIB supergravity solutions with multiple AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xM{sub 4} asymptotic regions, where M{sub 4} is either T{sup 4} or K{sub 3}. These solutions were first constructed in [M. Chiodaroli, M. Gutperle, and D. Krym, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2010) 066.] and have geometries given by the warped product of AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 2}xM{sub 4} over {Sigma}, where {Sigma} is a Riemann surface. We show that the holographic boundary has the structure of a star graph, i.e. n half-lines joined at a point. The attractor mechanism and the relation of the solutions to junctions of self-dual strings in six-dimensional supergravity are discussed. The solutions of [M. Chiodaroli, M. Gutperle, and D. Krym, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2010) 066.] are constructed introducing two meromorphic and two harmonic functions defined on {Sigma}. We focus our analysis on solutions corresponding to junctions of three different conformal field theories and show that the conditions for having a solution charged only under Ramond-Ramond three-form fields reduce to relations involving the positions of the poles and the residues of the relevant harmonic and meromorphic functions. The degeneration limit in which some of the poles collide is analyzed in detail. Finally, we calculate the holographic boundary entropy for a junction of three CFTs and obtain a simple expression in terms of poles and residues.

  2. Modulated microwave absorption spectra from Josephson junctions on a scratched niobium wire

    SciTech Connect

    Rubins, R.S.; Hutton, S.L.; Ravindran, K.; Subbaraman, K.; Drumheller, J.E.

    1997-05-01

    Modulated microwave absorption (MMA) spectra from Josephson junction formations on a scratched Nb wire have been studied at 9.3 GHz and 4 K. The peak-to-peak separation, {delta}H of the Josephson lines was found to vary linearly with P{sup 1/2}, where P is the applied microwave power, in contrast to a recent interpretation of junction formation in pressed lead pieces by Rubins, Drumheller, and Trybula. The interpretation of the MMA data on Nb are given in terms of the theory of Vichery, Beuneu, and Lejay for superconducting loops containing weak links. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. RWGSCAT - RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE JUNCTION SCATTERING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to optimize frequency response and determine the tolerances required to meet RF specifications, accurate computer modeling of passive rectangular waveguide components is often required. Many rectangular waveguide components may be represented either exactly or approximately as a number of different size rectangular waveguides which are connected in series. RWGSCAT, Rectangular WaveGuide junction SCATtering program, solves for the scattering properties of a waveguide device. This device must consist of a number of rectangular waveguide sections of different cross sectional area which are connected in series. Devices which fall into this category include step transformers, filters, and smooth or corrugated rectangular horns. RWGSCAT will model such devices and accurately predict the reflection and transmission characteristics, taking into account higher order (other than dominant TE 10) mode excitation if it occurs, as well as multiple reflections and stored energy at each discontinuity. For devices which are large with respect to the wavelength of operation, the characteristics of the device may be required for computing a higher order mode or a number of higher order modes exciting the device. Such interactions can be represented by defining a scattering matrix for each discontinuity in the device, and then cascading the individual scattering matrices in order to determine the scattering matrix for the overall device. The individual matrices are obtained using the mode matching method. RWGSCAT is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. It has been successfully compiled and implemented using Lahey FORTRAN 77 under MS-DOS. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. It requires 377K of RAM for execution. Sample input data is also provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the distribution medium in LaTEX format. RWGSCAT is also offered as a bundle with a related program, CWGSCAT (Scattering Matrix Program for Circular WaveGuide Junctions). Please see the abstract for RWGSCAT/CWGSCAT (COS-10045) for information about the bundled package. RWGSCAT was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  4. Fabrication of Tunnel Junctions For Direct Detector Arrays With Single-Electron Transistor Readout Using Electron-Beam Lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Rhee, K. W.; Teufel, J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the fabrication of small aluminum tunnel junctions for applications in astronomy. Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated single-electron transistor readout have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-millimeter wavelengths. The junctions for the detector and single-electron transistor can be made with electron-beam lithography and a standard self-aligned double-angle deposition process. However, high yield and uniformity of the junctions is required for large-format detector arrays. This paper will describe how measurement and modification of the sensitivity ratio in the resist bilayer was used to greatly improve the reliability of forming devices with uniform, sub-micron size, low-leakage junctions.

  5. Gap junction regulation by calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Juan; Salarian, Mani; Chen, Yanyi; Veenstra, Richard; Louis, Charles F; Yang, Jenny J

    2014-04-17

    Intracellular Ca(2+) activated calmodulin (CaM) inhibits gap junction channels in the low nanomolar to high micromolar range of [Ca(2+)]i. This regulation plays an essential role in numerous cellular processes that include hearing, lens transparency, and synchronized contractions of the heart. Previous studies have indicated that gap junction mediated cell-to-cell communication was inhibited by CaM antagonists. More recent evidence indicates a direct role of CaM in regulating several members of the connexin family. Since the intracellular loop and carboxyl termini of connexins are largely "invisible" in electron microscopy and X-ray crystallographic structures due to disorder in these domains, peptide models encompassing the putative CaM binding sites of several intracellular domains of connexins have been used to identify the Ca(2+)-dependent CaM binding sites of these proteins. This approach has been used to determine the CaM binding affinities of peptides derived from a number of different connexin-subfamilies. PMID:24440348

  6. Gap Junction Regulation by Calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Juan; Salarian, Mani; Chen, Yanyi; Veenstra, Richard; Louis, Charles F.; Yang, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ activated calmodulin (CaM) inhibits gap junction channels in the low nM to high ?M range of [Ca2+]i. This regulation plays an essential role in numerous cellular processes that include hearing, lens transparency, and synchronized contractions of the heart. Previous studies have indicated that gap junction mediated cell-to-cell communication was inhibited by CaM antagonists. More recent evidence indicates a direct role of CaM in regulating several members of the connexin family. Since the intracellular loop and carboxyl termini of connexins are largely invisible in electron microscopy and X-ray crystallographic structures due to disorder in these domains, peptide models encompassing the putative CaM binding sites of several intracellular domains of connexins have been used to identify the Ca2+-dependent CaM binding sites of these proteins. This approach has been used to determine the CaM binding affinities of peptides derived from a number of different connexin-subfamilies. PMID:24440348

  7. Electron transport through molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.; Pederson, Mark R.

    2011-12-01

    At present, metal-molecular tunnel junctions are recognized as important active elements in molecular electronics. This gives a strong motivation to explore physical mechanisms controlling electron transport through molecules. In the last two decades, an unceasing progress in both experimental and theoretical studies of molecular conductance has been demonstrated. In the present work we give an overview of theoretical methods used to analyze the transport properties of metal-molecular junctions as well as some relevant experiments and applications. After a brief general description of the electron transport through molecules we introduce a Hamiltonian which can be used to analyze electron-electron, electron-phonon and spin-orbit interactions. Then we turn to description of the commonly used transport theory formalisms including the nonequilibrium Greens functions based approach and the approach based on the master equations. We discuss the most important effects which could be manifested through molecules in electron transport phenomena such as Coulomb, spin and Frank-Condon blockades, Kondo peak in the molecular conductance, negative differential resistance and some others. Bearing in mind that first principles electronic structure calculations are recognized as the indispensable basis of the theory of electron transport through molecules, we briefly discuss the main equations and some relevant applications of the density functional theory which presently is often used to analyze important characteristics of molecules and molecular clusters. Finally, we discuss some kinds of nanoelectronic devices built using molecules and similar systems such as carbon nanotubes, various nanowires and quantum dots.

  8. Identification of MarvelD3 as a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein of the occludin family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tight junctions are an intercellular adhesion complex of epithelial and endothelial cells, and form a paracellular barrier that restricts the diffusion of solutes on the basis of size and charge. Tight junctions are formed by multiprotein complexes containing cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. How these components work together to form functional tight junctions is still not well understood and will require a complete understanding of the molecular composition of the junction. Results Here we identify a new transmembrane component of tight junctions: MarvelD3, a four-span transmembrane protein. Its predicted transmembrane helices form a Marvel (MAL and related proteins for vesicle traffic and membrane link) domain, a structural motif originally discovered in proteins involved in membrane apposition and fusion events, such as the tight junction proteins occludin and tricellulin. In mammals, MarvelD3 is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms. Both isoforms exhibit a broad tissue distribution and are expressed by different types of epithelial as well as endothelial cells. MarvelD3 co-localises with occludin at tight junctions in intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. RNA interference experiments in Caco-2 cells indicate that normal MarvelD3 expression is not required for the formation of functional tight junctions but depletion results in monolayers with increased transepithelial electrical resistance. Conclusions Our data indicate that MarvelD3 is a third member of the tight junction-associated occludin family of transmembrane proteins. Similar to occludin, normal expression of MarvelD3 is not essential for the formation of functional tight junctions. However, MarvelD3 functions as a determinant of epithelial paracellular permeability properties. PMID:20028514

  9. Self-assembly of membrane junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Bruinsma, R; Goulian, M; Pincus, P

    1994-01-01

    We present a mechanism for the aggregation of mobile intermembrane junctions, such as the connexon dyad of gap junctions. The model demonstrates that intermembrane repulsion provides a powerful self-assembly pressure. If the membrane repulsion is strong enough to prevent membrane adhesion, then the self-assembly pressure is of effective infinite range. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7948688

  10. Plasma Implantation Technology for Upcoming Ultra Shallow and Highly Doped Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzatti, Frederic; Milsi, Frederic; Delaye, Vincent; Duchaine, Julian; Torregrosa, Frank; Etienne, Hasnaa; Yckache, Karim

    2011-01-01

    To face the continuous dimensions downscaling for upcoming semiconductor devices, we have investigated a plasma immersion ion implantation way and have compared the results to a conventional one. This new implantation method allows, in particular, high and thin doping concentration to field source and drain requirements for 32 nm node and below. In addition to this key step, a silicon selective epitaxy growth has been performed. Thus, n-type and p-type ion implantations have been carried out on thin blanket SOI substrates in Pulsion plasma ion implantation tool manufactured by Ion Beam Services, with AsH3, BF3 or B2H6 precursors. Then a recrystallization annealing followed by silicon selective epitaxial growth has been performed in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition tool. Regarding n-type implantation we observed a poly-silicon growth in areas where the top silicon has been amorphous down to the buried oxide and a mono-silicon growth for areas where the top silicon has not been completely amorphous. Indeed, in this case recrystallization annealing was not sufficient to allow lengthwise solid phase epitaxy growth whereas there were no difficulties for axial one. Regarding p-type implantations no epitaxial growths have been observed at all. This lack of growth cannot be explained by a complete silicon amorphization which would have led to a growth of poly-silicon like for n-type implantation. According to our first results this growth vacancy could be explained by the very high boron atoms concentration on the substrate surface. The latter being resistant to HF-last cleaning could thus block silicon nucleation. However some rinsing processes, more or less aggressive, have been tested to remove this boron silicon alloy layer. Among these different tests, hydrochloric or plasma etching have provided, in some specific cases, promising results allowing an epitaxial silicon growth.

  11. Ultra-shallow undoped 2DEGs in GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K. Das; Mak, W. Y.; Sfigakis, F.; Beere, H. E.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a method of fabricating very shallow, gateable, undoped 2-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) and making very low resistivity contacts to these. We studied the evolution of mobility as a function of the depth of the 2DEG (from 300 nm to 30 nm). We extract quantitative information about the background impurity concentration in GaAs and AlGaAs, the interface roughness and the charge in the surface states. Surface charge sets an intrinsic limit to the mobility of very shallow 2DEGs. It is probably impossible, to fabricate such shallow high-mobility 2DEGs using modulation doping due to the need to accomodate a spacer layer.

  12. Distinct subdomain organization and molecular composition of a tight junction with adherens junction features.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fabio D; Lopez, Lanier N; Lin, Harrison W; Davies, Caroline; Azevedo, Ricardo B; Gow, Alexander; Kachar, Bechara

    2006-12-01

    Most polarized epithelia constrain solute diffusion between luminal and interstitial compartments using tight junctions and generate mechanical strength using adherens junctions. These intercellular junctions are typically portrayed as incongruent macromolecular complexes with distinct protein components. Herein, we delineate the molecular composition and subdomain architecture of an intercellular junction between sensory and non-sensory cells of the inner ear. In this junction, claudins partition into claudin-14 and claudin-9/6 subdomains that are distinguishable by strand morphology, which contrasts with in vitro data that most claudins co-assemble into heteromeric strands. Surprisingly, canonical adherens junction proteins (p120ctn, alpha- and beta-catenins) colocalize with the claudin-9/6 subdomain and recruit a dense cytoskeletal network. We also find that catenins colocalize with claudin-9 and claudin-6, but not claudin-14, in a heterologous system. Together, our data demonstrate that canonical tight junction and adherens junction proteins can be recruited to a single junction in which claudins partition into subdomains and form a novel hybrid tight junction with adherens junction organization. PMID:17130295

  13. Molecular structure and assembly of the tight junction.

    PubMed

    Denker, B M; Nigam, S K

    1998-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells separate two extremely different cellular milieus. The tight junction (TJ) is the most apical component of the junctional complex and serves as the permeability barrier between these environments. The tight junctional complex appears to be a dynamic and regulated structure. Some of its protein components have been identified and include the transmembrane protein occludin. Nontransmembrane proteins on the cytosolic leaflet including ZO-1, ZO-2, cingulin, 7H6, and several unidentified phosphoproteins are also believed to be part of the TJ. Interactions of some of these proteins with the actin cytoskeleton are a major determinant of TJ structure and may also play a role in the regulation of TJ assembly. Recent progress using the "calcium switch" and the "ATP depletion-repletion" model of TJ formation offers new insight regarding how these structures form. TJ biogenesis appears to be regulated, in part, by classic signal transduction pathways involving heterotrimeric G proteins, release of intracellular Ca2+, and activation of protein kinase C. Although many of the details of the signaling pathways have yet to be defined, these observations may provide insight into how TJs form during tubular development. Furthermore, it may be possible to suggest potential therapeutic targets for intervention in a variety of diseases (e.g., ischemia, toxic injury to the kidney and other epithelial tissue) where TJ integrity has been compromised and reassembly is required. PMID:9458817

  14. Effect of Front-Side Silver Metallization on Underlying n+-p Junction in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. S.; Li, Z. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; Liang, L.; Ionkin, A.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    We report on the effect of front-side Ag metallization on the underlying n+-p junction of multicrystalline Si solar cells. The junction quality beneath the contacts was investigated by characterizing the uniformities of the electrostatic potential and doping concentration across the junction, using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. We investigated cells with a commercial Ag paste (DuPont PV159) and fired at furnace setting temperatures of 800 degrees, 840 degrees, and 930 degrees C, which results in actual cell temperatures ~100 degrees C lower than the setting temperature and the three cells being under-, optimal-, and over-fired. We found that the uniformity of the junction beneath the Ag contact was significantly degraded by the over-firing, whereas the junction retained good uniformity with the optimal- and under-fire temperatures. Further, Ag crystallites with widely distributed sizes from <100 nm to several μm were found at the Ag/Si interface of the over-fired cell. Large crystallites were imaged as protrusions into Si deeper than the junction depth. However, the junction was not broken down; instead, it was reformed on the entire front of the crystallite/Si interface. We propose a mechanism of the junction-quality degradation, based on emitter Si melting at the temperature around the Ag-Si eutectic point during firing, and subsequent recrystallization with incorporation of impurities in the Ag paste and with formation of crystallographic defects during quenching.

  15. The Ly6 Protein Coiled Is Required for Septate Junction and Blood Brain Barrier Organisation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Assia; Haenlin, Marc; Waltzer, Lucas; Roch, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic analysis of the Drosophila septate junctions has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the assembly of these adhesion structures, which bear strong similarities with the vertebrate tight junctions and the paranodal septate junctions. These adhesion complexes share conserved molecular components and have a common function: the formation of paracellular barriers restraining the diffusion of solutes through epithelial and glial envelopes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we characterise the function of the Drosophila cold gene, that codes for a protein belonging to the Ly6 superfamily of extracellular ligands. Analysis of cold mutants shows that this gene is specifically required for the organisation of the septate junctions in epithelial tissues and in the nervous system, where its contribution is essential for the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. We show that cold acts in a cell autonomous way, and we present evidence indicating that this protein could act as a septate junction component. Conclusion/Significance We discuss the specific roles of cold and three other Drosophila members of the Ly6 superfamily that have been shown to participate in a non-redundant way in the process of septate junction assembly. We propose that vertebrate Ly6 proteins could fulfill analogous roles in tight junctions and/or paranodal septate junctions. PMID:21423573

  16. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q {approx} 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement.

  17. Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches.

    PubMed

    Watts, Michael R; Zortman, William A; Trotter, Douglas C; Young, Ralph W; Lentine, Anthony L

    2011-10-24

    Vertical junction resonant microdisk modulators and switches have been demonstrated with exceptionally low power consumption, low-voltage operation, high-speed, and compact size. This paper reviews the progress of vertical junction microdisk modulators, provides detailed design data, and compares vertical junction performance to lateral junction performance. The use of a vertical junction maximizes the overlap of the depletion region with the optical mode thereby minimizing both the drive voltage and power consumption of a depletion-mode modulator. Further, the vertical junction enables contact to be made from the interior of the resonator and therein a hard outer wall to be formed that minimizes radiation in small diameter resonators, further reducing the capacitance and drive power of the modulator. Initial simple vertical junction modulators using depletion-mode operation demonstrated the first sub-100 fJ/bit silicon modulators. With more intricate doping schemes and through the use of AC-coupled drive signals, 3.5 μm diameter vertical junction microdisk modulators have recently achieved a communications efficiency of 3 fJ/bit, making these modulators the smallest and lowest power modulators demonstrated to date, in any material system. Additionally, the demonstration was performed at 12.5 Gb/s, required a peak-to-peak signal level of only 1 V, and achieved bit-error-rates below 10(-12) without requiring signal pre-emphasis. As an additional benefit to the use of interior contacts, higher-order active filters can be constructed from multiple vertical-junction modulators without interference of the electrodes. Doing so, we demonstrated second-order active high-speed bandpass switches with ~2.5 ns switching speeds, and power penalties of only 0.4 dB. Through the use of vertical junctions in resonant modulators, we have achieved the lowest power consumption, lowest voltage, and smallest silicon modulators demonstrated to date. PMID:22109050

  18. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2015-05-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25792565

  19. The beneficial effects of cumulus cells and oocyte-cumulus cell gap junctions depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wu, Sha-Na; Shen, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Kong, Xiang-Wei; Lu, Angeleem; Li, Yan-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Yue-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Cumulus cells are a group of closely associated granulosa cells that surround and nourish oocytes. Previous studies have shown that cumulus cells contribute to oocyte maturation and fertilization through gap junction communication. However, it is not known how this gap junction signaling affects in vivo versus in vitro maturation of oocytes, and their subsequent fertilization and embryonic development following insemination. Therefore, in our study, we performed mouse oocyte maturation and insemination using in vivo- or in vitro-matured oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs, which retain gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes), in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes co-cultured with cumulus cells (DCs, which lack gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes), and in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes without cumulus cells (DOs). Using these models, we were able to analyze the effects of gap junction signaling on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. We found that gap junctions were necessary for both in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation. In addition, for oocytes matured in vivo, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization and blastocyst formation, and this improvement was strengthened by gap junctions. Moreover, for oocytes matured in vitro, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization, but not blastocyst formation, and this improvement was independent of gap junctions. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the beneficial effect of gap junction signaling from cumulus cells depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods. PMID:26966678

  20. Sertoli-germ cell junctions in the testis: a review of recent data.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Ilona A; Bilinska, Barbara; Cheng, C Yan; Mruk, Dolores D

    2010-05-27

    Spermatogenesis is a process that involves an array of cellular and biochemical events, collectively culminating in the formation of haploid spermatids from diploid precursor cells known as spermatogonia. As germ cells differentiate from spermatogonia into elongated spermatids, they also progressively migrate across the entire length of the seminiferous epithelium until they reach the luminal edge in anticipation of spermiation at late stage VIII of spermatogenesis. At the same time, these germ cells must maintain stable attachment with Sertoli cells via testis-unique intermediate filament- (i.e. desmosome-like junctions) and actin- (i.e. ectoplasmic specializations, ESs) based cell junctions to prevent sloughing of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium, which may result in infertility. In essence, both desmosome-like junctions and basal ESs are known to coexist between Sertoli cells at the level of the blood-testis barrier where they cofunction with the well-studied tight junction in maintaining the immunological barrier. However, the type of anchoring device that is present between Sertoli and germ cells depends on the developmental stage of the germ cell, i.e. desmosome-like junctions are present between Sertoli and germ cells up to, but not including, step 8 spermatids after which this junction type is replaced by the apical ES. While little is known about the biology of the desmosome-like junction in the testis, we have a relatively good understanding of the molecular architecture and the regulation of the ES. Here, we discuss recent findings relating to these two junction types in the testis, highlighting prospective areas that should be investigated in future studies. PMID:20403872

  1. Method of junction formation for CIGS photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Delahoy, Alan E.

    2006-03-28

    Sulfur is used to improve the performance of CIGS devices prepared by the evaporation of a single source ZIS type compound to form a buffer layer on the CIGS. The sulfur may be evaporated, or contained in the ZIS type material, or both. Vacuum evaporation apparatus of many types useful in the practice of the invention are known in the art. Other methods of delivery, such as sputtering, or application of a thiourea solution, may be substituted for evaporation.

  2. Method of junction formation for CIGS photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Delahoy, Alan E. (Rocky Hill, NJ)

    2010-01-26

    Sulfur is used to improve the performance of CIGS devices prepared by the evaporation of a single source ZIS type compound to form a buffer layer on the CIGS. The sulfur may be evaporated, or contained in the ZIS type material, or both. Vacuum evaporation apparatus of many types useful in the practice of the invention are known in the art. Other methods of delivery, such as sputtering, or application of a thiourea solution, may be substituted for evaporation.

  3. Angiopoietin 2 regulates the transformation and integrity of lymphatic endothelial cell junctions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Nurmi, Harri; Appak, Sila; Sabine, Amlie; Bovay, Esther; Korhonen, Emilia A; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Lohela, Marja; D'Amico, Gabriela; Holopainen, Tanja; Leow, Ching Ching; Dejana, Elisabetta; Petrova, Tatiana V; Augustin, Hellmut G; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-07-15

    Primitive lymphatic vessels are remodeled into functionally specialized initial and collecting lymphatics during development. Lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) junctions in initial lymphatics transform from a zipper-like to a button-like pattern during collecting vessel development, but what regulates this process is largely unknown. Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) deficiency leads to abnormal lymphatic vessels. Here we found that an ANG2-blocking antibody inhibited embryonic lymphangiogenesis, whereas endothelium-specific ANG2 overexpression induced lymphatic hyperplasia. ANG2 inhibition blocked VE-cadherin phosphorylation at tyrosine residue 685 and the concomitant formation of button-like junctions in initial lymphatics. The defective junctions were associated with impaired lymph uptake. In collecting lymphatics, adherens junctions were disrupted, and the vessels leaked upon ANG2 blockade or gene deletion. ANG2 inhibition also suppressed the onset of lymphatic valve formation and subsequent valve maturation. These data identify ANG2 as the first essential regulator of the functionally important interendothelial cell-cell junctions that form during lymphatic development. PMID:25030698

  4. Electric field breakdown in single molecule junctions.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixing; Su, Timothy A; Zhang, Vivian; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-04-22

    Here we study the stability and rupture of molecular junctions under high voltage bias at the single molecule/single bond level using the scanning tunneling microscope-based break-junction technique. We synthesize carbon-, silicon-, and germanium-based molecular wires terminated by aurophilic linker groups and study how the molecular backbone and linker group affect the probability of voltage-induced junction rupture. First, we find that junctions formed with covalent S-Au bonds are robust under high voltage and their rupture does not demonstrate bias dependence within our bias range. In contrast, junctions formed through donor-acceptor bonds rupture more frequently, and their rupture probability demonstrates a strong bias dependence. Moreover, we find that the junction rupture probability increases significantly above ∼1 V in junctions formed from methylthiol-terminated disilanes and digermanes, indicating a voltage-induced rupture of individual Si-Si and Ge-Ge bonds. Finally, we compare the rupture probabilities of the thiol-terminated silane derivatives containing Si-Si, Si-C, and Si-O bonds and find that Si-C backbones have higher probabilities of sustaining the highest voltage. These results establish a new method for studying electric field breakdown phenomena at the single molecule level. PMID:25675085

  5. Tight junction-related human diseases.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Norimasa

    2013-01-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical ends of paracellular spaces. They have two classical functions, the barrier function and the fence function. The former regulates the passage of ions, water and various molecules through paracellular spaces, and is thus related to edema, jaundice, diarrhea and blood-borne metastasis. The latter function maintains cell polarity by forming a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell properties in terms of loss of cell polarity. Recently, two novel aspects of tight junctions have been reported. One is their involvement in signal transduction. The other is that fact that tight junctions are considered to be a crucial component of innate immunity. In addition, since some proteins comprising tight junctions work as receptors for viruses and extracellular stimuli, pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight junction functions, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases will be described. PMID:23356220

  6. Constraints on string networks with junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.

    2007-03-01

    We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/2, the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.

  7. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  8. Measuring single molecule conductance with break junctions.

    PubMed

    He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Lee, Myeong; Tao, Nongjian; Li, Xiulan; Lindsay, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Single-molecule conductance measurements made under potential control provide a critical link between chemical and molecular electronic data. These measurements are made possible by the STM break-junction method introduced recently, but questions remain about its reliability. Here we report the use of a logarithmic current-to-voltage converter to examine a wide range of currents in an STM break junction study of octanedithiol, clearly showing both the gold-quantum wire regime and the single molecule conductance regime. We find two sets of molecular currents that we tentatively ascribe to different bonding geometries of the molecules in the break junction. PMID:16512369

  9. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  10. 40.8% Efficient Inverted Triple-Junction Solar Cell with Two Independently Metamorphic Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Ward, J. S.; Duda, A.; Olavarria, W. J.; Moriarty, T. E.; Kiehl, J. T.; Romero, M. J.; Norman, A. G.; Jones, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 40.8% at 326 suns concentration is demonstrated in a monolithically grown, triple-junction III-V solar cell structure in which each active junction is composed of an alloy with a different lattice constant chosen to maximize the theoretical efficiency. The semiconductor structure was grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy in an inverted configuration with a 1.83 eV Ga{sub .51}In{sub .49}P top junction lattice-matched to the GaAs substrate, a metamorphic 1.34 eV In{sub .04}Ga{sub .96}As middle junction, and a metamorphic 0.89 eV In{sub .37}Ga{sub .63}As bottom junction. The two metamorphic junctions contained approximately 1 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup -2} and 2-3 x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} threading dislocations, respectively.

  11. Bioavailability and Efficacy of a Gap Junction Enhancer (PQ7) in a Mouse Mammary Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Prasain, Keshar; Beck, Amanda; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Hua, Duy H.; Nguyen, Thu Annelise

    2013-01-01

    The loss of gap junctional intercellular communication is characteristic of neoplastic cells, suggesting that the restoration with a gap junction enhancer may be a new therapeutic treatment option with less detrimental effects than traditional antineoplastic drugs. A gap junction enhancer, 6-methoxy-8-[(2-furanylmethyl) amino]-4-methyl-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenyloxy) quinoline (PQ7), on the normal tissue was evaluated in healthy C57BL/6J mice in a systemic drug distribution study. Immunoblot analysis of the vital organs indicates a reduction in Cx43 expression in PQ7-treated animals with no observable change in morphology. Next the transgenic strain FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyVT) 634Mul/J (also known as PyVT) was used as a spontaneous mammary tumor mouse model to determine the biological and histological effects of PQ7 on tumorigenesis and metastasis at three stages of development: Pre tumor, Early tumor, and Late tumor formation. PQ7 was assessed to have a low toxicity through intraperitoneal administration, with the majority of the compound being detected in the heart, liver, and lungs six hours post injection. The treatment of tumor bearing animals with PQ7 had a 98% reduction in tumor growth, while also decreasing the total tumor burden compared to control mice during the Pre stage of development. PQ7 treatment increased Cx43 expression in the neoplastic tissue during Pre-tumor formation; however, this effect was not observed in Late stage tumor formation. This study shows that the gap junction enhancer, PQ7, has low toxicity to normal tissue in healthy C57BL/6J mice, while having clinical efficacy in the treatment of spontaneous mammary tumors of PyVT mice. Additionally, gap junctional intercellular communication and neoplastic cellular growth are shown to be inversely related, while treatment with PQ7 inhibits tumor growth through targeting gap junction expression. PMID:23776708

  12. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1992-11-24

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect. 5 figs.

  13. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect.

  14. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Wen

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Bttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    MedlinePLUS

    ... erosions form in response to minor injury or friction, such as rubbing or scratching. Researchers classify junctional ... in the epidermis are fragile and easily damaged. Friction or other minor trauma can cause the skin ...

  16. Radiation comb generation with extended Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solinas, P.; Bosisio, R.; Giazotto, F.

    2015-09-01

    We propose the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on an extended Josephson junction subject to a time dependent magnetic field. The junction critical current shows known diffraction patterns and determines the position of the critical nodes when it vanishes. When the magnetic flux passes through one of such critical nodes, the superconducting phase must undergo a ?-jump to minimize the Josephson energy. Correspondingly, a voltage pulse is generated at the extremes of the junction. Under periodic driving, this allows us to produce a comb-like voltage pulses sequence. In the frequency domain, it is possible to generate up to hundreds of harmonics of the fundamental driving frequency, thus mimicking the frequency comb used in optics and metrology. We discuss several implementations through a rectangular, cylindrical, and annular junction geometries, allowing us to generate different radiation spectra and to produce an output power up to 10 pW at 50 GHz for a driving frequency of 100 MHz.

  17. Splice junctions are constrained by protein disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smithers, Ben; Oates, Matt E.; Gough, Julian

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered that positions of splice junctions in genes are constrained by the tolerance for disorder-promoting amino acids in the translated protein region. It is known that efficient splicing requires nucleotide bias at the splice junction; the preferred usage produces a distribution of amino acids that is disorder-promoting. We observe that efficiency of splicing, as seen in the amino-acid distribution, is not compromised to accommodate globular structure. Thus we infer that it is the positions of splice junctions in the gene that must be under constraint by the local protein environment. Examining exonic splicing enhancers found near the splice junction in the gene, reveals that these (short DNA motifs) are more prevalent in exons that encode disordered protein regions than exons encoding structured regions. Thus we also conclude that local protein features constrain efficient splicing more in structure than in disorder. PMID:25934802

  18. ZnO based organic-inorganic hybrid p-n junction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Budhi; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2013-02-01

    We have fabricated zinc oxide and metal phthalocyanine based hybrid p-n junction diodes using aluminum doped zinc oxide film as transparent conducting electrode. The current rectifying behavior of these hybrid diodes is similar to those of inorganic p-n junction diodes. The current-voltage measurement gives a rectification ratio of the order of 104 and a current density of 0.6mA/cm2. The formation of depletion region at the inorganic-organic interface has been established by the capacitance-voltage measurements.

  19. Critical current in planar SNS Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golikova, T. E.; Hbler, F.; Beckmann, D.; Klenov, N. V.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Batov, I. E.; Ryazanov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Specific features of the proximity effect and Josephson behavior of submicron planar SNS junctions fabricated by electron beam lithography and shadow evaporation have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The critical current of the junctions has been found to drastically increase with a decrease in temperature, which is associated with a change in the effective size of the weak link owing to the additional SN interface.

  20. Degradation of connexins and gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Matthias M.; Kells, Rachael M.; Berthoud, Viviana M.

    2014-01-01

    Connexin proteins are short-lived within the cell, whether present in the secretory pathway or in gap junction plaques. Their levels can be modulated by their rate of degradation. Connexins, at different stages of assembly, are degraded through the proteasomal, endo-/lysosomal, and phago-/lysosomal pathways. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about connexin and gap junction degradation including the signals and protein-protein interactions that participate in their targeting for degradation. PMID:24486527

  1. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOEpatents

    Klem, J.F.; Zolper, J.C.

    1997-10-21

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling. 5 figs.

  2. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F. (Sandia Park, NM); Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling.

  3. Junction Plasmon-Induced Molecular Reorientation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hu, Dehong; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-10-17

    Time and frequency dependent intensity variations in sequences of Raman spectra recorded at plasmonic junctions can be assigned to molecular reorientation. This is revealed through Raman trajectories recorded at a nanojunction formed between a silver AFM tip and a corrugated silver surface coated with biphenyl-4,4-dithiol. Molecular motion is not observed when the tip is retracted and only surface enhancement is operative. In effect, junction plasmon induced molecular reorientation is tracked.

  4. Photovoltaic device having an extended PN junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Aiello, Robert Vincent (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A photovoltaic device having essentially only a body of semiconductor material having a first region of one conductivity type in contact with a second region of the opposite conductivity type, forming a portion of the device PN junction therebetween. A plurality of pocket regions of the same conductivity type as the first region extend into the second region thereby further defining a portion of the PN junction in the second region.

  5. Quantum Coherence in a Superfluid Josephson Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, Supradeep; Sato, Yuki

    2011-02-04

    We report a new kind of experiment in which we take an array of nanoscale apertures that form a superfluid {sup 4}He Josephson junction and apply quantum phase gradients directly along the array. We observe collective coherent behaviors from aperture elements, leading to quantum interference. Connections to superconducting and Bose-Einstein condensate Josephson junctions as well as phase coherence among the superfluid aperture array are discussed.

  6. Tight Junctions in Salivary Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial cell tight junctions (TJs) consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each cell to its neighbor. TJs are found in tissues that are involved in polarized secretions, absorption functions, and maintaining barriers between blood and interstitial fluids. The morphology, permeability, and ion selectivity of TJ vary among different types of tissues and species. TJs are very dynamic structures that assemble, grow, reorganize, and disassemble during physiological or pathological events. Several studies have indicated the active role of TJ in intestinal, renal, and airway epithelial function; however, the functional significance of TJ in salivary gland epithelium is poorly understood. Interactions between different combinations of the TJ family (each with their own unique regulatory proteins) define tissue specificity and functions during physiopathological processes; however, these interaction patterns have not been studied in salivary glands. The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data regarding the regulatory components of the TJ that could potentially affect cellular functions of the salivary epithelium. PMID:20182541

  7. Exercise regulation of intestinal tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Micah; Schneider, Suzanne; Lanphere, Katherine; Conn, Carole; Dokladny, Karol; Moseley, Pope

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal distress, such as diarrhoea, cramping, vomiting, nausea and gastric pain are common among athletes during training and competition. The mechanisms that cause these symptoms are not fully understood. The stress of heat and oxidative damage during exercise causes disruption to intestinal epithelial cell tight junction proteins resulting in increased permeability to luminal endotoxins. The endotoxin moves into the blood stream leading to a systemic immune response. Tight junction integrity is altered by the phosphoylation state of the proteins occludin and claudins, and may be regulated by the type of exercise performed. Prolonged exercise and high-intensity exercise lead to an increase in key phosphorylation enzymes that ultimately cause tight junction dysfunction, but the mechanisms are different. The purpose of this review is to (1) explain the function and physiology of tight junction regulation, (2) discuss the effects of prolonged and high-intensity exercise on tight junction permeability leading to gastrointestinal distress and (3) review agents that may increase or decrease tight junction integrity during exercise. PMID:23134759

  8. Epidermal tight junctions in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandner, JM; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Yoshida, T; Moll, I; Beck, LA; De Benedetto, A

    2014-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is an essential barrier that under homeostatic conditions efficiently protects and/or minimizes damage from both environmental (e.g. microorganisms, physical trauma, ultraviolet radiation) and endogenous (e.g., cancers, inflammation) factors. This formidable barrier function resides mainly in the epidermis, a dynamic, highly-stratified epithelium. The epidermis has 2 major barrier structures: stratum corneum, the outmost layer and tight junctions, intercellular junctions that seal adjacent keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, found below the stratum corneum. In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of tight junction function, composition and regulation. Herein we review what is known about tight junctions in healthy skin and keratinocyte culture systems and highlight the dynamic crosstalk observed between tight junctions and the cutaneous immune system. Finally we discuss the preliminary observations suggesting that tight junction function or protein expression may be relevant for the pathogenesis of a number of common cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. PMID:25838981

  9. Quinine blocks specific gap junction channel subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Miduturu; Hopperstad, Matthew G.; Spray, David C.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that the antimalarial drug quinine specifically reduces currents through gap junctions formed by some connexins (Cx) in transfected mammalian cells, but does not affect other gap junction types. Quinine blocked Cx36 and Cx50 junctional currents in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner with half maximal blocking concentrations of 32 and 73 ?M, respectively; Hill coefficients for block by quinine were about 2 for both connexins. In contrast, quinine did not substantially block gap junction channels formed by Cx26, Cx32, Cx40, and Cx43, and only moderately affected Cx45 junctions. To determine the location of the binding site of quinine (pKa = 8.7), we investigated the effect of quinine at various external and internal pH values and the effect of a permanently charged quaternary derivative of quinine. Our results indicate that the binding site for quinine is intracellular, possibly within the pore. Single-channel studies indicated that exposure to quinine induced slow transitions between open and fully closed states that decreased open probability of the channel. Quinine thus offers a potentially useful method to block certain types of gap junction channels, including those between neurons that are formed by Cx36. Moreover, quinine derivatives that are excluded from other types of membrane channels may provide molecules with connexin-specific as well as connexin-selective blocking activity. PMID:11535816

  10. Josephson-junction qubits: entanglement and coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Berkley, A. J.; Dragt, A. J.; Gubrud, M. A.; Johnson, P. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Ramos, R. C.; Strauch, F. W.; Wellstood, F. C.; Xu, H.

    2002-12-01

    We review briefly the problems that are driving the search for a quantum computer. These include, primarily, methods for encryption and decryption based on Shor's algorithm for factoring large integers and the use of Pell's equation for encryption. We also outline some of the approaches that have been suggested for implementing a quantum computer and then focus on Josephson-junction systems as qubits. We have been investigating the current-biased Josephson junction for this application, a suggestion we made about 2 years ago. We have studied macroscopic quantum tunneling and energy level spectroscopy, using microwaves, in single junctions and recently we have begun measurements of the two-quantum bit (qubit) system, i.e. two capacitively coupled junctions. Theoretical studies of energy levels and their dynamic evolution are also in progress. In the present report we discuss the basics of single Josephson junctions and compare their potential as qubits with the potentials of other systems. We also discuss our future plans to obtain greater isolation of the junctions from sources of decoherence and to develop realistic qubits. An important first step must be to exhibit quantum entanglement and measure coherence times. Then it must be shown that the states of the qubits can be initialized, that gate operations can be performed, and that the results can be read out.

  11. Multi-junction solar cell device

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Daniel J. (Lakewood, CO); Geisz, John F. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2007-12-18

    A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel junctions between each active cell. At least one layer that forms each of the top and middle active cells is composed of a single-crystal III-V semiconductor alloy that is substantially lattice-matched to the silicon substrate (22). The polarity of the active p-n junction cells is either p-on-n or n-on-p. The present invention further includes a method for substantially lattice matching single-crystal III-V semiconductor layers with the silicon substrate (22) by including boron and/or nitrogen in the chemical structure of these layers.

  12. Rectification Properties of Carbon Nanotube ''Y-Junctions''

    SciTech Connect

    Andriotis, Antonis N.; Menon, Madhu; Srivastava, Deepak; Chernozatonskii, Leonid

    2001-08-06

    Quantum conductivity of single-wall carbon nanotube Y-junctions is calculated. The current versus voltage characteristics of these junctions show asymmetry and rectification, in agreement with recent experimental results. Furthermore, rectification is found to be independent of the angle between the branches of these junctions, indicating this to be an intrinsic property of symmetric Y-junctions. The implications for the Y-junction to function as a nanoscale molecular electronic switch are investigated.

  13. Structure-Property Relationships in Atomic-Scale Junctions: Histograms and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Hybertsen, Mark S; Venkataraman, Latha

    2016-03-15

    Over the past 10 years, there has been tremendous progress in the measurement, modeling and understanding of structure-function relationships in single molecule junctions. Numerous research groups have addressed significant scientific questions, directed both to conductance phenomena at the single molecule level and to the fundamental chemistry that controls junction functionality. Many different functionalities have been demonstrated, including single-molecule diodes, optically and mechanically activated switches, and, significantly, physical phenomena with no classical analogues, such as those based on quantum interference effects. Experimental techniques for reliable and reproducible single molecule junction formation and characterization have led to this progress. In particular, the scanning tunneling microscope based break-junction (STM-BJ) technique has enabled rapid, sequential measurement of large numbers of nanoscale junctions allowing a statistical analysis to readily distinguish reproducible characteristics. Harnessing fundamental link chemistry has provided the necessary chemical control over junction formation, enabling measurements that revealed clear relationships between molecular structure and conductance characteristics. Such link groups (amines, methylsuflides, pyridines, etc.) maintain a stable lone pair configuration that selectively bonds to specific, undercoordinated transition metal atoms available following rupture of a metal point contact in the STM-BJ experiments. This basic chemical principle rationalizes the observation of highly reproducible conductance signatures. Subsequently, the method has been extended to probe a variety of physical phenomena ranging from basic I-V characteristics to more complex properties such as thermopower and electrochemical response. By adapting the technique to a conducting cantilever atomic force microscope (AFM-BJ), simultaneous measurement of the mechanical characteristics of nanoscale junctions as they are pulled apart has given complementary information such as the stiffness and rupture force of the molecule-metal link bond. Overall, while the BJ technique does not produce a single molecule circuit for practical applications, it has proved remarkably versatile for fundamental studies. Measured data and analysis have been combined with atomic-scale theory and calculations, typically performed for representative junction structures, to provide fundamental physical understanding of structure-function relationships. This Account integrates across an extensive series of our specific nanoscale junction studies which were carried out with the STM- and AFM-BJ techniques and supported by theoretical analysis and density functional theory based calculations, with emphasis on the physical characteristics of the measurement process and the rich data sets that emerge. Several examples illustrate the impact of measured trends based on the most probable values for key characteristics (obtained from ensembles of order 1000-10 000 individual junctions) to build a solid picture of conductance phenomena as well as attributes of the link bond chemistry. The key forward-looking question posed here is the extent to which the full data sets represented by the individual trajectories can be analyzed to address structure-function questions at the level of individual junctions. Initial progress toward physical modeling of conductance of individual junctions indicates trends consistent with physical junction structures. Analysis of junction mechanics reveals a scaling procedure that collapses existing data onto a universal force-extension curve. This research directed to understanding the distribution of structures and physical characteristics addresses fundamental questions concerning the interplay between chemical control and stochastically driven diversity. PMID:26938931

  14. E-cadherin is essential for in vivo epidermal barrier function by regulating tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Tunggal, Judith A; Helfrich, Iris; Schmitz, Annika; Schwarz, Heinz; Günzel, Dorothee; Fromm, Michael; Kemler, Rolf; Krieg, Thomas; Niessen, Carien M

    2005-03-23

    Cadherin adhesion molecules are key determinants of morphogenesis and tissue architecture. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the morphogenetic contributions of cadherins remain poorly understood in vivo. Besides supporting cell-cell adhesion, cadherins can affect a wide range of cellular functions that include activation of cell signalling pathways, regulation of the cytoskeleton and control of cell polarity. To determine the role of E-cadherin in stratified epithelium of the epidermis, we have conditionally inactivated its gene in mice. Here we show that loss of E-cadherin in the epidermis in vivo results in perinatal death of mice due to the inability to retain a functional epidermal water barrier. Absence of E-cadherin leads to improper localization of key tight junctional proteins, resulting in permeable tight junctions and thus altered epidermal resistance. In addition, both Rac and activated atypical PKC, crucial for tight junction formation, are mislocalized. Surprisingly, our results indicate that E-cadherin is specifically required for tight junction, but not desmosome, formation and this appears to involve signalling rather than cell contact formation. PMID:15775979

  15. The expression of gingival epithelial junctions in response to subgingival biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Belibasakis, Georgios N; Kast, Jeannette I; Thurnheer, Thomas; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. It is caused by the formation of subgingival biofilms on the surface of the tooth. Characteristic bacteria associated with subgingival biofilms are the Gram-negative anaerobes Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, collectively known as the “red complex” species. Inter-epithelial junctions ensure the barrier integrity of the gingival epithelium. This may however be disrupted by the biofilm challenge. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of subgingival biofilms on the expression of inter-epithelial junctions by gingival epithelia, and evaluate the relative role of the red complex. Multi-layered human gingival epithelial cultures were challenged with a 10-species in vitro subgingival biofilm model, or its variant without the red complex, for 3 h and 24 h. A low-density array microfluidic card platform was then used for analyzing the expression of 62 genes encoding for tight junctions, gap junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes. Although there was a limited effect of the biofilms on the expression of tight, adherens and gap junctions, the expression of a number of desmosomal components was affected. In particular, Desmoglein-1 displayed a limited and transient up-regulation in response to the biofilm. In contrast, Desmocollin-2, Desmoplakin and Plakoglobin were down-regulated equally by both biofilm variants, after 24 h. In conclusion, this subgingival biofilm model may down-regulate selected desmosomal junctions in the gingival epithelium, irrespective of the presence of the “red complex.” In turn, this could compromise the structural integrity of the gingival tissue, favoring bacterial invasion and chronic infection. PMID:26305580

  16. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    PubMed

    Géraud, Cyrill; Evdokimov, Konstantin; Straub, Beate K; Peitsch, Wiebke K; Demory, Alexandra; Dörflinger, Yvette; Schledzewski, Kai; Schmieder, Astrid; Schemmer, Peter; Augustin, Hellmut G; Schirmacher, Peter; Goerdt, Sergij

    2012-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ), i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ) transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis. PMID:22509281

  17. The expression of gingival epithelial junctions in response to subgingival biofilms.

    PubMed

    Belibasakis, Georgios N; Kast, Jeannette I; Thurnheer, Thomas; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. It is caused by the formation of subgingival biofilms on the surface of the tooth. Characteristic bacteria associated with subgingival biofilms are the Gram-negative anaerobes Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, collectively known as the "red complex" species. Inter-epithelial junctions ensure the barrier integrity of the gingival epithelium. This may however be disrupted by the biofilm challenge. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of subgingival biofilms on the expression of inter-epithelial junctions by gingival epithelia, and evaluate the relative role of the red complex. Multi-layered human gingival epithelial cultures were challenged with a 10-species in vitro subgingival biofilm model, or its variant without the red complex, for 3h and 24h. A low-density array microfluidic card platform was then used for analyzing the expression of 62 genes encoding for tight junctions, gap junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes. Although there was a limited effect of the biofilms on the expression of tight, adherens and gap junctions, the expression of a number of desmosomal components was affected. In particular, Desmoglein-1 displayed a limited and transient up-regulation in response to the biofilm. In contrast, Desmocollin-2, Desmoplakin and Plakoglobin were down-regulated equally by both biofilm variants, after 24h. In conclusion, this subgingival biofilm model may down-regulate selected desmosomal junctions in the gingival epithelium, irrespective of the presence of the "red complex." In turn, this could compromise the structural integrity of the gingival tissue, favoring bacterial invasion and chronic infection. PMID:26305580

  18. Development of nano and micro SQUIDs based on Al tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Sakuma, Daisuke; Shinozaki, Tomoya; Tsuchiya, Shogo; Nago, Yusuke; Osato, Hirotaka; Tsuya, Daiju; Kashiwaya, Hiromi; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Nomura, Shintaro; Takayanagi, Hideaki; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2014-12-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with nano (micro)-meter dimensions are called nano (micro)-SQUIDs. The high sensitivity for flux and position of nano (micro)-SQUIDs can be applied to detect local magnetic fields induced by vortices and the magnetization of mesoscopic superconductors. Nano-SQUIDs based on carbon-nanotube junctions and niobium weak junctions are well known. However, such nano-SQUIDs are not suitable for large-scale integrated circuits and mass production. Therefore, we employ a combination of lithography using the Niemeyer-Dolan technique and the inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching technique to fabricate nano-SQUIDs. Here, we report the fabrication of nano (micro)-SQUIDs based on superconducting aluminum tunnel junctions and their application for vortex formation into mesoscopic chiral superconducting Sr2RuO4[1-3].

  19. Upregulation and maintenance of gap junctional communication in lens cells.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Bruce A; Le, Anh-Chi N; Musil, Linda S

    2009-05-01

    The cells of the lens are joined by an extensive network of gap junction intercellular channels consisting of connexins 43, 46, and 50. We have proposed, and experimentally supported, the hypothesis that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is required for upregulation of gap junction-mediated intercellular coupling (GJIC) at the lens equator. The ability of FGF to increase GJIC in cultured lens cells requires sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In other cell types, activation of ERK has been shown to block GJIC mediated by connexin43 (Cx43). Why ERK signaling does not block lens cell coupling is not known. Another unresolved issue in lens gap junction regulation is how connexins, synthesized before the loss of biosynthetic organelles in mature lens fiber cells, avoid degradation during formation of the organelle-free zone. We have addressed these questions using serum-free cultures (termed DCDMLs) of primary embryonic chick lens epithelial cells. We show that FGF stimulates ERK in DCDMLs via the canonical Ras/Raf1 pathway, and that the reason that neither basal nor growth factor-stimulated GJIC is blocked by activation of ERK is because it is not mediated by Cx43. In fibroblastic cells, the normally rapid rate of degradation of Cx43 after its transport to the plasma membrane is reduced by treatments that either directly (ALLN; epoxomicin) or indirectly (generation of oxidatively un/mis-folded proteins by arsenic compounds) prevent the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) from acting on its normal substrates. We show here that Cx45.6 and Cx56, the chick orthologs of mammalian Cx50 and Cx46, behave similarly in DCDMLs. When organelles lyse during the maturation of fiber cells, they release into the cytosol a large amount of new proteins that have the potential to saturate the capacity, and/or compromise the function, of the UPS. This would serve to spare gap junctions from degradation during formation of the organelle-free zone, thereby preserving GJIC between mature fiber cells despite the lack of de novo connexin synthesis. PMID:19103198

  20. A study on NiGe-contacted Ge n+/p Ge shallow junction prepared by dopant segregation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Bing-Yue; Shih, Jhe-Ju; Lin, Han-Chi; Lin, Chiung-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the effect of dopant segregation on the NiGe/n-Ge contact is studied by experiments and first-principles calculations. Both Al-contacted and NiGe-contacted n+/p junctions were fabricated. Phosphorus and arsenic ions were Implanted Before Germanide (IBG) formation or Implanted After Germanide (IAG) formation. The NiGe-contacted junction always exhibit higher forward current than the Al-contacted junction due to dopant segregation. First principles calculations predict that phosphorus atoms tend to segregate on both NiGe side and Ge side while arsenic atoms tend to segregate at Ge side. Since phosphorus has higher activation level and lower diffusion coefficient than arsenic, we propose a phosphorus IBG + arsenic IAG process. Shallow n+/p junction with junction depth 90 nm below the NiGe/Ge interface is achieved. The lowest and average contact resistivity is 2 × 10-6 Ω cm2 and 6.7 × 10-6 Ω cm2, respectively. Methods which can further reduce the junction depth and contact resistivity are suggested.

  1. MicroRNA-205 Targets Tight Junction-related Proteins during Urothelial Cellular Differentiation *

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pei-Jung Katy; Chi, Lang-Ming; Chen, Chien-Lun; Liang, Chih-Lung; Lin, Chung-Tzu; Chang, Yu-Xun; Chen, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Yu-Sun

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian bladder urothelium classified as basal, intermediate, and terminally differentiated umbrella cells offers one of the most effective permeability barrier functions known to exist in nature because of the formation of apical uroplakin plaques and tight junctions. To improve our understanding of urothelial differentiation, we analyzed the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of mouse urinary tissues and by TaqMan miRNA analysis of microdissected urothelial layers and in situ miRNA-specific hybridization to determine the dependence of these miRNAs on the differentiation stage. Our in situ hybridization studies revealed that miR-205 was enriched in the undifferentiated basal and intermediate cell layers. We then used a quantitative proteomics approach to identify miR-205 target genes in primary cultured urothelial cells subjected to antagomir-mediated knockdown of specific miRNAs. Twenty-four genes were reproducibly regulated by miR-205; eleven of them were annotated as cell junction- and tight junction-related molecules. Western blot analysis demonstrated that antagomir-induced silencing of miR-205 in primary cultured urothelial cells elevated the expression levels of Tjp1, Cgnl1, and Cdc42. Ectopic expression of miR-205 in MDCK cells inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins and the formation of tight junctions. miR-205- knockdown urothelial cells showed alterations in keratin synthesis and increases of uroplakin Ia and Ib, which are the urothelial differentiation products. These results suggest that miR-205 may contribute a role in regulation of urothelial differentiation by modulating the expression of tight junction-related molecules. PMID:24912853

  2. Quadruple-junction lattice coherency and phase separation in a binary-phase system

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    If each phase has an identical crystal structure and small misfit in the lattice parameters in a binary-phase crystalline system, coherent phase boundaries usually form during separation. Although there have been numerous studies on the effect of coherency elastic energy, no attempt has been made to demonstrate how the phase-separation behaviour varies when multiple interfaces meet at a junction. Here we show that a comprehensively different phase-separation morphology is induced, to release the high coherency strain confined to quadruple junctions. High-temperature in-situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase boundaries with a new crystallographic orientation emerge over twinned crystals to provide strain relaxation at quadruple junctions. The high coherency strain and the formation of different phase boundaries can be understood in terms of the force equilibrium between interface tensions at a junction point. Visualizing the quadruple points at atomic resolution, our observations emphasize the impact of multiple junctions on the morphology evolution during phase separation. PMID:26346223

  3. Highly Conducting pi-Conjugated Molecular Junctions Covalently Bonded to Gold Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Hybertsen, M.; Widawsky, J.R.; Vazquez, H.; Schneebeli, S.T.; Breslow, R.; Venkataraman, L.

    2011-11-02

    We measure electronic conductance through single conjugated molecules bonded to Au metal electrodes with direct Au-C covalent bonds using the scanning tunneling microscope based break-junction technique. We start with molecules terminated with trimethyltin end groups that cleave off in situ, resulting in formation of a direct covalent {sigma} bond between the carbon backbone and the gold metal electrodes. The molecular carbon backbone used in this study consist of a conjugated {pi} system that has one terminal methylene group on each end, which bonds to the electrodes, achieving large electronic coupling of the electrodes to the {pi} system. The junctions formed with the prototypical example of 1,4-dimethylenebenzene show a conductance approaching one conductance quantum (G{sub 0} = 2e{sup 2}/h). Junctions formed with methylene-terminated oligophenyls with two to four phenyl units show a 100-fold increase in conductance compared with junctions formed with amine-linked oligophenyls. The conduction mechanism for these longer oligophenyls is tunneling, as they exhibit an exponential dependence of conductance on oligomer length. In addition, density functional theory based calculations for the Au-xylylene-Au junction show near-resonant transmission, with a crossover to tunneling for the longer oligomers.

  4. Musical molecules: the molecular junction as an active component in audio distortion circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergren, Adam Johan; Zeer-Wanklyn, Lucas; Semple, Mitchell; Pekas, Nikola; Szeto, Bryan; McCreery, Richard L.

    2016-03-01

    Molecular junctions that have a non-linear current–voltage characteristic consistent with quantum mechanical tunneling are demonstrated as analog audio clipping elements in overdrive circuits widely used in electronic music, particularly with electric guitars. The performance of large-area molecular junctions fabricated at the wafer level is compared to currently standard semiconductor diode clippers, showing a difference in the sound character. The harmonic distributions resulting from the use of traditional and molecular clipping elements are reported and discussed, and differences in performance are noted that result from the underlying physics that controls the electronic properties of each clipping component. In addition, the ability to tune the sound using the molecular junction is demonstrated. Finally, the hybrid circuit is compared to an overdriven tube amplifier, which has been the standard reference electric guitar clipped tone for over 60 years. In order to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing molecular junctions for use in commercial applications, devices are fabricated using a low-density format at the wafer level, where 38 dies per wafer, each containing two molecular junctions, are made with exceptional non-shorted yield (99.4%, representing 718 out of 722 tested devices) without requiring clean room facilities.

  5. Musical molecules: the molecular junction as an active component in audio distortion circuits.

    PubMed

    Bergren, Adam Johan; Zeer-Wanklyn, Lucas; Semple, Mitchell; Pekas, Nikola; Szeto, Bryan; McCreery, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    Molecular junctions that have a non-linear current-voltage characteristic consistent with quantum mechanical tunneling are demonstrated as analog audio clipping elements in overdrive circuits widely used in electronic music, particularly with electric guitars. The performance of large-area molecular junctions fabricated at the wafer level is compared to currently standard semiconductor diode clippers, showing a difference in the sound character. The harmonic distributions resulting from the use of traditional and molecular clipping elements are reported and discussed, and differences in performance are noted that result from the underlying physics that controls the electronic properties of each clipping component. In addition, the ability to tune the sound using the molecular junction is demonstrated. Finally, the hybrid circuit is compared to an overdriven tube amplifier, which has been the standard reference electric guitar clipped tone for over 60 years. In order to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing molecular junctions for use in commercial applications, devices are fabricated using a low-density format at the wafer level, where 38 dies per wafer, each containing two molecular junctions, are made with exceptional non-shorted yield (99.4%, representing 718 out of 722 tested devices) without requiring clean room facilities. PMID:26871885

  6. Gating properties of heterotypic gap junction channels formed of connexins 40, 43, and 45.

    PubMed

    Rackauskas, Mindaugas; Kreuzberg, Maria M; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Willecke, Klaus; Verselis, Vytas K; Bukauskas, Feliksas F

    2007-03-15

    Connexins (Cxs) 40, 43, and 45 are expressed in many different tissues, but most abundantly in the heart, blood vessels, and the nervous system. We examined formation and gating properties of heterotypic gap junction (GJ) channels assembled between cells expressing wild-type Cx40, Cx43, or Cx45 and their fusion forms tagged with color variants of green fluorescent protein. We show that these Cxs, with exception of Cxs 40 and 43, are compatible to form functional heterotypic GJ channels. Cx40 and Cx43 hemichannels are unable or effectively impaired in their ability to dock and/or assemble into junctional plaques. When cells expressing Cx45 contacted those expressing Cx40 or Cx43 they readily formed junctional plaques with cell-cell coupling characterized by asymmetric junctional conductance dependence on transjunctional voltage, V(j). Cx40/Cx45 heterotypic GJ channels preferentially exhibit V(j)-dependent gating transitions between open and residual states with a conductance of approximately 42 pS; transitions between fully open and closed states with conductance of approximately 52 pS in magnitude occur at substantially lower ( approximately 10-fold) frequency. Cx40/Cx45 junctions demonstrate electrical signal transfer asymmetry that can be modulated between unidirectional and bidirectional by small changes in the difference between holding potentials of the coupled cells. Furthermore, both fast and slow gating mechanisms of Cx40 exhibit a negative gating polarity. PMID:17189315

  7. Gating Properties of Heterotypic Gap Junction Channels Formed of Connexins 40, 43, and 45

    PubMed Central

    Rackauskas, Mindaugas; Kreuzberg, Maria M.; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Willecke, Klaus; Verselis, Vytas K.; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.

    2007-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) 40, 43, and 45 are expressed in many different tissues, but most abundantly in the heart, blood vessels, and the nervous system. We examined formation and gating properties of heterotypic gap junction (GJ) channels assembled between cells expressing wild-type Cx40, Cx43, or Cx45 and their fusion forms tagged with color variants of green fluorescent protein. We show that these Cxs, with exception of Cxs 40 and 43, are compatible to form functional heterotypic GJ channels. Cx40 and Cx43 hemichannels are unable or effectively impaired in their ability to dock and/or assemble into junctional plaques. When cells expressing Cx45 contacted those expressing Cx40 or Cx43 they readily formed junctional plaques with cell-cell coupling characterized by asymmetric junctional conductance dependence on transjunctional voltage, Vj. Cx40/Cx45 heterotypic GJ channels preferentially exhibit Vj-dependent gating transitions between open and residual states with a conductance of ?42 pS; transitions between fully open and closed states with conductance of ?52 pS in magnitude occur at substantially lower (?10-fold) frequency. Cx40/Cx45 junctions demonstrate electrical signal transfer asymmetry that can be modulated between unidirectional and bidirectional by small changes in the difference between holding potentials of the coupled cells. Furthermore, both fast and slow gating mechanisms of Cx40 exhibit a negative gating polarity. PMID:17189315

  8. Induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions by Kv2.1 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Philip D; Haberkorn, Christopher J; Akin, Elizabeth J; Seel, Peter J; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    Junctions between cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) and the plasma membrane are a subtle but ubiquitous feature in mammalian cells; however, very little is known about the functions and molecular interactions that are associated with neuronal ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Here, we report that Kv2.1 (also known as KCNB1), the primary delayed-rectifier K(+) channel in the mammalian brain, induces the formation of ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Kv2.1 localizes to dense, cell-surface clusters that contain non-conducting channels, indicating that they have a function that is unrelated to membrane-potential regulation. Accordingly, Kv2.1 clusters function as membrane-trafficking hubs, providing platforms for delivery and retrieval of multiple membrane proteins. Using both total internal reflection fluorescence and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the clustered Kv2.1 plays a direct structural role in the induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions in both transfected HEK 293 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. Glutamate exposure results in a loss of Kv2.1 clusters in neurons and subsequent retraction of the cER from the plasma membrane. We propose Kv2.1-induced ER-plasma-membrane junctions represent a new macromolecular plasma-membrane complex that is sensitive to excitotoxic insult and functions as a scaffolding site for both membrane trafficking and Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:25908859

  9. Quadruple-junction lattice coherency and phase separation in a binary-phase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-09-01

    If each phase has an identical crystal structure and small misfit in the lattice parameters in a binary-phase crystalline system, coherent phase boundaries usually form during separation. Although there have been numerous studies on the effect of coherency elastic energy, no attempt has been made to demonstrate how the phase-separation behaviour varies when multiple interfaces meet at a junction. Here we show that a comprehensively different phase-separation morphology is induced, to release the high coherency strain confined to quadruple junctions. High-temperature in-situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase boundaries with a new crystallographic orientation emerge over twinned crystals to provide strain relaxation at quadruple junctions. The high coherency strain and the formation of different phase boundaries can be understood in terms of the force equilibrium between interface tensions at a junction point. Visualizing the quadruple points at atomic resolution, our observations emphasize the impact of multiple junctions on the morphology evolution during phase separation.

  10. A Unique Role for Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain IIA in Regulation of Epithelial Apical Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I.; Bachar, Moshe; Babbin, Brian A.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The integrity and function of the epithelial barrier is dependent on the apical junctional complex (AJC) composed of tight and adherens junctions and regulated by the underlying actin filaments. A major F-actin motor, myosin II, was previously implicated in regulation of the AJC, however direct evidence of the involvement of myosin II in AJC dynamics are lacking and the molecular identity of the myosin II motor that regulates formation and disassembly of apical junctions in mammalian epithelia is unknown. We investigated the role of nonmuscle myosin II (NMMII) heavy chain isoforms, A, B, and C in regulation of epithelial AJC dynamics and function. Expression of the three NMMII isoforms was observed in model intestinal epithelial cell lines, where all isoforms accumulated within the perijunctional F-actin belt. siRNA-mediated downregulation of NMMIIA, but not NMMIIB or NMMIIC expression in SK-CO15 colonic epithelial cells resulted in profound changes of cell morphology and cell-cell adhesions. These changes included acquisition of a fibroblast-like cell shape, defective paracellular barrier, and substantial attenuation of the assembly and disassembly of both adherens and tight junctions. Impaired assembly of the AJC observed after NMMIIA knock-down involved dramatic disorganization of perijunctional actin filaments. These findings provide the first direct non-pharmacological evidence of myosin II-dependent regulation of AJC dynamics in mammalian epithelia and highlight a unique role of NMMIIA in junctional biogenesis. PMID:17668046

  11. Quantum decay of the supercurrent and intrinsic capacitance of Josephson junctions beyond the tunnel limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonenko, Daniil S.; Skvortsov, Mikhail A.

    2015-12-01

    A nondissipative supercurrent state of a Josephson junction is metastable with respect to the formation of a finite-resistance state. This transition is driven by fluctuations, thermal at high temperatures and quantum at low temperatures. We evaluate the lifetime of such a state due to quantum fluctuations in the limit when the supercurrent is approaching the critical current. The decay probability is determined by the instanton action for the superconducting phase difference across the junction. At low temperatures, the dynamics of the phase is massive and is determined by the effective capacitance, which is a sum of the geometric and intrinsic capacitance of the junction. We model the central part of the Josephson junction either by an arbitrary short mesoscopic conductor described by the set of its transmission coefficients, or by a diffusive wire of an arbitrary length. The intrinsic capacitance can generally be estimated as C*˜G /Eg , where G is the normal-state conductance of the junction and Eg is the proximity minigap in its normal part. The obtained capacitance is sufficiently large to qualitatively explain the hysteretic behavior of the current-voltage characteristic even in the absence of overheating.

  12. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao (Tom); Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3??1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W?1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional IIIV photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices. PMID:26152225

  13. Proteomic mapping of ER-PM junctions identifies STIMATE as a regulator of Ca? influx.

    PubMed

    Jing, Ji; He, Lian; Sun, Aomin; Quintana, Ariel; Ding, Yuehe; Ma, Guolin; Tan, Peng; Liang, Xiaowen; Zheng, Xiaolu; Chen, Liangyi; Shi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Shenyuan L; Zhong, Ling; Huang, Yun; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Walker, Cheryl L; Hogan, Patrick G; Wang, Youjun; Zhou, Yubin

    2015-10-01

    Specialized junctional sites that connect the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play critical roles in controlling lipid metabolism and Ca(2+) signalling. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediated by dynamic STIM1-ORAI1 coupling represents a classical molecular event occurring at ER-PM junctions, but the protein composition and how previously unrecognized protein regulators facilitate this process remain ill-defined. Using a combination of spatially restricted biotin labelling in situ coupled with mass spectrometry and a secondary screen based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we mapped the proteome of intact ER-PM junctions in living cells without disrupting their architectural integrity. Our approaches led to the discovery of an ER-resident multi-transmembrane protein that we call STIMATE (STIM-activating enhancer, encoded by TMEM110) as a positive regulator of Ca(2+) influx in vertebrates. STIMATE physically interacts with STIM1 to promote STIM1 conformational switch. Genetic depletion of STIMATE substantially reduces STIM1 puncta formation at ER-PM junctions and suppresses the Ca(2+)-NFAT signalling. Our findings enable further genetic studies to elucidate the function of STIMATE in normal physiology and disease, and set the stage to uncover more uncharted functions of hitherto underexplored ER-PM junctions. PMID:26322679

  14. Correlation of interfacial bonding mechanism and equilibrium conductance of molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhan-Yu; Qiao, Jing-Si; Ji, Wei; Guo, Hong

    2014-12-01

    We report theoretical investigations on the role of interfacial bonding mechanism and its resulting structures to quantum transport in molecular wires. Two bonding mechanisms for the Au-S bond in an Au(111)/1,4-benzenedithiol(BDT)/Au(111) junction were identified by ab initio calculation, confirmed by a recent experiment, which, we showed, critically control charge conduction. It was found, for Au/BDT/Aujunctions, the hydrogen atom, bound by a dative bond to the Sulfur, is energetically non-dissociativeafter the interface formation. The calculated conductance and junction breakdown forces of H-non-dissociative Au/BDT/Au devices are consistent with the experimental values, while the H-dissociated devices, with the interface governed by typical covalent bonding, give conductance more than an order of magnitude larger. By examining the scattering states that traverse the junctions, we have revealed that mechanical and electric properties of a junction have strong correlation with the bonding configuration. This work clearly demonstrates that the interfacial details, rather than previously believed many-body effects, is of vital importance for correctly predicting equilibrium conductance of molecular junctions; and manifests that the interfacial contact must be carefully understood for investigating quantum transport properties of molecular nanoelectronics.

  15. Cell-junctional and cytoskeletal organization in mouse blastocysts lacking E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Ohsugi, M; Larue, L; Schwarz, H; Kemler, R

    1997-05-15

    Trophectoderm epithelium formation, the first visible differentiation process during mouse embryonic development, is affected in embryos lacking the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. Here we analyze the developmental potential of such E-cadherin-negative embryos, focusing on the organization of cell junctions and the cytoskeleton. To do this we used antibodies directed against alpha-, beta-, or gamma-(plakoglobin)-catenin and junctional and cytoskeletal proteins including ZO-1 and occludin (tight junctions), desmoglein1 (desmosomes), connexin43 (gap junctions), and EndoA (cytokeratin intermediate filaments). Membrane localization of alpha- and beta-catenin, and ZO-1, as well as cortical actin filament organization were abnormal in E-cadherin-negative embryos, and the expression levels of alpha- and beta-catenin were dramatically reduced, all suggesting a regulatory role for E-cadherin in forming the cadherin-catenin complex. In contrast, the membrane localization of plakoglobin, occludin, desmoglein1, connexin43, and cytokeratin filaments appeared unaltered. The unusual morphogenesis in E-cadherin-negative embryos apparently reflects defects in the molecular architecture of a supermolecular assembly involving zonulae adherens, tight junctions, and cortical actin filament organization, although the individual structures still appeared normal in electron microscopical analysis. PMID:9187087

  16. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao (Tom); Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W-1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III-V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  17. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao Tom; Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 10(10) Jones (cm Hz(1/2) W(-1)) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III-V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices. PMID:26152225

  18. Tailoring the vapor-liquid-solid growth toward the self-assembly of GaAs nanowire junctions.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xing; Dayeh, Shadi A; Veeramuthu, Vaithianathan; Larrue, Alexandre; Wang, Jian; Su, Haibin; Soci, Cesare

    2011-11-01

    New insights into understanding and controlling the intriguing phenomena of spontaneous merging (kissing) and the self-assembly of monolithic Y- and T-junctions is demonstrated in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaAs nanowires. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy for determining polar facets was coupled to electrostatic-mechanical modeling and position-controlled synthesis to identify nanowire diameter, length, and pitch, leading to junction formation. When nanowire patterns are designed so that the electrostatic energy resulting from the interaction of polar surfaces exceeds the mechanical energy required to bend the nanowires to the point of contact, their fusion can lead to the self-assembly of monolithic junctions. Understanding and controlling this phenomenon is a great asset for the realization of dense arrays of vertical nanowire devices and opens up new ways toward the large scale integration of nanowire quantum junctions or nanowire intracellular probes. PMID:21967168

  19. Tailoring the vapor-liquid-solid growth toward the self-assembly of GaAs nanowire junctions.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Dai X; Dayeh SA; Veeramuthu V; Larrue A; Wang J; Su H; Soci C

    2011-11-09

    New insights into understanding and controlling the intriguing phenomena of spontaneous merging (kissing) and the self-assembly of monolithic Y- and T-junctions is demonstrated in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaAs nanowires. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy for determining polar facets was coupled to electrostatic-mechanical modeling and position-controlled synthesis to identify nanowire diameter, length, and pitch, leading to junction formation. When nanowire patterns are designed so that the electrostatic energy resulting from the interaction of polar surfaces exceeds the mechanical energy required to bend the nanowires to the point of contact, their fusion can lead to the self-assembly of monolithic junctions. Understanding and controlling this phenomenon is a great asset for the realization of dense arrays of vertical nanowire devices and opens up new ways toward the large scale integration of nanowire quantum junctions or nanowire intracellular probes.

  20. Fabrication process for a Josephson computer ETL-JC1 using Nb tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, H.; Kurosawa, I.; Aoyagi, M.; Takada, S. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the fabrication process within was used to develop a multichip Josephson computer named ETL-JC1. The ETL-JC1 consists of four Josephson LSI chips; register arithmetic logic unit chip (RALU), sequence control unit chip (SQCU), 1,280-bit read-only memory chip (IROU), and 1-kbit random access memory chip (DRAU). The fabrication process based on a 3{mu}m-Nb/AlOx/Nb junction technology has been developed to make a complete set of the Josephson LSI chips. The present fabrication process includes a tri-layer tunnel junction formation, a Nb underlayer method, a self-aligned insulation method, a reactive ion etching (RIE) process, and etching stopper layer formation, and a superconducting contact formation. The Josephson critical current density was controlled by the oxidation time within the fluctuation of {plus minus}20% in the LSI fabrication runs.

  1. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2008-10-03

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.

  2. Two Classes of Gap Junction Channels Mediate Soma-Germline Interactions Essential for Germline Proliferation and Gametogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Starich, Todd A.; Hall, David H.; Greenstein, David

    2014-01-01

    In all animals examined, somatic cells of the gonad control multiple biological processes essential for germline development. Gap junction channels, composed of connexins in vertebrates and innexins in invertebrates, permit direct intercellular communication between cells and frequently form between somatic gonadal cells and germ cells. Gap junctions comprise hexameric hemichannels in apposing cells that dock to form channels for the exchange of small molecules. Here we report essential roles for two classes of gap junction channels, composed of five innexin proteins, in supporting the proliferation of germline stem cells and gametogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Transmission electron microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas and fluorescence microscopy show that gap junctions between somatic cells and germ cells are more extensive than previously appreciated and are found throughout the gonad. One class of gap junctions, composed of INX-8 and INX-9 in the soma and INX-14 and INX-21 in the germ line, is required for the proliferation and differentiation of germline stem cells. Genetic epistasis experiments establish a role for these gap junction channels in germline proliferation independent of the glp-1/Notch pathway. A second class of gap junctions, composed of somatic INX-8 and INX-9 and germline INX-14 and INX-22, is required for the negative regulation of oocyte meiotic maturation. Rescue of gap junction channel formation in the stem cell niche rescues germline proliferation and uncovers a later channel requirement for embryonic viability. This analysis reveals gap junctions as a central organizing feature of many somagermline interactions in C. elegans. PMID:25195067

  3. Up-regulation of the connexin43+ gap junction network in haemopoietic tissue before the growth of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rosendaal, M; Green, C R; Rahman, A; Morgan, D

    1994-01-01

    The early developmental stages of haemopoiesis are thought to be regulated by paracrine growth factors and by the haemopoietic environment. Are gap junctions involved here? Gap junctions are structures in cell membranes allowing the direct transfer of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells and are known to be involved in development. We have found that although connexin43 gap junctions are rare (0.00016 +/- 0.0002/microns2 tissue) in normal adult mouse marrow their expression is 80-fold higher (0.0292 +/- 0.0147/microns2) in neonatal marrow. One difference between neonatal and adult haemopoietic tissue is that in the latter more haemopoietic cells are dividing. To test if more gap junctions were due to increased division we altered adult blood-formation by mobilizing or destroying end cells--granulocytes and red cells--or by forcing stem cells to divide by making them regenerate an ablated blood-forming system. Mobilizing end cells had no effect on the number or distribution of gap junctions in marrow but forced stem cell division caused a 100-fold increase in gap junction expression and did so before any recognizable haemopoietic cells formed. There were greater than normal numbers of gap junctions in radio-protected adult mouse marrow. The cells coupled by gap junctions are TE-7+ mesodermally derived fibroblasts, STRO-1+ stromal cells, and CD45+ and CD34+ haemopoietic cells. We propose that there is a latent network of Cx43+ gap junctions in normal quiescent marrow. In response to events that call for active division of stem cells this network is amplified and coupled to haemopoietic stem cells, perhaps enabling them to divide. PMID:8175916

  4. Two classes of gap junction channels mediate soma-germline interactions essential for germline proliferation and gametogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Starich, Todd A; Hall, David H; Greenstein, David

    2014-11-01

    In all animals examined, somatic cells of the gonad control multiple biological processes essential for germline development. Gap junction channels, composed of connexins in vertebrates and innexins in invertebrates, permit direct intercellular communication between cells and frequently form between somatic gonadal cells and germ cells. Gap junctions comprise hexameric hemichannels in apposing cells that dock to form channels for the exchange of small molecules. Here we report essential roles for two classes of gap junction channels, composed of five innexin proteins, in supporting the proliferation of germline stem cells and gametogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Transmission electron microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas and fluorescence microscopy show that gap junctions between somatic cells and germ cells are more extensive than previously appreciated and are found throughout the gonad. One class of gap junctions, composed of INX-8 and INX-9 in the soma and INX-14 and INX-21 in the germ line, is required for the proliferation and differentiation of germline stem cells. Genetic epistasis experiments establish a role for these gap junction channels in germline proliferation independent of the glp-1/Notch pathway. A second class of gap junctions, composed of somatic INX-8 and INX-9 and germline INX-14 and INX-22, is required for the negative regulation of oocyte meiotic maturation. Rescue of gap junction channel formation in the stem cell niche rescues germline proliferation and uncovers a later channel requirement for embryonic viability. This analysis reveals gap junctions as a central organizing feature of many soma-germline interactions in C. elegans. PMID:25195067

  5. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.

    2014-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans.

  6. Role of tight junction proteins in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with impaired epithelial barrier function that is regulated by cell-cell contacts. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression pattern of selected components involved in the formation of tight junctions in relation to GERD. Methods Eighty-four patients with GERD-related symptoms with endoscopic signs (erosive: n = 47) or without them (non-erosive: n = 37) as well as 26 patients lacking GERD-specific symptoms as controls were included. Endoscopic and histological characterization of esophagitis was performed according to the Los Angeles and adapted Ismeil-Beigi criteria, respectively. Mucosal biopsies from distal esophagus were taken for analysis by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of five genes encoding tight junction components [Occludin, Claudin-1, -2, Zona occludens (ZO-1, -2)]. Results Histopathology confirmed GERD-specific alterations as dilated intercellular spaces in the esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD compared to controls (P < 0.05). Claudin-1 and −2 were 2- to 6-fold upregulation on transcript (P < 0.01) and in part on protein level (P < 0.015) in GERD, while subgroup analysis of revealed this upregulation for ERD only. In both erosive and non-erosive reflux disease, expression levels of Occludin and ZO-1,-2 were not significantly affected. Notably, the induced expression of both claudins did not correlate with histopathological parameters (basal cell hyperplasia, dilated intercellular spaces) in patients with GERD. Conclusions Taken together, the missing correlation between the expression of tight junction-related components and histomorphological GERD-specific alterations does not support a major role of the five proteins studied in the pathogenesis of GERD. PMID:22994974

  7. Semiconductor Lasers Containing Quantum Wells in Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Qiu, Yueming

    2004-01-01

    In a recent improvement upon In(x)Ga(1-x)As/InP semiconductor lasers of the bipolar cascade type, quantum wells are added to Esaki tunnel junctions, which are standard parts of such lasers. The energy depths and the geometric locations and thicknesses of the wells are tailored to exploit quantum tunneling such that, as described below, electrical resistances of junctions and concentrations of dopants can be reduced while laser performances can be improved. In(x)Ga(1-x)As/InP bipolar cascade lasers have been investigated as sources of near-infrared radiation (specifically, at wavelengths of about 980 and 1,550 nm) for photonic communication systems. The Esaki tunnel junctions in these lasers have been used to connect adjacent cascade stages and to enable transport of charge carriers between them. Typically, large concentrations of both n (electron-donor) and p (electron-acceptor) dopants have been necessary to impart low electrical resistances to Esaki tunnel junctions. Unfortunately, high doping contributes free-carrier absorption, thereby contributing to optical loss and thereby, further, degrading laser performance. In accordance with the present innovation, quantum wells are incorporated into the Esaki tunnel junctions so that the effective heights of barriers to quantum tunneling are reduced (see figure).

  8. The atrioventricular junctions in Ebstein malformation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S; Goltz, D; McCarthy, K; Cook, A; Connell, M; Smith, A; Anderson, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo review the anatomical structure of the right atrioventricular junction, including the specialised atrioventricular conduction system, in hearts with Ebstein's malformation, to identify potential substrates for the abnormalities in conduction.?METHODSFive heart specimens representing the morphological spectrum of Ebstein malformation were examined grossly and histologically.?RESULTSOn the endocardial surface, the atrioventricular junction was marked by a faint line in two hearts, and by a small ridge in the other three. Analysis of the right parietal junction in four hearts revealed only two accessory muscular atrioventricular connections. A plane of fibrofatty tissue separated atrial from ventricular myocardium in the right parietal junction in all hearts. The compact atrioventricular node was closer to the coronary sinus than usual. Accessory nodoventricular connections were present in four hearts, while accessory fasciculo-ventricular connections were found in one. The right bundle branch was hypoplastic or absent in four hearts.?CONCLUSIONSIn this small series, the parietal atrioventricular junction was better developed than previously thought. Structural abnormalities of the atrioventricular conduction system, however, were present. These may account for some of the conduction abnormalities frequently observed with the Ebstein malformation.???Keywords: Ebstein's anomaly; atrioventricular node; bundle branch block; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome PMID:10722549

  9. Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Soerensen, O. H.; Christiansen, P. L.

    1982-05-01

    A detailed numerical study of a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson tunnel junction is compared with experimental measurements on junctions with different L?J ratios. The soliton picture is found to apply well on both relatively long (L?J=6) and intermediate (L?J=2) junctions. We find good agreement for the current-voltage characteristics, power output, and for the shape and height of the zero-field steps (ZFS). Two distinct modes of soliton oscillations are observed: (i) a bunched or congealed mode giving rise to the fundamental frequency f1 on all ZFS's and (ii) a "symmetric" mode which on the Nth ZFS yields the frequency Nf1 Coexistence of two adjacent frequencies is found on the third ZFS of the longer junction (L?J=6) in a narrow range of bias current as also found in the experiments. Small asymmetries in the experimental environment, a weak magnetic field, e.g., is introduced via the boundary conditions of our numerical model. This gives a junction response to variations in the applied bias current close to that observed experimentally.

  10. Tunnel junctions, cantilevers, and potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Shawn

    We have developed a process for making sub-micrometer dimensional cantilevers, clamped beams, and more complicate electro-mechanical structures that carry integrated electrical leads. Such objects are perhaps useful as test structures for connecting to and measuring the electrical properties of molecular sized objects, as high frequency electromechanical components for radio and microwave frequency applications, and as sensor components for studying the fluctuation physics of small machines. Our process uses two realigned electron-beam lithography steps, a thin film angled deposition system, and differential removal of sacrificial aluminum layers to produce freely suspended sub-micron electromechanical components. We have produced cantilevers and beams on a variety of substrates (silica, silicon, and poly-imide) and have produced insulating, conductive, and multi-layer mechanical structures. We have measured mechanical resonances in the 10 MHz range by electrostatically actuating the cantilevers while in a magnetic field (3500 gauss) and measuring the voltage that results across the front edge of the cantilever. Two structures are fabricated sharing a common ground so that a balanced detection technique can be used to eliminate background signals. Due to the square dependence of the electrostatic force on the voltage, they can be resonated by a drive voltage of 1/2 the natural frequency or at the natural frequency. Two separate attempts have been made to apply these resonators. First, a process was developed to integrate a tunnel junction with the cantilever. These devices can possibly be used for probing small-scale systems such as molecules. We have verified the exponential variation of the tunneling resistance with both substrate flex and electrostatic gating. Second, a novel gate structure was developed to create a double potential well for resonator motion. This is accomplished by placing a multilayer structure in front of the hairpin cantilever consisting two silver layers separated by a layer of aluminum oxide. By applying a voltage and measuring how the resonant frequency changes, the shape of the potential can be deduced. Ideally, the structure would produce a double potential well with well separation determined by geometry. The effect on the gate potentials on the resonant frequency was measured and compared to simple models.

  11. Methods for the fabrication of thermally stable magnetic tunnel junctions

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Y. Austin (Middleton, WI); Yang, Jianhua J. (Madison, WI); Ladwig, Peter F. (Hutchinson, MN)

    2009-08-25

    Magnetic tunnel junctions and method for making the magnetic tunnel junctions are provided. The magnetic tunnel junctions are characterized by a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers. The methods used to fabricate the magnetic tunnel junctions are capable of completely and selectively oxidizing a tunnel junction precursor material using an oxidizing gas containing a mixture of gases to provide a tunnel junction oxide without oxidizing the adjacent ferromagnetic materials. In some embodiments the gas mixture is a mixture of CO and CO.sub.2 or a mixture of H.sub.2 and H.sub.2O.

  12. Modulation of tight junction structure and function by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S V; Hopkins, A M; Nusrat, A

    2000-06-30

    Dynamic regulation of tight junction function is fundamental to many physiologic processes. Disruption of tight junction function drastically alters paracellular permeability and is a hallmark of many pathologic states. Recently, an increasing number of cytokines have been shown to influence tight junction function both in vitro and in vivo. Cytokine-induced effects on tight junction barrier function have also been correlated with effects on intrinsic tight junction proteins and the associated actin cytoskeleton. The aim of this article is to review studies relating to the effects of cytokines on tight junction function and structure. PMID:10854688

  13. Lateral assembly of N-cadherin drives tissue integrity by stabilizing adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Garg, S.; Fischer, S. C.; Schuman, E. M.; Stelzer, E. H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Cadherin interactions ensure the correct registry and anchorage of cells during tissue formation. Along the plasma membrane, cadherins form inter-junctional lattices via cis- and trans-dimerization. While structural studies have provided models for cadherin interactions, the molecular nature of cadherin binding in vivo remains unexplored. We undertook a multi-disciplinary approach combining live cell imaging of three-dimensional cell assemblies (spheroids) with a computational model to study the dynamics of N-cadherin interactions. Using a loss-of-function strategy, we demonstrate that each N-cadherin interface plays a distinct role in spheroid formation. We found that cis-dimerization is not a prerequisite for trans-interactions, but rather modulates trans-interfaces to ensure tissue stability. Using a model of N-cadherin junction dynamics, we show that the absence of cis-interactions results in low junction stability and loss of tissue integrity. By quantifying the binding and unbinding dynamics of the N-cadherin binding interfaces, we determined that mutating either interface results in a 10-fold increase in the dissociation constant. These findings provide new quantitative information on the steps driving cadherin intercellular adhesion and demonstrate the role of cis-interactions in junction stability. PMID:25589573

  14. Gap Junctions and Hemichannels in Signal Transmission, Function and Development of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Nidhi; Kar, Rekha; Jiang, Jean X.

    2012-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) mediated by connexins, in particular connexin 43 (Cx43), plays important roles in regulating signal transmission among different bone cells and thereby regulates development, differentiation, modeling and remodeling of the bone. GJIC regulates osteoblast formation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Osteoclast formation and resorptive ability are also reported to be modulated by GJIC. Furthermore, osteocytes utilize GJIC to coordinate bone remodeling in response to anabolic factors and mechanical loading. Apart from gap junctions, connexins also form hemichannels, which are localized on the cell surface and function independently of the gap junction channels. Both these channels mediate the transfer of molecules smaller than 1.2 kDa including small ions, metabolites, ATP, prostaglandin and IP3. The biological importance of the communication mediated by connexin-forming channels in bone development is revealed by the low bone mass and osteoblast dysfunction in the Cx43-null mice and the skeletal malformations observed in occulodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) caused by mutations in the Cx43 gene. The current review summarizes the role of gap junctions and hemichannels in regulating signaling, function and development of bone cells. PMID:21963408

  15. Plasticity of Button-Like Junctions in the Endothelium of Airway Lymphatics in Development and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li-Chin; Baluk, Peter; Srinivasan, R. Sathish; Oliver, Guillermo; McDonald, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells of initial lymphatics have discontinuous button-like junctions (buttons), unlike continuous zipper-like junctions (zippers) of collecting lymphatics and blood vessels. Buttons are thought to act as primary valves for fluid and cell entry into lymphatics. To learn when and how buttons form during development and whether they change in disease, we examined the appearance of buttons in mouse embryos and their plasticity in sustained inflammation. We found that endothelial cells of lymph sacs at embryonic day (E)12.5 and tracheal lymphatics at E16.5 were joined by zippers, not buttons. However, zippers in initial lymphatics decreased rapidly just before birth, as buttons appeared. The proportion of buttons increased from only 6% at E17.5 and 12% at E18.5 to 35% at birth, 50% at postnatal day (P)7, 90% at P28, and 100% at P70. In inflammation, zippers replaced buttons in airway lymphatics at 14 and 28 days after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection of the respiratory tract. The change in lymphatic junctions was reversed by dexamethasone but not by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 signaling by antibody mF4-31C1. Dexamethasone also promoted button formation during early postnatal development through a direct effect involving glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation in lymphatic endothelial cells. These findings demonstrate the plasticity of intercellular junctions in lymphatics during development and inflammation and show that button formation can be promoted by glucocorticoid receptor signaling in lymphatic endothelial cells. PMID:22538088

  16. Tunnel junction based memristors as artificial synapses

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andy; Niehörster, Stefan; Fabretti, Savio; Shepheard, Norman; Kuschel, Olga; Küpper, Karsten; Wollschläger, Joachim; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Chicca, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    We prepared magnesia, tantalum oxide, and barium titanate based tunnel junction structures and investigated their memristive properties. The low amplitudes of the resistance change in these types of junctions are the major obstacle for their use. Here, we increased the amplitude of the resistance change from 10% up to 100%. Utilizing the memristive properties, we looked into the use of the junction structures as artificial synapses. We observed analogs of long-term potentiation, long-term depression and spike-time dependent plasticity in these simple two terminal devices. Finally, we suggest a possible pathway of these devices toward their integration in neuromorphic systems for storing analog synaptic weights and supporting the implementation of biologically plausible learning mechanisms. PMID:26217173

  17. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    SciTech Connect

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.

    2014-09-22

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  18. Josephson junctions as ultrafast nuclear particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cristiano, R.; Silvestrini, P.

    1989-03-01

    The search for the optimization of some junction parameters to realize a fast particle (radiation) discriminator is discussed. The authors investigate the general aspect of the switching operation in connection with both problems of intrinsic noise and nonequilibrium processes induced by the radiation. The discussion is carried out in terms of an effective radiation flux, namely the flux which produces a number of switchings equal to that produced by intrinsic noise. Such a quantity gives a direct measure of the device performances. The effects of some relevant junction parameters, as the junction area, the Josephson current density and the bath temperature, on the behavior of the effective flux as a function of the response time of the device are presented.

  19. Brownian refrigeration by hybrid tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltonen, J. T.; Helle, M.; Timofeev, A. V.; Solinas, P.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Pekola, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    Voltage fluctuations generated in a hot resistor can cause extraction of heat from a colder normal metal electrode of a hybrid tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor. We extend the analysis presented in Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.210604 98, 210604 (2007) of this heat rectifying system, bearing resemblance to a Maxwells demon. Explicit analytic calculations show that the entropy of the total system is always increasing. We then consider a single-electron transistor configuration with two hybrid junctions in series, and show how the cooling is influenced by charging effects. We analyze also the cooling effect from nonequilibrium fluctuations instead of thermal noise, focusing on the shot noise generated in another tunnel junction. We conclude by discussing limitations for an experimental observation of the effect.

  20. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  1. Mathematical classification of tight junction protein images.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K H; Troyer, C M; Doss, R G; Aminian, F; Balreira, E C; King, J M

    2013-11-01

    We present the rationale for the development of mathematical features used for classification of images stained for selected tight junction proteins. The project examined localization of zonula occludens-1, claudin-1 and F-actin in a model epithelium, Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells. Cytochalasin D exposure was used to perturb junctional localization by actin cytoskeleton disruption. Mathematical features were extracted from images to reliably reveal characteristic information of the pattern of protein localization. Features, such as neighbourhood standard deviation, gradient of pixel intensity measurement and conditional probability, provided meaningful information to classify complex image sets. The newly developed mathematical features were used as input to train a neural network that provided a robust method of individual image classification. The ability for researchers to make determinations concerning image classification while minimizing human bias is an important advancement for the field of tight junction cellular biology. PMID:23889324

  2. Synchronized switching in a josephson junction crystal.

    PubMed

    Leib, Martin; Hartmann, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    We consider a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator where the central conductor is interrupted by a series of uniformly spaced Josephson junctions. The device forms an extended medium that is optically nonlinear on the single photon level with normal modes that inherit the full nonlinearity of the junctions but are nonetheless accessible via the resonator ports. For specific plasma frequencies of the junctions, a set of normal modes clusters in a narrow band and eventually becomes entirely degenerate. Upon increasing the intensity of a red detuned drive on these modes, we observe a sharp and synchronized switching from low-occupation quantum states to high-occupation classical fields, accompanied by a pronounced jump from low to high output intensity. PMID:24949766

  3. Tunnel junction based memristors as artificial synapses.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andy; Niehrster, Stefan; Fabretti, Savio; Shepheard, Norman; Kuschel, Olga; Kpper, Karsten; Wollschlger, Joachim; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Chicca, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    We prepared magnesia, tantalum oxide, and barium titanate based tunnel junction structures and investigated their memristive properties. The low amplitudes of the resistance change in these types of junctions are the major obstacle for their use. Here, we increased the amplitude of the resistance change from 10% up to 100%. Utilizing the memristive properties, we looked into the use of the junction structures as artificial synapses. We observed analogs of long-term potentiation, long-term depression and spike-time dependent plasticity in these simple two terminal devices. Finally, we suggest a possible pathway of these devices toward their integration in neuromorphic systems for storing analog synaptic weights and supporting the implementation of biologically plausible learning mechanisms. PMID:26217173

  4. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  5. Molecular aspects of tight junction barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guo Hua; Weber, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    In complex multicellular organisms, epithelia lining body cavities regulate absorption and secretion of ions, organic molecules, and water. Proper function of epithelia depends on apically and basolaterally situated ion channels as well as tight junctions which seal the apical intercellular space. Without tight junctions, transepithelial concentration gradients of ions and nutrients would be dissipated through the paracellular space. Elevated tight junction permeability is a feature of many diseases of multiple organs, including the gastrointestinal tract [1,2,3*,4*], kidney [5,6], and lungs [7,8]. In the intestines, epithelial barrier dysfunction is a major contributor to diarrhea and malnutrition and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. PMID:25128899

  6. Intercellular Junction Assembly, Dynamics, and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kathleen J.; Getsios, Spiro; Troyanovsky, Sergey; Godsel, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intercellular anchoring junctions are highly specialized regions of the plasma membrane where members of the cadherin family of transmembrane adhesion molecules on opposing cells interact through their extracellular domains, and through their cytoplasmic domains serve as a platform for organizing cytoskeletal anchors and remodelers. Here we focus on assembly of so-called “anchoring” or “adhering” junctions—adherens junctions (AJs) and desmosomes (DSMs), which associate with actin and intermediate filaments, respectively. We will examine how the assembly and function of AJs and DSMs are intimately connected during embryogenesis and in adult cells and tissues, and in some cases even form specialized “mixed” junctions. We will explore signaling and trafficking machineries that drive assembly and remodeling and how these mechanisms are co-opted in human disease. PMID:20182611

  7. Exploring Hot Gas at Junctions of Galaxy Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Yamasaki, Noriko; Kawahara, Hajime; Sekiya, Norio; Sasaki, Shin; Sousbie, Thierry

    Because galaxies are forced to follow the strong gravitational potential created by the underlying cosmic web of the dark matter, their distribution reflects its filamentary structures. By identifying the filamentary structures, one can therefore recover a map of the network that drives structure formation. Filamentary junctions are regions of particular interest as they identify places where mergers and other interesting astrophysical phenomena have high chances to occur. We identified the galaxy filaments by our original method (Sousbie (2011) & Sousbie et al. (2011)) and X-ray pointing observations were conducted for the six fields locating in the junctions of the galaxy filaments where no specific diffuse X-ray emissions had previously been detected so far. We discovered significant X-ray signals in their images and spectra of the all regions. Spectral analysis demonstrated that six sources originate from diffuse emissions associated with optically bright galaxies, group-scale, or cluster-scale X-ray halos with kT˜1-4 keV, while the others are compact object origin. Interestingly, all of the newly discovered three intracluster media show peculiar features such as complex or elongated morphologies in X-ray and/or optical and hot spot involved in ongoing merger events (Kawahara et al. (2011) & Mitsuishi et al. (2014)). In this conference, results of follow-up radio observations for the merging groups as well as the details of the X-ray observations will be reported.

  8. Exploring Hot Gas at Junctions of Galaxy Filaments with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, I.; Kawahara, H.; Sekiya, N.; Sasaki, S.; Sousbie, T.; Y. Yamasaki, N.

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies are forced to form filamentary structure reflecting the underlying cosmic web of the dark matter. In particular, at junctions of galaxy filaments, one can naturally expect that intense structure formation has high chances to occur. We identified the galaxy filaments by making use of our original method (Sousbie (2011) & Sousbie et al. (2011)) in conjunction with SDSS spectroscopic galaxies. We performed X-ray pointing observations for six fields locating in the junctions of the galaxy filaments where no specific diffuse X-ray emissions had previously been detected so far. We discovered significant X-ray signals in their images and spectra of the all regions compared to a background region. Spectral analysis revealed that six sources originate from diffuse emissions associated with optically bright galaxies, group-scale, or cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperautres of 1-4 keV, while the others are compact object origin. Interestingly, the observed three intracluster media possess peculiar signatures such as complex or elongated morphologies in X-ray and/or optical and hot spot, suggesting that all of the systems are experiencing an ongoing merger (Kawahara et al. (2011) & Mitsuishi et al. (2014)). In this conference, results of follow-up radio observations to search for merger-induced diffuse radio emissions will be reported.

  9. Ballistic Josephson junctions in edge-contacted graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Nanda, G.; Diez, M.; Akhmerov, A. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid graphene-superconductor devices have attracted much attention since the early days of graphene research. So far, these studies have been limited to the case of diffusive transport through graphene with poorly defined and modest-quality graphene/superconductor interfaces, usually combined with small critical magnetic fields of the superconducting electrodes. Here, we report graphene-based Josephson junctions with one-dimensional edge contacts of molybdenum rhenium. The contacts exhibit a well-defined, transparent interface to the graphene, have a critical magnetic field of 8?T at 4?K, and the graphene has a high quality due to its encapsulation in hexagonal boron nitride. This allows us to study and exploit graphene Josephson junctions in a new regime, characterized by ballistic transport. We find that the critical current oscillates with the carrier density due to phase-coherent interference of the electrons and holes that carry the supercurrent caused by the formation of a Fabry-Prot cavity. Furthermore, relatively large supercurrents are observed over unprecedented long distances of up to 1.5??m. Finally, in the quantum Hall regime we observe broken symmetry states while the contacts remain superconducting. These achievements open up new avenues to exploit the Dirac nature of graphene in interaction with the superconducting state.

  10. Pasiflora proteins are novel core components of the septate junction.

    PubMed

    Deligiannaki, Myrto; Casper, Abbie L; Jung, Christophe; Gaul, Ulrike

    2015-09-01

    Epithelial sheets play essential roles as selective barriers insulating the body from the environment and establishing distinct chemical compartments within it. In invertebrate epithelia, septate junctions (SJs) consist of large multi-protein complexes that localize at the apicolateral membrane and mediate barrier function. Here, we report the identification of two novel SJ components, Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2, through a genome-wide glial RNAi screen in Drosophila. Pasiflora mutants show permeable blood-brain and tracheal barriers, overelongated tracheal tubes and mislocalization of SJ proteins. Consistent with the observed phenotypes, the genes are co-expressed in embryonic epithelia and glia and are required cell-autonomously to exert their function. Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2 belong to a previously uncharacterized family of tetraspan membrane proteins conserved across the protostome-deuterostome divide. Both proteins localize at SJs and their apicolateral membrane accumulation depends on other complex components. In fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments we demonstrate that pasiflora proteins are core SJ components as they are required for complex formation and exhibit restricted mobility within the membrane of wild-type epithelial cells, but rapid diffusion in cells with disrupted SJs. Taken together, our results show that Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2 are novel integral components of the SJ and implicate a new family of tetraspan proteins in the function of these ancient and crucial cell junctions. PMID:26329602

  11. Currents Induced by Injected Charge in Junction Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas

    2013-01-01

    The problem of drifting charge-induced currents is considered in order to predict the pulsed operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors with a junction controlled active area. The direct analysis of the field changes induced by drifting charge in the abrupt junction devices with a plane-parallel geometry of finite area electrodes is presented. The problem is solved using the one-dimensional approach. The models of the formation of the induced pulsed currents have been analyzed for the regimes of partial and full depletion. The obtained solutions for the current density contain expressions of a velocity field dependence on the applied voltage, location of the injected surface charge domain and carrier capture parameters. The drift component of this current coincides with Ramo's expression. It has been illustrated, that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms. Experimental illustrations of the current pulse variations determined by either the rather small or large carrier density within the photo-injected charge domain are presented, based on a study of Si detectors. PMID:24036586

  12. Canonical Wnt Signaling Regulates Atrioventricular Junction Programming and Electrophysiological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gillers, Benjamin S; Chiplunkar, Aditi; Aly, Haytham; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Efimov, Igor R; Boukens, Bastiaan J; Rentschler, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Proper patterning of the atrioventricular canal (AVC) is essential for delay of electrical impulses between atria and ventricles, and defects in AVC maturation can result in congenital heart disease. Objective To determine the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium during AVC development. Methods and Results We utilized a novel allele of ?-catenin that preserves ?-catenins cell adhesive functions but disrupts canonical Wnt signaling, allowing us to probe the effects of Wnt loss of function independently. We show that loss of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium results in tricuspid atresia with hypoplastic right ventricle associated with loss of AVC myocardium. In contrast, ectopic activation of Wnt signaling was sufficient to induce formation of ectopic AV junction-like tissue as assessed by morphology, gene expression, and electrophysiologic criteria. Aberrant AVC development can lead to ventricular preexcitation, a characteristic feature of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We demonstrate that postnatal activation of Notch signaling downregulates canonical Wnt targets within the AV junction. Stabilization of ?-catenin protein levels can rescue Notch-mediated ventricular preexcitation and dysregulated ion channel gene expression. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that myocardial canonical Wnt signaling is an important regulator of AVC maturation and electrical programming upstream of Tbx3. Our data further suggests that ventricular preexcitation may require both morphologic patterning defects, as well as myocardial lineage reprogramming, to allow robust conduction across accessory pathway tissue. PMID:25599332

  13. Pasiflora proteins are novel core components of the septate junction

    PubMed Central

    Deligiannaki, Myrto; Casper, Abbie L.; Jung, Christophe; Gaul, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets play essential roles as selective barriers insulating the body from the environment and establishing distinct chemical compartments within it. In invertebrate epithelia, septate junctions (SJs) consist of large multi-protein complexes that localize at the apicolateral membrane and mediate barrier function. Here, we report the identification of two novel SJ components, Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2, through a genome-wide glial RNAi screen in Drosophila. Pasiflora mutants show permeable blood-brain and tracheal barriers, overelongated tracheal tubes and mislocalization of SJ proteins. Consistent with the observed phenotypes, the genes are co-expressed in embryonic epithelia and glia and are required cell-autonomously to exert their function. Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2 belong to a previously uncharacterized family of tetraspan membrane proteins conserved across the protostome-deuterostome divide. Both proteins localize at SJs and their apicolateral membrane accumulation depends on other complex components. In fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments we demonstrate that pasiflora proteins are core SJ components as they are required for complex formation and exhibit restricted mobility within the membrane of wild-type epithelial cells, but rapid diffusion in cells with disrupted SJs. Taken together, our results show that Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2 are novel integral components of the SJ and implicate a new family of tetraspan proteins in the function of these ancient and crucial cell junctions. PMID:26329602

  14. Ballistic Josephson junctions in edge-contacted graphene.

    PubMed

    Calado, V E; Goswami, S; Nanda, G; Diez, M; Akhmerov, A R; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Klapwijk, T M; Vandersypen, L M K

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid graphene-superconductor devices have attracted much attention since the early days of graphene research. So far, these studies have been limited to the case of diffusive transport through graphene with poorly defined and modest-quality graphene/superconductor interfaces, usually combined with small critical magnetic fields of the superconducting electrodes. Here, we report graphene-based Josephson junctions with one-dimensional edge contacts of molybdenum rhenium. The contacts exhibit a well-defined, transparent interface to the graphene, have a critical magnetic field of 8 T at 4 K, and the graphene has a high quality due to its encapsulation in hexagonal boron nitride. This allows us to study and exploit graphene Josephson junctions in a new regime, characterized by ballistic transport. We find that the critical current oscillates with the carrier density due to phase-coherent interference of the electrons and holes that carry the supercurrent caused by the formation of a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Furthermore, relatively large supercurrents are observed over unprecedented long distances of up to 1.5 μm. Finally, in the quantum Hall regime we observe broken symmetry states while the contacts remain superconducting. These achievements open up new avenues to exploit the Dirac nature of graphene in interaction with the superconducting state. PMID:26214253

  15. VARIATIONS IN TIGHT AND GAP JUNCTIONS IN MAMMALIAN TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Daniel S.; Gilula, Norton B.

    1972-01-01

    The fine structure and distribution of tight (zonula occludens) and gap junctions in epithelia of the rat pancreas, liver, adrenal cortex, epididymis, and duodenum, and in smooth muscle were examined in paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde-fixed, tracer-permeated (K-pyroantimonate and lanthanum), and freeze-fractured tissue preparations. While many pentalaminar and septilaminar foci seen in thin-section and tracer preparations can be recognized as corresponding to well-characterized freeze-fracture images of tight and gap junction membrane modifications, many others cannot be unequivocally categorizednor can all freeze-etched aggregates of membrane particles. Generally, epithelia of exocrine glands (pancreas and liver) have moderate-sized tight junctions and large gap junctions, with many of their gap junctions basal to the junctional complex. In contrast, the adrenal cortex, a ductless gland, may not have a tight junction but does possess large gap junctions. Mucosal epithelia (epididymis and intestine) have extensive tight junctions, but their gap junctions are not as well developed as those of glandular tissue. Smooth muscle contains numerous small gap junctions The incidence, size, and configuration of the junctions we observed correlate well with the known functions of the junctions and of the tissues where they are found. PMID:4337577

  16. Bursting behaviour in coupled Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Hongray, Thotreithem; Balakrishnan, J; Dana, Syamal K

    2015-12-01

    We report an interesting bow-tie shaped bursting behaviour in a certain parameter regime of two resistive-capacitative shunted Josephson junctions, one in the oscillatory and the other in the excitable mode and coupled together resistively. The burst emerges in both the junctions and they show near-complete synchronization for strong enough couplings. We discuss a possible bifurcation scenario to explain the origin of the burst. An exhaustive study on the parameter space of the system is performed, demarcating the regions of bursting from other solutions. PMID:26723143

  17. Bursting behaviour in coupled Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongray, Thotreithem; Balakrishnan, J.; Dana, Syamal K.

    2015-12-01

    We report an interesting bow-tie shaped bursting behaviour in a certain parameter regime of two resistive-capacitative shunted Josephson junctions, one in the oscillatory and the other in the excitable mode and coupled together resistively. The burst emerges in both the junctions and they show near-complete synchronization for strong enough couplings. We discuss a possible bifurcation scenario to explain the origin of the burst. An exhaustive study on the parameter space of the system is performed, demarcating the regions of bursting from other solutions.

  18. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  19. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Robertson, Perry J.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  20. More aromatic molecular junction has lower conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhen; Ji, Xiao-Li; Song, Yang; Wei, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Chuan-Kui

    2015-10-01

    The conductance of molecular junctions containing one of five-atom cyclic unit cyclopentadiene, furan, and thiophene sandwiched between two gold electrodes is theoretically investigated. It shows that when the molecules are adsorbed on pyramidal protruding or single atom protruding electrode surfaces, the conductance of these junctions show a negative relationship with their aromaticity, which is consistent with the experimental finding [34]. The analysis of the transmission coefficients and the molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian attributes this to the aromaticity dependent alignment of frontier molecular orbitals with the Fermi energy of electrodes.

  1. Endoscopic Approaches to the Craniovertebral Junction.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Thorp, Brian D; Shriver, Michael F; Zanation, Adam M; Woodard, Troy D; Sindwani, Raj; Recinos, Pablo F

    2016-02-01

    The endoscopic endonasal approach provides a direct surgical trajectory to anteriorly located lesions at the craniovertebral junction. The inferior limit of surgical exposure is predicted by the nasopalatine line, and the lateral limit is demarcated by the lower cranial nerves. Endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy allows preservation of the soft palate, and patients can restart an oral diet on the first postoperative day. Treating the condition at the craniovertebral junction using this approach requires careful preoperative planning and endoscopic endonasal surgical experience with a 2-surgeon 4-handed approach combining expertise in otolaryngology and neurosurgery. PMID:26614839

  2. Fluctuation of heat current in Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Virtanen, P.; Giazotto, F.

    2015-02-15

    We discuss the statistics of heat current between two superconductors at different temperatures connected by a generic weak link. As the electronic heat in superconductors is carried by Bogoliubov quasiparticles, the heat transport fluctuations follow the Levitov–Lesovik relation. We identify the energy-dependent quasiparticle transmission probabilities and discuss the resulting probability density and fluctuation relations of the heat current. We consider multichannel junctions, and find that heat transport in diffusive junctions is unique in that its statistics is independent of the phase difference between the superconductors.

  3. Conductance Spectra in Graphene-Superconductor Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Shi-Ping; Deng, Zhen-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The conductance spectra of a graphene ribbon and graphene-superconductor (G-S) junctions are investigated, using the tight-binding model and non-equilibrium Green' function formalism. It is found that the quantized conductance related to graphene' edge-states is robust against perturbations in the model parameters for a graphene monolayer ribbon with the zigzag boundary. With appropriate model parameter of the spin-orbit interaction strength, a new bound state with odd-frequency symmetry is found in the G-S junction. An enhancement in the zero-energy conductance amplitude is followed.

  4. Kondo effect in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K I; Joo, S J; Lee, J H; Rhie, K; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lee, W Y; Shin, K H; Lee, B C; LeClair, P; Lee, J-S; Park, J-H

    2007-03-01

    Tunneling magnetoresistance was found to be suppressed with decreasing temperature for magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) oxidized under high plasma power. A strong temperature dependence of the junction resistance was observed, along with zero-bias anomalies of dynamic resistance at low temperatures. Resistance shows a logarithmic dependence on temperature, and resistance versus temperature exhibits a scaling behavior. Our experimental data can be explained in a consistent way by the Kondo effect in the MTJs with the Kondo temperature TK=20-30 K. PMID:17358561

  5. Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.; Kogan, V.G.

    1997-04-01

    The magnetic-field dependence of the critical current I{sub c}(H) is considered for a short Josephson junction with the critical current density j{sub c} alternating along the tunnel contact. Two model cases, periodic and randomly alternating j{sub c}, are treated in detail. Recent experimental data on I{sub c}(H) for grain-boundary Josephson junctions in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. A proposed route to independent measurements of tight junction conductance at discrete cell junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lushan; Zeng, Yuhan; Baker, Lane A; Hou, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    Direct recording of tight junction permeability is of pivotal importance to many biologic fields. Previous approaches bear an intrinsic disadvantage due to the difficulty of separating tight junction conductance from nearby membrane conductance. Here, we propose the design of Double whole-cell Voltage Clamp - Ion Conductance Microscopy (DVC-ICM) based on previously demonstrated potentiometric scanning of local conductive pathways. As proposed, DVC-ICM utilizes two coordinated whole-cell patch-clamps to neutralize the apical membrane current during potentiometric scanning, which in models described here will profoundly enhance the specificity of tight junction recording. Several potential pitfalls are considered, evaluated and addressed with alternative countermeasures. PMID:26716077

  7. Deficiency of Transcription Factor Brn4 Disrupts Cochlear Gap Junction Plaques in a Model of DFN3 Non-Syndromic Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Kidokoro, Yoshinobu; Karasawa, Keiko; Minowa, Osamu; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Noda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kamiya, Kazusaku

    2014-01-01

    Brn4, which encodes a POU transcription factor, is the gene responsible for DFN3, an X chromosomelinked, non-syndromic type of hearing loss. Brn4-deficient mice have a low endocochlear potential (EP), hearing loss, and ultrastructural alterations in spiral ligament fibrocytes, however the molecular pathology through which Brn4 deficiency causes low EP is still unclear. Mutations in the Gjb2 and Gjb6 genes encoding the gap junction proteins connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin30 (Cx30) genes, respectively, which encode gap junction proteins and are expressed in cochlear fibrocytes and non-sensory epithelial cells (i.e., cochlear supporting cells) to maintain the proper EP, are responsible for hereditary sensorineural deafness. It has been hypothesized that the gap junction in the cochlea provides an intercellular passage by which K+ is transported to maintain the EP at the high level necessary for sensory hair cell excitation. Here we analyzed the formation of gap junction plaques in cochlear supporting cells of Brn4-deficient mice at different stages by confocal microscopy and three-dimensional graphic reconstructions. Gap junctions from control mice, which are composed mainly of Cx26 and Cx30, formed linear plaques along the cell-cell junction sites with adjacent cells. These plaques formed pentagonal or hexagonal outlines of the normal inner sulcus cells and border cells. Gap junction plaques in Brn4-deficient mice did not, however, show the normal linear structure but instead formed small spots around the cell-cell junction sites. Gap junction lengths were significantly shorter, and the level of Cx26 and Cx30 was significantly reduced in Brn4-deficient mice compared with littermate controls. Thus the Brn4 mutation affected the assembly and localization of gap junction proteins at the cell borders of cochlear supporting cells, suggesting that Brn4 substantially contributes to cochlear gap junction properties to maintain the proper EP in cochleae, similar to connexin-related deafness. PMID:25259580

  8. Ballistic bipolar junctions in chemically gated graphene ribbons

    PubMed Central

    Baringhaus, Jens; Sthr, Alexander; Forti, Stiven; Starke, Ulrich; Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The realization of ballistic graphene pn-junctions is an essential task in order to study Klein tunneling phenomena. Here we show that intercalation of Ge under the buffer layer of pre-structured SiC-samples succeeds to make truly nano-scaled pn-junctions. By means of local tunneling spectroscopy the junction width is found to be as narrow as 5 nm which is a hundred times smaller compared to electrically gated structures. The ballistic transmission across the junction is directly proven by systematic transport measurements with a 4-tip STM. Various npn- and pnp-junctions are studied with respect to the barrier length. The pn-junctions are shown to act as polarizer and analyzer with the second junction becoming transparent in case of a fully ballistic barrier. This can be attributed to the almost full suppression of electron transmission through the junction away from normal incidence. PMID:25898259

  9. Alternative types of molecule-decorated atomic chains in Au–CO–Au single-molecule junctions

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Zoltán; Makk, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Summary We investigate the formation and evolution of Au–CO single-molecule break junctions. The conductance histogram exhibits two distinct molecular configurations, which are further investigated by a combined statistical analysis. According to conditional histogram and correlation analysis these molecular configurations show strong anticorrelations with each other and with pure Au monoatomic junctions and atomic chains. We identify molecular precursor configurations with somewhat higher conductance, which are formed prior to single-molecule junctions. According to detailed length analysis two distinct types of molecule-affected chain-formation processes are observed, and we compare these results to former theoretical calculations considering bridge- and atop-type molecular configurations where the latter has reduced conductance due to destructive Fano interference. PMID:26199840

  10. Hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on layers of inorganic nanocrystals and organic semiconductors: optimization of layer thickness by considering the width of the depletion region.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sudip K; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-03-01

    We report the formation and characterization of hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on a layer of copper diffused silver indium disulfide (AgInS2@Cu) nanoparticles and another layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules. With copper diffusion in the nanocrystals, their optical absorption and hence the activity of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells was extended towards the near-IR region. To decrease the particle-to-particle separation for improved carrier transport through the inorganic layer, we replaced the long-chain ligands of copper-diffused nanocrystals in each monolayer with short-ones. Under illumination, the hybrid pn-junctions yielded a higher short-circuit current as compared to the combined contribution of the Schottky junctions based on the components. A wider depletion region at the interface between the two active layers in the pn-junction device as compared to that of the Schottky junctions has been considered to analyze the results. Capacitance-voltage characteristics under a dark condition supported such a hypothesis. We also determined the width of the depletion region in the two layers separately so that a pn-junction could be formed with a tailored thickness of the two materials. Such a "fully-depleted" device resulted in an improved photovoltaic performance, primarily due to lessening of the internal resistance of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells. PMID:24452695

  11. Real-Space Microscopic Electrical Imaging of n+-p Junction Beneath Front-Side Ag Contact of Multicrystalline Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. S.; Li, Z. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; Liang, L.; Ionkin, A.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-04-15

    We investigated the quality of the n+-p diffused junction beneath the front-side Ag contact of multicrystalline Si solar cells by characterizing the uniformities of electrostatic potential and doping concentration across the junction using the atomic force microscopy-based electrical imaging techniques of scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. We found that Ag screen-printing metallization fired at the over-fire temperature significantly degrades the junction uniformity beneath the Ag contact grid, whereas metallization at the optimal- and under-fire temperatures does not cause degradation. Ag crystallites with widely distributed sizes were found at the Ag-grid/emitter-Si interface of the over-fired cell, which is associated with the junction damage beneath the Ag grid. Large crystallites protrude into Si deeper than the junction depth. However, the junction was not broken down; instead, it was reformed on the entire front of the crystallite/Si interface. We propose a mechanism of junction-quality degradation, based on emitter Si melting at the temperature around the Ag-Si eutectic point during firing, and subsequent re-crystallization with incorporation of Ag and other impurities and with formation of crystallographic defects during quenching. The effect of this junction damage on solar cell performance is discussed.

  12. The Na+/K+ ATPase is required for septate junction function and epithelial tube-size control in the Drosophila tracheal system.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sarah M; Ternet, Melissa; Salvaterra, Paul M; Beitel, Greg J

    2003-10-01

    Although the correct architecture of epithelial tubes is crucial for the function of organs such as the lung, kidney and vascular system, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control tube size. We show that mutations in the ATPalpha alpha and nrv2 beta subunits of the Na+/K+ ATPase cause Drosophila tracheal tubes to have increased lengths and expanded diameters. ATPalpha and nrv2 mutations also disrupt stable formation of septate junctions, structures with some functional and molecular similarities to vertebrate tight junctions. The Nrv2 beta subunit isoforms have unique tube size and junctional functions because Nrv2, but not other Drosophila Na+/K+ ATPase beta subunits, can rescue nrv2 mutant phenotypes. Mutations in known septate junctions genes cause the same tracheal tube-size defects as ATPalpha and nrv2 mutations, indicating that septate junctions have a previously unidentified role in epithelial tube-size control. Double mutant analyses suggest that tube-size control by septate junctions is mediated by at least two discernable pathways, although the paracellular diffusion barrier function does not appear to involved because tube-size control and diffusion barrier function are genetically separable. Together, our results demonstrate that specific isoforms of the Na+/K+ ATPase play a crucial role in septate junction function and that septate junctions have multiple distinct functions that regulate paracellular transport and epithelial tube size. PMID:12930776

  13. Characterization of discontinuous buffer junctions using pH indicators in capillary electrophoresis for protein preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Jurcic, Kristina; Nesbitt, Chandra A; Yeung, Ken K-C

    2006-11-17

    An effective sample preconcentration technique for proteins and peptides was recently developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with discontinuous buffers [C.A. Nesbitt, J.T.-M. Lo, K.K.-C. Yeung, J. Chromatogr. A 1073 (2005) 175]. Two buffers of different pH created a junction to trap the sample molecules at their isoelectric points and resulted in over 1000-fold preconcentration for myoglobin within 30 min. To study the formation of pH junctions in CE, a pH indicator, bromothymol blue, is used in this work to reveal the pH changes at the discontinuous buffer boundary. Bromothymol blue (BTB) exhibits a drastic change in its visible absorption spectrum (300-600 nm) going from the acidic to basic pH conditions, and is therefore ideal for visualizing the changes in pH at the junctions created by various buffer combinations. Preconcentration of myoglobin was performed in discontinuous buffers containing BTB. Major differences in the BTB absorption profiles were identified from buffer systems that differ significantly in preconcentration performance, which in turn, allowed for the identification of ideal buffers for sample preconcentration. Up to 2000-fold preconcentrations of myoglobin were achieved in the buffer systems studied in this work. In addition, the role of the electroosmotic flow (EOF) on the preconcentration performance was investigated. A low EOF was found to be desirable, as the pH junction could stay longer in the capillary for accumulation of proteins. The pH junction also displayed characteristics to resist bandbroadening. Potential laminar flow resulted from the mismatched residual EOFs under the two pH conditions within the discontinuous buffers appeared to have minimal effect on the preconcentration. In fact, external applied pressure can be used to control the migration of the pH junction without compromising the protein preconcentration. PMID:17022988

  14. Connexin26 regulates assembly and maintenance of cochlear gap junction macromolecular complex for normal hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Kazusaku; Fukunaga, Ichiro; Hatakeyama, Kaori; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary deafness affects about 1 in 2000 children and GJB2 gene mutation is most frequent cause for this disease in the world. GJB2 encodes connexin26 (Cx26), a component in cochlear gap junction. Recently, we found macromolecular change of gap junction plaques with two different types of Cx26 mutation as major classification of clinical case, one is a model of dominant negative type, Cx26R75W+ and the other is conditional gene deficient mouse, Cx26f/fP0Cre as a model for insufficiency of gap junction protein [6]. Gap junction composed mainly of Cx26 and Cx30 in wild type mice formed large planar gap junction plaques (GJP). In contrast, Cx26R75W+ and Cx26f/fP0Cre showed fragmented small round GJPs around the cell border. In Cx26f/fP0Cre, some of the cells with Cx26 expression due to their cellular mosaicism showed normal large GJP with Cx26 and Cx30 only at the cell junction site between two Cx26 positive cells. These indicate that bilateral Cx26 expressions from both adjacent cells are essential for the formation of the cochlear linear GJP, and it is not compensated by other cochlear Connexins such as Connexin30. In the present study, we demonstrated a new molecular pathology in most common hereditary deafness with different types of Connexin26 mutations, and this machinery can be a new target for drag design of hereditary deafness.

  15. Albumin impairs renal tubular tight junctions via targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yibo; Hu, Caiyu; Ding, Guixia; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Songming; Jia, Zhanjun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-05-01

    Proteinuria is, not only a hallmark of glomerular disease, but also a contributor to kidney injury. However, its pathogenic mechanism is still elusive. In the present study, the effects of albumin on renal tubular tight junctions and the potential molecular mechanisms of those effects were investigated. In mouse proximal tubular cells (mPTCs), albumin treatment resulted in a significant loss of the cellular tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating a severe impairment of the tight junctions. On the basis of our previous study showing that albumin stimulated NLRP3 [neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, major histocompatibility complex class 2 transcription activator, incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina, and telomerase-associated protein (NACHT); leucine-rich repeat (LRR); and pyrin domain (PYD) domains-containing protein 3] inflammasome activation in mPTCs, we pretreated mPTCs with NLRP3 siRNA (siNLRP3) and found that NLRP3 knockdown significantly blocked the downregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 induced by albumin. Similarly, in albumin-overloaded wild-type mice, both ZO-1 and claudin-1 were downregulated at the protein and mRNA levels in parallel with the impaired formation of the tight junctions on transmission electron microscopy and the abnormal renal tubular morphology on periodic acid-Schiff staining, which contrasted with the stimulation of NLRP3 in the renal tubules. In contrast, NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3(-/-)) mice preserved normal ZO-1 and claudin-1 expression as well as largely normal tight junctions and tubular morphology. More importantly, deletion of the NLRP3 pathway downstream component caspase-1 similarly blocked the albumin overload-induced downregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1. Taken together, these findings demonstrated an important role of the albumin-NLRP3 inflammasome axis in mediating the impairment of renal tubular tight junctions and integrity. PMID:25715986

  16. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOEpatents

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  17. Effect of disorder on longitudinal resistance of a graphene p-n junction in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang-Chai; Yeung, T. C. Au; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    The longitudinal resistances of a six-terminal graphene p-n junction under a perpendicular magnetic field are investigated. Because of the chirality of the Hall edge states, the longitudinal resistances on top and bottom edges of the graphene ribbon are not equal. In the presence of suitable disorder, the top-edge and bottom-edge resistances well show the plateau structures in the both unipolar and bipolar regimes, and the plateau values are determined by the Landau filling factors only. These plateau structures are in excellent agreement with the recent experiment. For the unipolar junction, the resistance plateaus emerge in the absence of impurity and they are destroyed by strong disorder. But for the bipolar junction, the resistances are very large without the plateau structures in the clean junction. The disorder can strongly reduce the resistances and leads the formation of the resistance plateaus due to the mixture of the Hall edge states in virtue of the disorder. In addition, the size effect of the junction on the resistances is studied and some extra resistance plateaus are found in the long graphene junction case. This is explained by the fact that only part of the edge states participate in the full mixing.

  18. Optimal control of quantum superpositions in a bosonic Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapert, M.; Ferrini, G.; Sugny, D.

    2012-02-01

    We show how to optimally control the creation of quantum superpositions in a bosonic Josephson junction within the two-site Bose-Hubbard-model framework. Both geometric and purely numerical optimal-control approaches are used, the former providing a generalization of the proposal of Micheli [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.67.013607 67, 013607 (2003)]. While this method is shown not to lead to significant improvements in terms of time of formation and fidelity of the superposition, a numerical optimal-control approach appears more promising, as it allows creation of an almost perfect superposition, within a time short compared to other existing protocols. We analyze the robustness of the optimal solution against atom-number variations. Finally, we discuss the extent to which these optimal solutions could be implemented with state-of-the-art technology.

  19. A Holliday junction resolvase from Pyrococcus furiosus: Functional similarity to Escherichia coli RuvC provides evidence for conserved mechanism of homologous recombination in Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Kayoko; Sakae, Shinzi; Shinagawa, Hideo; Morikawa, Kosuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    1999-01-01

    The Holliday junction is an essential intermediate of homologous recombination. RecA of Bacteria, Rad51 of Eukarya, and RadA of Archaea are structural and functional homologs. These proteins play a pivotal role in the formation of Holliday junctions from two homologous DNA duplexes. RuvC is a specific endonuclease that resolves Holliday junctions in Bacteria. A Holliday junction-resolving activity has been found in both yeast and mammalian cells. To examine whether the paradigm of homologous recombination apply to Archaea, we assayed and found the activity to resolve a synthetic Holliday junction in crude extract of Pyrococcus furiosus cells. The gene, hjc (Holliday junction cleavage), encodes a protein composed of 123 amino acids, whose sequence is not similar to that of any proteins with known function. However, all four archaea, whose total genome sequences have been published, have the homologous genes. The purified Hjc protein cleaved the recombination intermediates formed by RecA in vitro. These results support the notion that the formation and resolution of Holliday junction is the common mechanism of homologous recombination in the three domains of life. PMID:10430863

  20. Supercurrent in van der Waals Josephson junction.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Naoto; Moriya, Rai; Arai, Miho; Sata, Yohta; Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru; Machida, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Supercurrent flow between two superconductors with different order parameters, a phenomenon known as the Josephson effect, can be achieved by inserting a non-superconducting material between two superconductors to decouple their wavefunctions. These Josephson junctions have been employed in fields ranging from digital to quantum electronics, yet their functionality is limited by the interface quality and use of non-superconducting material. Here we show that by exfoliating a layered dichalcogenide (NbSe2) superconductor, the van der Waals (vdW) contact between the cleaved surfaces can instead be used to construct a Josephson junction. This is made possible by recent advances in vdW heterostructure technology, with an atomically flat vdW interface free of oxidation and inter-diffusion achieved by eliminating all heat treatment during junction preparation. Here we demonstrate that this artificially created vdW interface provides sufficient decoupling of the wavefunctions of the two NbSe2 crystals, with the vdW Josephson junction exhibiting a high supercurrent transparency. PMID:26830754

  1. Tandem junction amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1981-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell has an active body with two or a series of layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in a tandem stacked configuration with one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in tandem configuration can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps.

  2. Squeezable electron tunneling junctions. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, J.; Alexander, S.; Cox, M.; Sonnenfeld, R.; Hansma, P.K.

    1983-09-01

    We report a versatile new technique for constructing electron tunneling junctions with mechanically-adjusted artificial barriers. I-V curves are presented for tunneling between Ag electrodes with vacuum, gas, liquid or solid in the barrier. An energy gap is apparent in the measured I-V curve when tunneling occurs between superconducting Pb electrodes.

  3. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2??m, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices. PMID:25553192

  4. Costochondral junction osteomyelitis in 3 septic foals

    PubMed Central

    Cesarini, Carla; Macieira, Susana; Girard, Christiane; Drolet, Richard; dAnjou, Marc-Andr; Jean, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The costochondral junction constitutes a potential site of infection in septic foals and it could be favored by thoracic trauma. Standard radiographs and ultrasonography are useful tools for diagnosis of this condition and ultrasound-guided needle aspiration could permit the definitive confirmation of infection. PMID:22210943

  5. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  6. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  7. Axion mass estimates from resonant Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Recently it has been proposed that dark matter axions from the galactic halo can produce a small Shapiro step-like signal in Josephson junctions whose Josephson frequency resonates with the axion mass (Beck, 2013). Here we show that the axion field equations in a voltage-driven Josephson junction environment allow for a nontrivial solution where the axion-induced electrical current manifests itself as an oscillating supercurrent. The linear change of phase associated with this nontrivial solution implies the formal existence of a large magnetic field in a tiny surface area of the weak link region of the junction which makes incoming axions decay into microwave photons. We derive a condition for the design of Josephson junction experiments so that they can act as optimum axion detectors. Four independent recent experiments are discussed in this context. The observed Shapiro step anomalies of all four experiments consistently point towards an axion mass of (1102) ?eV. This mass value is compatible with the recent BICEP2 results and implies that Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking was taking place after inflation.

  8. Scaffolding protein GOPC regulates tight junction structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruifeng; Stewart, Lorraine; Wilson, Jean M

    2015-05-01

    GOPC (FIG/PIST/CAL) is a PDZ-domain scaffolding protein that regulates the trafficking of a wide array of proteins, including small GTPases, receptors and cell surface molecules such as cadherin 23 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. In Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, we find that GOPC localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but not to the cis- or trans-Golgi cisternae. Colocalization occurs with the early endosome Rab GTPase Rab5 and a TGN/endosome marker Rab14 but not with Rab11, a marker of recycling endosomes. No localization of GOPC was detected to the lateral membranes or tight junctions. Knockdown of GOPC in MDCK cells results in decreased transepithelial resistance and increased paracellular flux. This might be attributable to the compromised trafficking of tight junction components from the TGN, as GOPC-knockdown cells have decreased lateral labeling of the tight junction protein claudin-1 and decreased protein levels of claudin-2. GOPC might mediate the trafficking of newly synthesized tight junction proteins from the TGN to the cell surface or the recycling of these proteins from specialized endosomal compartments. PMID:25616555

  9. Supercurrent in van der Waals Josephson junction

    PubMed Central

    Yabuki, Naoto; Moriya, Rai; Arai, Miho; Sata, Yohta; Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru; Machida, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Supercurrent flow between two superconductors with different order parameters, a phenomenon known as the Josephson effect, can be achieved by inserting a non-superconducting material between two superconductors to decouple their wavefunctions. These Josephson junctions have been employed in fields ranging from digital to quantum electronics, yet their functionality is limited by the interface quality and use of non-superconducting material. Here we show that by exfoliating a layered dichalcogenide (NbSe2) superconductor, the van der Waals (vdW) contact between the cleaved surfaces can instead be used to construct a Josephson junction. This is made possible by recent advances in vdW heterostructure technology, with an atomically flat vdW interface free of oxidation and inter-diffusion achieved by eliminating all heat treatment during junction preparation. Here we demonstrate that this artificially created vdW interface provides sufficient decoupling of the wavefunctions of the two NbSe2 crystals, with the vdW Josephson junction exhibiting a high supercurrent transparency. PMID:26830754

  10. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas ...

  11. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas ...

  12. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas ...

  13. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164 Section 9.164 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas ...

  14. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Erik O.; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2??m, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices. PMID:25553192

  15. Semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, B.A.

    1982-10-29

    A semiconductor liquid junction photocell in which the photocell is in the configuration of a light concentrator and in which the electrolytic solution both conducts current and facilitates the concentration of incident solar radiation onto the semiconductor. The photocell may be in the configuration of a non-imaging concentrator such as a compound parabolic concentrator, or an imaging concentrator such as a lens.

  16. Fast algorithms for triangular Josephson junction arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Sahdev, D.

    1997-04-01

    We develop fast algorithms for the numerical study of two-dimensional triangular Josephson junction arrays. The Dirac bra-ket formalism is introduced in the context of such arrays. We note that triangular arrays can have both hexagonal and rectangular periodicity and develop algorithms for each. Boundaries are next introduced and fast algorithms for finite arrays are developed. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Supercurrent in van der Waals Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, Naoto; Moriya, Rai; Arai, Miho; Sata, Yohta; Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru; Machida, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Supercurrent flow between two superconductors with different order parameters, a phenomenon known as the Josephson effect, can be achieved by inserting a non-superconducting material between two superconductors to decouple their wavefunctions. These Josephson junctions have been employed in fields ranging from digital to quantum electronics, yet their functionality is limited by the interface quality and use of non-superconducting material. Here we show that by exfoliating a layered dichalcogenide (NbSe2) superconductor, the van der Waals (vdW) contact between the cleaved surfaces can instead be used to construct a Josephson junction. This is made possible by recent advances in vdW heterostructure technology, with an atomically flat vdW interface free of oxidation and inter-diffusion achieved by eliminating all heat treatment during junction preparation. Here we demonstrate that this artificially created vdW interface provides sufficient decoupling of the wavefunctions of the two NbSe2 crystals, with the vdW Josephson junction exhibiting a high supercurrent transparency.

  18. Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of facility. Note Buildings #35. #33 and #31A in lower left of photograph. VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  19. 30 CFR 75.602 - Trailing cable junctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cable junctions. 75.602 Section 75.602... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.602 Trailing cable junctions. When two or more trailing cables junction to the same distribution center, means shall be provided...

  20. In-situ preparation of a single molecular junction with mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Sekiguchi, N.; Murakoshi, K.

    2008-03-01

    We have developed the mechanically controllable break junction system (in-situ MCBJ) to investigate the conductance of a single molecular junction in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Gas or liquid sample of bridging molecules was introduced to metal electrodes with a gas doser. For the introduction of solid sample, a Knudsen cell was used. In the present system, molecular junctions can be prepared without breaking vacuum. Thus, the atomic structure and chemical property of single molecular junction could be well defined. The electrical conductance of a single ethanedithiol molecule bridging between two Au electrodes was investigated with this in-situ MCBJ system. The conductance was determined to be 0.2 G0 (G0 = 2e2/h).

  1. The Self-Assembling Tunnel Junction - An adjustable microscopic junction for Vibrational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Darin T.; Weimer, Michael B.; Agnolet, Glenn

    1997-03-01

    The Self-Assembling Tunnel Junction (SATJ) shows promise as an in-situ tunneling spectrometer and may prove useful for correlated electron studies in an adjustable microscopic junction. Traditionally, thin film metal-insulator-impurity-metal junctions have been used for Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy (IETS). In a SATJ(Darin T. Zimmerman, Michael B. Weimer, and Glenn Agnolet, Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, Vol. 46 (1996), Suppl S5)^,(Stephen Gregory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64), 6, 689 (1990), we replace the insulating oxide barrier with a rare-gas film and the thin metal films with fine, clean wires. The molecules to be studied are either adsorbed directly onto the junction wires or added as an impurity to the rare-gas film. Recent observations of IETS spectra on cleaned platinum SATJ's will be discussed. An analysis of the observed zero-bias features, which may be indicative of single electron tunneling, will also be given.

  2. Mapping of Single-Base Differences between Two DNA Strands in a Single Molecule Using Holliday Junction Nanomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Brème, Camille; Heslot, François

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work is to demonstrate a novel single-molecule DNA sequence comparison assay that is purely based on DNA mechanics. Methods A molecular construct that contained the two homologous but non-identical DNA sequences that were to be compared was prepared such that a four-way (Holliday) junction could be formed by the formation of heteroduplexes through the inter-recombination of the strands. Magnetic tweezers were used to manipulate the force and the winding applied to this construct for inducing both the formation and the migration of a Holliday junction. The end-to-end distance of the construct was measured as a function of the winding and was used to monitor the behavior of the Holliday junction in different regions of the intra-molecular recombination. Main Results In the appropriate buffer, the magnet rotation induces the migration of the Holliday junction in the regions where there is no sequence difference between the recombining sequences. In contrast, even a single-base difference between the recombining sequences leads to a long-lasting blockage of the migration in the same buffer; this effect was obtained when the junction was positioned near this locus (the site of the single-base difference) and forced toward the formation of heteroduplexes that comprise the locus. The migration blockages were detected through the identification of the formation of plectonemes. The detection of the presence of sequence differences and their respective mappings were obtained from the series of blockages that were detected. Significance This work presents a novel single-molecule sequence comparison assay that is based on the use of a Holliday junction as an ultra-sensitive nanomechanism; the mismatches act as blocking grains of sand in the Holliday “DNA gearbox”. This approach will potentially have future applications in biotechnology. PMID:23393565

  3. Electrical characteristics and interface structure of magnetic tunnel junctions with hafnium oxyfluoride barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y.Y.; Kim, D.S.; Char, K.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the effects of fluorine inclusion on the electrical transport characteristics and interface structure of the hafnium oxide barrier in a magnetic tunnel junction. The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and resistance-area (RA) as a function of oxidation time show that the TMR ratio of the hafnium oxyfluoride barrier is higher (8.3%) than that of the hafnium oxide barrier (5.7%) at their optimum conditions, and the oxyfluoride barrier junctions maintain a high TMR ratio even when the RA product increases by three orders of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the fluorine atoms in the oxyfluoride barrier play an important role in the formation of a barrier with uniform composition. We believe that the initial fluoride layer is causing the subsequent oxygen diffusion to slow down, resulting in the formation of a defect-free hafnium oxide layer. These results are consistent with what we have found for aluminum oxyfluoride barriers.

  4. Structure of d(CCGGGACCGG)4 as a four-way junction at 1.6? resolution: new insights into solvent interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arka; Mandal, Pradeep Kumar; Gautham, Namasivayam

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the decamer sequence d(CCGGGACCGG)4 has previously been reported at 2.16? resolution as a four-way junction. Here, the structure of this sequence is reported at the significantly higher resolution of 1.6?, which is the highest resolution reported for a four-way junction. This allowed the unambiguous identification of an extensive hydration network with distinct patterns and solvent-mediated interactions that shed new light on the role of water in the formation and stabilization of junction structures. PMID:23027741

  5. The CellBorderTracker, a novel tool to quantitatively analyze spatiotemporal endothelial junction dynamics at the subcellular level.

    PubMed

    Seebach, Jochen; Taha, Abdallah Abu; Lenk, Janine; Lindemann, Nico; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Brinkmann, Klaus; Bogdan, Sven; Schnittler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial junctions are dynamic structures organized by multi-protein complexes that control monolayer integrity, homeostasis, inflammation, cell migration and angiogenesis. Newly developed methods for both the genetic manipulation of endothelium and microscopy permit time-lapse recordings of fluorescent proteins over long periods of time. Quantitative data analyses require automated methods. We developed a software package, the CellBorderTracker, allowing quantitative analysis of fluorescent-tagged cell junction protein dynamics in time-lapse sequences. The CellBorderTracker consists of the CellBorderExtractor that segments cells and identifies cell boundaries and mapping tools for data extraction. The tool is illustrated by analyzing fluorescent-tagged VE-cadherin the backbone of adherence junctions in endothelium. VE-cadherin displays high dynamics that is forced by junction-associated intermittent lamellipodia (JAIL) that are actin driven and WASP/ARP2/3 complex controlled. The manual segmentation and the automatic one agree to 90%, a value that indicates high reliability. Based on segmentations, different maps were generated allowing more detailed data extraction. This includes the quantification of protein distribution pattern, the generation of regions of interest, junction displacements, cell shape changes, migration velocities and the visualization of junction dynamics over many hours. Furthermore, we demonstrate an advanced kymograph, the J-kymograph that steadily follows irregular cell junction dynamics in time-lapse sequences for individual junctions at the subcellular level. By using the CellBorderTracker, we demonstrate that VE-cadherin dynamics is quickly arrested upon thrombin stimulation, a phenomenon that was largely due to transient inhibition of JAIL and display a very heterogeneous subcellular and divers VE-cadherin dynamics during intercellular gap formation and resealing. PMID:26275669

  6. Protected quantum bits and Josephson junction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmanov, Ruslan

    In this thesis we consider a Josephson junction device whose symmetry is described by the point group Td. It can be visualized as a tetrahedron that contains two Josephson junctions on each edge. We find the conditions under which the ground state of the system is degenerate or almost degenerate. In this case, the low-energy degrees of freedom can be mapped to the Hilbert space of a quantum spin 1/2. We evaluate effects of different physical perturbations on the degenerate ground state and find that they are small for most perturbations. We argue that this system can be considered as a very promising candidate for a protected quantum bit with built-in error correction. We propose and discuss an experimental method that allows to test validity of some of the theoretical results obtained for the tetrahedral Josephson junction array and other similar symmetric circuits. We have chosen a simpler pyramidal array to demonstrate the main ideas of our method. Even though the noise resistance and theoretical decoherence time of the pyramidal array are worse than those of the more complex tetrahedral systems, it is much easier to realize the pyramid experimentally. The proposed design can be used with any symmetric Josephson junction circuit. We explore a natural generalization of the tetrahedral quantum bit and consider devices whose symmetry can be described by one of the higher-order permutation groups Sn. We study the level structure and the associated built-in protection of some conceptually simple circuits and show that these circuits have many interesting properties. In particular, their ground state can be highly degenerate and stable with respect to perturbations violating the symmetry. Unfortunately, these highly symmetric systems consist of a large number of identical Josephson junctions. This makes them too complicated for experimental realization.

  7. Inverted Three-Junction Tandem Thermophotovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven

    2012-01-01

    An InGaAs-based three-junction (3J) tandem thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell has been investigated to utilize more of the blackbody spectrum (from a 1,100 C general purpose heat source GPHS) efficiently. The tandem consists of three vertically stacked subcells, a 0.74-eV InGaAs cell, a 0.6- eV InGaAs cell, and a 0.55-eV InGaAs cell, as well as two interconnecting tunnel junctions. A greater than 20% TPV system efficiency was achieved by another group with a 1,040 C blackbody using a single-bandgap 0.6- eV InGaAs cell MIM (monolithic interconnected module) (30 lateral junctions) that delivered about 12 V/30 or 0.4 V/junction. It is expected that a three-bandgap tandem MIM will eventually have about 3 this voltage (1.15 V) and about half the current. A 4 A/cm2 would be generated by a single-bandgap 0.6-V InGaAs MIM, as opposed to the 2 A/cm2 available from the same spectrum when split among the three series-connected junctions in the tandem stack. This would then be about a 50% increase (3xVoc, 0.5xIsc) in output power if the proposed tandem replaced the single- bandgap MIM. The advantage of the innovation, if successful, would be a 50% increase in power conversion efficiency from radioisotope heat sources using existing thermophotovoltaics. Up to 50% more power would be generated for radioisotope GPHS deep space missions. This type of InGaAs multijunction stack could be used with terrestrial concentrator solar cells to increase efficiency from 41 to 45% or more.

  8. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.J.; Miyai, K.; Steinbach, J.H.; Hardison, W.G.M. Univ. of California, San Diego )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, ({sup 14}C)sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of ({sup 14}C)sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors (Sar{sup 1},Thr{sup 8})angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the ({sup 14}C)sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

  9. Thermopower measurements of atomic and molecular junctions using microheater-embedded mechanically-controllable break junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; Arima, Akihide; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2015-03-01

    There has been growing interest in developing high-performance thermoelectric materials for realizing thermoelectric power generation. Quantum confinement effects in low-dimensional structures are expected to provide high electronic density of states for enhanced thermopower, and thus considered as a promising approach for achieving a high figure of merit (M. S. Dresselhaus et al., Adv. Mat. 19 (2007) 1043-1053). From this respect, it is interesting to study thermoelectric properties of atomic and molecular junctions and evaluate their potential as a thermoelectric material. Recently, we have developed a heater-embedded micro-fabricated mechanically-controllable break junction (MCBJ) for investigating the thermoelectric transport in single-atom and -molecule junctions. Using the MCBJ devices, we could repeatedly form stable junctions at room temperatures via a self-breaking mechanism with one side being heated by the adjacent microheater. In my presentation, I will show the results of simultaneous measurements of the thermoelectric voltage and the electrical conductance of atom-sized Au junctions and Au-benzenedithiol-Au junctions and discuss on the geometrical dependence of thermoelectric transport.

  10. Androgen-dependent sertoli cell tight junction remodeling is mediated by multiple tight junction components.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Papia; William Buaas, F; Sharma, Manju; Smith, Benjamin E; Greenlee, Anne R; Eacker, Stephen M; Braun, Robert E

    2014-07-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) of the seminiferous epithelium create a specialized microenvironment in the testis to aid differentiation of spermatocytes and spermatids from spermatogonial stem cells. SCTJs must be chronically broken and rebuilt with high fidelity to allow the transmigration of preleptotene spermatocytes from the basal to adluminal epithelial compartment. Impairment of androgen signaling in Sertoli cells perturbs SCTJ remodeling. Claudin (CLDN) 3, a tight junction component under androgen regulation, localizes to newly forming SCTJs and is absent in Sertoli cell androgen receptor knockout (SCARKO) mice. We show here that Cldn3-null mice do not phenocopy SCARKO mice: Cldn3(-/-) mice are fertile, show uninterrupted spermatogenesis, and exhibit fully functional SCTJs based on imaging and small molecule tracer analyses, suggesting that other androgen-regulated genes must contribute to the SCARKO phenotype. To further investigate the SCTJ phenotype observed in SCARKO mutants, we generated a new SCARKO model and extensively analyzed the expression of other tight junction components. In addition to Cldn3, we identified altered expression of several other SCTJ molecules, including down-regulation of Cldn13 and a noncanonical tight junction protein 2 isoform (Tjp2iso3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to demonstrate direct androgen receptor binding to regions of these target genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CLDN13 is a constituent of SCTJs and that TJP2iso3 colocalizes with tricellulin, a constituent of tricellular junctions, underscoring the importance of androgen signaling in the regulation of both bicellular and tricellular Sertoli cell tight junctions. PMID:24825397

  11. Myosin-dependent remodeling of adherens junctions protects junctions from Snail-dependent disassembly.

    PubMed

    Weng, Mo; Wieschaus, Eric

    2016-01-18

    Although Snail is essential for disassembly of adherens junctions during epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), loss of adherens junctions in Drosophila melanogaster gastrula is delayed until mesoderm is internalized, despite the early expression of Snail in that primordium. By combining live imaging and quantitative image analysis, we track the behavior of E-cadherin-rich junction clusters, demonstrating that in the early stages of gastrulation most subapical clusters in mesoderm not only persist, but move apically and enhance in density and total intensity. All three phenomena depend on myosin II and are temporally correlated with the pulses of actomyosin accumulation that drive initial cell shape changes during gastrulation. When contractile myosin is absent, the normal Snail expression in mesoderm, or ectopic Snail expression in ectoderm, is sufficient to drive early disassembly of junctions. In both cases, junctional disassembly can be blocked by simultaneous induction of myosin contractility. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for mechanosensitivity of cell-cell junctions and imply that myosin-mediated tension can prevent Snail-driven EMT. PMID:26754645

  12. A tiny bleb at Junctional Dilatation of the Posterior Communicating Artery as a Predisposing Factor for Development of a De Novo Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuhyun; Park, Wonhyoung; Koo, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Formation of de novo aneurysm from a junctional dilatation at the origin site of the posterior communicating artery (PcomA) has been rarely reported. In this case report, three females in sixth decades of age developed a de novo aneurysm from the junctional dilatation of the PComA with a tiny bleb-like lesion over 5 years after initial presentation. PMID:26958416

  13. Regulation of tight junction permeability and occludin phosphorylation by Rhoa-p160ROCK-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hirase, T; Kawashima, S; Wong, E Y; Ueyama, T; Rikitake, Y; Tsukita, S; Yokoyama, M; Staddon, J M

    2001-03-30

    In epithelial and endothelial cells, tight junctions regulate the paracellular permeability of ions and proteins. Disruption of tight junctions by inflammation is often associated with tissue edema, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Using ECV304 cells as a model system, lysophosphatidic acid and histamine were found to increase the paracellular permeability of the tracer horseradish peroxidase. Cytoskeletal changes induced by these agents included stimulation of stress fiber formation and myosin light chain phosphorylation. Additionally, occludin, a tight junction protein, was a target for signaling events triggered by lysophosphatidic acid and histamine, events that resulted in its phosphorylation. A dominant-negative mutant of RhoA, RhoA T19N, or a specific inhibitor of Rho-activated kinases, Y-27632, prevented stress fiber formation, myosin light chain phosphorylation, occludin phosphorylation, and the increase in tracer flux in response to lysophosphatidic acid. In contrast, although RhoA T19N and Y-27632 blocked the cytoskeletal events induced by histamine, they had no effect on the stimulation of occludin phosphorylation or increased tracer flux, indicating that occludin phosphorylation may regulate tight junction permeability independently of cytoskeletal events. Thus, occludin is a target for receptor-initiated signaling events regulating its phosphorylation, and this phosphorylation may be a key regulator of tight junction permeability. PMID:11139571

  14. Highly reliable ag nanowire flexible transparent electrode with mechanically welded junctions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byungil; Shin, Hae-A-Seul; Kim, Taegeon; Joo, Young-Chang; Han, Seung Min

    2014-08-27

    Deformation behavior of the Ag nanowire flexible transparent electrode under bending strain is studied and results in a novel approach for highly reliable Ag nanowire network with mechanically welded junctions. Bending fatigue tests up to 500,000 cycles are used to evaluate the in situ resistance change while imposing fixed, uniform bending strain. In the initial stages of bending cycles, the thermally annealed Ag nanowire networks show a reduction in fractional resistance followed by a transient and steady-state increase at later stages of cycling. SEM analysis reveals that the initial reduction in resistance is caused by mechanical welding as a result of applied bending strain, and the increase in resistance at later stages of cycling is determined to be due to the failure at the thermally locked-in junctions. Based on the observations from this study, a new methodology for highly reliable Ag nanowire network is proposed: formation of Ag nanowire networks with no prior thermal annealing but localized junction formation through simple application of mechanical bending strain. The non-annealed, mechanically welded Ag nanowire network shows significantly enhanced cyclic reliability with essentially 0% increase in resistance due to effective formation of localized wire-to-wire contact. PMID:24789010

  15. Tight junctions and the modulation of barrier function in disease

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions create a paracellular barrier in epithelial and endothelial cells protecting them from the external environment. Two different classes of integral membrane proteins constitute the tight junction strands in epithelial cells and endothelial cells, occludin and members of the claudin protein family. In addition, cytoplasmic scaffolding molecules associated with these junctions regulate diverse physiological processes like proliferation, cell polarity and regulated diffusion. In many diseases, disruption of this regulated barrier occurs. This review will briefly describe the molecular composition of the tight junctions and then present evidence of the link between tight junction dysfunction and disease. PMID:18415116

  16. Indentation Tests Reveal Geometry-Regulated Stiffening of Nanotube Junctions.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Sehmus; Yang, Yang; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Asif, Syed; Penev, Evgeni S; Yakobson, Boris I; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-01-13

    Here we report a unique method to locally determine the mechanical response of individual covalent junctions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in various configurations such as "X", "Y", and "?"-like. The setup is based on in situ indentation using a picoindenter integrated within a scanning electron microscope. This allows for precise mapping between junction geometry and mechanical behavior and uncovers geometry-regulated junction stiffening. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the dominant contribution to the nanoindentation response is due to the CNT walls stretching at the junction. Targeted synthesis of desired junction geometries can therefore provide a "structural alphabet" for construction of macroscopic CNT networks with tunable mechanical response. PMID:26618517

  17. β2-syntrophin and Par-3 promote an apicobasal Rac activity gradient at cell-cell junctions by differentially regulating Tiam1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Natalie A.; Porter, Andrew P.; Whalley, Helen J.; Schwarz, Juliane P.; Jones, Richard C.; Syed, Azharuddin Sajid; Bjartell, Anders; Anderson, Kurt I.; Malliri, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    Although Rac and its activator Tiam1 are known to stimulate cell-cell adhesion, the mechanisms regulating their activity in cell-cell junction formation are poorly understood. Here, we identify β2-syntrophin as a Tiam1 interactor required for optimal cell-cell adhesion. We show that during tight junction (TJ) assembly β2-syntrophin promotes Tiam1-Rac activity, in contrast to the function of the apical determinant Par-3 whose inhibition of Tiam1-Rac activity is necessary for TJ assembly. We further demonstrate that β2-syntrophin localises more basally than Par-3 at cell-cell junctions, thus generating an apicobasal Rac activity gradient at developing cell-cell junctions. Targeting active Rac to TJs shows that this gradient is required for optimal TJ assembly and apical lumen formation. Consistently, β2-syntrophin depletion perturbs Tiam1 and Rac localisation at cell-cell junctions and causes defects in apical lumen formation. We conclude that β2-syntrophin and Par-3 finetune Rac activity along cell-cell junctions controlling TJ assembly and the establishment of apicobasal polarity. PMID:23103911

  18. Theoretical consideration of III-V nanowire/Si triple-junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Long; Li, Xinhua; Zhao, Zhifei; Bu, Shaojiang; Zeng, XueSong; Huang, Jin-hua; Wang, Yuqi

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical consideration and simulation of a proposed III-V nanowire (NW)/Si triple-junction solar cell. The cell consists of two axially connected III-V NW subcells that are grown and electrically integrated on an active Si substrate. The optical properties of the cell are thoroughly analyzed by using the finite-difference time-domain method. It is found that NW subcells with optimized geometry have high absorption throughout their absorption region. Meanwhile, beyond the absorption edge of the top and middle NW subcells, the NWs act as an efficient antireflection coating for the bottom Si subcell due to the formation of an optical cavity within the NW layer. The physics responsible for the enhanced light harvesting process is qualitatively explained through modal analysis. In addition, we have shown that the condition of current matching in a III-V NW/Si multi-junction can be fulfilled by adjusting the diameter of the NWs. In order to study the current-voltage characteristics of the proposed cell, the optical generation profiles under AM1.5G illumination are incorporated into an electrical modeling. Our optoelectrical simulations indicate that, with an excellent current matching between subcells, the performance of the proposed structure is comparable with state-of-the-art multi-junction cells. The results presented here indicate that semiconductor NWs may provide a promising route toward high efficiency multi-junction solar cells.

  19. Oligodendrocyte gap junction loss and disconnection from reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis gray matter.

    PubMed

    Markoullis, Kyriaki; Sargiannidou, Irene; Schiza, Natasa; Roncaroli, Federico; Reynolds, Richard; Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2014-09-01

    Gap junctions are essential for glial cell function and have been increasingly implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Because increasing cortical abnormalities correlate with disease progression and cognitive dysfunction, we examined the expression of oligodendrocytic connexin32 (Cx32) and Cx47 and their astrocytic partners Cx30 and Cx43 in cortical lesions and normal-appearing gray matter (NAGM) in MS patients. Postmortem brain tissue samples from 9 MS cases were compared with 10 controls using real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses. Connexin32 and Cx47 gap junction formation in oligodendrocytes was reduced within lesions, whereas Cx32 loss also extended to NAGM. In contrast, astrocytic Cx30 expression was increased within cortical lesions, whereas Cx43 was elevated in both lesions and NAGM. Diffuse microglial activation and marked astrogliotic changes accompanied these connexin abnormalities. Increased expression of Cx43 correlated with inflammatory load (r = 0.828, p = 0.042), whereas Cx32 expression correlated with longer disease duration and, therefore, milder course (r = 0.825, p = 0.043). Thus, there is a loss of intramyelin and intercellular oligodendrocyte gap junctions in MS gray matter lesions and NAGM, whereas interastrocytic gap junctions are increased, reflecting astrogliosis. These changes correlate with inflammation and disease duration and suggest that disconnection of oligodendrocytes from reactive astrocytes may play a role in failed remyelination and disease progression. PMID:25101702

  20. Nonredundant roles of cytoplasmic β- and γ-actin isoforms in regulation of epithelial apical junctions.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Somesh; Naydenov, Nayden G; Harris, Gianni; Dugina, Vera; Morgan, Kathleen G; Chaponnier, Christine; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2012-09-01

    Association with the actin cytoskeleton is critical for normal architecture and dynamics of epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). Epithelial cells express β-cytoplasmic (β-CYA) and γ-cytoplasmic (γ-CYA) actins, which have different cellular localization and functions. This study elucidates the roles of cytoplasmic actins in regulating structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in model intestinal epithelia. Immunofluorescence labeling and latrunculin B treatment reveal affiliation of dynamic β-CYA filaments with newly assembled and mature AJs, whereas an apical γ-CYA pool is composed of stable perijunctional bundles and rapidly turning-over nonjunctional filaments. The functional effects of cytoplasmic actins on epithelial junctions are examined by using isoform-specific small interfering RNAs and cell-permeable inhibitory peptides. These experiments demonstrate unique roles of β-CYA and γ-CYA in regulating the steady-state integrity of AJs and TJs, respectively. Furthermore, β-CYA is selectively involved in establishment of apicobasal cell polarity. Both actin isoforms are essential for normal barrier function of epithelial monolayers, rapid AJ/TJ reassembly, and formation of three-dimensional cysts. Cytoplasmic actin isoforms play unique roles in regulating structure and permeability of epithelial junctions. PMID:22855531

  1. The energy barrier at noble metal/TiO{sub 2} junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein-Babaei, F. E-mail: fhbabaei@yahoo.com; Lajvardi, Mehdi M. Alaei-Sheini, Navid

    2015-02-23

    Nobel metal/TiO{sub 2} structures are used as catalysts in chemical reactors, active components in TiO{sub 2}-based electronic devices, and connections between such devices and the outside circuitry. Here, we investigate the energy barrier at the junctions between vacuum-deposited Ag, Au, and Pt thin films and TiO{sub 2} layers by recording their electrical current vs. voltage diagrams and spectra of optical responses. Deposited Au/, Pt/, and Ag/TiO{sub 2} behave like contacts with zero junction energy barriers, but the thermal annealing of the reverse-biased devices for an hour at 523 K in air converts them to Schottky diodes with high junction energy barriers, decreasing their reverse electric currents up to 10{sup 6} times. Similar thermal processing in vacuum or pure argon proved ineffective. The highest energy barrier and the lowest reverse current among the devices examined belong to the annealed Ag/TiO{sub 2} contacts. The observed electronic features are described based on the physicochemical parameters of the constituting materials. The formation of higher junction barriers with rutile than with anatase is demonstrated.

  2. Dynamics of atomic scale metallic junctions and adsorbed Lewis base adsorbates studied by fluctuation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tai-Wei

    Atomic-scale junctions (ASJs) are the ultimate thin nanowires that exhibit great potential as chemical (Lewis bases) sensors through adsorbate-induced conductance changes. The goal of this work was to fabricate robust ASJs for sensing applications that fully utilize this potential and detect chemical noise. Au-Ag-Au bimetallic ASJs were formed with high yield using a novel fabrication scheme that creates initially overgrown junctions followed by controllable thinning processes. Ag deposition was galvanically triggered to initiate junction formation across specially prepared Au electrodes in the presence of aqueous Ag(I). The process was then self-terminated through the agency of an external resistor. Junction thinning could be performed via three different approaches: self-dissolution at low Ag(I) concentration, current-induced electromigration, or potential-induced oxidation. The fabricated ASJs showed robustness, enabling pyridine sensing studies. The fluctuation of surface population at equilibrium was reflected in the noise in steady-state electrical signals which cannot be observed directly. Fluctuation spectroscopy was used to isolate and study this chemical noise. The combination of ASJs with fluctuation spectroscopy constitutes a powerful method of studying adsorption- desorption kinetics at high sensitivity and may lead to quantification of single molecules on atomic surfaces by purely electrical measurements.

  3. De novo-generated small palindromes are characteristic of amplicon boundary junction of double minutes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Yu, Yang; Meng, Xiangning; Fan, Yihui; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Chunshui; Yue, Zhichao; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Chunyu; Yu, Lisa; Ji, Wei; Jia, Xueyuan; Guan, Rongwei; Wu, Jie; Yu, Jingcui; Bai, Jing; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Mingrong; Lee, Ki-Young; Sun, Wenjing; Fu, Songbin

    2013-01-01

    Double minutes (DMs) are hallmarks of gene amplification. However, their molecular structure and the mechanisms of formation are largely unknown. To elucidate the structure and underlying molecular mechanism of DMs, we obtained and cloned DMs using microdissection; and degenerated oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) from the ovarian cancer cell line UACC-1598. Two large amplicons, the 284 kb AmpMYCN, originating from locus 2p24.3 and the 391 kb AmpEIF5A2, from locus 3q26.2, were found co-amplified on the same DMs. The two amplicons are joined through a complex 7 kb junction DNA sequence. Analysis of the junction has revealed three de novo created small palindromes surrounding the six breakpoints. Consistent with these observations, we further found that 70% of the 57 reported DM junction sequences have de novo creation of small palindromic sequences surrounding the breakpoints. Together, our findings indicate that de novo-generated small palindromic sequences are characteristic of amplicon boundary junctions on DMs. It is possible that the de novo-generated small palindromic sequences, which may be generated through non-homologous end joining in concert with a novel DNA repair machinery, play a common role in amplicon rejoining and gene amplification. PMID:23382041

  4. The adherens junctions control susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin.

    PubMed

    Popov, Lauren M; Marceau, Caleb D; Starkl, Philipp M; Lumb, Jennifer H; Shah, Jimit; Guerrera, Diego; Cooper, Rachel L; Merakou, Christina; Bouley, Donna M; Meng, Wenxiang; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Takeichi, Masatoshi; Galli, Stephen J; Bagnoli, Fabio; Citi, Sandra; Carette, Jan E; Amieva, Manuel R

    2015-11-17

    Staphylococcus aureus is both a transient skin colonizer and a formidable human pathogen, ranking among the leading causes of skin and soft tissue infections as well as severe pneumonia. The secreted bacterial α-toxin is essential for S. aureus virulence in these epithelial diseases. To discover host cellular factors required for α-toxin cytotoxicity, we conducted a genetic screen using mutagenized haploid human cells. Our screen identified a cytoplasmic member of the adherens junctions, plekstrin-homology domain containing protein 7 (PLEKHA7), as the second most significantly enriched gene after the known α-toxin receptor, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). Here we report a new, unexpected role for PLEKHA7 and several components of cellular adherens junctions in controlling susceptibility to S. aureus α-toxin. We find that despite being injured by α-toxin pore formation, PLEKHA7 knockout cells recover after intoxication. By infecting PLEKHA7(-/-) mice with methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 LAC strain, we demonstrate that this junctional protein controls disease severity in both skin infection and lethal S. aureus pneumonia. Our results suggest that adherens junctions actively control cellular responses to a potent pore-forming bacterial toxin and identify PLEKHA7 as a potential nonessential host target to reduce S. aureus virulence during epithelial infections. PMID:26489655

  5. Ontogeny of tight junction protein expression in the ovine cerebral cortex during development.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, G B; Ahmedli, N; Chen, X; Stonestreet, B S

    2015-12-01

    Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier are composed of transmembrane and associated cytoplasmic proteins. The transmembrane claudin proteins form the primary seal between endothelial cells and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) regulate tight junction formation. We have previously shown that claudin-1, claudin-5, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and ZO-2 exhibit differential developmental regulation from 60% of gestation up to maturity in adult sheep. The purpose of the current study was to examine developmental changes in claudin-3, -12, and JAM-A protein expression in cerebral cortices of fetuses at 60%, 80%, and 90% gestation, and in newborn and adult sheep. We also examined correlations between changes in endogenous cortisol levels and tight junction protein expression in cerebral cortices of the fetuses. Claudin-3, -12 and JAM-A expressions were determined by Western immunoblot. Claudin-3 and -12 were lower (P<0.01) at 60%, 80%, 90% and in newborns than in adults, and JAM-A was lower in adults than in fetuses at 80% and 90% gestation. Claudin-3 expression demonstrated a direct correlation with increasing plasma cortisol levels (r=0.60, n=15, P<0.02) in the fetuses. We conclude that: claudin-3, -12 and JAM-A are expressed as early as 60% of gestation in ovine cerebral cortices, exhibit differential developmental regulation, and that increasing endogenous glucocorticoids modulate claudin-3 expression in the fetus. PMID:26424381

  6. Coherent transmission of nodal Dirac fermions through a graphene-based superconducting double barrier junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chunxu; Wei, Ke-Wei; Yang, Gui; Yang, Yanling

    2013-05-01

    Transport characteristics of relativistic electrons through graphene-based d-wave superconducting double barrier junction and ferromagnet/ d-wave superconductor/normal metal double junction have been investigated based on the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. We have first presented the results of superconducting double barrier junction. In the subgap regime, both the crossed Andreev and nonlocal tunneling conductance all oscillate with the bias voltage due to the formation of Andreev bound states in the normal metal region. Moreover, the critical voltage beyond which the crossed Andreev conductance becomes to zero decreases with increasing value of superconducting pair potential α. In the presence of the ferromagnetism, the MR through graphene-based ferromagnet/ d-wave superconductor/normal metal double junction has been investigated. It is shown that the MR increases from exchange splitting h 0=0 to h 0= E F (Fermi energy), and then it goes down. At h 0= E F, MR reaches its maximum 100. In contrast to the case of a single superconducting barrier, Andreev bound states also manifest itself in the zero bias MR, which result in a series of peaks except the maximum one at h 0= E F. Besides, the resonance peak of the MR can appear at certain bias voltage and structure parameter. Those phenomena mean that the coherent transmission can be tuned by superconducting pair potential, structure parameter, and external bias voltage, which benefits the spin-polarized electron device based on the graphene materials.

  7. Claudins in occluding junctions of humans and flies.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Mikio; Tsukita, Shoichiro

    2006-04-01

    The epithelial barrier is fundamental to the physiology of most metazoan organ systems. Occluding junctions, including vertebrate tight junctions and invertebrate septate junctions, contribute to the epithelial barrier function by restricting free diffusion of solutes through the paracellular route. The recent identification and characterization of claudins, which are tight junction-associated adhesion molecules, gives insight into the molecular architecture of tight junctions and their barrier-forming mechanism in vertebrates. Mice lacking the expression of various claudins, and human hereditary diseases with claudin mutations, have revealed that the claudin-based barrier function of tight junctions is indispensable in vivo. Interestingly, claudin-like molecules have recently been identified in septate junctions of Drosophila. Here, we present an overview of recent progress in claudin studies conducted in mammals and flies. PMID:16537104

  8. Measuring twin dependent triple junctions from a single section plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, G. B.; Field, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Given that polycrystalline triple junctions are significant contributors to material properties, they are frequently becoming the focus of emerging research. Despite this interest, the tools to quickly and quantitatively analyze triple junction textures remain severely limited. To enable characterization of triple junctions on a large scale, the parameters, space, and conventions of twin dependent triple junction distributions have been developed. In addition, by adopting grain boundary stereological techniques, triple junction distributions have been generated from a single section plane for triple junctions containing a coherent twin boundary. This methodology has been validated using simulated microstructures and, with further experimental development, will provide insight into actual triple junction structures. This technique also establishes the foundation for a generalized non-twin dependent approach in the future.

  9. Anillin regulates cell-cell junction integrity by organizing junctional accumulation of Rho-GTP and actomyosin.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Ciara C; Jin, Meiyan; Breznau, Elaina B; Espino, Rhogelyn; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Goryachev, Andrew B; Miller, Ann L

    2014-06-01

    Anillin is a scaffolding protein that organizes and stabilizes actomyosin contractile rings and was previously thought to function primarily in cytokinesis [1-10]. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as a model system to examine Anillin's role in the intact vertebrate epithelium, we find that a population of Anillin surprisingly localizes to epithelial cell-cell junctions throughout the cell cycle, whereas it was previously thought to be nuclear during interphase [5, 11]. Furthermore, we show that Anillin plays a critical role in regulating cell-cell junction integrity. Both tight junctions and adherens junctions are disrupted when Anillin is knocked down, leading to altered cell shape and increased intercellular spaces. Anillin interacts with Rho, F-actin, and myosin II [3, 8, 9], all of which regulate cell-cell junction structure and function. When Anillin is knocked down, active Rho (Rho-guanosine triphosphate [GTP]), F-actin, and myosin II are misregulated at junctions. Indeed, increased dynamic "flares" of Rho-GTP are observed at cell-cell junctions, whereas overall junctional F-actin and myosin II accumulation is reduced when Anillin is depleted. We propose that Anillin is required for proper Rho-GTP distribution at cell-cell junctions and for maintenance of a robust apical actomyosin belt, which is required for cell-cell junction integrity. These results reveal a novel role for Anillin in regulating epithelial cell-cell junctions. PMID:24835458

  10. Anillin regulates cell-cell junction integrity by organizing junctional accumulation of Rho-GTP and actomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ciara C.; Jin, Meiyan; Breznau, Elaina B.; Espino, Rhogelyn; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Goryachev, Andrew B.; Miller, Ann L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anillin is a scaffolding protein that organizes and stabilizes actomyosin contractile rings and was previously thought to function primarily in cytokinesis [110]. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as a model system to examine Anillins role in the intact vertebrate epithelium, we find that a population of Anillin surprisingly localizes to epithelial cell-cell junctions throughout the cell cycle, whereas it was previously thought to be nuclear during interphase [5, 11]. Further, we show that Anillin plays a critical role in regulating cell-cell junction integrity. Both tight junctions and adherens junctions are disrupted when Anillin is knocked down, leading to altered cell shape and increased intercellular spaces. Anillin interacts with Rho, F-actin, and Myosin II [3, 8, 9], all of which regulate cell-cell junction structure and function. When Anillin is knocked down, active Rho (Rho-GTP), F-actin, and Myosin II are misregulated at junctions. Indeed, increased dynamic flares of Rho-GTP are observed at cell-cell junctions, while overall junctional F-actin and Myosin II accumulation is reduced when Anillin is depleted. We propose that Anillin is required for proper Rho-GTP distribution at cell-cell junctions and for maintenance of a robust apical actomyosin belt, which is required for cell-cell junction integrity. These results reveal a novel role for Anillin in regulating epithelial cell-cell junctions. PMID:24835458

  11. Conductance spectroscopy of topological superconductor wire junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, F.; Brydon, P. M. R.; Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2015-06-01

    We study the zero-temperature transport properties of one-dimensional normal metal-superconductor (NS) junctions with topological superconductors across their topological transitions. Working within the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) formalism generalized for topological NS junctions, we analytically calculate the differential conductance for tunneling into two models of a topological superconductor: a spinless intrinsic p -wave superconductor and a spin-orbit-coupled s -wave superconductor in a Zeeman field. In both cases we verify that the zero-bias conductance is robustly quantized at 2 e2/h in the topological regime, while it takes nonuniversal values in the nontopological phase. The conductance spectra in the topological state develops a peak at zero bias for certain parameter regimes, with the peak width controlled by the strength of spin-orbit coupling and barrier transparency.

  12. Laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332 is an essential component of the dermal-epidermal junction, a highly specialized basement membrane zone that attaches the epidermis to the dermis and thereby provides skin integrity and resistance to external mechanical forces. Mutations in the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes that encode the three constituent polypeptide chains, α3, β3 and γ2, abrogate or perturb the functions of laminin 332. The phenotypic consequences are diminished dermal-epidermal adhesion and, as clinical symptoms, skin fragility and mechanically induced blistering. The disorder is designated as junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). This article delineates the signs and symptoms of the different forms of JEB, the mutational spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlations as well as perspectives for future molecular therapies. PMID:23076207

  13. Topological ? Josephson junction in superconducting Rashba wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojanen, Teemu

    2013-03-01

    In this Rapid Communication we show that Rashba-based topological superconductor nanowires, where the spin-orbit coupling may change its sign, support three topological phases protected by chiral symmetry. When a superconducting phase gradient is applied over the interface of the two nontrivial phases, the Andreev spectrum is qualitatively phase shifted by ? compared to usual Majorana weak links. The topological ? junction has the striking property of exhibiting a maximum supercurrent in the vicinity of vanishing phase difference. Qualitative features of the junction are robust against disorder and magnetic fields violating chiral symmetry. The studied system could be realized by local gating of the wire or by an appropriate stacking of permanent magnets in synthetic Rashba systems.

  14. Dissipation and traversal time in Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Ranfagni, Anedio; Moretti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The various ways of evaluating dissipative effects in macroscopic quantum tunneling are re-examined. The results obtained by using functional integration, while confirming those of previously given treatments, enable a comparison with available experimental results relative to Josephson junctions. A criterion based on the shortening of the semiclassical traversal time tau of the barrier with regard to dissipation can be established, according to which DELTAtau/tau > or approx. N/Q, where Q is the quality factor of the junction and N is a numerical constant of order unity. The best agreement with the experiments is obtained for N=1.11, as it results from a semiempirical analysis based on an increase in the potential barrier caused by dissipative effects.

  15. Tunneling in Organic Conductor/superconductor Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Sato, K.; Friedman, B.

    2003-03-01

    We report the nonequilibrium effect of polaronic quasiparticle (QP) injection using an organic injector in a high Tc three terminal device. The organic, copper (II) phthalocyanine (Cu-Pc), used as the injector, is a photoconductor and a p-type semiconductor. The transport properties of Au/Cu-Pc/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d (BSCCO) tunnel junctions were investigated in the dark and under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We observed that the injection of polaronic QP from the organic Cu-Pc film into the BSCCO film generated a substantially larger nonequilibrium effect as compared to the normal QP injection current. We could increase the current gain by UV excitation of the organic photoconductor injector. The tunneling spectroscopy of a Cu-Pc/BSCCO junction exhibited a small enhancement of the zero bias conductance peak under the UV excitation. The above phenomena are of importance in developing optically controlled three terminal superconducting devices.

  16. Stereoelectronic switching in single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Timothy A.; Li, Haixing; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Venkataraman, Latha; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-03-01

    A new intersection between reaction chemistry and electronic circuitry is emerging from the ultraminiaturization of electronic devices. Over decades chemists have developed a nuanced understanding of stereoelectronics to establish how the electronic properties of molecules relate to their conformation; the recent advent of single-molecule break-junction techniques provides the means to alter this conformation with a level of control previously unimagined. Here we unite these ideas by demonstrating the first single-molecule switch that operates through a stereoelectronic effect. We demonstrate this behaviour in permethyloligosilanes with methylthiomethyl electrode linkers. The strong ? conjugation in the oligosilane backbone couples the stereoelectronic properties of the sulfur-methylene ? bonds that terminate the molecule. Theoretical calculations support the existence of three distinct dihedral conformations that differ drastically in their electronic character. We can shift between these three species by simply lengthening or compressing the molecular junction, and, in doing so, we can switch conductance digitally between two states.

  17. Excess junction current of silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, E. Y.; Legge, R. N.; Christidis, N.

    1973-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of n(plus)-p silicon solar cells with 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, and 10 ohm-cm p-type base materials have been examined in detail. In addition to the usual I-V measurements, we have studied the temperature dependence of the slope of the I-V curve at the origin by the lock-in technique. The excess junction current coefficient (Iq) deduced from the slope at the origin depends on the square root of the intrinsic carrier concentration. The Iq obtained from the I-V curve fitting over the entire forward bias region at various temperatures shows the same temperature dependence. This result, in addition to the presence of an aging effect, suggest that the surface channel effect is the dominant cause of the excess junction current.

  18. Exercise modulates synaptic acetylcholinesterase at neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Blotnick, E; Anglister, L

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase plays a major role in neuromuscular transmission and is regulated by neuromuscular activity. Since fast-twitch motor units are recruited with increased motor demand, we examined acetylcholinesterase regulation in rat leg muscles following treadmill training. Total acetylcholinesterase and specifically the membrane-bound tetramer increased in exercised fast-, but not slow-twitch muscles, while other isoforms remained unchanged. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase increased markedly in neuromuscular junctions of trained fibers, without concomitant changes in synaptic acetylcholine receptor, thus elevating synaptic acetylcholinesterase/receptor ratios. Electron microscopy showed that acetylcholinesterase increased in postjunctional folds and primary cleft, where it was added adjacent to the postsynaptic muscle membrane. Thus, although the primary acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junction is the collagen-tailed asymmetric isoform associated with synaptic basal lamina, physiological demands such as strenuous exercise, or potentially pathological conditions, can selectively recruit the membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase tetramer to the synapse for optimal synaptic transmission. PMID:26820598

  19. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    SciTech Connect

    De la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego E-mail: peter.dunsby@uct.ac.za

    2014-12-01

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results.

  20. Tight junction physiology of pleural mesothelium.

    PubMed

    Markov, Alexander G; Amasheh, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Pleura consists of visceral and parietal cell layers, producing a fluid, which is necessary for lubrication of the pleural space. Function of both mesothelial cell layers is necessary for the regulation of a constant pleural fluid volume and composition to facilitate lung movement during breathing. Recent studies have demonstrated that pleural mesothelial cells show a distinct expression pattern of tight junction proteins which are known to ubiquitously determine paracellular permeability. Most tight junction proteins provide a sealing function to epithelia, but some have been shown to have a paracellular channel function or ambiguous properties. Here we provide an in-depth review of the current knowledge concerning specific functional contribution of these proteins determining transport and barrier function of pleural mesothelium. PMID:25009499

  1. Tight junction physiology of pleural mesothelium

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Alexander G.; Amasheh, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Pleura consists of visceral and parietal cell layers, producing a fluid, which is necessary for lubrication of the pleural space. Function of both mesothelial cell layers is necessary for the regulation of a constant pleural fluid volume and composition to facilitate lung movement during breathing. Recent studies have demonstrated that pleural mesothelial cells show a distinct expression pattern of tight junction proteins which are known to ubiquitously determine paracellular permeability. Most tight junction proteins provide a sealing function to epithelia, but some have been shown to have a paracellular channel function or ambiguous properties. Here we provide an in-depth review of the current knowledge concerning specific functional contribution of these proteins determining transport and barrier function of pleural mesothelium. PMID:25009499

  2. Josephson Junctions Help Measure Resonance And Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid H. S.; Mcgrath, William R.; Bumble, Bruce; Leduc, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of superconducting microstrip transmission lines measured at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Submicron Josephson (super-conductor/insulator/superconductor) junctions used as both voltage-controlled oscillators and detectors to measure frequencies (in range of hundreds of gigahertz) of high-order resonant electromagnetic modes of superconducting microstrip transmission-line resonators. This oscillator/detector approach similar to vacuum-tube grid dip meters and transistor dip meters used to probe resonances at much lower frequencies.

  3. Solar-Cell-Junction Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, S. N.; Armini, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    System under development reduces equipment costs. Processing system will produce solar-cell junctions on 4 in. (10.2 cm) round silicon wafers at rate of 10 to seventh power per year. System includes non-mass-analyzed ion implanter, microcomputer-controlled, pulsed-electron-beam annealer, and wafertransport system with vacuum interlock. These features eliminate large, expensive magnet and plates, circuitry, and power source otherwise needed for scanning.

  4. Electronic and optical spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiner, Michael J.

    Electronic transport through molecules has been intensively studied in recent years, due to scientific interest in fundamental questions about charge transport and the technological promise of nanoscale circuitry. A wide range of range of experimental platforms have been developed to electronically probe both single molecules and molecular monolayers. However, it remains challenging to fabricate reliable electronic contacts to molecules, and the vast majority of molecular electronic architectures are not amenable to standard characterization techniques, such as optical spectroscopy. Thus the field of molecular electronics has been hampered with problems of reproducibility, and many fundamental questions about electronic transport remain unanswered. This thesis describes four significant contributions towards the fabrication and characterization of molecular electronic devices: (1) The development of a new method for creating robust, large area junctions where the electronic transport is through a single monolayer of molecules. This method utilizes atomic layer deposition (ALD) to grow an ultrathin oxide layer on top of a molecular monolayer, which protects the molecules against subsequent processing. (2) A new method for rapid imaging and analysis of single defects in molecular monolayers. This method also electrically passivates defects as it labels them. (3) Hot carrier spectroscopy of molecular junctions. Using optically excited hot carriers, we demonstrate the ability to probe the energy level lineup inside buried molecular junctions. (4) Efficient coupling of optical fields to metal-insulator-metal (MIM) surface plasmon modes. We show both theoretical and experimental work illustrating the ability to create very intense optical fields inside MIM systems. The intense fields generated in this manner have natural extensions to a variety of applications, such as photon assisted tunneling in molecular junctions, optical modulators, and ultrafast optoelectronic switches.

  5. Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, M.A.

    1994-10-10

    Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

  6. Quantum dynamics in the bosonic Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Chuchem, Maya; Cohen, Doron; Smith-Mannschott, Katrina; Hiller, Moritz; Kottos, Tsampikos; Vardi, Amichay

    2010-11-15

    We employ a semiclassical picture to study dynamics in a bosonic Josephson junction with various initial conditions. Phase diffusion of coherent preparations in the Josephson regime is shown to depend on the initial relative phase between the two condensates. For initially incoherent condensates, we find a universal value for the buildup of coherence in the Josephson regime. In addition, we contrast two seemingly similar on-separatrix coherent preparations, finding striking differences in their convergence to classicality as the number of particles increases.

  7. Double- and triple-barrier Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, R.; Giordano, A.

    2014-11-01

    A generalization of the semi-classical model describing the Josephson dynamics of tri-layer superconducting systems is given by assuming a constant non-null arbitrary superconducting phase for the inner electrode and the presence of inhomogeneities in the superconducting coupling between electrodes. Extension of the model to triple-barrier Josephson junctions is proposed. Integer and fractional Shapiro steps are predicted and their amplitudes are calculated.

  8. Cell Adhesion in Epidermal Development and Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Lechler, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Cellcell adhesions are necessary for structural integrity and barrier formation of the epidermis. Here, we discuss insights from genetic and cell biological studies into the roles of individual cellcell junctions and their composite proteins in regulating epidermal development and function. In addition to individual adhesive functions, we will discuss emerging ideas on mechanosensation/transduction of junctions in the epidermis, noncanonical roles for adhesion proteins, and crosstalk/interdependencies between the junctional systems. These studies have revealed that cell adhesion proteins are connected to many aspects of tissue physiology including growth control, differentiation, and inflammation. PMID:25733147

  9. Gap junctions in several tissues share antigenic determinants with liver gap junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Dermietzel, R; Leibstein, A; Frixen, U; Janssen-Timmen, U; Traub, O; Willecke, K

    1984-01-01

    Using affinity-purified antibodies against mouse liver gap junction protein (26 K), discrete fluorescent spots were seen by indirect immunofluorescence labelling on apposed membranes of contiguous cells in several mouse and rat tissues: pancreas (exocrine part), kidney, small intestine (epithelium and circular smooth muscle), Fallopian tube, endometrium, and myometrium of delivering rats. No reaction was seen on sections of myocardium, ovaries and lens. Specific labelling of gap junction plaques was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy on ultrathin frozen sections through liver and the exocrine part of pancreas after treatment with gold protein A. Weak immunoreactivity was found on the endocrine part of the pancreas (i.e., Langerhans islets) after glibenclamide treatment of mice and rats, which causes an increase of insulin secretion and of the size as well as the number of gap junction plaques in cells of Langerhans islets. Furthermore, the affinity purified anti-liver 26 K antibodies were shown by immunoblot to react with proteins of similar mol. wt. in pancreas and kidney membranes. Taken together these results suggest that gap junctions from several, morphogenetically different tissues have specific antigenic sites in common. The different extent of specific immunoreactivity of anti-liver 26 K antibodies with different tissues is likely due to differences in size and number of gap junctions although structural differences cannot be excluded. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6209130

  10. Fermi edge singularity in a tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Sherkunov, Yury; D'Ambrumenil, Nicholas; Muzykantskii, Boris

    2010-03-01

    We present results on the non-equilibrium Fermi edge singularity (FES) problem in tunnel junctions. The FES, which is present in a Fermi gas subject to any sudden change of potential, manifests itself in the final state many body interaction between the electrons in the leads [1]. We establish a connection between the FES problem in a tunnel junction and the Full Counting Statistics (FCS) for the device [2]. We find that the exact profile of the changing potential (or the profile for the barrier opening and closing in the tunnel junction case) strongly affects the overlap between the initial and final state of the Fermi gas. We factorize the contribution to the FES into two approximately independent terms: one is connected with the short time opening process while the other is concerned with the long time asymptotic effect, namely the Anderson orthogonality catastrophe. We consider applications to a localized level coupled through a tunnel barrier to a 1D lead driven out of equilibrium [3]. References: [1] G. Mahan, Phys. Rev. 163, 1612 (1967); P. Nozieres and C. T. De Dominicis, Phys. Rev. 178, 1079 (1969); P. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 1049 (1967) [2] J. Zhang, Y. Sherkunov, N. d'Ambrumenil, and B. Muzykantskii, ArXiv:0909.3427 [3] D. Abanin and L. Levitov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186803 (2005)

  11. Josephson Effect in SFNS Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karminskaya, T. Yu.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Golubov, A. A.; Sidorenko, A. S.

    The critical current, I C, of Josephson junctions both in ramp-type (S-FN-S) and in overlap (SNF-FN-FNS, SN-FN-NS, SNF-N-FNS) geometries has been calculated in the frame of linearized Usadel equations (S-superconductor, F-ferromagnetic, N-normal metal). For the ramp-type structures, in which S electrodes contact directly the end walls of FN bilayer, it is shown that I C may exhibit damping oscillations as a function of both the distance L between superconductors and thicknesses d F,N of ferromagnetic and normal layers. The conditions have been determined under which the decay length and period of oscillation of I C(L) at fixed d F are of the order of decay length of superconducting correlations in the N metal, ξN, that is much larger than in F film. In overlap configurations, in which S films are placed on the top of NF bilayer, the studied junctions have complex SNF or SN electrodes (N or NF bilayer are situated under a superconductor). We demonstrate that in these geometries the critical current can exceed that in ramp-type junctions. Based on these results, the choice of the most practically applicable geometry is discussed.

  12. Regulation of the MDCK cell tight junction.

    PubMed

    Kovbasnjuk, O N; Szmulowicz, U; Spring, K R

    1998-01-01

    The sodium flux across individual tight junctions (TJ) of low-resistance MDCK cell monolayers grown on glass coverslips was determined as a measure of paracellular permeability. Increases in perfusate glucose concentration from 5 to 25 mM decreased tight junction Na permeability. This permeability decrease was not specific as nonmetabolizable analogues of glucose caused similar diminutions in TJ Na permeability. Stimulation of protein kinase A increased TJ Na permeability, and inhibition of protein kinase A decreased TJ Na permeability. Transepithelial electrical resistance of monolayers grown on permeable supports did not change as predicted from the observed alterations in TJ Na permeability of monolayers grown on glass coverslips. Fluorescent labeling of cell F-actin showed that increased F-actin in the perijunctional ring correlated with higher TJ Na permeability. Although a low dose of cytochalasin D did not change TJ Na permeability, it disrupted the cytoskeleton and blocked the decrease in TJ Na permeability caused by glucose. Cytochalasin D failed to block the effects of protein kinase A stimulation or inhibition on TJ Na permeability. We conclude that tight junction sodium permeability is regulated both by protein kinase A activity and by other processes involving the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:9430624

  13. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    sterberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjr, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2015-10-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method relies on four-point probe measurements performed with a range of different probe pitches and was originally developed for infinite samples. Using the method of images, we derive a modified CIPT model, which compensates for the insulating boundaries of a finite rectangular sample geometry. We measure on square tunnel junction pads with varying sizes and analyze the measured data using both the original and the modified CIPT model. Thus, we determine in which sample size range the modified CIPT model is needed to ensure validity of the extracted sample parameters, RA and TMR. In addition, measurements as a function of position on a square tunnel junction pad are used to investigate the sensitivity of the measurement results to probe misalignment.

  14. Primary thermometry with nanoscale tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Hirvi, K.P.; Kauppinen, J.P.; Paalanen, M.A.; Pekola, J.P.

    1995-10-01

    We have found current-voltage (I-V) and conductance (dI/dV) characteristics of arrays of nanoscale tunnel junctions between normal metal electrodes to exhibit suitable features for primary thermometry. The current through a uniform array depends on the ratio of the thermal energy k{sub B}T and the electrostatic charging energy E{sub c} of the islands between the junctions and is completely blocked by Coulomb repulsion at T=0 and at small voltages eV/2 {<=} Ec. In the opposite limit, k{sub B}T {much_gt} E{sub c}, the width of the conductance minimum scales linearly and universally with T and N, the number of tunnel junctions, and qualifies as a primary thermometer. The zero bias drop in the conductance is proportional to T{sup -1} and can be used as a secondary thermometer. We will show with Monte Carlo simulations how background charge and nonuniformities of the array will affect the thermometer.

  15. Josephson junction in a thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Clem, J. R.; Mawatari, Yasunori; Mints, R. G.

    2001-04-01

    The phase difference {phi}(y) for a vortex at a line Josephson junction in a thin film attenuates at large distances as a power law, unlike the case of a bulk junction where it approaches exponentially the constant values at infinities. The field of a Josephson vortex is a superposition of fields of standard Pearl vortices distributed along the junction with the line density {phi}'(y)/2{pi}. We study the integral equation for {phi}(y) and show that the phase is sensitive to the ratio l/{Lambda}, where l={lambda}{sub J}{sup 2}/{lambda}{sub L}, {Lambda}=2{lambda}{sub L}{sup 2}/d, {lambda}{sub L}, and {lambda}{sub J} are the London and Josephson penetration depths, and d is the film thickness. For l<<{Lambda}, the vortex ''core'' of the size l is nearly temperature independent, while the phase ''tail'' scales as l{Lambda}/y{sup 2}={lambda}{sub J}2{lambda}{sub L}/d/y{sup 2}; i.e., it diverges as T{yields}T{sub c}. For l>>{Lambda}, both the core and the tail have nearly the same characteristic length l{Lambda}.

  16. Crooked, Coiled and Crimpled are three Ly6-like proteins required for proper localization of septate junction components

    PubMed Central

    Nilton, Anna; Oshima, Kenzi; Zare, Fariba; Byri, Sunitha; Nannmark, Ulf; Nyberg, Kevin G.; Fehon, Richard G.; Uv, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular junction formation is an elaborate process that is dependent on the regulated synthesis, assembly and membrane targeting of constituting components. Here, we report on three Drosophila Ly6-like proteins essential for septate junction (SJ) formation. SJs provide a paracellular diffusion barrier and appear molecularly and structurally similar to vertebrate paranodal septate junctions. We show that Crooked (Crok), a small GPI-anchored Ly6-like protein, is required for septa formation and barrier functions. In embryos that lack Crok, SJ components are produced but fail to accumulate at the plasma membrane. Crok is detected in intracellular puncta and acts tissue-autonomously, which suggests that it resides in intracellular vesicles to assist the cell surface localization of SJ components. In addition, we demonstrate that two related Ly6 proteins, Coiled (Cold) and Crimpled (Crim), are required for SJ formation and function in a tissue-autonomous manner, and that Cold also localizes to intracellular vesicles. Specifically, Crok and Cold are required for correct membrane trafficking of Neurexin IV, a central SJ component. The non-redundant requirement for Crok, Cold, Crim and Boudin (Bou; another Ly6 protein that was recently shown to be involved in SJ formation) suggests that members of this conserved family of proteins cooperate in the assembly of SJ components, possibly by promoting core SJ complex formation in intracellular compartments associated with membrane trafficking. PMID:20570942

  17. Fibrinogen Induces Alterations of Endothelial Cell Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    PATIBANDLA, PHANI K.; TYAGI, NEETU; DEAN, WILLIAM L.; TYAGI, SURESH C.; ROBERTS, ANDREW M.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that an elevated content of fibrinogen (Fg) increased formation of filamentous actin and enhanced endothelial layer permeability. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that Fg binding to endothelial cells (ECs) alters expression of actin-associated endothelial tight junction proteins (TJP). Rat cardiac microvascular ECs were grown in gold plated chambers of an electrical cell-substrate impedance system, 8-well chambered, or in 12-well plates. Confluent ECs were treated with Fg (2 or 4 mg/ml), Fg (4 mg/ml) with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) kinase inhibitors (PD98059 or U0126), Fg (4 mg/ml) with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or BQ788 (endothelin type B receptor blocker), endothelin-1, endothelin-1 with BQ788, or medium alone for 24 h. Fg induced a dose-dependent decrease in EC junction integrity as determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Western blot analysis and RT-PCR data showed that the higher dose of Fg decreased the contents of TJPs, occludin, zona occluden-1 (ZO-1), and zona occluden-2 (ZO-2) in ECs. Fg-induced decreases in contents of the TJPs were blocked by PD98059, U0126, or anti-ICAM-1 antibody. While BQ788 inhibited endothelin-1-induced decrease in TEER, it did not affect Fg-induced decrease in TEER. These data suggest that Fg increases EC layer permeability via the MEK kinase signaling pathway by affecting occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2, TJPs, which are bound to actin filaments. Therefore, increased binding of Fg to its major EC receptor, ICAM-1, during cardiovascular diseases may increase microvascular permeability by altering the content and possibly subcellular localization of endothelial TJPs. PMID:19507189

  18. Analysis of astronomical data from optical superconducting tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H.; Reynolds, A. P.; Perryman, Michael A.; Favata, Fabio; Peacock, Anthony J.

    2002-06-01

    Currently operating optical superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors, developed at the European Space Agency (ESA), can simultaneously measure the wavelength ((Delta) (gamma) equals 50 nm at 500 nm) and arrival time (to within approximately 5 microsecond(s) ) of individual photons in the range 310 to 720 nm with an efficiency of approximately 70%, and with count rates of the order of 5000 photons s-1 per junction. A number of STJs placed in an array format generates 4-D data: photon arrival time, energy, and array element (X,Y). Such STJ cameras are ideally suited for, e.g., high-time-resolution spectrally resolved monitoring of variable sources or low- resolution spectroscopy of faint extragalactic objects. The reduction of STJ data involves detector efficiency correction, atmospheric extinction correction, sky background subtraction, and, unlike that of data from CCD-based systems, a more complex energy calibration, barycentric arrival time correction, energy range selection, and time binning; these steps are, in many respects, analogous to procedures followed in high-energy astrophysics. We discuss these calibration steps in detail using a representative observation of the cataclysmic variable UZ Fornacis; these data were obtained with ESA's S-Cam2 6 X 6-pixel device. We furthermore discuss issues related to telescope pointing and guiding, differential atmospheric refraction, and atmosphere-induced image motion and image smearing (`seeing') in the focal plane. We also present a simple and effective recipe for extracting the evolution of atmospheric seeing with time from any science exposure and discuss a number of caveats in the interpretation of STJ-based time-binned data, such as light curves and hardness ratio plots.

  19. General anesthetics have differential inhibitory effects on gap junction channels and hemichannels in astrocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhe; Gangoso, Ester; Yi, Chenju; Jeanson, Tiffany; Kandelman, Stanislas; Mantz, Jean; Giaume, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Astrocytes represent a major non-neuronal cell population actively involved in brain functions and pathologies. They express a large amount of gap junction proteins that allow communication between adjacent glial cells and the formation of glial networks. In addition, these membrane proteins can also operate as hemichannels, through which "gliotransmitters" are released, and thus contribute to neuroglial interaction. There are now reports demonstrating that alterations of astroglial gap junction communication and/or hemichannel activity impact neuronal and synaptic activity. Two decades ago we reported that several general anesthetics inhibited gap junctions in primary cultures of astrocytes (Mantz et al., (1993) Anesthesiology 78(5):892-901). As there are increasing studies investigating neuroglial interactions in anesthetized mice, we here updated this previous study by employing acute cortical slices and by characterizing the effects of general anesthetics on both astroglial gap junctions and hemichannels. As hemichannel activity is not detected in cortical astrocytes under basal conditions, we treated acute slices with the endotoxin LPS or proinflammatory cytokines to induce hemichannel activity in astrocytes, which in turn activated neuronal hemichannels. We studied two extensively used anesthetics, propofol and ketamine, and the more recently developed dexmedetomidine. We report that these drugs have differential inhibitory effects on gap junctional communication and hemichannel activity in astrocytes when used in their respective, clinically relevant concentrations, and that dexmedetomidine appears to be the least effective on both channel functions. In addition, the three anesthetics have similar effects on neuronal hemichannels. Altogether, our observations may contribute to optimizing the selection of anesthetics for in vivo animal studies. GLIA 2016;64:524-536. PMID:26666873

  20. New advances in on-line sample preconcentration by capillary electrophoresis using dynamic pH junction.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2008-12-01

    The small injection volumes and narrow dimensions characteristic of microseparation techniques place constraints on concentration sensitivity that is required for trace chemical analyses. On-line sample preconcentration techniques using dynamic pH junction and its variants have emerged as simple yet effective strategies for enhancing concentration sensitivity of weakly ionic species by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Dynamic pH junction offers a convenient format for electrokinetic focusing of dilute sample plugs directly in-capillary for improved detection without off-line sample pretreatment. In this report, we highlight new advances in dynamic pH junction which have been reported to enhance method performance while discussing challenges for future research. PMID:19082065