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1

Combustion derived ultrafine particles induce cytochrome P-450 expression in specific lung compartments in the developing neonatal and adult rat  

PubMed Central

Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and can be a dominant contributor to ultrafine urban particulate matter (PM). Exposure to ultrafine PM is correlated with respiratory infections and asthmatic symptoms in young children. The lung undergoes substantial growth, alveolarization, and cellular maturation within the first years of life, which may be impacted by environmental pollutants such as PM. PAHs in PM can serve as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that induces expression of certain isozymes in the cytochrome P-450 superfamily, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, localized in specific lung cell types. Although AhR activation and induction has been widely studied, its context within PM exposure and impact on the developing lung is poorly understood. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP) generating system and used in vitro and in vivo models to define PM effects on AhR activation in the developing lung. We exposed 7-day neonatal and adult rats to a single 6-h PFP exposure and determined that PFPs cause significant parenchymal toxicity in neonates. PFPs contain weak AhR agonists that upregulate AhR-xenobiotic response element activity and expression and are capable inducers of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in both ages with different spatial and temporal patterns. Neonatal CYP1A1 expression was muted and delayed compared with adults, possibly because of differences in the enzyme maturation. We conclude that the inability of neonates to sufficiently adapt in response to PFP exposure may, in part, explain their susceptibility to PFP and urban ultrafine PM. PMID:23502512

Chan, Jackie K. W.; Vogel, Christoph F.; Baek, Jaeeun; Kodani, Sean D.; Uppal, Ravi S.; Bein, Keith J.; Anderson, Donald S.

2013-01-01

2

Acute pulmonary effects of ultrafine particles in rats and mice.  

PubMed

Ambient fine particles consist of ultrafine particles (< 100 nm) and accumulation-mode particles (approximately 100 to 1,000 nm). Our hypothesis that ultrafine particles can have adverse effects in humans is based on results of our earlier studies with particles of both sizes and on the finding that urban ultrafine particles can reach mass concentrations of 40 to 50 micrograms/m3, equivalent to number concentrations of 3 to 4 x 10(5) particles/cm3. The objectives of the exploratory studies reported here were to (1) evaluate pulmonary effects induced in rats and mice by ultrafine particles of known high toxicity (although not occurring in the ambient atmosphere) in order to obtain information on principles of ultrafine particle toxicology; (2) characterize the generation and coagulation behavior of ultrafine particles that are relevant for urban air; (3) study the influence of animals' age and disease status; and (4) evaluate copollutants as modifying factors. We used ultrafine Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE]*) fumes (count median diameter [CMD] approximately 18 nm) generated by heating Teflon in a tube furnace to 486 degrees C to evaluate principles of ultrafine particle toxicity that might be helpful in understanding potential effects of ambient ultrafine particles. Teflon fumes at ultrafine particle concentrations of approximately 50 micrograms/m3 are extremely toxic to rats when inhaled for only 15 minutes. We found that neither the ultrafine Teflon particles alone when generated in argon nor the Teflon fume gas-phase constituents when generated in air were toxic after 25 minutes of exposure. Only the combination of both phases when generated in air caused high toxicity, suggesting the existence of either radicals on the particle surface or a carrier mechanism of the ultrafine particles for adsorbed gas-phase compounds. We also found rapid translocation of the ultrafine Teflon particles across the epithelium after their deposition, which appears to be an important difference from the behavior of larger particles. Furthermore, the pulmonary toxicity of the ultrafine Teflon fumes could be prevented by adapting the animals with short 5-minute exposures on 3 days prior to a 15-minute exposure. This shows the importance of preexposure history in susceptibility to acute effects of ultrafine particles. Aging of the fresh Teflon fumes for 3.5 minutes led to a predicted coagulation resulting in particles greater than 100 nm that no longer caused toxicity in exposed animals. This result is consistent with greater toxicity of ultrafine particles compared with accumulation-mode particles. When establishing dose-response relationships for intratracheally instilled titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of the size of the urban ultrafine particles (20 nm) and of the urban accumulation-mode particles (250 nm), we observed significantly greater pulmonary inflammatory response to ultrafine TiO2 in rats and mice. The greater toxicity of the ultrafine TiO2 particles correlated well with their greater surface area per mass. Ultrafine particles of carbon, platinum, iron, iron oxide, vanadium, and vanadium oxide were generated by electric spark discharge and characterized to obtain particles of environmental relevance for study. The CMD of the ultrafine carbon particles was approximately 26 nm, and that of the metal particles was 15 to 20 nm, with geometric standard deviations (GSDs) of 1.4 to 1.7. For ultrafine carbon particles, approximately 100 micrograms/m3 is equivalent to 12 x 10(6) particles/cm3. Homogeneous coagulation of these ultrafine particles in an animal exposure chamber occurred rapidly at 1 x 10(7) particles/cm3, so that particles quickly grew to sizes greater than 100 nm. Thus, controlled aging of ultrafine carbon particles allowed the generation of accumulation-mode carbon particles (due to coagulation growth) for use in comparative toxicity studies. We also developed a technique to generate ultrafine particles consisting of the stable isotope 13C by using 13C-graphite electrodes made in our laboratory from amorphous

Oberdörster, G; Finkelstein, J N; Johnston, C; Gelein, R; Cox, C; Baggs, R; Elder, A C

2000-08-01

3

Ultrafine palladium particles immobilized on polymer microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine palladium particles immobilized on submicrometer copolymer microspheres were prepared by reduction of palladium\\u000a ions in the presence of the copolymer microspheres. Copolymer microspheres with surface carboxylic or cyano functionality\\u000a were used. Transmission electron microscopy observation and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that ultrafine palladium\\u000a particles of nanometer size were formed and were attached on the surface of the copolymer microspheres.

P. H. Wang; C.-Y. Pan

2001-01-01

4

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles.  

PubMed

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) can occur while people are cooking, driving, smoking, operating small appliances such as hair dryers, or eating out in restaurants. These exposures can often be higher than outdoor concentrations. For 3 years, portable monitors were employed in homes, cars, and restaurants. More than 300 measurement periods in several homes were documented, along with 25?h of driving two cars, and 22 visits to restaurants. Cooking on gas or electric stoves and electric toaster ovens was a major source of UFP, with peak personal exposures often exceeding 100,000 particles/cm³ and estimated emission rates in the neighborhood of 10¹² particles/min. Other common sources of high UFP exposures were cigarettes, a vented gas clothes dryer, an air popcorn popper, candles, an electric mixer, a toaster, a hair dryer, a curling iron, and a steam iron. Relatively low indoor UFP emissions were noted for a fireplace, several space heaters, and a laser printer. Driving resulted in moderate exposures averaging about 30,000 particles/cm³ in each of two cars driven on 17 trips on major highways on the East and West Coasts. Most of the restaurants visited maintained consistently high levels of 50,000-200,000 particles/cm³ for the entire length of the meal. The indoor/outdoor ratios of size-resolved UFP were much lower than for PM?.? or PM??, suggesting that outdoor UFP have difficulty in penetrating a home. This in turn implies that outdoor concentrations of UFP have only a moderate effect on personal exposures if indoor sources are present. A time-weighted scenario suggests that for typical suburban nonsmoker lifestyles, indoor sources provide about 47% and outdoor sources about 36% of total daily UFP exposure and in-vehicle exposures add the remainder (17%). However, the effect of one smoker in the home results in an overwhelming increase in the importance of indoor sources (77% of the total). PMID:20087407

Wallace, Lance; Ott, Wayne

2011-01-01

5

Detection and characterization of ultrafine particles  

SciTech Connect

Particles present in the environment have significant affects in many areas from personal health due to atmospheric particles to various industrial processes that can be ruined due to particulate contamination such as semiconductor device manufacture and manufacture of sterile health products. The ability to detect deleterious contamination requires appropriate instrumentation to detect these particles. To prevent such contamination, the particle source must be identified by determining the composition of the offending particles. In a controlled environment, particle contamination often occurs in transients. In order to identify unknown particles, a technique must obtain compositional and size information regardless of particle identity, and perform this analysis in real-time so as to separate {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} particles from those produced in the transient event. Since processes are sensitive to certain particle size regimes and possibly, compositions, the instrumentation must be designed with these needs in mind. The authors have developed an instrument, the Ultra-Sensitive Particle Analysis System (USPAS) for situations where ultrafine particles, down to 0.002 micron, are of concern, such as the semiconductor manufacturing industry and the ambient environment.

Reents, W.D. Jr. [AT & T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

6

Ultrafine Particles Deposition Inside Passenger Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although commuting time typically accounts for only 6% of the day for Americans, it has become a significant source of exposure to ultrafine particles (dp < 0.1 ?m) from vehicular emissions. Particle deposition onto surfaces, as an important particle loss mechanism, has been studied extensively in the indoor environments. However since air velocities, surface area to volume ratios and other

Longwen Gong; Bin Xu; Yifang Zhu

2009-01-01

7

Design and development of an ultrafine particle reflection-time-of-flight mass spectrometer  

E-print Network

. which is being debated to be a rich source for atmospheric aerosol. However, the most important use vvould be to study health effects, since small particles easily diffuse into thc lungs, with seemingly little physiological liltration mechanism. Thc... research v ork involves thc design, development and characterization ol' a singlc- ultraflne-particle mass spectrometer. Thc instrument aerodynamically size selects fine and ultraline aerosol particles (size range 20 nm-I pm), with a constant Stokes...

Das, Rishiraj

2002-01-01

8

Ultrafine particle and fiber production in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a system and method for producing ultrafine particles and ultrafine fibers of a given source material by evaporating and condensing the material in a gas atmosphere that includes inert gas. A smaller, more narrow size distribution is accomplished by producing the particles and fibers in a microgravity environment in order to reduce particle coalescence caused by convection currents. Particle coalescence also is reduced in an Earth gravity environment by controlling the convection currents. Condensed particles are collected either by providing an electrostatic field or a spatially varying magnetic field or by causing the gas to move through a filter which collects the particles. Nonferromagnetic material fibers are produced and collected by electrodes which produce an electro- static field. Ferromagnetic particles are collected by spatially varying magnetic fields.

Webb, George W. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

9

A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size-separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and subsequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report on technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of defined masses of camphene (C10H16) to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

Gonser, S. G.; Held, A.

2013-09-01

10

In-cabin ultrafine particle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the total human health risks associated with human exposure to ultrafine particle (UFP), the concentrations and fates of UFPs in the in-cabin atmospheres must be understood. In order to assess human exposure more accurately and further prevent adverse health effects from UFP exposure in the in-cabins, it is essential to gain insight into UFP transport dynamics between in-cabin

Bin Xu

2010-01-01

11

Concentrated ambient ultrafine particle exposure induces cardiac change in young healthy volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to ambient ultrafine particles has been associated with cardiopulmonary toxicity and mortality. Adverse effects specifically linked to ultrafine particles include loss of sympathovagal balance and altered hemostasis. To characterize the effects of ultrafine particles in ...

12

Focusing particle concentrator with application to ultrafine particles  

DOEpatents

Technology is presented for the high efficiency concentration of fine and ultrafine airborne particles into a small fraction of the sampled airflow by condensational enlargement, aerodynamic focusing and flow separation. A nozzle concentrator structure including an acceleration nozzle with a flow extraction structure may be coupled to a containment vessel. The containment vessel may include a water condensation growth tube to facilitate the concentration of ultrafine particles. The containment vessel may further include a separate carrier flow introduced at the center of the sampled flow, upstream of the acceleration nozzle of the nozzle concentrator to facilitate the separation of particle and vapor constituents.

Hering, Susanne; Lewis, Gregory; Spielman, Steven R.

2013-06-11

13

Study of fine and ultrafine particles for coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

During the second quarter of work on this new project, critical review of the literature continued. Several new references related to gravity separation were identified and evaluated. A synopsis was assembled to summarize techniques developed by various researchers for the float/sink separation of ultrafine coal. In the reviewed literature, it was commonly concluded that substantial improvements in washability results for ultrafine coals can be obtained only through the application of dynamic (centrifugal) procedures, and through the use of dispersing aids such as ultrasound and surfactants. These results suggest the presence of physicochemical phenomena, typical of colloidal systems. In theoretical studies this quarter, the effects of Brownian motion on fine particle sedimentation have been identified and theoretically quantitated. The interaction between Brownian and gravitational forces was calculated, and a model was prepared to permit estimation of critical particle size in float/sink separations. In laboratory studies this quarter, aliquots of Upper Freeport coal were prepared and subjected to laboratory float/sink separations to investigate the relative effectiveness of static and centrifugal techniques for fine and ultrafine coal. This series will verify results of earlier work and provide a basis for comparing the effects which may result from further modifications to the separation techniques resulting from insights gained in the basic phenomena governing float/sink processes. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Birlingmair, D.; Buttermore, W.; Chmielewski, T.; Pollard, J.

1990-04-01

14

Observation of ultrafine particle events in urban Gwangju, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of ultrafine particle events (10-100 nm traffic event, 50-100 nm residential heating event, and 10-30 nm photochemical event) in the Gwangju (Korea) ambient atmosphere were reported. We occasionally observed particle growth after formation of particles larger than 10 nm in the 10-30 nm photochemical event with growth rates of 2.2 nm/hr - 4.7 nm/hr. We showed distinct seasonal and diurnal patterns of ultrafine particle concentration. In winter, the N (50-80 nm), probably due to traffics and residential heating, led to the increased ultrafine particles, while in summer N (10-30 nm) formed by photochemical activity led to the enhanced concentration of ultrafine particles. We found that ultrafine particle concentrations observed in the morning (6:00- 11:00) and evening (17:00-23:00) was correlated with NOx. Although we observed enhanced SO2 concentration in the photochemical event, in general there was not a clear association between N (3-100 nm) and SO2. TEM and EDS analyses for mobility size-selected particles during ultrafine particle events showed that sulfate mixtures with metals and carbonaceous particles were included in the photochemical event, and non-spherical (agglomerated) carbonaceous particles were often observed in the traffic event.

Park, K.; Park, J.; Kwak, J.

2007-12-01

15

Development of a base set of toxicity tests using ultrafine TiO2 particles as a component of nanoparticle risk management.  

PubMed

The development of a risk management system for nanoscale or ultrafine particle-types requires a base set of hazard data. Assessing risk is a function of hazard and exposure data. Previously, we have suggested "parallel tracks" as a strategy for conducting nanoparticle research. On the one hand, mechanistic studies on "representative" nanoparticles could be supported by governmental agencies. Alternatively, with regard to commercial nanoparticles, the environmental, health and safety (EHS) framework would include a minimum base set of toxicity studies which should be supported by the companies that are developing nano-based products. The minimum base set could include the following criteria: substantial particle characterization, pulmonary toxicity studies, acute dermal toxicity and sensitization studies, acute oral and ocular toxicity studies, along with screening type genotoxicity, and aquatic toxicity studies. We report here the toxicity results of a base set of hazard tests on a set of newly developed, well-characterized, ultrafine TiO(2) (uf-TiO(2)) particle-types. In vivo pulmonary toxicity studies in rats demonstrated low inflammatory potential and lung tissue toxicity. Acute dermal irritation studies in rabbits and local lymph node assay results in mice indicated that uf-TiO(2) was not a skin irritant or dermal sensitizer. Acute oral toxicity studies demonstrated very low toxicity and uf-TiO(2) produced short-term and reversible ocular conjunctival redness in rabbits. Genotoxicity tests demonstrated that uf-TiO(2) was negative in both the bacterial reverse mutation test and in an in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test with Chinese hamster ovary cells. The results of aquatic toxicity screening studies demonstrated that uf-TiO(2) exhibited low concern for aquatic hazard in unaerated, 48h, static acute tests using the water flea, Daphnia magna; exhibited low concern for aquatic hazard in unaerated, 96h, static acute tests using the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; and exhibited medium concern in a 72h acute test using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. To summarize the findings, the results of most of the studies demonstrated low hazard potential in mammals or aquatic species following acute exposures to the ultrafine TiO(2) particle-types tested in this program. PMID:17566673

Warheit, David B; Hoke, Robert A; Finlay, Carol; Donner, E Maria; Reed, Kenneth L; Sayes, Christie M

2007-07-10

16

CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Epidemiological evidence suggests that ultrafine particles are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, specifically in elderly individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was (i) to assess cardiopulmonary responses in adult ...

17

In-cabin ultrafine particle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the total human health risks associated with human exposure to ultrafine particle (UFP), the concentrations and fates of UFPs in the in-cabin atmospheres must be understood. In order to assess human exposure more accurately and further prevent adverse health effects from UFP exposure in the in-cabins, it is essential to gain insight into UFP transport dynamics between in-cabin and outside atmospheres and the factors that are able to affect them. In this dissertation, mathematical model are developed and formulated as tools to improve the understanding of UFP dynamics in the in-cabin atmosphere. Under three different ventilation conditions, (i) Fan off-recirculation (RC) off, (ii) Fan on-RC off, and (iii) Fan on-RC on, the average modeled UFP I/O ratios were found to be 0.40, 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, and agree with the experimental data very well. Then, analysis focused on how the factors, such as ventilation settings, vehicle speed, filtration, penetration, and deposition, affect I/O ratios in broader categories of vehicle cabin microenvironments. Ventilation is the only mechanical process of exchanging air between the in-cabin and the outside. Under condition (ii), I/O ratio that varies from 0.2 to 0.7 was proportional to the airflow rate in the range of 0-360 m3/h. Under condition (iii), the modeled I/O ratio was inversely proportional to the airflow rate from mechanical ventilation within the range of 0.15-0.45 depending on the particle size. Significant variability of the penetration factor (5˜20%) was found due to the pressure difference. A coefficient "B" was successfully introduced to account for the electric charge effect on penetration factors. The effect of penetration on the I/O ratio was then evaluated by substituting penetration factor into the model. Under condition (i), the modeled I/O ratios increased linearly, up to ˜20%, within the penetration factor range. Under condition (iii), the effect of penetration factor is less but still significant (˜10%). The most penetrating particle size was observed at ˜300 nm, where the filtration efficiency was ˜20% in this study. As the filter face velocity (0.1 m s-1 ˜ 0.5 m s-1) increased, filtration efficiency reductions were 10%-20%. As filter usage is increased, filtration efficiency enhancements were 5%-15% but mechanical airflow rate decreased ˜10%. Due to the discrepancy of filtration efficiencies, the UFP I/O ratios changes 5%-15% under condition (ii), and ˜5% under condition (iii). Vehicle speed directly affects the differential pressure between the ambient and the in-cabin environments, which determines the leakage flow rate. When there is no mechanical air supply from outside, in the vehicle (conditions (i) and (iii)), driving speed plays an important role for the air exchange resulting in a greater effect (˜8%). Under condition (ii), vehicle speed has a little effect on the I/O ratios (<5%).

Xu, Bin

18

VERSATILE AEROSOL CONCENTRATION ENRICHMENT SYSTEM (VACES) FOR SIMULTANEOUS IN VIVO AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE AND COARSE AMBIENT PARTICLES. PART I: DEVELOPMENT AND LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION. (R827352C001)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study presents the development and bench-testing of a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) capable of simultaneously concentrating ambient particles of the coarse, fine and ultrafine size fractions for conducting in vivo and in vitro studies. The VACE...

19

Ultrafine particles at workplaces of a primary aluminium smelter.  

PubMed

The number concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles in a Søderberg and a prebake potroom of an aluminium primary smelter have been measured using a scanning mobility particle spectrometer. The particle morphology was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study shows the existence of elevated number concentrations of ultrafine particles in both potrooms. The main source of these particles is likely to be the process of anode changing. The ultrafine particles were measured directly at the source but could also be identified as episodes of high number concentrations in the general background air. Unlike the larger particles belonging to the 50-100 nm mode, the nanoparticle mode could not be detected in the TEM indicating that they may not be stable under the applied sampling conditions and/or the high vacuum in the instrument. PMID:16395469

Thomassen, Yngvar; Koch, Wolfgang; Dunkhorst, Wilhelm; Ellingsen, Dag G; Skaugset, Nils-Petter; Jordbekken, Lars; Arne Drabløs, Per; Weinbruch, Stephan

2006-01-01

20

The persistence, transport and health effects of regional ultrafine particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the multitude of health studies that have shown the ability of ultrafine particles (UFPs, DP < 100 nm) to penetrate deep into lung tissue, diffuse into the bloodstream, and eventually cause heart and lung disease, my thesis will focus on these effectively unmonitored airborne pollutants. UFPs are commonly detected near busy roadways and other high-temperature combustion sources in the form of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, iron) and toxic organics (benzo{a}pyrene, coronene). Studies of UFPs during the 1970s expressed a nucleic propensity for coagulation and growth. Because many of the UFPs studied were generated from heavy-duty diesel engines operating with ?0.3 wt % sulfur, the resulting sulfur-containing UFPs were hydrophilic and water vapor readily condensed on the generated nuclei. Due to their increased size, UFPs tend to settle out of air streams quickly; thus, limiting their impact regime to near-roadway influence and labeling them as local pollutants. By using highly size- and time-resolved impactors with TeflonRTM ultrafine after-filters (targeting DP < 90 nm), new evidence suggests the persistence of UFPs for greater periods of time and transport than previously predicted. Techniques developed during the Roseville rail yard study, refined during the Watt Ave/Arden Way study and applied across California's central valley have shown low levels of UFPs in a regional background. For cities in constrictive topography and meteorology (such as Bakersfield, Fresno and Los Angeles), winter inversions and stagnant weather can saturate the region with ultrafine heavy metals and carcinogenic organics, similar to the disasters during the middle of the last century.

Spada, Nicholas James

21

Determining Ultrafine Particle Collection Efficiency in a Nanometer Aerosol Sampler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nanometer Aerosol Sampler (NAS, Model 3089) manufactured by TSI Incorporated (Minnesota, USA) is commonly used to collect ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter < 100 nm) for off-line analysis. However, the UFP collection efficiency for this instrument has only been reported for polystyrene latex (PSL) particles at a flow rate of 1 L· min and a voltage of 10 KV. To

Chengjue Li; Shusen Liu; Yifang Zhu

2010-01-01

22

Ultrafine and respirable particles in an automotive grey iron foundry.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particle number and respirable particle mass concentrations were measured throughout an automotive grey iron foundry during winter, spring and summer using a particle concentration mapping procedure. Substantial temporal and spatial variability was observed in all seasons and attributed, in part, to the batch nature of operations, process emission variability and frequent work interruptions. The need for fine mapping grids was demonstrated, where elevations in particle concentrations were highly localized. Ultrafine particle concentrations were generally greatest during winter when incoming make-up air was heated with direct fire, natural gas burners. Make-up air drawn from roof level had elevated respirable mass and ultrafine number concentrations above ambient outdoor levels, suggesting inadvertent recirculation of foundry process emissions. Elevated respirable mass concentrations were highly localized on occasions (e.g. abrasive blasting and grinding), depended on the area within the facility where measurements were obtained, but were largely unaffected by season. Particle sources were further characterized by measuring their respective number and mass concentrations by particle size. Sources that contributed to ultrafine particles included process-specific sources (e.g. melting and pouring operations), and non-process sources (e.g. direct fire natural gas heating units, a liquid propane-fuelled sweeper and cigarette smoking) were additionally identified. PMID:18056626

Evans, Douglas E; Heitbrink, William A; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M

2008-01-01

23

Process and apparatus for producing ultrafine explosive particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and an improved eductor apparatus for producing ultrafine explosive particles is disclosed. The explosive particles, which when incorporated into a binder system, have the ability to propagate in thin sheets, and have very low impact sensitivity and very high propagation sensitivity. A stream of a solution of the explosive dissolved in a solvent is thoroughly mixed with a

McGowan; Michael J

1992-01-01

24

EFFECTS OF CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the leading theories concerning the toxicology of ambient particulate matter (PM) attributes health effects associated with PM inhalation to ultrafine particles (UF). UF numbers dwarf those of fine and coarse particles present in the ambient air as a result of fossil fuel ...

25

Calibration of a TSI Model 3025 Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The registration efficiency of the TSI model 3025 ultra-fine condensation particle counter for Ag and NaCl particles of between 2 and 20 nm in diameter was determined. Taking into account the different shapes of the input aerosol size distributions entering the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the transfer function of the DMA, the counting efficiencies of condensation nucleus counters (CNC)

J. Kesten; A. Reineking; J. Porstendoerfer

1991-01-01

26

Ultrafine particle emissions from desktop 3D printers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of low-cost desktop versions of three-dimensional (3D) printers has made these devices widely accessible for rapid prototyping and small-scale manufacturing in home and office settings. Many desktop 3D printers rely on heated thermoplastic extrusion and deposition, which is a process that has been shown to have significant aerosol emissions in industrial environments. However, we are not aware of any data on particle emissions from commercially available desktop 3D printers. Therefore, we report on measurements of size-resolved and total ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations resulting from the operation of two types of commercially available desktop 3D printers inside a commercial office space. We also estimate size-resolved (11.5 nm-116 nm) and total UFP (<100 nm) emission rates and compare them to emission rates from other desktop devices and indoor activities known to emit fine and ultrafine particles. Estimates of emission rates of total UFPs were large, ranging from ˜2.0 × 1010 # min-1 for a 3D printer utilizing a polylactic acid (PLA) feedstock to ˜1.9 × 1011 # min-1 for the same type of 3D printer utilizing a higher temperature acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic feedstock. Because most of these devices are currently sold as standalone devices without any exhaust ventilation or filtration accessories, results herein suggest caution should be used when operating in inadequately ventilated or unfiltered indoor environments. Additionally, these results suggest that more controlled experiments should be conducted to more fundamentally evaluate particle emissions from a wider arrange of desktop 3D printers.

Stephens, Brent; Azimi, Parham; El Orch, Zeineb; Ramos, Tiffanie

2013-11-01

27

CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE EXPOSURES IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

TD-02-042 (U. KODAVANTI) GPRA # 10108 Cardiovascular Responses to Ultrafine Carbon Particle Exposures in Rats. V. Harder1, B. Lentner1, A. Ziesenis1, E. Karg1, L. Ruprecht1, U. Kodavanti2, A. Stampfl3, J. Heyder1, H. Schulz1 GSF- Institute for Inhalation Biology1, I...

28

DAILY MORTALITY AND FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICLES IN ERFURT, GERMANY  

EPA Science Inventory

Dr H-Erich Wichmann and colleagues at the National Research Center for Environment and Health (GSF) in Neuherberg, Germany, prospec-tively studied the association of daily mortality data with the number and mass concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles in Erfurt, Ger...

29

Physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles by ultrafine pulverization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baizhi, as a medicinal plant, has been demonstrated to be useful for the treatment of aches and pains in China. The physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles is greatly influenced by ultrafine pulverization. To study the physicochemical characterization of Baizhi, the raw plant material of Baizhi was ground to 6 ?m particles by a high speed centrifugal sheering (HSCS) pulverizer. The micron particles were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Imperatorin is one of the active ingredients of Baizhi, and its extraction yield is determined to evaluate the chemical characterization of Baizhi powder. Imperatorin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that after ultrafine pulverization, the plant cell walls are broken into pieces and the extraction yield of imperatorin is increased by 11.93% compared with the normal particles.

Yang, Lian-Wei; Sun, Peng; Gai, Guo-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Fen; Wang, Yu-Rong

2011-04-01

30

Observations of ultrafine particles at Owens (dry) Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owens (dry) Lake is the largest natural source of PM2.5 in North America. One technique used to decrease PM2.5 levels at Owens Lake involves shallow flooding, which covers large areas of the lake bed with several inches of water. These large pools of stagnant water provide ideal conditions for bacterial growth and activity. During a field study at Owens Lake, high concentrations of ultrafine particles (?100 nm) were observed, and we hypothesize that bacterial activity in the flooded regions of the lake bed are the sources of these particles. Because ultrafine particles are known to be good cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), the presence of high number concentrations of ultrafine particles at Owens Lake could have a significant impact on cloud properties, as well as climate, for the Owens River Valley. In November 2009, particle size distributions, alongside condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations were measured at a Great Unified Basin Air Pollution Control District site on the southeast end of Owens Lake. The sampling site was located ~30 ft south of a large flooded area. Size distributions (11-600 nm) were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). SMPS size distributions indicated high number concentrations (up to 10,000/cm3) of small particles (20-40 nm) occurring each afternoon throughout the study. Small particles were not observed during two dust storms, when wind speeds reached 20 m/s from the south, transported high concentrations of supermicron dust particles. Based on the SMPS data, some of these high particle concentration events can be classified as new particle formation (NPF) events, while others could possibly be ultrafine primary emissions from local sources, such as flooded areas of the lake. The timing and intensity of the NPF events varied depending on meteorological conditions, such as wind speed and direction, and relative humidity, and the availability of gas-phase precursors, namely O3 and SO2. New particle growth rates during NPF events also depended on atmospheric conditions, and varied from 2.75 - 11 nm/hr. CCN concentrations were also measured throughout the study to determine how the presence of ultrafine particles affected the cloud nucleating ability of Owens Lake particles as a whole.

Fitzgerald, E.; Moore, M. J.; Prather, K. A.

2010-12-01

31

Fine and ultrafine particle decay rates in multiple homes.  

PubMed

Human exposure to particles depends on particle loss mechanisms such as deposition and filtration. Fine and ultrafine particles (FP and UFP) were measured continuously over seven consecutive days during summer and winter inside 74 homes in Edmonton, Canada. Daily average air exchange rates were also measured. FP were also measured outside each home and both FP and UFP were measured at a central monitoring station. A censoring algorithm was developed to identify indoor-generated concentrations, with the remainder representing particles infiltrating from outdoors. The resulting infiltration factors were employed to determine the continuously changing background of outdoor particles infiltrating the homes. Background-corrected indoor concentrations were then used to determine rates of removal of FP and UFP following peaks due to indoor sources. About 300 FP peaks and 400 UFP peaks had high-quality (median R(2) value >98%) exponential decay rates lasting from 30 min to 10 h. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) decay rates for UFP were 1.26 (0.82-1.83) h(-1); for FP 1.08 (0.62-1.75) h(-1). These total decay rates included, on average, about a 25% contribution from air exchange, suggesting that deposition and filtration accounted for the major portion of particle loss mechanisms in these homes. Models presented here identify and quantify effects of several factors on total decay rates, such as window opening behavior, home age, use of central furnace fans and kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans, use of air cleaners, use of air conditioners, and indoor-outdoor temperature differences. These findings will help identify ways to reduce exposure and risk. PMID:24143863

Wallace, Lance; Kindzierski, Warren; Kearney, Jill; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Ève; Wheeler, Amanda J

2013-11-19

32

Calibration of TSI model 3025 ultrafine condensation particle counter  

SciTech Connect

The registration efficiency of the TSI model 3025 ultrafine condensation particle counter for Ag and NaCl particles of between 2 and 20 nm in diameter was determined. Taking into account the different shapes of the input aerosol size distributions entering the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the transfer function of the DMA, the counting efficiencies of condensation nucleus counters (CNC) for monodisperse Ag and NaCl particles were estimated. In addition, the dependence of the CNC registration efficiency on the particle concentration was investigated.

Kesten, J.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J. (Univ. of Goettingen (West Germany))

1991-01-01

33

Preparation of ultrafine calcium carbonate particles with micropore dispersion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine particles of CaCO3 were synthesized by dispersing the mixture of CO2 and N2 into the Ca(OH)2\\/H2O slurry with a micropore-plate. Because the micropore is micrometers scale, process of momentum transfer, mass transfer and reaction was significantly enhanced. The carbonation process of Ca(OH)2\\/H2O system was monitored with pH and conductivity. Operation conditions were investigated on the specific surface area of

Guohua Wu; Yujun Wang; Shenlin Zhu; Jiading Wang

2007-01-01

34

An investigation of particle size effects in ultrafine barium ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine particles of barium ferrite in the size range 5-100 nm have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of a citrate precursor. The precursor decomposed at 425°C is amorphous, but crystalline barium ferrite starts forming at temperatures of 550°C and above. Barium ferrite which shows a monophase X-ray diffraction pattern and well-resolved Mössbauer spectra is obtained at 700°C. The Mössbauer spectra

V. K. Sankaranarayanan; Q. A. Pankhurst; D. P. E. Dickson; C. E. Johnson

1993-01-01

35

Ultrafine particle and fiber production in micro-gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique of evaporation and condensation of material in an inert gas is investigated for the purpose of preparing ultrafine particles (of order 10 nm in diameter) with a narrow distribution of sizes. Gravity-driven convection increases the rate of coalescence of the particles, leading to larger sizes and a broader distribution. Analysis and experimental efforts to investigate coalescence of particles are presented. The possibility of reducing coalescence in microgravity is discussed. An experimental test in reduced gravity to be performed in a KC135 aircraft is described briefly.

Webb, George W.

1987-01-01

36

Cluster analysis of roadside ultrafine particle size distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation of ultrafine particle size distributions in downtown Toronto. The k-means clustering algorithm was applied to five years of size-resolved data for particles with diameters less than 100 nm. Continuous particle number concentrations were measured 16 m from a major arterial roadway between March 2006 and May 2011 using a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer. Eight particle size distribution (PSD) types were identified. The PSD types exhibited distinct weekday-weekend and diurnal patterns. The relative frequency that each PSD occurred varied with season and wind direction and was correlated with other pollutants. These temporal patterns and correlation helped in elucidating the sources and processes that each of the eight PSD represent. Finally, similar PSD types were observed in residential areas located 6 and 15 km away from the central monitoring site suggesting that these PSD types may be generalizable to other sites. Identification of PSD types was found to be a valuable tool to support the interpretation of PSD data so as to elucidate the sources and processes contributing to ultrafine particle concentrations.

Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Yao, Xiaohong; Jun, Yun-Seok; Evans, Greg

2013-05-01

37

Water-Based Condensation Particle Counters for Environmental Monitoring of Ultrafine Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

TSI Inc. (Shoreview, MN) has introduced three new water-based condensation particle counters (WCPCS) that were designed to detect airborne particles larger than 2.5 nm (model 3786), 5 nm (model 3785), and either 10 or 20 nm (model 3782). These WCPCs are well suited for real time, environmental monitoring of number concentration of airborne ultrafine particles. Their unique design incorporates the

Wei Liu; Stanley L. Kaufman; Brian L. Osmondson; Gilmore J. Sem; Frederick R. Quant; Derek R. Oberreit

2006-01-01

38

[Distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles during haze weather in Hangzhou].  

PubMed

Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were monitored with fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) in continuous haze weather and the haze fading process during December 6 to 11, 2013 in Hangzhou. Particle concentration and size distribution were studied associated with meteorological factors. The results showed that number concentrations were the highest at night and began to reduce in the morning. There was a small peak at 8 o'clock in the morning and 18 o'clock in the afternoon. It showed an obvious peak traffic source, which indicated that traffic emissions played a great role in the atmospheric pollution. During haze weather, the highest number concentration of UFPs reached 8 x 10(4) cm(-3). Particle size spectrum distribution was bimodal, the peak particle sizes were 15 nm and 100 nm respectively. Majority of UFPs were Aitken mode and Accumulation mode and the size of most particles concentrated near 100 nm. Average CMD(count medium diameter) was 85.89 nm. During haze fading process, number concentration and particles with size around 100 nm began to reduce and peak size shifted to small size. Nuclear modal particles increased and were more than accumulation mode. Average CMD was 58.64 nm. Meteorological factors such as the visibility and wind were negatively correlated with the particle number concentration. Correlation coefficient R were -0.225 and - 0.229. The humidity was correlated with number concentration. Correlation coefficient R was 0.271. The atmosphere was stable in winter and the level temperature had small correlation with number concentration. Therefore, study on distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles during haze weather had the significance on the formation mechanism and control of haze weather. PMID:25338351

Chen, Qiu-Fang; Sun, Zai; Xie, Xiao-Fang

2014-08-01

39

Volatility and mixing states of ultrafine particles from biomass burning.  

PubMed

Fine and ultrafine carbonaceous aerosols produced from burning biomasses hold enormous importance in terms of assessing radiation balance and public health hazards. As such, volatility and mixing states of size-selected ultrafine particles (UFP) emitted from rice straw, oak, and pine burning were investigated by using volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) technique in this study. Rice straw combustion produced unimodal size distributions of emitted aerosols, while bimodal size distributions from combustions of oak (hardwood) and pine (softwood) were obtained. A nearness of flue gas temperatures and a lower CO ratio of flaming combustion (FC) to smoldering combustion (SC) were characteristic differences found between softwood and hardwood. SC emitted larger mode particles in higher numbers than smaller mode particles, while the converse was true for FC. Rice straw open burning UFPs exhibited a volatilization behavior similar to that between FC and SC. In addition, internal mixing states were observed for size-selected UFPs in all biomasses for all combustion conditions, while external mixing states were only observed for rice straw combustion. Results for FC and open burning suggested there was an internal mixing of volatile organic carbon (OC) and non-volatile core (e.g., black carbon (BC)), while the SC in rice straw produced UFPs devoid of non-volatile core. Also, it was found that volatility of constituting OC in FC and SC particles was different. PMID:22244973

Maruf Hossain, A M M; Park, Seungho; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Kihong

2012-02-29

40

Fine and ultrafine particle emissions from microwave popcorn.  

PubMed

This study characterized fine (PM2.5 ) and ultrafine particle (UFP, diameter < 100 nm) emissions from microwave popcorn and analyzed influential factors. Each pre-packed popcorn bag was cooked in a microwave oven enclosed in a stainless steel chamber for 3 min. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs and PM2.5 mass concentration were measured inside the chamber repeatedly for five different flavors under four increasing power settings using either the foil-lined original package or a brown paper bag. UFPs and PM2.5 generated by microwaving popcorn were 150-560 and 350-800 times higher than the emissions from microwaving water, respectively. About 90% of the total particles emitted were in the ultrafine size range. The emitted PM concentrations varied significantly with flavor. Replacing the foil-lined original package with a brown paper bag significantly reduced the peak concentration by 24-87% for total particle number and 36-70% for PM2.5 . A positive relationship was observed between both UFP number and PM2.5 mass and power setting. The emission rates of microwave popcorn ranged from 1.9 × 10(10) to 8.0 × 10(10) No./min for total particle number and from 134 to 249 ?g/min for PM2.5 . PMID:24106981

Zhang, Q; Avalos, J; Zhu, Y

2014-04-01

41

Process and apparatus for producing ultrafine explosive particles  

DOEpatents

A method and an improved eductor apparatus for producing ultrafine explosive particles is disclosed. The explosive particles, which when incorporated into a binder system, have the ability to propagate in thin sheets, and have very low impact sensitivity and very high propagation sensitivity. A stream of a solution of the explosive dissolved in a solvent is thoroughly mixed with a stream of an inert nonsolvent by obtaining nonlaminar flow of the streams by applying pressure against the flow of the nonsolvent stream, to thereby diverge the stream as it contacts the explosive solution, and violently agitating the combined stream to rapidly precipitate the explosive particles from the solution in the form of generally spheroidal, ultrafine particles. The two streams are injected coaxially through continuous, concentric orifices of a nozzle into a mixing chamber. Preferably, the nonsolvent stream is injected centrally of the explosive solution stream. The explosive solution stream is injected downstream of and surrounds the nonsolvent solution stream for a substantial distance prior to being ejected into the mixing chamber.

McGowan, Michael J. (Martinsburg, WV)

1992-10-20

42

ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES INDUCE IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS THROUGH A POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISM  

EPA Science Inventory

Ultrafine carbon particles induce IL-8 expression in human airway epithelial cells through a post-transcritpional mechanism Epidemiological studies suggest that ultrafine particles contribute to particulate matter (PM) - induced adverse health effects. IL-8 is an i...

43

SOURCE STRENGTHS OF ULTRAFINE AND FINE PARTICLES DUE TO COOKING WITH A GAS STOVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Cooking, particularly frying, is an important source of particles indoors. Few studies have measured a full range of particle sizes, including ultrafine particles, produced during cooking. In this study, semicontinuous instruments with fine size discriminating ability were us...

44

Spatial distributions of ultrafine particles and their behavior and chemical composition in relation to roadside sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical and horizontal distributions of the chemical components of ultrafine particles (UFP; <0.1?m) in relation to roadside sources were investigated by using a newly developed PM0.1 collection system with a UFP impactor filter (50% cut-off, 0.1?m; air flow rate, 40.0Lmin?1). UFP were measured at a suburban roadside, at two background sites in Saitama (summer 2007 and winter 2008), and at

Shinji Kudo; Kazuhiko Sekiguchi; Kyung Hwan Kim; Kazuhiko Sakamoto

2011-01-01

45

Process for making ultra-fine ceramic particles  

DOEpatents

A process for producing ultra-fine ceramic particles in which droplets are formed from a ceramic precursor mixture containing a metal cation, a nitrogen-containing fuel, a solvent, and an anion capable of participating in an anionic oxidation-reduction reaction with the nitrogen containing fuel. The nitrogen-containing fuel contains at least three nitrogen atoms, at least one oxygen atom, and at least one carbon atom. The ceramic precursor mixture is dried to remove at least 85 weight percent of the solvent, and the dried mixture is then ignited to form a combusted powder.

Stangle, Gregory C. (Alfred, NY); Venkatachari, Koththavasal R. (Hornell, NY); Ostrander, Steven P. (Scotia, NY); Schulze, Walter A. (Alfred Station, NY)

1995-01-01

46

Electrostatic deposition of CVD particles for fabrication of ultrafine ceramic filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for forming a ceramic membrane was devised. Ultrafine particles of silicon nitride synthesized by thermally activated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were deposited on an outer wall surface of a porous ceramic tube (substrate) by electrostatic force and sintered in an inert gas atmosphere. The ceramic-made electrode assembly using surface discharge was used for charging ultrafine particles at

H. Yamamoto

1991-01-01

47

Size-Dependent Proinflammatory Effects of Ultrafine Polystyrene Particles: A Role for Surface Area and Oxidative Stress in the Enhanced Activity of Ultrafines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies into the effects of ultrafine particles in the lung have shown adverse effects considered to be due in part to the particle size. Air pollution particles (PM10) are associated with exacerbations of respiratory disease and deaths from cardiovascular causes in epidemiological studies and the ultrafine fraction of PM10 has been hypothesized to play an important role. The aim of

D. M. Brown; M. R. Wilson; W. MacNee; V. Stone; K. Donaldson

2001-01-01

48

Spatio-temporal variation of urban ultrafine particle number concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods are needed to characterize short-term exposure to ultrafine particle number concentrations (UFP) for epidemiological studies on the health effects of traffic-related UFP. Our aims were to assess season-specific spatial variation of short-term (20-min) UFP within the city of Basel, Switzerland, and to develop hybrid models for predicting short-term median and mean UFP levels on sidewalks. We collected measurements of UFP for periods of 20 min (MiniDiSC particle counter) and determined traffic volume along sidewalks at 60 locations across the city, during non-rush hours in three seasons. For each monitoring location, detailed spatial characteristics were locally recorded and potential predictor variables were derived from geographic information systems (GIS). We built multivariate regression models to predict local UFP, using concurrent UFP levels measured at a suburban background station, and combinations of meteorological, temporal, GIS and observed site characteristic variables. For a subset of sites, we assessed the relationship between UFP measured on the sidewalk and at the nearby residence (i.e., home outdoor exposure on e.g. balconies). The average median 20-min UFP levels at street and urban background sites were 14,700 ± 9100 particles cm-3 and 9900 ± 8600 particles cm-3, respectively, with the highest levels occurring in winter and the lowest in summer. The most important predictor for all models was the suburban background UFP concentration, explaining 50% and 38% of the variability of the median and mean, respectively. While the models with GIS-derived variables (R2 = 0.61) or observed site characteristics (R2 = 0.63) predicted median UFP levels equally well, mean UFP predictions using only site characteristic variables (R2 = 0.62) showed a better fit than models using only GIS variables (R2 = 0.55). The best model performance was obtained by using a combination of GIS-derived variables and locally observed site characteristics (median: R2 = 0.66; mean: R2 = 0.65). The 20-min UFP concentrations measured at the sidewalk were strongly related (R2 = 0.8) to the concurrent 20-min residential UFP levels nearby. Our results indicate that median UFP can be moderately predicted by means of a suburban background site and GIS-derived traffic and land use variables. In areas and regions where large-scale GIS data are not available, the spatial distribution of traffic-related UFP may be assessed reasonably well by collecting on-site short-term traffic and land-use data.

Ragettli, Martina S.; Ducret-Stich, Regina E.; Foraster, Maria; Morelli, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Basagaña, Xavier; Corradi, Elisabetta; Ineichen, Alex; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Rivera, Marcela; Slama, Rémy; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C.

2014-10-01

49

Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.  

PubMed

This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging. PMID:22539559

Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

2012-07-01

50

Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Studies of Ultrafine Particles  

PubMed Central

Although humans have been exposed to airborne nanosized particles (NSPs; < 100 nm) throughout their evolutionary stages, such exposure has increased dramatically over the last century due to anthropogenic sources. The rapidly developing field of nanotechnology is likely to become yet another source through inhalation, ingestion, skin uptake, and injection of engineered nanomaterials. Information about safety and potential hazards is urgently needed. Results of older bio-kinetic studies with NSPs and newer epidemiologic and toxicologic studies with airborne ultrafine particles can be viewed as the basis for the expanding field of nanotoxicology, which can be defined as safety evaluation of engineered nanostructures and nanodevices. Collectively, some emerging concepts of nanotoxicology can be identified from the results of these studies. When inhaled, specific sizes of NSPs are efficiently deposited by diffusional mechanisms in all regions of the respiratory tract. The small size facilitates uptake into cells and transcytosis across epithelial and endothelial cells into the blood and lymph circulation to reach potentially sensitive target sites such as bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and heart. Access to the central nervous system and ganglia via translocation along axons and dendrites of neurons has also been observed. NSPs penetrating the skin distribute via uptake into lymphatic channels. Endocytosis and biokinetics are largely dependent on NSP surface chemistry (coating) and in vivo surface modifications. The greater surface area per mass compared with larger-sized particles of the same chemistry renders NSPs more active biologically. This activity includes a potential for inflammatory and pro-oxidant, but also antioxidant, activity, which can explain early findings showing mixed results in terms of toxicity of NSPs to environmentally relevant species. Evidence of mitochondrial distribution and oxidative stress response after NSP endocytosis points to a need for basic research on their interactions with subcellular structures. Additional considerations for assessing safety of engineered NSPs include careful selections of appropriate and relevant doses/concentrations, the likelihood of increased effects in a compromised organism, and also the benefits of possible desirable effects. An interdisciplinary team approach (e.g., toxicology, materials science, medicine, molecular biology, and bioinformatics, to name a few) is mandatory for nanotoxicology research to arrive at an appropriate risk assessment. PMID:16002369

Oberdörster, Günter; Oberdörster, Eva; Oberdörster, Jan

2005-01-01

51

Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes. ...

52

UPREGULATION OF TISSUE FACTOR IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS FOLLOWING ULTRAFINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology studies have linked the exposure to air pollutant particles with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In our laboratory we have tested the hypothesis that the ultrafine fraction of ambient pollutant particles would cau...

53

UP-REGULATION OF TISSUE FACTOR IN HUMAN PULMONARY ARTERY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS AFTER ULTRAFINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Epidemiology studies have linked exposure to pollutant particles to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the ultrafine fraction of ambient pollutant particle...

54

InterComparison of a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Incorporating an Ultrafine Water-Based Condensation Particle Counter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Ultrafine Water-based Condensation Particle Counter (UWCPC), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) incorporating an UWCPC, and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) were deployed to determine the number and size distribution of ultrafine particles. Comparisons of particle number concentrations measured by the UWCPC, SMPS, and FMPS were conducted to evaluate the performance of the two particle sizers using ambient

Cheol-Heon Jeong; Greg J. Evans

2009-01-01

55

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles  

SciTech Connect

In this reporting period, a study of ultra-fine iron catalyst filtration was initiated to study the behavior of ultra-fine particles during the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids filtration. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. The change of particle size during the slurry-phase FTS has monitored by withdrawing catalyst sample at different TOS. The measurement of dimension of the HRTEM images of samples showed a tremendous growth of the particles. Carbon rims of thickness 3-6 nm around the particles were observed. This growth in particle size was not due to carbon deposition on the catalyst. A conceptual design and operating philosophy was developed for an integrated wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor to be used in Phase II of this research program. The system will utilize a primary inertial hydroclone followed by a Pall Accusep cross-flow membrane. Provisions for cleaned permeate back-pulsing will be included to as a flux maintenance measure.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Burtron H. Davis

2005-09-30

56

Magnetic properties of ultrafine cobalt ferrite particles L. D. Tung,a)  

E-print Network

Magnetic properties of ultrafine cobalt ferrite particles L. D. Tung,a) V. Kolesnichenko, D of a diluted system of ultrafine cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (d 3.3 nm). From the peak of the zero for cobalt ferrite, at 2 K, the reduced remanence Mr /Ms is equal to 0.46 which is close to the theoretical

Spinu, Leonard

57

Monodispersed Ultrafine Zeolite Crystal Particles by Microwave Hydrothermal Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Microwave hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites is reviewed. Monodispersed ultrafine crystal particles of zeolite (Silicalite-1) have been synthesized in batch reactor vessels by microwave irradiation heating of aqueous basic silicate precursor solutions with tetra propyl ammonium hydroxide as the templating molecule. The effects of major process parameters (such as synthesis temperature, microwave heating rate, volume ratio (i.e., the volume of the initial synthesis solution over the total volume of the reactor vessel), and synthesis time on the zeolite particle characteristics are studied using a computer-controlled microwave reactor system that allows real-time monitoring and control of reaction medium temperature. The changes in the morphology, size and crystal structure of the particles are investigated using scanning electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, and BET surface analysis. We have found that the synthesis temperature, volume ratio, and heating rate play a significant role in controlling the particle size, uniformity, and morphology. Microwave processing has generated new morphologies of zeolite particles (i.e., uniform block-shaped particles that contain mixed gel-nanocrystallites and agglomerated crystal particles) that could not be made by a conventional hydrothermal process. At higher synthesis temperature and lower volume ratio, irregular block-shaped particles were produced, whereas increasing the volume ratio promoted the formation of monodispersed single-crystal particles with uniform shape. Our results clearly demonstrate that faster microwave heating is advantageous to enhance the zeolite crystallization kinetics and produces larger-size crystal particles in shorter time. In addition, zeolite crystallization mechanisms, depending on the microwave heating rate, were also discussed.

Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Harris, Michael Tyrone [ORNL; Khatri, Lubna [ORNL

2008-01-01

58

Role of the alveolar macrophage in lung injury: studies with ultrafine particles.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a series of experiments with ultrafine particles (approximately 20 nm) and larger particles (less than 200 nm) of "nuisance" dusts to evaluate the involvement of alveolar macrophages (AM) in particle-induced lung injury and particle translocation in rats. After intratracheal instillation of both ultrafine particles and larger particles of TiO2, we found a highly increased interstitial access of the ultrafine particles combined with a large acute inflammatory reaction as determined by lung lavage parameters. An additional experiment revealed that intratracheal instillation of phagocytized ultrafine TiO2 particles (inside AM) prevented both the pulmonary inflammatory reaction and the interstitial access of the ultrafine particles. Another experiment showed that the influx of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) into the alveolar space unexpectedly decreased with higher doses of ultrafine particles, whereas alveolar epithelial permeability (protein leakage) increased. The divergence between PMN influx into the alveolar space and changes in alveolar epithelial permeability implies that they are separate events. Pulmonary inflammatory parameters determined by lung lavage analysis correlated best with the surface area of the retained particles rather than with their mass, volume, or numbers. Because higher doses resulted in an increased interstitialized fraction of particles, we suggest that inflammatory events induced by particles in the interstitial space can modify the inflammation in the alveolar space detectable by lung lavage. Our results demonstrate the dual role of AM for modifying particle-induced lung injury, i.e., both preventing such injury and contributing to it. We conclude that the increased pulmonary toxicity of ultrafine particles is related to their larger surface area and to their increased interstitial access.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1396458

Oberdörster, G; Ferin, J; Gelein, R; Soderholm, S C; Finkelstein, J

1992-01-01

59

Cardiovascular Effects in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome Exposed to Concentrated Ultrafine Air Pollution Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

RATIONALE: Epidemiologic studies report associations between ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) and various indices of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. A leading hypothesis contends that smaller ultrafine (UF) particles induce a greater physiologic response bec...

60

Contribution of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the mutagenicity of ultrafine particles in the roadside atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first report of the quantification of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) in ultrafine particles in the roadside atmosphere and their contribution to the direct-acting mutagenicity of ultrafine particles. The detailed size distributions of six nitro-PAHs (2-nitrofluoranthene, 1-nitropyrene, 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, and 1,8-dinitropyrene) were measured by highly sensitive gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Direct-acting mutagenicity of size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) was determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. The amounts of nitro-PAHs per unit mass of ultrafine particles (<0.12 ?m) were significantly higher than those of accumulation mode particles (0.12-2.1 ?m) and of coarse particles (>2.1 ?m). Therefore, more than 20% of each nitro-PAH, with the exception of 2-nitrofluoranthene, was observed in the ultrafine particle fraction, although the contribution of ultrafine particles to the total PM mass in the roadside atmosphere was only 2.3%. Also, in both tester strains TA98 and YG1024, the mutagenicity per unit mass of ultrafine particles was significantly higher than those of accumulation mode particles or coarse particles. The contributions of 2-nitrofluoranthene, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, and 1,8-dinitropyrene to the direct-acting mutagenicity of ultrafine particles were 0.56, 1.5, 0.57, 2.2, and 9.2%, respectively, in the TA98 strain, and 0.54, 1.1, 0.71, 5.0, and 17%, respectively, in the YG1024 strain, while the contribution of 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene was less than 0.01% in both strains. 1,8-Dinitropyrene was the largest contributor to the mutagenicity not only of ultrafine particles but also of accumulation mode particles in both strains. Only five nitro-PAHs accounted for as much as 14 and 24% of the direct-acting mutagenicity of ultrafine particles in the roadside atmosphere in the TA98 strain and the YG1024 strain, respectively. This result indicated that nitro-PAHs, especially 1,8-dinitropyrene, were important contributors to the high direct-acting mutagenicity of ultrafine particles in the roadside atmosphere.

Kawanaka, Youhei; Matsumoto, Emiko; Wang, Ning; Yun, Sun-Ja; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

61

An Ultrafine, Water-Based Condensation Particle Counter and its Evaluation under Field Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrafine, water-based condensation particle counter (U-WCPC, TSI Model 3786) has been compared to a butanol-based ultrafine counter (U-BCPC, TSI Model 3025) for measurement of atmospheric and freeway-tunnel aerosols. The U-WCPC utilizes a warm, wet-walled growth tube to activate and grow particles through water condensation in a laminar-flow. It has an aerosol sampling rate of 0.3 L\\/min, and a nominal

Kenjiro Iida; Mark R. Stolzenburg; Peter H. McMurry; James N. Smith; Frederick R. Quant; Derek R. Oberreit; Patricia B. Keady; Arantza Eiguren-Fernandez; Gregory S. Lewis; Nathan M. Kreisberg; Susanne V. Hering

2008-01-01

62

Interactions between Ultrafine Particles and Transition Metals in Vivo and in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the ultrafine particle and transition metal components of particulate air pollution (PM10) have been hypothesized to be important factors in determining toxicity and potential adverse health effects. In this study we aimed to investigate interactions between transition metal salts and a surrogate environmental particle–ultrafine carbon black (ufCB). In all experimental systems employed, the ufCB was found to be more

Martin R. Wilson; Janet H. Lightbody; Ken Donaldson; Jill Sales; Vicki Stone

2002-01-01

63

Selected physiological effects of ultrafine particles in acute cardiovascular morbidity.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have emerged as a potentially important environmental health concern as they are produced in large numbers by vehicle emissions and may contribute to previously reported associations between traffic pollution and acute cardiovascular morbidity. This review examines recent epidemiological evidence of UFP exposures and selected physiological outcomes that may be modified as part of the underlying causal pathway(s) linking particulate air pollution and acute cardiovascular morbidity. Outcomes examined included changes in heart rate variability (HRV) (autonomic function), ST-segment depression (myocardial ischemia), QT-interval (ventricular repolarization), and endothelial vasomotor function. Twenty-two studies were reviewed in total: 10 prospective panel studies and 12 randomized cross-over studies. Sixteen studies identified a significant relationship between UFPs and at least one of the above outcomes and current evidence generally supports the biological plausibility of a relationship between UFPs and acute cardiovascular morbidity. However, discrepancies were apparent in the direction of observed associations, particularly for HRV and ventricular repolarization. Reasons for these discrepancies may include differences in particle composition, time-point of clinical evaluation, and population susceptibilities. Nevertheless, evidence to date suggests that UFPs have a measureable impact on physiological measures known to be altered in cases of acute cardiovascular morbidity. Moving forward, expanded use of personal exposure measures is recommended for prospective panel studies to minimize exposure misclassification. In addition, effort should be made to include more women in studies of the acute cardiovascular effects of UFPs as findings to date generally reflect responses in men. PMID:22465230

Weichenthal, Scott

2012-05-01

64

Size distribution measurement of fine and ultrafine particle emission from cooking Evelyne Ghina  

E-print Network

and ultrafine airborne particles has been identified as a factor that could affect human health (See sur Marne, France Keywords: Emission factor, indoor particles, particle size distribution, measurement ) for particle with diameter between d and (d+dd) including emission rate of the source, nucleation, re-suspension

Boyer, Edmond

65

ULTRAFINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS VS. PATIENTS WTH COPD  

EPA Science Inventory

Individuals affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to particulate air pollution. The dosimetry of ultrafine aerosols (diameter # 0.1 :m) is not well characterized in the healthy or diseas...

66

Personal Exposure to Ultrafine Particles and Oxidative DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable instruments in six 18-hr periods in 15 healthy nonsmoking subjects. Exposure contrasts of outdoor pollution were achieved by bicycling in traffic for 5 days and in the laboratory for 1 day. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed as strand breaks and oxidized purines in mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood the morning after exposure measurement. Cumulated outdoor and cumulated indoor exposures to UFPs each were independent significant predictors of the level of purine oxidation in DNA but not of strand breaks. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter with an aero-dynamic diameter of ?10 ?m (PM10), nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or number concentration of UFPs at urban background or busy street monitoring stations was not a significant predictor of DNA damage, although personal UFP exposure was correlated with urban background concentrations of CO and NO2, particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution. PMID:16263500

Vinzents, Peter S.; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Hertel, Ole; Jensen, Finn Palmgren; Schibye, Bente; Loft, Steffen

2005-01-01

67

What does respirator certification tell us about filtration of ultrafine particles?  

PubMed

Recent interest in exposures to ultrafine particles (less than 100 nm) in both environmental and occupational settings led the authors to question whether the protocols used to certify respirator filters provide adequate attention to ultrafine aerosols. The authors reviewed the particle size distribution of challenge aerosols and evaluated the aerosol measurement method currently employed in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) particulate respirator certification protocol for its ability to measure the contribution of ultrafine particles to filter penetration. Also considered were the differences between mechanical and electrically charged (electret) filters in light of the most penetrating particle size. It was found that the sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctylphthalate (DOP) aerosols currently used in respirator certification tests contain a significant fraction of particles in the ultrafine region. However, the photometric method deployed in the certification test is not capable of adequately measuring light scatter of particles below approximately 100 nm in diameter. Specifically, 68% (by count) and 8% (by mass) of the challenge NaCl aerosol particles and 10% (by count) and 0.3% (by mass) of the DOP particles below 100 nm do not significantly contribute to the filter penetration measurement. In addition, the most penetrating particle size for electret filters likely occurs at 100 nm or less under test conditions similar to those used in filter certification. The authors conclude, therefore, that the existing NIOSH certification protocol may not represent a worst-case assessment for electret filters because it has limited ability to determine the contribution of ultrafine aerosols, which include the most penetrating particle size for electret filters. Possible strategies to assess ultrafine particle penetration in the certification protocol are discussed. PMID:18322869

Eninger, Robert M; Honda, Takeshi; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Grinshpun, Sergey A

2008-05-01

68

Influence of sound wave characteristics on fluidization behaviors of ultrafine particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluidization behaviors of ultrafine particles were investigated in an acoustic fluidized bed with one type of micron particles and two types of nanoparticles. With the assistance of sound wave having low sound frequency and high sound pressure level, the micron and nanoparticles can be fluidized smoothly with fluidization behaviors similar to those of Geldart Group A particles. It has

Qingjie Guo; Huie Liu; Wenzhong Shen; Xianghong Yan; Rugao Jia

2006-01-01

69

ENHANCED TOXICITY OF CHARGED CARBON NANOTUBES AND ULTRAFINE CARBON BLACK PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Man-made carbonaceous nano-particles such as single and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (CNT) and ultra-fine carbon black (UFCB) particles are finding increasing applications in industry, but their potential toxic effects is of concern. In aqueous media, these particles cluster in...

70

Ultrafine particle generation by high-velocity impact of metal projectiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine particle generation through mechanical processes was not carefully deepened so far, even if it could be related to the human health-based researches. In particular, the evaluation of ultrafine particles produced in battlefield scenarios can be useful to quantify the exposure of soldiers to particles carrying toxic heavy metals. In the present work ultrafine particle generation during high-velocity impact of metal projectiles was deepened performing symmetrical high velocity Taylor impacts of copper cylinder tests (Rod-on-Rod tests) by means of a gas-gun facility. Particle number distributions and total concentrations were measured through one-second-time resolution instruments in a chamber where impact events at different velocities were performed. Particle number generation per impact was also evaluated. Particle concentrations in the 106 part. cm-3 range were measured corresponding to particle generations higher than 1012 particles per impact, then comparable to those typical of combustion sources. Particle number distribution showed a unimodal distribution with a 10 nm mode. Summarizing, the performed experimental campaign revealed an extremely high generation of ultrafine particles from mechanical processes.

Stabile, L.; Iannitti, G.; Vigo, P.; Ruggiero, A.; Russi, A.; Buonanno, G.

2014-05-01

71

Residential infiltration of fine and ultrafine particles in Edmonton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne indoor particles arise from both indoor sources and ambient particles that have infiltrated indoors. The intra-urban variability of infiltration factors (Finf) is a source of measurement error in epidemiological studies estimating exposure from a central site measurement, hence information on the within and between-home variability of Finf is useful to better characterize ambient PM exposure. The objective of this paper was to estimate magnitudes and predictors of daily residential infiltration factors (Finf) and ambient/non-ambient components of indoor ultrafine particle (UFP) and fine particle (FP) concentrations. FPs and UFPs were measured continuously for 7 consecutive days in 74 Edmonton homes in winter and summer 2010 (50 homes in each season). Simultaneous measurements of outdoor (near-home) FP and ambient (at a central site) UFP concentrations were also measured. Daily infiltration factors were estimated for each home; considerable variability was seen within and between homes. For FPs, seasonal-averaged Finf (the average of the 7 daily Finf estimates) ranged from 0.10 to 0.92 in winter (median = 0.30, n = 49) and 0.31 to 0.99 in summer (median = 0.68, n = 48). For UFPs, the seasonal-averaged Finf ranged from 0.08 to 0.47 across homes in winter (median = 0.21, n = 33 houses) and from 0.16 to 0.94 in summer (median = 0.57, n = 48). The higher median Finf in summer was attributed to a high frequency of open windows. Daily infiltration factors were also estimated based on the indoor/outdoor PM1 sulfur ratio. These estimates were poorly correlated with DustTrak-based FP infiltration factor estimates; the difference may be due to losses of volatile components on the PM1 filter samples. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify variables significantly associated with Finf and the non-ambient component of indoor FP and UFP concentrations. Wind speed was consistently associated with Finf across all seasons for both FPs and UFPs. The use of an air cleaner was associated with reduced UFP infiltration factors in summer, suggesting a potential method of reducing infiltrated UFPs. Various cooking activities and smoking were associated with the non-ambient component of indoor FP and UFP concentrations. On average, the majority of indoor FPs were of ambient origin while the majority of UFPs were of indoor origin. In summer, more of the indoor FP and UFP concentrations were from ambient origin, compared to winter, due to the higher infiltration factors. The variability in FP and UFP Finf within and between homes may cause substantial exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies using only ambient measurements.

Kearney, Jill; Wallace, Lance; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Kindzierski, Warren; Wheeler, Amanda

2014-09-01

72

OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIPID MEDIATORS INDUCED IN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGES BY ULTRAFINE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

In ambient aerosols, ultrafine particles (UFP) and their agglomerates are considered to be major factors contributing to adverse health effects. Reactivity of agglomerated UFP of elemental carbon (EC), Printex 90, Printex G, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) was evaluated by the...

73

The exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particle emissions from concrete mixing, drilling and cutting activities.  

PubMed

Building activities generate coarse (PM10?10?m), fine (PM2.5?2.5?m) and ultrafine particles (<100nm) making it necessary to understand both the exposure levels of operatives on site and the dispersion of ultrafine particles into the surrounding environment. This study investigates the release of particulate matter, including ultrafine particles, during the mixing of fresh concrete (incorporating Portland cement with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag, GGBS or Pulverised Fuel Ash, PFA) and the subsequent drilling and cutting of hardened concrete. Particles were measured in the 5-10,000nm size range using a GRIMM particle spectrometer and a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). The mass concentrations of PM2.5-10 fraction contributed ?52-64% of total mass released. The ultrafine particles dominated the total particle number concentrations (PNCs); being 74, 82, 95 and 97% for mixing with GGBS, mixing with PFA, drilling and cutting, respectively. Peak values measured during the drilling and cutting activities were 4 and 14 times the background. Equivalent emission factors were calculated and the total respiratory deposition dose rates for PNCs for drilling and cutting were 32.97±9.41×10(8)min(-1) and 88.25±58.82×10(8)min(-1). These are a step towards establishing number and mass emission inventories for particle exposure during construction activities. PMID:25068443

Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Mulheron, Mike

2014-08-30

74

MECHANISMS BY WHICH ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICLES CAUSE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A small number of recent studies suggest that different size particles may cause different health effects. There are clearly differences in the chemical makeup of coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles, and this different chemistry may well drive different health responses. The ...

75

DEPOSITION DISTRIBUTION OF NANO AND ULTRAFINE PARTICLES IN HUMAN LUNGS DURING CONTROLLED MOUTH BREATHING  

EPA Science Inventory

Nano and ultrafine particles are abundant in the atmosphere and the level of human exposure to these tiny particles is expected to increase markedly as industrial activities increase manufacturing nano-sized materials. Exposure-dose relationships and site-specific internal dose a...

76

Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from candle emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are present in the ambient atmosphere and are generated from atmospheric gases, pollution sources, and combustion. Candles emit carbonaceous soot particles similar to UFPs present in the ambient atmosphere. With the exception of lead, airborne concentrations of candle emissions have not been shown capable of causing cancer or cardiopulmonary disease during normal use. The purpose of this

David J Silver

2005-01-01

77

ANALYSIS OF TOTAL RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED ULTRAFINE PARTICLES IN ADULT SUBJECTS AT VARIOUS BREATHING PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ultrafine particles are ubiquitous in the ambient air and their unique physicochemical characteristics may pose a potential health hazard. Accurate lung dose information is essential to assess a potential health risk to exposure to these particles. In the present study, we measur...

78

Association of particulate air pollution and acute mortality: involvement of ultrafine particles?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent epidemiological studies show an association between particulate air pollution and acute mortality and morbidity down to ambient particle concentrations below 100 micrograms/m3. Whether this association also implies a causality between acute health effects and particle exposure at these low levels is unclear at this time; no mechanism is known that would explain such dramatic effects of low ambient particle concentrations. Based on results of our past and most recent inhalation studies with ultrafine particles in rats, we propose that such particles, that is, particles below approximately 50 nm in diameter, may contribute to the observed increased mortality and morbidity In the past we demonstrated that inhalation of highly insoluble particles of low intrinsic toxicity, such as TiO2, results in significantly increased pulmonary inflammatory responses when their size is in the ultrafine particle range, approximately 20 nm in diameter. However, these effects were not of an acute nature and occurred only after prolonged inhalation exposure of the aggregated ultrafine particles at concentrations in the milligrams per cubic meter range. In contrast, in the course of our most recent studies with thermodegradation products of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) we found that freshly generated PTFE fumes containing singlet ultrafine particles (median diameter 26 nm) were highly toxic to rats at inhaled concentrations of 0.7-1.0 x 10(6) particles/cm3, resulting in acute hemorrhagic pulmonary inflammation and death after 10-30 min of exposure. We also found that work performance of the rats in a running wheel was severely affected by PTFE fume exposure. These results confirm reports from other laboratories of the highly toxic nature of PTFE fumes, which cannot be attributed to gas-phase components of these fumes such as HF, carbonylfluoride, or perfluoroisobutylene, or to reactive radicals. The calculated mass concentration of the inhaled ultrafine PTFE particles in our studies was less than 60 micrograms/m3, a very low value to cause mortality in healthy rats. Aging of the fumes with concomitant aggregation of the ultrafine particles significantly decreases their toxicity. Since ultrafine particles are always present in the urban atmosphere, we suggest that they play a role in causing acute lung injury in sensitive parts of the population.

Oberdorster, G.; Gelein, R. M.; Ferin, J.; Weiss, B.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

79

Ultrafine SrM particles with high coercivity by chemical coprecipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine (˜80 nm), single domain Sr hexaferrite (SrM) particles with Sm additives were produced by chemical coprecipitation. The effects of the Sm 3+/Sr 2+ ratio on the crystallography and magnetic properties of Sm doped SrM ultrafine particles have been investigated. A very high coercivity of 528 kA/m (6635 Oe) with a magnetisation at 1100 kA/m of 63.07 J/T kg was obtained for the sample of Sm3+/ Sr2+= {1}/{14} calcined at 850°C for 2 h in air.

Wang, J. F.; Ponton, C. B.; Harris, I. R.

2002-04-01

80

Collection efficiency of ultrafine particles by an electrostatic precipitator under DC and pulse operating modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High particle collection efficiency in terms of particle weight volume mg\\/m3 is well achieved by a conventional electrostatic precipitator (ESP). However, the collection efficiencies in terms of number density for the ultrafine (particle size between 0.01 to 0.1 ?m) or submicron particles by a conventional ESP are still relatively low. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the collection efficiency for

Akinori Zukeran; Paul C. Looy; A. Chakrabarti; Alexander A. Berezin; Shesha Jayaram; J. Cross; T. Ito; Jen Shih Chang

1997-01-01

81

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of production since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase FTS. The separation problem is further compounded by catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. Existing pilot-scale equipment was modified to include a filtration test apparatus. After undergoing an extensive plant shakedown period, filtration tests with cross-flow filter modules using simulant FTS wax slurry were conducted. The focus of these early tests was to find adequate mixtures of polyethylene wax to simulate FTS wax. Catalyst particle size analysis techniques were also developed. Initial analyses of the slurry and filter permeate particles will be used by the research team to design improved filter media and cleaning strategies.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

2004-03-31

82

Characterization of ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution during a summer campaign in southwest Detroit.  

PubMed

This paper presents results from a study conducted in southwest Detroit from July 20 to July 30, 2002, to characterize ambient ultrafine particles (dP < 0.1 microm), and to examine the effect of local sources and meteorological parameters on the ultrafine number concentration and size distribution. The number concentrations of ambient particles in the size range of 0.01-0.43 microm were obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Meteorological parameters including ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, and solar radiation flux were also monitored concurrently atop a 10-m tower. On average, ultrafine particles ranged from 1.4 x 10(4) to 2.5 x 10(4) cm(-3), with significant diurnal and daily variations, and accounted for approximately 89% of the total number concentration (0.01 < dP < 0.43 microm). Time-series plots of the 5-min number concentrations revealed that peak concentrations often occurred during morning rush hour and/or around solar noon when photochemical activity was at a maximum. The morning traffic-related peak coincided with the NOx peak, whereas the photochemical-related peak correlated with solar radiation flux. On some days, the noon peak concentration was many times higher than the morning peak concentration. Although the number size distribution varied considerably over the course of the study, it typically exhibited one to three modes, with diameters around 0.01, 0.05, and 0.09 microm. Analysis of the influence of wind direction indicated that stationary sources could be one of the contributors to elevated ultrafine particle concentration. Overall, the data indicated that fossil fuel combustion and atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion of precursor gases are the major sources of ultrafine particles in the southwest Detroit area during the summer. PMID:15468661

Young, Li-Hao; Keeler, Gerald J

2004-09-01

83

[Research on NEDC ultrafine particle emission characters of a port fuel injection gasoline car].  

PubMed

A Santana gasoline car with multi-port fuel injection (PFI) system was used as the research prototype and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was employed to investigate the exhaust ultrafine particle number and size distribution characters of the tested vehicle in new European driving cycle (NEDC). The tested results showed that the vehicle's nuclear particle number, accumulation particle number, as well as the total particle number emission increased when the car drove in accelerated passage, and the vehicle's particle number emission was high during the first 40 seconds after test started and when the speed was over 90 km x h(-1) in extra urban driving cycle (EUDC) in NEDC. The ultrafine particle distribution of the whole NEDC showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, with diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameter was 24 nm. The ultrafine particle distribution of the urban driving cycle named by the economic commission for Europe (ECE) e. g. ECE I, ECE II - IV, the extra urban driving cycle e. g. EUDC, and the idling, constant speed, acceleration, deceleration operation conditions of NEDC all showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, also with particle diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameters of different driving cycle and different driving mode were from 14 nm to 42 nm. Therefore, the ultrafine particle emissions of the tested PFI gasoline car were mainly consisted of nuclear mode particles with a diameter of less than 50 nm. PMID:23379140

Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Jin; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

2012-12-01

84

Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period focused on assembling the supercritical particle generation/collection system. Effort was applied to constructing a shakedown testing plan also.

Not Available

1992-05-01

85

Removal of ultrafine particles in indoor air: Performance of various portable air cleaner technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine particle (UFP) exposures have been associated with human morbidity and mortality. The removal of UFP from indoor air using portable air cleaners (PACs) of various technologies has not been studied in detail. In this study, 12 devices representing different PAC technologies were tested with an UFP challenge in a full-scale stainless-steel chamber. UFP generation and measurements were conducted using

Zuraimi M. Sultan; Gregory J. Nilsson; Robert J. Magee

2011-01-01

86

CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES IN UNRESTRAINED WKY-RATS TO INHALED ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract This study provides evidence for adverse cardiac effects of inhaled ultrafine particles (UFPs) in healthy WKY rats. Short term exposure (24 h) with carbon UFPs (180 ?g?m ?) induced a moderate but significant heart rate increase of 18 bpm (4.8 %) in association with a ...

87

Scavenging of ultrafine particles by rainfall at a boreal site: observations and model estimations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Values of the scavenging coefficient were determined from observations of ultrafine particles (with diameters in the range 10-510 nm) during rain events at a boreal forest site in Southern Finland between 1996 and 2001. The estimated range of values of the scavenging coefficient was [7×10-6-4×10-5] s-1, which is generally higher than model calculations based only on below-cloud processes (Brownian diffusion, interception, and typical charge effects). A new model that includes below-cloud scavenging processes, mixing of ultrafine particles from the boundary layer (BL) into cloud, followed by cloud condensation nuclei activation and in-cloud removal by rainfall, is presented. The effective scavenging coefficients estimated from this new model have values comparable with those obtained from observations. Results show that ultrafine particle removal by rain depends on aerosol size, rainfall intensity, mixing processes between BL and cloud elements, in-cloud scavenged fraction, in-cloud collection efficiency, and in-cloud coagulation with cloud droplets. Implications for the treatment of scavenging of BL ultrafine particles in numerical models are discussed.

Andronache, C.; Grönholm, T.; Laakso, L.; Phillips, V.; Venäläinen, A.

2006-05-01

88

Expert elicitation on ultrafine particles: likelihood of health effects and causal pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM) has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The relationship between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) and health effects is less firmly established. If UFP cause health effects independently from coarser fractions, this could affect health impact assessment of air pollution, which would possibly lead to alternative policy options to be

Anne Barbara Knol; Jeroen J de Hartog; Hanna Boogaard; Pauline Slottje; Jeroen P van der Sluijs; Erik Lebret; Flemming R. Cassee; J Arjan Wardekker; Jon G Ayres; Paul J. Borm; Bert Brunekreef; Kenneth Donaldson; Francesco Forastiere; Stephen T Holgate; Wolfgang G. Kreyling; Benoit Nemery; Juha Pekkanen; Vicky Stone; H-Erich Wichmann; Gerard Hoek

2009-01-01

89

The Rat Ear Vein Model for Investigating In Vivo Thrombogenicity of Ultrafine Particles (UFP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in rodents indicate that intravenous or intra- tracheal administration of ultrafine particles (UFP) increases thrombogenesis in a surgically exposed peripheral vein after photodynamic excitation of intravenously injected rose bengal (RB). We sought to adapt the invasive peripheral vein RB model to a noninvasive monitoring of ear veins under an inverted microscope. Animals received one of the following: an

Vanessa M Silva; Nancy Corson; Alison Elder; Gunter Oberdorster

2005-01-01

90

PULMONARY AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION FOLLOWING ACUTE ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE INHALATION IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles (ufCP) causes cardiac physiological changes without marked pulmonary injury or inflammation. We hypothesized that acute ufCP exposure of 13 months old Spontaneously Hypertensive (SH) rats will cause differential effects on the lung and hea...

91

Synthesis of Barium Ferrite Ultrafine Particles by Coprecipitation in the Presence of Polyacrylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barium ferrite ultrafine particles were synthesized by coprecipitation in an aqueous solution with polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a protective agent. Thermal analysis by TGA\\/DTA showed that the precursor could yield barium ferrite after calcination above 700°C for 2 h. By analyses of the XRD and electron diffraction pattern, the formation of pure barium ferrite was confirmed and the appropriate

Dong-Hwang Chen; Yuh-Yuh Chen

2001-01-01

92

SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES Y.M. Kim, A.G. Lenz, R. Silbajoris, I. Jaspers and J.M. Samet. Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North Carolina, ...

93

Direct Identification of Trace Metals in Fine and Ultrafine Particles in the  

E-print Network

particulates containing low con- centrations of heavy metals, such as Pb, As, and Se, may have serious health- and ultrafine particles with heavy metals in aerosol samples from the Detroit urban area, Michigan, were, adverse health effects are also associated with the exposure to certain trace and heavy metals in air

Utsunomiya, Satoshi

94

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles  

SciTech Connect

The morphological and chemical nature of ultrafine iron catalyst particles (3-5 nm diameters) during activation/FTS was studied by HRTEM, EELS, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. With the progress of FTS, the carbide re-oxidized to magnetite and catalyst activity gradually decreased. The growth of oxide phase continued and average particle size also increased simultaneously. The phase transformation occurred in a ''growing oxide core'' manner with different nano-zones. The nano-range carbide particles did not show fragmentation or attrition as generally observed in micrometer range particles. Nevertheless, when the dimension of particles reached the micrometer range, the crystalline carbide phase appeared to be sprouted on the surface of magnetite single crystal. In the previous reporting period, a design and operating philosophy was developed for an integrated wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor to be used in Phase II of this research program. During the current reporting period, we have started construction of the new filtration system and began modifications to the 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) reactor. The system will utilize a primary wax separation device followed by a Pall Accusep or Membralox ceramic cross-flow membrane. As of this writing, the unit is nearly complete except for the modification of a moyno-type pump; the pump was shipped to the manufacturer to install a special leak-free, high pressure seal.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Burtron H. Davis

2006-03-31

95

Multimodal ultrafine particles from pulverized coal combustion in a laboratory scale reactor  

SciTech Connect

Particle size distribution functions have been measured in a ethanol fueled flame reactor fed with a low amount of pulverized coal particles. The reactor is operated in low (5.0 vol.%) and high (76.5 vol.%) oxygen concentrations using two high volatile bituminous Colombian and Indonesian coals. A carbon black powder is also oxidized in the same conditions. Generated particles are sampled using rapid-dilution probes and the size distribution functions are measured on-line by a high resolution Differential Mobility Analyzer. Results clearly show that ultrafine particles, those with sizes lower than 100 nm, have a multimodal size distribution function. These particles have huge number concentrations in both investigated conditions whereas their formation is enhanced in the oxygen enriched condition. Ultrafine particles are almost totally dominated in number by the fraction having sizes below 30 nm. Nanoparticles also account for a significant fraction of total particle mass and slowly coagulate in the reactor. The shape of the size distribution functions is not affected by the coal type, at least for the two investigated coals. Results suggest that ultrafine particles form through the vaporization-nucleation-growth pathway involving inorganic ashes. Moreover the contribution of carbonaceous particles seems particularly important for size smaller than 5 nm. (author)

Carbone, Francesco; Beretta, Federico [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-07-15

96

Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.  

PubMed

In order to understand the physical mechanisms of the production of nanometer-sized particulate generated from cooking oils, the ventilation of kitchen hoods was studied by determining the particle concentration, particle size distribution, particle dimensions, and hood's flow characteristics under several cooking scenarios. This research varied the temperature of the frying operation on one cooking operation, with three kinds of commercial cooking oils including soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil. The variations of particle concentration and size distributions with the elevated cooking oil temperatures were presented. The particle concentration increases as a function of temperature. For oil temperatures ranging between 180°C and 210°C, a 5°C increase in temperature increased the number concentration of ultrafine particles by 20-50%. The maximum concentration of ultrafine particles was found to be approximately 6 × 10(6) particles per cm(3) at 260°C. Flow visualization techniques and particle distribution measurement were performed for two types of hood designs, a wall-mounted range hood and an island hood, at a suction flow rate of 15 m(3) min(-1). The flow visualization results showed that different configurations of kitchen hoods induce different aerodynamic characteristics. By comparing the results of flow visualizations and nanoparticle measurements, it was found that the areas with large-scale turbulent vortices are more prone to dispersion of ultrafine particle leakage because of the complex interaction between the shear layers and the suction movement that results from turbulent dispersion. We conclude that the evolution of ultrafine particle concentration fluctuations is strongly affected by the location of the hood, which can alter the aerodynamic features. We suggest that there is a correlation between flow characteristics and amount of contaminant leakage. This provides a comprehensive strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of kitchen hoods in capturing cooking oil fumes, which is based on an assessment of the entire hood face exposure instead of on breathing-zone sampling alone. PMID:23479025

Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

2013-08-01

97

Comparing Inhaled Ultrafine versus Fine Zinc Oxide Particles in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Zinc oxide is a common, biologically active constituent of particulate air pollution as well as a workplace toxin. Ultrafine particles (< 0.1 ?m diameter) are believed to be more potent than an equal mass of inhaled accumulation mode particles (0.1–1.0 ?m diameter). Objectives: We compared exposure–response relationships for respiratory, hematologic, and cardiovascular endpoints between ultrafine and accumulation mode zinc oxide particles. Methods: In a human inhalation study, 12 healthy adults inhaled 500 ?g/m3 of ultrafine zinc oxide, the same mass of fine zinc oxide, and filtered air while at rest for 2 hours. Measurements and Main Results: Preexposure and follow-up studies of symptoms, leukocyte surface markers, hemostasis, and cardiac electrophysiology were conducted to 24 hours post-exposure. Induced sputum was sampled 24 hours after exposure. No differences were detected between any of the three exposure conditions at this level of exposure. Conclusions: Freshly generated zinc oxide in the fine or ultrafine fractions inhaled by healthy subjects at rest at a concentration of 500 ?g/m3 for 2 hours is below the threshold for acute systemic effects as detected by these endpoints. PMID:15735058

Beckett, William S.; Chalupa, David F.; Pauly-Brown, Andrea; Speers, Donna M.; Stewart, Judith C.; Frampton, Mark W.; Utell, Mark J.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Zareba, Wojciech; Oberdörster, Günter

2005-01-01

98

Ultrafine particle emission of waste incinerators and comparison to the exposure of urban citizens.  

PubMed

On the basis of the growing interest on the impact of airborne particles on human exposure as well as the strong debate in Western countries on the emissions of waste incinerators, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) show the emission factors of ultrafine particles (particles with a diameter less than 100nm) of waste incinerators; and (ii) assess the contribution of waste incinerators in terms of ultrafine particles to exposure and dose of people living in the surrounding areas of the plants in order to estimate eventual risks. The review identified only a limited number of studies measuring ultrafine particle emissions, and in general they report low particle number concentrations at the stack (the median value was equal to 5.5×10(3)partcm(-3)), in most cases higher than the outdoor background value. The lowest emissions were achieved by utilization of the bag-house filter which has an overall number-based filtration efficiency higher than 99%. Referring to reference case, the corresponding emission factor is equal to 9.1×10(12)partmin(-1), that is lower than one single high-duty vehicle. Since the higher particle number concentrations found in the most contributing microenvironments to the exposure (indoor home, transportation, urban outdoor), the contribution of the waste incinerators to the daily dose can be considered as negligible. PMID:24726660

Buonanno, Giorgio; Morawska, Lidia

2015-03-01

99

Relationships between size segregated mass concentration data and ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass concentration data derived from samples collected with a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) in six Australian urban centers during periods of significant particle loading have been used to investigate the relationships between TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and ultrafine particles. While PM10 and PM2.5 display a clear relationship, the lack of correlation between PM10 and the coarse fraction of PM10

M. D. Keywood; G. P. Ayers; J. L. Gras; R. W. Gillett; D. D. Cohen

1999-01-01

100

Concentrations of ultrafine, fine and PM 2.5 particles in three European cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total number concentrations, number concentrations of ultrafine (0.01–0.1?m) and accumulation (0.1–0.5?m) particles, as well as mass concentration of PM2.5 particles and blackness of PM2.5 filters, which is related to Black Smoke were simultaneously monitored in three European cities during the winter period for three and a half months. The purpose of the study was to describe the differences in concentration

J Ruuskanen; Th Tuch; H Ten Brink; A Peters; A Khlystov; A Mirme; G. P. A Kos; B Brunekreef; H. E Wichmann; G Buzorius; M Vallius; W. G Kreyling; J Pekkanen

2001-01-01

101

Concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles near a major highway.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle emissions usually constitute the most significant source of ultrafine particles (diameter <0.1 microm) in an urban environment, yet little is known about the concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles in the vicinity of major highways. In the present study, particle number concentration and size distribution in the size range from 6 to 220 nm were measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), respectively. Measurements were taken 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 m downwind, and 300 m upwind, from Interstate 405 at the Los Angeles National Cemetery. At each sampling location, concentrations of CO, black carbon (BC), and particle mass were also measured by a Dasibi CO monitor, an aethalometer, and a DataRam, respectively. The range of average concentration of CO, BC, total particle number, and mass concentration at 30 m was 1.7-2.2 ppm, 3.4-10.0 microg/m3, 1.3-2.0 x 10(5)/cm3, and 30.2-64.6 microg/m3, respectively. For the conditions of these measurements, relative concentrations of CO, BC, and particle number tracked each other well as distance from the freeway increased. Particle number concentration (6-220 nm) decreased exponentially with downwind distance from the freeway. Data showed that both atmospheric dispersion and coagulation contributed to the rapid decrease in particle number concentration and change in particle size distribution with increasing distance from the freeway. Average traffic flow during the sampling periods was 13,900 vehicles/hr. Ninety-three percent of vehicles were gasoline-powered cars or light trucks. The measured number concentration tracked traffic flow well. Thirty meters downwind from the freeway, three distinct ultrafine modes were observed with geometric mean diameters of 13, 27, and 65 nm. The smallest mode, with a peak concentration of 1.6 x 10(5)/cm3, disappeared at distances greater than 90 m from the freeway. Ultrafine particle number concentration measured 300 m downwind from the freeway was indistinguishable from upwind background concentration. These data may be used to estimate exposure to ultrafine particles in the vicinity of major highways. PMID:12269664

Zhu, Yifang; Hinds, William C; Kim, Seongheon; Sioutas, Constantinos

2002-09-01

102

Exposure for ultrafine carbon particles at levels below detectable pulmonary inflammation affects cardiovascular performance in spontaneously hypertensive rats*  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease but the related molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously we studied cardiovascular responses in healthy WKY rats following inhalation exposure to ultrafine carbon particles (UfCPs...

103

ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES INDUCE INTERLEUKIN-8 GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND P38 MAPK ACTIVATION IN NORMAL BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies suggest that ultrafine particles contribute to particulate matter-induced adverse health effects. Interleukin (IL)-8 is an important proinflammatory cytokine in the human lung that is induced in respiratory cells exposed to a variety of environmental insul...

104

Number size distribution of fine and ultrafine fume particles from various welding processes.  

PubMed

Studies in the field of environmental epidemiology indicate that for the adverse effect of inhaled particles not only particle mass is crucial but also particle size is. Ultrafine particles with diameters below 100 nm are of special interest since these particles have high surface area to mass ratio and have properties which differ from those of larger particles. In this paper, particle size distributions of various welding and joining techniques were measured close to the welding process using a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). It turned out that welding processes with high mass emission rates (manual metal arc welding, metal active gas welding, metal inert gas welding, metal inert gas soldering, and laser welding) show mainly agglomerated particles with diameters above 100 nm and only few particles in the size range below 50 nm (10 to 15%). Welding processes with low mass emission rates (tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding) emit predominantly ultrafine particles with diameters well below 100 nm. This finding can be explained by considerably faster agglomeration processes in welding processes with high mass emission rates. Although mass emission is low for tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding, due to the low particle size of the fume, these processes cannot be labeled as toxicologically irrelevant and should be further investigated. PMID:23028013

Brand, Peter; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

2013-04-01

105

Aerosol-CFD modelling of ultrafine and black carbon particle emission, dilution, and growth near roadways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have shown that on-road vehicle emissions are the dominant source of ultrafine particles (UFP; diameter < 100 nm) in urban areas and near-roadway environments. In order to advance our knowledge on the complex interactions and competition among atmospheric dilution, dispersion and dynamics of UFPs, an aerosol dynamics-CFD coupled model is developed and validated against field measurements. A unique approach of applying periodic boundary conditions is proposed to model pollutant dispersion and dynamics in one unified domain from the tailpipe level to the ambient near-road environment. This approach significantly reduces the size of the computational domain, and therefore, allows fast simulation of multiple scenarios. The model is validated against measured turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and pollution gradients near a major highway. Through a model sensitivity analysis, the relative importance of individual aerosol dynamical processes on the total particle number concentration (N) and particle number-size distribution (PSD) near a highway is investigated. The results demonstrate that (1) coagulation has a negligible effect on N and particle growth, (2) binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN) of H2SO4-H2O is likely responsible for elevated N closest to the road, (3) N and particle growth are very sensitive to the condensation of semi-volatile organics (SVOCs), particle dry deposition, and the interaction between these processes. The results also indicate that, without the proper treatment of atmospheric boundary layer (i.e. its wind profile and turbulence quantities), the nucleation rate would be underestimated by a factor of 5 in the vehicle wake region due to overestimated mixing. Therefore, introducing ABL conditions to activity-based emission models may potentially improve their performance in estimating UFP traffic emissions.

Huang, L.; Gong, S. L.; Gordon, M.; Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Stroud, C. A.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Brook, J. R.; Jia, C. Q.

2014-05-01

106

Scavenging of ultrafine particles by rainfall at a boreal site: observations and model estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Values of the scavenging coefficient were determined from observations of ultrafine particles (with diameters in the range 10-510 nm) during rain events at a boreal forest site in Southern Finland between 1996 and 2001. The estimated range of values of the scavenging coefficient was [7×10-6-4×10-5] s-1, which is generally higher than model calculations based only on below-cloud processes (Brownian diffusion,

C. Andronache; T. Grönholm; L. Laakso; V. Phillips; A. Venäläinen

2006-01-01

107

Scavenging of ultrafine particles by rainfall at a boreal site: observations and model estimations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Values of the scavenging coefficient determined from observations of ultrafine particles (with diameters in the range 10-510 nm) during rain events at a boreal forest site in Southern Finland between 1996 and 2001 were reported by Laakso et al. (2003a). The estimated range of the median values of the scavenging coefficient was [7×10-6-4×10-5] s-1, which is generally higher than model calculations based only on below-cloud processes (Brownian diffusion, interception, and typical phoretic and charge effects). In the present study, in order to interpret these observed data on scavenging coefficients from Laakso et al. (2003a), we use a model that includes below-cloud scavenging processes, mixing of ultrafine particles from the boundary layer (BL) into cloud, followed by cloud condensation nuclei activation and in-cloud removal by rainfall. The range of effective scavenging coefficient predicted by the new model, corresponding to wide ranges of values of its input parameters, are compared with observations. Results show that ultrafine particle removal by rain depends on aerosol size, rainfall intensity, mixing processes between BL and cloud elements, in-cloud scavenged fraction, in-cloud collection efficiency, and in-cloud coagulation with cloud droplets. The scavenging coefficients predicted by the new model are found to be significantly sensitive to the choice of representation of: (1) mixing processes; (2) raindrop size distribution; (3) phoretic effects in aerosol-raindrop collisions; and (4) cloud droplet activation. Implications for future studies of BL ultrafine particles scavenging are discussed.

Andronache, C.; Grönholm, T.; Laakso, L.; Phillips, V.; Venäläinen, A.

2006-10-01

108

Levels of ultrafine particles in different microenvironments — Implications to children exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor and outdoor ultrafine particles (UFPs) (0.01 to greater than 1 ?m) concentration levels were examined in the area of Athens during cold period of 2003 and 2004. Seven primary schools, located in areas with different characteristics of urbanization and traffic density, as well as a typical suburban residence, were monitored. Moreover, in-vehicle concentration levels, while driving along major avenues and

E. Diapouli; A. Chaloulakou; N. Spyrellis

2007-01-01

109

Production of ultrafine calcite particles by coccolithophorid algae grown in a biosolar reactor supplied with sunlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine calcite particle production by coccolithophorid algae using a biosolar reactor system was carried out. Solar light\\u000a was collected by Fresnel lenses and transmitted to a bundle of light diffusing optical fibers (LDOFs) that distributed light\\u000a through the algal culture. The irradiance spectrum of light emitted from the LDOF surface was the same as that of solar light.Emiliania huxleyi was

Hiroyuki Takano; Hiroyuki Furu-une; J. Grant Burgess; Eichi Manabe; Morio Hirano; Megumi Okazaki; Tadashi Matsunaga

1993-01-01

110

Linking In-Vehicle Ultrafine Particle Exposures to On-Road Concentrations  

PubMed Central

For traffic-related pollutants like ultrafine particles (UFP, Dp < 100 nm), a significant fraction of overall exposure occurs within or close to the transit microenvironment. Therefore, understanding exposure to these pollutants in such microenvironments is crucial to accurately assessing overall UFP exposure. The aim of this study was to develop models for predicting in-cabin UFP concentrations if roadway concentrations are known, taking into account vehicle characteristics, ventilation settings, driving conditions and air exchange rates (AER). Particle concentrations and AER were measured in 43 and 73 vehicles, respectively, under various ventilation settings and driving speeds. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to identify and quantify the factors that determine inside-to-outside (I/O) UFP ratios and AERs across a full range of vehicle types and ages. AER was the most significant determinant of UFP I/O ratios, and was strongly influenced by ventilation setting (recirculation or outside air intake). Inclusion of ventilation fan speed, vehicle age or mileage, and driving speed explained greater than 79% of the variability in measured UFP I/O ratios. PMID:23888122

Hudda, Neelakshi; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Knibbs, Luke D.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.; Fruin, Scott A.

2013-01-01

111

Ultrafine sanding paper: a simple tool for creating small particles.  

PubMed

A top-down approach, i.e., creating small particles by mechanical force starting from bulk materials, probably presents the most logical approach to particle size reduction and, therefore, top-down techniques are among the first to achieve small particles. A new solvent-free, amazingly simple approach is reported, suitable to achieve nanoparticles and sub-micro particles. PMID:25303708

Schäfer, Helmut; Hess, Claudia; Tobergte, Heinrich; Volf, Anna; Ichilmann, Sachar; Eickmeier, Henning; Voss, Benjamin; Kashaev, Nikolai; Nordmann, Jörg; Akram, Wajiha; Hartmann-Azanza, Brigitte; Steinhart, Martin

2015-02-25

112

The mapping of fine and ultrafine particle concentrations in an engine machining and assembly facility.  

PubMed

Aerosol mapping was used to assess particle number and mass concentration in an engine machining and assembly facility in the winter and spring. Number and mass concentration maps were constructed from data collected with two mobile sampling carts, each equipped with a condensation particle counter (10 nm < diameter < 1 microm) and an optical particle counter (300 nm < diameter < 20 microm). Number concentrations inside the facility ranged from 15 to 150 times greater than that outside the facility and were highly dependent on season. The greatest number concentration (>1,000,000 particles cm(-3)) occurred in winter in an area where mass concentration was low (<0.10 mg m(-3)). The increased number of particles was attributed to the exhaust of direct-fire, natural-gas burners used to heat the supply air. The greatest mass concentrations were found around metalworking operations that were poorly enclosed. The larger particles that dominated particle mass in this area were accompanied by ultrafine particles, probably generated through evaporation and subsequent condensation of metalworking fluid components. Repeat mapping events demonstrated that these ultrafine particles persist in workplace air over long time periods. PMID:16361396

Peters, Thomas M; Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Slavin, Thomas J; Maynard, Andrew D

2006-04-01

113

Size-resolved deposition rates for ultrafine and submicrometer particles in a residential housing unit.  

PubMed

We estimated the size-resolved particle deposition rates for the ultrafine and submicrometer particles using a nonlinear regression method with unknown particle background concentrations during nonsourced period following a controlled sourced period in a well-mixed residential environment. A dynamic adjustment method in conjunction with the constant injection of tracer gas was used to maintain the air exchange rate at three target levels across the range of 0.61-1.24 air change per hour (ACH). Particle deposition was found to be highly size dependent with rates ranging from 0.68 ± 0.10 to 5.03 ± 0.20 h(-1) (mean ± s.e.). Our findings also suggest that the effect of air exchange on the particle deposition under enhanced air mixing was relatively small when compared to both the strong influence of size-dependent deposition mechanisms and the effects of mechanical air mixing by fans. Nonetheless, the significant association between air exchange and particle deposition rates for a few size categories indicated potential influence of air exchange on particle deposition. In the future, the proposed approach can be used to explore the separate or composite effects between air exchange and air mixing on particle deposition rates, which will contribute to improved assessment of human exposure to ultrafine and submicrometer particles. PMID:25126897

Lee, Wan-Chen; Wolfson, Jack M; Catalano, Paul J; Rudnick, Stephen N; Koutrakis, Petros

2014-09-01

114

Estimating the contribution of photochemical particle formation to ultrafine particle number averages in an urban atmosphere.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter<100nm) have gained major attention in the environmental health discussion due to a number of suspected health effects. Observations of UFPs in urban air reveal the presence of several, time-dependent particle sources. In order to attribute measured UFP number concentrations to different source type contributions, we analyzed observations collected at a triplet of observation sites (roadside, urban background, rural) in the city of Leipzig, Germany. Photochemical new particle formation (NPF) events can be the overwhelming source of UFP particles on particular days, and were identified on the basis of characteristic patterns in the particle number size distribution data. A subsequent segmentation of the diurnal cycles of UFP concentration yielded a quantitative contribution of NPF events to daily, monthly, and annual mean values. At roadside, we obtained source contributions to the annual mean UFP number concentration (diameter range 5-100nm) for photochemical NPF events (7%), local traffic (52%), diffuse urban sources (20%), and regional background (21%). The relative contribution of NPF events rises when moving away from roadside to the urban background and rural sites (14 and 30%, respectively). Their contribution also increases when considering only fresh UFPs (5-20nm) (21% at the urban background site), and conversely decreases when considering UFPs at bigger sizes (20-100nm) (8%). A seasonal analysis showed that NPF events have their greatest importance on UFP number concentration in the months May-August, accounting for roughly half of the fresh UFPs (5-20nm) at the urban background location. The simplistic source apportionment presented here might serve to better characterize exposure to ambient UFPs in future epidemiological studies. PMID:25617781

Ma, N; Birmili, W

2015-04-15

115

Ultrafine NiO particles induce cytotoxicity in vitro by cellular uptake and subsequent Ni(II) release.  

PubMed

Nickel oxide (NiO) is one of the important industrial materials used in electronic substrates and for ceramic engineering. Advancements in industrial technology have enabled the manufacture of ultrafine NiO particles. On the other hand, it is well-known that nickel compounds exert toxic effects. The toxicity of nickel compounds is mainly caused by nickel ions (Ni(2+)). However, the ion release properties of ultrafine NiO particles are still unclear. In the present study, the influences of ultrafine NiO particles on cell viability were examined in vitro to obtain fundamental data for the biological effects of ultrafine green NiO and ultrafine black NiO. Ultrafine NiO particles showed higher cytotoxicities toward human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and human lung carcinoma A549 cells than fine NiO particles and also showed higher solubilities in culture medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum) than fine NiO particles. In particular, the concentration of Ni(2+) released into the culture medium by ultrafine green NiO was 150-fold higher than that released by fine green NiO. The concentrations of Ni(2+) released by both types of NiO particles in an aqueous solution containing amino acids were remarkably higher than those released by NiO particles in water. Moreover, we prepared a uniform and stable dispersion of ultrafine black NiO in culture medium and examined its influence on cell viability in comparison with that of NiCl(2), a soluble nickel compound. A medium exchange after 6 h of exposure resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity in the cells exposed to NiCl(2), whereas cytotoxicity was retained in the cells exposed to NiO. Transmission electron microscope observations revealed uptake of both ultrafine and fine NiO particles into HaCaT cells. Taken together, the present results suggest that the intracellular Ni(2+) release could be an important factor that determines the cytotoxicity of NiO. Ultrafine NiO is more cytotoxic than fine NiO in vitro. PMID:19630433

Horie, Masanori; Nishio, Keiko; Fujita, Katsuhide; Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Endoh, Shigehisa; Miyauchi, Arisa; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Murayama, Hideki; Niki, Etsuo; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Nakanishi, Junko

2009-08-01

116

Combustion-Derived Ultrafine Particles Transport Organic Toxicants to Target Respiratory Cells  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic evidence supports associations between inhalation of fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5)] and increases in cardiovascular/respiratory morbidity and mortality. Less attention has been paid to how the physical and chemical characteristics of these particles may influence their interactions with target cells. Butadiene soot (BDS), produced during combustion of the high-volume petrochemical 1,3-butadiene, is rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including known carcinogens. We conducted experiments to characterize BDS with respect to particle size distribution, assembly, PAH composition, elemental content, and interaction with respiratory epithelial cells. Freshly generated, intact BDS is primarily (> 90%) PAH-rich, metals-poor (nickel, chromium, and vanadium concentrations all < 1 ppm) PM2.5, composed of uniformly sized, solid spheres (30–50 nm) in aggregated form. Cells of a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) exhibit sequential fluorescent responses—a relatively rapid (~ 30 min), bright but diffuse fluorescence followed by the slower (2–4 hr) appearance of punctate cytoplasmic fluorescence—after BDS is added to medium overlying the cells. The fluorescence is associated with PAH localization in the cells. The ultrafine BDS particles move down through the medium to the cell membrane. Fluorescent PAHs are transferred from the particle surface to the cell membrane, cross the membrane into the cytosol, and appear to accumulate in lipid vesicles. There is no evidence that BDS particles pass into the cells. The results demonstrate that uptake of airborne ultrafine particles by target cells is not necessary for transfer of toxicants from the particles to the cells. PMID:16079063

Penn, Arthur; Murphy, Gleeson; Barker, Steven; Henk, William; Penn, Lynn

2005-01-01

117

Potential Role of Ultrafine Particles in Associations between Airborne Particle Mass and Cardiovascular Health  

PubMed Central

Numerous epidemiologic time-series studies have shown generally consistent associations of cardiovascular hospital admissions and mortality with outdoor air pollution, particularly mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ?2.5 or ?10 ?m in diameter (PM2.5, PM10). Panel studies with repeated measures have supported the time-series results showing associations between PM and risk of cardiac ischemia and arrhythmias, increased blood pressure, decreased heart rate variability, and increased circulating markers of inflammation and thrombosis. The causal components driving the PM associations remain to be identified. Epidemiologic data using pollutant gases and particle characteristics such as particle number concentration and elemental carbon have provided indirect evidence that products of fossil fuel combustion are important. Ultrafine particles < 0.1 ?m (UFPs) dominate particle number concentrations and surface area and are therefore capable of carrying large concentrations of adsorbed or condensed toxic air pollutants. It is likely that redox-active components in UFPs from fossil fuel combustion reach cardiovascular target sites. High UFP exposures may lead to systemic inflammation through oxidative stress responses to reactive oxygen species and thereby promote the progression of atherosclerosis and precipitate acute cardiovascular responses ranging from increased blood pressure to myocardial infarction. The next steps in epidemiologic research are to identify more clearly the putative PM casual components and size fractions linked to their sources. To advance this, we discuss in a companion article (Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Singh M. 2005. Environ Health Perspect 113:947–955) the need for and methods of UFP exposure assessment. PMID:16079061

Delfino, Ralph J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Malik, Shaista

2005-01-01

118

Measurements of hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles in the rural Pearl River Delta area of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hygroscopicity and volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (HVTDMA) technique was used to determine the time- and size-resolved properties of ultrafine particles and to infer relative volume fractions of non-volatile and non-hygroscopic (NV_NH), volatile and non-hygroscopic (V_NH), volatile and hygroscopic (V_H), and non-volatile and hygroscopic (NV_H) groups. Cluster analysis of wind direction and air mass backward trajectory have revealed that enhanced ultrafine particle concentrations were often observed when air mass was transported with high wind speed (>3 m s -1) from the polluted northeast region containing a significant amount of SO 2 and experienced a strong photochemical activity. We found the photochemically-produced ultrafine particles to consist primarily of NV_H with a little V_NH and V_H. In morning traffic events, we estimated ultrafine particles to consist of 61% NV_NH, 36% V (volatile group = the sum of V_NH and V_H), and 2% NV_H, while during biomass burning events, ultrafine particles consisted of 69% NV_NH, 21% V and 10% NV_H. Further, as determined by TEM/EDS analysis, the increase in NV_H during the biomass burning event was consistent with the frequent existence of K element in ultrafine particles. Comparison of data among different geometric locations in China and Korea revealed ultrafine particle hygroscopicity and volatility during the photochemical event as being highly variable in locations affected by diverse sources and variable precursor gases (e.g., SO 2 and VOC), while during the combustion events, less hygroscopicity variation across different locations was observed.

Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Young J.; Park, Kihong

2011-09-01

119

Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions  

SciTech Connect

The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. It has been shown that catalyst activity increases significantly with decreasing particle size for particle sizes in the submicron range. Ultra-fine catalyst particle generation will be accomplished using a novel two-step process. First, the severe conditions produced by a supercritical fluid (e.g., supercritical H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}) will be used to dissolve suitable catalyst compounds (e.g., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS{sub 2}, and/or Fe(CO){sub 5}). Sulfur containing compounds may be added to the supercritical solvent during catalyst dissolution to enhance the catalytic activity of the resulting ultra-fine, iron based, catalyst particles.

Not Available

1991-08-01

120

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, supplkment au no 7, Tome 38, Juillet 1977, page C2-219 FINELY DISPERSED ULTRAF'INE PARTICLES  

E-print Network

particles by means of gas or vacuum evaporation on to the frozen surface of various liquid solvent. A method of gas evaporation is a versatile technique of subdividing various materials into ultrafine particles the ultrafine particles condensed by gas evaporation. The schematic arrangement of the apparatus is shown

Boyer, Edmond

121

MEMS-based silicon cantilevers with integrated electrothermal heaters for airborne ultrafine particle sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of low-cost and low-power MEMS-based cantilever sensors for possible application in hand-held airborne ultrafine particle monitors is described in this work. The proposed resonant sensors are realized by silicon bulk micromachining technology with electrothermal excitation, piezoresistive frequency readout, and electrostatic particle collection elements integrated and constructed in the same sensor fabrication process step of boron diffusion. Built-in heating resistor and full Wheatstone bridge are set close to the cantilever clamp end for effective excitation and sensing, respectively, of beam deflection. Meanwhile, the particle collection electrode is located at the cantilever free end. A 300 ?m-thick, phosphorus-doped silicon bulk wafer is used instead of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) as the starting material for the sensors to reduce the fabrication costs. To etch and release the cantilevers from the substrate, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching is utilized. By controlling the etching parameters (e.g., temperature, oxygen content, and duration), cantilever structures with thicknesses down to 10 - 20 ?m are yielded. In the sensor characterization, the heating resistor is heated and generating thermal waves which induce thermal expansion and further cause mechanical bending strain in the out-of-plane direction. A resonant frequency of 114.08 +/- 0.04 kHz and a quality factor of 1302 +/- 267 are measured in air for a fabricated rectangular cantilever (500x100x13.5 ?m3). Owing to its low power consumption of a few milliwatts, this electrothermal cantilever is suitable for replacing the current external piezoelectric stack actuator in the next generation of the miniaturized cantilever-based nanoparticle detector (CANTOR).

Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Merzsch, Stephan; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

2013-05-01

122

A review of commuter exposure to ultrafine particles and its health effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine particles (UFPs, <100 nm) are produced in large quantities by vehicular combustion and are implicated in causing several adverse human health effects. Recent work has suggested that a large proportion of daily UFP exposure may occur during commuting. However, the determinants, variability and transport mode-dependence of such exposure are not well-understood. The aim of this review was to address these knowledge gaps by distilling the results of 'in-transit' UFP exposure studies performed to-date, including studies of health effects. We identified 47 exposure studies performed across 6 transport modes: automobile, bicycle, bus, ferry, rail and walking. These encompassed approximately 3000 individual trips where UFP concentrations were measured. After weighting mean UFP concentrations by the number of trips in which they were collected, we found overall mean UFP concentrations of 3.4, 4.2, 4.5, 4.7, 4.9 and 5.7 × 10 4 particles cm -3 for the bicycle, bus, automobile, rail, walking and ferry modes, respectively. The mean concentration inside automobiles travelling through tunnels was 3.0 × 10 5 particles cm -3. While the mean concentrations were indicative of general trends, we found that the determinants of exposure (meteorology, traffic parameters, route, fuel type, exhaust treatment technologies, cabin ventilation, filtration, deposition, UFP penetration) exhibited marked variability and mode-dependence, such that it is not necessarily appropriate to rank modes in order of exposure without detailed consideration of these factors. Ten in-transit health effects studies have been conducted and their results indicate that UFP exposure during commuting can elicit acute effects in both healthy and health-compromised individuals. We suggest that future work should focus on further defining the contribution of in-transit UFP exposure to total UFP exposure, exploring its specific health effects and investigating exposures in the developing world.

Knibbs, Luke D.; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Morawska, Lidia

2011-05-01

123

Removal of fine and ultrafine particles from indoor air environments by the unipolar ion emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous emission of unipolar ions was evaluated in order to determine its ability to remove fine and ultrafine particles from indoor air environments. The evolution of the indoor aerosol concentration and particle size distribution was measured in real time with the ELPI in a room-size (24.3 m 3) test chamber where the ion emitter was operating. After the results were compared with the natural decay, the air cleaning factor was determined. The particle aerodynamic size range of ˜0.04-2 ?m was targeted because it represents many bioaerosol agents that cause emerging diseases, as well as those that can be used for biological warfare or in the event of bioterrorism. The particle electric charge distribution (also measured in the test chamber with the ELPI) was rapidly affected by the ion emission. It was concluded that the corona discharge ion emitters (either positive or negative), which are capable of creating an ion density of 10 5-10 6 e ± cm -3, can be efficient in controlling fine and ultrafine aerosol pollutants in indoor air environments, such as a typical office or residential room. At a high ion emission rate, the particle mobility becomes sufficient so that the particle migration results in their deposition on the walls and other indoor surfaces. Within the tested ranges of the particle size and ion density, the particles were charged primarily due to the diffusion charging mechanism. The particle removal efficiency was not significantly affected by the particle size, while it increased with increasing ion emission rate and the time of emission. The performance characteristics of three commercially available ionic air purifiers, which produce unipolar ions by corona discharge at relatively high emission rates, were evaluated. A 30-minute operation of the most powerful device among those tested resulted in the removal of about 97% of 0.1 ?m particles and about 95% of 1 ?m particles from the air in addition to the natural decay effect.

Uk Lee, Byung; Yermakov, Mikhail; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

124

Microwave plasma synthesis of carbon-supported ultrafine metal particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave plasma decomposition of metal carbonyls has been used to synthesize a series of carbon-supported monometallic (Fe, Co) and bimetallic (Co-Mo) materials. The average metal particle diameters in all cases were less than 10 nm. By using 10% H2\\/Ar instead of pure Ar as a carrier gas, the mean particle diameters could be decreased to less than 2 nm. Although

J. R. Brenner; J. B. L. Harkness; M. B. Knickelbein; G. K. Krumdick; C. L. Marshall

1997-01-01

125

Ultrafine particles: exposure and source apportionment in 56 Danish homes.  

PubMed

Particle number (PN) concentrations (10-300 nm in size) were continuously measured over a period of ~45 h in 56 residences of nonsmokers in Copenhagen, Denmark. The highest concentrations were measured when occupants were present and awake (geometric mean, GM: 22.3 × 10(3) cm(-3)), the lowest when the homes were vacant (GM: 6.1 × 10(3) cm(-3)) or the occupants were asleep (GM: 5.1 × 10(3) cm(-3)). Diary entries regarding occupancy and particle related activities were used to identify source events and apportion the daily integrated exposure among sources. Source events clearly resulted in increased PN concentrations and decreased average particle diameter. For a given event, elevated particle concentrations persisted for several hours after the emission of fresh particles ceased. The residential daily integrated PN exposure in the 56 homes ranged between 37 × 10(3) and 6.0 × 10(6) particles per cm(3)·h/day (GM: 3.3 × 10(5) cm(-3)·h/day). On average, ~90% of this exposure occurred outside of the period from midnight to 6 a.m. Source events, especially candle burning, cooking, toasting, and unknown activities, were responsible on average for ~65% of the residential integrated exposure (51% without the unknown activities). Candle burning occurred in half of the homes where, on average, it was responsible for almost 60% of the integrated exposure. PMID:23957328

Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

2013-09-17

126

Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter). Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP) can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively), such as elemental carbon (EC90), commercial carbon (Printex 90), diesel particulate matter (DEP) and urban dust (UD), were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 ?g UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 ?g/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only. PMID:16202162

Möller, Winfried; Brown, David M; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Stone, Vicki

2005-01-01

127

Atmospheric Condensational Properties of Ultrafine Chain and Fractal Aerosol Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose for the research sponsored by this grant was to lay the foundations for qualitative understanding and quantitative description of the equilibrium vapor pressure of water vapor over the irregularly shaped, carbonaceous particles that are present in the atmosphere. This work apparently was the first systematic treatment of the subject. Research was conducted in two complementary components: 1. Calculations were performed of the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over particles comprised of aggregates of spheres in the 50-200 nm radius range. The purposes of this work were two-fold. First, since no systematic treatment of this subject had previously been conducted, its availability would be directly useful for quantitative treatment for a limited range of atmospheric aerosols. Second, it would provide qualitative indications of the effects of highly irregular particle shape on equilibrium vapor pressure of aggregates comprised of smaller spheres.

Marlow, William H.

1997-01-01

128

Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is generation of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be generated from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure solute (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the solution is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the solute to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.

Not Available

1994-05-01

129

ULTRAFINE PARTICLE DISPOSITION IN THE HEALTHY AND MILDLY OBSTRUCTED LUNG  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT We have shown previously that EGF receptor signaling is triggered by metals associated with ambient air particles. Specifically, we demonstrated that As, Zn and V activated the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase and the downstream kinases, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. In this study, ...

130

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles  

SciTech Connect

In the previous reporting period, modifications were completed for integrating a continuous wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor. During the current reporting period, a shakedown of the system was completed. Several problems were encountered with the progressive cavity pump used to circulate the wax/catalyst slurry though the cross-flow filter element and reactor. During the activation of the catalyst with elevated temperature (> 270 C) the elastomer pump stator released sulfur thereby totally deactivating the iron-based catalyst. Difficulties in maintaining an acceptable leak rate from the pump seal and stator housing were also encountered. Consequently, the system leak rate exceeded the expected production rate of wax; therefore, no online filtration could be accomplished. Work continued regarding the characterization of ultra-fine catalyst structures. The effect of carbidation on the morphology of iron hydroxide oxide particles was the focus of the study during this reporting period. Oxidation of Fe (II) sulfate results in predominantly {gamma}-FeOOH particles which have a rod-shaped (nano-needles) crystalline structure. Carbidation of the prepared {gamma}-FeOOH with CO at atmospheric pressure produced iron carbides with spherical layered structure. HRTEM and EDS analysis revealed that carbidation of {gamma}-FeOOH particles changes the initial nano-needles morphology and generates ultrafine carbide particles with irregular spherical shape.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Adam Crawford; Burtron H. Davis

2006-09-30

131

Influential parameters on ultrafine particle concentration downwind at waste-to-energy plants.  

PubMed

A numerical investigation on the parameters influencing the ultrafine particle concentrations downwind an incinerator plant has been carried out on a three-dimensional full scale model. The simulation was based on a modified version of the k-? turbulence model in order to take into account the thermal buoyancy effect of the plume, and reproducing a stable and neutral atmospheric boundary layer by setting appropriate values of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate. The ability of the model to reproduce and maintain a stable atmospheric boundary layer was evaluated by analyzing the turbulent characteristics of the flow along the domain. A parametric analysis made on the basis of different plant operational, environmental, and flue gas treatment parameters was carried out in order to evaluate the impact of incinerator plants on the background concentration of ultrafine particles. The evaluation was made at 5km downwind the chimney in a breathable area, showing that the most significant impact is due to the flue gas treatment section, with a variation on the background concentration up to 370% for a plant hypothetically working without controls on ultrafine particles emission. Operational and environmental parameters determine variations of the concentrations ranging from 1.62% to 4.48% for the lowest and highest chimney, from 1.41% to 4.52% for the lowest and highest wind speed and from 2.48% to 4.5% for the lowest and highest flue gas velocity, respectively. In addition, plume rise evaluation was carried out as a function of wind speed and flue gas velocity from the chimney. PMID:25670165

Scungio, Mauro; Buonanno, Giorgio; Arpino, Fausto; Ficco, Giorgio

2015-04-01

132

NO decomposition by ultrafine noble metals dispersed on the rare earth phosphate hollow particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel fine polymer particles containing ultrafine Pd, Pt or Rh metal dispersed on the core-shell [core, poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) or poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid); shell, LnPO4(Ln = Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, La)] type microsphere were prepared by the emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of styrene with acrylamide or acrylic acid followed by the addition of PdCl2, HPtCl6, or RhCl3 and finally by the addition of a

H. Tamai; T. Ikeya; F. Nishiyama; H. Yasuda; K. Iida; S. Nojima

2000-01-01

133

[Characterization of ultrafine particle size distribution in the urban atmosphere of Hangzhou in spring].  

PubMed

Continuous measurement and analysis of the atmospheric ultrafine particle number concentration were performed in Hangzhou from March to May, 2012 by using the fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The result showed that daily number concentration of nucleation mode (5.6-20 nm), Aitken mode (20-100 nm), and accumulation mode (100-560 nm) particles, and total particles were 0.84 x 10(4), 1.08 x 10(4), 0.47 x 10(4) and 2.38 x 10(4) cm(-3) respectively. The concentration of Aitken mode particles was higher than that of other mode particles in sunny day. The nucleation mode and Aitken mode particles usually started to increase around 10:00-11:00 and ended up after 3-4 h. This indicated the solar radiation promoted the formation of new particles. Human activities caused the concentration distribution of each mode particles having an obvious difference between workdays and weekends. Combined with the meteorological factors, analysis showed that the wind speed and wind direction also directly influenced particulate concentration. The analysis of particulate concentration and visibility showed that the concentration of accumulation mode particles had a negative relationship with the atmospheric visibility, while those of nucleation mode and Aitken mode particles had a slight influence on it. PMID:24812930

Xie, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Zai; Yang, Wen-Jun

2014-02-01

134

Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra-fine particles were even lower than ones observed in the polar FT. Summarising the data obtained during two intensive measurement campaigns carried out over the vast territory of Siberia we can draw the conclusion that remote Siberian troposphere is a relatively efficient source of recently formed particles. Measurements carried out in the FT (3-7 km) showed that about 44% of them satisfied criteria of new particle formation. At the same time, more favourable conditions are observed between 5 and 7 km (48%). The present work was funded by ANR grant BLAN06-1_137670, CNRS, CEA, the French Ministry of Research, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (YAK-AEROSIB project) and by RFBR (grants 07-05-00645, 08-05-10033 and 08-05-92499) and by the Norwegian Research Council as part of POLARCAT-Norway. Flights over Baikal Lake were financed by Russian Government (State Contract No 02.515.11.5087). Young, L.H., Benson, D.R., Montanaro, W.M., Lee, S.H., Pan, L.L., Rogers, D.C., Jensen, J., Stith, J.L., Davis, C.A., Campos, T.L., Bowman, K.P., Cooper,W.A., Lait, L.R., 2007. Enhanced new particle formation observed in the northern midlatitude tropopause region. Journal of Geophysical Research 112. doi:10.1029/2006JD008109

Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

2010-05-01

135

Exposure assessment in Beijing, China: biological agents, ultrafine particles, and lead.  

PubMed

In this study, air samples were taken using a BioSampler and gelatin filters from six sites in Beijing: office, hospital, student dormitory, train station, subway, and a commercial street. Dust samples were also collected using a surface sampler from the same environments. Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) and Glucatell assays were used to quantify sample endotoxin and (1,3)-?-d-glucan concentration levels, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the dust mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1). Ultrafine particle and lead concentrations in these sampling sites were also measured using P-Trak and atomic absorption spectrometer, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the concentration data. Higher culturable bacteria (12,639 CFU/m3) and fungi (1,806 CFU/m3) concentrations were observed for the train station and the subway system, respectively. For the rest of sampling sites, their concentrations were comparable to those found in western countries, ranging from 990 to 2,276 CFU/m3 for bacteria, and from 119 to 269 CFU/m3 for fungi. ANOVA analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the culturable bacterial and fungal concentration levels obtained for different sites (p value=0.0001 and 0.0047). As for dust allergens, endotoxin, and (1,3)-?-D-glucan, their concentrations also seemed to be comparable to those found in the developed countries. Airborne allergen concentrations ranged from 16 to 68 ng/m3. The dust-borne allergen concentration was observed to range from 0.063 to 0.327 ng/mg. As for endotoxin, the highest airborne concentration of 25.24 ng/m3 was observed for the commercial street, and others ranged from 0.0427 to 0.1259 ng/m3. And dust-borne endotoxin concentration ranged from 58.83 to 6,427.4 ng/mg. For (1,3)-?-D-glucan, the airborne concentration ranged from 0.02 to 1.2 ng/m3. Linear regression analyses showed that there existed poor correlations between those in airborne and dust-borne states (R2=0.002~0.43). In our study, the lowest ultrafine particle concentration about 5,203 pt/cm3 was observed in office and the highest was observed at the train station, up to 32,783 pt/cm3. Lead concentration was shown to range from 80 to 170 ng/mg with the highest also observed at the train station. The information provided in this work can be used to learn the general situation of relevant health risks in Beijing. And the results here suggested that when characterizing exposure both airborne and dust-borne as well as the environments should be considered. PMID:19904623

Dong, Shuofei; Yao, Maosheng

2010-11-01

136

Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia): Study Design and Implementation  

PubMed Central

Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm) in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children’s health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT) and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW) (to assess airway function), fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation), blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (to measure systemic inflammation). A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study. PMID:25648226

Ezz, Wafaa Nabil; Mazaheri, Mandana; Robinson, Paul; Johnson, Graham R.; Clifford, Samuel; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Marks, Guy B.

2015-01-01

137

Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH) in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia): study design and implementation.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm) in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH) study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children's health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT) and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW) (to assess airway function), fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation), blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (to measure systemic inflammation). A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study. PMID:25648226

Ezz, Wafaa Nabil; Mazaheri, Mandana; Robinson, Paul; Johnson, Graham R; Clifford, Samuel; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Marks, Guy B

2015-02-01

138

Perspectives on individual to ensembles of ambient fine and ultrafine particles and their sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining Rapid Single-ultrafine-particle Mass Spectrometry (RSMS) measurements during the Pittsburgh Supersite experiment with a large array of concurrent PM, gas and meteorological data, a synthesis of data and analyses is employed to characterize sources, emission trends and dynamics of ambient fine and ultrafine particles. Combinatorial analyses elicit individual to ensemble descriptions of particles, their sources, their changes in state from atmospheric processing and the scales of motion driving their transport and dynamics. Major results include (1) Particle size and composition are strong indicators of sources/source categories and real-time measurements allow source attribution at the single particle and point source level. (2) Single particle source attribution compares well to factor analysis of chemically-speciated bulk phase data and both resulted in similar conclusions but independently revealed new sources. (3) RSMS data can quantitatively estimate composition-resolved, number-based particle size distribution. Comparison to mass-based data yielded new information about physical and chemical properties of particles and instrument sensitivity. (4) Source-specific signatures and real-time monitoring allow passing plumes to be tracked and characterized. (5) The largest of three identified coal combustion sources emits ˜ 2.4 x 10 17 primary submicron particles per second. (6) Long-range transport has a significant impact on the eastern U.S. including specific influences of eight separate wildfire events. (7) Pollutant dynamics in the Pittsburgh summertime air shed, and Northeastern U.S., is characterized by alternating periods of stagnation and cleansing. The eight wildfire events were detected in between seven successive stagnation events. (8) Connections exist between boreal fire activity, southeast subsiding transport of the emissions, alternating periods of stagnation and cleansing at the receptor and the structure and propagation of extratropical waves. (9) Wildfire emissions can severely impact preexisting pollutant concentrations and physical and chemical processes at the receptor. (10) High-severity crown fires in boreal Canada emit ˜ 1.2 x 1015 particles/kg biomass burned. (11) In 1998, wildfire activity in the circumpolar boreal forest emitted ˜ 8 x 1026 particles, representing ˜ 14% of global wildland fire emissions. Results and conclusions address future scientific objectives in understanding effects of particles on human health and global climate change.

Bein, Keith James

139

In-cabin commuter exposure to ultrafine particles on Los Angeles freeways.  

PubMed

Worldwide people are exposed to toxic ultrafine particles (UFP, with diameters (dp) less than 100 nm) and nanoparticles (NP, dp < 50 nm) under a variety of circumstances. To date, very limited information is available on human exposure to freshly emitted UFP and NP while traveling on major roads and freeways. We report in-cabin and outdoor measurements of particle number concentration and size distributions while driving three vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured under different vehicle ventilation settings. When the circulation fan was set to on, with substantial external air intake, outside changes in particle counts caused corresponding in-cabin changes approximately 30-60 s later, indicating an maximal air exchange rate of about 120-60 h(-1). Maximum in-cabin protection (approximately 85%) was obtained when both fan and recirculation were on. In-cabin and outdoor particle size distributions in the 7.9-217 nm range were observed to be mostly bimodal, with the primary peak occurring at 10-30 nm and the secondary at 50-70 nm. The vehicle's manufacture-installed particle filter offered an in-cabin protection of about 50% for particles in the 7-40 nm size range and 20-30% for particles in the 40 to approximately 200 nm size range. For an hour daily commute exposure, the in-vehicle microenvironment contributes approximately 10-50% of people's daily exposure to UFP from traffic. PMID:17438754

Zhu, Yifang; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Hinds, William C; Miguel, Antonio H

2007-04-01

140

Synthesis of ultrafine single-component oxide particles by the spray-ICP technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine oxide particles were synthesized by introducing aqueous solutions of metal salts into a high-temperature r.f. inductively\\u000a coupled plasma (the spray-ICP technique). The particles synthesized were spherical for ZrO2, Y2O3, Sm2O3, La2O3, ?-Al2O3, TiO2 (anatase), ?-Bi2O3 and CuO, plate-like for Nd3O2, Cr2O3 and Pr2O3, polyhedral for PrO2, CeO2 and ?-Fe2O3, cubical for NiO, MgO, CaO, Co3O4 and Mn3O4, bar-like for

M. Suzuki; M. Kagawa; Y. Syono; T. Hirai

1992-01-01

141

Measurement of Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants Emitted by Cooking Activities  

PubMed Central

Cooking emissions show a strong dependence on cooking styles and parameters. Measurements of the average ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration, PM2.5 and black carbon concentrations emitted by cooking activities ranged from 1.34 × 104 to 6.04 × 105 particles/cm3, 10.0 to 230.9 ?g/m3 and 0.1 to 0.8 ?g/m3, respectively. Lower UFP concentrations were observed during boiling, while higher levels were emitted during frying. The highest UFP concentrations were observed when using a gas stove at high temperature with the kitchen exhaust fan turned off. The observed UFP profiles were similar in the kitchen and in another room, with a lag of approximately 10 min. PMID:20617057

Zhang, Qunfang; Gangupomu, Roja H.; Ramirez, David; Zhu, Yifang

2010-01-01

142

ECG Parameters and Exposure to Carbon Ultrafine Particles in Young Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying the association between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are unknown. This study aimed to determine whether controlled exposure to elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) affects electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters describing heart rate variability; repolarization duration, morphology, and variability; and changes in the ST segment. Two separate controlled studies (12 subjects each) were performed using a crossover design, in which each subject was exposed to filtered air and carbon UFP for 2 hours. The first protocol involved 2 exposures to air and 10 µg/m3 (~ 2 × 106 particles/cm3, count median diameter ~25 nm, geometric standard deviation ~1.6), at rest. The second protocol included 3 exposures to air, 10, and 25 µg/m3 UFP (~ 7 × 106 particles/cm3), with repeated exercise. Each subject underwent a continuous digital 12-lead ECG Holter recording to analyze the above ECG parameters. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare tested parameters between exposures. The observed responses to UFP exposure were small and generally not significant, although there were trends indicating an increase in parasympathetic tone, which is most likely also responsible for trends toward ST elevation, blunted QTc shortening, and increased variability of T-wave complexity after exposure to UFP. Recovery from exercise showed a blunted response of the parasympathetic system after exposure to UFP in comparison to air exposure. In conclusion, transient exposure to 10–25 µg/m3 ultrafine carbon particles does not cause marked changes in ECG-derived parameters in young healthy subjects. However, trends are observed indicating that some subjects might be susceptible to air pollution, with a response involving autonomic modulation of the heart and repolarization of the ventricular myocardium. PMID:18991063

Zareba, Wojciech; Couderc, Jean Philippe; Oberdörster, Günter; Chalupa, David; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Peters, Annette; Utell, Mark J.; Frampton, Mark W.

2010-01-01

143

Using advanced dispersion models and mobile monitoring to characterize spatial patterns of ultrafine particles in an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban settings with elevated bridges, buildings, and other complex terrain, the relationship between traffic and air pollution can be highly variable and difficult to accurately characterize. Atmospheric dispersion models are often used in this context, but incorporating background concentrations and characterizing emissions at high spatiotemporal resolution is challenging, especially for ultrafine particles (UFPs). Ambient pollutant monitoring can characterize this

Leonard M. Zwack; Steven R. Hanna; John D. Spengler; Jonathan I. Levy

2011-01-01

144

CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICLES IN A RESIDENCE FOR 18 MONTHS IN 1999-2000  

EPA Science Inventory

Continuous monitors were employed for 18 months in an occupied townhouse to measure ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles; air change rates; wind speed and direction; temperature; and relative humidity (RH). A main objective was to document short-term and long-term variation in...

145

INCREASED IL-8 AND IL-6 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

INCREASED IL-6 AND IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES. R Silbajoris1, A G Lenz2, I Jaspers3, J M Samet1. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2GSF-Institute for Inhalation Biology, Neuherberg, Germany; 3 CEMLB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, ...

146

Production of Ultrafine, High-purity Ceramic Powders Using the US Bureau of Mines Developed Turbomill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbomilling, an innovative grinding technology developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in the early 1960's for delaminating filler-grade kaolinitic clays, has been expanded into the areas of particle size reduction, material mixing, and process reaction kinetics. The turbomill, originally called an attrition grinder, has been used for particle size reduction of many minerals, including natural and synthetic mica, pyrophyllite, talc, and marble. In recent years, an all-polymer version of the turbomill has been used to produce ultrafine, high-purity, advanced ceramic powders such as SiC, Si3N4, TiB2, and ZrO2. In addition to particle size reduction, the turbomill has been used to produce intimate mixtures of high surface area powders and whiskers. Raw materials, TiN, AlN, and Al2O3, used to produce a titanium nitride/aluminum oxynitride (TiN/AlON) composite, were mixed in the turbomill, resulting in strength increases over samples prepared by dry ball milling. Using the turbomill as a leach vessel, it was found that 90.4 pct of the copper was extracted from the chalcopyrite during a 4-hour leach test in ferric sulfate versus conventional processing which involves either roasting of the ore for Cu recovery or leaching of the ore for several days.

Hoyer, Jesse L.

1993-01-01

147

Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.  

PubMed

Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ? 16% and ? 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data. PMID:21344849

Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

2011-03-15

148

Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Particle size distributions and total concentrations measurement at the stack and before the fabric filter of an incinerator. > Chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration through a nuclear method. > Mineralogical investigation through a Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. > Heavy metal concentrations on UFPs as function of the boiling temperature. > Different mineralogical and morphological composition amongst samples collected before the fabric filter and at the stack. - Abstract: Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 {mu}m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 x 10{sup 7} part. cm{sup -3} and 2.0 x 10{sup 3} part. cm{sup -3} were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack.

Buonanno, Giorgio, E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [University of Cassino, via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Stabile, Luca [University of Cassino, via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Avino, Pasquale [DIPIA, INAIL (ex-ISPESL), via Urbana 167, 00184 Rome (Italy); Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, University of Torino and Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR-Unita di Torino, via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy)

2011-11-15

149

Ultrafine particle size distributions near freeways: Effects of differing wind directions on exposure.  

PubMed

High ambient ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations may play an important role in the adverse health effects associated with living near busy roadways. However, UFP size distributions change rapidly as vehicle emissions dilute and age. These size changes can influence UFP lung deposition rates and dose because deposition in the respiratory system is a strong function of particle size. Few studies to date have measured and characterized changes in near-road UFP size distributions in real-time, thus missing transient variations in size distribution due to short-term fluctuations in wind speed, direction, or particle dynamics. In this study we measured important wind direction effects on near-freeway UFP size distributions and gradients using a mobile platform with 5-s time resolution. Compared to more commonly measured perpendicular (downwind) conditions, parallel wind conditions appeared to promote formation of broader and larger size distributions of roughly one-half the particle concentration. Particles during more parallel wind conditions also changed less in size with downwind distance and the fraction of lung-deposited particle number was calculated to be 15% lower than for downwind conditions, giving a combined decrease of about 60%. In addition, a multivariate analysis of several variables found meteorology, particularly wind direction and temperature, to be important in predicting UFP concentrations within 150 m of a freeway (R (2) = 0.46, p = 0.014). PMID:24415904

Kozawa, Kathleen H; Winer, Arthur M; Fruin, Scott A

2012-12-01

150

Characteristics of ultrafine particle sources and deposition rates in primary school classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to investigate changes in particle number concentration (PNC) within naturally ventilated primary school classrooms arising from local sources either within or adjacent to the classrooms. We quantify the rate at which ultrafine particles were emitted either from printing, grilling, heating or cleaning activities and the rate at which the particles were removed by both deposition and air exchange processes. At each of 25 schools in Brisbane, Australia, two weeks of measurements of PNC and CO2 were taken both outdoors and in the two classrooms. Bayesian regression modelling was employed in order to estimate the relevant rates and analyse the relationship between air exchange rate (AER), particle infiltration and the deposition rates of particle generated from indoor activities in the classrooms. During schooling hours, grilling events at the school tuckshop as well as heating and printing in the classrooms led to indoor PNCs being elevated by a factor of more than four, with emission rates of (2.51 ± 0.25) × 1011 p min-1, (8.99 ± 6.70) × 1011 p min-1 and (5.17 ± 2.00) × 1011 p min-1, respectively. During non-school hours, cleaning events elevated indoor PNC by a factor of above five, with an average emission rate of (2.09 ± 6.30) × 1011 p min-1. Particles were removed by both air exchange and deposition; chiefly by ventilation when AER > 0.7 h-1 and by deposition when AER < 0.7 h-1.

Laiman, Rusdin; He, Congrong; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Samuel; Salimi, Farhad; Crilley, Leigh R.; Megat Mokhtar, Megat Azman; Morawska, Lidia

2014-09-01

151

Ultrafine particle size distributions near freeways: Effects of differing wind directions on exposure  

PubMed Central

High ambient ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations may play an important role in the adverse health effects associated with living near busy roadways. However, UFP size distributions change rapidly as vehicle emissions dilute and age. These size changes can influence UFP lung deposition rates and dose because deposition in the respiratory system is a strong function of particle size. Few studies to date have measured and characterized changes in near-road UFP size distributions in real-time, thus missing transient variations in size distribution due to short-term fluctuations in wind speed, direction, or particle dynamics. In this study we measured important wind direction effects on near-freeway UFP size distributions and gradients using a mobile platform with 5-s time resolution. Compared to more commonly measured perpendicular (downwind) conditions, parallel wind conditions appeared to promote formation of broader and larger size distributions of roughly one-half the particle concentration. Particles during more parallel wind conditions also changed less in size with downwind distance and the fraction of lung-deposited particle number was calculated to be 15% lower than for downwind conditions, giving a combined decrease of about 60%. In addition, a multivariate analysis of several variables found meteorology, particularly wind direction and temperature, to be important in predicting UFP concentrations within 150 m of a freeway (R2 = 0.46, p = 0.014). PMID:24415904

Kozawa, Kathleen H.; Winer, Arthur M.; Fruin, Scott A.

2013-01-01

152

Water Condensation Growth Cells for Ultrafine Particle Collection Onto Concentrated Spots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laminar flow, condensation method, analogous to that employed in the water-based condensation particle counters, is utilized to provide concentrated, low-pressure drop collection of fine and ultrafine particles. With the laminar flow water condensation approach, the aerosol flow is first chilled by a cold walled conditioner, and then introduced into a hot wet-walled condenser. Because water vapor diffuses more rapidly then heat, the air vapor is supersaturated resulting in particles large enough to be collected by impaction. Several types of collectors have been designed and tested. A compact system utilizing a single TED as a heat pump to provide a ~ 25 ° C temperature difference provides collection at 0.4 L/min with a lower cutpoint of 10 nm, a pressure drop of 1 kPa, and a power consumption of 1 Watt. A larger, parallel plate system samples at 10 L/min, and yields a cutpoint of 20 nm. The design of these systems was guided by numeric modeling of the saturation ratios, particle activation and growth. The model includes the heat release from condensation, and the associated warming of the flow that reduces the supersaturation and particle growth at high particle number concentrations. By controlling the system geometry (either plate separation or tube diameter), we are able to activate at small particle sizes while minimizing concentration effects. Our method of particle collection provides a number of other advantages. Particle bounce off the impaction surface can be eliminated by controlling the temperature of the impaction surface so as to maintain a thin film of water on the surface. Particles can also be collected into a small liquid vial containing less then 1 ml of fluid, which eliminates the need for particle extraction from filters or resuspension from surface, it minimizes the total volume of the sample, and it allows for continuous automated collection and analysis.

Lewis, G. S.; Hering, S. V.; Kreisberg, N.

2007-12-01

153

Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant.  

PubMed

Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 ?m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e., Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 × 10(7) part. cm(-3) and 2.0 × 10(3) part. cm(-3) were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack. PMID:21802934

Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale; Belluso, Elena

2011-11-01

154

Aerosol Measurements of the Fine and Ultrafine Particle Content of Lunar Regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first quantitative measurements of the ultrafine (20 to 100 nm) and fine (100 nm to 20 m) particulate components of Lunar surface regolith. The measurements were performed by gas-phase dispersal of the samples, and analysis using aerosol diagnostic techniques. This approach makes no a priori assumptions about the particle size distribution function as required by ensemble optical scattering methods, and is independent of refractive index and density. The method provides direct evaluation of effective transport diameters, in contrast to indirect scattering techniques or size information derived from two-dimensional projections of high magnification-images. The results demonstrate considerable populations in these size regimes. In light of the numerous difficulties attributed to dust exposure during the Apollo program, this outcome is of significant importance to the design of mitigation technologies for future Lunar exploration.

Greenberg, Paul S.; Chen, Da-Ren; Smith, Sally A.

2007-01-01

155

On the Combination Coefficient of Positive Ions with Ultrafine Neutral Particles in the Transition and Free-Molecule Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charged fraction of ultrafine silver particles (5–50 nm) suspended in high-purity helium (99.998% grade) was measured as a function of particle size under different charging conditions (i.e., ion concentration and charging time). The charger used is a modified version of the one described in a previous study (Romay et al., 1991). Two radioactive sources of 250 ?Ci Po-210 are

Francisco J. Romay; David Y. H. Pui

1992-01-01

156

Soft-X-Ray-Enhanced Electrostatic Precipitation for Protection against Inhalable Allergens, Ultrafine Particles, and Microbial Infections  

PubMed Central

Protection of the human lung from infectious agents, allergens, and ultrafine particles is difficult with current technologies. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters remove airborne particles of >0.3 ?m with 99.97% efficiency, but they are expensive to maintain. Electrostatic precipitation has been used as an inexpensive approach to remove large particles from airflows, but it has a collection efficiency minimum in the submicrometer size range, allowing for a penetration window for some allergens and ultrafine particles. Incorporating soft X-ray irradiation as an in situ component of the electrostatic precipitation process greatly improves capture efficiency of ultrafine particles. Here we demonstrate the removal and inactivation capabilities of soft-X-ray-enhanced electrostatic precipitation technology targeting infectious agents (Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and poxviruses), allergens, and ultrafine particles. Incorporation of in situ soft X-ray irradiation at low-intensity corona conditions resulted in (i) 2-fold to 9-fold increase in capture efficiency of 200- to 600-nm particles and (ii) a considerable delay in the mean day of death as well as lower overall mortality rates in ectromelia virus (ECTV) cohorts. At the high-intensity corona conditions, nearly complete protection from viral and bacterial respiratory infection was afforded to the murine models for all biological agents tested. When optimized for combined efficient particle removal with limited ozone production, this technology could be incorporated into stand-alone indoor air cleaners or scaled for installation in aircraft cabin, office, and residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. PMID:23263945

Kettleson, Eric M.; Schriewer, Jill M.; Buller, R. Mark L.

2013-01-01

157

Spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in urban settings: A land use regression model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BackgroundThe toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) are a public health concern. However, epidemiological studies on the long term effects of UFP are limited due to lacking exposure models. Given the high spatial variation of UFP, the assignment of exposure levels in epidemiological studies requires a fine spatial scale. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a short-term measurement protocol used at a large number of locations to derive a land use regression (LUR) model of the spatial variation of UFP in Girona, Spain. MethodsWe measured UFP for 15 min on the sidewalk of 644 participants' homes in 12 towns of Girona province (Spain). The measurements were done during non-rush traffic hours 9:15-12:45 and 15:15-16:45 during 32 days between June 15 and July 31, 2009. In parallel, we counted the number of vehicles driving in both directions. Measurements were repeated on a different day for a subset of 25 sites in Girona city. Potential predictor variables such as building density, distance to bus lines and land cover were derived using geographic information systems. We adjusted for temporal variation using daily mean NOx concentrations at a central monitor. Land use regression models for the entire area (Core model) and for individual towns were derived using a supervised forward selection algorithm. ResultsThe best predictors of UFP were traffic intensity, distance to nearest major crossroad, area of high density residential land and household density. The LUR Core model explained 36% of UFP total variation. Adding sampling date and hour of the day to the Core model increased the R2 to 51% without changing the regression slopes. Local models included predictor variables similar to those in the Core model, but performed better with an R2 of 50% in Girona city. Independent LUR models for the first and second measurements at the subset of sites with repetitions had R2's of about 47%. When the mean of the two measurements was used R2 improved to 72%. ConclusionsLUR models for UFP were developed, based on a highly cost-effective short-term monitoring campaign at a large number of sites, with fair performance. Complementing the approach with further strategies to address sources of temporal variation of UFP is likely to result in improved models as indicated by the good performance of the model based on the subset of sites with one repeated measurement. Our approach is promising for UFP and possibly for other PM components requiring active sampling.

Rivera, Marcela; Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Foraster, Maria; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes; Pey, Jorge; Künzli, Nino; Hoek, Gerard

2012-07-01

158

Performance of school bus retrofit systems: ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the performance of retrofit systems for diesel-powered school buses, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a spiracle crankcase filtration system (CFS), regarding ultrafine particles (UFPs) and other air pollutants from tailpipe emissions and inside bus cabins. Tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant levels were measured before and after retrofitting when the buses were idling and during actual pick-up/drop off routes. Retrofit systems significantly reduced tailpipe emissions with a reduction of 20-94% of total particles with both DOC and CFS installed. However, no unequivocal decrease was observed for in-cabin air pollutants after retrofitting. The AC/fan unit and the surrounding air pollutant concentrations played more important roles for determining the in-cabin air quality of school buses than did retrofit technologies. Although current retrofit systems reduce children's exposure while waiting to board at a bus station, retrofitting by itself does not protect children satisfactorily from in-cabin particle exposures. Turning on the bus engine increased in-cabin UFP levels significantly only when the wind blew from the bus' tailpipe toward its hood with its windows open. This indicated that wind direction and window position are significant factors determining how much self-released tailpipe emissions may penetrate into the bus cabin. The use of an air purifier was found to remove in-cabin particles by up to 50% which might be an alternative short-to-medium term strategy to protect children's health. PMID:21710985

Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

2011-08-01

159

Vascular Effects of Ultrafine Particles in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles. Objective We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, 19 subjects with type 2 diabetes inhaled filtered air or 50 ?g/m3 elemental carbon UFP (count median diameter, 32 nm) by mouthpiece for 2 hr at rest. We repeatedly measured markers of vascular activation, coagulation, and systemic inflammation before and after exposure. Results Compared with air, particle exposure increased platelet expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the number of platelet-leukocyte conjugates 3.5 hr after exposure. Soluble CD40L decreased with UFP exposure. Plasma von Willebrand factor increased immediately after exposure. There were no effects of particles on plasma tissue factor, coagulation factors VII or IX, or D-dimer. Conclusions Inhalation of elemental carbon UFP for 2-hr transiently activated platelets, and possibly the vascular endothelium, in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:20822968

Stewart, Judith C.; Chalupa, David C.; Devlin, Robert B.; Frasier, Lauren M.; Huang, Li-Shan; Little, Erika L.; Lee, Steven M.; Phipps, Richard P.; Pietropaoli, Anthony P.; Taubman, Mark B.; Utell, Mark J.; Frampton, Mark W.

2010-01-01

160

Ultrafine particles generated from coloring with scented markers in the presence of ozone.  

PubMed

High concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been previously reported during school art activities. This is possibly due to secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from reactions between ozone and volatile organic compounds emitted from art products. Four brands of markers, three scented and one unscented, were tested inside a stainless steel chamber at eight different ozone concentrations between 0 and 300 ppb. Out of the 32 tested markers, only the lemon- and orange-scented markers from one brand reacted with ozone to form UFPs. Limonene, pinene, and several other terpenes were identified as ingredients of ink in SOA-forming markers. Coloring with one lemon-scented marker for 1 min without ozone generated on average approximately 26 ± 4 ppb of limonene inside the chamber. At 150 ppb ozone, using one lemon marker for 1 min formed on average 7.7 × 10(10) particles. The particle size distribution indicated an initial mode of 15 nm which grew to 40 nm. At 50 ppb ozone and below, no significant SOA formation occurred. The number of particles formed is moderately correlated with the mass of ink used (R(2)  = 0.68). Based on these data, scented markers are not likely a strong source of SOA under normal indoor ozone levels. PMID:24547888

Fung, C-C D; Shu, S; Zhu, Y

2014-10-01

161

Measurements of ultrafine particles from a gas-turbine burning biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of ultrafine particles have been performed at the exhaust of a low emission microturbine for power generation. This device has been fuelled with liquid fuels, including a commercial diesel oil, a mixture of the diesel oil with a biodiesel and kerosene, and tested under different loads. Primarily attention has been focused on the measurements of the size distribution functions of the particles emitted from the system by using particle differential mobility analysis. A bimodal size distribution function of the particle emitted has been found in all the examined conditions. Burning diesel oil, the first mode of the size distribution function of the combustion-formed particles is centered at around 2-3 nm, whereas the second mode is centered at about 20-30 nm. The increase of the turbine load and the addition of 50% of biodiesel has not caused changes in the shape of size distribution of the particles. A slightly decrease of the amount of particle formed has been found. By using kerosene the amount of emitted particles increases of more than one order of magnitude. Also the shape of the size distribution function changes with the first mode shifted towards larger particles of the order of 8-10 nm but with a lower emission of larger 20-30 nm particles. Overall, in this conditions, the mass concentration of particles is increased respect to the diesel oil operation. Particle sizes measured with the diesel oil have been compared with the results on a diesel engine operated in the same power conditions and with the same fuel. Measurements have showed that the mean sizes of the formed particles do not change in the two combustion systems. However, diesel engine emits a number concentration of particles more than two orders of magnitude higher in the same conditions of power and with the same fuel. By running the engine in more premixed-like conditions, the size distribution function of the particles approaches that measured by burning kerosene in the microturbine indicating that the distribution function of the sizes of the emitted particles can be strongly affected by combustion conditions. (author)

Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.; Minutolo, P.; Pagliara, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, M.; Sgro, L.A.; D'Anna, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15

162

Commuter exposure to ultrafine particles in different urban locations, transportation modes and routes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure in different urban transport microenvironments is important for epidemiological exposure assessments and for policy making. Three sub-studies were performed to characterize personal exposure to UFP concentration and average particle size distribution diameters in frequently traveled commuter microenvironments in the city of Basel, Switzerland. First, the spatial variation of sidewalk UFP exposures within urban areas and transport-specific microenvironments was explored. Second, exposure to UFP concentration and average particle size were quantified for five modes of transportation (walking, bicycle, bus, tram, car) during different times of the day and week, along the same route. Finally, the contribution of bicycle commuting along two different routes (along main roads, away from main roads) to total daily exposures was assessed by 24-h personal measurements. In general, smaller average particle sizes and higher UFP levels were measured at places and for travel modes in close proximity to traffic. Average trip UFP concentrations were higher in car (31,784 particles cm-³) and on bicycle (22,660 particles cm-³) compared to walking (19,481 particles cm-³) and public transportation (14,055-18,818 particles cm-³). Concentrations were highest for all travel modes during weekday morning rush hours, compared to other time periods. UFP concentration was lowest in bus, regardless of time period. Bicycle travel along main streets between home and work place (24 min on average) contributed 21% and 5% to total daily UFP exposure in winter and summer, respectively. Contribution of bicycle commutes to total daily UFP exposure could be reduced by half if main roads are avoided. Our results show the importance of considering commuter behavior and route choice in exposure assessment studies.

Ragettli, Martina S.; Corradi, Elisabetta; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Schindler, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Jerrett, Michael; Ducret-Stich, Regina E.; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C.

2013-10-01

163

Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions  

SciTech Connect

The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. In the first quarterly report for this program the concept behind our approach was detailed, the structure of the program was presented, key technical issues were identified, preliminary designs were outlined, and technical progress was discussed. All progress made during the second quarter of this program related to experiment design of the proposed supercritical expansion technique for generating ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles. This second quarterly report, therefore, presents descriptions of the final designs for most system components; diagnostic approaches and designs for determining particles size and size distributions, and the composition of the pre-expansion supercritical solution; and the overall technique progress made during this reporting period. 6 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-09-01

164

Ultrafine particle and fine trace metal (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) pollution episodes induced by industrial emissions in Huelva, SW Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air quality impairment by ultrafine particles has become a matter of concern due to the adverse effects on human health. Most of the studies of ultrafine particles in urban air quality have focused on vehicle exhaust emissions. We studied how industrial emissions contribute to ultrafine particle concentrations in downwind urban ambient air. This research is based on experimental data collected in the ambient air of the industrial city of Huelva (SW Spain) over April 2008-December 2009 period (particle number, gaseous pollutants and black carbon concentrations and levels and chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 with daily and hourly resolution). This city is affected by emissions from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe, phosphoric acid and fertilizer production plants and an oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Industrial emissions are the main cause of ultrafine particle episodes. When vehicle exhaust emissions are the main source, ultrafine particles typically show (24-h mean) concentrations within the range 14,700-5000 cm-3 (50th-1st), with 60% of these linked to this source and 30% to industrial emissions. In contrast, when daily mean levels of N are within the range 50,000-25,500 cm-3 (100th-70th), industrial and vehicle exhaust emissions accounted for 49 and 30%, respectively. High concentrations of toxic trace metals (As, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb) were recorded when the study city suffered fumigations of the Cu-smelter plumes (e.g. 10-25 ng m-3 As, 1-2 ng m-3 Cd and >105 cm-3 of ultrafine particles). Because of these industrial emissions, ultrafine particle concentrations during daylight are about two times higher than those observed in other European cities. Recently, ultrafine particle emissions in vehicle exhausts have been subject to limit values in a recent stage of the EURO standards. Industrial emissions should also be considered.

Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; González-Castanedo, Y.; Garcia-Orellana, I.; Nava, S.

2012-12-01

165

GENE PROFILING AND THE ROLE OF COAGULATION FACTORS IN INFLAMMATION SIGNALING IN HUMAN PULMONARY ARTERY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS FOLLOWING ULTRAFINE PARTICLES EXPOUSRE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate air pollution and increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, however, the mechanisms are not clear. Ultrafine particles within air pollution represent a particular area of concern because the small size fraction o...

166

Contrasting macrophage activation by fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide particles is associated with different uptake mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of (nano)particles may lead to pulmonary inflammation. However, the precise mechanisms of particle uptake and generation of inflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages (AM) are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between particles and AM and their associated pro-inflammatory effects in relation to particle size and physico-chemical properties. NR8383 rat lung AM were treated with ultrafine (uf), fine (f) TiO2 or fine crystalline silica (DQ12 quartz). Physico-chemical particle properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetry. Aggregation and agglomeration tendency of the particles were determined in assay-specific suspensions by means of dynamic light scattering. All three particle types were rapidly taken up by AM. DQ12 and ufTiO2 , but not fTiO2 , caused increased extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? release. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression was increased most strongly by ufTiO2 , while DQ12 exclusively triggered interleukin (IL) 1? release. However, oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration and increased intracellular ROS were observed with all three samples. Uptake inhibition experiments with cytochalasin D, chlorpromazine and a Fc? receptor II (Fc?RII) antibody revealed that the endocytosis of fTiO2 by the macrophages involves actin-dependent phagocytosis and macropinocytosis as well as clathrin-coated pit formation, whereas the uptake of ufTiO2 was dominated by Fc?IIR. The uptake of DQ12 was found to be significantly reduced by all three inhibitors. Our findings suggest that the contrasting AM responses to fTiO2 , ufTiO2 and DQ12 relate to differences in the involvement of specific uptake mechanisms. PMID:21995556

2011-01-01

167

Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Combustion generated particulate matter is deposited in the respiratory tract and pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress and inflammation. We have previously shown that combustion of fuels and chlorinated hydrocarbons produce semiquinone-type radicals that are stabilized on particle surfaces (i.e. environmentally persistent free radicals; EPFRs). Because the composition and properties of actual combustion-generated particles are complex, heterogeneous in origin, and vary from day-to-day, we have chosen to use surrogate particle systems. In particular, we have chosen to use the radical of 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230) as the EPFR because we have previously shown that it forms a EPFR on Cu(II)O surfaces and catalyzes formation of PCDD/F. To understand the physicochemical properties responsible for the adverse pulmonary effects of combustion by-products, we have exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to MCP230 or the CuO/silica substrate. Our general hypothesis was that the EPFR-containing particle would have greater toxicity than the substrate species. Results Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to our combustion generated particle systems significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased cellular antioxidants resulting in cell death. Resveratrol treatment reversed the decline in cellular glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels for both types of combustion-generated particle systems. Conclusion The enhanced cytotoxicity upon exposure to MCP230 correlated with its ability to generate more cellular oxidative stress and concurrently reduce the antioxidant defenses of the epithelial cells (i.e. reduced GSH, SOD activity, and GPx). The EPFRs in MCP230 also seem to be of greater biological concern due to their ability to induce lipid peroxidation. These results are consistent with the oxidizing nature of the CuO/silica ultrafine particles and the reducing nature and prolonged environmental and biological lifetimes of the EPFRs in MCP230. PMID:19374750

Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Lomnicki, Slawo; McAvey, Kevin M; Cole, Richard B; Dellinger, Barry; Cormier, Stephania A

2009-01-01

168

Spatial coherence of nucleation and ultrafine particle concentrations over eastern North America (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle size distributions from sites in eastern North America imply new particle formation (NPF) is frequently observed, however the absence of an observing network precludes direct estimation of spatial scales of NPF. Inferences regarding the spatial scales of NPF and resulting ultrafine particle (UFP, i.e. sub-100 nm diameter) concentrations are presented based on in situ and remote sensing observations along with simulations conducted with the GLOMAP global chemistry model and the WRF-CHEM regional chemistry model. Analyses of in situ measurements indicate; (i) NPF and UFP concentrations in two long-term data sets (one collected at a site in southern Indiana (MMSF) and the other 1500 km to the northeast, close to Toronto) indicate a high probability of simultaneous NPF and high coherence of UFP concentrations. (ii) The spatial extent of NPF estimated from the temporal duration of events at MMSF and back-trajectories show minimum spatial scales of 340 to 1000 km. (iii) Co-occurrence of NPF along an 80 km transect in southern Indiana but site-to-site variability in UFP concentrations with data from the Indianapolis metropolitan area differing substantially from two non-urban locations. The implied regional scale NPF and relatively high spatial correlation of UFP concentrations are used in part to justify development of a physically-consistent, but statistically-based, proxy for UFP concentrations where the predictors are spatially averaged remote sensing observations. The proxy is built on data from MMSF and includes predictors known to control NPF; Aerosol Optical Depth and Ångstrom exponent from MODIS (as proxies for the condensational sink), and ultraviolet radiation flux and SO2 concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, and NH3 concentrations from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer as indicators of ternary nucleation. The model is applied on a grid of 100x100 km across the whole of eastern North America and the resulting UFP concentrations are cross-compared with output from GLOMAP. The results indicate: (i) Consistent with in situ observations, there is evidence that UFP concentrations, and by association NPF events, are relatively coherent across large spatial scales over eastern North America. (ii) Consistent with in situ observations, NPF intensity peaks during spring and summer. (iii) Satellite-derived estimates of UFP concentrations exhibit a high degree of coherence with GLOMAP in terms of seasonality and spatial patterns. But there is a systematic positive bias in the proxy estimates that may be due to differences in the nucleation mechanism applied, background concentrations associated with primary emissions and/or errors in the condensation and coagulation sinks. To evaluate the spatial variability (i) in UFP concentrations at scales below those represented in the satellite proxy and/or GLOMAP and (ii) of UFP that can be attributed to causes not linked to NPF, we are conducting simulations at 12 km with WRF-CHEM. Initial results suggest a substantial fraction of the non-NPF-related variability in near-surface total UFP concentrations on scales below 100x100 km can be attributed to variations in Aitken mode primary emissions and/or boundary layer dynamics determined by land-use patterns.

Pryor, S. C.; Crippa, P.

2013-12-01

169

Ultrafine Angelica gigas Powder Normalizes Ovarian Hormone Levels and Has Antiosteoporosis Properties in Ovariectomized Rats: Particle Size Effect  

PubMed Central

Abstract The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500?mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake. PMID:23039111

Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

2012-01-01

170

The effects of leaf area density variation on the particle collection efficiency in the size range of ultrafine particles (UFP).  

PubMed

Carbonaceous particles were generated during a "sooting burn" experiment to explore how heterogeneity in horizontal leaf area density (LAD) within the canopy impacts the ultrafine particle (UFP) collection efficiency at the branch-scale. To address this goal, wind tunnel experiments and a particle-size resolving model, which couples the turbulent flow field within the vegetated volume and the collection efficiency, were presented. Three scenarios were examined in a wind-tunnel packed with Juniperus chinensis branches: An LAD that was uniformly distributed, linearly increasing and linearly decreasing along the longitudinal or mean wind direction. The concentration measurements were conducted at multiple locations within the vegetated volume to evaluate the performance of the proposed model needed in discerning the role of LAD heterogeneity on UFP collection. Differences not exceeding 20% were found between modeled and measured concentration for all particle sizes across a wide range of wind speeds. The overall particle collection efficiency was found to be primarily governed by the spatially integrated LAD when differences in aerodynamic attributes (e.g., foliage drag) were accounted for. When combined with earlier studies, the results suggest that one parameter linking the laminar boundary layer conductance to the Schmidt number depends on particle size. PMID:24001338

Huang, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Ming-Yeng; Khlystov, Andrey; Katul, Gabriel

2013-10-15

171

Ultrafine particles formed by heating droplets of simulated ash containing metals  

SciTech Connect

Coal and biomass combustion and waste incineration produce inorganic aerosol, whose ultrafine fraction is hypothesized to be generated mainly by metal vaporization and subsequent nucleation and growth in a high-temperature atmosphere. To investigate this mechanism, we investigated nanoparticle inception and early growth processes at high temperature by spraying monodisperse droplets of simulated ash containing metals in the centerline of a laboratory ethylene/air laminar premixed flame at stoichiometric conditions. Particles were collected by thermophoresis on mica substrates for atomic force microscopy dimensional and morphological analysis. Chemical nature, volume fraction, and mean diameter of particles were evaluated by in situ UV-Vis broadband light absorption and laser light-scattering measurements. We also measured size distribution of material sampled from the flame without dilution using differential mobility analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy provided further information on the chemical composition of particles deposited on substrates. Size distributions showed that the flame-generated aerosol have a high number concentration, are mostly smaller than 10 nm, and persist far downstream of the droplet injection point. Preliminary results showed that the coagulation rate of those nanoparticles is much slower than their collision rate, which implies that their lifetime may be long and may represent a severe problem for environmental pollution.

Carbone, F.; Barone, A.; Pagliara, R.; Beretta, F.; D'Anna, A.; D'Alessio, A. [University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

2008-12-15

172

Combustion of PTFE: The Effects of Gravity and Pigmentation on Ultrafine Particle Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrafine particles generated during polymer thermodegradation are a major health hazard, owing to their unique pathway of processing in the lung. This hazard in manned spacecraft is poorly understood, because the particulate products of polymer thermodegradation are generated under low gravity conditions. Particulate generated from the degradation of PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE), insulation coating for 20 AWG copper wire (representative of spacecraft application) under intense ohmic heating were studied in terrestrial gravity and microgravity. Microgravity tests were done in a 1.2-second drop tower at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). Thermophoretic sampling was used for particulate collection. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) were used to examine the smoke particulates. Image software was used to calculate particle size distribution. In addition to gravity, the color of PTFE insulation has an overwhelming effect on size, shape and morphology of the particulate. Nanometer-sized primary particles were found in all cases, and aggregation and size distribution was dependent on both color and gravity; higher aggregation occurred in low gravity. Particulates from white, black, red and yellow colored PTFE insulations were studied. Elemental analysis of the particulates shows the presence of inorganic pigments.

McKinnon, J. Thomas; Srivastava, Rajiv; Todd, Paul

1997-01-01

173

Ultrafine particles are not major carriers of carcinogenic PAHs and their genotoxicity in size-segregated aerosols.  

PubMed

Some studies suggest that genotoxic effects of combustion-related aerosols are induced by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) and their derivatives, which are part of the organic fraction of the particulate matter (PM) in ambient air. The proportion of the organic fraction in PM is known to vary with particle size. The ultrafine fraction is hypothesized to be the most important carrier of c-PAHs, since it possesses the highest specific surface area of PM. To test this hypothesis, the distribution of c-PAHs in organic extracts (EOMs) was compared for four size fractions of ambient-air aerosols: coarse (1particles and ultrafine particles (dae<0.17). High-volume aerosol samples were collected consecutively in four localities that differed in the level of environmental pollution. The genotoxicity of EOMs was measured by analysis of DNA adducts induced in an a cellular assay consisting of calf thymus DNA with/without rat liver microsomal S9 fraction coupled with (32)P-postlabelling. The upper accumulation fraction was the major size fraction in all four localities, forming 37-46% of the total PM mass. Per m(3) of sampled air, this fraction also bound the largest amount of c-PAHs. Correspondingly, the upper accumulation fraction induced the highest DNA-adduct levels. Per PM mass itself, the lower accumulation fraction is seen to be the most efficient in binding DNA-reactive organic compounds. Interestingly, the results suggest that the fraction of ultrafine particles of various ambient-air samples is neither a major carrier of c-PAHs, nor a major inducer of their genotoxicity, which is an important finding that is relevant to the toxicity and health effects of ultrafine particles, which are so extensively discussed these days. PMID:23466560

Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Krouzek, Jiri; Hovorka, Jan

2013-06-14

174

Estimates of HVAC filtration efficiency for fine and ultrafine particles of outdoor origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work uses 194 outdoor particle size distributions (PSDs) from the literature to estimate single-pass heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) filter removal efficiencies for PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFPs: <100 nm) of outdoor origin. The PSDs were first fitted to tri-modal lognormal distributions and then mapped to size-resolved particle removal efficiency of a wide range of HVAC filters identified in the literature. Filters included those with a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16, as well as HEPA filters. We demonstrate that although the MERV metric defined in ASHRAE Standard 52.2 does not explicitly account for UFP or PM2.5 removal efficiency, estimates of filtration efficiency for both size fractions increased with increasing MERV. Our results also indicate that outdoor PSD characteristics and assumptions for particle density and typical size-resolved infiltration factors (in the absence of HVAC filtration) do not drastically impact estimates of HVAC filter removal efficiencies for PM2.5. The impact of these factors is greater for UFPs; however, they are also somewhat predictable. Despite these findings, our results also suggest that MERV alone cannot always be used to predict UFP or PM2.5 removal efficiency given the various size-resolved removal efficiencies of different makes and models, particularly for MERV 7 and MERV 12 filters. This information improves knowledge of how the MERV designation relates to PM2.5 and UFP removal efficiency for indoor particles of outdoor origin. Results can be used to simplify indoor air quality modeling efforts and inform standards and guidelines.

Azimi, Parham; Zhao, Dan; Stephens, Brent

2014-12-01

175

Filter performance of n99 and n95 facepiece respirators against viruses and ultrafine particles.  

PubMed

The performance of three filtering facepiece respirators (two models of N99 and one N95) challenged with an inert aerosol (NaCl) and three virus aerosols (enterobacteriophages MS2 and T4 and Bacillus subtilis phage)-all with significant ultrafine components-was examined using a manikin-based protocol with respirators sealed on manikins. Three inhalation flow rates, 30, 85, and 150 l min(-1), were tested. The filter penetration and the quality factor were determined. Between-respirator and within-respirator comparisons of penetration values were performed. At the most penetrating particle size (MPPS), >3% of MS2 virions penetrated through filters of both N99 models at an inhalation flow rate of 85 l min(-1). Inhalation airflow had a significant effect upon particle penetration through the tested respirator filters. The filter quality factor was found suitable for making relative performance comparisons. The MPPS for challenge aerosols was <0.1 mum in electrical mobility diameter for all tested respirators. Mean particle penetration (by count) was significantly increased when the size fraction of <0.1 mum was included as compared to particles >0.1 mum. The filtration performance of the N95 respirator approached that of the two models of N99 over the range of particle sizes tested ( approximately 0.02 to 0.5 mum). Filter penetration of the tested biological aerosols did not exceed that of inert NaCl aerosol. The results suggest that inert NaCl aerosols may generally be appropriate for modeling filter penetration of similarly sized virions. PMID:18477653

Eninger, Robert M; Honda, Takeshi; Adhikari, Atin; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A

2008-07-01

176

Exposure and Toxicity Assessment of Ultrafine Particles from Nearby Traffic in Urban Air in Seoul, Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the particle mass size distribution and chemical properties of air pollution particulate matter (PM) in the urban area and its capacity to induce cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Methods To characterize the mass size distributions and chemical concentrations associated with urban PM, PM samples were collected by a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor close to nearby traffic in an urban area from December 2007 to December 2009. PM samples for in vitro cytotoxicity testing were collected by a mini-volume air sampler with PM10 and PM2.5 inlets. Results The PM size distributions were bi-modal, peaking at 0.18 to 0.32 and 1.8 to 3.2 µm. The mass concentrations of the metals in fine particles (0.1 to 1.8 µm) accounted for 45.6 to 80.4% of the mass concentrations of metals in PM10. The mass proportions of fine particles of the pollutants related to traffic emission, lead (80.4%), cadmium (69.0%), and chromium (63.8%) were higher than those of other metals. Iron was the dominant transition metal in the particles, accounting for 64.3% of the PM10 mass in all the samples. We observed PM concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells. Conclusions We found that exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 from a nearby traffic area induced significant increases in protein expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). The cell death rate and release of cytokines in response to the PM2.5 treatment were higher than those with PM10. The combined results support the hypothesis that ultrafine particles from vehicular sources can induce inflammatory responses related to environmental respiratory injury. PMID:23882447

Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Yong; Jang, Ji-Young; Lee, Gun-Woo; Kim, Soo-Hwan; Shin, Dong-Chun

2013-01-01

177

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. The shakedown phase of the pilot-scale filtration platform was completed at the end of the last reporting period. A study of various molecular weight waxes was initiated to determine the effect of wax physical properties on the permeation rate without catalyst present. As expected, the permeation flux was inversely proportional to the nominal average molecular weight of the polyethylene wax. Even without catalyst particles present in the filtrate, the filtration membranes experience fouling during an induction period on the order of days on-line. Another long-term filtration test was initiated using a batch of iron catalyst that was previously activated with CO to form iron carbide in a separate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The permeation flux stabilized more rapidly than that experienced with unactivated catalyst tests.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

2004-09-30

178

[Adverse effects of ultrafine particles on the cardiovascular system and its mechanisms].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is one of the major threats to human. Air pollution, which , as it become a problem too serious to be ignored in China, is known to be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Among all pollutants, ultrafine particles ( UFPs) , defined as particles with their diameter less than 0. 1 f.Lm, are a specific composition. They are very small in size, large in quantity and surface area, and most important, capable of passing through the air-blood barrier. These unique features of UFPs make them special in their impact on cardiovascular system. Nowadays, the influence of UFPs on the cardiovascular system has become a hot topic. On the one side, studies have shown that UFPs can cause inflammation and oxidative stress in the lung, and then induce systemic inflammation by releasing cytokine and reactive oxygen species into the circulation. On the other side, UFPs themselves can "spillout"into the circulation and interact with their targets. By this way, UFPs directly affect endothelial cells, myocardial cells and the autonomic nervous system, which ultimately result in increased cardiovascular events. We intend to make an overview about the recent progress about the influence of UFPs on human cardiovascular disease and the related mechanisms, and argue for more attention to this issue. PMID:25651605

Yi, Tie-ci; Li, Jian-ping

2014-12-18

179

Growth of ultra-fine cobalt ferrite particles by a sol–gel method and their magnetic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-fine CoFe2O4 particles are fabricated by a sol–gel method and magnetic and structural properties of powders are investigated. Cobalt ferrite powders fired at and above 450 °C have only a single-phase spinel structure and behave ferrimagnetically. Powders annealed at 350 °C have a typical spinel structure and are of the paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic nature, simultaneously. With X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer

Jae-Gwang Lee; Jae Yun Park; Chul Sung Kim

1998-01-01

180

Comparison Between Different Processing Schedules for the Development of Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study was carried out on the development of ultrafine-grained dual-phase (DP) (ferrite-martensite) structures in a low-carbon microalloyed steel processed using two thermomechanical processing routes, (i) intercritical deformation and (ii) warm-deformation and intercritical annealing. The samples were deformed using Gleeble3500® simulator, maintaining a constant total strain ( ? = 1) and strain rate ( = 1/s). Evolution of microstructure and micro-texture was investigated by SEM, TEM, and EBSD. Ultrafine-grained DP structures could be formed by careful selection of deformation temperature, T def (for intercritical deformation) or annealing temperature, T anneal (for warm-deformation and annealing). Overall, the ferrite grain sizes ranged from 1.5 to 4.0 ?m, and the sizes and fractions of the uniformly distributed fine-martensitic islands ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 ?m and 15 to 45 pct, respectively. Dynamic strain-induced austenite-to-ferrite transformation followed by continuous (dynamic) recrystallization of the ferrite dictated the grain refinement during intercritical deformation, while, continuous (static) recrystallization by pronounced recovery dictated the grain refinement during the warm-deformation and the annealing. Regarding intercritical deformation, the samples cooled to T def indicated finer grain size compared with the samples heated to T def, which are explained in terms of the effects of strain partitioning on the ferrite and the heating during deformation. Alpha-fiber components dominated the texture in all the samples, and the fraction of high-angle boundaries (with >15 deg misorientation) increased with the increasing T def or T anneal, depending on the processing schedule. Fine carbide particles, microalloyed precipitates and austenitic islands played important roles in defining the mechanism of grain refinement that involved retarding conventional ferrite recrystallization and ferrite grain growth. With regard to the intercritical deformation, warm-deformation followed by annealing is a simpler process to control in the rolling mill; however, the need for high-power rolling mill and controlled annealing facility imposes industrial challenges.

Karmakar, Anish; Sivaprasad, S.; Nath, S. K.; Misra, R. D. K.; Chakrabarti, Debalay

2014-05-01

181

Inhalation of Ultrafine Particles Alters Blood Leukocyte Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Humans  

PubMed Central

Ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with particulate air pollution. We tested the hypothesis that inhalation of carbon UFPs has vascular effects in healthy and asthmatic subjects, detectable as alterations in blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules. Healthy subjects inhaled filtered air and freshly generated elemental carbon particles (count median diameter ~ 25 nm, geometric standard deviation ~ 1.6), for 2 hr, in three separate protocols: 10 ?g/m3 at rest, 10 and 25 ?g/m3 with exercise, and 50 ?g/m3 with exercise. In a fourth protocol, subjects with asthma inhaled air and 10 ?g/m3 UFPs with exercise. Peripheral venous blood was obtained before and at intervals after exposure, and leukocyte expression of surface markers was quantitated using multiparameter flow cytometry. In healthy subjects, particle exposure with exercise reduced expression of adhesion molecules CD54 and CD18 on monocytes and CD18 and CD49d on granulocytes. There were also concentration-related reductions in blood monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils and increased lymphocyte expression of the activation marker CD25. In subjects with asthma, exposure with exercise to 10 ?g/m3 UFPs reduced expression of CD11b on monocytes and eosinophils and CD54 on granulocytes. Particle exposure also reduced the percentage of CD4+ T cells, basophils, and eosinophils. Inhalation of elemental carbon UFPs alters peripheral blood leukocyte distribution and expression of adhesion molecules, in a pattern consistent with increased retention of leukocytes in the pulmonary vascular bed. PMID:16393658

Frampton, Mark W.; Stewart, Judith C.; Oberdörster, Günter; Morrow, Paul E.; Chalupa, David; Pietropaoli, Anthony P.; Frasier, Lauren M.; Speers, Donna M.; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Utell, Mark J.

2006-01-01

182

Concentrations of fine, ultrafine, and black carbon particles in auto-rickshaws in New Delhi, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of air pollutants from vehicles are elevated along roadways, indicating that human exposure in transportation microenvironments may not be adequately characterized by centrally located monitors. We report results from ˜180 h of real-time measurements of fine particle and black carbon mass concentration (PM 2.5, BC) and ultrafine particle number concentration (PN) inside a common vehicle, the auto-rickshaw, in New Delhi, India. Measured exposure concentrations are much higher in this study (geometric mean for ˜60 trip-averaged concentrations: 190 ?g m -3 PM 2.5, 42 ?g m -3 BC, 280 × 10 3 particles cm -3; GSD ˜1.3 for all three pollutants) than reported for transportation microenvironments in other megacities. In-vehicle concentrations exceeded simultaneously measured ambient levels by 1.5× for PM 2.5, 3.6× for BC, and 8.4× for PN. Short-duration peak concentrations (averaging time: 10 s), attributable to exhaust plumes of nearby vehicles, were greater than 300 ?g m -3 for PM 2.5, 85 ?g m -3 for BC, and 650 × 10 3 particles cm -3 for PN. The incremental increase of within-vehicle concentration above ambient levels—which we attribute to in- and near-roadway emission sources—accounted for 30%, 68% and 86% of time-averaged in-vehicle PM 2.5, BC and PN concentrations, respectively. Based on these results, we estimate that one's exposure during a daily commute by auto-rickshaw in Delhi is as least as large as full-day exposures experienced by urban residents of many high-income countries. This study illuminates an environmental health concern that may be common in many populous, low-income cities.

Apte, Joshua, S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Reich, Alexander, H.; Deshpande, Shyam J.; Kaushik, Geetanjali; Chel, Arvind; Marshall, Julian D.; Nazaroff, William W.

2011-08-01

183

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. In this reporting period, a series of crossflow filtration experiments were initiated to study the effect of olefins and oxygenates on the filtration flux and membrane performance. Iron-based FTS reactor waxes contain a significant amount of oxygenates, depending on the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Mono-olefins and aliphatic alcohols were doped into an activated iron catalyst slurry (with Polywax) to test their influence on filtration properties. The olefins were varied from 5 to 25 wt% and oxygenates from 6 to 17 wt% to simulate a range of reactor slurries reported in the literature. The addition of an alcohol (1-dodecanol) was found to decrease the permeation rate while the olefin added (1-hexadecene) had no effect on the permeation rate. A passive flux maintenance technique was tested that can temporarily increase the permeate rate for 24 hours.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

2005-03-31

184

Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battelle, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley (ASH), Kaiser Engineers (KE), Lewis Corporation, and Professor S. H. Chiang of the University of Pittsburgh, is developing an advanced process for the dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The advanced process, called Electroacoustic Dewatering (EAD), capitalizes on the adaptation of synergistic effects of electric and acoustic fields to commercial coal dewatering systems, such as belt filter presses.

1989-07-01

185

ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN-situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturized by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time. Each system was characterized in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 6 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs. Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on two days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the boundary layer, derived from backscatter signals of a portable Raman lidar POLLYXT, allows a quick overview of the current vertical structure of atmospheric particles. Ground-based aerosol number concentrations are consistent with the results from flights in heights of a few meters. In addition, a direct comparison of ALADINA aerosol data and ground-based aerosol data, sampling the air at the same location, shows comparable values. MASC was operated simultaneously with complementary flight patterns. It is equipped with the same meteorological instruments that offer the possibility to determine turbulent fluxes. Therefore additional information about meteorological conditions was collected in the lowest part of the atmosphere. Vertical profiles up to 1000 m altitude indicate a high variability with distinct layers of aerosol especially for the small particles of a few nanometers in diameter. Particle bursts were observed on one day during the boundary layer development in the morning.

Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Lampert, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Bange, J.; Baars, H.

2014-12-01

186

Production, growth and properties of ultrafine atmospheric aerosol particles in an urban environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Number concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles were measured by a flow-switching type differential mobility particle sizer in an electrical mobility diameter range of 6-1000 nm in 30 channels near central Budapest with a time resolution of 10 min continuously from 3 November 2008 to 2 November 2009. Daily median number concentrations of particles varied from 3.8 × 103 to 29 ×103 cm-3 with a yearly median of 11.8 × 103 cm-3. Contribution of ultrafine particles to the total particle number ranged from 58 to 92% with a mean ratio and standard deviation of (79 ± 6)%. Typical diurnal variation of the particle number concentration was related to the major emission patterns in cities, new particle formation, sinks of particles and meteorology. Shapes of the monthly mean number size distributions were similar to each other. Overall mean for the number median mobility diameter of the Aitken and accumulation modes were 26 and 93 nm, respectively, which are substantially smaller than for rural or background environments. The Aitken and accumulation modes contributed similarly to the total particle number concentrations at the actual measurement location. New particle formation and growth unambiguously occurred on 83 days, which represent 27% of all relevant days. Hence, new particle formation and growth are not rare phenomena in Budapest. Their frequency showed an apparent seasonal variation with a minimum of 7.3% in winter and a maximum of 44% in spring. New particle formation events were linked to increased gas-phase H2SO4 concentrations. In the studied area, new particle formation is mainly affected by condensation sink and solar radiation. The formation process seems to be not sensitive to SO2, which was present in a yearly median concentration of 6.7 ?g m-3. This suggests that the precursor gas was always available in excess. Formation rate of particles with a diameter of 6 nm varied between 1.65 and 12.5 cm-3 s-1 with a mean and standard deviation of (4.2 ± 2.5) cm-3 s-1. Seasonal dependency for the formation rate could not be identified. Growth curves of nucleated particles were usually superimposed on the characteristic diurnal pattern of road traffic direct emissions. The growth rate of the nucleation mode with a median diameter of 6 nm varied from 2.0 to 13.3 nm h-1 with a mean and standard deviation of (7.7 ± 2.4) nm h-1. There was an indicative tendency for larger growth rates in summer and for smaller values in winter. New particle formation events increased the total number concentration by a mean factor and standard deviation of 2.3 ± 1.1 relative to the concentration that occurred immediately before the event. Several indirect evidences suggest that the new particle formation events occurred at least over the whole city, and were of regional type. The results and conclusions presented are the first information of this kind for the region over one-year long time period.

Salma, I.; Borsós, T.; Weidinger, T.; Aalto, P.; Hussein, T.; Dal Maso, M.; Kulmala, M.

2011-02-01

187

Modeling ultrafine particle growth at a pine forest site influenced by anthropogenic pollution during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation and growth of ultrafine particles is crudely represented in chemistry-climate models, contributing to uncertainties in aerosol composition, size distribution, and aerosol effects on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Measurements of ultrafine particles, their precursor gases, and meteorological parameters were performed in a ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2011, and were analyzed to study processes leading to small particle burst events (PBEs) which were characterized by an increase in the number concentrations of ultrafine 4-30 nm diameter size particles. These measurements suggest that PBEs were associated with the arrival at the site of anthropogenic pollution plumes midday to early afternoon. During PBEs, number concentrations of 4-30 nm diameter particles typically exceeded 104 cm-3, and these elevated concentrations coincided with increased SO2 and monoterpene concentrations, and led to a factor-of-2 increase in CCN concentrations at 0.5% supersaturation. The PBEs were simulated using the regional WRF-Chem model, which was extended to account for ultrafine particle sizes starting at 1 nm in diameter, to include an empirical activation nucleation scheme in the planetary boundary layer, and to explicitly simulate the subsequent growth of Aitken particles (10-100 nm) by condensation of organic and inorganic vapors. The updated model reasonably captured measured aerosol number concentrations and size distribution during PBEs, as well as ground-level CCN concentrations. Model results suggest that sulfuric acid originating from anthropogenic SO2 triggered PBEs, and that the condensation of monoterpene oxidation products onto freshly nucleated particles contributes to their growth. The simulated growth rate of ~ 3.4 nm h-1 for 4-40 nm diameter particles was comparable to the measured average value of 2.3 nm h-1. Results also suggest that the presence of PBEs tends to modify the composition of sub-20 nm diameter particles, leading to a higher mass fraction of sulfate aerosols. Sensitivity simulations suggest that the representation of nucleation processes in the model largely influences the predicted number concentrations and thus CCN concentrations. We estimate that nucleation contributes 67% of surface CCN at 0.5% supersaturation in this pine forest environment.

Cui, Y. Y.; Hodzic, A.; Smith, J. N.; Ortega, J.; Brioude, J.; Matsui, H.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; Winkler, P.; de Foy, B.

2014-10-01

188

Exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and noise during cycling and driving in 11 Dutch cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have suggested that exposures during traffic participation may be associated with adverse health effects. Traffic participation involves relatively short but high exposures. Potentially relevant exposures include ultrafine particles, fine particles (PM 2.5) and noise. Simultaneously, detailed real time exposure of particle number concentration (PNC), PM 2.5 and noise has been measured while driving and cycling 12 predefined routes of approximately 10-20 min duration. Sampling took place in eleven medium-sized Dutch cities on eleven weekdays in August till October 2006. To investigate variability in cyclists exposure, we systematically collected information on meteorology, GPS coordinates, type of road, traffic intensity, passing vehicles and mopeds while cycling. The overall mean PNC of car drivers was 5% higher than the mean PNC of cyclists. The overall mean concentration of PM 2.5 in the car was 11% higher than during cycling. Slightly higher 1-min peak concentrations were measured in the car (PNC 14%; PM 2.5 29% for 95-percentiles). Shorter duration peaks of PNC were higher during cycling (43% for 99-percentile of 1-s averages). Peaks in PNC typically last for less than 10 s. A large variability of exposure was found within and between routes. Factors that significantly predicted PNC variability during cycling were: passing vehicles (mopeds, cars), waiting for traffic lights, passing different types of (large) intersections and bicycle lanes and bike paths close to motorized traffic. No relation was found between PM 2.5 and those predictor variables. The correlation between PNC and noise was moderate (median 0.34). PM 2.5 had very low correlations with PNC and noise. PNC and PM 2.5 exposure of car drivers was slightly higher than that of cyclists. PNC was largely uncorrelated with PM 2.5 and reflected local traffic variables more than PM 2.5. Different factors were associated with high PNC and high noise exposures.

Boogaard, Hanna; Borgman, Frank; Kamminga, Jaap; Hoek, Gerard

189

Ultrafine particle exposures while walking, cycling, and driving along an urban residential roadway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1 ?m), which have been linked to adverse health effects, are commonly found along roadways. This study reports UFP and PM2.5 concentrations and respiratory exposures among four transportation modes on an urban residential street in Santa Monica, California while walking, cycling, and driving with windows open and windows closed (with air recirculation on). Repeated measurements were made for nine days during morning (7:30-9:30), afternoon (12:30-14:30), and evening (17:00-19:00) periods. Median UFP concentrations ranged 1-3 × 104 particles cm-3, were 70% lower in afternoon or evening periods compared to the morning, and were 60% lower when driving with windows closed than open. Median PM2.5 ranged 2-15 ?g m-3, well below the annual National Ambient Air Quality standard of 15 ?g m-3. Respiratory UFP exposure (particles inhaled trip-1) was ˜2 times higher while driving with windows open, ˜15 times higher when cycling, and ˜30 times higher walking, than driving with windows closed. During one evening session with perpendicular rather than parallel wind conditions, absolute UFP concentration was 80% higher, suggesting influence of off-roadway sources. Under parallel wind conditions, a parameter called emissions-weighted traffic volume, used to account for higher and lower emitting vehicles, was correlated with beach-site-subtracted UFP using second-order polynomial model (R2 = 0.61). Based on this model, an 83% on-roadway UFP reduction could be achieved by (1) requiring all trucks to meet California 2007 model-year engine standards, (2) reducing light-duty vehicle flows by 25%, and (3) replacing high-emitting light-duty vehicles (pre 1978) with newer 2010 fleet-average vehicles.

Quiros, David C.; Lee, Eon S.; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Yifang

2013-07-01

190

Exposure to Ultrafine Particles from Ambient Air and Oxidative Stress–Induced DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate matter, especially ultrafine particles (UFPs), may cause health effects through generation of oxidative stress, with resulting damage to DNA and other macromolecules. Objective We investigated oxidative damage to DNA and related repair capacity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during controlled exposure to urban air particles with assignment of number concentration (NC) to four size modes with average diameters of 12, 23, 57, and 212 nm. Design Twenty-nine healthy adults participated in a randomized, two-factor cross-over study with or without biking exercise for 180 min and with exposure to particles (NC 6169-15362/cm3) or filtered air (NC 91-542/cm3) for 24 hr. Methods The levels of DNA strand breaks (SBs), oxidized purines as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycolase (FPG) sites, and activity of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in PBMCs were measured by the Comet assay. mRNA levels of OGG1, nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 1 (NUDT1), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results Exposure to UFPs for 6 and 24 hr significantly increased the levels of SBs and FPG sites, with a further insignificant increase after physical exercise. The OGG1 activity and expression of OGG1, NUDT1, and HO1 were unaltered. There was a significant dose–response relationship between NC and DNA damage, with the 57-nm mode as the major contributor to effects. Concomitant exposure to ozone, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide had no influence. Conclusion Our results indicate that UFPs, especially the 57-nm soot fraction from vehicle emissions, causes systemic oxidative stress with damage to DNA and no apparent compensatory up-regulation of DNA repair within 24 hr. PMID:17687444

Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; Møller, Peter; Simonsen, Jacob; Glasius, Marianne; Wåhlin, Peter; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

2007-01-01

191

Effect of cabin ventilation rate on ultrafine particle exposure inside automobiles.  

PubMed

We alternately measured on-road and in-vehicle ultrafine (<100 nm) particle (UFP) concentration for 5 passenger vehicles that comprised an age range of 18 years. A range of cabin ventilation settings were assessed during 301 trips through a 4 km road tunnel in Sydney, Australia. Outdoor air flow (ventilation) rates under these settings were quantified on open roads using tracer gas techniques. Significant variability in tunnel trip average median in-cabin/on-road (I/O) UFP ratios was observed (0.08 to approximately 1.0). Based on data spanning all test automobiles and ventilation settings, a positive linear relationship was found between outdoor air flow rate and I/O ratio, with the former accounting for a substantial proportion of variation in the latter (R(2) = 0.81). UFP concentrations recorded in-cabin during tunnel travel were significantly higher than those reported by comparable studies performed on open roadways. A simple mathematical model afforded the ability to predict tunnel trip average in-cabin UFP concentrations with good accuracy. Our data indicate that under certain conditions, in-cabin UFP exposures incurred during tunnel travel may contribute significantly to daily exposure. The UFP exposure of automobile occupants appears strongly related to their choice of ventilation setting and vehicle. PMID:20369882

Knibbs, Luke D; de Dear, Richard J; Morawska, Lidia

2010-05-01

192

An hourly regression model for ultrafine particles in a near-highway urban area  

PubMed Central

Estimating ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) near highways for exposure assessment in chronic health studies requires models capable of capturing PNC spatial and temporal variations over the course of a full year. The objectives of this work were to describe the relationship between near-highway PNC and potential predictors, and to build and validate hourly log-linear regression models. PNC was measured near Interstate 93 (I-93) in Somerville, MA (USA) using a mobile monitoring platform driven for 234 hours on 43 days between August 2009 and September 2010. Compared to urban background, PNC levels were consistently elevated within 100–200 m of I-93, with gradients impacted by meteorological and traffic conditions. Temporal and spatial variables including wind speed and direction, temperature, highway traffic, and distance to I-93 and major roads contributed significantly to the full regression model. Cross-validated model R2 values ranged from 0.38–0.47, with higher values achieved (0.43–0.53) when short-duration PNC spikes were removed. The model predicts highest PNC near major roads and on cold days with low wind speeds. The model allows estimation of hourly ambient PNC at 20-m resolution in a near-highway neighborhood. PMID:24559198

Patton, Allison P.; Collins, Caitlin; Naumova, Elena N.; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

2015-01-01

193

Morphology of Nano and Micro Fiber Structures in Ultrafine Particles Filtration  

SciTech Connect

Selected procedures permitting to prepare homogeneous nanofibre structures of the desired morphology by employing a suitable combination of variables during the electrospinning process are presented. A comparison (at the same pressure drop) was made of filtration capabilities of planar polyurethane nanostructures formed exclusively by nanofibres, space polycarbonate nanostructures having bead spacers, structures formed by a combination of polymethyl methacrylate micro- and nanofibres and polypropylene meltblown microstructures, through which ultrafine particles of ammonium sulphate 20-400 nm in size were filtered. The structures studied were described using a new digital image analysis technique based on black and white images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. More voluminous structures modified with distance microspheres and having a greater thickness and mass per square area of the material, i.e. structures possessing better mechanical properties, demanded so much in nanostructures, enable preparation of filters having approximately the same free volume fraction as flat nanofibre filters but an increased effective fibre surface area, changed pore size morphology and, consequently, a higher filter quality.

Kimmer, Dusan; Vincent, Ivo; Fenyk, Jan; Petras, David [SPUR a.s., T. Bati 299, 764 22 Zlin (Czech Republic); Zatloukal, Martin; Sambaer, Wannes [Centre of Polymer Systems, Polymer Centre, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nam. T. G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Zdimal, Vladimir [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the AS CR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

2011-07-15

194

Ambient ultrafine particles reduce endothelial nitric oxide production via S-glutathionylation of eNOS  

PubMed Central

Exposure to airborne particulate pollutants is intimately linked to vascular oxidative stress and inflammatory responses with clinical relevance to atherosclerosis. Particulate matter (PM) has been reported to induce endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we tested whether ambient ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 200 nm) modulate eNOS activity in terms of nitric oxide (NO) production via protein S-glutathionylation. Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) with UFP significantly reduced NO production. UFP-mediated reduction in NO production was restored in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125), NADPH oxidase inhibitor (Apocynin), anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine), and superoxide dismutase mimetics (Tempol and MnTMPyP). UFP exposure increased the GSSG/GSH ratio and eNOS S-glutathionylation, whereas over-expression of Glutaredoxin-1 (to inhibit S-glutathionylation) restored UFP-mediated reduction in NO production by nearly 80%. Thus, our findings suggest that eNOS S-glutathionylation is a potential mechanism underlying ambient UFP-induced reduction of NO production. PMID:23751346

Du, Yunfeng; Navab, Mohamad; Shen, Melody; Hill, James; Pakbin, Payam; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung; Li, Rongsong

2013-01-01

195

Morphology of Nano and Micro Fiber Structures in Ultrafine Particles Filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected procedures permitting to prepare homogeneous nanofibre structures of the desired morphology by employing a suitable combination of variables during the electrospinning process are presented. A comparison (at the same pressure drop) was made of filtration capabilities of planar polyurethane nanostructures formed exclusively by nanofibres, space polycarbonate nanostructures having bead spacers, structures formed by a combination of polymethyl methacrylate micro- and nanofibres and polypropylene meltblown microstructures, through which ultrafine particles of ammonium sulphate 20-400 nm in size were filtered. The structures studied were described using a new digital image analysis technique based on black and white images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. More voluminous structures modified with distance microspheres and having a greater thickness and mass per square area of the material, i.e. structures possessing better mechanical properties, demanded so much in nanostructures, enable preparation of filters having approximately the same free volume fraction as flat nanofibre filters but an increased effective fibre surface area, changed pore size morphology and, consequently, a higher filter quality.

Kimmer, Dusan; Vincent, Ivo; Fenyk, Jan; Petras, David; Zatloukal, Martin; Sambaer, Wannes; Zdimal, Vladimir

2011-07-01

196

Ultrafine particle content in exhaled breath condensate in airways of asthmatic children.  

PubMed

Air pollution triggers and exacerbates airway inflammation. Particulate material (PM) in ambient is characterized as being coarse (PM 10, aerodynamic diameter range 2.5-10?µm), fine (PM 2.5, 2.5-0.1?µm) and ultrafine (UFP, nano-sized, <0.1?µm). It is known that smaller inhaled PM produced more inflammation than larger ones. Most data on human exposure to PM are based on environmental monitoring. We evaluated the effect of individual exposure to UFP on functional respiratory parameters and airway inflammation in 52 children aged 6-18?years referred to the Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases Laboratory due to respiratory symptoms. Spirometry, bronchial provocation challenge, induced sputum (IS), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and franctional exhaled nitric oxide evaluations were performed by conventional methods. UFP content in EBC was analyzed by using a NanoSight Light Microscope LM20. The total EBC UFP content correlated with wheezing (r = 0.28, p = 0.04), breath symptom score (r = 0.3, p = 0.03), and sputum eosinophilia (R = 0.64, p = 0.005). The percent of EBC particles in the nano-sized range also correlated with wheezing (r = 0.36, p = 0.007), breath symptom score (r = 0.33, p ? 0.02), and sputum eosinophilia (r = 0.72, p = 0.001). Respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation positively correlated to UFP content in EBC of symptomatic children. PMID:25830607

Benor, Shira; Alcalay, Yfat; Domany, Keren Armoni; Gut, Guy; Soferman, Ruth; Kivity, Shmuel; Fireman, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

197

Partitioning of Black Carbon between ultrafine and fine particle modes in an urban airport vs. urban background environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we characterize the Black Carbon (BC) aerosol in an urban airport vs. urban background environment with the objective to evaluate when and how the ultrafine BC dominates the bulk aerosol. Aerosol optical and microphysical properties were measured in a Mediterranean urban area (Rome) at sites impacted by BC sources including fossil fuels (FF), and biomass burning (BB). Experimental BC data were interpreted through measurement-constrained simulations of BC microphysics and optical properties. A 'scheme' to separate the ultrafine BC was experimented on the basis of the relation found between changes in the BC partitioning between Aitken and accumulation mode particles, and relevant changes in particle size distribution and optical properties of the bulk aerosol. This separation scheme, applied to experimental data, proved useful to reveal the impact of airport and road traffic emissions. Findings may have important atmospheric implications. The experimented scheme can help separating different BC sources (FF, BB, 'aged' BC) when BC size distributions may be very difficult to obtain (satellite, columnar observations, routine monitoring). Indeed, separating the ultrafine BC from the fine BC may provide significant benefits in addressing BC impact on air quality and climate.

Costabile, F.; Angelini, F.; Barnaba, F.; Gobbi, G. P.

2015-02-01

198

Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, Part I: Ultrafine particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicular emitted air pollutant concentrations were studied near three types of roadways in Austin, Texas: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway dominated by truck traffic. Air pollutants examined include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO x), and carbonyl species in the gas-phase. In the particle phase, ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations (diameter < 100 nm), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5, diameter < 2.5 ?m) mass and carbon content and several particle-bound organics were examined. All roadways had an upwind stationary sampling location, one or two fixed downwind sample locations and a mobile monitoring platform that characterized pollutant concentrations fall-off with increased distance from the roadways. Data reported in this paper focus on UFP while other pollutants and near-roadway chemical processes are examined in a companion paper. Traffic volume, especially heavy-duty traffic, wind speed, and proximity to the road were found to be the most important factors determining UFP concentrations near the roadways. Since wind directions were not consistent during the sampling periods, distances along wind trajectories from the roadway to the sampling points were used to study the decay characteristics of UFPs. Under perpendicular wind conditions, for all studied roadway types, particle number concentrations increased dramatically moving from the upwind side to the downwind side. The elevated particle number concentrations decay exponentially with increasing distances from the roadway with sharp concentration gradients observed within 100-150 m, similar to previously reported studies. A single exponential decay curve was found to fit the data collected from all three roadways very well under perpendicular wind conditions. No consistent pattern was observed for UFPs under parallel wind conditions. However, regardless of wind conditions, particle concentrations returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Within measured UFP size ranges, smaller particles (6-25 nm) decayed faster than larger ones (100-300 nm). Similar decay rates were observed among UFP number, surface, and volume.

Zhu, Yifang; Pudota, Jayanth; Collins, Donald; Allen, David; Clements, Andrea; DenBleyker, Allison; Fraser, Matt; Jia, Yuling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Michel, Edward

199

Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees - Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH). Method 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. Results Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01). Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 25–55×103 UFP/cm3) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 2–11×103 UFP/cm3). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20×103 UFP/cm3). Conclusion The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees. PMID:25203510

Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper; Loft, Steffen; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte

2014-01-01

200

Effect of particle-fiber friction coefficient on ultrafine aerosol particles clogging in nanofiber based filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic SEM image based 3D filter model considering transition/free molecular flow regime, Brownian diffusion, aerodynamic slip, particle-fiber and particle-particle interactions together with a novel Euclidian distance map based methodology for the pressure drop calculation has been utilized for a polyurethane nanofiber based filter prepared via electrospinning process in order to more deeply understand the effect of particle-fiber friction coefficient on filter clogging and basic filter characteristics. Based on the performed theoretical analysis, it has been revealed that the increase in the fiber-particle friction coefficient causes, firstly, more weaker particle penetration in the filter, creation of dense top layers and generation of higher pressure drop (surface filtration) in comparison with lower particle-fiber friction coefficient filter for which deeper particle penetration takes place (depth filtration), secondly, higher filtration efficiency, thirdly, higher quality factor and finally, higher quality factor sensitivity to the increased collected particle mass. Moreover, it has been revealed that even if the particle-fiber friction coefficient is different, the cake morphology is very similar.

Sambaer, Wannes; Zatloukal, Martin; Kimmer, Dusan

2013-04-01

201

Effect of Inhaled Carbon Ultrafine Particles on Reactive Hyperemia in Healthy Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Ultrafine particles (UFP) may contribute to the cardiovascular effects of exposure to particulate air pollution, partly because of their relatively efficient alveolar deposition and potential to enter the pulmonary vascular space. Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that inhalation of elemental carbon UFP alters systemic vascular function. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (mean age, 26.9 ± 6.5 years) inhaled air or 50 ?g/m3 elemental carbon UFP by mouthpiece for 2 hr, while exercising intermittently. Measurements at preexposure baseline, 0 hr (immediately after exposure), 3.5 hr, 21 hr, and 45 hr included vital signs, venous occlusion plethysmography and reactive hyperemia of the forearm, and venous plasma nitrate and nitrite levels. Results Peak forearm blood flow after ischemia increased 3.5 hr after exposure to air but not UFP (change from preexposure baseline, air: 9.31 ± 3.41; UFP: 1.09 ± 2.55 mL/min/100 mL; t-test, p = 0.03). Blood pressure did not change, so minimal resistance after ischemia (mean blood pressure divided by forearm blood flow) decreased with air, but not UFP [change from preexposure baseline, air: ?0.48 ± 0.21; UFP: 0.07 ± 0.19 mmHg/mL/min; analysis of variance (ANOVA), p = 0.024]. There was no UFP effect on pre-ischemia forearm blood flow or resistance, or on total forearm blood flow after ischemia. Venous nitrate levels were significantly lower after exposure to carbon UFP compared with air (ANOVA, p = 0.038). There were no differences in venous nitrite levels. Conclusions Inhalation of 50 ?g/m3 carbon UFP during intermittent exercise impairs peak forearm blood flow during reactive hyperemia in healthy human subjects. PMID:18335106

Shah, Alpa P.; Pietropaoli, Anthony P.; Frasier, Lauren M.; Speers, Donna M.; Chalupa, David C.; Delehanty, Joseph M.; Huang, Li-Shan; Utell, Mark J.; Frampton, Mark W.

2008-01-01

202

Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (˜6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated with readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles.

Fruin, S.; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T.; Sioutas, C.; Fine, P. M.

203

Translocation of Inhaled Ultrafine Manganese Oxide Particles to the Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in monkeys with intranasally instilled gold ultrafine particles (UFPs; < 100 nm) and in rats with inhaled carbon UFPs suggested that solid UFPs deposited in the nose travel along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. Methods To determine if olfactory translocation occurs for other solid metal UFPs and assess potential health effects, we exposed groups of rats to manganese (Mn) oxide UFPs (30 nm; ~ 500 ?g/m3) with either both nostrils patent or the right nostril occluded. We analyzed Mn in lung, liver, olfactory bulb, and other brain regions, and we performed gene and protein analyses. Results After 12 days of exposure with both nostrils patent, Mn concentrations in the olfactory bulb increased 3.5-fold, whereas lung Mn concentrations doubled; there were also increases in striatum, frontal cortex, and cerebellum. Lung lavage analysis showed no indications of lung inflammation, whereas increases in olfactory bulb tumor necrosis factor-? mRNA (~ 8-fold) and protein (~ 30-fold) were found after 11 days of exposure and, to a lesser degree, in other brain regions with increased Mn levels. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule mRNA were also increased in olfactory bulb. With the right nostril occluded for a 2-day exposure, Mn accumulated only in the left olfactory bulb. Solubilization of the Mn oxide UFPs was < 1.5% per day. Conclusions We conclude that the olfactory neuronal pathway is efficient for translocating inhaled Mn oxide as solid UFPs to the central nervous system and that this can result in inflammatory changes. We suggest that despite differences between human and rodent olfactory systems, this pathway is relevant in humans. PMID:16882521

Elder, Alison; Gelein, Robert; Silva, Vanessa; Feikert, Tessa; Opanashuk, Lisa; Carter, Janet; Potter, Russell; Maynard, Andrew; Ito, Yasuo; Finkelstein, Jacob; Oberdörster, Günter

2006-01-01

204

Effects of ultrafine diesel exhaust particles on oxidative stress generation and dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells.  

PubMed

A major constituent of urban air pollution is diesel exhaust, a complex mixture of gases, chemicals, and particles. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of a fatal stroke, cause cerebrovascular damage, and induce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that may trigger neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The specific aim of this study was to determine whether ultrafine diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the particle component of exhaust from diesel engines, can induce oxidative stress and effect dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells. After 24 h exposure to DEPs of 200 nm or smaller, cell viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO(2)) generation, and levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)), were evaluated. Results indicated cell viability was not significantly changed by DEP exposure. However, ROS showed dramatic dose-dependent changes after DEP exposure (2.4 fold increase compared to control at 200 ?g/mL). NO(2) levels were also dose-dependently increased after DEP exposure. Although not in a dose-dependent manner, upon DEP exposure, intracellular DA levels were increased while DOPAC and HVA levels decreased when compared to control. Results suggest that ultrafine DEPs lead to dopamine accumulation in the cytoplasm of PC-12 cells, possibly contributing to ROS formation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate this mechanism. PMID:24705343

Kim, Yong-Dae; Lantz-McPeak, Susan M; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Choi, Young-Sook; Kim, Heon

2014-05-01

205

TRANSLOCATION AND POTENTIAL NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICLES: A CRITICAL UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This proceedings book is a collection of seminars presented in a symposium organized by by Munich's GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. Research presented at this symposium indicated inhaled ultrafine particulate matter quickly exits the lungs and target...

206

On-road and laboratory investigations on non-exhaust ultrafine particles from the interaction between the tire and road pavement under braking conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the physical and chemical characteristics of non-exhaust ultrafine particles from on-road driving and laboratory measurements using a mobile sampling vehicle. The on-road driving and laboratory measurements during constant speed conditions revealed no enhancement of ultrafine particles. Under braking events, the total number concentrations of tire particles (TPs) sampled 90 mm above the road surface was 6 times higher with broader mode diameters when compared to 40 mm above the road surface. In contrast to braking events, under cornering conditions, the total number concentrations of TPs sampled 40 mm above the road surface were 50 times higher relative to 90 mm above the road surface. From the morphological and elemental analyses, it is likely that the ultrafine particles generated from the interaction between the tire and the road surface under braking conditions might originated from sulfur-containing materials or anti-oxidants which are contained in TPs, and/or graphite and solid lubricants which are mainly present in brake particles (BPs). However, Zn which was a distinguishing elemental marker of tire wear particles didn't show in EDS spectra. Further research would be required as to the exact emission source of ultrafine particles.

Kwak, Jihyun; Lee, Sunyoup; Lee, Seokhwan

2014-11-01

207

Physicochemical properties and ability to generate free radicals of ambient coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles in the atmosphere of Xuanwei, China, an area of high lung cancer incidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The link between the high incidence of lung cancer and harmful pollutants emitted by local coal combustion in Xuanwei, Yunnan province, China, has been a focus of study since the 1980s. However, the mechanisms responsible for the high lung cancer rate remain unclear, necessitating further study. Since a close relationship between ambient air particle pollution and respiratory diseases exists, we sampled size-resolved ambient particles from the atmosphere of Xuanwei. In our indoor experiment, cutting-edge methods, including scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray detection (SEM/EDX), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and the cell-free DCFH-DA assay, were employed to investigate the physicochemical properties, the potential to generate free radicals and the oxidative potential of ambient coarse (diameter, 1.8-10 ?m), fine (diameter, 0.1-1.8 ?m), and ultrafine (diameter, <0.1 ?m) particles. We found the total mass concentrations of the size-resolved particles collected in spring were higher than that in early winter. Mass percentage of fine particles accounted for 68% and 61% of the total particulate mass in spring and in early winter samples, respectively, indicating that fine particles were the major component of the Xuanwei ambient particulate matters. On the other hand, the results of SEM/EDX analysis showed that the coarse particles were dominated by minerals, the fine particles by soot aggregates and fly ashes, and the ultrafine particles by soot particles and unidentified particles. Our PIXE results revealed that crustal elements (Ca, Ti Si, Fe) were mainly distributed in coarse particles, while trace metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) dominated in the fine particle fraction, and S, a typical element emitted by coal combustion, mainly resided in fine particles collected from the winter atmosphere. EPR results indicated that the magnitude of free radical intensity caused by size-resolved particles followed these patterns: fine particles > coarse particles > ultrafine particles for spring samples and ultrafine particles > fine particles > coarse particles for winter samples. Cell-free DCFH assay results conclusively showed that all of the measured particle suspensions displayed a higher oxidative potential than the negative control. The correlation coefficient (R2) between free radical intensity and fluorescent intensity generated by the size-resolved particles was 0.535 and 0.507 for the spring and winter seasons, respectively, implying that ambient air particles in the Xuanwei atmosphere have the ability to generate free radicals, and fine and ultrafine particles could be hazardous to local residents.

Lu, Senlin; Yi, Fei; Hao, Xiaojie; Yu, Shang; Ren, Jingjing; Wu, Minghong; Jialiang, Feng; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

2014-11-01

208

Combination Effects of Cigarette Smoke Extract and Ambient Ultrafine Particles on Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that ambient ultrafine particles with diameters less than 100 nm (UFPs) can pass from the lungs to the circulation because of their very small diameter, and induce lung oxidative stress with a resultant dysfunction of lung endothelial cells. However, no studies have addressed the potential combined effects of UFPs and cigarette smoke on vascular endothelial cells. We hypothesized that co-exposure to UFPs and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) may cause combined effects on activation of endothelial cells and dysfunction of endothelium by oxidative stress through activation of NADPH oxidase. We determined the effects of UFPs with or without CSE on mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVEC) obtained from C57BL/6J (wild-type) and gp91phox knock-out mice (gp91phox is one of the key components of NADPH oxidase, one of ROS generators). Our results showed that exposure of MPMVEC from wild-type mice to UFPs or CSE, at a non-toxic dose, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased phosphorylation of p38 and Erk1/2, and up-regulated early growth response -1 (Egr-1) and IL-6 genes. These effects were significantly enhanced when cells were co-exposed to both UFPs and CSE. However, exposure of MPMVEC from gp91phox knock-out mice did not induce the above effects. Furthermore, UFPs- and/or CSE-induced Egr-1 mRNA upregulation was attenuated significantly when cells were pre-treated with p38 specific inhibitor, SB 203580, or MEK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, and Egr-1 siRNA treatment abolished UFPs- and/or CSE- induced overexpression of IL-6. Our results suggest that UFPs and/or CSE caused activation of NADPH oxidase, resulting in ROS generation that led to activation of MAPKs through induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs and upregulation of Egr-1. Those effects may further result in endothelial dysfunction through production of cytokines such as IL-6. Our results suggest that co-exposure to UFPs and CSE causes enhanced injury to endothelial cells. PMID:22178768

Mo, Yiqun; Wan, Rong; Feng, Lingfang; Chien, Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang, Qunwei

2011-01-01

209

Characterizing ultrafine particles and other air pollutants in and around school buses.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP*, diameter < 100 nm). Children are particularly at risk because of their immature respiratory systems and higher breathing rates per body mass. This study aimed to characterize UFP, PM2.5 (particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and other vehicular-emitted pollutants in and around school buses. Four sub-studies were conducted, including: 1. On-road tests to measure in-cabin air pollutant levels while school buses were being driven; 2. Idling tests to determine the contributions of tailpipe emissions from idling school buses to air pollutant levels in and around school buses under different scenarios; 3. Retrofit tests to evaluate the performance of two retrofit systems, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a crankcase filtration system (CFS), on reducing tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant concentrations under idling and driving conditions; and 4. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air purifier tests to evaluate the effectiveness of in-cabin filtration. In total, 24 school buses were employed to cover a wide range of school buses commonly used in the United States. Real-time air quality measurements included particle number concentration (PNC), fine and UFP size distribution in the size range 7.6-289 nm, PM2.5 mass concentration, black carbon (BC) concentration, and carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. For in-cabin measurements, instruments were placed on a platform secured to the rear seats inside the school buses. For all other tests, a second set of instruments was deployed to simultaneously measure the ambient air pollutant levels. For tailpipe emission measurements, the exhaust was diluted and then measured by instruments identical to those used for the in-cabin measurements. The results show that when driving on roads, in-cabin PNC, fine and UFP size distribution, PM2.5, BC, and CO varied by engine age, window position, driving speed, driving route, and operating conditions. Emissions from idling school buses increased the PNC close to the tailpipe by a factor of up to 26.0. Under some circumstances, tailpipe emissions of idling school buses increased the in-cabin PNC by factors ranging from 1.2 to 5.8 in the 10-30 nm particle size range. Retrofit systems significantly reduced the tailpipe emissions of idling school buses. With both DOC and CFS installed, PNC in tailpipe emissions dropped by 20%-94%. No unequivocal decrease was observed for in-cabin air pollutants after retrofitting. The operation of the air conditioning (AC) unit and the pollutant concentrations in the surrounding ambient air played more important roles than retrofit technologies in determining in-cabin air quality. The use of a HEPA air purifier removed up to 50% of in-cabin particles. Because each sub-study tested only a subset of the 24 school buses, the results should be seen as more exploratory than definitive. PMID:24834688

Zhu, Yifang; Zhang, Qunfang

2014-03-01

210

Single particle characterization of ultrafine and accumulation mode particles from heavy duty diesel vehicles using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The aerodynamic size and chemical composition of individual ultrafine and accumulation mode particle emissions (Da = 50-300 nm) were characterized to determine mass spectral signatures for heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) emissions that can be used for atmospheric source apportionment. As part of this study, six in-use HDDVs were operated on a chassis dynamometer using the heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) five-cycle driving schedule under different simulated weight loads. The exhaust emissions were passed through a dilution/residence system to simulate atmospheric dilution conditions, after which an ultrafine aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UF-ATOFMS) was used to sample and characterize the HDDV exhaust particles in real-time. This represents the first study where refractory species including elemental carbon and metals are characterized directly in HDDV emissions using on-line mass spectrometry. The top three particle classes observed with the UF-ATOFMS comprise 91% of the total particles sampled and show signatures indicative of a combination of elemental carbon (EC) and engine lubricating oil. In addition to the vehicle make/year, the effects of driving cycle and simulated weight load on exhaust particle size and composition were investigated. PMID:16830561

Toner, Stephen M; Sodeman, David A; Prather, Kimberly A

2006-06-15

211

Response of spontaneously hypertensive rats to inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles from traffic: experimental controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Many epidemiological studies have shown that mass concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) are associated with adverse health effects in the human population. Since PM is still a very crude measure, this experimental study has explored the role of two distinct size fractions: ultrafine (<0.15 ?m) and fine (0.15- 2.5 ?m) PM. In a series of 2-day inhalation studies, spontaneously hypersensitive (SH) rats were exposed to fine, concentrated, ambient PM (fCAP) at a city background location or a combination of ultrafine and fine (u+fCAP) PM at a location dominated by traffic. We examined the effect on inflammation and both pathological and haematological indicators as markers of pulmonary and cardiovascular injury. Exposure concentrations ranged from 399 ?g/m3 to 3613 ?g/m3 for fCAP and from 269?g/m3 to 556 ?g/m3 for u+fCAP. Results Ammonium, nitrate, and sulphate ions accounted for 56 ± 16% of the total fCAP mass concentrations, but only 17 ± 6% of the u+fCAP mass concentrations. Unambiguous particle uptake in alveolar macrophages was only seen after u+fCAP exposures. Neither fCAP nor u+fCAP induced significant changes of cytotoxicity or inflammation in the lung. However, markers of oxidative stress (heme oxygenase-1 and malondialdehyde) were affected by both fCAP and u+fCAP exposure, although not always significantly. Additional analysis revealed heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels that followed a nonmonotonic function with an optimum at around 600 ?g/m3 for fCAP. As a systemic response, exposure to u+fCAP and fCAP resulted in significant decreases of the white blood cell concentrations. Conclusion Minor pulmonary and systemic effects are observed after both fine and ultrafine + fine PM exposure. These effects do not linearly correlate with the CAP mass. A greater component of traffic CAP and/or a larger proportion ultrafine PM does not strengthen the absolute effects. PMID:16700918

Kooter, Ingeborg M; Boere, A John F; Fokkens, Paul HB; Leseman, Daan LAC; Dormans, Jan AMA; Cassee, Flemming R

2006-01-01

212

Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles alters heart rate and heart rate variability in people with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes may confer an increased risk for the cardiovascular health effects of particulate air pollution, but few human clinical studies of air pollution have included people with diabetes. Ultrafine particles (UFP, ?100 nm in diameter) have been hypothesized to be an important component of particulate air pollution with regard to cardiovascular health effects. Methods 17 never-smoker subjects 30–60 years of age, with stable type 2 diabetes but otherwise healthy, inhaled either filtered air (0–10 particles/cm3) or elemental carbon UFP (~107 particles/cm3, ~50 ug/m3, count median diameter 32 nm) by mouthpiece, for 2 hours at rest, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study design. A digital 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously for 48 hours, beginning 1 hour prior to exposure. Results Analysis of 5-minute segments of the ECG during quiet rest showed reduced high-frequency heart rate variability with UFP relative to air exposure (p?=?0.014), paralleled by non-significant reductions in time-domain heart rate variability parameters. In the analysis of longer durations of the ECG, we found that UFP exposure increased the heart rate relative to air exposure. During the 21- to 45-hour interval after exposure, the average heart rate increased approximately 8 beats per minute with UFP, compared to 5 beats per minute with air (p?=?0.045). There were no UFP effects on cardiac rhythm or repolarization. Conclusions Inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles alters heart rate and heart rate variability in people with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest that effects may occur and persist hours after a single 2-hour exposure. PMID:25028096

2014-01-01

213

Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period focused on assembling the supercritical particle generation/collection system. Effort was applied to constructing a shakedown testing plan also.

Not Available

1992-05-01

214

Spatial variation of ultrafine particles and black carbon in two cities: results from a short-term measurement campaign.  

PubMed

Recently, short-term monitoring campaigns have been carried out to investigate the spatial variation of air pollutants within cities. Typically, such campaigns are based on short-term measurements at relatively large numbers of locations. It is largely unknown how well these studies capture the spatial variation of long term average concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within-site temporal and between-site spatial variation of the concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and black carbon (BC) in a short-term monitoring campaign. In Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) measurements of number counts of particles larger than 10nm as a surrogate for UFP and BC were performed at 80 sites per city. Each site was measured in three different seasons of 2013 (winter, spring, summer). Sites were selected from busy urban streets, urban background, regional background and near highways, waterways and green areas, to obtain sufficient spatial contrast. Continuous measurements were performed for 30 min per site between 9 and 16 h to avoid traffic spikes of the rush hour. Concentrations were simultaneously measured at a reference site to correct for temporal variation. We calculated within- and between-site variance components reflecting temporal and spatial variations. Variance ratios were compared with previous campaigns with longer sampling durations per sample (24h to 14 days). The within-site variance was 2.17 and 2.44 times higher than the between-site variance for UFP and BC, respectively. In two previous studies based upon longer sampling duration much smaller variance ratios were found (0.31 and 0.09 for UFP and BC). Correction for temporal variation from a reference site was less effective for the short-term monitoring campaign compared to the campaigns with longer duration. Concentrations of BC and UFP were on average 1.6 and 1.5 times higher at urban street compared to urban background sites. No significant differences between the other site types and urban background were found. The high within to between-site concentration variances may result in the loss of precision and low explained variance when average concentrations from short-term campaigns are used to develop land use regression models. PMID:25486637

Klompmaker, Jochem O; Montagne, Denise R; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert

2015-03-01

215

Contribution of gas and electric stoves to residential ultrafine particle concentrations between 2 and 64 nm: size distributions and emission and coagulation remission and coagulation rates.  

PubMed

Three indoor sources (a gas stove, an electric stove, and an electric toaster oven) of ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been studied in an instrumented test house on the campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Previous studies have reported the concentration of ultrafine particles indoors due to cooking, but have been limited to particles with diameters greater than 10 nm. New technology now makes it possible to measure particles as small as 2 nm. Therefore, NIST conducted a study to measure typical concentrations and estimate emission rates and coagulation rates of UFPs in the size range from 2 to 64 nm. More than 150 tests were completed. Peak concentrations from the gas and electric stovetop burners/coils occurred at a particle size of approximately 5 nm. Total number concentrations were as much as 10 times greater than reported in previous studies of particle sizes above 10 nm. Because of these high concentrations of very small particles, coagulation was the dominant process affecting the evolution of the size distribution after the source was turned off. The observed number concentration changes due to coagulation were fit by models including corrections for van der Waals and viscosity forces and fractal shapes. Indoor/outdoor ratios indicated that less than 5% of the <10 nm particles penetrated the house. This suggests that outdoor sources of these ultrafine particles will not contribute substantially to human exposure if indoor sources are present. PMID:19192775

Wallace, Lance; Wang, Fang; Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Persily, Andrew

2008-12-01

216

Method for making fine and ultrafine spherical particles of zirconium titanate and other mixed metal oxide systems  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for making amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate and crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate comprising the steps of mixing an aqueous solution of zirconium salt and an aqueous solution of titanium salt into a mixed solution having equal moles of zirconium and titanium and having a total salt concentration in the range from 0.01 M to about 0.5 M. A stearic dispersant and an organic solvent is added to the mixed salt solution, subjecting the zirconium salt and the titanium salt in the mixed solution to a coprecipitation reaction forming a solution containing amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate wherein the volume ratio of the organic solvent to aqueous part is in the range from 1 to 5. The solution of amorphous spherical particles is incubated in an oven at a temperature .ltoreq.100.degree. C. for a period of time .ltoreq.24 hours converting the amorphous particles to fine or ultrafine crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate.

Hu, Michael Z.

2006-05-23

217

Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal  

SciTech Connect

Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R. (Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Kehoe, D. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

1991-10-31

218

Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R. [Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States); Kehoe, D. [CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States)

1991-10-31

219

A comparison of strategies for estimation of ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban air pollution monitoring networks.  

PubMed

We propose three estimation strategies (local, remote and mixed) for ultrafine particles (UFP) at three sites in an urban air pollution monitoring network. Estimates are obtained through Gaussian process regression based on concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NOx, O3, CO) and UFP. As local strategy, we use local measurements of gaseous pollutants (local covariates) to estimate UFP at the same site. As remote strategy, we use measurements of gaseous pollutants and UFP from two independent sites (remote covariates) to estimate UFP at a third site. As mixed strategy, we use local and remote covariates to estimate UFP. The results suggest: UFP can be estimated with good accuracy based on NOx measurements at the same location; it is possible to estimate UFP at one location based on measurements of NOx or UFP at two remote locations; the addition of remote UFP to local NOx, O3 or CO measurements improves models' performance. PMID:25681816

Reggente, Matteo; Peters, Jan; Theunis, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Kumar, Prashant

2015-04-01

220

The application of wavelet decomposition to quantify the local and regional sources of ultrafine particles in cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the application of wavelet decomposition as a means to distinguish between local and regional sources of ultrafine particles (UFP). Particle number concentrations were measured at a central site, two downtown sites, and four residential sites located across Toronto, Canada. Using a wavelet decomposition algorithm, particle concentration time series were separated into two signals: high frequency local-to-neighbourhood scale sources and low frequency urban-to-regional scale sources and processes. At the field sites, local-neighbourhood sources contributed between 13 and 32% of the total particle concentration. The urban-regional signal at each field site exhibited stronger correlation and greater homogeneity with respect to the central site than the original concentration time series. In contrast, the high frequency local-neighbourhood source signals exhibited limited correlation and high heterogeneity with respect to the central site. Traffic volume within a 2.5 km buffer explained 87% of the variability in the local-neighbourhood level signal observed between field sites while no significant association with traffic was found for the original particle number concentration data. This study has demonstrated that wavelet decomposition can be a useful tool for estimating exposure to UFP from local-neighbourhood and urban-regional scale sources and processes.

Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Yao, Xiaohong; Evans, Greg J.

2014-10-01

221

Mineral assemblage anomalies in the slip zone of the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake: Ultrafine particles preserved only in the latest slip zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined mineral assemblages of samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault and from milling and heating experiments by using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The fault system contains three dominant fault zones, the shallowest of which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The quartz and clay mineral contents of the primary slip zone were low, and it contained partly amorphous ultrafine particles (several tens of nanometers). Up to 30 weight percent of materials in that zone could not be fit to standard diffraction patterns, whereas nearly 100 weight percent of those in surrounding samples could be. The unfitted component could be attributed to the observed ultrafine particles produced by comminution during the earthquake, because weak diffraction intensities are caused from mineral lattice distortion, granulation, and amorphous coatings. Such particles are a potential proxy for identifying the slip zone of the most recent earthquake along a fault.

Hirono, Tetsuro; Kameda, Jun; Kanda, Hiroki; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

2014-05-01

222

A PEMS study of the emissions of gaseous pollutants and ultrafine particles from gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-road emission measurements of gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles were conducted by a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) in Shanghai, China. Horiba OBS 2200 and TSI EEPS 3090 were employed to detect gaseous and ultrafine particle emissions during the tests. The driving-based emission factors of gaseous pollutants and particle mass and number were obtained on various road types. The average NOx emission factors of the diesel bus, diesel car, and gasoline car were 8.86, 0.68, and 0.17 g km-1, all of which were in excess of their emission limits. The particle number emission factors were 7.06 × 1014, 6.08 × 1014, and 1.57 × 1014 km-1, generally higher than the results for similar vehicle types reported in the previous studies. The size distributions of the particles emitted from the diesel vehicles were mainly concentrated in the accumulation mode, while those emitted from the gasoline car were mainly distributed in the nucleation mode. Both gaseous and particle emission rates exhibit significant correlations with the change in vehicle speed and power demand. The lowest emission rates for each vehicle type were produced during idling. The highest emission rates for each vehicle type were generally found in high-VSP bins. The particle number emission rates of the gasoline car show the strongest growth trend with increasing VSP and speed. The particle number emission for the gasoline car increased by 3 orders of magnitude from idling to the highest VSP and driving speed conditions. High engine power caused by aggressive driving or heavy loads is the main contributor to high emissions for these vehicles in real-world situations.

Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Feng, Qian; Chen, Yiran; Chen, Changhong; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di

2013-10-01

223

Pulmonary Delivery of an Ultra-Fine Oxytocin Dry Powder Formulation: Potential for Treatment of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Oxytocin is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the most effective uterotonic for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. The requirement for parenteral administration by trained healthcare providers and the need for the drug solution to be maintained under cold-chain storage limit the use of oxytocin in the developing world. In this study, a spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin was developed with an optimal particle size diameter (1-5 µm) to facilitate aerosolised delivery via the lungs. A powder formulation of oxytocin, using mannitol, glycine and leucine as carriers, was prepared with a volume-based median particle diameter of 1.9 µm. Oxytocin content in the formulation was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was found to be unchanged after spray-drying. Ex vivo contractility studies utilising human and ovine uterine tissue indicated no difference in the bioactivity of oxytocin before and after spray-drying. Uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity in postpartum ewes following pulmonary (in vivo) administration of oxytocin closely mimicked that observed immediately postpartum (0-12 h following normal vaginal delivery of the lamb). In comparison to the intramuscular injection, pulmonary administration of an oxytocin dry powder formulation to postpartum ewes resulted in generally similar EMG responses, however a more rapid onset of uterine EMG activity was observed following pulmonary administration (129 ± 18 s) than intramuscular injection (275 ± 22 s). This is the first study to demonstrate the potential for oxytocin to elicit uterine activity after systemic absorption as an aerosolised powder from the lungs. Aerosolised oxytocin has the potential to provide a stable and easy to administer delivery system for effective prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor settings in the developing world. PMID:24376618

Ibrahim, Jibriil P.; Bischof, Robert J.; Nassta, Gemma C.; Olerile, Livesey D.; Russell, Adrian S.; Meiser, Felix; Parkington, Helena C.; Coleman, Harold A.; Morton, David A. V.; McIntosh, Michelle P.

2013-01-01

224

An electrical sensor for long-term monitoring of ultrafine particles in workplaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pegasor Oy Ltd. (Finland) has developed a diffusion charging measurement device that enables continuous monitoring of fine particle concentration at a low initial and lifecycle cost. The innovation, for which an international process and apparatus patent has been applied for, opens doors for monitoring nanoparticle concentrations in workplaces. The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) operates by electrostatically charging particles passing through the sensor and then measuring the current caused by the charged particles as they leave the sensor. The particles never touch the sensor and so never accumulate on its surfaces or need to be cleaned off. The sensor uses an ejector pump to draw a constant sample flow into the sensing area where it is mixed with the clean, charged pump flow air (provided by an external source). The sample flow containing charged particles passes through the sensor. The current generated by the charge leaving the detection volume is measured and related to the particle surface area. This system is extremely simple and reliable - no contact, no moving parts, and all critical parts of the sensor are constantly cleaned by a stream of fresh, filtered air. Due to the ejector pump, the sample flow, and respectively the sensor response is independent of the flow and pressure conditions around the sampling inlet. Tests with the Pegasor Particle Sensor have been conducted in a laboratory, and at a workplace producing nanoparticles for glass coatings. A new measurement protocol has been designed to ensure that process workers are not exposed to unusually high nanoparticle concentrations at any time during their working day. One sensor is placed inside the process line, and a light alarm system indicates the worker not to open any protective shielding or ventilation systems before concentration inside has reached background levels. The benefits of PPS in industrial hygiene are that the same monitoring technology can be used at the source as well as at the worker breathing zone. Up to eight sensors can be installed in series for centralized monitoring of the whole process in real time.

Lanki, Timo; Tikkanen, Juha; Janka, Kauko; Taimisto, Pekka; Lehtimäki, Matti

2011-07-01

225

Development of a High-Strength Ultrafine-Grained Ferritic Steel Nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the microstructural and mechanical properties of 12YWT oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS)-ferritic steel nanocomposite. According to the annealing results obtained from X-ray diffraction line profile analysis on mechanically alloyed powders milled for 80 hours, the hot extrusion at 1123 K (850 °C) resulted in a nearly equiaxed ultrafine structure with an ultimate tensile strength of 1470 MPa, yield strength of 1390 MPa, and total elongation of 13 pct at room temperature comparable with high-strength 14YWT ODS steel. Maximum total elongation was found at 973 K (600 °C) where fractography of the tensile specimen showed a fully ductile dimple feature compared with the splitting cracks and very fine dimpled structure observed at room temperature. The presence of very small particles on the wall of dimples at 1073 K (800 °C) with nearly chemical composition of the matrix alloy was attributed to the activation of the boundaries decohesion mechanism as a result of diffusion of solute atoms. The results of Charpy impact test also indicated significant improvement of transition temperature with respect to predecessor 12YWT because of the decreased grain size and more homogeneity of grain size distribution. Hence, this alloy represented a good compromise between the strength and Charpy impact properties.

Rahmanifard, Roohollah; Farhangi, Hasan; Novinrooz, Abdul Javad; Moniri, Samira

2013-02-01

226

Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal: Third quarterly progress report, (April--June 1989)  

SciTech Connect

Battelle, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley (ASH), Kaiser Engineers (KE), Lewis Corporation, and Professor S.H. Chiang of the University of Pittsburgh, is developing an advanced process for the dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The advanced process, called Electroacoustic Dewatering (EAD), capitalizes on the adaptation of synergistic effects of electric and acoustic fields to commercial coal dewatering systems, such as belt filter presses. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1989-07-18

227

Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles.  

PubMed

When plants are exposed to airborne particles, they can accumulate metals in their edible portions through root or foliar transfer. There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of plant exposure conditions on human bioaccessibility of metals, which is of particular concern with the increase in urban gardening activities. Lettuce, radish, and parsley were exposed to metal-rich ultrafine particles from a recycling factory via field atmospheric fallouts or polluted soil. Total lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in of the edible plant parts and their human bioaccessibility were measured, and Pb translocation through the plants was studied using Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb and Cd bioaccessibility measured for consumed parts of the different polluted plants was significantly higher for root exposure (70% for Pb and 89% for Cd in lettuce) in comparison to foliar exposure (40% for Pb and 69% for Cd in lettuce). The difference in metal bioaccessibility could be linked to the metal compartmentalization and speciation changes in relation to exposure conditions. Metal nature strongly influences the measured bioaccessibility: Cd presents higher bioaccessibility in comparison to Pb. In the case of foliar exposure, a significant translocation of Pb from leaves toward the roots was observed. To conclude, the type of pollutant and the method of exposure significantly influences the phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility of metals, especially in relation to the contrasting phenomena involved in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. The conditions of plant exposure must therefore be taken into account for environmental and health risk assessment. PMID:25603245

Xiong, Tiantian; Leveque, Thibault; Shahid, Muhammad; Foucault, Yann; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

2014-09-01

228

Development of ultrafine Ti-Fe-Sn in-situ composite with enhanced plasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation is aimed at developing ultrafine eutectic/dendrite Ti-Fe-Sn in-situ composite with balanced combination of strength and plasticity. It also studies the microstructure evolution in the series of hypereutectic Ti-Fe-Sn ternary alloys. Sn concentration of these alloys has been varied from 0 - 10 atom% in the binary alloy (Ti71Fe29) keeping the Ti concentration fixed. These alloys have been prepared by arc melting under an Ar atmosphere on a water-cooled Cu hearth, which are subsequently suction cast in a split Cu-mold under an Ar atmosphere. Detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) study shows the presence of TiFe, ?-Ti, and Ti3Sn phases. The SEM micrographs reveal that the microstructures consist of fine scale eutectic matrix (?-Ti and TiFe) with primary dendrite phases (TiFe and/or Ti3Sn) depending on concentration of Sn. ? -Ti forms as a eutectoid reaction product of ?-Ti. The room temperature uniaxial compressive test reveals simultaneous improvement in the strength (1942 MPa) and plasticity (13.1 %) for Ti71Fe26Sn3 ternary alloy. The fracture surface indicates a ductile mode of fracture for the alloy.

Mondal, B.; Samal, S.; Biswas, K.; Govind

2012-01-01

229

ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL DEPOSITION DISTRIBUTION OF INHALED ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICLES IN HUMAN LUNGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Deposition site and dose of inhaled particles are key determinants in health risk assessment of particulate pollutants. Previous lung deposition studies have dealt largely with total lung deposition measurement. However, particle deposition does not take place uniformly in the lu...

230

A comparative study on the ultrafine particle episodes induced by vehicle exhaust: A crude oil refinery and ship emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the contribution of vehicle exhausts, ships and an oil refinery emission to the ambient air concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) is presented. It is based on a data set of particle number coarser than 2.5 nm (N), black carbon (BC), gaseous pollutants (NOx, SO2, CO and O3), PM2.5 and PM10 measured from 2008 to 2010 in the ambient air of Santa Cruz de Tenerife City, where a previous study found an association between hospitalizations due to heart failure and exposure to UFPs in the ambient air. The observed relationship between N, BC and gaseous pollutants allowed segregating UFP concentrations in a set of components linked to each source. It was found that vehicle exhausts contribute to the background of UFPs, whereas high UFP episodes were due to the emissions of the refinery and ships. The concentration of UFP linked to vehicle exhaust emissions maximized in the morning (07:00-09:00 GMT, 5000-25,000 cm- 3 = 25th-75th percentile), whereas those linked to ship (15,000-45,000 cm- 3) and refinery (25,000-95,000 cm- 3) emissions maximized in the 10:00-17:00 GMT period due to the effects of meteorology and photochemistry. It was found that the UFP concentrations were more sensitive to the fresh emissions of the three sources than PM2.5, which was mostly linked to aged fine particles (0.1-1 ?m) of the urban background. BC was the better tracer of vehicle exhaust emissions. It was concluded that the simultaneous monitoring of UFP, BC and PM2.5 is a suitable strategy of tracing aerosol pollutants of different nature (fresh vs. aged) and from different sources.

González, Yenny; Rodríguez, Sergio

2013-02-01

231

Complex nanominerals and ultrafine particles assemblages in phosphogypsum of the fertilizer industry and implications on human exposure.  

PubMed

Phosphogypsum (CaSO(4).2H(2)O), a by-product of phosphate-rock processing, contains high amounts of impurities such P(2)O(5), F, radioactive elements, organic substances, secondary nanominerals, and ultrafine particles (UFP) enriched in metals and metalloids. In this study, we examine phosphogypsum (PG) collected from abandoned fertilizer industry facility in south Brazil (Santa Catarina state). The fragile nature of nanominerals and UFP assemblages from fertilizer industry systems required novel techniques and experimental approaches. The investigation of the geochemistry of complex nanominerals and UFP assemblages was a prerequisite to accurately assess the environmental and human health risks of contaminants and cost-effective chemical and biogeological remediation strategies. Particular emphasis was placed on the study and characterization of the complex mixed nanominerals and UFP containing potentially toxic elements. Nanometer-sized phases in PG were characterized using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. The chemical composition and possible correlations with morphology of nanominerals and UFP, as well as aspects of nanominerals and UFP, are discussed in the context of human health exposure, as well as in relation to management of the nanominerals and UFP in PG environments. PMID:20701953

Silva, Luis F O; Hower, James C; Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier

2010-10-01

232

Dynamic variations of ultrafine, fine and coarse particles at the Lu-Lin background site in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of atmospheric ultrafine particles (i.e. <100 nm, nanoparticles or PM0.1), PM2.5 and PM10 were studied at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 2862 m a.s.l., Taiwan) as part of the 7SEAS/Dongsha campaign. Sampling was conducted in July and August of 2009 and September to November of 2010, during which two 96-h and four 72-h PM samples were taken. Real-time particle size distributions were measured continuously from July to August of 2009 and July to November of 2010. PM0.1, PM2.5 and PM10 were collected by using two MOUDIs (micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor, MSP 110) and a Dichotomous PM10 sampler (Andersen SA-241) while real-time size distributions of particles of 5.5-350 nm in diameter were measured by an SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer, TSI 3936). Filter samples were analyzed for gravimetric mass and chemical compositions, including organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), water-soluble ions and trace elements. Meteorology parameters and gaseous O3 and CO concentrations were also monitored along with the SMPS data for studying particle nucleation, condensation, SOA (secondary organic aerosol) formation and long-range air pollutant transport at the LABS. SMPS data showed that nanoparticle concentrations at the LABS remained relatively stable at low level (?300-500 #/cm3) during the nighttime (22:00-04:00), increased during daytime, and reached a maximum (?2000-4000 #/cm3) in the afternoon (12:00-16:00). The NMD (number median diameter) showed an opposite trend with the peak number concentrations observed in the afternoon corresponding to the smallest NMD (20-40 nm). These results indicate the dominance of local sources rather than the transport from other atmospheric air because that the lifetime of nanoparticles was only few minutes. Chemical analysis of filter samples showed that the concentrations of trace elements K and Mn, which serve as biomass burning markers, were elevated in the fine particle fractions during November 9-12th when the air mass passed through South and Southeast Asia prior to reaching the LABS. The concentrations of K and Mn would have been low if the aerosols had local origins The biomass burning derived K was found in all fine particle samples at the LABS suggesting that the free troposphere around Taiwan is frequently impacted by the long-range transport of biomass burning plumes via the westerly winds.

Chen, Sheng-Chieh; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Roam, Gwo-Dong; Pui, David Y. H.

2013-10-01

233

Ultrafine cementitious grout  

SciTech Connect

An ultrafine cementitious grout in three particle grades containing Portland cement, pumice as a pozzolanic material and superplasticizer in the amounts of about 30 wt. % to about 70 wt. % Portland cement; from about 30 wt. % to about 70 wt. % pumice containing at least 70% amorphous silicon dioxide; and from 1.2 wt. % to about 5.0 wt. % superplasticizer. The superplasticizer is dispersed in the mixing water prior to the addition of dry grout and the W/CM ratio is about 0.4 to 1/1. The grout has very high strength and very low permeability with good workability. The ultrafine particle sizes allow for sealing of microfractures below 10 .mu.m in width.

Ahrens, Ernst H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

234

Ultrafine cementitious grout  

DOEpatents

An ultrafine cementitious grout having a particle size 90% of which are less than 6 .mu.m in diameter and an average size of about 2.5 .mu.m or less, and preferably 90% of which are less than 5 .mu.m in diameter and an average size of about 2 .mu.m or less containing Portland cement, pumice as a pozzolanic material and superplasticizer in the amounts of about 40 wt. % to about 50 wt. % Portland cement; from about 50 wt. % to about 60 wt. % pumice containing at least 60% amorphous silicon dioxide; and from 0.1 wt. % to about 1.5 wt. % superplasticizer. The grout is mixed with water in the W/CM ratio of about 0.4-0.6/1. The grout has very high strength and very low permeability with good workability. The ultrafine particle sizes allow for sealing of microfractures below 10 .mu.m in width.

Ahrens, Ernst H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

235

Ultrafine cementitious grout  

SciTech Connect

An ultrafine cementitious grout in three particle grades containing Portland cement, pumice as a pozzolanic material and superplasticizer in the amounts of about 30 wt. % to about 70 wt. % Portland cement; from about 30 wt. % to about 70 wt. % pumice containing at least 70% amorphous silicon dioxide; and from 1.2 wt. % to about 5.0 wt. % superplasticizer. The superplasticizer is dispersed in the mixing water prior to the addition of dry grout and the W/CM ratio is about 0.4 to 1/1. The grout has very high strength and very low permeability with good workability. The ultrafine particle sizes allow for sealing of microfractures below 10 {mu}m in width.

Ahrens, E.H.

1999-10-19

236

Cyto- and genotoxicity of ultrafine TiO2 particles in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide is frequently used in the production of paints, paper, plastics, welding rod-coating material, and cosmetics, because of its low toxicity. However, recent studies have shown that nano-sized or ultrafine TiO(2) (UF-TiO(2)) (<100 nm in diameter) can generate pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumor in rats. Cytotoxicity induced by UF-TiO(2) in rat lung alveolar macrophages was also observed. This generates great concern about the possible adverse effects of UF-TiO(2) for humans. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of UF-TiO(2) were investigated using the methyl tetrazolium cytotoxicity (MTT) assay, the population growth assay, the apoptosis assay by flow cytometry, the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, the comet assay, and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation assay. WIL2-NS cells were incubated for 6, 24 and 48 h with 0, 26, 65 and 130 microg/ml UF-TiO(2). Significant decreases in viability were seen in the MTT assay at higher doses; for example, 61, 7 and 2% relative viability at 130 microg/ml for 6, 24 and 48-h exposure (P<0.01). A dose-dependent relationship was observed, while a time-dependent relationship was seen only at the highest dose (130 microg/ml) after exposure for 24 and 48 h. Treatment with 130 microg/ml UF-TiO(2) induced approximately 2.5-fold increases in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells (P<0.01). In addition, a significant reduction in the cytokinesis block proliferation index was observed by the CBMN assay (P<0.05). In the comet assay, treatment with 65 microg/ml UF-TiO(2) induced approximately 5-fold increases in olive tail moment (P<0.05). In the HPRT mutation assay, treatment with 130 microg/ml UF-TiO(2) induced approximately 2.5-fold increases in the mutation frequency (P<0.05). The results of this study indicate that UF-TiO(2) can cause genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in cultured human cells. PMID:17223607

Wang, Jing J; Sanderson, Barbara J S; Wang, He

2007-04-01

237

Ultrafine particles and platelet activation in patients with coronary heart disease – results from a prospective panel study  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies on health effects of air pollution have consistently shown adverse cardiovascular effects. Toxicological studies have provided evidence for thrombogenic effects of particles. A prospective panel study in a susceptible population was conducted in Erfurt, Germany, to study the effects of daily changes in ambient particles on various blood cells and soluble CD40ligand (sCD40L, also known as CD154), a marker for platelet activation that can cause increased coagulation and inflammation. Blood cells and plasma sCD40L levels were repeatedly measured in 57 male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) during winter 2000/2001. Fixed effects linear regression models were applied, adjusting for trend, weekday and meteorological parameters. Hourly data on ultrafine particles (UFP, number concentration of particles from 0.01 to 0.1 ?m), mass concentration of particles less than 10 and 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM10, PM2.5), accumulation mode particle counts (AP, 0.1–1.0 ?m), elemental and organic carbon, gaseous pollutants and meteorological data were collected at central monitoring sites. Results An immediate increase in plasma sCD40L was found in association with UFP and AP (% change from geometric mean: 7.1; CI: [0.1, 14.5] and 6.9; CI: [0.5, 13.8], respectively). Platelet counts decreased in association with UFP showing an immediate, a three days delayed (lag 3) and a 5-day average response (% change from the mean: -1.8; CI: [-3.4,-0.2]; -2.4; CI: [-4.5,-0.3] and -2.2; CI: [-4.0,-0.3] respectively). Conclusion The increased plasma sCD40L levels support the hypothesis that higher levels of ambient air pollution lead to an inflammatory response in patients with CHD thus providing a possible explanation for the observed association between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible parts of the population. PMID:17241467

Rückerl, Regina; Phipps, Richard P; Schneider, Alexandra; Frampton, Mark; Cyrys, Josef; Oberdörster, Günther; Wichmann, H Erich; Peters, Annette

2007-01-01

238

Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.  

PubMed

Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ? 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (? 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

2014-02-18

239

Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. It has been shown that catalyst activity increases significantly with decreasing particle size for particle sizes in the submicron range. Ultra-fine catalyst particle generation will be accomplished using a novel two-step process. First, the severe conditions produced by a supercritical fluid (e.g., supercritical H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}) will be used to dissolve suitable catalyst compounds (e.g., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS{sub 2}, and/or Fe(CO){sub 5}). Sulfur containing compounds may be added to the supercritical solvent during catalyst dissolution to enhance the catalytic activity of the resulting ultra-fine, iron based, catalyst particles.

Not Available

1991-08-01

240

The observation of multi-axial anisotropy in ultrafine cobalt ferrite particles used in magnetic fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that nano-sized particles of cobalt ferrite produced by the coprecipitation method for use in magnetic fluids exhibit multiaxial anisotropy, which has not previously been reported for ferrite particles. The value of the magnetic anisotropy constant calculated from measurements of the decay of remanence is similar to that reported for bulk cobalt ferrite.

K. J. Davies; S. Wells; R. V. Upadhyay; S. W. Charles; K. O'Grady; M. El Hilo; T. Meaz; S. Mørup

1995-01-01

241

High-resolution mobile monitoring of carbon monoxide and ultrafine particle concentrations in a near-road environment.  

PubMed

Assessment of near-road air quality is challenging in urban environments that have roadside structures, elevated road sections, or depressed roads that may impact the dispersion of traffic emissions. Vehicles traveling on arterial roadways may also contribute to air pollution spatial variability in urban areas. To characterize the nature of near-road air quality in a complex urban environment, an instrumented all-electric vehicle was deployed to perform high spatial- and temporal-resolution mapping of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particle diameter <100 nm) and carbon monoxide (CO). Sampling was conducted in areas surrounding a highway in Durham, NC, with multiple repeats of the driving route accomplished within a morning or evening commute time frame. Six different near-road transects were driven, which included features such as noise barriers, vegetation, frontage roads, and densely built houses. Under downwind conditions, median UFP and CO levels in near-road areas located 20-150 m from the highway were a factor of 1.8 and 1.2 higher, respectively, than in areas characterized as urban background. Sampling in multiple near-road neighborhoods during downwind conditions revealed significant variability in absolute UFP and CO concentrations as well as in the rate of concentration attenuation with increasing distance from the highway. During low-speed meandering winds, regional UFP and CO concentrations nearly doubled relative to crosswind conditions; however, near-road UFP levels were still higher than urban background levels by a factor of 1.2, whereas near-road CO concentrations were not significantly different than the urban background. PMID:20397562

Hagler, Gayle S W; Thoma, Eben D; Baldauf, Richard W

2010-03-01

242

Allergic Airway Inflammation is Differentially Exacerbated by Daytime and Nighttime Ultrafine and Submicron Fine Ambient Particles: Heme Oxygenase-1 as an Indicator of PM-Mediated Allergic Inflammation.  

PubMed

Ambient particulate matter (PM) originates from a range of sources and differs in composition with respect to season, time of day, and particle size. In this study, ambient PM samples in the ultrafine and submicrometer fine range were tested for the potential to exacerbate a murine model of allergic airway inflammation when exposure occurs solely during allergic sensitization, but not during subsequent allergen challenge. Temporally resolved and size-segregated PM samples were used to understand how summer or winter, day or night, and ambient ultrafine and submicrometer fine particle size influence PM's ability to exacerbate allergic inflammation. PM was collected in urban Fresno, CA. BALB/c mice were exposed to PM and house dust mite allergen (HDM) via intranasal aspiration on d 1, 3, and 5. HDM challenge occurred on d 12-14, with inflammation assessed 24 h following final challenge. While season or particle size did not predict allergic inflammation, daytime ultrafine and submicrometer fine particles significantly increased total cellular inflammation, specifically lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration, compared to allergic controls. Further studies examined PM-mediated changes within the lung during the period where allergen sensitization occurred by measuring direct effects of PM on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Pulmonary levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a biomarker of oxidative stress, but not cellular inflammation, demonstrated a remarkable correlation with the degree of allergic inflammation in animals sensitized to allergen and PM concomitantly, suggesting acute PM-mediated HO-1 levels may serve as a predictive indicator of a particle's ability to exacerbate allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25679046

Carosino, Christopher M; Bein, Keith J; Plummer, Laurel E; Castañeda, Alejandro R; Zhao, YongJing; Wexler, Anthony S; Pinkerton, Kent E

2015-01-01

243

Reduction of exposure to ultrafine particles by kitchen exhaust hoods: the effects of exhaust flow rates, particle size, and burner position.  

PubMed

Cooking stoves, both gas and electric, are one of the strongest and most common sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes. UFP have been shown to be associated with adverse health effects such as DNA damage and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effectiveness of kitchen exhaust hoods in reducing indoor levels of UFP emitted from a gas stove and oven. Measurements in an unoccupied manufactured house monitored size-resolved UFP (2 nm to 100 nm) concentrations from the gas stove and oven while varying range hood flow rate and burner position. The air change rate in the building was measured continuously based on the decay of a tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride, SF(6)). The results show that range hood flow rate and burner position (front vs. rear) can have strong effects on the reduction of indoor levels of UFP released from the stove and oven, subsequently reducing occupant exposure to UFP. Higher range hood flow rates are generally more effective for UFP reduction, though the reduction varies with particle diameter. The influence of the range hood exhaust is larger for the back burner than for the front burner. The number-weighted particle reductions for range hood flow rates varying between 100 m(3)/h and 680 m(3)/h range from 31% to 94% for the front burner, from 54% to 98% for the back burner, and from 39% to 96% for the oven. PMID:22750181

Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Nabinger, Steven; Persily, Andrew

2012-08-15

244

Size controllable synthesis of ultrafine spherical gold particles and their simulation of plasmonic and SERS behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and reproducible way was explored to synthesize quasi-spherical gold particles with different size distributions in water by rapidly adding a mixture solution of HAuCl4, sodium citrate, and a trace amount of silver nitrate. By careful tuning of the reaction parameters, mono-disperse gold particles with the diameter of 5-220 nm can be obtained controllably. The particle size of 130 nm for the particles film showed the highest SERS activity with the 632.8 nm excitation. The theoretical calculations of the UV-vis extinction spectra can be directly compared with experiments by using the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA). Control of nanostructure shape allows optimization of plasmon resonance for molecular detection and spectroscopy.

Yi, Zao; Xu, Xibin; Luo, Jiangshan; Li, Xibo; Yi, Yong; Jiang, Xiaodong; Yi, Yougen; Tang, Yongjian

2014-04-01

245

Supercritical fluid-assisted dispersion of ultra-fine pigment red 177 particles with blended dispersants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the dispersion of 1wt.% of pigment red 177 particles in propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA). It was found that 40wt.% of Hypermer PS3 dispersant could provide better dispersion and could stabilize the pigment particles in PGMEA at ambient condition. With the aid of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2), additional 1wt.% of CO2-philic

Hsien-Tsung Wu; Ming-Jer Lee; Ho-mu Lin

2006-01-01

246

Ultrafine particle sources and in-situ formation in a European megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient particle number size distributions were measured in Paris, France during summer (1-31 July 2009) and winter (15 January-15 February 2010) at three fixed ground sites and using two mobile laboratories and one airplane. The campaigns were part of the MEGAPOLI project. New particle formation (NPF) was observed only during summer at approximately 50% of the campaign days, assisted by the low condensation sink (about 10.7 ± 5.9 × 10-3 s-1). NPF events inside the Paris plume were also observed at 600 m altitude onboard an aircraft simultaneously with regional events identified on the ground. Increased particle number concentrations were measured aloft also outside of the Paris plume at the same altitude, and were attributed to NPF. The Paris plume was identified, based on increased particle number and black carbon concentration, up to 200 km away from Paris center during summer. The number concentration of particles with diameter exceeding 2.5 nm measured on the surface at Paris center was on average 6.9 ± 8.7 × 104 and 12.1 ± 8.6 × 104 cm-3 during summer and winter, respectively, and was found to decrease exponentially with distance from Paris. However, further than 30 km from the city center, the particle number concentration at the surface was similar during both campaigns. During summer one suburban site in the NE was not significantly affected by Paris emissions due to higher background number concentrations, while the particle number concentration at the second suburban site in the SW increased by a factor of three when it was downwind of Paris.

Pikridas, M.; Sciare, J.; Freutel, F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Borbon, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Merkel, M.; Crippa, M.; Kostenidou, E.; Psichoudaki, M.; Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Petäjä, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Beekmann, M.; Pandis, S. N.

2015-02-01

247

Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods  

SciTech Connect

Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

2014-06-05

248

Novel method of doping tungsten into zinc oxide ultrafine particle using RF plasma system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tungsten plate was set on a one-plate electrode in RF plasma, using parallel plates in a mixed gas of argon (9.75 Torr) and oxygen (0.25 Torr). Zn smoke was introduced into the plasma field. W atoms were doped in the ZnO smoke formation field in the RF plasma system. The resulting particles with a size of 30 nm were identified to be hexagonal ZnO particles. The collected particles changed from white to yellow, i.e., W atoms were doped into ZnO particles. The image of the (0 0 0 1) lattice, which is the forbidden reflection, appeared predominantly in the W-doped ZnO particle. Furthermore, by optical measurement, it was found that the existence of W atoms can control the recombination radiation due to the exciton. On the basis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopic images, the doped W positions are discussed as being in the commensurate configuration of W atoms in the ZnO crystal at positions equivalent to those in the cubic anti-fluoride structure.

Sato, T.; Suzuki, H.; Kido, O.; Kurumada, M.; Kamitsuji, K.; Kimura, Y.; Takeda, A.; Kaneko, S.; Saito, Y.; Kaito, C.

2004-04-01

249

Capture efficiency of cooking-related fine and ultrafine particles by residential exhaust hoods.  

PubMed

Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking-generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80%. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38% for low (51-68 l/s) and 54-72% for high (109-138 l/s) settings. CEs for 0.3-2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3-11% on low and 16-70% on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80% both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles. PMID:24750219

Lunden, M M; Delp, W W; Singer, B C

2015-02-01

250

Using mobile monitoring to characterize roadway and aircraft contributions to ultrafine particle concentrations near a mid-sized airport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine particles (UFP) have complex spatial and temporal patterns that can be difficult to characterize, especially in areas with multiple source types. In this study, we utilized mobile monitoring and statistical modeling techniques to determine the contributions of both roadways and aircraft to spatial and temporal patterns of UFP in the communities surrounding an airport. A mobile monitoring campaign was conducted in five residential areas surrounding T.F. Green International Airport (Warwick, RI, USA) for one week in both spring and summer of 2008. Monitoring equipment and geographical positioning system (GPS) instruments were carried following scripted walking routes created to provide broad spatial coverage while recognizing the complexities of simultaneous spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA) were used to predict UFP concentrations as a function of distance from roadway, landing and take-off (LTO) activity, and meteorology. We found that distance to the nearest Class 2 roadway (highways and connector roads) was inversely associated with UFP concentrations in all neighborhoods. Departures and arrivals on a major runway had a significant influence on UFP concentrations in a neighborhood proximate to the end of the runway, with a limited influence elsewhere. Spatial patterns of regression model residuals indicate that spatial heterogeneity was partially explained by traffic and LTO terms, but with evidence that other factors may be contributing to elevated UFP close to the airport grounds. Regression model estimates indicate that mean traffic contributions exceed mean LTO contributions, but LTO activity can dominate the contribution during some minutes. Our combination of monitoring and statistical modeling techniques demonstrated contributions from major surrounding runways and LTO activity to UFP concentrations near a mid-sized airport, providing a methodology for source attribution within a community with multiple distinct sources.

Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Houseman, E. Andres; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

2014-06-01

251

Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors  

PubMed Central

Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 – 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification. PMID:23645993

Fuller, Christina H.; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L.; Spengler, John D.

2012-01-01

252

Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Institute of Research for Combustion

2008-12-15

253

Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ? 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately 100 nm in diameter and (b) new trucks originally equipped with diesel particle filters were 5 to 6 times more likely than filter-retrofitted trucks and trucks without filters to emit particles characterized by a single mode in the range of 10 to 30 nm in diameter.

Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

2013-12-01

254

Assessment of ultrafine particles and noise measurements using fuzzy logic and data mining techniques.  

PubMed

This study focuses on correlations between total number concentrations, road traffic emissions and noise levels in an urban area in the southwest of Spain during the winter and summer of 2009. The high temporal correlation between sound pressure levels, traffic intensity, particle number concentrations related to traffic, black carbon and NOx concentrations suggests that noise is linked to traffic emissions as a main source of pollution in urban areas. First, the association of these different variables was studied using PreFuRGe, a computational tool based on data mining and fuzzy logic. The results showed a clear association between noise levels and road-traffic intensity for non-extremely high wind speed levels. This behaviour points, therefore, to vehicular emissions being the main source of urban noise. An analysis for estimating the total number concentration from noise levels is also proposed in the study. The high linearity observed between particle number concentrations linked to traffic and noise levels with road traffic intensity can be used to calculate traffic related particle number concentrations experimentally. At low wind speeds, there are increases in noise levels of 1dB for every 100 vehicles in circulation. This is equivalent to 2000cm(-3) per vehicle in winter and 500cm(-3) in summer. At high wind speeds, wind speed could be taken into account. This methodology allows low cost sensors to be used as a proxy for total number concentration monitoring in urban air quality networks. PMID:25616226

Fernández-Camacho, R; Brito Cabeza, I; Aroba, J; Gómez-Bravo, F; Rodríguez, S; de la Rosa, J

2015-04-15

255

Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles  

PubMed Central

The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O3, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than ?8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals. PMID:20046215

Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

2008-01-01

256

Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles  

SciTech Connect

The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O{sub 3}, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than {approx}8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals.

Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

2008-08-01

257

FORMATION OF FINE PARTICLES FROM RESIDUAL OIL COMBUSTION: REDUCING ULTRAFINE NUCLEI THROUGH THE ADDITION OF INORGANIC SORBENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation, using an 82-kW-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor, of the characteristics of particulate matter emitted from residual oil combustion and the reduction of ultrafine nuclei by postflame sorbent injection. Without sorbent a...

258

Particle Deposition in a Child Respiratory Tract Model: In Vivo Regional Deposition of Fine and Ultrafine Aerosols in Baboons  

E-print Network

and Ultrafine Aerosols in Baboons Iolanda Albuquerque-Silvaa,b,c , Laurent Vecelliod,e , Marc Duranda,c,f , John three baboons as a child respiratory tract model to assess regional deposition patterns (thoracic region% in the extrathoracic region and 51% ± 8% in the thoracic region. Finally, comparison of baboon and human inhalation

Boyer, Edmond

259

Source apportionment of size segregated fine/ultrafine particle by PMF in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the adverse health effects to human body, the number concentration of atmospheric PM (particulate material) is more important than the mass concentration. CO, NO, NO2, SO2 and number concentrations of PM were obtained from a remote site (Miyun), a roadside site (North Fourth Ring Road) and an urban residential site (Tsinghua University) in Beijing in winter. The size distribution and the possible sources of number concentrations were examined using EPA PMF (positive matrix factorization) model. A data set of totally 9610 of number concentration with the size range of 0.028 ?m to 0.948 ?m was included in the PMF analysis. The highest total particle number, mass and area of fine particles concentrations were observed at the North Fourth Ring Road site and the lowest were observed at Miyun site. Four factors were identified at Miyun site, as Factor 1 and Factor 4 may be related to long distance transportation, and Factor 2 and Factor 3 may be assigned as coal combustion and locomotive emission nearby, respectively; three factors were identified at North Fourth Ring Road, of which Factor 1 and Factor 3 are traffic related and Factor 2 may be coal combustion related. Compared with Factor 1, the contributions of Factor 3 to NOx and SO2 were 4-5 times higher. Additionally, Factor 3 was also a major contributor to CO. It suggested that Factor 1 and Factor 3 had the same source emission of motor vehicle, but different engine types, fuel types or exhaust treatments. Three factors were identified at Tsinghua site, as Factor 1 may come from aging vehicle emission, and Factor 2 and Factor 3 may be coal combustion related.

Tan, Ji-hua; Duan, Jing-chun; Chai, Fa-he; He, Ke-bin; Hao, Ji-Ming

2014-03-01

260

ULTRAFINE PARTICLE CELL INTERACTIONS IN VITRO: MOLECULAR MECHANISMS LEADING TO ALTERED GENE EXPRESSION IN RELATION TO PARTICLE COMPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of these in vitro studies will identify specific mechanisms that are triggered following particle cell contact in a cell specific context and identify markers of cellular response. We predict that many of the subsequent physiologic effects in vivo are...

261

Relaxation in ordered systems of ultrafine magnetic particles: effect of the exchange interaction.  

PubMed

We perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the relaxation of single-domain nanoparticles that are located on a simple cubic lattice with anisotropy axes pointing in the z-direction, under the combined influence of anisotropy energy, dipolar interaction and ferromagnetic interaction of strength J. We compare the results of classical Heisenberg systems with three-dimensional magnetic moments [Formula: see text] to those of Ising systems and find that Heisenberg systems show a much richer and more complex dynamical behavior. In contrast to Heisenberg systems, Ising systems need large activation energies to turn a spin and also possess a smaller configuration space for the orientation of the [Formula: see text]. Accordingly, Heisenberg systems possess a whole landscape of different states with very close-lying energies, while Ising systems tend to get frozen in one random state far away from the ground state. For Heisenberg systems, we identify two phase transitions: (i) at intermediate J between domain and layered states and (ii) at larger J between layered and ferromagnetic states. Between these two transitions, the layered states change their appearance and develop a sub-structure, where the orientation of the [Formula: see text] in each layer depends on J, so that for each value of J, a new ground state appears. PMID:21378444

Russ, Stefanie; Bunde, Armin

2011-03-30

262

SILICON-29 Mas-Nmr and Esr Study on the Effect of Heat Treatment on the Structure of SiC-Si3N4 Composite Ultrafine Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of heat treatment on the structure of SiC-Si3N4 composite ultrafine particles was studied by 29Si MAS-NMR and ESR. 29Si MAS-NMR and ESR results showed that the local structure changed a little below 1573 K, at which the XRD pattern did not change significantly, but slight increase in crystalline size were observed. When the SiC-Si3N4 powder was heat-treated at 1773 K, most nitrogen atoms dissolved into ?-SiC lattice were removed from the ?-SiC lattice, and the remaining nitrogens were considered to exist in the boundary layer between SiC crystals as SiC3N unit in the particle.

Suzuki, Masaaki; Li, Xingguo; Nakata, Yoshinori; Nagai, Hideaki; Okutani, Takeshi

263

Effects of ultrafine particles on the allergic inflammation in the lung of asthmatics: results of a double-blinded randomized cross-over clinical pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) might aggravate the allergic inflammation of the lung in asthmatics. Methods We exposed 12 allergic asthmatics in two subgroups in a double-blinded randomized cross-over design, first to freshly generated ultrafine carbon particles (64 ?g/m3; 6.1?±?0.4 × 105 particles/cm3 for 2 h) and then to filtered air or vice versa with a 28-day recovery period in-between. Eighteen hours after each exposure, grass pollen was instilled into a lung lobe via bronchoscopy. Another 24 hours later, inflammatory cells were collected by means of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). (Trial registration: NCT00527462) Results For the entire study group, inhalation of UFP by itself had no significant effect on the allergen induced inflammatory response measured with total cell count as compared to exposure with filtered air (p?=?0.188). However, the subgroup of subjects, which inhaled UFP during the first exposure, exhibited a significant increase in total BAL cells (p?=?0.021), eosinophils (p?=?0.031) and monocytes (p?=?0.013) after filtered air exposure and subsequent allergen challenge 28 days later. Additionally, the potential of BAL cells to generate oxidant radicals was significantly elevated at that time point. The subgroup that was exposed first to filtered air and 28 days later to UFP did not reveal differences between sessions. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that pre-allergen exposure to UFP had no acute effect on the allergic inflammation. However, the subgroup analysis lead to the speculation that inhaled UFP particles might have a long-term effect on the inflammatory course in asthmatic patients. This should be reconfirmed in further studies with an appropriate study design and sufficient number of subjects. PMID:25204642

2014-01-01

264

Ultrafine cementitious grout  

SciTech Connect

An ultrafine cementitious grout is described having a particle size 90% of which are less than 6 {micro}m in diameter and an average size of about 2.5 {micro}m or less, and preferably 90% of which are less than 5 {micro}m in diameter and an average size of about 2 {micro}m or less containing Portland cement, pumice as a pozzolanic material and superplasticizer in the amounts of about 40 wt. % to about 50 wt. % Portland cement; from about 50 wt. % to about 60 wt. % pumice containing at least 60% amorphous silicon dioxide; and from 0.1 wt. % to about 1.5 wt. % superplasticizer. The grout is mixed with water in the W/CM ratio of about 0.4--0.6/1. The grout has very high strength and very low permeability with good workability. The ultrafine particle sizes allow for sealing of microfractures below 10 {micro}m in width. 4 figs.

Ahrens, E.H.

1998-07-07

265

Seasonal and spatial variation in dithiothreitol (DTT) activity of quasi-ultrafine particles in the Los Angeles Basin and its association with chemical species.  

PubMed

A year-long sampling campaign of quasi-ultrafine particles (dp < 0.25 ?m) was conducted at 10 distinct sites representing source, urban and/or near-freeway, rural receptor and desert locations across the Los Angeles air basin. Redox activity of the PM samples was measured by means of the Dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and detailed chemical analysis was performed to measure the concentrations of chemical species. DTT activity per unit air volume and unit PM mass (expressed in nmol min(-1) m(-3) and nmol/min/?g PM, respectively) showed similar trends across sites and seasons. DTT activity was generally higher during cold seasons (winter and fall) compared to warm seasons (summer and spring). Noticeable peaks were observed at urban near-freeway locations representing "source" sites impacted by fresh traffic emissions. Regression analysis indicated strong association (R > 0.7) between the DTT activity and the concentrations of carbonaceous species (OC, EC, WSOC and WIOC) across all seasons and strong winter-time correlations with organic tracers of primary vehicular emissions including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkanes, hopanes and steranes. Strong correlations were also observed, particularly during winter, between DTT activity and transition metals (e.g., Cr, Mn, V, Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn), which share similar vehicular sources with primary organics. A multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that the variability in DTT activity is best explained by the variability in concentrations of WSOC, WIOC, EC and hopanes. Combined contributions from these species explained 88% of the DTT activity. The appearance of WSOC as a typical tracer of secondary organic aerosol, along with EC, WIOC and hopanes, all markers of emissions from primary combustion sources, emphasizes the contributions of both primary and secondary sources to the overall oxidative potential of quasi-ultrafine particles. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the supplemental file. PMID:24345242

Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

2014-01-01

266

Development of Ultrafine Grained Zircaloy-2 by Room Temperature Cross Rolling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of change in strain path by cross rolling up to a true strain of 1.89 has been studied in the present work. The Zircaloy-2 was subjected to solutionising heat treatment at 800 °C in argon environment for 2 h and subsequently quenched in mercury prior to cross rolling at room temperature. The fragmentation of near basal grains due to change in strain path is evident from the EBSD micrographs. The dislocation density in the crossrolled alloy increases with true strain as calculated from the XRD and EBSD data and it is found to be 2.806453 × 1016/m2. extension twins are observed initially up to 25% reduction, with the further reduction in thickness, near basal grains are oriented toward the normal direction. These basal grains undergone fragmentation due to changes in strain path upon cross-rolling as observed from KAM and EBSD images. TEM results of the cross-rolled sample confirm the formation of ultrafine and nanograins in the alloy due to orientation of incidental dislocation boundaries in the direction of macroscopic plastic flow and post-annealing treatment of the deformed alloy. A tensile strength of 991 MPa with 7.5% ductility is observed in the 85% cross-rolled alloy. The cross-rolled alloy upon annealing at 400 °C for 30 min improves ductility to 11%.

Goel, Sunkulp; Keskar, Nachiket; Jayaganthan, R.; Singh, I. V.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.; Saibaba, N.

2015-02-01

267

Frequency-dependent AMS of rocks: A tool for the investigation of the fabric of ultrafine magnetic particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some geological processes, new very fine-grained magnetic minerals may originate. The variation in content of these minerals is routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is traditionally interpreted in terms of the presence of viscous superparamagnetic (SP) particles in addition to stable single domain (SSD) and multidomain (MD) magnetic particles. In addition, the fabric of these grains can be investigated through the frequency-dependent AMS. Through standard AMS measurement at different frequencies, one can evaluate the contribution of SP particles to the whole-rock AMS; appropriate methods were developed. Various rocks, soils and ceramics, showing frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, were investigated. Measurable changes of AMS with operating frequency were revealed and attempts are made of their fabric interpretation.

Hrouda, František; Ježek, Josef

2014-08-01

268

Frequency-dependent AMS of rocks as a tool for the investigation of the fabric of ultrafine magnetic particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some geological processes, new very fine-grained magnetic minerals may originate. The variation in content of these minerals is routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is traditionally interpreted in terms of presence of viscous superparamagnetic (SP) particles in addition to stable single domain (SSD) and multidomain (MD) magnetic particles. In addition, the fabric of these grains can be investigated through the frequency-dependent AMS. Through standard AMS measurement at different frequencies, one can evaluate the contribution of SP particles to the whole-rock AMS; appropriate methods were developed. Various rocks, soils and ceramics, showing frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, were investigated. Measurable changes of AMS with operating frequency were revealed and attempts are made of their fabric interpretation.

Hrouda, Frantisek; Jezek, Josef

2014-05-01

269

Effect of central fans and in-duct filters on deposition rates of ultrafine and fine particles in an occupied townhouse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne particles are implicated in morbidity and mortality of certain high-risk subpopulations. Exposure to particles occurs mostly indoors, where a main removal mechanism is deposition to surfaces. Deposition can be affected by the use of forced-air circulation through ducts or by air filters. In this study, we calculate the deposition rates of particles in an occupied house due to forced-air circulation and the use of in-duct filters such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and fibrous mechanical filters (MECH). Deposition rates are calculated for 128 size categories ranging from 0.01 to 2.5 ?m. More than 110 separate "events" (mostly cooking, candle burning, and pouring kitty litter) were used to calculate deposition rates for four conditions: fan off, fan on, MECH installed, ESP installed. For all cases, deposition rates varied in a "U"-shaped distribution with the minimum occurring near 0.1 ?m, as predicted by theory. The use of the central fan with no filter or with a standard furnace filter increased deposition rates by amounts on the order of 0.1-0.5 h -1. The MECH increased deposition rates by up to 2 h -1 for ultrafine and fine particles but was ineffective for particles in the 0.1-0.5 ?m range. The ESP increased deposition rates by 2-3 h -1 and was effective for all sizes. However, the ESP lost efficiency after several weeks and needed regular cleaning to maintain its effectiveness. A reduction of particle levels by 50% or more could be achieved by use of the ESP when operating properly. Since the use of fans and filters reduces particle concentrations from both indoor and outdoor sources, it is more effective than the alternative approach of reducing ventilation by closing windows or insulating homes more tightly. For persons at risk, use of an air filter may be an effective method of reducing exposure to particles.

Wallace, Lance A.; Emmerich, Steven J.; Howard-Reed, Cynthia

270

Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. In the first quarterly report for this program the concept behind our approach was detailed, the structure of the program was presented, key technical issues were identified, preliminary designs were outlined, and technical progress was discussed. All progress made during the second quarter of this program related to experiment design of the proposed supercritical expansion technique for generating ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles. This second quarterly report, therefore, presents descriptions of the final designs for most system components; diagnostic approaches and designs for determining particles size and size distributions, and the composition of the pre-expansion supercritical solution; and the overall technique progress made during this reporting period. 6 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-09-01

271

Hygroscopic properties of newly formed ultrafine particles at an urban site surrounded by deciduous forest (Sapporo, northern Japan) during the summer of 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the hygroscopic properties of ultrafine particles during new particle formation events, the hygroscopic growth factors of size-segregated atmospheric particles were measured at an urban site in Sapporo, northern Japan, during the summer of 2011. The hygroscopic growth factor at 85 % relative humidity [g(85%)] of freshly formed nucleation mode particles was 1.11 to 1.28 (average: 1.16 ± 0.06) at a dry particle diameter (Dp) centered on 20 nm, which is equivalent to 1.17 to 1.35 (1.23 ± 0.06) at a dry Dp centered on 100 nm after considering the Kelvin effect. These values are comparable with those of secondary organic aerosols, suggesting that low-volatility organic vapors are important to the burst of nucleation mode particles. The equivalent g(85%) at a dry Dp of 100 nm for nucleated particles that have grown to Aitken mode sizes (1.24 to 1.34; average: 1.30 ± 0.04) were slightly higher than those of newly formed nucleation mode particles, suggesting that the growth of freshly formed nucleation mode particles to the Aitken mode size can be subjected to condensation of not only low-volatility organic vapors, but also water-soluble inorganic species. Based on this result, and previous measurement of radiocarbon in aerosols, we suggest that the burst of nucleation mode particles and their subsequent growth were highly affected by biogenic organic emissions at this measurement site, which is surrounded by deciduous forest. Gradual increases in mode diameter after the burst of nucleation mode particles were observed under southerly wind conditions, with a dominant contribution of intermediately hygroscopic particles. However, sharp increases in mode diameter were observed when the wind direction shifted to northwesterly or northeasterly, with a sharp increase in the highly hygroscopic particle fraction of the Aitken mode particles, indicating that the hygroscopic growth factor of newly formed particles is perturbed by the local winds that deliver different air masses to the measurement site.

Jung, J.; Kawamura, K.

2014-07-01

272

Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors  

PubMed Central

The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC–MS and HPLC–MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2–10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans. PMID:20161525

Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

2009-01-01

273

Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

2010-01-01

274

Effect of Exposure to Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles on Production of Free Fatty Acids and Lipid Metabolites in the Mouse Small Intestine  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the effects of air pollution on gastrointestinal disorders. Objective: We sought to assess whether exposure to ambient UFP (diameter < 180 nm) increased free fatty acids and lipid metabolites in the mouse small intestine. Methods: Ldlr-null mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or UFP collected at an urban Los Angeles, California, site that was heavily affected by vehicular emissions; the exposure was carried out for 10 weeks in the presence or absence of D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide with antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties on a high-fat or normal chow diet. Results: Compared with FA, exposure to UFP significantly increased intestinal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), including 15-HETE, 12-HETE, 5-HETE, as well as hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), including 13-HODE and 9-HODE. Arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) as well as some of the lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) in the small intestine were also increased in response to UFP exposure. Administration of D-4F significantly reduced UFP-mediated increase in HETEs, HODEs, AA, PGD2, and LPA. Although exposure to UFP further led to shortened villus length accompanied by prominent macrophage and neutrophil infiltration into the intestinal villi, administration of D-4F mitigated macrophage infiltration. Conclusions: Exposure to UFP promotes lipid metabolism, villus shortening, and inflammatory responses in mouse small intestine, whereas administration of D-4F attenuated these effects. Our findings provide a basis to further assess the mechanisms underlying UFP-mediated lipid metabolism in the digestive system with clinical relevance to gut homeostasis and diseases. Citation: Li R, Navab K, Hough G, Daher N, Zhang M, Mittelstein D, Lee K, Pakbin P, Saffari A, Bhetraratana M, Sulaiman D, Beebe T, Wu L, Jen N, Wine E, Tseng CH, Araujo JA, Fogelman A, Sioutas C, Navab M, Hsiai TK. 2015. Effect of exposure to atmospheric ultrafine particles on production of free fatty acids and lipid metabolites in the mouse small intestine. Environ Health Perspect 123:34–41;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307036 PMID:25170928

Li, Rongsong; Navab, Kaveh; Hough, Greg; Daher, Nancy; Zhang, Min; Mittelstein, David; Lee, Katherine; Pakbin, Payam; Saffari, Arian; Bhetraratana, May; Sulaiman, Dawoud; Beebe, Tyler; Wu, Lan; Jen, Nelson; Wine, Eytan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Araujo, Jesus A.; Fogelman, Alan; Sioutas, Constantinos; Navab, Mohamed

2014-01-01

275

Co-formation of hydroperoxides and ultra-fine particles during the reactions of ozone with a complex VOC mixture under simulated indoor conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we examined the co-formation of hydrogen peroxide and other hydroperoxides (collectively presented as H 2O 2*) as well as submicron particles, including ultra-fine particles (UFP), resulting from the reactions of ozone (O 3) with a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under simulated indoor conditions. The VOC mixture contained 23 compounds, including two terpenes ( d-limonene and ?-pinene), two unsaturated alkenes (1-decene and 1-octene), and 19 other saturated organic compounds. These compounds are commonly found in indoor air but their concentrations were higher than typical indoor levels. When O 3 was added to a 25-m 3 controlled environmental facility (CEF) containing the 23 VOC mixture, both H 2O 2* and submicron particles were formed. The 2-h average concentration of H 2O 2* was 1.89±0.30 ppb, and the average total particle number concentration was 46,000±12,000 particles cm -3. A small increase of UFP (0.02-0.1 ?m) occurred 5 min after the O 3 addition (17 min after the VOC addition) and a sharp increase of UFP occurred 13 min after the O 3 addition, suggesting homogeneous nucleation. The delayed onset of this event might reflect the time required to achieve saturated concentrations of the condensable organics. When the 2 terpenes were removed from the O 3/23 VOCs mixture, no H 2O 2* or particles were formed, indicating that the reactions of O 3 with the two terpenes were the key processes contributing to the formation of H 2O 2* and submicron particles in the O 3/23 VOCs system. The present study confirmed the findings of a previous study carried out in a real-world office and generated new findings regarding co-formation of UFP. Through a comparative analysis of H 2O 2* yields under different reaction conditions, this study demonstrates that VOCs co-present with the terpenes and O 3 may play a role in producing H 2O 2*.

Fan, Zhihua; Weschler, Charles J.; Han, In-Kyu; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

276

FINE PARTICLE CHARGING DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the changing of fine particles by unipolar ions in an electric field, and evaluation of a specially designed small pilot-scale (600-1000 acfm) precharging device. Following an extensive review of the lit...

277

The effects of leaf area density variation on the collection efficiency of black carbon in the size range of ultrafine particles (UFP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon is mainly produced in the ultra-fine particle (UFP) size range of 10-100 nm from combustion processes and is now receiving significant attention given its role in global and regional climate change, cloud physics, human health and respiratory related diseases. Likewise, the role of vegetated surfaces in removing UFP is drawing increased attention, prompting interest in the relationship between leaf area density and UFP collection efficiency. Here, carbonaceous particles, mainly black carbon, were generated by burning candles during "sooting burn" to explore the effects of leaf area density (LAD) variation on the collection efficiency of black carbon in the UFP size range. Three scenarios were explored in a wind tunnel: (1) Juniperus Chinensis branches that are uniformly distributed within the test section; (2) LAD that is linearly increasing with downwind distance and (3) LAD that is decreasing with downwind distance. The total leaf area index (LAI) was maintained constant in all three cases. Particle concentrations were measured at multiple locations within the vegetated volume for a range of sizes of UFP (12.6-102 nm) using Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The measured concentration can be used to evaluate the performance of a size-resolving model that couples the turbulent flow field and the collection efficiency for the variable LAD. The model assumes that (i) the mean longitudinal momentum balance is controlled only by the interplay between drag force and the pressure gradient, and (ii) the dominant collection mechanism for UFP is Brownian diffusion. Hence, other collection mechanisms such as inertial impaction, interception and phoretic effects are negligible. Good agreement was found between the model calculations of the UFP collection efficiency by the vegetation and the wind tunnel measurements for all three cases and across a wide range of wind speeds and particle size. It was shown that variations in leaf area density lead to a modification in the mean pressure gradient, resulting in an adjustment in the drag coefficient via the mean momentum balance. Once this adjustment is accounted for, the over-all particle collection efficiency is governed by the integrated LAD.

Huang, C.; Lin, M.; Khlystov, A.; Katul, G. G.

2012-12-01

278

Investigations of percutaneous uptake of ultrafine TiO 2 particles at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micronised TiO 2 particles with a diameter of about 15 nm are used in sunscreens as physical UV filter. Due to the small particle size it may be supposed that TiO 2 particles can pass through the uppermost horny skin layer ( stratum corneum) via intercellular channels and penetrate into deeper vital skin layers. Accumulations of TiO 2 particles in the skin can decrease the threshold for allergies of the immune system or cause allergic reactions directly. Spatially resolved ion beam analysis (PIXE, RBS, STIM and secondary electron imaging) was carried out on freeze-dried cross-sections of biopsies of pig skin, on which four different formulations containing TiO 2 particles were applied. The investigations were carried out at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION in Leipzig with a 2.25 MeV proton beam, which was focused to a diameter of 1 ?m. The analysis concentrated on the penetration depth and on pathways of the TiO 2 particles into the skin. In these measurements a penetration of TiO 2 particles through the s. corneum into the underlying stratum granulosum via intercellular space was found. Hair follicles do not seem to be important penetration pathways because no TiO 2 was detected inside. The TiO 2 particle concentration in the stratum spinosum was below the minimum detection limit of about 1 particle/?m 2. These findings show the importance of coating the TiO 2 particles in order to prevent damage of RNA and DNA of skin cells by photocatalytic reactions of the penetrated particles caused by absorption of UV light.

Menzel, F.; Reinert, T.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.

2004-06-01

279

Indoor/outdoor relationships of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse mode particles in school environments in Barcelona: chemical composition and sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0.25), accumulation (PM0.25-2.5) and coarse mode (PM2.5-10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25.6 ?g m-3 outdoors, 23.4 ?g m-3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e.g. organic material from textiles, etc.; contributing 23-46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying bimodal size distributions for most elements and components, and a unimodal distribution for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulphate) and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Children exposure to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor/outdoor ratios (I/O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl- source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr).

Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.

2013-12-01

280

Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal: Second quarterly progress report period ending 31 March 1989  

SciTech Connect

Battelle, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley (ASH), Kaiser Engineers (KE), Lewis Corporation, and Prof. S.H. Chiang of the University of Pittsburgh, is developing an advanced process for the dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The advanced process, called Electroacoustic Dewatering (EAD), capitalizes on the adaptation of synergistic effects of electric and acoustic fields to a commercial belt filter press design that is used in many other applications. The EAD equipment is described. 2 figs.

Not Available

1989-04-18

281

Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from secondhand smoke in public places before and after the smoking ban, Italy 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: In the post-law period, PM2.5 decreased significantly from a mean concentration of 119.3 mg\\/m 3 to 38.2 mg\\/m3 after 3 months (p,0.005), and then to 43.3 mg\\/m3 a year later (p,0.01). The UFP concentrations also decreased significantly from 76 956 particles\\/cm3 to 38 079 particles\\/cm3 (p,0.0001) and then to 51 692 particles\\/cm3 (p,0.01). Similarly, the concentration of urinary cotinine

Pasquale Valente; Francesco Forastiere; Antonella Bacosi; Giorgio Cattani; Simonetta Di Carlo; Monica Ferri; Irene Figa; Achille Marconi; Luigi Paoletti; Carlo Perucci; Piergiorgio Zuccaro

2010-01-01

282

Electrode geometry effects on the collection efficiency of submicron and ultrafine dust particles in wire-plate electrostatic precipitators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in emission control of fine particulate matter has resulted from scientific studies on the effect of fine particulate matter on human health. Hence, many western countries introduced a new emission regulation known as PM2.5, that regulates particles less than 2.5 microns in diameter. The existing particle separation devices such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are of particular interest since

Drazena Brocilo

2003-01-01

283

Electrode geometry effects on the collection efficiency of submicron and ultrafine dust particles in wire-plate electrostatic precipitators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in emission control of fine particulate matter has resulted from scientific studies on the effect of fine particulate matter on human health. Hence, many western countries introduced a new emission regulation known as PM2.5, that regulates particles less than 2.5 microns in diameter. The existing particle separation devices such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are of particular interest since

Drazena Brocilo

2004-01-01

284

Preparation of Ultrafine Pigment Dispersion and Effect on ??Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waterborne ultrafine pigment C.I.P.B15?1 dispersion was prepared with copolymer by the phase separation method. The shape and size distribution of ultrafine pigment particles were investigated, and the effects of pH value, ion intensity, and alcohols on ??potentials were analyzed. The results showed that stick?shaped particles with narrow distribution were obtained, ??potentials obviously increased with increasing of pH value in

2006-01-01

285

Low-temperature densification of ultrafine grained aluminum 6061-T6 by polymer bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine grained and nanocrytalline materials have many beneficial properties such as higher hardness, strength and wear resistance. A machining process has been developed as a new method to make nanostructured metals or alloys. Through the process, severe plastic deformation can be applied to metals or alloys and they become ultrafine grain and nanocrystalline in their structures. Because ultrafine grained alloys

Boumseock Kim

2008-01-01

286

Development of a Highly Active Electrocatalyst via Ultrafine Pd Nanoparticles Dispersed on Pristine Graphene.  

PubMed

A unique synthesis was developed to immobilize Pd nanoparticles on pristine graphene (PG) sheets via a facile supercritical carbon dioxide route. Pristine graphene was obtained by sonication-assisted exfoliation of graphite in an organic solvent. Finely dispersed worm-like Pd nanoparticles are homogeneously deposited on the hydrophobic graphene surfaces. The combination of pristine graphene sheets and well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles provided large electrochemically active surface areas (ECSA) for both direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) and methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The ECSA values are more than twice as large as those of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube based counterparts or six times those of conventional XC-72 carbon black. Significant enhancements were also observed in the electrocatalytic activity and stability measurements. The excellent electrochemical property of Pd/PG is attributable to the well-preserved graphene structure that ensures electrical conductivity and stability of the composite. Its large surface area also allows for the deposition of small size and high dispersion of the Pd nanoparticles. This straightforward synthesis offers a new pathway for developing highly active electrocatalysts based on pristine graphene with fully optimized properties. PMID:25692321

Zhao, Jian; Liu, Zhensheng; Li, Hongqi; Hu, Wenbin; Zhao, Changzhi; Zhao, Peng; Shi, Donglu

2015-03-01

287

Particle Deposition in a Child Respiratory Tract Model: In Vivo Regional Deposition of Fine and Ultrafine Aerosols in Baboons  

PubMed Central

To relate exposure to adverse health effects, it is necessary to know where particles in the submicron range deposit in the respiratory tract. The possibly higher vulnerability of children requires specific inhalation studies. However, radio-aerosol deposition experiments involving children are rare because of ethical restrictions related to radiation exposure. Thus, an in vivo study was conducted using three baboons as a child respiratory tract model to assess regional deposition patterns (thoracic region vs. extrathoracic region) of radioactive polydisperse aerosols ([d16–d84], equal to [0.15 µm–0.5 µm], [0.25 µm–1 µm], or [1 µm–9 µm]). Results clearly demonstrated that aerosol deposition within the thoracic region and the extrathoraic region varied substantially according to particle size. High deposition in the extrathoracic region was observed for the [1 µm–9 µm] aerosol (72%±17%). The [0.15 µm–0.5 µm] aerosol was associated almost exclusively with thoracic region deposition (84%±4%). Airborne particles in the range of [0.25 µm–1 µm] showed an intermediate deposition pattern, with 49%±8% in the extrathoracic region and 51%±8% in the thoracic region. Finally, comparison of baboon and human inhalation experiments for the [1 µm–9 µm] aerosol showed similar regional deposition, leading to the conclusion that regional deposition is species-independent for this airborne particle sizes. PMID:24787744

Albuquerque-Silva, Iolanda; Vecellio, Laurent; Durand, Marc; Avet, John; Le Pennec, Déborah; de Monte, Michèle; Montharu, Jérôme; Diot, Patrice; Cottier, Michèle; Dubois, Francis; Pourchez, Jérémie

2014-01-01

288

A velocity map imaging photoelectron spectrometer for the study of ultrafine aerosols with a table-top VUV laser and Na-doping for particle sizing applied to dimethyl ether condensation.  

PubMed

We present a new experimental configuration for the study of size-dependent, angle-resolved photoelectron and photoion spectra of weakly bound ultrafine aerosol particles targeted at particle sizes below ~20 nm. It combines single photon ionization by a tunable, table-top vacuum ultraviolet laser at energies up to 18 eV with velocity map imaging detection and independent size determination of the aerosol particles using the Na-doping method. As an example, the size-dependence of the valence photoelectron spectrum of dimethyl ether clusters and ultrafine aerosols is investigated. Up to a mean particle diameter of ~3-4 nm, the first ionization energy (value at band maximum) decreases systematically (up to ~1 eV) and the corresponding band broadens systematically (up to a factor of ~3) with increasing aggregate size. Plateau values for band positions and bandwidths are reached beyond a diameter of ~3-4 nm. Experimental evidence for the dominance of the fast intermolecular proton transfer over monomer fragmentation reactions upon ionization is presented via photoion imaging. PMID:23387577

Yoder, Bruce L; West, Adam H C; Schläppi, Bernhard; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth

2013-01-28

289

Preferred Crystallographic Orientation Development in Nano/Ultrafine-Grained 316L Stainless Steel During Martensite to Austenite Reversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallographic orientation of cold-rolled 316L stainless steel is investigated during reversion of strain-induced ?-martensite to nano/ultrafine-grained austenite upon annealing at 750 °C for different holding times; 1, 5, 15, and 30 min. The texture of nanoscale reverted austenite reveals a Brass ({110}<112>) and a Goss ({110}<100>) textures after annealing for 1 min. No new texture component is appeared through the completion of martensite to austenite reversion for 5 min, but the intensity of Brass and Goss textures are increased. Further annealing for 30 min results in a stronger texture with higher intensity for Brass compared to Goss.

Eskandari, M.; Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Basu, R.; Nezakat, M.; Kermanpur, A.; Szpunar, J. A.; Nahar, S.; Baghpanah, A. H.

2015-02-01

290

Ultrafine ash aerosols from coal combustion: Characterization and health effects  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles withdiameters less than 0.5 {mu}m typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. This paper reports research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence(WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. The instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. This increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygenspecies, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxidative stress. 24 refs., 7 figs.

William P. Linak; Jong-Ik Yoo; Shirley J. Wasson; Weiyan Zhu; Jost O.L. Wendt; Frank E. Huggins; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah; Gerald P. Huffman; M. Ian Gilmour [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

2007-07-01

291

Size-distributed metallic elements in submicronic and ultrafine atmospheric particles from urban and industrial areas in northern France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the size distribution of potentially toxic trace metals (TM) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM), sampling experiments were performed in the urban-industrial area of Dunkirk (North of France) during winter 2012. Total mass concentrations are in accordance with typical values obtained at European urban background sites but lower than the concentrations reported for some Asian industrial countries. Considering the local wind directions, mass concentrations are higher downwind of urban influences than downwind of industrial emissions. The mean PM10 mass concentration (25-30 ?g/m3) is less than the European Union and US EPA limit values (40-50 ?g/m3) but greater than the WHO guidelines (20 ?g/m3). The calculated TM crustal enrichment factors (EFCrust) suggest the anthropogenic origins of most of the studied TM (Sb, Cd, As, Mo, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn and V). The highest TM concentrations were obtained for Zn and Mn (> 50 ng/m3) under industrial influence, but the finest particle (< 0.29 ?m) concentrations were higher for the urban sector than for the industrial sector. This enrichment may be attributed to local urban traffic. In contrast, trace metals are more abundant in the coarser fraction (> 0.29 ?m) downwind of industrial emissions. Moreover, mechanical operations associated with industrial processes (excavating, crushing, and sintering), as well as the resuspension of industrial soils, likely represent some significant TM source-terms in the supermicronic fraction. The EFCrust comparison between the two prevailing sectors demonstrates the importance of steelworks and smelting emissions in the abundance of some TM (As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb and Zn). In contrast, the Cr and Co concentrations seem to be more related to coal combustion emissions, Cu and Sb to automotive traffic, and V, La and Ni to petrochemical activities.

Mbengue, Saliou; Alleman, Laurent Y.; Flament, Pascal

2014-01-01

292

Ultrafine particles from diesel vehicle emissions at different driving cycles induce differential vascular pro-inflammatory responses: Implication of chemical components and NF-?B signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological evidence supports the association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular diseases. Chronic exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; Dp <100 nm) is reported to promote atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice. Atherogenesis-prone factors induce endothelial dysfunction that contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that UFP induced oxidative stress via c-Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNK) activation in endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated pro-inflammatory responses of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) exposed to UFP emitted from a diesel truck under an idling mode (UFP1) and an urban dynamometer driving schedule (UFP2), respectively. We hypothesize that UFP1 and UFP2 with distinct chemical compositions induce differential pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. Results UFP2 contained a higher level of redox active organic compounds and metals on a per PM mass basis than UFP1. While both UFP1 and UFP2 induced superoxide production and up-regulated stress response genes such as heme oxygenease-1 (HO-1), OKL38, and tissue factor (TF), only UFP2 induced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as IL-8 (2.8 ± 0.3-fold), MCP-1 (3.9 ± 0.4-fold), and VCAM (6.5 ± 1.1-fold) (n = 3, P < 0.05). UFP2-exposed HAEC also bound to a higher number of monocytes than UFP1-exposed HAEC (Control = 70 ± 7.5, UFP1 = 106.7 ± 12.5, UFP2 = 137.0 ± 8.0, n = 3, P < 0.05). Adenovirus NF-?B Luciferase reporter assays revealed that UFP2, but not UFP1, significantly induced NF-?B activities. NF-?B inhibitor, CAY10512, significantly abrogated UFP2-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression and monocyte binding. Conclusion While UFP1 induced higher level of oxidative stress and stress response gene expression, only UFP2, with higher levels of redox active organic compounds and metals, induced pro-inflammatory responses via NF-?B signaling. Thus, UFP with distinct chemical compositions caused differential response patterns in endothelial cells. PMID:20307321

2010-01-01

293

Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants  

SciTech Connect

The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

2006-12-22

294

Relationship of pulmonary toxicity and carcinogenicity of fine and ultrafine granular dusts in a rat bioassay.  

PubMed

The current carcinogenicity study with female rats focused on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of intratracheally instilled fine and ultrafine granular dusts. The positive control, crystalline silica, elicited the greatest magnitude and progression of pulmonary inflammatory reactions, fibrosis and the highest incidence of primary lung tumors (39.6%). Addition of poly-2-vinylpyridine-N-oxide decreased inflammatory responses, fibrosis, and the incidence of pulmonary tumors induced by crystalline quartz to 21.4%. After repeated instillation of soluble, ultrafine amorphous silica (15 mg) a statistically significant tumor response (9.4%) was observed, although, the inflammatory response in the lung was not as persistently severe as in rats treated with carbon black. Instillation of ultrafine carbon black (5 mg) caused a lung tumor incidence of 15%. In contrast to a preceding study using a dose of 66 mg coal dust, lung tumors were not detected after exposure to the same coal dust at a dose of 10 mg in this study. Pulmonary inflammatory responses to coal dust were very low indicating a mechanistic threshold for the development of lung tumors connected with particle related chronic inflammation. The animals treated with ultrafine carbon black and ultrafine amorphous silica showed significantly more severe lesions in non-cancerous endpoints when compared to animals treated with fine coal dust. Furthermore, carbon black treated rats showed more severe non-cancerous lung lesions than amorphous silica treated rats. Our data show a relationship between tumor frequencies and increasing scores when using a qualitative scoring system for specific non-cancerous endpoints such as inflammation, fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. PMID:21819261

Kolling, Angelika; Ernst, Heinrich; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Heinrich, Uwe

2011-08-01

295

Increased inflammation and intracellular calcium caused by ultrafine carbon black is independent of transition metals or other soluble components  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESParticulate air pollution has been shown to cause adverse health effects, and the ultrafine particle component has been implicated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ultrafine particle exerted its effects through transition metals or other soluble factors released from the surface of the particles.METHODSBoth in vitro and in vivo models were used to test the

D M Brown; V Stone; P Findlay; W MacNee; K Donaldson

2000-01-01

296

Development of ultrafine-grained microstructure in Al-Cu-Mg alloy through equal-channel angular pressing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-Cu-Mg alloys are extensively used for riveting applications in aerospace industries due to their relatively high shear strength coupled with high plasticity. The significant advantage of using V65 aluminum alloy ((Al-4Cu-0.2Mg) for rivet application also stems from its significantly slower natural aging kinetics, which gives operational flexibility to carryout riveting operation even after 4 days of solution heat treatment, in contrast to its equivalent alloy AA2024.Rivets are usually made by cold heading of wire rods. In order to form a defect free rivet head, grain size control in wire rods is essential at each and every stage of processing right from casting onwards upto the final wire drawing stage. Wire drawing is carried out at room temperature to reduce diameter as well as impart good surface finish. In the present study, different microstructures in V65 alloy bars were produced by rolling at different temperatures (room temperature to 523K) and subsequently deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 423K upto an equivalent strain of 7. ECAP was carried out to study the effect of initial microstructure on grain refinement and degree of deformation on the evolution of ultrafine grain structure. The refinement of V65 alloy by ECAP is significantly influenced by Initial microstructure but amount of deformation strongly affects the evolution processes as revealed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Sai Anuhya, Danam; Gupta, Ashutosh; Nayan, Niraj; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Manna, R.; Sastry, G. V. S.

2014-08-01

297

Ultrafine PEG-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles formulated by hydrophobic surfactant-assisted one-pot synthesis for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method was developed for the one-pot synthesis of ultrafine poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), using an emulsion solvent evaporation formulation method. Using either cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or poly(ethylene glycol)-distearyl phosphoethanolamine (PEGPE) as an oily emulsifier during the emulsion process, produced PLGA particle sizes of less than 50 nm, constituting a breakthrough in emulsion formulation methods. The yield of ultrafine PLGA NPs increased with PEGPE/PLGA ratio, reaching a plateau at around 85%, when the PEGPE/PLGA ratio reached 3:1. The PEGPE-PLGA NPs exhibited high drug loading content, reduced burst release, good serum stability, and enhanced cell uptake rate compared with traditional PLGA NPs. Sub-50 nm diameter PEG-coated ultrafine PLGA NPs show great potential for in vivo drug delivery systems.

Chu, Chih-Hang; Wang, Yu-Chao; Huang, Hsin-Ying; Wu, Li-Chen; Yang, Chung-Shi

2011-05-01

298

Initial study of dry ultrafine coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging with subsequent electrostatic separation  

SciTech Connect

A novel, dry process using electrostatics to beneficiate ultrafine coal is being developed by the Coal Preparation Division at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. The historical concept of triboelectricity and its eventual use as a means of charging coal for electrostatic separation will be discussed. Test data from a first-generation and a second-generation Tribo-Electrostatic separator are presented showing the effects of feed particle size, separator voltage, solids concentration in air, and particle velocity on separation performance. 10 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

Link, T.A.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Elstrodt, R.H.; Haden, N.H.

1990-10-01

299

Coated particle waste form development  

SciTech Connect

Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

1981-12-01

300

Effect of reductant and PVP on morphology and magnetic property of ultrafine Ni powders prepared via hydrothermal route  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: The ultrafine Ni powders with the shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using different reductants. Their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity sequentially increase, and the coercivity of hexagonal sheet-like Ni powders increases by 25% compared with the Ni bulk counterpart. - Highlights: • The ultrafine Ni powders with various shapes of sphere, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet, etc. • Facile and one-step hydrothermal reduction using three reductants and PVP additive was developed. • Magnetic properties of the ultrafine Ni powders with different shapes were measured. • Compared with bulk Ni material, coercivity of hexagonal sheet Ni increases by 25%. • The formation mechanism of the shapes was suggested. - Abstract: The ultrafine nickel particles with different shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using hydrazine hydrate, sodium hypophosphite and ethylene glycol as reductants, polyvinylpyrrolidone as structure-directing agent. It has been verified with the characterization of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission/scanning electronic microscopy that as-prepared products belong to face-centered cubic structure of nickel microcrystals with high purity and fine dispersity. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature reveal that the values of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity rise sequentially from silknet, sphere to hexagonal sheet. In comparison with nickel bulk counterpart, the coercivity of the hexagonal sheet nickel powders increases by 25%.

Zhang, Jun, E-mail: j-zhang@126.com; Wang, Xiucai; Li, Lili; Li, Chengxuan; Peng, Shuge

2013-10-15

301

On-line analysis of the size distribution of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles in flue and stack gas of a municipal waste incineration plant: effects of dynamic process control measures and emission reduction devices.  

PubMed

The size distribution of particles in the waste gas of a municipal waste incineration plant (23 MW) was measured on-line at two sampling points in the flue-gas duct (700 and 300 degrees C) as well as in the stack gas (80 degrees C). The measurements were performed during both stable combustion conditions and transient operating conditions. The particle measurements were carried out by a mobile system consisting of a home-designed sampling system with dilution device and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for the particle size range 17-600 nm as well as an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) for the size range 500 nm-30 microm. The APS and SMPS data were combined using a special method and a home written software tool. The maximum of the particle-size distribution in the flue gas of the incinerator shifts from about 90 nm at the 700 degrees C sampling point to about 140 nm at the 300 degrees C point, showing the particle growth by coagulation processes and condensation of inorganic and organic gaseous species with decreasing temperature. This finding is consistent with the measured concentration profiles of gaseous organic chemical species in the flue gas. While at flue-gas temperatures of 600-800 degrees C a rich pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species (PAH) is observable, the PAH concentrations are considerably reduced further downstream of the flue-gas channel, where the temperature drops below 500 degrees C. Condensation and reactive bonding of gaseous chemicals onto particulate matter is, among other reasons, responsible for the depletion of gas-phase species. Process control measures, such as firing the backup burners or cleaning of the grate with pressurized air, can cause dynamic changes of the particle-size distribution. Furthermore the flue-gas cleaning measures have great impact onto both the particle concentration and the size distribution. For this reason the impact of one particular emission reduction device, the wet electrostatic dust precipitator (wet-ESP), is evaluated. The wet-ESP reduces considerably the particle concentration over the whole size range. Behind the flue-gas processing units a broad maximum in the particle-size distribution occurs at about 70 nm, but no pronounced particle-size distribution could be observed. The particle concentration level atthis maximum is about 3 magnitudes lower than in the raw flue gas. However, intermittent periods lasting for several minutes of high emissions of ultrafine particles with d < 40 nm were observed. These particles are most likely formed by nucleation processes behind the wet-ESP from gas-phase constituents of the stack gas. PMID:14594389

Maguhn, Jürgen; Karg, Erwin; Kettrup, Antonius; Zimmermann, Ralf

2003-10-15

302

Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over 99.9% coal recovery could be obtained in a one-stage separation by screening the agglomerated product. If a conventional oil agglomeration process is used instead, oil consumption as high as 30% is needed to obtain comparable results. In the tests on filtration and dewatering of ultrafine and fine coals, the effect of chemical additives and coal surface properties was investigated. The tests revealed very significant differences in the filtration of ultrafine (-45 mum) and fine (-500 mum) coals. The moisture contents in the filter cakes in the tests with ultrafine coal were around 40% (irrespective of the coal surface properties), while for the fine coal the moisture content fluctuated around 18% (Ford-4) and 30% (Ford-13). The results revealed that the hydrophobic latex and the emulsified oils could not only successfully beneficiate the ultrafine coal but also significantly increase filtration rate and/or reduce moisture content of the filter cake. Among the chemicals tested, the emulsified oils were found to be the most promising not only for the beneficiation but also for filtration and dewatering processes. Surfactants were found to only slightly affect the filtration of fine coal. However, they can influence filtration very profoundly if utilized to emulsify the oil which is used to agglomerate coal prior to its filtration.

Yu, Zhimin

303

Development of ultrafine multichannel microfluidic mixer for synthesis of bimetallic nanoclusters: catalytic application of highly monodisperse AuPd nanoclusters stabilized by poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone).  

PubMed

On account of their novel properties, bimetallic nanoparticles and nanoclusters (NCs) are strong potential candidates for optical, magnetic, and catalytic functional materials. These properties depend on the chemical composition and size (number of constituent atoms) of the NCs. Control of size, structure, and composition is particularly important for fabricating highly functional materials based on bimetallic NCs. Size- and structure-controlled synthesis of two-element alloys can reveal their intrinsic electronic synergistic effects. However, because synergistic enhancement of activity is strongly affected by composition as well as by size and structure, controlled synthesis is a challenging task, particularly in catalytic applications. To investigate catalytic synergistic effects, we have synthesized highly monodisperse, sub-2 nm, solid-solution AuPd NCs stabilized with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (AuPd:PVP) using a newly developed ultrafine microfluidic mixing device with 15 ?m wide multiple lamination channels. The synergistic enhancement for catalytic aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol exhibited a volcano-shaped trend, with a maximum at 20-65 at. % Pd. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements, we confirmed that the enhanced activity originates from the enhanced electron density at the Au sites, donated by Pd sites. PMID:25145798

Hayashi, Naoto; Sakai, Yuka; Tsunoyama, Hironori; Nakajima, Atsushi

2014-09-01

304

Preparation and dispersive mechanism of highly dispersive ultrafine silver powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ascorbic acid as the reducing agent, AgNO 3 as the source of Ag, the ultrafine silver powder was prepared by liquid-phase reduction method. The optimal conditions to prepare the ultrafine silver powder were obtained by studying the effects of following factors, such as the selection of dispersant, the doses of dispersant and pH, on the dispersibility of silver powder under other constant conditions. The pure ultrafine silver powder with quasi-spherical shape and mean size of 1.15 ?m was synthesized under the optimal conditions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as disperser, PVA/AgNO 3 mass ratio of 4:100 and pH 7 while maintaining other conditions exactly in the same circumstances, such as AgNO 3 concentration of 0.20 mol L -1, ascorbic acid concentration of 0.15 mol L -1 and reaction temperature of 40 °C. The ultrafine silver powder was characterized by SEM and XRD. And a PVA dispersive mechanism for preparing highly dispersive ultrafine silver powder, proved by the ultraviolet spectra, is that PVA absorbed on the surface of silver particles by coordination bond preventing the silver particles from diffusion and aggregation. In addition, the steric effect may help to reduce aggregation.

Guo, Guiquan; Gan, Weiping; Luo, Jian; Xiang, Feng; Zhang, Jinling; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Huan

2010-09-01

305

Study of an ultrafine w-EDM technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precision ultrafine w-EDM (wire electrical discharge machining) technique specifically for machining intricate parts and structures is developed in this paper. A thumb-sized and versatile w-EDM device equipped with a complete control system for wire tension (ultrafine tungsten wire of 13 µm diameter) is designed and employed for the study of ultrafine w-EDM. The tension of the wire electrode is controlled by magnetic repulsive force to steady the wire during machining. Ultrafine wire cutting can be conducted in vertical-, horizontal- or slantwise-wire arrangements. Via some experiments, optimal machining conditions including discharge capacitance, feed rate, wire tension and the appropriate design for the w-EDM device are obtained. Two miniature samples including a micro of Taipei's landmark 101 building and a micro relay are fabricated and the feasibility of the proposed approach is verified. It is confirmed that the ultrafine w-EDM technique using an ultrafine tungsten wire of 13 µm was realized successfully.

Chen, Shun-Tong; Yang, Hong-Ye; Du, Chih-Wei

2009-11-01

306

Low-temperature densification of ultrafine grained aluminum 6061-T6 by polymer bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine grained and nanocrytalline materials have many beneficial properties such as higher hardness, strength and wear resistance. A machining process has been developed as a new method to make nanostructured metals or alloys. Through the process, severe plastic deformation can be applied to metals or alloys and they become ultrafine grain and nanocrystalline in their structures. Because ultrafine grained alloys made by machining are made up to small chips, not bulk, to make bulk material, the alloy chips must be densified through processes such as sintering. Unfortunately, during the conventional sintering, the ultrafine grained alloys show grain growth at high rate and lose their hardness and strength. Therefore, low-temperature densification of ultrafine grained alloys has been pursued. In this thesis, ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al 6061-T6 particulate produced from machining chips have been consolidated and bonded using liquid epoxies that cure at 100?, below the coarsening temperature of the UFG structure. Two routes were explored---die-pressing premixed alloy particulate and epoxy and pressure infiltration of pre-pressed alloy particulate preforms. The effects of pressing pressure and epoxy viscosity were investigated. In order to reduce porosity and contamination, three treatments---application of pressure during curing of epoxy, the cleaning of the alloy powder with NaOH solution and degassing epoxy before pressing---were tried. In order to overcome limitation of diepressing, infiltration method was compared with die-pressing and the resulting properties of the composite discussed. Bond thickness between the alloy particles increases with the viscosity of the epoxies. In the hardness results by micro-indentor, the value of composite with more than 80% volume fraction of Al alloy chip (Va) was more than 120 kg/mm2. In those measurements, the hardness of the composite depends mainly on the volume fraction of Al alloy and was clearly influenced by the boundary with epoxy and porosity. In the results by macro-indentor, the hardness of composite with more than 80% Va was more than 70 kg/mm2. It was concluded that alloy volume fractions of 0.8 to 0.9 were achieved with hardness greater than that of conventional bulk al 6061-T6.

Kim, Boumseock

307

Preparation of ultrafine boride powders by metallothermic reduction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine TiB2, ZrB2, and ReB2 powders were prepared by the metallothermic reduction method using Mg. Obtained TiB2, ZrB2, and ReB2 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and scratch test. The morphology of the powders was a laminar hexagonal single crystal. The mean particle sizes of TiB2 and ZrB2 increased with increasing reaction temperature, and that of ReB2 was 0.11 ?m at 1093 K. The obtained ReB2 powder can scratch the surface of polycrystalline synthetic diamonds (HK = 7000 kg/mm2). The obtained powders will be useful for developing of new superhard alloys and pigments.

Nishiyama, Katsuhiro; Nakamur, Takanobu; Utsumi, Shigenori; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

2009-06-01

308

Particle swarm optimization: developments, applications and resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the engineering and computer science aspects of developments, applications, and resources related to particle swarm optimization. Developments in the particle swarm algorithm since its origin in 1995 are reviewed. Included are brief discussions of constriction factors, inertia weights, and tracking dynamic systems. Applications, both those already developed, and promising future application areas, are reviewed. Finally, resources

Russell C. Eberhart; Yuhui Shi

2001-01-01

309

Enhanced unipolar charging of concentration-enriched particles using water-based condensational growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel methodology with high efficiency for charging fine and ultrafine particles was developed and evaluated. The technique has been realized by combining the versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VASES) developed by our group and a newly developed unipolar charger equipped with carbon fiber ionizers. Particles are grown to super-micron droplets via condensation of ultrapure deionized water and then concentrated

Bangwoo Han; Neelakshi Hudda; Zhi Ning; Constantinos Sioutas

2008-01-01

310

Real-world PM, NO x, CO, and ultrafine particle emission factors for military non-road heavy duty diesel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Training on US military bases involves nonroad diesel vehicles with emissions that can affect base personnel, nearby communities, and attainment of air quality standards. Nonroad diesel engines contribute 44% of diesel PM and 12% of total NO x emissions from mobile sources nationwide. Although military sector fuel use accounts for only ?0.4% of distillate fuel use in US, emissions factors measured for these engines improve the representation of the relatively small (as compared to onroad sources) database of nonroad emission factors. Heavy-duty multi-axle, all-wheel drive military trucks are not compatible with regular single-axle dynamometers and their emissions cannot be measured under standard laboratory conditions. We have developed a novel in-plume technique to measure in-use emissions from vehicles with elevated stack. Real-world gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFs) from ten 7-ton 6-wheel drive trucks and two 8-wheel drive heavy tactical Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) vehicles were measured using in-plume sampling. The EFs of these trucks are comparable to those of onroad trucks while the PM EFs of 2-stroke LVS are ?10 times higher than those of onroad vehicles. Lower EC/PM ratio was observed for LVS compared with MTVR. PM number emission factors were 5.9 × 10 14 particles km -1 for the trucks and 2.5 × 10 16 particles km -1 for the LVSs, three orders of magnitude higher than the proposed European Union standard of 6 × 10 11 particles km -1. The EFs sampled can be extended to engines used in the broader nonroad sector including agriculture and mining and used as inputs to the NONROAD model.

Zhu, Dongzi; Nussbaum, Nicholas J.; Kuhns, Hampden D.; Chang, M.-C. Oliver; Sodeman, David; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G.

2011-05-01

311

Heterogeneities in inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to urban air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles from six European sampling campaigns  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the samples for 24 h. Selected inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)), were measured together with cytotoxicity (MTT test), and analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle (propidium iodide staining). The PM10-2.5 samples had a much higher inflammatory activity than the PM2.5-0.2 and PM0.2 samples, but the PM2.5-0.2 samples showed the largest differences in inflammatory activity, and the PM0.2 samples in cytotoxicity, between the sampling campaigns. The PM2.5-0.2 samples from traffic environments in springtime Barcelona and summertime Athens had the highest inflammatory activities, which may be related to the high photochemical activity in the atmosphere during the sampling campaigns. The PM0.2 sample from wintertime Prague with proven impacts from local coal and biomass combustion had very high cytotoxic and apoptotic activities and caused a distinct cell cycle arrest. Thus, particulate size, sources, and atmospheric transformation processes affect the toxicity profile of urban air particulate matter. These factors may explain some of the heterogeneity observed in particulate exposure-response relationships of human health effects in epidemiological studies.

Jalava, P.I.; Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Halinen, A.I.; Happo, M.S.; Hillamo, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Katsouyanni, K.; Sunyer, J.; Hirvonen, M.R. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. for Environmental Health

2007-03-15

312

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, suppltfment au no 7, Tome 38, Juillet 1977, page C2-147 SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR ULTRAFINE METAL PARTICLES  

E-print Network

discontinues et dans les catalystes support6es. Abstract. - Coalescence growth of particles is described coalescence. The model predicts that the logarithm of the particle size should have a Gaussian distribution. To obtain a theoretical description [ I , 23 of coalescence the particle growth is considered to take place

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Flow and compaction behaviour of ultrafine coated ibuprofen.  

PubMed

Good flow and compaction properties are prerequisites for successful compaction process. Apart from initial profile, mechanical properties of pharmaceutical powders can get modified during unit processes like milling. Milled powders can exhibit a wide range of particle size distribution. Further downstream processing steps like compaction can be affected by this differential particle size distribution. This has greatest implications for formulations like high dose drugs wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) contributes the maximum bulk in the final formulation. The present study assesses the impact of dry coating with ultrafine particles of same material, on the flow and compaction properties of the core material. Ibuprofen was selected as model drug as it has been reported to have poor mechanical properties. Ultrafine ibuprofen (average size 1.75 ?m) was generated by Dyno(®) milling and was dry coated onto the core ibuprofen particles (average size 180 ?m). Compaction studies were performed using a fully instrumented rotary tablet press. Compaction data was analyzed for compressibility, tabletability, compactibility profiles and Heckel plot. Dry coating of the ibuprofen exhibited greater compressibility and tabletability, at lower compaction pressure. However, at compaction pressure above 220 MPa, compressibility and tabletability of coated as well as uncoated materials were found to be similar. Heckel analysis also supported the above findings, as P(y) value of uncoated ibuprofen was found to be 229.49 MPa and for 2.0% ultrafine coated ibuprofen was found to be 158.53 MPa. Lower P(y) value of ultrafine coated ibuprofen indicated ease of plastic deformation. Superior compressibility and deformation behaviour of ultrafine coated ibuprofen attributed to increased interparticulate bonding area. This strategy can also be explored for improving tabletability of high dose poorly compressible drugs. PMID:23142495

More, Parth K; Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

2013-01-30

314

Consequences of Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine Particle Air Pollution Combined with the Adult Paraquat and Maneb Model of the Parkinson’s Disease Phenotype in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Current evidence suggests suceptibility of both the substantia nigra and striatum to exposure to components of air pollution. Further, air pollution has been associated with increased risk of PD diagnsosis in humans or PD-like pathology in animals. This study examined whether exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS; <100 nm diameter) during the first two weeks of life would alter susceptibility to induction of the Parkinson’s disease phenyotype (PDP) in a pesticide-based paraquat and maneb (PQ+MB) model during adulthood utilizing i.p. injections of 10 mg/kg PQ and 30 mg/kg MB 2× per week for 6 weeks. Evidence of CAPS-induced enhancement of the PQ+MB PDP was limited primarily to delayed recovery of locomotor activity 24 post injection of PQ+MB that could be related to alterations in striatal GABA inhibitory function. Absence of more extensive interactions might also reflect the finding that CAPS and PQ+MB appeared to differentially target the nigrostriatal dopamine and amino acid systems, with CAPS impacting striatum and PQ+MB impacting dopamine-glutamate function in midbrain; both CAPS and PQ+MB elevated glutamate levels in these specific regions, consistent with potential excitotoxicity. These findings demonstrate the ability of postnatal CAPS to produce locomotor dysfunction and dopaminergic and glutamateric changes, independent of PQ+MB, in brain regions involved in the PDP. PMID:24486957

Allen, Joshua L; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

2014-01-01

315

Prototype development and testing of ultrafine grain NZP ceramics. Final report, July 28, 1995--April 27, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to demonstrate that a new low-expanding ceramic (Ca{sub 0.6},Mg{sub 0.4})Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}, hereafter referred to as CMZP, could be used as an exhaust manifold liner in off-road diesel engines and provide improved engine efficiency (by permitting higher engine operating temperature). This study has successfully demonstrated this improvement and further engine testing (and possible manufacturing) is presently underway at Caterpillar Inc. Laboratories. Basically this program involved two subcontracts: one to Virginia Tech to develop sintering procedures for CMZP, and one to Caterpillar, Inc. to develop slip casting procedures for CMZP. Nearly 100kg of CMZP were prepared by MATVA, Inc. and Virginia Tech for use by Caterpillar. Virginia Tech developed detailed sintering procedures for CMZP and Caterpillar developed slip casting procedures and manufactured several exhaust manifold elbows. These elbows have been cast into prototype cylinder heads and have been shown to be acceptable replacements for metal manifolds. (Caterpillar advises that a new component may require up to 6 years of testing and qualification before acceptance as standard diesel engine part).

Brown, J.J.

1997-08-04

316

Ultrafine PEG-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles formulated by hydrophobic surfactant-assisted one-pot synthesis for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method was developed for the one-pot synthesis of ultrafine poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), using an emulsion solvent evaporation formulation method. Using either cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or poly(ethylene glycol)-distearyl phosphoethanolamine (PEGPE) as an oily emulsifier during the emulsion process, produced PLGA particle sizes of less than 50 nm, constituting a breakthrough in emulsion formulation methods. The yield of

Chih-Hang Chu; Yu-Chao Wang; Hsin-Ying Huang; Li-Chen Wu; Chung-Shi Yang

2011-01-01

317

EFFECT OF CENTRAL FANS AND IN-DUCT FILTERS ON DEPOSITION RATES OF ULTRAFINE AND FINE PARTICLES IN AN OCCUPIED TOWNHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Airborne particles are implicated in morbidity and mortality of certain high-risk subpopulations. Exposure to particles occurs mostly indoors, where a main removal mechanism is deposition to surfaces. Deposition can be affected by the use of forced- air circulation through duct...

318

Numerical investigation of the influence of crystallization of ultrafine particles of aluminum oxide on energy characteristics of solid-propellant rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of numerical investigation of a multiphase flow considering coagulation, crushing and crystallization of the particles of polydispersed condensate in the nozzles of solid-propellant rocket engine are presented. The influence of particles crystallization on the energy characteristics of the engine is shown.

Dyachenko, N. N.; Dyachenko, L. I.

2014-08-01

319

Stability of ZrOâ phases in ultrafine ZrOâ-AlâOâ mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of ultrafine monoclinic zirconia and aluminum hydroxide were prepared by adding NHâOH to hydrolyzed zirconia sols containing varied amounts of aluminum sulfate. The mixtures were heat-treated at 500° to 1300°C. The relative stability of monoclinic and tetragonal ZrOâ in these ultrafine particles was studied by x-ray diffractometry. Growth of ZrOâ crystallites at elevated temperatures was strongly inhibited by AlâOâ

YOSHIO MURASE; ETSURO KATO; KEIJI DAIMON

1986-01-01

320

In-vehicle measurement of ultrafine particles on compressed natural gas, conventional diesel, and oxidation-catalyst diesel heavy-duty transit buses.  

PubMed

Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (<10 years) over older models, but particle number reduction has not been verified in the research. Recent studies suggest that particle number is a more important factor than particle mass in determining health effects. In-vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning. PMID:17219245

Hammond, Davyda; Jones, Steven; Lalor, Melinda

2007-02-01

321

Respiratory effects of fine and ultrafine particles from indoor sources--a randomized sham-controlled exposure study of healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB), toasting bread (TB), frying sausages (FS)) and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years) in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h). FEV1, FVC and MEF25%-75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios) and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%-75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of -19 mL (95%-confidence interval:-43; 5) after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults. PMID:25000149

Soppa, Vanessa J; Schins, Roel P F; Hennig, Frauke; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weinmayr, Gudrun

2014-07-01

322

Respiratory Effects of Fine and Ultrafine Particles from Indoor Sources—A Randomized Sham-Controlled Exposure Study of Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Particulate air pollution is linked to impaired respiratory health. We analyzed particle emissions from common indoor sources (candles burning (CB), toasting bread (TB), frying sausages (FS)) and lung function in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.0 years) in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) up to 10 µm, and particle mass concentration (PMC) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were determined during exposure (2 h). FEV1, FVC and MEF25%–75% was measured before, 4 h and 24 h after exposure. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests (comparing exposure scenarios) and mixed linear regression using particle concentrations and adjusting for personal characteristics, travel time and transportation means before exposure sessions were performed. While no effect was seen comparing the exposure scenarios and in the unadjusted model, inverse associations were found for PMC from CB and FS in relation to FEV1 and MEF25%–75%. with a change in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 from CB being associated with a change in FEV1 of ?19 mL (95%-confidence interval:?43; 5) after 4 h. PMC from TB and PNC of UFP were not associated with lung function changes, but PSC from CB was. Elevated indoor fine particles from certain sources may be associated with small decreases in lung function in healthy adults. PMID:25000149

Soppa, Vanessa J.; Schins, Roel P. F.; Hennig, Frauke; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weinmayr, Gudrun

2014-01-01

323

High-temperature LDV seed particle development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such particles would also be valuable to manufacturers of ceramic or abrasive products, and this technique may find its greatest commercial potential in those areas.

Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

1989-01-01

324

Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO(4); a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO(4) and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO(4) on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO(4), induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:23261976

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen; Chang, Hui-Hsien; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

2013-02-01

325

Time dependent IRM acquisition as a tool to quantify the abundance of ultrafine superparamagnetic magnetite in loessic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time dependence of Isothermal Remanent Magnetization acquisition (tIRM) is a rapid, sensitive and inexpensive way to quantify the presence of ultrafine ferrimagnetic grains straddling the superparamagnetic-single domain grain size boundary, well suited for use in small rock magnetic laboratories. The technique is very selective to the presence of grains with a diameter of approximately 25 nm, and tIRM results correlate well with measurements of frequency dependent susceptibility without the need of correcting for the presence of paramagnetic minerals. A simple IRM acquisition model can be used to obtain quantitative abundance estimates for these ultrafine magnetic grains. Application of tIRM measurements to eleven soil profiles from the Midwestern United States shows that the abundance of ultrafine particles increases with precipitation, as long as the mean annual precipitation is below 850 mm a-1. Sites that developed under more humid conditions show a decrease in tIRM and likely SP abundance, probably caused by increased iron reduction and translocation during more common periods of reducing conditions.

Machac, Tamara A.; Zanner, C. William; Geiss, Christoph E.

2007-05-01

326

Estimation of health risks and safety margins due to inhalation of ultrafine particles and nanoparticles in selected occupational, consumer and environmental settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles exhibit properties different from those of the same bulk materials leading to unknown toxicological implications that have evoked concern for (1) occupational, (2) consumer and (3) environmental safety. The current work utilizes epidemiological and toxicological data for screening level assessment of these risks using various suggested health relevant dose metrics (mass, particle number and surface area) to (i) quantify the potential risk levels and to (ii) compare the properties of these alternative risk assessment methods.

Hänninen, Otto; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Loh, Miranda; Stoeger, Tobias; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Schmid, Otmar; Peters, Annette

2009-05-01

327

Variability of oxidants (OX = O3 + NO2), and preliminary study on ambient levels of ultrafine particles and VOCs, in an important ecological area in Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the first study of photochemical air pollution inside the Cabañeros National Park, in the south-centre of the Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose, we analysed (i) the daily and seasonal variation of oxidant levels (OX = O3 + NO2), (ii) the particle number concentration and size distribution (for particle diameters in the range 6-560 nm), (iii) the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and (iv) back trajectories of the air masses affecting this region. The ozone NO and NO2 data were collected from January to September 2011. NOx levels were very low during the measurement time. On the other hand, the threshold for the protection of human health defined in the European Ozone Directives was exceeded 2 times and the AOT40 parameters to protect vegetation and trees were also exceeded. Under the found conditions, photochemical production of ozone was NOx-limited and the ozone problem in this region is associated to transport of polluted air masses from remote areas, mainly from the eastern Mediterranean coast and the western Atlantic coast, according to the back trajectories data. The average total concentration of particles during our study was 3.5 × 103 #cm- 3 with the Aitken and accumulation modes as the main contributions.

Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

2013-07-01

328

The response of a co-culture lung model to fine and ultrafine particles of incinerator fly ash at the air-liquid interface.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of particulate matter in the environmental atmosphere constitute a potential risk to human health. In vitro cell-based assays are therefore necessary to evaluate the toxicological potential of inhaled particulate emissions. In this study, the exposure of a co-culture cell model at the air-liquid interface was used to evaluate the dose-dependent biological effects of a test aerosol. The CULTEX system was used to expose human cells to an environmentally-relevant aerosol, generated from fly ash collected in a commercial municipal waste incinerator and resuspended in filtered air. Human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, co-cultured with differentiated THP-1 macrophages growing on Transwell inserts, were employed in the bioassay. Analyses of cell viability, interleukin-8 (IL-8) release, intracellular glutathione, and haeme oxygenase-1 enzyme expression were performed. Transportation of the cells and exposure to humidified filtered air or the test aerosol, at 100 ml/min for 1 to 6 hours, were well tolerated by the cells and had no effect on their viability. Levels of IL-8 release and haeme oxygenase-1 expression were elevated by exposure to fly ash aerosol as a function of time, but not by exposure to clean air. For IL-8 release, a dose-dependent effect was demonstrated with the assumption that the deposited mass of the particles correlated with exposure time. Exposure to the test aerosol did not affect the intracellular glutathione concentration. This in vitro approach simulates particle deposition in the human lung more realistically than does submerged exposure, and it preserves the inherent properties of the particles. It shows promise for use to detect particulate emissions which are potentially detrimental to human health. PMID:18662093

Diabaté, Silvia; Mülhopt, Sonja; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Krug, Harald F

2008-07-01

329

Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 ?m) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ? 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of acute airway inflammation. Conclusions Exposure to PNC and offensive odour, and nasopharyngeal irritation, can be significantly lowered when utilising a route of lower proximity to motorised traffic whilst bicycle commuting, without significantly affecting commute distance or duration. This may bring health benefits for both healthy and susceptible individuals. PMID:23566176

2013-01-01

330

Plasma synthesis and characterization of ultrafine SiC  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafine SiC powders have been prepared by gas phase synthesis from silane and methane in an argon thermal rf-plasma. Bulk properties of the powders were determined by elemental analysis, x-ray diffractin, helium pycnometry, and BET surface area measurements. The near-surface composition and structure of the particles were examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition to free silicon and carbon particles in the powders, free carbon and various silicon/carbon/oxygen species were found on the surface of the SiC particles.

Vogt, G.J.; Phillips, D.S.; Taylor, T.N.

1986-01-01

331

Preparation, characterization, and cytotoxicity of CPT/Fe2O3-embedded PLGA ultrafine composite fibers: a synergistic approach to develop promising anticancer material  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to fabricate camptothecin/iron(III) oxide (CPT/Fe2O3)-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) composite mats to modulate the CPT release and to improve the structural integrity and antitumor activity of the released drug. The CPT/Fe2O3-loaded PLGA ultrafine fibers were prepared for the first time by electrospinning a composite solution of CPT/Fe2O3 and neat PLGA (4 weight percent). The physicochemical characterization of the electrospun composite mat was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern. The medicated composite fibers were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on C2C12 cells using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, St Louis, MO). The in vitro studies indicated a slow and prolonged release over a period of 96 hours with mild initial burst. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the interaction of CPT/Fe2O3 with the PLGA matrix and showed that the crystallinity of CPT decreased after loading. Incorporation of CPT in the polymer media affected both the morphology and the size of the CPT/Fe2O3-loaded PLGA composite fibers. Electron probe microanalysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirmed well-oriented composite ultrafine fibers with good incorporation of CPT/Fe2O3. The cytotoxicity results illustrate that the pristine PLGA did not exhibit noteworthy cytotoxicity; conversely, the CPT/Fe2O3 composite fibers inhibited C2C12 cells significantly. Thus, the current work demonstrates that the CPT/Fe2O3-loaded PLGA composite fibers represent a promising chemotherapeutic system for enhancing anticancer drug efficacy and selectively targeting cancer cells in order to treat diverse cancers. PMID:22615530

Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Nam, Ki-Taek; Bing, Yang You; Barakat, Nasser AM; Khil, Myung-Seob; Kim, Hak Yong

2012-01-01

332

Effects of ultrafine petrol exhaust particles on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress generation, DNA damage and inflammation in human A549 lung cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

Air pollution has persistently been the major cause of respiratory-related illness and death. Environmental pollutants such as diesel and petrol exhaust particles (PEPs) are the major contributors to urban air pollution. The aim of the present study was to characterize and investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation induced by PEPs. Cultured type II epithelium cells (human A549 lung cells) and alveolar macrophages (murine RAW 264.7 cells) were exposed to control, vehicle control and to different concentrations of PEPs for up to 24h. Each treatment was evaluated by cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammatory parameters. Overall in vitro studies demonstrated that both cell lines showed similar patterns in response to the above studies induced by petrol exhaust nanoparticles (PENPs). Vehicle control showed no changes compared with the control. In both cell lines, significant changes at the dose of 20 and 50?g/mL (A549 cell lines) and 10and 20?g/mL (macrophages) for PENPs were found. The reactive oxygen species production in both cell lines shot up in minutes, reached the maximum within an hour and came down after 4h. Hence, exposure to PENPs resulted in dose-dependent toxicity in cultured A549 cells and RAW 264.7 cells and was closely correlated to increased oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation. PMID:25173103

Durga, Mohan; Nathiya, Soundararajan; Rajasekar, Abbu; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

2014-09-01

333

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Two-level statistical modeling of background exposure and time-activity patterns during three seasons.  

PubMed

Personal exposure to air pollution is associated with time- and location-specific factors including indoor and outdoor air pollution, meteorology and time activities. Our investigation aims at the description and identification of factors determining personal exposure to particle number concentration (PNC) in everyday situations. Ten volunteers recorded their personal exposure to PNC and kept an activity diary in three different seasons besides stationary measurements of ambient air pollution and meteorology. Background exposure to PNC was modelled using the most predictive variables. In a second step, the effects of the activities were calculated adjusted for the background exposure. The average personal PNC level was highest in winter and was three times higher than the mean stationary PNC level while staying indoors and two times higher while staying outdoors. Personal indoor PNC levels were significantly increased during the use of candles, cooking and the occurrence of smell of food. High stationary outdoor PNC levels and low dew point temperatures were associated with increased personal outdoor PNC levels. Times spent in public transport were associated with lower personal PNC levels than other times spent in transportation. Personal PNC levels in everyday situations exhibited a large variability because of seasonal, microenvironment-specific and activity-specific influences.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.73. PMID:25407347

Deffner, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Pitz, Mike; Cyrys, Josef; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Gu, Jianwei; Geruschkat, Uta; Peters, Annette

2014-11-19

334

Deposition of Inhaled Ultrafine Aerosols in Replicas of Nasal Airways of Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimentally measured deposition of ultrafine particles, ranging from 13–100 nm in diameter, in nasal airway replicas of ten infants aged 3–18 months is presented. The replicas included the face, nostrils, and nasal airways including the upper trachea. A differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and a condensation particle counter (CPC) were used to quantify the nasal deposition by comparing the number of

L. Golshahi; W. H. Finlay; J. S. Olfert; R. B. Thompson; M. L. Noga

2010-01-01

335

Seasonal and spatial variation in reactive oxygen species activity of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.25) in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and its association with chemical composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and spatial variation in redox activity of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.25) and its association with chemical species was investigated at 9 distinct sampling sites across the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Biologically reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay (generation of ROS in rat alveolar macrophage cells) was employed in order to assess the redox activity of PM0.25 samples. Seasonally, fall and summer displayed higher volume-based ROS activity (i.e. ROS activity per unit volume of air) compared to spring and winter. ROS levels were generally higher at near source and urban background sites compared to rural receptor locations, except for summer when comparable ROS activity was observed at the rural receptor sites. Univariate linear regression analysis indicated association (R > 0.7) between ROS activity and organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water soluble transition metals (including Fe, V, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cu). A multivariate regression method was also used to obtain a model to predict the ROS activity of PM0.25, based on its water-soluble components. The most important species associated with ROS were Cu and La at the source site of Long Beach, and Fe and V at urban Los Angeles sites. These metals are tracers of road dust enriched with vehicular emissions (Fe and Cu) and residual oil combustion (V and La). At Riverside, a rural receptor location, WSOC and Ni (tracers of secondary organic aerosol and metal plating, respectively) were the dominant species driving the ROS activity. At Long Beach, the multivariate model was able to reconstruct the ROS activity with a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.82). For Los Angeles and Riverside, however, the regression models could only explain 63% and 68% of the ROS activity, respectively. The unexplained portion of the measured ROS activity is likely attributed to the nature of organic species not captured in the organic carbon (OC) measurement as well as non-linear effects, which were not included in our linear model.

Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

2013-11-01

336

Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ? To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ? ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ? PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ? The findings suggest that ELF has a protective role against PM. ? The synthetic ELF system could reduce the use of animals in PM-driven ROS testing.

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-02-01

337

Development of Quality Control Parameters and Electronic Data Recording for an Ambient Air Particle Inhalation Exposure System  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air particle concentrating systems were installed by the US EPA in RTP, NC. These systems, designed by Harvard School of Public Health?s Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (Boston, MA), concentrated ambient fine and ultra-fine mode particulate matter (P...

338

Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed. Several excellent correlations between the minimum time required to produce spherical agglomerates or a final agglomerate diameter and the operating parameters were obtained by using the general linear regression method. In addition, the results provided a basis for size scale up of an agglomeration system. In Part II, the technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultrafine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was produced by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this method in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt. % ash, it was shown that the ash content could be reduced to 6--7 wt. % while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis by using a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w %, air saturation of 5 to 15 psig, and i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w % based on the coal weight. It was also shown that the process of agglomeration can be reversed by subjecting an aqueous suspension of agglomerates to a pressure sufficient to redissolve the microbubbles.

Shen, Meiyu

339

One-step preparation of ultrafine poly(acrylonitrile) fibers containing silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple one-step method of preparing of ultrafine poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) fibers containing Ag nanoparticles was developed. Ag+ ions in a PAN solution were directly reduced to produce Ag nanoparticles and the resulting solution was electrospun into ultrafine PAN fibers. N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was used as a solvent for PAN as well as a reducing agent for the Ag+ ions. The numbers

Hwang Kyu Lee; Eun Hwan Jeong; Chi Kyoung Baek; Ji Ho Youk

2005-01-01

340

Study on ultra-fine w-EDM with on-machine measurement-assisted  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop the on-machine measurement techniques so as to precisely fabricate micro intricate part using ultra-fine w-EDM. The measurement-assisted approach which employs an automatic optical inspection (AOI) is incorporated to ultra-fine w-EDM process to on-machine detect the machining error for next re-machining. The AOI acquires the image through a high resolution CCD device from

Shun-Tong Chen; Hong-Ye Yang

2011-01-01

341

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOEpatents

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13

342

Controlled stripes of ultrafine ferroelectric domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the pursuit of ferroic-based (nano)electronics, it is essential to minutely control domain patterns and domain switching. The ability to control domain width, orientation and position is a prerequisite for circuitry based on fine domains. Here, we develop the underlying theory towards growth of ultra-fine domain patterns, substantiate the theory by numerical modelling of practical situations and implement the gained understanding using the most widely applied ferroelectric, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, demonstrating controlled stripes of 10?nm wide domains that extend in one direction along tens of micrometres. The observed electrical conductivity along these thin domains embedded in the otherwise insulating film confirms their potential for electronic applications.

Feigl, Ludwig; Yudin, Petr; Stolichnov, Igor; Sluka, Tomas; Shapovalov, Konstantin; Mtebwa, Mahamudu; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Wei, Xian-Kui; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

2014-08-01

343

Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of the current physical coal cleaning process is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from the coal, that is, to remove the mineral particles from the coal. In order to separate mineral from coal particles efficiently, the finely disseminated mineral matter must be liberated from the coal matrix with the help of an ultrafine grinding operation. The coal becomes very difficult to dewater because of the small particle size produced. Difficulty in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at the utility plants are also problems associated with the small coal particles resulting from ultrafine grinding. During this project, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale hydraulic compacting device. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Tobey, M. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Mining Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31

344

Development and Validation of a Simple Numerical Model for Estimating Workplace Aerosol Size Distribution Evolution Through Coagulation, Settling, and Diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has indicated that the toxicity of inhaled ultrafine particles may be associated with the size of discrete particles deposited in the lungs. However, it has been speculated that in some occupational settings rapid coagulation will lead to relatively low exposures to discrete ultrafine particles. Investigation of likely occupational exposures to ultrafine particles following the generation of aerosols with

Andrew D. Maynard; Anthony T. Zimmer

2003-01-01

345

Controlled exposure of humans with metabolic syndrome to concentrated ultrafine ambient particulate matter causes cardiovascular effects.  

PubMed

Many studies have reported associations between air pollution particles with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m (fine particulate matter (PM)) and adverse cardiovascular effects. However, there is an increased concern that so-called ultrafine PM which comprises the smallest fraction of fine PM (aerodynamic diameter <0.1 ?m) may be disproportionately toxic relative to the 0.1-2.5 ?m fraction. Ultrafine PM is not routinely measured in state monitoring networks and is not homogenously dispersed throughout an airshed but rather located in hot spots such as near combustion sources (e.g., roads), making it difficult for epidemiology studies to associate exposure to ultrafine PM with adverse health effects. Thirty four middle-aged individuals with metabolic syndrome were exposed for 2 h while at rest in a randomized crossover design to clean air and concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UCAPS) for 2 h. To further define potential risk, study individuals carrying the null allele for GSTM1 (a prominent antioxidant gene) were identified by genotyping. Blood was obtained immediately prior to exposure, and at 1 and 20 h afterward. Continuous Holter monitoring began immediately prior to exposure and continued for 24 h. Based on changes we observed in previous CAPS studies, we hypothesized that ultrafine CAPS would cause changes in markers of blood inflammation and fibrinolysis as well as changes in heart rate variability and cardiac repolarization. GSTM1 null individuals had altered cardiac repolarization as seen by a change in QRS complexity following exposure to UCAPS and both the entire study population as well as GSTM1 null individuals had increased QT duration. Blood plasminogen and thrombomodulin were decreased in the whole population following UCAPS exposure, whereas C-reactive protein (CRP) and SAA were increased. This controlled human exposure study is the first to show that ambient ultrafine particles can cause cardiovascular changes in people with metabolic syndrome, which affects nearly a quarter of the U.S. adult population. PMID:24718702

Devlin, Robert B; Smith, Candice B; Schmitt, Michael T; Rappold, Ana G; Hinderliter, Alan; Graff, Don; Carraway, Martha Sue

2014-07-01

346

Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles are difficult to dewater and create problems in coal transportation, as well as in storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine the ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale ram extruder. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

Wilson, J.W. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

1995-12-31

347

Preparation of Ultrafine W-Cu Composite Powder Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Electroless Plating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W-Cu ultrafine/nanocomposite powders have high sintering activity, so ultrafine/nanotechnology of W-Cu composite powders is one of the main methods to obtain fully dense, high-performance W-Cu composite materials. Cu-coated ultrafine W composite powders were synthesized by ultrasonic-assisted electroless plating process with non-noble metal activation pretreatment at room temperature in this paper. The growth mechanism of Cu layers and surface morphologies and composition of initial ultrafine W powders, pretreated W powders and Cu-coated W powders were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the uniformly Cu coated W composite powder is successfully synthesized without conventional sensitization and activation steps by ultrasonic-assisted electroless plating at room temperature. The Cu layers on the ultrafine W powders had cell structure with dense, uniform distribution. The growth mechanism of Cu layers appears as follows: the surfaces of pretreated W powders appear linear-like and lamellar-like surface defects which act as activated sites. The reactants in the plating solution were adsorbed on catalytic activity surfaces of powders and happened oxidation-reduction reaction. The growth and aggregation mechanisms of Cu particles after nucleation are stripy Cu-cells grew up, bend, bifurcated, and aggregated, then wounding into a cellular structure, like "wrapping wool clusters" in the life. Finally, Cu cells grow up and merge into a layer.

Huang, Limei; Luo, Laima; Ding, Xiaoyu; Zan, Xiang; Hong, Yu; Cheng, Jigui; Wu, Yucheng; Luo, Guangnan; Zhu, Liu

2013-07-01

348

Ultrafine-grained titanium for medical implants  

DOEpatents

We disclose ultrafine-grained titanium. A coarse-grained titanium billet is subjected to multiple extrusions through a preheated equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) die, with billet rotation between subsequent extrusions. The resulting billet is cold processed by cold rolling and/or cold extrusion, with optional annealing. The resulting ultrafine-grained titanium has greatly improved mechanical properties and is used to make medical implants.

Zhu, Yuntian T. (Los Alamos, NM); Lowe, Terry C. (Santa Fe, NM); Valiev, Ruslan Z. (Ufa, RU); Stolyarov, Vladimir V. (Ufa, RU); Latysh, Vladimir V. (Ufa, RU); Raab, Georgy J. (Ufa, RU)

2002-01-01

349

Defect structure of ultrafine MgB2 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defect structure of MgB2 bulk and ultrafine particles, synthesized by solid state reaction route, have been investigated mainly by the aid of X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. Two different amorphous Boron (B) precursors were used for the synthesis of MgB2, namely, boron 95 (purity 95%-97%, <1.5 ?m) and nanoboron (purity >98.5%, <250 nm), which revealed bulk and nanosized MgB2, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrate uniform and ultrafine morphology for nanosized MgB2 in comparison with bulk MgB2. Powder X-ray diffraction data show that the concentration of the by-product MgO is significantly reduced when nanoboron is employed as precursor. It is observed that a significant average particle size reduction for MgB2 can be achieved only by using B particles of micron or nano size. The origin and the role of defect centers were also investigated and the results proved that at nanoscale MgB2 material contains Mg vacancies. Such vacancies influence the connectivity and the conductivity properties which are crucial for the superconductivity applications.

Bateni, Ali; Repp, Sergej; Thomann, Ralf; Acar, Selçuk; Erdem, Emre; Somer, Mehmet

2014-11-01

350

Effects of ultra-fine materials on workability and strength of concrete containing alkali-activated slag as the binder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the effects of ultra-fine materials on workability and strength development of concrete containing alkali-activated slag (AAS) as the binder. It was found that partial replacement of slag with ultra-fine fly ash significantly improves the workability; however, the strength development is similar to ordinary portland cement (OPC). Partial replacement of slag with

Frank Collins; J. G Sanjayan

1999-01-01

351

Sintering behavior of ultrafine silicon carbide powders obtained by vapor phase reaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sintering behavior of ultrafine SiC powder with average particle size of about 0.01-0.06 microns produced by a vapor phase reaction of the Me4Si-H2 system was studied at the temperature range of 1400-2050 deg. It was found that the homogeneous dispersion of C on SiC particles is important to remove the surface oxide layer effectively. B and C and inhibitive effect on SiC grain growth.

Okabe, Y.; Miyachi, K.; Hojo, J.; Kato, A.

1984-01-01

352

Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite.  

PubMed

The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:25265897

Lee, Seoung Wan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Nae Sung; Seo, Yongho; Suh, Jin Yoo; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Park, Jin Man; Kim, Ki Buem

2014-01-01

353

Processing, application and characterization of ultrafine and nanometric materials in energetic compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energetic materials research at TNO Defence, Security and Safety, The Netherlands is focusing at the development and characterization of explosives (insensitive munitions), gun/rocket propellants and pyrotechnic compositions and their ingredients. The application of reactive, ultrafine and nanometric materials in these compositions has gained increased interest over the past few years. Current research topics focus on the processing, application and characterization of (1) ultrafine energetic crystals and composite nano-clusters in plastic bonded explosives, (2) metastable intermolecular composites (MICs) and (3) self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). In this paper several of these topics will be highlighted in more detail.

van der Heijden, Antoine

2005-07-01

354

Processing, Application and Characterization of (Ultra)fine and Nanometric Materials in Energetic Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energetic materials research at TNO Defence, Security and Safety, The Netherlands is focusing at the development and characterization of explosives (insensitive munitions), gun/rocket propellants and pyrotechnic compositions and their ingredients. The application of reactive, (ultra)fine and nanometric materials in these compositions has gained increased interest over the past few years. Current research topics focus on the processing, application and characterization of (1) (ultra)fine energetic crystals and composite nano-clusters in plastic bonded explosives, (2) metastable intermolecular composites (MICs) and (3) self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). In this paper these topics will be highlighted in more detail.

van der Heijden, A. E. D. M.; Bouma, R. H. B.; Carton, E. P.; Martinez Pacheco, M.; Meuken, B.; Webb, R.; Zevenbergen, J. F.

2006-07-01

355

Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite  

PubMed Central

The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:25265897

Lee, Seoung Wan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Nae Sung; Seo, Yongho; Suh, Jin Yoo; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Park, Jin Man; Kim, Ki Buem

2014-01-01

356

Ultrafine hollow needle formation on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the formation of ultrafine hollow needles, microcylindrical and nano-wall structures on silicon substrates is reported. The fabrication of these ultrafine structures is possible through a combination of high-precision high aspect ratio vertical etching of silicon with a small angle vacuum deposition technique where nanometric walls are feasible. These structures can be used as the media to transfer gas and liquid through their tiny holes. In addition, the structure has been used to realize cavity-based capacitance inclination sensor suitable for small angle detection. A capacitance variation of 0.6 pF/degree of inclination has been obtained.

Sanaee, Z.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

2010-04-01

357

Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

1987-04-24

358

Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01

359

Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.  

PubMed

The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (?P(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions. PMID:25528229

Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

2015-03-21

360

Stress and Microstructure Development in Particle-Based Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-based coatings have a wide range of uses and applications in everyday life. Stress development during the drying process has the potential to impact the performance of the coating. Stress development can be monitored in-situ using a cantilever deflection technique with a laser-photodiode combination. Stress development in the film is directly related to the development of the coating microstructure during drying. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is a powerful characterization method capable of visualizing the microstructure of the coating during the intermediate stages of drying. Using this method, the coating is frozen to arrest microstructure development and solidify the sample so that it can survive the high-vacuum environment of the SEM. This thesis explores the connections between stress and microstructure development in particle-based coatings during drying. Characterization is often complicated by lateral drying, a common phenomenon in particle-based coatings. To avoid these complications, walled substrates were developed which are used to suppress lateral drying and promote drying uniformity. CryoSEM revealed that latex coatings dried on substrates (with photoresist walls) exhibit a greater degree of drying uniformity. Silicon cantilevers with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) walls along the perimeter were used to suppress the effects of lateral drying during stress measurement. The walled cantilevers were used to characterize stress development in ceramic particle coatings and latex films. For the ceramic particle coatings, stress measurements were combined with cryoSEM revealing the origins of stress development in hard particle coatings. Stress development was correlated with the extent of drying and the degree of saturation in the coating. Stress development in latex particle coatings was influenced by the composition and morphology of the latex particles. Additionally, the influence of coalescing aids on stress development was also investigated. The film formation behavior was studied using a variety of techniques including AFM, cryoSEM, and minimum film formation temperature (MFFT) measurements.

Price, Kyle Kirk-Arthur

361

Development of Blood Analog Fluids Using Human Hair Protein Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model experiments of blood flow are very important in the study of mechanical aspects in cardiovascular research and the development of artificial organs. Several blood analog fluids, such as non-Newtonian fluids have been developed and used in model experiments. However, little is known about blood substitutes with biocompatible properties. We have developed novel procedures for preparing human hair protein films, and have fabricated protein particle suspensions from the films, by mechanical stimulation, for use as blood analog fluid. The average diameter of the protein particles was controlled and microscopic observations were done using a confocal microscope. The Casson’s plot patterns of the suspension containing the protein particles were similar to those of human blood. The protein particles also worked well as ultrasound contrast agents in the ultrasound Doppler flow velocity measurements in the model experiments. Therefore, the protein particle system is a promising alternative for blood cells in artificial blood.

Kobayashi, Shunichi; Morikawa, Hirohisa; Ishii, Shinji; Fujii, Toshihiro

362

Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

2004-03-12

363

New Class of Ultrafine Magnetic Loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent high-resolution imaging observations in Helium I 1083.0 nm from the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) discovered unexpected com- plexes of ultrafine magnetic loops reaching from the photosphere to the base of the corona. These ultrafine loops, never been resolved in previous observations, are characterized by apparently constant, but surprisingly narrow diameters of about 100 km along each loop, and it has been established that the loops originate on the solar surface from intense, compact magnetic field elements. Such NST spectropolarmetric observations will provide an essential complement to IRIS data. In 1083.0 nm, the NST has detected the signature of upward injections of plasma that excite the ultrafine loops from the photosphere to the base of the corona. These small-scale eruptions have their individual footpoints in the intergranular lanes between the Sun's ubiquitous, convectively driven granules. In many cases, SDO/AIA detects co- spatial and co-temporal brightening in the overlying, million degree coronal loops in conjunction with the upward injections along the ultrafine loops. The observations show that impulsive coronal heating events arising from upward energy flows originating from intergran- ular lanes are accompanied by co-spatial mass flows.

Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.

2013-12-01

364

Longitudinal Magnetoresistance of Ultrafine Bismuth Nanowire Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical transport properties of ultrafine metal and semiconductor wires have been the subject of growing interest. Bi nanowires are interesting for thermoelectric applications due to the unique properties of Bi such as its small electron efective mass. We present a detailed study of the electrical transport properties of 200-nm diameter and 30-nm single-crystal bismuth nanowire arrays embedded in an

T. E. Huber; K. Celestine; M. Bouffard; M. J. Graf

2002-01-01

365

Development of magnetic composite photocatalytic particles for environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard magnetic composite photocatalytic particles were developed for the purpose of enhancing the separation efficiency, reusability, and photocatalytic activity by applying an external magnetic field. Two types of core-shell structured magnetic composite photocatalysts were developed; the first one is composed of barium ferrite (magnetic core)/titania (photoactive shell) and the second one consists of barium ferrite (magnetic core)/silica (intermediate layer)/titania (photoactive shell). The physical and chemical properties of the developed composite particles were characterized using the various analytical instruments (i.e., SEM, TEM, XRD, W-Vis, BET, and EDS) and the photocatalytic activities of the particles were evaluated by the photodegradation of an organic dye under UV irradiation. A magnetically agitated photocatalytic reactor was developed for the hard magnetic composite photocatalyst developed. A simple model was used to estimate the resonant frequency as a function of particle magnetization and magnetic field gradient. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared composite photocatalytic particles in the magnetically agitated photocatalytic reactor was compared to that in the photocatalytic reactor. Various TiO2-SnO2 composite nanoparticles were synthesized with the three different preparation procedures based on the wet-chemical method to improve the overall photocatalytic activity. The crystal structures of the prepared TiO2-SnO2 composite particles were evaluated using XRD and the photocatalytic activities of the composite particles were compared to those of pure TiO2 particles. Furthermore, the developed TiO2-SnO2 composite particles were adopted and tested on the magnetic composite photocatalytic particles.

Lee, Seungwoo

366

Current Development Status of a Particle Size Analyzer for Coated Particle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Work was performed to develop a prototype Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) for application to coated particle fuel characterization. This system was based on a light obscuration method and targeted towards high throughput analysis. Although never matured to the point of replacing existing lower throughput optical microscopy shadowgraph methods, the system was successfully applied to automating the counting of large particle samples for increased accuracy in calculating mean particle properties based on measurements of multiparticle samples. The measurement of particle size with the PSA was compared to current shadowgraph techniques and found to result in considerably greater throughput at the cost of larger measurement uncertainty. The current algorithm used by the PSA is more sensitive to particle shape and this is a likely cause of the greater uncertainty when attempting to measure average particle diameter. The use of the PSA to measure particle shape will require further development. Particle transport through the PSA and stability of the light source/detector are key elements in the successful application of this technique. A number of system pitfalls were studied and addressed.

Nelson, Andrew T [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL

2007-08-01

367

Development and application of a particle-particle particle-mesh Ewald method for dispersion interactions.  

PubMed

For inhomogeneous systems with interfaces, the inclusion of long-range dispersion interactions is necessary to achieve consistency between molecular simulation calculations and experimental results. For accurate and efficient incorporation of these contributions, we have implemented a particle-particle particle-mesh Ewald solver for dispersion (r(-6)) interactions into the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package. We demonstrate that the solver's O(N log N) scaling behavior allows its application to large-scale simulations. We carefully determine a set of parameters for the solver that provides accurate results and efficient computation. We perform a series of simulations with Lennard-Jones particles, SPC/E water, and hexane to show that with our choice of parameters the dependence of physical results on the chosen cutoff radius is removed. Physical results and computation time of these simulations are compared to results obtained using either a plain cutoff or a traditional Ewald sum for dispersion. PMID:23145717

Isele-Holder, Rolf E; Mitchell, Wayne; Ismail, Ahmed E

2012-11-01

368

Development and application of a particle-particle particle-mesh Ewald method for dispersion interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For inhomogeneous systems with interfaces, the inclusion of long-range dispersion interactions is necessary to achieve consistency between molecular simulation calculations and experimental results. For accurate and efficient incorporation of these contributions, we have implemented a particle-particle particle-mesh Ewald solver for dispersion (r-6) interactions into the LAMMPSmolecular dynamics package. We demonstrate that the solver's O(Nlog N) scaling behavior allows its application to large-scale simulations. We carefully determine a set of parameters for the solver that provides accurate results and efficient computation. We perform a series of simulations with Lennard-Jones particles, SPC/E water, and hexane to show that with our choice of parameters the dependence of physical results on the chosen cutoff radius is removed. Physical results and computation time of these simulations are compared to results obtained using either a plain cutoff or a traditional Ewald sum for dispersion.

Isele-Holder, Rolf E.; Mitchell, Wayne; Ismail, Ahmed E.

2012-11-01

369

An ultrafine barium ferrite powder of high coercivity from water-in-oil microemulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrafine barium ferrite powder of high coercivity and high saturation magnetization has been successfully prepared from an inverse water-in-oil microemulsion consisting of cyclohexane, NP5\\/NP9, and an aqueous solution of mixed ferric nitrate and barium nitrate. An ammonium hydroxide solution was used as the precipitant to obtain the hydroxide precursor of particle size in the range of 10–30nm from the

Xiangyuan Liu; John Wang; Leong-Ming Gan; Sen-Choon Ng; Jun Ding

1998-01-01

370

Wet-milling effect on the properties of ultrafine yttria-stabilized zirconia powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical coprecipitation was used to produce ultrafine yttria-stabilized zirconia powders. The effect of wet-milling on the properties of the powders derived from different processing conditions was investigated. It was shown that the agglomerates in the as-calcined powders were mainly crushed into smaller agglomerates during wet-milling while the aggregate and primary particle sizes were less affected. Wet-milling might be an efficient

Rongde Ge; Zhihong Liu; Huiguang Chen; Duomo Zhang; Tiancong Zhao

1996-01-01

371

In situ TEM studies of deformation mechanisms in nanoindentation of ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline materials have received a great deal of recent attention because of their unusual and promising values. However, some of the most important mechanisms of deformation remain unclear. To address this issue, an in situ nanoindentation stage has been used in a transmission electron microscope to explore the deformation behaviors of nanocrystalline aluminum, ultrafine-grained aluminum, and ultrafine-grained iron in real time. The special in situ indentation stage contains a Berkovich-type diamond indenter which can be coarsely actuated by a 3-axis screw-positioner and by a piezoelectric ceramic crystal for fine positioning actual indentation. Two methods are used to fabricate samples that are electron transparent, accessible to the indenter and mechanically stable. In one method, polygranular aluminum films are deposited on wedge-shaped silicon substrates so that the film above the wedge tip is transparent. The grain size of the film can be controlled by adjusting the deposition conditions. Alternatively, thin plates of iron are machined from bulk specimens by FIB. In situ studies of nanocrystalline Al films were carried out under various diffraction conditions. Although it is difficult to image individual nanosized grains, the results suggest that strain is accommodated by grain boundary movement or, more interestingly, by strain-induced grain coarsening. In the ultrafine-grained Al films, strain-induced grain coarsening is also frequently observed during deformation at room temperature. The results show that the strain-induced coarsening is by normal grain growth (that is, by grain boundary migration), which may lead to a dramatic enhancement of the ductility. Strain-induced coarsening is more difficult to achieve in ultrafine-grained iron because of the much lower mobility of the grain boundaries. The lack of grain boundary motion in Fe is attributed to the pinning effect of nano-sized particles at the Fe grain boundaries.

Jin, Miao

372

Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out in conjunction with a selected hydrophobic binder as the dewatering reagent and an uniaxial hydraulic press. The influence of compaction pressure and binder concentration (2 to 5%) on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water and wear resistance. A laboratory scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting extruder that can be operated continuously for coal pellets fabrication, has been designed and built, and will be available for testing in the next quarter.

Wilson, J.W. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

1994-12-31

373

Early Postnatal Exposure to Ultrafine Particulate Matter Air Pollution: Persistent Ventriculomegaly, Neurochemical Disruption, and Glial Activation Preferentially in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Air pollution has been associated with adverse neurological and behavioral health effects in children and adults. Recent studies link air pollutant exposure to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, including increased risk for autism, cognitive decline, ischemic stroke, schizophrenia, and depression. Objectives: We sought to investigate the mechanism(s) by which exposure to ultrafine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) adversely influences central nervous system (CNS) development. Methods: We exposed C57BL6/J mice to ultrafine (< 100 nm) CAPs using the Harvard University Concentrated Ambient Particle System or to filtered air on postnatal days (PNDs) 4–7 and 10–13, and the animals were euthanized either 24 hr or 40 days after cessation of exposure. Another group of males was exposed at PND270, and lateral ventricle area, glial activation, CNS cytokines, and monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters were quantified. Results: We observed ventriculomegaly (i.e., lateral ventricle dilation) preferentially in male mice exposed to CAPs, and it persisted through young adulthood. In addition, CAPs-exposed males generally showed decreases in developmentally important CNS cytokines, whereas in CAPs-exposed females, we observed a neuroinflammatory response as indicated by increases in CNS cytokines. We also saw changes in CNS neurotransmitters and glial activation across multiple brain regions in a sex-dependent manner and increased hippocampal glutamate in CAPs-exposed males. Conclusions: We observed brain region– and sex-dependent alterations in cytokines and neurotransmitters in both male and female CAPs-exposed mice. Lateral ventricle dilation (i.e., ventriculomegaly) was observed only in CAPs-exposed male mice. Ventriculomegaly is a neuropathology that has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, autism, and schizophrenia. Our findings suggest alteration of developmentally important neurochemicals and lateral ventricle dilation may be mechanistically related to observations linking ambient air pollutant exposure and adverse neurological/neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans. Citation: Allen JL, Liu X, Pelkowski S, Palmer B, Conrad K, Oberdörster G, Weston D, Mayer-Pröschel M, Cory-Slechta DA. 2014. Early postnatal exposure to ultrafine particulate matter air pollution: persistent ventriculomegaly, neurochemical disruption, and glial activation preferentially in male mice. Environ Health Perspect 122:939–945;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307984 PMID:24901756

Allen, Joshua L.; Liu, Xiufang; Pelkowski, Sean; Palmer, Brian; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Weston, Douglas; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

2014-01-01

374

Ultrafine Particulate Ferrous Iron and Anthracene Associations with Mitochondrial Dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

The ultrafine size fraction of ambient particles (ultrafine particles, UFP, diameter < 100 nm) has been identified as being far more potent in their adverse health effects than their larger counterparts, yet, the detailed mechanisms for why UFP display such distinctive toxicity are not well understood. In the present study, ambient UFP were exposed to mitochondria while monitoring electron transport chain (ETC) activity as a model system for biochemical toxicity. UFP samples were collected in rural (Ellensburg, WA) and urban environments (Seattle, WA) and chemically characterized for total trace metals, ferrous (Fe(II)) and easily reducible ferric (Fe(III)) iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and surface constituents with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Low doses of UFP (8 µg mL-1) caused a decrease in mitochondrial ETC function compared to controls in 94% of the samples after The 20 min of exposure. Significant correlations exist between initial %ETC inhibition (0-10 min) and Fe(II) (R=0.55, P=0.03, N=15), anthracene (R=0.74, P<0.01, N=13), and %C-O surface bonds (R=0.56, P=0.03, N=15), whereby anthracene and %C-O correlate as well (R=0.58, P=0.03, N=14). No significant associations were identified with total Fe and other trace metals. Results from this study indicate that the redox active fraction of Fe as well as the abundance of anthracene-related, C-O containing, surface structures may contribute to the initial detrimental behavior of UFP, thus supporting the idea that the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and certain efficient hydroquinone/quinone redox pairs may play an important role likely due to their potential to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Faiola, Celia; Johansen, Anne M.; Rybka, Sara; Nieber, Annika; Thomas-Bradley, Carin; Bryner, Stephanie; Johnston, Justin M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Owens, Kalyn S.

2011-04-20

375

Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Proerties of Ti-(Ni, Fe)-Sn Ultrafine Eutectic Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine eutectic alloys have been developed in Ti-Ni, Ti-Fe and Ti-(Ni, Fe)-Sn alloys. The Ti76Ni24 and (Ti74Ni26)97Sn3 ultrafine eutectic alloys consist of a mixture of ?-Ti and Ti2Ni phases, and ?-Ti(Sn) and Ti2Ni phases, respectively, whereas the Ti70.5Fe29.5 and (Ti70.5Fe29.5)97Sn3 alloys are composed by a mixture of ?-Ti(Sn) and FeTi phases with relatively spherical colony. The compression tests of Ti76Ni24, (Ti74Ni26)97Sn3 and Ti70.5Fe29.5 ultrafine eutectic alloys reveal a strength of 1400 ~ 1800 MPa with very limited plastic strain of 0.1 ~ 1%. On the contrary, a (Ti70.5Fe29.5)97Sn3 alloy exhibits high strength of 2270 MPa with enhanced plastic strain of 3.1%. Based on these results, it is feasible to suggest that the eutectic morphology and interfacial coherency between the Ti solid solution and intermetallic phases influence to control the macroscopic plasticity of the Ti-Ni and Ti-Fe ultrafine eutectic alloys.

Pi, Dong Hyouk; Kim, Ki Buem; Park, Jin Man; Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Do Hyang

376

Primitive ultrafine matrix in ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrafine matrix material has been concentrated by sieving and filtering disaggregated samples of six ordinary chondrites of different classes. This component(s), 'Holy Smoke' (HS), is enriched in both volatile, e.g. Na, K, Zn, Sb, and Pb, as well as refractory elements, e.g. W and REE; however, the element ratios vary greatly among the different chondrites. SEM studies show that HS contains fragile crystals, differing in composition, and apparently in gross disequilibrium not only among themselves but also with the major mineral phases and consequently thermodynamic equilibration did not occur. Thus HS must have originated from impacting bodies and/or was inherent in the 'primitive' regolith. Subsequent impact brecciation and reheating appears to have altered, to varying degrees, the original composition of this ultrafine matrix material. Recent 'cosmic dust' studies may indicate that HS still exists in the solar system. Survival of such delicate material must be considered in all theories for the origin of chondrites.

Rambaldi, E. R.; Fredriksson, B. J.; Fredriksson, K.

1981-01-01

377

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, supplkment a u no 7, Tome 38, Juillet 1977, page C2-185 REMARKS ON THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF ULTRAFINE  

E-print Network

that coalescence growth is an unlimited growth process. In particle preparation by means of the GET, however ON THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF ULTRAFINE METAL PARTICLES Gerda-Hanne COMSA Institut fiir Chemie 2 coalescence) les formes rdelles des distributions de taille (du type normal jusqu'au type logarithmico

Boyer, Edmond

378

Enhanced ultrafine coal dewatering using flocculation filtration processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine coal (?150 ?m) can be effectively cleaned using advanced separation techniques such as column flotation, however, dewatering it to below 20 percent moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques is difficult. A comparative flocculation filtration study was performed for enhancing dewatering of ultrafine coal using vacuum, hyperbaric, and centrifugal filters. The cationic and anionic flocculants were added into the

D. Tao; J. G. Groppo; B. K. Parekh

2000-01-01

379

HEASD PM RESEARCH METHODS: PARTICLE METHODS EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The FRM developed by NERL forms the backbone of the EPA's national monitoring strategy. It is the measurement that defines attainment of the new standard. However, the agency has numerous other needs in assessing the physical and chemical characteristics of ambient fine particl...

380

DEVELOPMENT OF PHONON-MEDIATED CRYOGENIC PARTICLE DETECTORS WITH  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF PHONON-MEDIATED CRYOGENIC PARTICLE DETECTORS WITH ELECTRON AND NUCLEAR RECOIL (background radiation) and nuclear recoil events (dark matter events). These detec- tors with built detectors designed to directly detect interactions with these WIMPs. These detectors are part of a new class

California at Berkeley, University of

381

DEVELOPMENT OF SENSITIVE MAGNETIC PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sensitive magnetic particle based immunoassay for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 4-(2,4-dibromo-5-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)phenoxy)butyrate-BSA. The PBDE ligand and horse radish peroxidase were conjugated via NHS and EDA...

382

Development of a large-area silicon ?-particle detector.  

PubMed

Circular ion-implanted silicon detector of ?-particles with a large, 5-cm(2), sensitive area has been developed. An advantage of the detector is that the detector surface is easily cleanable with chemicals. The hardened surface of the detector shows no signs of deterioration of the spectroscopic and electrical characteristics upon repeated cleaning. The energy resolution along the diameters of the detector was (1.0±0.1)% for the 5.486-MeV ?-particles. Detailed tests of the charge collection efficiency and uniformity of the detector entrance window were also performed with a 5.5-MeV He(2+) microbeam. PMID:25016328

Tran, Linh T; Prokopovich, Dale A; Lerch, Michael L F; Petasecca, Marco; Siegele, Rainer; Reinhard, Mark I; Perevertaylo, Vladimir; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

2014-09-01

383

Thermal Stability Study of Ultrafine Grained 304L Stainless Steel Produced by Martensitic Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrafine grain 304L stainless steel with average grain size of about 650 nm was produced by martensitic process. 10 mm as-received sheets were 80% cold rolled in the temperature of -15 °C and then annealed at 700 °C for 300 min to obtain ultrafine grained microstructure. The results showed that the ultrafine grained 304L steel has yield strength of 720 MPa, tensile strength of about 920 MPa, and total elongation of 47% which is about twice that of coarse grain structure. The effect of annealing temperature (750-900 °C) on the grain growth kinetics was modeled by isothermal kinetics equation which resulted in the grain growth exponent ( n) and activation energy for grain growth of 4.8 and 455 KJ/mol, respectively. This activation energy was also compared with those for other austenitic steels to better understanding of the nature of grain growth and atoms mobility during annealing. It was found that activation energy for grain growth is about twice higher than self-diffusion activation energy of austenite that is related to the Zener pinning effects of the second phase particles.

Sabooni, S.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M. H.

2014-05-01