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Sample records for ultrahigh resolution gamma-ray

  1. Quantifying the benefits of ultrahigh energy resolution for gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Owen B.; Terracol, Stephane F.; Friedrich, Stephan

    2005-03-01

    Cryogenic Gamma-ray spectrometers operating at temperatures of 0.1 K provide an order of magnitude better energy resolution than conventional germanium detectors. Ultra-high energy resolution improves the accuracy of non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials, since a better separation of lines reduces statistical errors as well as systematic errors from background subtraction and efficiency correction. We are developing cryogenic Gamma-spectrometers based on bulk tin absorbers and superconducting molybdenum-copper sensors for nuclear forensics and non-proliferation applications. Here we quantify the improvements in accuracy for isotope analysis with cryogenic detectors in terms of detector performance for different cases of line separation, line intensity ratios and background levels. Precise measurements of isotope ratios are crucial in the context of nuclear attribution, since they provide signatures of composition, age, origin, intended purpose and processing history of illicit nuclear materials.

  2. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Cryostat for Ultrahigh Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, J G; Hertrich, T; Drury, O B; Hohne, J; Friedrich, S

    2008-06-30

    We are developing ultra-high energy resolution gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear non-proliferation and fundamental science applications. They use bulk tin absorbers attached to molybdenum-copper multilayer TESs, and have achieved an energy resolution between 50 and 90 eV FWHM for gamma-ray energies below 122 keV. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a cryostat that attains the required detector operating temperature of 0.1 K at the push of a button without the use of cryogenic liquids. It uses a two-stage mechanical pulse tube refrigerator for precooling to {approx}3 K, and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for cooling to the base temperature. The cryostat is fully automated, attains a base temperature below 30 mK without the use of cryogenic liquids, and has a hold time of {approx}2 days at 0.1 K between 1-hour demagnetization cycles. Here we discuss the performance of the cryostat for operation in a Gamma-spectrometer with 112-pixel arrays of superconducting TES detectors.

  3. Ultrahigh energy gamma rays: Carriers of cosmological information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Atoyan, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data being the basis of contemporary cosmological models are not numerous: Hubble law of redshift for galaxies, element abundances, and observation of cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR). The significance of MBR discovery predicted in the Big-Band model is particularly stressed. Radio astronomical measurements give an information on MBR only near the Earth. Experimental confirmation of evolution of MBR, i.e., its probing in remote epochs, might obviously present a direct verification of the hypothesis of hot expanding Universe. The carriers of similar cosmological information should be particles which, firstly, effectively interact with MBR, and secondly, make it possible to identify unambiguously the epoch of interaction. A possibility to verify a number of cosmological hypotheses by searching the cutoffs in spectra of ultrahigh energy gamma-rays (UHEGR) from extragalactic sources is discussed.

  4. Ultra-High Rate Measurements of Spent Fuel Gamma-Ray Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Douglas; Vandevender, Brent; Wood, Lynn; Glasgow, Brian; Taubman, Matthew; Wright, Michael; Dion, Michael; Pitts, Karl; Runkle, Robert; Campbell, Luke; Fast, James

    2014-03-01

    Presently there are over 200,000 irradiated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the world, each containing a concerning amount of weapons-usable material. Both facility operators and safeguards inspectors want to improve composition determination. Current measurements are expensive and difficult so new methods are developed through models. Passive measurements are limited since a few specific decay products and the associated down-scatter overwhelm the gamma rays of interest. Active interrogation methods produce gamma rays beyond 3 MeV, minimizing the impact of the passive emissions that drop off sharply above this energy. New devices like the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) detector are being developed to advance these novel measurement methods. Designed for reasonable resolution at 106 s-1 output rates (compared to ~ 1 - 10 e 3 s-1 standards), SNF samples were directly measured using UHRGe and compared to models. Model verification further enables using Los Alamos National Laboratory SNF assembly models, developed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, to determine emission and signal expectations. Measurement results and future application requirements for UHRGe will be discussed.

  5. Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Christiansen, A.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    Facilities that process special nuclear material perform periodic inventories. In bulk facilities that process low-enriched uranium, these inventories and their audits are based primarily on weight and enrichment measurements. Enrichment measurements determine the {sup 211}U weight fraction of the uranium compound from the passive gamma-ray emissions of the sample. Both international inspectors and facility operators rely on the capability to make in-field gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment. These users require rapid, portable measurement capability. Some in-field measurements have been biased, forcing the inspectors to resort to high-resolution measurements or mass spectrometry to accomplish their goals.

  6. PANGU: A High Resolution Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    2014-08-01

    We propose a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV gamma-ray astronomy as a candidate for the CAS-ESA joint small mission. This mission, called PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), will open up a unique window of electromagnetic spectrum that has never been explored with great precision. A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with a telescope that has an angular resolution about one order of magnitude better than the currently operating Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) in the sub-GeV range, covering galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for Dark Matter (DM) decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented resolution can be achieved with a pair-production telescope that, instead of the high-Z converter commonly used, relies on a large number of thin active tracking layers to increase the photon conversion probability, and to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon conversion identification and photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range, where the opening angle between the electron and positron is relatively large. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The sub-GeV full sky survey by PANGU would provides crucial link with GeV to TeV maps from current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA.

  7. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Gamma-Ray Bursts with the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczynski, P.; Palmer, D.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N. W.; Pehl, R. H.

    2000-11-01

    A search for spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts detected with the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer has been unable to confirm their existence. The spectrometer, aboard the Wind spacecraft, has detected gamma-ray bursts and other transients since 1995. We have performed a systematic search for narrow spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts detected with this instrument that augments and extends the results of a similar search of bursts detected with BATSE. This search procedure tests for statistically significant lines at all possible times and durations during a burst using the method of maximum likelihood and C-statistic. Simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of this procedure, particularly on Poisson distributed data, for distinguishing real features from statistical fluctuations. The most promising line candidates were consistent with chance fluctuations, given the large number of spectra searched.

  8. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.; Tanner, Allan B.

    1977-01-01

    Sedimentary-type uranium deposits accumulate at favorable sites along a migration path which may be kilometers in length. Their source is a large volume of rock from which the uranium has been leached. The geochemical mobilities and half lives of uranium and its daughter products vary widely so that they are transported from the source rocks, at different rates, along the migration path to their ultimate site. The radioactive disequilibrium resulting from this process has been well documented in the immediate vicinity of ore deposits, and disequilibrium is commonly recorded on gamma-ray logs up the hydraulic gradient from uranium ore. Little is known about the state of secular equilibrium in the leached host rocks, which often represent the only part of the migration path that is at or near the surface and is thus most accessible to the exploration geophysicist. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry provides a means of investigating the disequilibrium associated with uranium leaching and migration. Direct measurement of uranium can be made by this method, and the equivalent weight percents can be determined for six of the seven daughter-product decay groups that characterize the state of radioactive equilibrium. The technique has been used quantitatively in laboratory studies, where the results compare favorably with radiochemical analyses; field experiments suggest that semi-quantitative data may be obtained at the outcrop.

  9. Generation of ultrahigh-energy gamma rays in accreting x ray pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnedin, Yu. N.; Ikhsanov, N. R.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic protons producing ultrahigh energy gamma rays as a result of nuclear collisions ought to be generated in close proximity to the surface of a neutron star due to accretion. The main features of the mechanism in question are a high efficiency of conversion of the gravitational energy of the accreting matter into acceleration energy and a high efficiency of the acceleration itself. It is shown that in accretion to a neutron star with a strong magnetic field, a loss cone type distribution of accreting protons is formed, which due to instability effectively generates small scale Alfven and proton cyclotron waves, as well as nonlinear waves (magneto-acoustic and Alfven solitons). The electric field of the moving solitons may accelerate the protons to energies of greater than 10(exp 15) eV. The region of acceleration is not locally isolated, but extends from its surface. New possible sources of ultrahigh energy gamma rays are predicted. They may be binary x ray systems containing neutron stars with magnetic fields of about 10(exp 9) gauss.

  10. High resolution spectroscopy from low altitude satellites. [gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, G. H.; Imhof, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    The P 78 1 satellite to be placed in a synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 550-660 km will carry two identical high resolution spectrometers each consisting of a single (approximately 85 cc) intrinsic germanium IGE detector. The payload also includes a pair of phoswitch scintillators, an array of CdTe detectors and several particle detectors, all of which are mounted on the wheel of the satellite. The intrinsic high purity IGE detectors receive cooling from two Stirling cycle refrigerators and facilitate the assembly of large and complex detector arrays planned for the next generation of high sensitivity instruments such as those planned for the gamma ray observatory. The major subsystems of the spectrometer are discussed as well as its capabilities.

  11. Strontium iodide scintillators for high energy resolution gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Cody M.; van Loef, Edgar V.; Glodo, Jarek; Cherepy, Nerine; Hull, Giulia; Payne, Stephen; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William; Shah, Kanai S.

    2008-08-01

    Recently SrI2, a scintillator patented by Hofstadter in 1968, has been rediscovered and shown to possess remarkable scintillation properties. The light output of SrI2:Eu2+ has been measured to be even higher than previously observed and exceeds 120,000 photons/MeV, making it one of the brightest scintillators in existence. The crystal also has excellent energy resolution of less than 3% at 662 keV. The response is highly linear over a wide range of gamma ray energies. The emission of SrI2:Eu2+ and SrI2:Ce3+/Na+ is well-matched to both photomultiplier tubes and blue-enhanced silicon photodiodes. While SrI2:Eu2+ is relatively slow, SrI2:Ce3+/Na+ has a fast response. SrI2 crystals with many different dopant concentrations have been grown and characterized. In this presentation, crystal growth techniques as well as the effects of dopant concentration on the scintillation properties of SrI2, over the range 0.5% to 8% Eu2+ and 0.5% to 2% Ce3+/Na+, will be discussed in detail.

  12. GeV gamma-ray astronomy telescopes with high angular resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbreen, B.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-ray telescopes flown on satellites have poor angular resolution with typical point source error circles of a few square degrees. It is shown that a major improvement in angular resolution for the detection of gamma-rays in the GeV region can be obtained with a single crystal as converter. The electron produced by a gamma ray incident at a small angle to a major crystal axis or plane is captured into channeling and radiates gamma rays. The channeling radiation and the electron-positron pair can be detected and yield point source locations with a precision of 5 arcseconds at 10 GeV. This is an improvement of three orders of magnitude on the angular precision of telescopes sensitive to gamma-rays above 50 MeV flown on Satellites.

  13. Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of process holdup

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L.; Russo, P.A.

    1996-11-01

    Nuclear facilities worldwide have deposits of nuclear material remaining in processing equipment. Nuclear facilities need portable, automated tools based on gamma-ray spectroscopy to perform plant wide in situ assays of special nuclear materials (SNM) deposited in processing equipment. These tools have requirements to (1) acquire and manage several hundred spectra in an hour; (2) produce prompt and reliable quantitative analyses; (3) be self-powered, easily carried, and operated by one use; (4) accommodate varying degrees of user expertise; (5) correct for the effects of equipment variables; (6) tolerate facility variables such as temperature and equipment accessibility; and (7) accommodate the geometry of each measurement. this paper describes a new system for in-situ measurements consisting of a compact gamma-ray detector, a self-contained portable gamma-ray spectroscopy instrument, and a palm-size programmable control and data storage unit.

  14. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at GANIL

    SciTech Connect

    France, G. de

    2014-11-11

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is intensively used at GANIL to measure low lying states in exotic nuclei on the neutron-rich as well as on the neutron-deficient side of the nuclear chart. On the neutron deficient border, gamma-rays have been observed for the first time in {sup 92}Pd. The level scheme which could be established points to the role of isoscalar pairing. On the neutron rich side, the lifetime of excited states in nuclei around {sup 68}Ni have been been measured using the plunger technique. This allows us to study the evolution of collectivity in a broad range of nuclei. In 2014 GANIL will host the AGATA array for a campaign of at least 2 years. This array is based on the gamma-ray tracking technique, which allows an impressive gain in resolving power.

  15. Constraining the Emissivity of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays in the Distant Universe with the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Aharonian, Felix

    2011-08-01

    Ultrahigh cosmic rays (UHECRs) with energies >~ 1019 eV emitted at cosmological distances will be attenuated by cosmic microwave and infrared background radiation through photohadronic processes. Lower energy extragalactic cosmic rays (~1018-1019 eV) can only travel a linear distance smaller than ~Gpc in a Hubble time due to the diffusion if the extragalactic magnetic fields are as strong as nano-Gauss. These prevent us from directly observing most of the UHECRs in the universe, and thus the observed UHECR intensity reflects only the emissivity in the nearby universe within hundreds of Mpc. However, UHECRs in the distant universe, through interactions with the cosmic background photons, produce UHE electrons and gamma rays that in turn initiate electromagnetic cascades on cosmic background photons. This secondary cascade radiation forms part of the extragalactic diffuse GeV-TeV gamma-ray radiation and, unlike the original UHECRs, is observable. Motivated by new measurements of extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background radiation by Fermi/Large Area Telescope, we obtained upper limit placed on the UHECR emissivity in the distant universe by requiring that the cascade radiation they produce not exceed the observed levels. By comparison with the gamma-ray emissivity of candidate UHECR sources (such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei) at high redshifts, we find that the obtained upper limit for a flat proton spectrum is ~= 101.5 times larger than the gamma-ray emissivity in GRBs and ~= 10 times smaller than the gamma-ray emissivity in BL Lac objects. In the case of iron nuclei composition, the derived upper limit of UHECR emissivity is a factor of 3-5 times higher. Robust upper limit on the cosmogenic neutrino flux is further obtained, which is marginally reachable by the Icecube detector and the next-generation detector JEM-EUSO.

  16. THE FIRST LIMITS ON THE ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINO FLUENCE FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vieregg, A. G.; Belov, K.; Palladino, K.; Allison, P.; Baughman, B. M.; Beatty, J. J.; Connolly, A.; Grashorn, E. W.; Besson, D. Z.; Detrixhe, M.; Bevan, S.; Binns, W. R.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; De Marco, D.; DuVernois, M.; Gorham, P. W.; Hill, B.

    2011-07-20

    We set the first limits on the ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino fluence at energies greater than 10{sup 9} GeV from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on data from the second flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA). During the 31 day flight of ANITA-II, 26 GRBs were recorded by Swift or Fermi. Of these, we analyzed the 12 GRBs which occurred during quiet periods when the payload was away from anthropogenic activity. In a blind analysis, we observe 0 events on a total background of 0.0044 events in the combined prompt window for all 12 low-background bursts. We also observe 0 events from the remaining 14 bursts. We place a 90% confidence level limit on the E{sup -4} prompt neutrino fluence between 10{sup 8} GeV < E < 10{sup 12} GeV of E{sup 4}{Phi} = 2.5 x 10{sup 17} GeV{sup 3} cm{sup -2} from GRB090107A. This is the first reported limit on the UHE neutrino fluence from GRBs above 10{sup 9} GeV, and the strongest limit above 10{sup 8} GeV.

  17. The First Limits on the Ultra-high Energy Neutrino Fluence from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieregg, A. G.; Palladino, K.; Allison, P.; Baughman, B. M.; Beatty, J. J.; Belov, K.; Besson, D. Z.; Bevan, S.; Binns, W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Detrixhe, M.; De Marco, D.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M.; Gorham, P. W.; Grashorn, E. W.; Hill, B.; Hoover, S.; Huang, M.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Liewer, K. M.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Mottram, M.; Nam, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, Y.

    2011-07-01

    We set the first limits on the ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino fluence at energies greater than 109 GeV from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on data from the second flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA). During the 31 day flight of ANITA-II, 26 GRBs were recorded by Swift or Fermi. Of these, we analyzed the 12 GRBs which occurred during quiet periods when the payload was away from anthropogenic activity. In a blind analysis, we observe 0 events on a total background of 0.0044 events in the combined prompt window for all 12 low-background bursts. We also observe 0 events from the remaining 14 bursts. We place a 90% confidence level limit on the E -4 prompt neutrino fluence between 108 GeV < E < 1012 GeV of E 4? = 2.5 1017 GeV3 cm-2 from GRB090107A. This is the first reported limit on the UHE neutrino fluence from GRBs above 109 GeV, and the strongest limit above 108 GeV.

  18. CeBr3 as a Room-Temperature, High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss, Michael Reed, Ding Yuan, Alexis Reed, and Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2009-09-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr3) has become a material of interest in the race for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at room temperature. This investigation quantified the potential of CeBr3 as a room temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector. The performance of CeBr3 crystals was compared to other scintillation crystals of similar dimensions and detection environments. Comparison of self-activity of CeBr3 to cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce) was performed. Energy resolution and relative intrinsic efficiency were measured and are presented.

  19. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  20. On the Angular Resolution of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavani, M.; Trois, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A.; Del Monte, E.; Fioretti, V.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Morselli, A.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Caraveo, P.

    2015-08-01

    We present a study of the angular resolution of the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID) that has been operational in space since 2007 April. The AGILE instrument is made of an array of 12 planes that are each equipped with a tungsten converter and silicon microstrip detectors, and is sensitive in the energy range 50 MeV-10 GeV. Among the space instruments devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics, AGILE uniquely exploit an analog readout system with dedicated electronics coupled with silicon detectors. We show the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to reproduce the gamma-ray detection by the GRID and we compare them to in-flight data. We use the Crab (pulsar + Nebula) system for discussion of real data performance, since its {E}-2 energy spectrum is representative of the majority of gamma-ray sources. For Crab-like spectrum sources, the GRID angular resolution (FWHM of 4^\\circ at 100 MeV; 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8 at 1 GeV; 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 9 integrating the full energy band from 100 MeV to tens of GeV) is stable across a large field of view, characterized by a flat response up to 30^\\circ off-axis. A comparison of the angular resolution obtained by the two operational gamma-ray instruments, AGILE/GRID and Fermi/LAT (Large Area Telescope), is interesting in view of future gamma-ray missions, which are currently under study. The two instruments exploit different detector configurations that affect the angular resolution: the former is optimized in the readout and track reconstruction, especially in the low-energy band, the latter is optimized in terms of converter thickness and power consumption. We show that despite these differences, the angular resolution of both instruments is very similar, between 100 MeV and a few GeV.

  1. Development of a high resolution liquid xenon imaging chamber for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to develop the technology of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays from astrophysical sources emitting in the low to medium energy regime. In particular, the technical challenges and the physical processes relevant to the realization of the LXe detector operated as a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) were addressed and studied. Experimental results were obtained on the following topics: (1) long distance drift of free electrons in LXe (purity); (2) scintillation light yield for electrons and alphas in LXe (triggering); and (3) ionization yield for electrons and gamma rays in LXe (energy resolution). The major results from the investigations are summarized.

  2. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of culverts containing transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.

    1990-12-31

    A number of concrete culverts used to retrievably store drummed, dry, radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS), were suspected of containing ambiguous quantities of transuranic (TRU) nuclides. These culverts were assayed in place for Pu-239 content using thermal and fast neutron counting techniques. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy on 17 culverts, having neutron emission rates several times higher than expected, showed characteristic gamma-ray signatures of neutron emitters other than Pu-239 (e.g., Pu-238, Pu/Be, or Am/Be neutron sources). This study confirmed the Pu-239 content of the culverts with anomalous neutron rates and established limits on the Pu-239 mass in each of the 17 suspect culverts by in-field, non-intrusive gamma-ray measurements.

  3. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of culverts containing transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.

    1990-01-01

    A number of concrete culverts used to retrievably store drummed, dry, radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS), were suspected of containing ambiguous quantities of transuranic (TRU) nuclides. These culverts were assayed in place for Pu-239 content using thermal and fast neutron counting techniques. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy on 17 culverts, having neutron emission rates several times higher than expected, showed characteristic gamma-ray signatures of neutron emitters other than Pu-239 (e.g., Pu-238, Pu/Be, or Am/Be neutron sources). This study confirmed the Pu-239 content of the culverts with anomalous neutron rates and established limits on the Pu-239 mass in each of the 17 suspect culverts by in-field, non-intrusive gamma-ray measurements.

  4. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  5. Ge-diode detector combined with crystal-diffraction spectrometer permits high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namenson, A. I.; Smither, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    Crystal-diffraction spectrometer, combined with a lithium-drifted Ge-diode detector, performs high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy on the complicated neutron-capture gamma ray spectra. The system is most useful in the 1-3 MeV energy range and improves the signal to background ratio.

  6. Gamma ray spectroscopy at high energy and high time resolution at JETa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Proverbio, L. I.; Gorini, G.; Grosso, G.; Locatelli, M.; Chugonov, I. N.; Gin, D. B.; Shevelev, A. E.; Murari, A.; Kiptily, V. G.; Syme, B.; Fernandes, A. M.; Pereira, R. C.; Sousa, J.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2008-10-01

    In fusion plasmas gamma ray emission is caused by reactions of fast particles, such as fusion alpha particles, with impurities. Gamma ray spectroscopy at JET has provided valuable diagnostic information on fast fuel as well as fusion product ions. Improvements of these measurements are needed to fully exploit the flux increase provided by future high power experiments at JET and ITER. Limiting aspects are, for instance, the count rate capability due to a high neutron/gamma background combined with slow detector response and a modest energy resolution due to the low light yield of the scintillators. This paper describes the solutions developed for achieving higher energy resolution, signal to background, and time resolution. The detector design is described based on the new BrLa3 scintillator crystal. The paper will focus on hardware development, including a photomultiplier tube capable of stable operation at counting rate as high as 1MHz, the magnetic shielding, and the fast digital data acquisition system.

  7. Gamma-ray generation in ultrahigh-intensity laser-foil interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nerush, E. N. Kostyukov, I. Yu.; University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 ; Ji, L.; Pukhov, A.; Heinrich-Heine-Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf 40225

    2014-01-15

    Incoherent photon emission by ultrarelativistic electrons in the normal incidence of a laser pulse on a foil is investigated by means of three-dimensional numerical simulations in the range of intensities 2??10{sup 21}2??10{sup 25}?W cm{sup ?2} and electron densities 2??10{sup 22}1??10{sup 24}?cm{sup ?3}. We focus on properties of the resulting synchrotron radiation, such as its overall energy, directivity of the radiation pattern, and slope of the energy spectrum. Regimes of laser-foil interactions are studied in the framework of a simple analytical model. The laser-plasma parameters for efficient gamma-ray generation are found and revealed to be close to the parameters for relativistic foil motion. It is shown that in the case of oblique incidence of a 3 PW, 10 fs laser pulse on a thin foil about 10{sup 8} photons/0.1% bandwidth are produced at the energy level of 1?MeV that significantly exceeds performance of the modern Compton gamma-ray sources. Various applications of the gamma-ray bunches are discussed.

  8. Ultrahigh Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Chen, Yu; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Považay, Boris; Unterhuber, Angelika; Fujimoto, James G.

    Since its invention in the late 1980s [1-4] and early 1990s [5-7], the original idea of OCT was to enable noninvasive optical biopsy, i.e., the in situ imaging of tissue microstructure with a resolution approaching that of histology, but without the need for tissue excision and post-processing. An important advance toward this goal was the introduction of ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR OCT). By improving axial OCT resolution by one order of magnitude from the 10 to 15 μm to the sub-μm region [8-11], UHR OCT enables superior visualization of tissue microstructure, including all major intraretinal layers in ophthalmic applications as well as cellular resolution OCT imaging in nontransparent tissue. This chapter reviews state-of-the-art technology that enables ultrahigh-resolution OCT covering the entire wavelength region from 500 to 1,600 nm and discusses fundamental limitations of OCT image resolution.

  9. High spectral resolution measurement of gamma ray lines from the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willet, J. B.; Mahoney, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    A search for gamma ray line features from the earth's atmosphere has been conducted using data from the third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO 3) high spectral resolution gamma ray spectrometer. In addition to the strong line at 0.511 MeV, other intrinsically broadened line features have been observed at 1.63, 2.31, 3.67, 4.43, 5.09, and 6.13 MeV. Since the spectral resolution of the instrument is much finer than the width of the observed line features, the intrinsic width as well as the energy and intensity of each of these lines are reported. Several other predicted lines have also been observed. The characteristic of the lines seen by HEAO 3 are generally consistent with theoretical predictions as well as with previous measurements.

  10. High spectral resolution measurement of gamma ray lines from the earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, J.B.; Mahoney, W.A. )

    1992-01-01

    A search for gamma ray line features from the Earth's atmosphere has been conducted using data from the third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO 3) high spectral resolution gamma ray spectrometer. In addition to the strong line at 0.511 MeV, other intrinsically broadened line features have been observed at 1.63, 2.31, 3.67, 4.43, 5.09, and 6.13 MeV. Since the spectral resolution of the instrument is much finer than the width of the observed line features, the intrinsic width as well as the energy and intensity of each of these lines are reported. Several other predicted lines have also been observed. The characteristics of the lines seen by HEAO 3 are generally consistent with theoretical predictions as well as with previous measurements.

  11. High resolution gamma ray telescope using scintillating fibers and position sensitive photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atac, Muzaffer; Cline, David B.; Chrisman, David; Kolonko, James J.; Park, June; Fenyves, Ervin J.; Chaney, Roy C.

    1989-08-01

    Recently high photon yielding and long attenuation length step index scintillating plastic fibers have been developed. Scintillating fibers of 1 mm diameter made of polystyrene doped with butyl-PBD and POPOP (λ = 420 nm), and clad with PMMA (poly-methylmetacrylate) have resulted attenuation lengths over 2 meters. Scintillating fibers stacked up into scintillating fiber planes U, V and W that are rotated by 60° angle relative to each other and coupled to position sensitive photomultipliers can be used as high resolution imaging gamma-ray detectors. We are presenting the design of a large area gamma-ray telescope with high angular and energy resolution for space based experiments, using scintillating fibers and recently developed position sensitive photomultiplier tubes.

  12. High resolution X- and gamma-ray spectroscopy of cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    A high resolution X-ray spectrometer and large area phoswich detector were designed and co-aligned in a common elevation mounting in order to measure solar and cosmic X-ray and gamma ray emission in the 13 to 600 KeV energy range from a balloon. The instrument is described and results obtained for the Crab Nebula, the supernova remnant Cas A, and the Sun are discussed and analyzed.

  13. High resolution GRB spectra from the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. M.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Pehl, R.; Madden, N.; Owens, A.

    1996-08-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) is a germanium spectrometer designed to produce high-resolution (2-3 keV) spectra of bright gamma-ray bursts. In its first year of operation it has triggered on 62 GRBs, of which ~33 were bright enough for spectroscopy. Almost all of these bursts were also seen by the Konus detectors on the same spacecraft, and about half were also observed by BATSE. This allows the instruments and their results to be compared and will allow line candidates seen by any of the instruments to be confirmed or refuted by the others. This paper presents some typical spectra from GRBs observed by TGRS, and includes for comparison the corresponding BATSE and Konus spectra.

  14. Xenon detector with high energy resolution for gamma-ray line emission registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Alexander S.; Ulin, Sergey E.; Chernysheva, Irina V.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Grachev, Victor M.; Petrenko, Denis V.; Shustov, Alexander E.; Uteshev, Ziyaetdin M.; Vlasik, Konstantin F.

    2014-09-01

    A description of the xenon detector (XD) for gamma-ray line emission registration is presented. The detector provides high energy resolution and is able to operate under extreme environmental conditions (wide temperature range and unfavorable acoustic action). Resistance to acoustic noise as well as improvement in energy resolution has been achieved by means of real-time digital pulse processing. Another important XD feature is the ionization chamber's thin wall with composite housing, which significantly decreases the mass of the device and expands its energy range, especially at low energies.

  15. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  16. Are Gamma-Ray Bursts the Sources of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    2011-08-01

    A checklist of criteria is presented to help establish the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). These criteria are applied to long-duration GRBs in order to determine if they are UHECR sources. The evidence seems to favor blazars and radio galaxies (or other sources) over GRBs.

  17. High resolution X- and gamma-ray spectroscopy of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    A balloon-borne X- and gamma-ray instrument was developed, fabricated, and flown. This instrument has the highest energy resolution of any instrument flown to date for measurements of solar and cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray emission in the 13 to 600 keV energy range. The purpose of the solar measurements was to study electron acceleration and solar flare energy release processes. The cosmic observations were to search for cyclotron line features from neutron stars and for low energy gamma-ray lines from nucleosynthesis. The instrument consists of four 4 cm diameter, 1.3 cm thick, planar intrinsic germanium detectors cooled by liquid nitrogen and surrounded by CsI and NaI anti-coincidence scintillation crystals. A graded z collimator limited the field of view to 3 deg x 6 deg and a gondola pointing system provided 0.3 deg pointing accuracy. A total of four flights were made with this instrument. Additional funding was obtained from NSF for the last three flights, which had primarily solar objectives. A detailed instrument description is given. The main scientific results and the data analysis are discussed. Current work and indications for future work are summarized. A bibliography of publications resulting from this work is given.

  18. Simulating gamma-ray energy resolution in scintillators due to electron-hole pair statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, R. D.; Miranda, R.; Rez, P.

    2011-11-01

    The best-possible limit to gamma-ray energy resolution in scintillators is given by the statistics of the number of electron-hole pairs produced by an incident gamma-ray, characterized by the Fano factor. The Fano factor is primarily controlled by the inelastic scattering during the electron cascade, which could be modeled by Monte Carlo simulation. Commonly used radiation transport codes do not follow the electrons to low enough energies to calculate electron-hole pair distributions. A Monte Carlo simulation for inelastic electron scattering is introduced based on cross-sections derived from data measured by Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) for fast electrons. This inelastic scattering model was incorporated into the radiation transport code Penelope so that it could accurately count the number of electron-hole pairs produced by a gamma-ray. The Fano factor was calculated for the scintillators cerium fluoride (CeF 3) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (Lu 2SiO 5).

  19. In situ calibration of a high-resolution gamma-ray borehole sonde for assaying uranium-bearing sandstone deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, J.H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for assaying radioactive sandstone deposits in situ by using a high-resolution borehole gamma-ray spectrometer. Gamma-ray photopeaks from the same spectrum acquired to analyze a sample are used to characterize gamma-ray attenuation properties, from which a calibration function is determined. Assay results are independent of differences between properties of field samples and those of laboratory or test-hole standards generally used to calibrate a borehole sonde. This assaying technique is also independent of the state of radioactive disequilibrium that usually exists in nature among members of the natural-decay chains. ?? 1985.

  20. CeBr3 as a High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Reed, Paul Guss, Christopher Contreras

    2008-11-13

    Lanthanum halide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillators have been well-documented as high-resolution gamma-ray detectors that are operated at room temperature. These scintillators have better resolution (<3% at 662 keV) relative to sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillators (7% at 662 keV), but the naturally occurring radioactive isotope 138La causes self-activity in the crystal that occludes portions of the gamma-ray spectrum. This selfactivity limits the use of LaBr3:Ce in high-sensitivity applications. Cerium, the dopant in the LaBr3:Ce matrix possesses useful scintillation properties, and its selfactivity is on the order of 3750 times less than La; however, Ce has not been fully characterized as the chief component in a scintillation detector. This work investigated Ce as the key scintillation matrix component in a scintillation detector with the hypothesis that CeBr3 promises energy resolution comparable or superior to LaBr3:Ce. The researchers involved with this work believe that CeBr3 may be the answer to obtaining high-temperature, high-resolution spectra with greater sensitivity than LaBr3:Ce.

  1. High spectral resolution studies of gamma ray bursts on new missions

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, U. D.; Acuna, M. H.; Cline, T. L.; Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R. D.

    1996-08-01

    Two new missions will be launched in 1996 and 1997, each carrying X-ray and gamma ray detectors capable of high spectral resolution at room temperature. The Argentine Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC-B) and the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) Clark missions will each carry several arrays of X-ray detectors primarily intended for the study of solar flares and gamma-ray bursts. Arrays of small (1 cm{sup 2}) cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) units will provide x-ray measurements in the 10 to 80 keV range with an energy resolution of {approx_equal}6 keV. Arrays of both silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD) and P-intrinsic-N (PIN) photodiodes (for the SAC-B mission only) will provide energy coverage from 2-25 keV with {approx_equal}1 keV resolution. For SAC-B, higher energy spectral data covering the 30-300 keV energy range will be provided by CsI(Tl) scintillators coupled to silicon APDs, resulting in similar resolution but greater simplicity relative to conventional CsI/PMT systems. Because of problems with the Pegasus launch vehicle, the launch of SAC-B has been delayed until 1997. The launch of the SSTI Clark mission is scheduled for June 1996.

  2. Shower disc sampling and the angular resolution of gamma-ray shower detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, A.; Lloyd-Evans, J.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the design study for the new UHE gamma ray detector being constsructed at Haverah Park, a series of experiments using scintillators operated side-by-side in 10 to the 15th power eV air showers are undertaken. Investigation of the rms sampling fluctuations in the shower disc arrival time yields an upper limit to the intrinsic sampling uncertainty, sigma sub rms = (1.1 + or - 0.1)ns, implying an angular resolution capability 1 deg for an inter-detector spacing of approximately 25 m.

  3. High-resolution imaging gamma-ray spectroscopy with externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, J. L.; Mahoney, W. A.; Varnell, L. S.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Externally segmented germanium detectors promise a breakthrough in gamma-ray imaging capabilities while retaining the superb energy resolution of germanium spectrometers. An angular resolution of 0.2 deg becomes practical by combining position-sensitive germanium detectors having a segment thickness of a few millimeters with a one-dimensional coded aperture located about a meter from the detectors. Correspondingly higher angular resolutions are possible with larger separations between the detectors and the coded aperture. Two-dimensional images can be obtained by rotating the instrument. Although the basic concept is similar to optical or X-ray coded-aperture imaging techniques, several complicating effects arise because of the penetrating nature of gamma rays. The complications include partial transmission through the coded aperture elements, Compton scattering in the germanium detectors, and high background count rates. Extensive electron-photon Monte Carlo modeling of a realistic detector/coded-aperture/collimator system has been performed. Results show that these complicating effects can be characterized and accounted for with no significant loss in instrument sensitivity.

  4. Fast-ion energy resolution by one-step reaction gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salewski, M.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Kiptily, V. G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, J.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Contributors, JET

    2016-04-01

    The spectral broadening of γ-rays from fusion plasmas can be measured in high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). We derive weight functions that determine the observable velocity space and quantify the velocity-space sensitivity of one-step reaction high-resolution GRS measurements in magnetized fusion plasmas. The weight functions suggest that GRS resolves the energies of fast ions directly without the need for tomographic inversion for selected one-step reactions at moderate plasma temperatures. The D(p,γ)3He reaction allows the best direct fast-ion energy resolution. We illustrate our general formalism using reactions with and without intrinsic broadening of the γ-rays for the GRS diagnostic at JET.

  5. Atomic Physics at Ultrahigh Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, Fred

    1997-04-01

    A new " third" generation of synchrotron light sources is providing ultraviolet and x-ray beams of unprecedented brightness for research in atomic and molecular physics. The very high brightness of these light sources has lead to experimental breakthroughs in AMO physics by allowing high spectral resolution with high flux, or ultrahigh spectral resolution with reduced flux. An example of the former is studies of the production and decay channels of hollow lithium atoms by Francois Wuilleumier and coworkers (S. Diehl et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3915 (1996); D. Cubaynes et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2194 (1996).). All three electrons in lithium atoms are simultaneously excited by a single photon-a direct manifestation of electron correlation-and the decay channels through various states of Li^+ and Li^++ are studied by electron spectroscopy. (A triply excited lithium atom is called "hollow" because the inner K shell is empty.) These studies have been conducted for lithium atoms in both the ground state and the 1s^22p excited states. An improvement of a factor of fifty in photon- and electron-energy resolution and count rate has been obtained for the experiment at the ALS relative to SuperACO. Photoabsorption studies of doubly excited autoionizing states of helium atoms by Gunter Kaindl and coworkers (K. Schulz et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3086 (1996).) have achieved ultrahigh spectral resolution at reduced flux: a resolution of 1 meV at 64 eV was obtained for a record resolving power of 64,000, a factor of four higher than the best previously obtained at BESSY. New Rydberg series and resonances below the N=3 threshold of doubly excited helium were observed, and the resolution was measured for the ?-eV-wide 2,-13 resonance. (These states of helium could be called "hollow" by analogy to the lithium case.) Other recent experiments at third-generation light sources include measurement of fluorescence from doubly excited states of argon (D. Jaecks et al, private communication.), photoabsorption measurements of doubly excited states of neon and argon (L. Avaldi et al, J. Phys. B 29, L737 (1996).), and electron spectroscopy of decay of doubly excited autoionizing states of helium (A. Menzel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1479 (1995).). These represent only a sample of the results being obtained by ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy at the new third-generation synchrotron light sources.

  6. Topics in gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

  7. Development of a High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for Medium Energy Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1992-01-01

    In the third year of the research project, we have (1) tested a 3.5 liter prototype of the Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber, (2) used a prototype having a 4.4 cm drift gap to study the charge and energy resolution response of the 3.5 liter chamber, (3) obtained an energy resolution as good as that previously measured by us using chambers with drift gaps of the order of millimeters, (4) observed the induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays, (4) used the 20 hybrid charge sensitive preamplifiers for a nondestructive readout of the electron image on the induction wires, (5) performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations to obtain results on efficiency, background rejection capability, and source flux sensitivity, and (6) developed a reconstruction algorithm for events with multiple interaction points.

  8. High resolution gamma ray tomography scanner for flow measurement and non-destructive testing applications.

    PubMed

    Hampel, U; Bieberle, A; Hoppe, D; Kronenberg, J; Schleicher, E; Shnel, T; Zimmermann, F; Zippe, C

    2007-10-01

    We report on the development of a high resolution gamma ray tomography scanner that is operated with a Cs-137 isotopic source at 662 keV gamma photon energy and achieves a spatial image resolution of 0.2 line pairs/ mm at 10% modulation transfer function for noncollimated detectors. It is primarily intended for the scientific study of flow regimes and phase fraction distributions in fuel element assemblies, chemical reactors, pipelines, and hydrodynamic machines. Furthermore, it is applicable to nondestructive testing of larger radiologically dense objects. The radiation detector is based on advanced avalanche photodiode technology in conjunction with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate scintillation crystals. The detector arc comprises 320 single detector elements which are operated in pulse counting mode. For measurements at fixed vessels or plant components, we built a computed tomography scanner gantry that comprises rotational and translational stages, power supply via slip rings, and data communication to the measurement personal computer via wireless local area network. PMID:17979425

  9. High resolution gamma ray tomography scanner for flow measurement and non-destructive testing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, U.; Bieberle, A.; Hoppe, D.; Kronenberg, J.; Schleicher, E.; Suehnel, T.; Zimmermann, F.; Zippe, C.

    2007-10-15

    We report on the development of a high resolution gamma ray tomography scanner that is operated with a Cs-137 isotopic source at 662 keV gamma photon energy and achieves a spatial image resolution of 0.2 line pairs/mm at 10% modulation transfer function for noncollimated detectors. It is primarily intended for the scientific study of flow regimes and phase fraction distributions in fuel element assemblies, chemical reactors, pipelines, and hydrodynamic machines. Furthermore, it is applicable to nondestructive testing of larger radiologically dense objects. The radiation detector is based on advanced avalanche photodiode technology in conjunction with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate scintillation crystals. The detector arc comprises 320 single detector elements which are operated in pulse counting mode. For measurements at fixed vessels or plant components, we built a computed tomography scanner gantry that comprises rotational and translational stages, power supply via slip rings, and data communication to the measurement personal computer via wireless local area network.

  10. CAN ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS COME FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS? COSMIC RAYS BELOW THE ANKLE AND GALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David; Pohl, Martin

    2011-09-10

    The maximum cosmic-ray energy achievable by acceleration by a relativistic blast wave is derived. It is shown that forward shocks from long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the interstellar medium accelerate protons to large enough energies, and have a sufficient energy budget, to produce the Galactic cosmic-ray component just below the ankle at 4 x 10{sup 18} eV, as per an earlier suggestion. It is further argued that, were extragalactic long GRBs responsible for the component above the ankle as well, the occasional Galactic GRB within the solar circle would contribute more than the observational limits on the outward flux from the solar circle, unless an avoidance scenario, such as intermittency and/or beaming, allows the present-day local flux to be less than 10{sup -3} of the average. Difficulties with these avoidance scenarios are noted.

  11. High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Kawabata, N.; Ikeda, H.; Kamada, K.

    2013-05-01

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 105 at + 20 C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to <= 400 kcps per channel. We selected Ce-doped (Lu,Y)2(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) and a brand-new scintillator, Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) due to their high light yield and density. To improve the spatial resolution, these scintillators were fabricated into 15 15 matrices of 0.5 0.5 mm2 pixels. The Ce:LYSO and Ce:GAGG scintillator matrices were assembled into phosphor sandwich (phoswich) detectors, and then coupled to the MPPC array along with an acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

  12. A High-Resolution GE Spectrometer for Gamma-Ray Burst Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, A.; Baker, R.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Jermakian, J.; Nolan, T.; Ramaty, R.; Seifert, H.; Shephard, D. A.; Smith, G.; Stilwell, D. E.; Teegarden, B. J.; Cork, C. P.; Landis, D. A.; Luke, P. N.; Madden, N. W.; Malone, D.; Pehl, R. H.; Yaver, H.; Hurley, K.; Mathias, S.; Post, A. H., Jr.

    1995-02-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) to be flown aboard the WIND spacecraft is primarily designed to perform high resolution spectroscopy of transient ?-ray events, such as cosmic ?-ray bursts and solar flares over the energy range 25 keV to 8.2 MeV with an expected spectroscopic resolution of 3 keV at 1 MeV. The detector itself consists of a 215 cm3 high purityn-type Ge crystal kept at cryogenic temperatures by a passive radiative cooler. The geometric field of view defined by the cooler is 1.8 ? steradian. To avoid continuous triggers by soft solar events, a thin BeCu Sun-shield around the sides of the cooler has been provided. A passive Mo/Pb occulter, which modulates signals from within 5 of the ecliptic plane at the spacecraft spin frequency, is used to identify and study solar flares, as well as emission from the galactic plane and center. Thus, in addition to transient event measurements, the instrument will allow the search for possible diffuse background lines and monitor the 511 keV positron annihilation radiation from the galactic center. In order to handle the typically large burst count rates, which can be in excess of 100 kHz, burst data are stored directly in an onboard 2.75 Mbit burst memory with an absolute timing accuracy of 1.5 ms after ground processing. The memory is capable of storing the entire spectral data set of all but the largest bursts. WIND is scheduled to be launched on a Delta II launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral on November 1, 1994. After injection into a phasing orbit, the spacecraft will execute a double lunar swing-by before being moved into a controlled halo orbit about theL1 Lagrangian point (250R e towards the Sun). This will provide a 5 light-second light travel time with which to triangulate gamma-ray burst sources with Earth-orbiting systems, such as those on-board the Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO). The response of instrument to transient ?-ray events such as GRB's and solar flares will be presented as well as the expected response to steady state point sources and galactic center line emission.

  13. Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph F.; Steinbach, Daniela

    1999-01-01

    A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

  14. High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Imaging Measurements Using Externally Segmented Germanium Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, J.; Mahoney, W.; Skelton, R.; Varnell, L.; Wheaton, W.

    1994-01-01

    Fully two-dimensional gamma-ray imaging with simultaneous high-resolution spectroscopy has been demonstrated using an externally segmented germanium sensor. The system employs a single high-purity coaxial detector with its outer electrode segmented into 5 distinct charge collection regions and a lead coded aperture with a uniformly redundant array (URA) pattern. A series of one-dimensional responses was collected around 511 keV while the system was rotated in steps through 180 degrees. A non-negative, linear least-squares algorithm was then employed to reconstruct a 2-dimensional image. Corrections for multiple scattering in the detector, and the finite distance of source and detector are made in the reconstruction process.

  15. A high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer based on superconducting microcalorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D. A.; Horansky, R. D.; Schmidt, D. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Kotsubo, V.; Mates, J. A. B.; Hoover, A. S.; Winkler, R.; Rabin, M. W.; Alpert, B. K.; Beall, J. A.; Fitzgerald, C. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; O'Neil, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schima, F. J.; Swetz, D. S.; Vale, L. R.; and others

    2012-09-15

    Improvements in superconductor device fabrication, detector hybridization techniques, and superconducting quantum interference device readout have made square-centimeter-sized arrays of gamma-ray microcalorimeters, based on transition-edge sensors (TESs), possible. At these collecting areas, gamma microcalorimeters can utilize their unprecedented energy resolution to perform spectroscopy in a number of applications that are limited by closely-spaced spectral peaks, for example, the nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials. We have built a 256 pixel spectrometer with an average full-width-at-half-maximum energy resolution of 53 eV at 97 keV, a useable dynamic range above 400 keV, and a collecting area of 5 cm{sup 2}. We have demonstrated multiplexed readout of the full 256 pixel array with 236 of the pixels (91%) giving spectroscopic data. This is the largest multiplexed array of TES microcalorimeters to date. This paper will review the spectrometer, highlighting the instrument design, detector fabrication, readout, operation of the instrument, and data processing. Further, we describe the characterization and performance of the newest 256 pixel array.

  16. A high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer based on superconducting microcalorimeters.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D A; Horansky, R D; Schmidt, D R; Hoover, A S; Winkler, R; Alpert, B K; Beall, J A; Doriese, W B; Fowler, J W; Fitzgerald, C P; Hilton, G C; Irwin, K D; Kotsubo, V; Mates, J A B; O'Neil, G C; Rabin, M W; Reintsema, C D; Schima, F J; Swetz, D S; Vale, L R; Ullom, J N

    2012-09-01

    Improvements in superconductor device fabrication, detector hybridization techniques, and superconducting quantum interference device readout have made square-centimeter-sized arrays of gamma-ray microcalorimeters, based on transition-edge sensors (TESs), possible. At these collecting areas, gamma microcalorimeters can utilize their unprecedented energy resolution to perform spectroscopy in a number of applications that are limited by closely-spaced spectral peaks, for example, the nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials. We have built a 256 pixel spectrometer with an average full-width-at-half-maximum energy resolution of 53 eV at 97 keV, a useable dynamic range above 400 keV, and a collecting area of 5 cm(2). We have demonstrated multiplexed readout of the full 256 pixel array with 236 of the pixels (91%) giving spectroscopic data. This is the largest multiplexed array of TES microcalorimeters to date. This paper will review the spectrometer, highlighting the instrument design, detector fabrication, readout, operation of the instrument, and data processing. Further, we describe the characterization and performance of the newest 256 pixel array. PMID:23020368

  17. Hybrid ultrahigh resolution optical coherence / photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, B.; Liu, M.; Schmitner, N.; Maurer, B.; Meyer, D.; Weninger, W. J.; Drexler, W.

    2015-03-01

    We present an ultrahigh resolution dual modality optical resolution photoacoustic microsopy (OR-PAM) and spectral domain optical coherence microscopy (SD-OCM) system. The ultrahigh sub-micron lateral resolution is provided by the high numerical aperture of the objective lens used while the ultrahigh axial resolution is provided by the broadband OCT laser that covers 107 nm with a central wavelength of 840 nm. The synchronized simultaneous acquisition for the two modalities is achieved using a 40MHz FPGA. 2D-scanning is realized by two orthogonal translation stages (PI, 400 nm resolution). The transversal resolution of the system is 0.5 ?m, the axial resolutions are 30 ?m (PAM) and 4 ?m (OCM), respectively. The values have been determined experimentally using nanospheres (diameter 10-200nm). For a demonstration of the imaging capability we present images from thin slices of different biological samples as well as in vivo imaging in the zebrafish embryo.

  18. High Resolution Gamma Ray Tomography and its Application to the Measurement of Phase Fractions in Chemical Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Uwe; Bieberle, Andre; Schleicher, Eckhard; Hessel, Gnther; Zippe, Cornelius; Friedrich, Hans-Jrgen

    2007-06-01

    We applied gamma ray tomography to the problem of phase fraction measurement in chemical reactors. Therefore, we used a new tomography device that is operated with a Cs-137 source and a high resolution gamma ray detector. One application example is the reconstruction of the fluid distribution and the measurement of radial gas fraction profiles in a laboratory scale stirred vessel. The tomograph was used to obtain radiographic projections of the averaged gamma ray attenuation for different stirrer speeds along the height of the vessel. With tomographic reconstruction techniques we calculated the angularly averaged radial distribution of the attenuation coefficient for as many as 150 single cross-sectional planes and synthesised from this data set the axial and radial fluid distribution pattern. Further, we exemplarily reconstructed the radial gas fraction distributions induced by the stirrer in the area of the stirrer blades. In a second application the gamma ray measurement system was used to visualise gas inclusions in a water cleaning column that is used to remove hazardous heavy metal species from water.

  19. Hot-Electron Tunneling sensors for high-resolution x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, C.A.; Labov, S.E.; Frank, M.; Netel, H.

    1997-02-07

    Over the past 2 years, we have been studying the use of Hot Electron Tunneling sensors for use in high-energy-resolution x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. These sensors promise several advantages over existing cryogenic sensors, including simultaneous high count rate and high resolution capability, and relative ease of use. Using simple shadow mask lithography, we verified the basic principles of operation of these devices and discovered new physics in their thermal behavior as a function applied voltage bias. We also began to develop ways to use this new sensor in practical x-ray and gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting absorbers. This requires the use of quasiparticle trapping to concentrate the signal in the sensing elements.

  20. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, R. A.; Drexler, W.; Unterhuber, A.; Hermann, B.; Bajraszewski, T.; Le, T.; Stingl, A.; Fercher, A. F.

    2004-05-01

    We present, for the first time, in vivo ultrahigh resolution (~2.5 µm in tissue), high speed (10000 A-scans/second equivalent acquisition rate sustained over 160 A-scans) retinal imaging obtained with Fourier domain (FD) OCT employing a commercially available, compact (500x260mm), broad bandwidth (120 nm at full-width-at-half-maximum centered at 800 nm) Titanium:sapphire laser (Femtosource Integral OCT, Femtolasers Produktions GmbH). Resolution and sampling requirements, dispersion compensation as well as dynamic range for ultrahigh resolution FD OCT are carefully analyzed. In vivo OCT sensitivity performance achieved by ultrahigh resolution FD OCT was similar to that of ultrahigh resolution time domain OCT, although employing only 2-3 times less optical power (~300 µW). Visualization of intra-retinal layers, especially the inner and outer segment of the photoreceptor layer, obtained by FDOCT was comparable to that, accomplished by ultrahigh resolution time domain OCT, despite an at least 40 times higher data acquisition speed of FD OCT.

  1. Complex gamma-ray hologram: solution to twin images problem in atomic resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Korecki, P; Materlik, G; Korecki, J

    2001-02-19

    A new technique for high fidelity three-dimensional imaging of atomic structure with gamma-ray holography is demonstrated. A complex hologram was constructed from holograms recorded for different values of the nuclear scattering amplitude on both sides of the (57)Fe Mssbauer resonance. The holographic reconstruction was applied to this complex hologram resulting in a twin-image-free image of the bcc Fe local structure. The proposed procedure allows the removal of the twin images for all real space, making gamma-ray holography an unambiguous tool for atomic and magnetic structure imaging. PMID:11290186

  2. Atomic Resolution {ital {gamma}} -ray Holography Using the M{umlt o}ssbauer Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Korecki, P.; Korecki, J.; Slezak, T.

    1997-11-01

    We have observed a strong (2{percent}) angular modulation of the total backscattered conversion electron yield, measured as a function of the incidence angle of the 14.4keV {gamma} rays from a {sup 57}Co M{umlt o}ssbauer source irradiating thin epitaxial {sup 57}Fe film grown on MgO(001). The measured 2D pattern is the first hologram of the local surrounding of the absorbing nuclei obtained due to nuclear resonant scattering of {gamma} rays. The real space holographic reconstruction shows distinct features corresponding to the nearest neighbor sites in the bcc {alpha} -Fe structure. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Determination of the natural radioactivity in Qatarian building materials using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Matthews, M.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.

    2011-10-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occurring and technically enhanced levels of radiation in building materials used across the State of Qatar. Samples from a range of common building materials, including Qatarian cement, Saudi cement, white cement, sand and washed sand, have been analyzed, in addition to other samples of cement's raw materials and additives collected from the main suppliers in Qatar. In order to establish the activity concentrations associated with the 235,8U and 232Th natural decay chains and 40K, the samples have been studied using a high-resolution, low-background gamma-ray spectrometry set-up. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the preliminary results of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occurring radionuclide chains for the building materials collected across the Qatarian peninsula.

  4. Advanced techniques for high resolution spectroscopic observations of cosmic gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Pelling, M. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Pehl, R. H.; Hurley, K. C.; Vedrenne, G.; Sniel, M.; Durouchoux, P.

    1985-01-01

    An advanced gamma-ray spectrometer that is currently in development is described. It will obtain a sensitivity of 0.0001 ph/sq cm./sec in a 6 hour balloon observation and uses innovative techniques for background reduction and source imaging.

  5. Radiation-induced oxidation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder by gamma rays and electron beams: A clear dependence of dose rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglong; Xu, Lu; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Mouhua; Wu, Guozhong

    2015-10-01

    Oxidation is an important effect of irradiation on polyethylene in air. In this work, oxidation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder (ca. 110 ?m in diameter) induced by gamma rays (? ray) and electron beams (EB) in air resulted in some large differences in properties, such as oxidative scission due to dose rate differences. However, other properties, such as surface wettability and thermal stability were not that greatly affected. The dose-rates used were 0.0019 kGy/s from a cobalt-60 gamma source and 92 kGy/s from an electron beam. The chemical structure, oxidation level, surface wettability and thermal stability of irradiated UHMWPE were analyzed by FT-IR, XPS, TGA and the static contact angle. Hydrophilic carboxyl and carbonyl groups were present on the surface of irradiated UHMWPE after irradiation in air, resulting in a decrease in the contact angle. After irradiation at 300 kGy, the gel content of the ? ray-irradiated UHMWPE samples decreased to almost zero, while that of EB irradiated UHMWPE decreased to 57%. For UHMWPE powder irradiated by gamma rays at lower doses, radiation-induced oxidation was complete and consistent with a simple theoretic estimation. Surface wettability was primarily affected by surface oxidation, and the oxidation level of UHMWPE could be easily predicted.

  6. Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos from Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Using the Swift-UVOT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Guy; Guetta, Dafne; Landsman, Hagar; Behar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    We consider a sample of 107 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which early ultra-violet emission was measured by Swift and extrapolate the photon intensity to lower energies. Protons accelerated in the GRB jet may interact with such photons to produce charged pions and subsequently ultra high energy neutrinos {\\varepsilon }? ?slant {10}16 eV. We use simple energy conversion efficiency arguments to predict the maximal neutrino flux expected from each GRB. We estimate the neutrino detection rate at large area radio based neutrino detectors and conclude that the early afterglow neutrino emission is too weak to be detected even by next generation neutrino observatories.

  7. High resolution gamma-ray astronomy - Observations and predictions of line shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Gehrels, Neil

    1991-01-01

    The shapes of gamma-ray lines carry unique information about the physical processes and conditions in astrophysical sites. Galactic center and SN 1987A lines have been observationally resolved allowing their shapes to be studied. There are also significant new theoretical results concerning line shapes from Type I supernovae, supernova remnants and the interstellar medium. New work is presented on a simple treatment of line profiles for rotating disks and spherical shells.

  8. Resolution of strong sources for a gamma-ray telescope using coded aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Laudet, P; Roques, J P

    1988-10-15

    A hard x-ray/medium energy gamma-ray telescope is being developed using coded aperture imaging. The image recorded on the detector has to be cross correlated to deconvolve the sky map. We have developed a deconvolution method using the 2-D discrete Fourier transform, whose goal is to improve the separating power of these reconstructed maps. The results and limits of the method are discussed. PMID:20539547

  9. A high resolution gamma-ray and hard X-ray spectrometer (HIREGS) for long duration balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelling, M.; Feffer, P. T.; Hurley, K.; Kane, S. R.; Lin, R. P.; Mcbride, S.; Primbsch, J. H.; Smith, D. M.; Youseffi, K.; Zimmer, G.

    1992-01-01

    The elements of a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer, developed for observations of solar flares, are described. Emphasis is given to those aspects of the system that relate to its operation on a long duration balloon platform. The performance of the system observed in its first flight, launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica on 10 January, 1992, is discussed. Background characteristics of the antarctic balloon environment are compared with those observed in conventional mid-latitude balloon flights and the general advantages of long duration ballooning are discussed.

  10. A balloon-borne high-resolution spectrometer for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Starr, R.; Stottlemyre, A. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, and balloon-flight verification of a payload for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares are reported. The payload incorporates a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector, standard NIM and CAMAC electronics modules, a thermally stabilized pressure housing, and regulated battery power supplies. The flight system is supported on the ground with interactive data-handling equipment comprised of similar electronics hardware. The modularity and flexibility of the payload, together with the resolution and stability obtained throughout a 30-hour flight, make it readily adaptable for high-sensitivity, long-duration balloon fight applications.

  11. A position sensitive gamma-ray scintillator detector with enhanced spatial resolution, linearity, and field of view.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Pardo, Csar; Goel, Namita; Engert, Tobias; Gerl, Juergen; Isaka, Masahiro; Kojouharov, Ivan; Schaffner, Henning

    2009-12-01

    The performance of a position sensitive gamma-ray scintillator detector (PSD) is described. This PSD is based on a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal read out by a crossed-wire anode position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The main difference with respect to similar existing devices is the individual multi-anode readout (IMAR) approach that is followed here. This method allows to exploit better the intrinsic characteristics of the PSPMT, thus yielding better linearity, improved spatial resolution, and a larger field of view. The new detector is intended for the characterization of 3-D position sensitive germanium detectors. PMID:19628451

  12. New room temperature high resolution solid-state detector (CdZnTe) for hard x rays and gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Amyelizabeth C.; Desai, Upendra D.

    1993-01-01

    The new CdZnTe high 'Z' material represents a significant improvement in detectors for high energy photons. With the thicknesses available, photons up to 100 keV can be efficiently detected. This material has a wide band gap of 1.5 - 2.2 eV which allows it to operate at room temperature while providing high spectral resolution. Results of resolution evaluations are presented. This detector can be used for high resolution spectral measurements of photons in x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, offering a significant reduction in the weight, power, and volume of the detector system compared to more conventional detector types such as scintillation counters. In addition, the detector will have the simplicity and reliability of solid-state construction. The CdZnTe detector, as a new development, has not yet been evaluated in space. The Get Away Special program can provide this opportunity.

  13. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  14. The Application of High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (HRGS) to Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Walter R.; Lemley, James R.; Forman, Leon

    1997-12-31

    While well-developed methodologies exist for the employment of high- resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) in determining the isotopic composition of plutonium samples, the potential capabilities of such measurements in determining the properties of nuclear materials otherwise remain largely unexploited. These measurements contain information sufficiently detailed such that not only can the isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium materials be determined, but the details of the spectrum obtained will depend reproducibly upon other factors including the total mass, density, chemical composition, and geometrical configuration of the material, and for certain materials, the elapsed time since chemical processing. The potential thus exists to obtain a `gamma-ray fingerprint` for typical containers or assemblies of nuclear material which will then serve to identify that class of item in a later confirmatory measurement. These measurements have the additional advantage that, by comparison with active interrogation techniques which usually require the introduction of some extraneous form of radiation or other intrusive activity, they are totally passive, and thus impose only minimal additional safety or regulatory burdens on the operators. In the application of these measurements to the verification of treaty-limited items, where the information acquired may be sensitive in nature, the use of the CIVET (Controlled Intrusiveness Verification Technique) approach, where a computer-based interface is employed to limit access to the information obtained, may be followed.

  15. Large scale telescopes for high resolution X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. [using widely separated satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper shows that angular-resolution, energy-range, and structural constraints on image-modulated X-ray telescopes are not fundamental and that the limits on angular resolution can be overcome by constructing such telescopes on a very large spatial scale. It is proposed that widely separated satellites be used for the modulating mask and detector array. Implementation of this concept is discussed in terms of a simple system consisting of a pinhole camera (i.e., a hole in an opaque mask on one subsatellite and a detector array on another). Advantages and problems of such systems are briefly discussed, and a solar X-ray telescope intended for deployment from a Shuttle orbiter is described. It is noted that such large-scale telescopes can be constructed to image gamma rays and even energetic neutrons as well.

  16. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    SciTech Connect

    Noroozian, Omid; Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 ; Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N.; Kang, Zhao

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/√(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=λ/Δλ>10{sup 3}.

  17. Assay for uranium and determination of disequilibrium by means of in situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Allan B.; Moxham, Robert M.; Senftle, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    Two sealed sondes, using germanium gamma-ray detectors cooled by melting propane, have been field tested to depths of 79 m in water-filled boreholes at the Pawnee Uranium Mine in Bee Co., Texas. When, used as total-count devices, the sondes are comparable in logging speed and counting rate with conventional scintillation detectors for locating zones of high radioactivity. When used with a multichannel analyzer, the sondes are detectors with such high resolution that individual lines from the complex spectra of the uranium and thorium series can be distinguished. Gamma rays from each group of the uranium series can be measured in ore zones permitting determination of the state of equilibrium at each measurement point. Series of 10-minute spectra taken at 0.3- to 0.5-m intervals in several holes showed zones where maxima from the uranium group and from the 222Rn group were displaced relative to each other. Apparent excesses of 230Th at some locations suggest that uranium-group concentrations at those locations were severalfold greater some tens of kiloyears, ago. At the current state of development a 10-minute count yields a sensitivity of about 80 ppm U308. Data reduction could in practice be accomplished in about 5 minutes. The result is practically unaffected by disequilibrium or radon contamination. In comparison with core assay, high-resolution spectrometry samples a larger volume; avoids problems due to incomplete core recovery, loss of friable material to drilling fluids, and errors in depth and marking; and permits use of less expensive drilling methods. Because gamma rays from the radionuclides are accumulated simultaneously, it also avoids the problems inherent in trying to correlate logs made in separate runs with different equipment. Continuous-motion delayed-gamma activation by a 163-?g 252Cf neutron source attached to the sonde yielded poor sensitivity. A better neutron-activation method, in which the sonde is moved in steps so as to place the detector at the previous activation point, could not be evaluated because of equipment failure.

  18. Angular Resolution of an EAS Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy at Energies Greater Than 5 x 10 (13) Ev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apte, A. R.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Tonwar, S. C.; Uma, V.

    1985-01-01

    A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2300 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India for a study of arrival directions of showers of energies greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. Various configurations of the array of detectors have been used to estimate the accuracy in determination of arrival angle of showers with such an array. These studies show that it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of better than 2 deg with the Ooty array for search for point sources of Cosmic gamma rays at energies above 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV.

  19. Impact of detector efficiency and energy resolution on gamma-ray background rejection in mobile spectroscopy and imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucott, Timothy J.; Bandstra, Mark S.; Negut, Victor; Curtis, Joseph C.; Meyer, Ross E.; Chivers, Daniel H.; Vetter, Kai

    2015-07-01

    The presence of gamma-ray background significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, and the systematic variability in the background will limit the size and energy resolution of systems that can be used effectively. An extensive survey of the background was performed using both sodium iodide and high-purity germanium. By using a bivariate negative binomial model for the measured counts, these measurements can be resampled to simulate the performance of a detector array of arbitrary size and resolution. The response of the system as it moved past a stationary source was modeled for spectroscopic and coded aperture imaging algorithms and used for source injection into the background. The performance of both techniques is shown for various sizes and resolutions, as well as the relative performance for sodium iodide and germanium. It was found that at smaller detector sizes or better energy resolution, spectroscopy has higher detection sensitivity than imaging, while imaging is better suited to larger or poorer resolution detectors.

  20. Variable Gamma-Ray Emission Induced by Ultra-high Energy Neutral Beams: Application to 4C +21.35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Murase, Kohta; Takami, Hajime

    2012-08-01

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar 4C +21.35 (PKS 1222+216) displays prominent nuclear infrared emission from ≈1200 K dust. A 70-400 GeV flare with ≈10 minute variations during half an hour of observations was found by the MAGIC telescopes, and GeV variability was observed on sub-day timescales with the Large Area Telescope on Fermi. We examine 4C +21.35, assuming that it is a source of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). UHECR proton acceleration in the inner jet powers a neutral beam of neutrinos, neutrons, and γ-rays from pγ photopion production. The radiative efficiency and production spectra of neutrals formed through photohadronic processes with isotropic external target photons of the broad-line region (BLR) and torus are calculated. Secondary radiations made by this process have a beaming factor vpropδ5 D, where δD is the Doppler factor. The pair-production optical depth for γ-rays and the photopion efficiency for UHECR neutrons as they pass through external isotropic radiation fields are calculated. If target photons come from the BLR and dust torus, large Doppler factors, δD >~ 100, are required to produce rapidly variable secondary radiation with isotropic luminosity >~ 1047 erg s-1 at the pc scale. The γ-ray spectra from leptonic secondaries are calculated from cascades initiated by the UHECR neutron beam at the pc-scale region and fit to the flaring spectrum of 4C +21.35. Detection of >~ 100 TeV neutrinos from 4C +21.35 or other very high energy γ-ray blazars with IceCube or KM3NeT would confirm this scenario.

  1. High resolution magnetohydrodynamic simulation of black hole-neutron star merger: Mass ejection and short gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Wada, Tomohide

    2015-09-01

    We report results of a high resolution numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of black hole-magnetized neutron star binaries on Japanese supercomputer "K." We focus on a binary that is subject to tidal disruption and subsequent formation of a massive accretion torus. We find the launch of thermally driven torus wind, subsequent formation of a funnel wall above the torus and a magnetosphere with collimated poloidal magnetic field, and high Blandford-Znajek luminosity. We show for the first time this picture in a self-consistent simulation. The turbulencelike motion induced by the nonaxisymmetric magnetorotational instability as well as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability inside the accretion torus works as an agent to drive the mass accretion and converts the accretion energy to thermal energy, which results in the generation of a strong wind. By an in-depth resolution study, we reveal that high resolution is essential to draw such a picture. We also discuss the implication for the r-process nucleosynthesis, the radioactively powered transient emission, and short gamma ray bursts.

  2. Ultrahigh-Resolution {gamma}-Ray Spectroscopy of {sup 156}Gd: A Test of Tetrahedral Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschel, M.; Krempel, J.; Urban, W.; Tonev, D.; Petkov, P.; Dudek, J.; Curien, D.; Lauss, B.; Angelis, G. de

    2010-06-04

    Tetrahedral symmetry in strongly interacting systems would establish a new class of quantum effects at subatomic scale. Excited states in {sup 156}Gd that could carry the information about the tetrahedral symmetry were populated in the {sup 155}Gd(n,{gamma}){sup 156}Gd reaction and studied using the GAMS4/5 Bragg spectrometers at the Institut Laue-Langevin. We have identified the 5{sub 1}{sup -{yields}}3{sub 1}{sup -} transition of 131.983(12) keV in {sup 156}Gd and determined its intensity to be 1.9(3)x10{sup -6} per neutron capture. The lifetime {tau}=220{sub -30}{sup +180}fs of the 5{sub 1}{sup -} state in {sup 156}Gd has been measured using the GRID technique. The resulting B(E2)=293{sub -134}{sup +61}Weisskopf unit rate of the 131.983 keV transition provides the intrinsic quadrupole moment of the 5{sub 1}{sup -} state in {sup 156}Gd to be Q{sub 0}=7.1{sub -1.6}{sup +0.7} b. This large value, comparable to the quadrupole moment of the ground state in {sup 156}Gd, gives strong evidence against tetrahedral symmetry in the lowest odd-spin, negative-parity band of {sup 156}Gd.

  3. Fine energy resolution survey of the sky with a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. [Galactic X ray structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhof, W. L.; Nakano, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    A fine-energy-resolution survey (38 to 2700 keV) of the sky has been performed from a spinning polar-orbiting satellite with a cooled germanium spectrometer. The measurements, performed with a fast time resolution (32 ms), permit one to analyze the energy spectra from repeated noon-midnight orbits in selected portions of the local daytime or nighttime sky. During the initial period of the experiment, the sky was surveyed in two broad intervals spanning the galactic plane at longitudes of approximately 255 to 328 deg and 99 to 168 deg, respectively. In the former interval a significant increase in counting rate was observed when the spectrometer viewed the galactic plane. Locally generated backgrounds were removed from the galactic-plane spectrum by subtracting, on a spin-for-spin basis, the contribution measured at a viewing direction with a comparable declination north of the celestial equator. The net spectra from the galactic plane have been examined for evidence of gamma-ray lines. The possible presence of lines near 1121 and 1369 keV emitted from the galactic plane over the galactic longitudinal interval approximately 255 deg to approximately 328 deg is suggested by the data, but better statistics are needed to establish their existence firmly. Comparisons are made with previously reported extraterrestrial lines with assumed normalizations made for the different viewing directions in the two experiments.

  4. Monte-Carlo studies of the angular resolution of a future Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J. A.

    2008-12-24

    The current generation of Imaging Atmospheric telescopes (IACTs) has demonstrated the power of this observational technique, providing high sensitivity and an angular resolution of {approx}0.1 deg. per event above an energy threshold of {approx}100 GeV. Planned future arrays of IACTs such as AGIS or CTA are aiming at significantly improving the angular resolution. Preliminary results have shown that values down to {approx}1' might be achievable. Here we present the results of Monte-Carlo simulations that aim to exploring the limits of angular resolution for next generation IACTs and investigate how the resolution can be optimised by changes to array and telescope parameters such as the number of pixel in the camera, the field of view of the camera, the angular pixel size, the mirror size, and also the telescope separation.

  5. Orbital Measurement of Bulk Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Sulfur of Carbonaceous Asteroids via High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Starr, Richard D.; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Boynton, William V.; Thomas, Cristina A.

    2014-11-01

    Various populations of low-albedo asteroids (C-complex, D, and P spectral types) dominate the outer Main Asteroid Belt, Hildas, and Trojan clouds and are thought to be related to carbonaceous meteorites. However, carbonaceous meteorites are themselves a diverse group and it remains unclear which types represent which asteroids or asteroid populations. A high-energy-resolution (HPGe) gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) experiment on an asteroid orbiter would be sensitive to many of the elements that differentiate carbonaceous chondrite subclasses from each other and from the ureilites, including H, C, O, and S, in the outer ~20-50 cm of the asteroid surface. We have therefore conducted new simulations of the performance of a GRS experiment in orbit around asteroids with carbonaceous chondriticcompositions at levels of hydration ranging from CI-like 17 wt% structural water) to CO-like (<2 wt% structural water). Cosmic-ray interactions with the asteroid surfaces were modeled using the MCNPX Monte-Carlo radiation transport code. A spacecraft background (based on a Dawn-like spacecraft model) was also modeled using MCNPX: this included background due to direct GCR/spacecraft interactions as well as background due to asteroidal neutron flux on the spacecraft. A Dawn-like mission scenario was modeled withthe altitude equal to the asteroid radius for a 4.5-month low-orbit phase. The detector model was based on Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MOGRS), the largest and most sensitive HPGe GRS flown to date. The spectra from the MCNPX output were broadened to a resolution based on the in-flight performance of MOGRS, FWHM = 4.1 keV at 1332 keV. Doppler broadening was also modeled where applicable. Line fluxes were then extracted from the combined background + asteroid spectrum and statistical uncertainties evaluated.We find that within 4.5 months the GRS can measure H/Si, O/Si, C/Si, and S/Si with sufficient precision to distinguish OH-rich CI and CM chondrites from drier CO-like compositions, and Fe/Si and S/Si to distinguish chondrites from ureilites and other achondrites. Comparison with in-flight MOGRS count rates for Martian Fe, Si, S, K, and Cl will also be discussed.

  6. Prospects for High Energy Resolution Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with Europium-Doped Strontium Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N J; Payne, S A; Hawrami, R; Burger, A; Boatner, L; Van Loef, E; Shah, K

    2009-04-03

    Europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators offer a light yield exceeding 100,000 photons/MeV and excellent light yield proportionality, while at the same time, SrI{sub 2} is readily grown in single crystal form. Thus far, our collaboration has demonstrated an energy resolution with strontium iodide of 2.6% at 662 keV and 7.6% at 60 keV, and we have grown single crystals surpassing 30 cm{sup 3} in size (with lower resolution). Our analysis indicates that SrI{sub 2}(Eu) has the potential to offer 2% energy resolution at 662 keV with optimized material, optics, and read-out. In particular, improvements in feedstock purity may result in crystal structural and chemical homogeneity, leading to improved light yield uniformity throughout the crystal volume, and consequently, better energy resolution. Uniform, efficient light collection and detection, is also required to achieve the best energy resolution with a SrI{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator device.

  7. The effect of gain variation in micro-channel plates on gamma-ray energy resolution

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ling; Barrett, Harrison H.; Barber, H. Bradford; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of micro-channel plate (MCP) with particular interest in its effect on energy resolution performance is presented. Important physical processes occurring in MCP channels are described and modeled, including secondary electron (SE) yield, SE emission, and primary electron reflection. The effects causing channel saturation are also introduced. A two dimensional Monte Carlo simulation is implemented under the assumption of unsaturated channel. Simulation results about basic MCP performances and especially gain and energy resolution performances are presented and analyzed. Its found that energy resolution as an intrinsic property of MCP cannot be improved simply by adjusting system parameters; however it can be improved by increasing input signal or number of photoelectrons (PEs) in the context of image intensifier. An initial experiment with BazookaSPECT detector and CsI(Tl) scintillator is performed to validate and correlate with the simulation results and good agreement is achieved. PMID:26339114

  8. Inter-pulse high-resolution gamma-ray spectra using a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, L.G.; Trombka, J.I.; Jensen, D.H.; Stephenson, W.A.; Hoover, R.A.; Mikesell, J.L.; Tanner, A.B.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A neutron generator pulsed at 100 s-1 was suspended in an artificial borehole containing a 7.7 metric ton mixture of sand, aragonite, magnetite, sulfur, and salt. Two Ge(HP) gamma-ray detectors were used: one in a borehole sonde, and one at the outside wall of the sample tank opposite the neutron generator target. Gamma-ray spectra were collected by the outside detector during each of 10 discrete time windows during the 10 ms period following the onset of gamma-ray build-up after each neutron burst. The sample was measured first when dry and then when saturated with water. In the dry sample, gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering, neutron capture, and decay were counted during the first (150 ??s) time window. Subsequently only capture and decay gamma rays were observed. In the wet sample, only neutron capture and decay gamma rays were observed. Neutron capture gamma rays dominated the spectrum during the period from 150 to 400 ??s after the neutron burst in both samples, but decreased with time much more rapidly in the wet sample. A signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) analysis indicates that optimum conditions for neutron capture analysis occurred in the 350-800 ??s window. A poor S/N in the first 100-150 ??s is due to a large background continuum during the first time interval. Time gating can be used to enhance gamma-ray spectra, depending on the nuclides in the target material and the reactions needed to produce them, and should improve the sensitivity of in situ well logging. ?? 1984.

  9. A high resolution gamma-ray and hard x-ray spectrometer (HIREGS) for long duration balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. E.; Lin, R. P.; Feffer, P. T.; Slassi-Sennou, S.; McBride, S.; Primbsch, J. H.; Youssefi, K.; Zimmer, G.; Cork, C.; Luke, P.; Madden, N.; Malone, D.; Pehl, R.; Pelling, M.; Cotin, F.; Vedrenne, G.

    The HIREGS gamma-ray spectrometer made a 23-day Long Duration Balloon Flight (LDBF) from Antarctica in January 1995 to observe Galactic sources of gamma-ray and hard X-ray line and continuum emission. The scientific instrument itself is discussed, followed by a more extensive discussion of the characteristics of the instrument unique to LDBFs. The flight performance and preliminary results are briefly summarized.

  10. The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K E; Gosnell, T B; Knapp, D A

    2009-03-05

    This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications.

  11. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The SAS-2 gamma ray experiment and its detection of celestial gamma rays are described. Data also cover intensity of high energy gamma rays, gamma ray distribution, gamma ray origin, and diffuse radiation.

  12. Validation of high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography for quantitative gas holdup measurements in centrifugal pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieberle, Andr; Schfer, Thomas; Neumann, Martin; Hampel, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the capability of high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) for quantitative gas-liquid phase distribution measurements in commercially available industrial pumps is experimentally investigated. The object of interest thereby operates under two-phase flow conditions. HireCT System comprises a collimated 137Cs isotopic source, a radiation detector arc with a multi-channel signal processing unit, and a rotary unit enabling CT scans of objects with diameters of up to 700?mm. The accuracy of gas holdup measurements was validated on a sophisticated modular test mockup replicating defined gas-liquid distributions, which are expected in impeller chambers of industrial centrifugal pumps under two-phase operation. Stationary as well as rotation-synchronized CT scanning techniques have been analyzed, which are both used to obtain sharply resolved gas phase distributions in rotating structures as well as non-rotating zones. A measuring accuracy of better than 1% absolute for variously distributed static gas holdups in the rotating frame has been verified with the modular test mockup using HireCT.

  13. A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvvetli, I.; Budtz-Jrgensen, C.; Zappettini, A.; Zambelli, N.; Benassi, G.; Kalemci, E.; Caroli, E.; Stephen, J. B.; Auricchio, N.

    2014-07-01

    At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using a novel interpolating technique based on the drift strip signals. The position determination in the detector depth direction, is made using the DOI technique based the detector cathode and anode signals. The position determination along the anode strips is made with the help of 10 cathode strips orthogonal to the anode strips. The position resolutions are at low energies dominated by the electronic noise and improve therefore with increased signal to noise ratio as the energy increases. The achievable position resolution at higher energies will however be dominated by the extended spatial distribution of the photon produced ionization charge. The main sources of noise contribution of the drift signals are the leakage current between the strips and the strip capacitance. For the leakage current, we used a metallization process that reduces the leakage current by means of a high resistive thin layer between the drift strip electrodes and CZT detector material. This method was applied to all the proto type detectors and was a very effective method to reduce the surface leakage current between the strips. The proto type detector was recently investigated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble which provided a fine 50 50 ?m2 collimated X-ray beam covering an energy band up to 600 keV. The Beam positions are resolved very well with a ~ 0.2 mm position resolution (FWHM ) at 400 keV in all directions.

  14. Array-compatible transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter {gamma}-ray detector with 42 eV energy resolution at 103 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, B. L.; Ullom, J. N.; Beall, J. A.; Irwin, K. D.; Doriese, W. B.; Duncan, W. D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Horansky, R. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R.

    2006-09-18

    The authors describe a microcalorimeter {gamma}-ray detector with measured energy resolution of 42 eV full width at half maximum for 103 keV photons. This detector consists of a thermally isolated superconducting transition-edge thermometer and a superconducting bulk tin photon absorber. The absorber is attached with a technique compatible with producing arrays of high-resolution {gamma}-ray detectors. The results of a detailed characterization of the detector, which includes measurements of the complex impedance, detector noise, and time-domain pulse response, suggest that a deeper understanding and optimization of the thermal transport between the absorber and thermometer could significantly improve the energy resolution of future detectors.

  15. Gamma ray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  16. Mercuric iodine room temperature gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Markakis, Jeffrey M.; Gerrish, Vernon M.; Haymes, Robert C.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1990-01-01

    high resolution mercuric iodide room temperature gamma-ray detectors have excellent potential as an essential component of space instruments to be used for high energy astrophysics. Mercuric iodide detectors are being developed both as photodetectors used in combination with scintillation crystals to detect gamma-rays, and as direct gamma-ray detectors. These detectors are highly radiation damage resistant. The list of applications includes gamma-ray burst detection, gamma-ray line astronomy, solar flare studies, and elemental analysis.

  17. Improving spatial resolution of high stopping power X- and gamma-ray cameras:. fibers or slat-structured detectors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstenmayer, J.-L.

    2000-11-01

    For medical imaging applications, the earliness of the detection is an essential factor to increase chances of recovery; in the field of industrial imaging, nondestructive testing with lower detectivity threshold to ensure quality and safe conduct. Accordingly, in all areas using the up-to-date compact (much less-expensive facilities) high-energy pulsed electron accelerators (HF or induction linac, Marx generator) to produce energetic photons (bremsstrahlung), such as industrial and medical numerical imaging, flash radiography, radiotherapy positioning, computed tomography, detection of small- or low-contrasted details require two-dimensional (2D) detectors with an even more improved combination of sensitivity (which implies high stopping power), spatial resolution (millimetric or sub-millimetric) and speed, working in integrating mode (i.e. dose measurement) because bremsstrahlung X-ray sources provide short pulses. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the issues involved in the development of high-performance position-sensitive X- and gamma-ray cameras for high-energy flash imaging. The basic idea is that, examining in detail the energy deposition and its statistics (quantum noise), we shall be able to determine in real detectors the following features, such as detectors composition and pixel size, which can simultaneously lead to good detection efficiency and good spatial resolution. In general, conclusions can be transposed to other particle imaging detectors as neutron imagers (changing "dense" metal by "high energy transfer" material). There are, of course, challenges to get such detectors, although new technologies have already provided some prototypes offering more than 30% stopping power and less than 2 mm spatial resolution (blur) for 50 ns long 5 MeV X-ray pulses. There are various detector-segmentation methods that can be applied in order to improve the stopping power (macroscopic cross-section) and reduce the effect of the lateral energy spread on the resolution. Technologies such as scintillator arrays (bundles), photoconductor plate piling, multi-hole- and multi-slat-solid detectors into gas chamber are employed. The first experimental results obtained at CEA are encouraging for applications such as high-energy low-dose fast imaging, flash radiography, radiotherapy positioning, nuclear waste or fuel survey, and, may be, high angular resolution imaging in the field of high-energy astrophysics. The relevance of "future" solutions is then examined, exhibiting theoretical and experimental frontiers: the most efficient structure for a future high-performance 2D integrating imager shall be a piling of thin metal layers, able to boost the quantum efficiency, sandwiched between a few hundreds of micrometers sensitive detectors as low-dark-current photoconductor (micro-strips) or parallel high-performance scintillating fiber sheets.

  18. Preliminary results from the high resolution gamma-ray and hard x-ray spectrometer (HIREGS) '92-'93 long duration balloon flight in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.P.; Feffer, P.T.; Slassi, S.; Whiteside, W.; Smith, D.M.; Hurley, K.C.; Kane, S.R.; McBride, S.; Primbsch, J.H.; Youssefi, K.; Zimmer, G. ); Pelling, R.M. ); Cotin, F.; Lavigne, J.M.; Rouaix, G.; Vedrenne, G.; Pehl, R.; Cork, C.; Luke, P.; Madden, N.; Malone, D.

    1993-01-01

    HIREGS consists of an array of twelve 6.7 cm diameter x 6.1 cm long liquid nitrogen-cooled segmented germanium detectors enclosed in a bismuth germanate (BGO) active anticoincidence shield. A CsI front collimator defines a 24 degree FWHM field-of-view. The energy resolution is one to several keV FWHM over the instrument energy range of 20 keV to 16 MeV. HIREGS was flown on a 10-day (31 Dec 92--10 Jan 93) circumpolar balloon flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 30.5 hours of observation were obtained between 31 Dec 0400-2130 UT and 1 Jan 0600-1900 UT. Because the Sun was inactive during the flight, only one small flare was detected on 31 Dec 1933 UT. Excellent high resolution [open quotes]quiet[close quotes] Sun hard X-ray and gamma-ray spectra were obtained. These provide stringent upper limits for solar gamma-ray line and hard X-ray and gamma-ray continuum emission, which in turn can constrain the storage and/or continuous acceleration of ions and electrons by the Sun.

  19. The BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog. 1; High Time Resolution Spectroscopy of Bright Bursts Using High Energy Resolution Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Band, David L.

    1999-01-01

    This is the first in a series of gamma-ray burst spectroscopy catalogs from the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Abstract: Observatory, each covering a different aspect of burst phenomenology. In this paper, we present time-sequences of spectral fit parameters for 156 bursts selected either for their high peak flux or fluence.

  20. Capabilities of germanium detectors. [gamma ray spectoscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, J. B.; Ling, J. C.; Mahoney, W. A.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The gamma ray detection efficiency and energy resolution of germanium detectors is reviewed. A general sensitivity equation for gamma-ray detectors is presented and calculated sensitvity curves are shown for a large volume balloon-borne spectrometer using germanium detectors. Improvement anticipated from a planned satellite experiment using germanium detectors is discussed.

  1. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,{alpha}), (n,n{alpha}), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 {le} {times} {le} 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base.

  2. Investigation of gamma-ray families originating from nucleus-nucleus interactions at ultrahigh energies E{sub 0} in excess of 10{sup 16} eV

    SciTech Connect

    Yuldashbaev, T. S.; Nuritdinov, Kh.

    2013-12-15

    Various spatial and energy features of gamma-ray families originating from the interactions of primary nuclei of galactic cosmic rays with nuclei of atmospheric atoms (AA interactions) are studied. The mass composition of galactic cosmic rays is analyzed on the basis of data from x-ray emulsion chambers of the Pamir experiment with the aid of a criterion for selecting gamma-ray families originating from AA interactions (A families) at energies E{sub 0} of primary galactic cosmic rays in excess of 10{sup 16} eV. According to the results obtained in this way only the experimental spatial parameters R{sub 1E} and ρ differ from their counterparts in the MC0 model.

  3. Gamma-Ray Line Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Roland

    2005-02-01

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive isotopes ejected into interstellar space by cosmic nucleosynthesis events can be observed with space telescopes. In the past decade, the Compton Observatory has provided a survey of the sky for the isotopes 56Co, ssNa, 44Ti, and 26Al, detecting supernova radioactivity and the diffuse glow of longlived radioactivity from massive stars in the Galaxy. Other experiments have demonstrated the additional capabilities of high-resolution spectroscopy with Ge detectors, identifying those isotopes, and measuring Doppler broadenings of the gamma-ray lines of SN1987A and 26Al. With ESA's INTEGRAL satellite, since October 2002 a space-based Ge gamma-ray telescope is in operation. First year's results include a detection of annihilation emission and 26Al emission from ther inner Galaxy, and 26Al emission from the Cygnus region.

  4. Ultra-high resolution alpha particle spectroscopy using cryogenic microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horansky, R. D.; Ullom, J. N.; Beall, J. B.; Doriese, W. B.; Duncan, W. D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L.; Rabin, M. W.; Hoover, A. S.; Lamont, S. P.; Rudy, C. R.

    2007-03-01

    We have built a novel alpha particle detector using a transition edge sensor (TES) thermometer attached to a bulk superconducting absorber and have measured < 2.5 keV resolution at 5.3 MeV . We have used the microcalorimeter to measure a mixture of Pu isotopes and are able to individually resolve peaks corresponding to ^239Pu and ^240Pu which are separated by 12.9 keV. The ^240Pu/^239Pu activity ratio is a key parameter for determining whether a plutonium sample is weapons or reactor grade. Conventional silicon based detectors achieve resolutions no better than 10 keV, severely limiting current actinide assays. In addition, the microcalorimeter alpha detector has shown significantly better resolution for gamma rays. The origin of the resolution difference for gamma and alpha interactions may be due to lattice damage and is currently under study.

  5. Cosmic gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfendale, A. W.

    The composition and implications of gamma rays observed by satellites are discussed. SAS II and COS B data from the direction of the Crab and Vela pulsars, 3C273, and the molecular cloud in the vicinity of Rho Oph are examined. It is noted that the 2-3 deg resolution of the detectors demands the consideration that cosmic ray electrons interacting with the interstellar medium could invalidate any positive definition of a particular source. Mechanisms of cosmic ray production by interstellar clouds are reviewed, and evidence is cited for a possible galactic source of some of the emissions. Observations of a 100 MeV flux coming from the direction of 2CGl95 + 04, through a relatively uncluttered region, does suggest a discrete source. Extragalactic rays possibly originate in the galactic halo. Models of equal X ray flux from all directions, with some enhancement from directions containing galaxies, seem to correspond with observations.

  6. Gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

  7. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Paciesas, W.S. ); Fishman, G.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This proceedings represents the works presented at the Gamma-Ray Bursts Workshop -- 1991 which was held on the campus of theUniversity of Alabama in Huntsville, October 16-18. The emphasis ofthe Workshop was to present and discuss new observations of gamma-ray bursts made recently by experiments on the Compton Gamma-RayObservatory (CGRO), Granat, Ginga, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Prognozand Phobos. These presentations were complemented by some groundbased observations, reanalysis of older data, descriptions offuture gamma-ray burst experiments and a wide-ranging list oftheoretical discussions. Over seventy papers are included in theproceedings. Eleven of them are abstracted for the database. (AIP)

  8. Preliminary Results from the HIgh REsolution Gamma-ray and hard x-ray Spectrometer (HIREGS) Long Duration Balloon Flight in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feffer, P. T.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.; Hurley, K. C.; Kane, S. R.; McBride, S.; Primbsch, J. H.; Youssefi, K.; Zimmer, G.; Pelling, R. M.; Cotin, F.; Lavigne, J. M.; Rouaix, G.; Slassi, S.; Vedrenne, G.; Pehl, R.; Cork, C.; Luke, P.; Madden, N.; Malone, D.

    1992-05-01

    The HIgh REsolution Gamma-ray and hard x-ray Spectrometer (HIREGS) was flown on a 14 day balloon flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in January 1992. For this flight, HIREGS consists of an array of four 6.7cm diameter x 6.1cm long liquid nitrogen-cooled segmented germanium detectors enclosed in a bismuth germanate (BGO) shield. A CsI front collimator defines a 24 degree FWHM field-of-view, while passive collimation reduces the field-of-view to roughly 3 x 12 degrees for hard X-rays (<200 keV). The energy resolution is one to several keV from 20 keV to 16 MeV. 178 hours of observations were obtained: Jan 10 0943UT - Jan 12 1026UT, Jan 13 0528UT - Jan 15 0823UT, Jan 17 2000UT - Jan 18 1909UT, Jan 20 0245UT - Jan 22 1522UT. Out of these 178 hours, 128 hours were spent on the sun. We have analyzed the data for two M class flares on Jan 13 1913UT and Jan 14 1937UT. No significant hard x-ray or gamma-ray emission was detected for either flare. We are currently searching for hard x-ray emission from smaller C class flares.

  9. Instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, David L.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of gamma-ray-telescope technology for ground, airborne, and space observations is surveyed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs and tables of typical data. For the low- and medium-energy ranges, consideration is given to detectors and detector cooling systems, background-rejection methods, radiation damage, large-area detectors, gamma-ray imaging, data analysis, and the Compton-interaction region. Also discussed are the gamma-ray interaction process at high energies; multilevel automated spark-chamber gamma-ray telescopes; the Soviet Gamma-1 telescope; the EGRET instrument for the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory; and Cerenkov, air-shower, and particle-detector instruments for the TeV and PeV ranges. Significant improvements in resolution and sensitivity are predicted for the near future.

  10. Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the detection of over 80 gamma-ray pulsars. Several new populations have been discovered, including 24 radio quiet pulsars found through gamma-ray pulsations alone and about 20 millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The gamma-ray pulsations from millisecond pulsars were discovered by both folding at periods of known radio millisecond pulsars or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -35 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. The higher sensitivity and larger energy range of the Fermi Large Area Telescope has produced detailed energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectroscopy on brighter pulsars, that have ruled out polar cap models as the major source of the emission in favor of outer magnetosphere accelerators. The large number of gamma-ray pulsars now allows for the first time meaningful population and sub-population studies that are revealing surprising properties of these fascinating sources.

  11. Gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers on gamma ray astrophysics are summarized. Data cover the energy region from about 0.3 MeV to a few hundred GeV and theoretical models of production mechanisms that give rise to both galactic and extragalactic gamma rays.

  12. Gamma ray detector shield

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

    1985-08-26

    A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

  13. X-ray Interferometry with Transmissive Beam Combiners for Ultra-High Angular Resolution Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, G. K.; Krismanic, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Interferometry provides one of the possible routes to ultra-high angular resolution for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. Sub-micro-arc-second angular resolution, necessary to achieve objectives such as imaging the regions around the event horizon of a super-massive black hole at the center of an active galaxy, can be achieved if beams from parts of the incoming wavefront separated by 100s of meters can be stably and accurately brought together at small angles. One way of achieving this is by using grazing incidence mirrors. We here investigate an alternative approach in which the beams are recombined by optical elements working in transmission. It is shown that the use of diffractive elements is a particularly attractive option. We report experimental results from a simple 2-beam interferometer using a low-cost commercially available profiled film as the diffractive elements. A rotationally symmetric filled (or mostly filled) aperture variant of such an interferometer, equivalent to an X-ray axicon, is shown to offer a much wider bandpass than either a Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) or a PFL with a refractive lens in an achromatic pair. Simulations of an example system are presented.

  14. The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope for precision gamma-ray emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gascon, D.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martinez, M.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Ward, J. E.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with excellent angular and energy resolutions is designed to search for signatures of dark matter in the fluxes of gamma-ray emission and electrons + positrons. Precision investigations of gamma-ray emission from Galactic Center, Crab, Vela, Cygnus, Geminga, and other regions will be performed, as well as diffuse gamma-ray emission, along with measurements of high-energy electron + positron and nuclei fluxes. Furthermore, it will study gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun during periods of solar activity. The GAMMA-400 energy range is expected to be from ∼20 MeV up to TeV energies for gamma rays, up to 10 TeV for electrons + positrons, and up to 1015 eV for cosmic-ray nuclei. For 100-GeV gamma rays, the GAMMA-400 angular resolution is ∼0.01° and energy resolution is ∼1% the proton rejection factor is ∼5x105. GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian space observatory.

  15. Coherent. gamma. -ray production

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolotti, M.; Sibilia, C.

    1985-07-01

    In this article the authors discuss a new approach for developing a coherent source of ..gamma..-rays. They offer a completely different scheme for development of the source that should overcome most of the problems encountered in ''classical ..gamma..-ray lasers,'' and in which the use of inverse Compton scattering of laser radiation onto a relativistic electron beam is made. This kind of interaction has been used to obtain ..gamma..-ray photons with good polarization and monochromaticity properties. The authors describe a new geometry of interaction which allows one to obtain coherent emission.

  16. Ultrahigh resolution photoacoustic microscopy via transient absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Ryan; Applegate, Brian E.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a novel, hybrid imaging modality, Transient Absorption Ultrasonic Microscopy (TAUM), which fuses photoacoustic microscopy with non-linear microscopy. Photoacoustic microscopy is well known for its ability to image chromophores deep (> 1 mm) in scattering media with spatial resolutions in the 10s of microns. Non-linear microscopy is well known for its exquisite spatial resolution in three dimensions. This superior spatial resolution is attributed to the fact that the collected signal has a non-linear dependence on the light intensity. This dependence confines the signal to a very small focal volume, producing optically resolved voxels. Transient absorption is a non-linear process often used to map the excited state lifetimes of molecules exhibiting low fluorescence quantum efficiency. This sensitivity to non-radiative transitions makes transient absorption an attractive process to combine with photoacoustic imaging. We have built a prototype transient absorption ultrasonic microscope, implementing off-axis photoacoustic detection to allow the use of a high-quality, high numerical aperture objective. This high-quality, commercial lens is required to provide the tight focusing needed to optimize non-linear effects. We have demonstrated the increased spatial resolution of TAUM by imaging Rhodamine 6G in a capillary tube. The capillary cross-section is fully resolved, suggesting an axial resolution of < 10 microns. A 6 MHz transducer was used in this experiment, which results in an axial resolution of ~ 400 microns when used in a traditional photoacoustic microscope. Boasting the superior penetration depth and absorption contrast offered by photoacoustic emission and complemented by spatial resolutions comparable to confocal microscopy, we believe that Transient Absorption Ultrasonic Microscopy has excellent potential for producing volumetric images with cellular/subcellular resolution in three dimensions deep inside living tissue.

  17. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Herz, Paul R.; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Desai, Saleem; Pedrosa, Macos; Koski, Amanda; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Early detection of gastrointestinal cancer is essential for the patient treatment and medical care. Endoscopically guided biopsy is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer, but can suffer from high false negative rates due to sampling errors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology which can generate high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in situ and in real time, without the removal of tissue specimen. Although endoscopic OCT has been used successfully to identify certain pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, the resolution of current endoscopic OCT systems has been limited to 10 - 15 m for clinical procedures. In this study, in vivo imaging of the gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated at a three-fold higher resolution (< 5 m), using a portable, broadband, Cr4+:Forsterite laser as the optical light source. Images acquired from the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction and colon on animal model display tissue microstructures and architectural details at high resolution, and the features observed in the OCT images are well-matched with histology. The clinical feasibility study is conducted through delivering OCT imaging catheter using standard endoscope. OCT images of normal esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal cancers are demonstrated with distinct features. The ability of high resolution endoscopic OCT to image tissue morphology at an unprecedented resolution in vivo would facilitate the development of OCT as a potential imaging modality for early detection of neoplastic changes.

  18. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  19. A High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for 0.3-10 MeV Gamma Ray Astrophysics: Construction and Initial Balloon Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1993-01-01

    The results achieved with a 3.5 liter liquid xenon time projection chamber (LXe-TPC) prototype during the first year include: the efficiency of detecting the primary scintillation light for event triggering has been measured to be higher than 85%; the charge response has been measured to be stable to within 0.1% for a period of time of about 30 hours; the electron lifetime has been measured to be in excess of 1.3 ms; the energy resolution has been measured to be consistent with previous results obtained with small volume chambers; X-Y gamma ray imaging has been demonstrated with a nondestructive orthogonal wires readout; Monte Carlo simulation results on detection efficiency, expected background count rate at balloon altitude, background reduction algorithms, telescope response to point-like and diffuse sources, and polarization sensitivity calculations; and work on a 10 liter LXe-TPC prototype and gas purification/recovery system.

  20. Future prospects for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1981-01-01

    As gamma-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of gamma-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the gamma-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system, the structure of our galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The gamma-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the gamma-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy gamma-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

  1. Gamma-ray Astronomy and GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray (30 MeV to 100 GeV) sky has been relatively poorly studied. Most of our current knowledge comes from observations made by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), which revealed that the GeV gamma-ray sky is rich and vibrant. Studies of astrophysical objects at GeV energies are interesting for several reasons: The high energy gamma-rays are often produced by a different physical process than the better studied X-ray and optical emission, thus providing a unique information for understanding these sources. Production of such high-energy photons requires that charged particles are accelerated to equally high energies, or much greater. Thus gamma-ray astronomy is the study of extreme environments, with natural and fundamental connections to cosmic-ray and neutrino astrophysics. The launch of GLAST in 2008 will herald a watershed in our understanding of the high energy gamma-ray sky, providing dramatic improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution and energy range. GLAST will open a new avenue to study our Universe as well as to answer scientific questions EGRET observations have raised. In this talk, I will describe the GLAST instruments and capabilities and highlight some of the science we expect to address.

  2. Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cosmic gamma rays, the physical processes responsible for their production and the astrophysical sites from which they were seen are reported. The bulk of the observed gamma ray emission is in the photon energy range from about 0.1 MeV to 1 GeV, where observations are carried out above the atmosphere. There are also, however, gamma ray observations at higher energies obtained by detecting the Cerenkov light produced by the high energy photons in the atmosphere. Gamma ray emission was observed from sources as close as the Sun and the Moon and as distant as the quasar 3C273, as well as from various other galactic and extragalactic sites. The radiation processes also range from the well understood, e.g. energetic particle interactions with matter, to the still incompletely researched, such as radiation transfer in optically thick electron positron plasmas in intense neutron star magnetic fields.

  3. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Bursts and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to analysis of archival data from balloon flight experiments were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  4. Gamma ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1984-01-01

    The interpretations and implications of the astrophysical observations of gamma-ray lines are reviewed. At the Galactic Center e(+)-e(-) pairs from a compact object produce an annihilation line that shows no redshift, indicating an annihilation site far removed from this object. In the jets of SS433, gamma-ray lines are produced by inelastic excitations, probably in dust grains, although line emission from fusion reactions has also been considered. Observations of diffuse galactic line emission reveal recently synthesized radioactive aluminum in the interstellar medium. In gamma-ray bursts, redshifted pair annihilation lines are consistent with a neutron star origin for the bursts. In solar flares, gamma-ray line emission reveals the prompt acceleration of protons and nuclei, in close association with the flare energy release mechanism.

  5. Gamma ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschel, M.; Guenther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape {gamma} ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E{sup 2}, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E{sup 2} extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

  6. Gamma Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.

    Almost every source in the gamma-ray sky is variable. Transient classification therefore depends on the definition of ``transient'' and on instrument sensitivity thresholds. The sources that most clearly fall in the transient category are those that have large intensity differences between their low (or off) states and their high states and have well defined high states with durations less than about a year. Examples are gamma-ray bursts, solar flares, X-ray novae, jet transients, bursting pulsars and Be binary pulsars. Generally, most accreting neutron stars, galactic black holes and AGN are variable with periods of high intensity that can be labeled as transient outbursts. Supernovae and novae form another class of gamma-ray transient driven by explosive nucleosynthesis. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has been observing the gamma-ray sky for 6 years. Many of the scientific discoveries from the mission have related to transient observations. The BATSE instrument onboard is a powerful all-sky monitor with 50 m Crab detection sensitivity above 20 keV. The OSSE instrument has a narrow field-of-view with limited sky coverage, but has excellent sensitivities above 50 keV for specific objects. At higher MeV and GeV energies the COMPTEL and EGRET instruments have wide fields-of-view that give reasonable coverage of the sky. In this talk I will review the different classes of gamma-ray transient and present results from CGRO observations.

  7. Gamma ray astrophysics to the year 2000. Report of the NASA Gamma Ray Program Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Important developments in gamma-ray astrophysics up to energies of 100 GeV during the last decade are reviewed. Also, the report seeks to define the major current scientific goals of the field and proposes a vigorous program to pursue them, extending to the year 2000. The goals of gamma-ray astronomy include the study of gamma rays which provide the most direct means of studying many important problems in high energy astrophysics including explosive nucleosynthesis, accelerated particle interactions and sources, and high-energy processes around compact objects. The current research program in gamma-ray astronomy in the U.S. including the space program, balloon program and foreign programs in gamma-ray astronomy is described. The high priority recommendations for future study include an Explorer-class high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy mission and a Get Away Special cannister (GAS-can) or Scout class multiwavelength experiment for the study of gamma-ray bursts. Continuing programs include an extended Gamma Ray Observatory mission, continuation of the vigorous program of balloon observations of the nearby Supernova 1987A, augmentation of the balloon program to provide for new instruments and rapid scientific results, and continuation of support for theoretical research. Long term recommendations include new space missions using advanced detectors to better study gamma-ray sources, the development of these detectors, continued study for the assembly of large detectors in space, collaboration with the gamma-ray astronomy missions initiated by other countries, and consideration of the Space Station attached payloads for gamma-ray experiments.

  8. Prospects for gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission and the Gamma Ray Experiment aboard the SMM spacecraft are discussed. Mission plans for interplanetary probes are also discussed. The Gamma Ray observatory and its role in future gamma ray astronomy is highlighted. It is concluded that gamma ray astronomy will be of major importance in the development of astronomical models and in the development of comsological theory.

  9. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  10. CLOAKED GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David

    2014-06-01

    It is suggested that many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are cloaked by an ultrarelativistic baryonic shell that has high optical depth when the photons are manufactured. Such a shell would not fully block photons reflected or emitted from its inner surface, because the radial velocity of the photons can be less than that of the shell. This avoids the standard problem associated with GRBs that the thermal component should be produced where the flow is still obscured by high optical depth. The radiation that escapes high optical depth obeys the Amati relation. Observational implications may include (1) anomalously high ratios of afterglow to prompt emission, such as may have been the case in the recently discovered PTF 11agg, and (2) ultrahigh-energy neutrino pulses that are non-coincident with detectable GRB. It is suggested that GRB 090510, a short, very hard GRB with very little afterglow, was an exposed GRB, in contrast to those cloaked by baryonic shells.

  11. Gamma-ray emission from thermonuclear supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Isern, J.; Bravo, E.; Hirschmann, A.

    2007-08-21

    The explosion mechanism associated with thermonuclear supernovae (SNIa) is still a matter of debate. Nevertheless, there is a wide agreement that high amounts of radioactive nuclei are produced during these events and that they are expected to be strong {gamma}-ray emitters. In this paper we investigate the use of this {gamma}-rays as a diagnostic tool. For this purpose we have performed a complete study of the {gamma}-ray spectra associated with all the different scenarios currently proposed: detonation, deflagration, delayed detonation, and pulsating delayed detonation. Our study shows that the {gamma}-ray emission from SNIa is, effectively, a promising tool but that has to be carefully used since it can lead to misinterpretations. We also show that 3D effects can be relevant in some circumstances and that they can provide important information about the exploding system and the thermonuclear burning front mechanism if high resolution spectra could be obtained.

  12. Ultrahigh resolution optical spectrometry based on Brillouin dynamic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongkang; Jiang, Taofei; Teng, Lei; Zhang, Hongying; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi; Lu, Zhiwei

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh resolution optical spectrometry based on Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG). Taking advantage of creating a long grating in an optical fiber, an ultra-narrow bandwidth optical filter is realized by operating a BDG in a long single-mode fiber (SMF), and the optical spectrometry is performed by sweeping the center wavelength of the filter through swept-tuned laser. In experiment, a 4-fm (0.5 MHz) spectral resolution is achieved by operating a BDG in a 400-m SMF, and the wavelength coverage can be readily extended to C+L band with a commercial tunable laser.

  13. Ultrahigh-resolution Photoemission of Correlated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grioni, Marco

    2001-03-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) offers a unique k-selective view of the electronic excitations in solids. This capability can be fully exploited by a new generation of very high energy and momentum resolution experiments which directly probe the properties of the elementary quasiparticle excitations. I will discuss recent ARPES results addressing fundamental aspects of the electronic properties of strongly correlated materials. In model normal metal systems like TiTe2 ARPES can test the range of validity of standard Fermi liquid predictions. From a temperature-dependent lineshape analysis it is possible to identify and separately evaluate the strength of the various quasiparticle scattering processes. Photoemission can also clarify the mechanisms leading to electronic phase transitions, e.g. the role of the Fermi surface topology in charge-density-wave (CDW) instabilities in one- and two-dimensions. In these Peierls systems ARPES can probe the momentum and temperature dependence of the energy gap, but also the unconventional nature of the quasiparticles, and their response to the conflicting lattice and CDW periodicities [1]. [1] J. Voit, L. Perfetti, F. Zwick, H. Berger, G. Margaritondo, G. Gruner, H. Hoechst, and M. Grioni, Science 290, 501 (2000).

  14. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  15. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1997-01-21

    A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

  16. Hypernuclear gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays pprovides a method of determining the spin dependence of the ..lambda..-nucleon interaction with a sensitivity not approachable by other means in the forseeable future. The transitions of primary interest are those between states that differ only in the orientation of the spin of the ..lambda.. particle with respect to the angular momentum of the nuclear core. The effective ..lambda..-nucleon interaction can be specified by a small number of ..gamma..-ray measurements. A program of experiments directed at this goal is in progress at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This paper reviews the status of the subject with emphasis on the recent experiment to measure ground state doublet splittings using germanium ..gamma..-ray detectors.

  17. Precision X-Band Linac Technologies for Nuclear Photonics Gamma-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Houck, T L; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Adolphsen, C E; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Raubenheimer, T O; Ighigeanu, D; Toma, M; Cutoiu, D

    2011-08-31

    Nuclear photonics is an emerging field of research requiring new tools, including high spectral brightness, tunable gamma-ray sources; high photon energy, ultrahigh-resolution crystal spectrometers; and novel detectors. This presentation focuses on the precision linac technology required for Compton scattering gamma-ray light sources, and on the optimization of the laser and electron beam pulse format to achieve unprecedented spectral brightness. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology will be shown to offer optimal performance in a compact package, when used in conjunction with the appropriate pulse format, and photocathode illumination and interaction laser technologies. The nascent field of nuclear photonics is enabled by the recent maturation of new technologies, including high-gradient X-band electron acceleration, robust fiber laser systems, and hyper-dispersion CPA. Recent work has been performed at LLNL to demonstrate isotope-specific detection of shielded materials via NRF using a tunable, quasi-monochromatic Compton scattering gamma-ray source operating between 0.2 MeV and 0.9 MeV photon energy. This technique is called Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Energetic Radiation (or FINDER). This work has, among other things, demonstrated the detection of {sup 7}Li shielded by Pb, utilizing gamma rays generated by a linac-driven, laser-based Compton scattering gamma-ray source developed at LLNL. Within this context, a new facility is currently under construction at LLNL, with the goal of generating tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range, at a repetition rate of 120 Hz, and with a peak brightness in the 10{sup 20} photons/(s x mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x 0.1% bw).

  18. Intracavity laser absorption measurements at ultrahigh spectral resolution.

    PubMed

    Kachanov, A A; Stoeckel, F; Charvat, A S; O'Brien, J J

    1997-06-20

    Intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy with ultrahigh sensitivity and enhanced spectral resolution is demonstrated. It entails use of an intracavity talon that selects equally spaced modes of the cavity. These modes are reduced in intensity when they occur at spectral locations where absorption that is due to intracavity species also occurs. We obtained absorption spectra by tuning the talon in small steps across its free spectral range, recording intracavity spectra at each step, and summing the result. The maximum resolution is determined by the width of the talon peaks, which was ~0.01 cm(-1). When the finesse of the talon is increased, the resolution equal to the width of a single laser mode can be achieved. With this technique, spectra at Doppler-free resolution such as that required for studies of high vibrational-overtone transitions of molecules in supersonic jets are possible. PMID:18253427

  19. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  20. Gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, E. P.; Petrosian, V.

    The physics of gamma bursts and neutron stars is examined in chapters based on papers presented at an AIP Workshop held at Stanford University on July 30-August 3, 1984. Astronomical observations and statistics concerned with the temporal structure of gamma-ray bursts, the log N-log S relation, error boxes and spatial distribution, deep searches for bursters, optical flashes, and burster recurrence time scales are discussed. Emphasis is given to accretion models, the thermonuclear model, winds in gamma-ray bursts, the magnetic flare model, and the starquake model.

  1. An achromatized endoscope for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumlinson, Alexandre R.; Barton, Jennifer K.; McNally, James; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermann, Boris; Sattmann, Harald; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Mouse models are increasingly important for studying human GI pathology. OCT provides minimally invasive, cross-sectional images that indicate the thickness and scattering density of underlying tissue. We have developed endoscopic ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) to imaging mouse colon in vivo. The reduced scale of the mouse colon makes tissue light penetration much less problematic, and high resolution acutely necessary. Higher lateral resolution requires a departure from the traditional cemented GRIN lens design. We support the need for better chromatic aberration than can be achieved by a GRIN lens using commercial raytracing software. We have designed and built a 2mm diameter endoscopic UHR-OCT system achromatized for 770-1020nm for use with a Titanium:sapphire laser with 260 nm bandwidth at full-width-half-maximum centered at 800 nm while achieving a 4.4um lateral spot dimension at focus. A pair of KZFSN5/SFPL53 doublets provides excellent primary and secondary color correction to maintain wide bandwidth through the imaging depth. A slight deviation from normal beam exit angle suppresses collection of the strong back reflection at the exit window surface. The novel design endoscope was built and characterized for through focus bandwidth, axial resolution, signal to noise, and lateral spot dimension. Performance is demonstrated on in vivo mouse colon. Ultrahigh-resolution images of mouse tissue enable the visualization of microscopic features, including crypts that have previously been observed with standard resolution OCT in humans but were too small to see in mouse tissue. Resolution near the cellular level is potentially capable of identifying abnormal crypt formation and dysplastic cellular organization.

  2. A Gamma-Ray Camera for Inspection Control

    SciTech Connect

    Danilenko, K.N.; Ignatyev, G.N.; Semenov, D.S; D Chernov, M.Y.; Morgan, J.

    2000-06-29

    The Research Institute of Pulse Technique has constructed a gamma-ray camera for imaging radioactive materials. The work was performed under the DOE Lab to Lab Dismantlement Transparency Program with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA). The gamma-ray camera was intended for imaging radioactive materials, including fissile materials, in a storage container. In this case, the spatial resolution established in the specifications for the gamma ray camera was limited for reasons of inspection non-intrusiveness.

  3. GAMMA RAY IMAGING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research is a three year development program to apply high resolution gamma-ray imaging technologies to environmental remediation of radioactive hazards. High resolution, position-sensitive germanium detectors are being developed at the Naval Research Laboratory for space app...

  4. Ultrahigh resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent probes

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier; Lacoste, Thilo D.

    2005-01-18

    A novel optical ruler based on ultrahigh-resolution colocalization of single fluorescent probes is described. Two unique families of fluorophores are used, namely energy-transfer fluorescent beads and semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) quantum dots, that can be excited by a single laser wavelength but emit at different wavelengths. A novel multicolor sample-scanning confocal microscope was constructed which allows one to image each fluorescent light emitter, free of chromatic aberrations, by scanning the sample with nanometer scale steps using a piezo-scanner. The resulting spots are accurately localized by fitting them to the known shape of the excitation point-spread-function of the microscope.

  5. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  6. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the MSFC Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  7. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1992-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to mission operations and data analysis for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory, to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the Marshall Space Flight Center Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program, and to compilation and analysis of induced radioactivity data were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  8. Celestial gamma ray study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the research activities performed by Stanford University investigators as part of the data reduction effort and overall support of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. This report is arranged chronologically, with each subsection detailing activities during roughly a one year period of time, beginning in June 1991.

  9. Characteristics of the Telescope for High Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy Selected for Definition Studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Johansson, A.; Rolfe, J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  10. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  11. The Tunka detector complex: from cosmic-ray to gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnev, N.; Astapov, I.; Barbashina, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Bogorodskii, D.; Boreyko, V.; Büker, M.; Brückner, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Chvalaev, O.; Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Dyachok, A.; Epimakhov, S.; Gafatov, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grinuk, A.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Horns, D.; Huege, T.; Ivanova, A.; Kalinin, A.; Karpov, N.; Kalmykov, N.; Kazarina, Y.; Kindin, V.; Kirichkov, N.; Kiryuhin, S.; Kleifges, M.; Kokoulin, R.; Komponiest, K.; Konstantinov, A.; Konstantinov, E.; Korobchenko, A.; Korosteleva, E.; Kostunin, D.; Kozhin, V.; Krömer, O.; Kunnas, M.; Kuzmichev, L.; Lenok, V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Monkhoev, R.; Nachtigall, R.; Pakhorukov, A.; Panasyuk, M.; Pankov, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Platonov, V.; Poleschuk, V.; Popova, E.; Porelli, A.; Prosin, V.; Ptuskin, V.; Rubtsov, G.; Rühle, C.; Samoliga, V.; Satunin, P.; Savinov, V.; Saunkin, A.; Schröder, F.; Semeney, Yu; Shaibonov (junior, B.; Silaev, A.; Silaev (junior, A.; Skurikhin, A.; Slucka, V.; Spiering, C.; Sveshnikova, L.; Tabolenko, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Voronin, D.; Wischnewski, R.; Zagorodnikov, A.; Zurbanov, V.; Yashin, I.

    2015-08-01

    TAIGA stands for “Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy” and is a project to build a complex, hybrid detector system for ground-based gamma- ray astronomy from a few TeV to several PeV, and for cosmic-ray studies from 100 TeV to 1 EeV. TAIGA will search for ”PeVatrons” (ultra-high energy gamma-ray sources) and measure the composition and spectrum of cosmic rays in the knee region (100 TeV - 10 PeV) with good energy resolution and high statistics. TAIGA will include Tunka-HiSCORE (an array of wide-angle air Cherenkov stations), an array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, an array of particle detectors, both on the surface and underground, and the TUNKA-133 air Cherenkov array.

  12. Evaluation of natural radioactivity content in high-volume surface water samples along the northern coast of Oman Sea using portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Mahdi; Omidi, Zohre; Khorambagheri, Mahdi; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh; Ebrahimi, Mahmood; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-01

    Portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was carried out to determine the natural radioactivity levels in high volume surface water samples of the northern coast of Oman Sea, covering the coastal strip from Hormoz strait to Goatr seaport, for the first time. The water samples from 36 coastal and near shore locations were collected for analysis. Analyses on the samples collected were carried out to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents. The concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in surface water samples ranged between 2.19 and 2.82 Bq/L, 1.66-2.17 Bq/L and 132.6-148.87 Bq/L, respectively. The activity profile of radionuclides shows low activity across the study area. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices. The external hazard index was found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. The results of measurements will serve as background reference level for Oman Sea coastlines. PMID:25847859

  13. Ultra-high resolution mass spectroscopy of boron cluster ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Dale; Horsky, Thomas; Krull, Wade; Milgate, Bob

    2005-08-01

    Boron clusters have recently received considerable attention as a possible solution to the throughput dilemma associated with ultra-low energy (sub keV) p-type source drain extension implants required by cutting edge complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Boron cluster ion beams contain many masses due to the binomial distribution of the two naturally occurring isotopes (masses 10 and 11) of boron. The broadness of the mass distribution peak in the dispersive plane is further complicated by a plurality of ion states, due to the varying number of hydrogen atoms remaining attached to the borohydride molecule when it is ionized. The B18 Hx+ cluster ion mass spectrum from an electron impact ionization source will be analyzed in detail. An ultra-high resolution mass spectrum, exhibiting 1 AMU resolution of a mass 220 cluster ion will be shown. It will be compared to high-resolution spectra of decaborane (B10H14) cluster ions obtained from natural abundance decaborane and from isotopically enriched material. The deconvolution of the binominal distribution from ion states present in the cluster ion beam reveals the hydrogen distribution function. The hydrogen distribution functions as well as the binomial distributions will be presented and discussed. Physical models will be presented that explain the origin of hydrogen distribution function for these high mass borohydride cluster ions. This ultra-high mass resolution is usually unavailable to the ion implant community, however our 120 mass analyzing magnet and the extremely low emittance of the ion beam extracted from the ClusterIon source coupled with a variable width beam defining aperture and variable width mass defining slits allow for superior mass resolution.

  14. Gamma ray astronomy in perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the development of gamma ray astronomy is presented. Gamma ray telescopes and other optical measuring instruments are highlighted. Emphasis is placed on findings that were unobtainable before gamma ray astronomy. Information on evolution of the solar system, the relationship of the solar system to the galaxy, and the composition of interstellar matter is discussed.

  15. Soft gamma rays from black holes versus neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1992-01-01

    The recent launches of GRANAT and GRO provide unprecedented opportunities to study compact collapsed objects from their hard x ray and gamma ray emissions. The spectral range above 100 keV can now be explored with much higher sensitivity and time resolution than before. The soft gamma ray spectral data is reviewed of black holes and neutron stars, radiation, and particle energization mechanisms and potentially distinguishing gamma ray signatures. These may include soft x ray excesses versus deficiencies, thermal versus nonthermal processes, transient gamma ray bumps versus power law tails, lines, and periodicities. Some of the highest priority future observations are outlines which will shed much light on such systems.

  16. Velocity-space observation regions of high-resolution two-step reaction gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salewski, M.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Kiptily, V. G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, J.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Contributors, JET

    2015-09-01

    High-resolution ?-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Doppler-broadened ?-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(?, n?)12C as an example. The energy-dependent cross sections of this reaction suggest that GRS is sensitive to alpha particles above about 1.7 MeV and highly sensitive to alpha particles at the resonance energies of the reaction. Here we demonstrate that high-resolution two-step reaction GRS measurements are not only selective in energy but also in pitch angle. They can be highly sensitive in particular pitch angle ranges and completely insensitive in others. Moreover, GRS weight functions allow rapid calculation of ?-ray energy spectra from fast-ion distribution functions, additionally revealing how many photons any given alpha-particle velocity-space region contributes to the measurements in each ?-ray energy bin.

  17. Ultrahigh resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Michalet, X.; Lacoste, T.D.; Pinaud, F.; Chemla, D.S.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Weiss, S.

    2000-12-20

    A new method for in vitro and possibly in vivo ultrahigh-resolution colocalization and distance measurement between biomolecules is described, based on semiconductor nanocrystal probes. This ruler bridges the gap between FRET and far-field (or near-field scanning optical microscope) imaging and has a dynamic range from few nanometers to tens of micrometers. The ruler is based on a stage-scanning confocal microscope that allows the simultaneous excitation and localization of the excitation point-spread-function (PSF) of various colors nanocrystals while maintaining perfect registry between the channels. Fit of the observed diffraction and photophysics-limited images of the PSFs with a two-dimensional Gaussian allows one to determine their position with nanometer accuracy. This new high-resolution tool opens new windows in various molecular, cell biology and biotechnology applications.

  18. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1994-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) is one of four instruments on the Compton observatory which was launched by the space shuttle Atlantis on April 5, 1991. As of mid-March, 1994, BATSE detected more than 925 cosmic gamma-ray bursts and more than 725 solar flares. Pulsed gamma rays have been detected from at least 16 sources and emission from at least 28 sources (including most of the pulsed sources) has been detected by the earth occultation technique. UAH participation in BATSE is extensive but can be divided into two main areas, operations and data analysis. The daily BATSE operations tasks represent a substantial level of effort and involve a large team composed of MSFC personnel as well as contractors such as UAH. The scientific data reduction and analysis of BATSE data is also a substantial level of effort in which UAH personnel have made significant contributions.

  19. Gamma-ray-line astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventhal, M.; MacCallum, C. J.

    1980-07-01

    The balloon and satellite detection of gamma rays from astrophysical sources is discussed. Supernovas and novas are considered with regard to the cosmic synthesis of the chemical elements, and particular attention is given to the production of gamma rays by neutron stars. Also discussed is gamma-ray-line broadening, and the generation of gamma rays by electron-positron annihilation, atomic nuclei emission, and electron cyclotron emission. A gamma-ray-line telescope is described which consists of a detector inside a detector, and contains 400 pounds of sodium iodide with tellurium atoms introduced as a dopant and a germanium crystal at the center.

  20. Gamma ray collimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, Edgar J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gamma ray collimator including a housing having first and second sections. The first section encloses a first section of depleted uranium which is disposed for receiving and supporting a radiation emitting component such as cobalt 60. The second section encloses a depleted uranium member which is provided with a conical cut-out focusing portion disposed in communication with the radiation emitting element for focusing the emitted radiation to the target.

  1. Gamma ray collimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, Edgar J. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A gamma ray collimator including a housing having first and second sections is disclosed. The first section encloses a first section of depleted uranium which is disposed for receiving and supporting a radiation emitting component such as cobalt 60. The second section encloses a depleted uranium member which is provided with a conical cut out focusing portion disposed in communication with the radiation emitting element for focusing the emitted radiation to the target.

  2. Gamma ray spectrometer for Lunar Scout 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Burt, W. W.; Edwards, B. C.; Martin, R. A.; Nakano, George H.; Reedy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    We review the current status of the Los Alamos program to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for the Lunar Scout-II mission, which is the second of two Space Exploration Initiative robotic precursor missions to study the Moon. This instrument will measure gamma rays in the energy range of approximately 0.1 - 10 MeV to determine the composition of the lunar surface. The instrument is a high-purity germanium crystal surrounded by an CsI anticoincidence shield and cooled by a split Stirling cycle cryocooler. It will provide the abundance of many elements over the entire lunar surface.

  3. UNIDENTIFIED {gamma}-RAY SOURCES: HUNTING {gamma}-RAY BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Ajello, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Tosti, G.; Gasparrini, D.

    2012-06-10

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the major improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one-third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated with low-energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of active galactic nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated with the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray LAT catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart to each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated with {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  4. Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: Hunting Gamma-Ray Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, A.Paggi.D.

    2012-04-02

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the large improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated to low energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of Active Galactic Nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated to the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated to {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  5. Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

  6. Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

  7. New shield for gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brar, S. S.; Gustafson, P. F.; Nelson, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Gamma-ray shield that can be evacuated, refilled with a clean gas, and pressurized for exclusion of airborne radioactive contaminants effectively lowers background noise. Under working conditions, repeated evacuation and filling procedures have not adversely affected the sensitivity and resolution of the crystal detector.

  8. Ultra-high resolution optical trap with single fluorophore sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Matthew J; Ha, Taekjip; Chemla, Yann R

    2013-01-01

    We present a single-molecule instrument that combines a timeshared ultra-high resolution dual optical trap interlaced with a confocal fluorescence microscope. In a demonstration experiment, individual single-fluorophore labeled DNA oligonucleotides were observed to bind and unbind to complementary DNA suspended between two trapped beads. Simultaneous with the single-fluorophore detection, coincident angstrom-scale changes in tether extension could be clearly observed. Fluorescence readout allowed us to determine the duplex melting rate as a function of force. The new instrument will enable the simultaneous measurement of angstrom-scale mechanical motion of individual DNA-binding proteins (e.g., single base pair stepping of DNA translocases) along with the detection of fluorescently labeled protein properties (e.g., internal configuration). PMID:21336286

  9. Gamma-ray burst and spectroscopy instrumentation development at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities that are specifically related to the development of instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy. Three programs are described: (1) the Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS), a balloon-borne array of seven germanium detectors for high-resolution spectrographic studies of persistent gamma-ray sources; (2) the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS), a single radiatively-cooled germanium detector for the spectrographic study of gamma-ray bursts, and (3) the Rapidly Moving Telescope (RMT), a ground-based optical telescope for the detection and study of short-lived optical transients, particularly those that occur in coincidence with gamma-ray bursts.

  10. Gamma-Ray Localization of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Marisaldi, M.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Gianotti, F.; Argan, A.; De Paris, G.; Trois, A.; Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S.

    2010-09-17

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high-energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of {approx}5-10 deg. at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the subsatellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space.

  11. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) have been an unsolved mystery in high-energy astrophysics for the last 30 years. Immediately after GRB were discovered, scientists tried to understand the mechanism that causes these events and where they come from. Since than, many theories have been suggested to explain GRB which have durations spanning five orders of magnitude (ranging between a few milliseconds and minutes) and spectrals that peak generally in the range of 0.1 to 1 MeV. Given this numbers, most theorists would think of processes occurring near neutron stars in our galaxy, many of which are known sources of rapidly varying, high-energy photon emission.

  12. A high resolution liquid xenon imaging telescope for 0.3-10 MeV gamma-ray astrophysics: Construction and initial balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1994-01-01

    An instrument is described which will provide a direct image of gamma-ray line or continuum sources in the energy range 300 keV to 10 MeV. The use of this instrument to study the celestial distribution of the (exp 26)Al isotope by observing the 1.809 MeV deexcitation gamma-ray line is illustrated. The source location accuracy is 2' or better. The imaging telescope is a liquid xenon time projection chamber coupled with a coded aperture mask (LXe-CAT). This instrument will confirm and extend the COMPTEL observations from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) with an improved capability for identifying the actual Galactic source or sources of (exp 26)Al, which are currently not known with certainty. sources currently under consideration include red giants on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), novae, Type 1b or Type 2 supernovae, Wolf-Rayet stars and cosmic-rays interacting in molecular clouds. The instrument could also identify a local source of the celestial 1.809 MeV gamma-ray line, such as a recent nearby supernova.

  13. Gamma-ray tracking method for pet systems

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2010-06-08

    Gamma-ray tracking methods for use with granular, position sensitive detectors identify the sequence of the interactions taking place in the detector and, hence, the position of the first interaction. The improved position resolution in finding the first interaction in the detection system determines a better definition of the direction of the gamma-ray photon, and hence, a superior source image resolution. A PET system using such a method will have increased efficiency and position resolution.

  14. SYNTH - Gamma Ray Spectrum Synthesizer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-05-18

    SYNTH was designed to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code allows a user to specify the physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of radionuclides emitting gamma radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence and type of any intervening absorbers, the size and type of the gamma-ray detector, and the electronic set-up used to gather the data.

  15. {gamma} ray astronomy with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, F.; Stanev, T.; Yodh, G.B.

    1997-04-01

    Although {gamma} ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard {gamma} ray spectra there is a relative {open_quotes}enhancement{close_quotes} of muons from {gamma} ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower {gamma} rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons N{sub {mu}}, which is thus proportional to the primary {gamma} ray energy. With {gamma} ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the {gamma}{close_quote}s of about 1{percent}, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by 10{sup 4}. The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal, and by {gamma} ray detectors such as MILAGRO. TeV muons from {gamma} ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy {gamma} rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal, and MILAGRO detectors. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Gamma-Ray Library and Uncertainty Analysis: Passively Emitted Gamma Rays Used in Safeguards Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W

    2009-09-18

    Non-destructive gamma-ray analysis is a fundamental part of nuclear safeguards, including nuclear energy safeguards technology. Developing safeguards capabilities for nuclear energy will certainly benefit from the advanced use of gamma-ray spectroscopy as well as the ability to model various reactor scenarios. There is currently a wide variety of nuclear data that could be used in computer modeling and gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis. The data can be discrepant (with varying uncertainties), and it may difficult for a modeler or software developer to determine the best nuclear data set for a particular situation. To use gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the relative isotopic composition of nuclear materials, the gamma-ray energies and the branching ratios or intensities of the gamma-rays emitted from the nuclides in the material must be well known. A variety of computer simulation codes will be used during the development of the nuclear energy safeguards, and, to compare the results of various codes, it will be essential to have all the {gamma}-ray libraries agree. Assessing our nuclear data needs allows us to create a prioritized list of desired measurements, and provides uncertainties for energies and especially for branching intensities. Of interest are actinides, fission products, and activation products, and most particularly mixtures of all of these radioactive isotopes, including mixtures of actinides and other products. Recent work includes the development of new detectors with increased energy resolution, and studies of gamma-rays and their lines used in simulation codes. Because new detectors are being developed, there is an increased need for well known nuclear data for radioactive isotopes of some elements. Safeguards technology should take advantage of all types of gamma-ray detectors, including new super cooled detectors, germanium detectors and cadmium zinc telluride detectors. Mixed isotopes, particularly mixed actinides found in nuclear reactor streams can be especially challenging to identify. The super cooled detectors have a marked improvement in energy resolution, allowing the possibility of deconvolution of mixtures of gamma rays that was unavailable with high purity germanium detectors. Isotopic analysis codes require libraries of gamma rays. In certain situations, isotope identification can be made in the field, sometimes with a short turnaround time, depending on the choice of detector and software analysis package. Sodium iodide and high purity germanium detectors have been successfully used in field scenarios. The newer super cooled detectors offer dramatically increased resolution, but they have lower efficiency and so can require longer collection times. The different peak shapes require software development for the specific detector type and field application. Libraries can be tailored to specific scenarios; by eliminating isotopes that are certainly not present, the analysis time may be shortened and the accuracy may be increased. The intent of this project was to create one accurate library of gamma rays emitted from isotopes of interest to be used as a reliable reference in safeguards work. All simulation and spectroscopy analysis codes can draw upon this best library to improve accuracy and cross-code consistency. Modeling codes may include MCNP and COG. Gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis codes may include MGA, MGAU, U235 and FRAM. The intent is to give developers and users the tools to use in nuclear energy safeguards work. In this project, the library created was limited to a selection of actinide isotopes of immediate interest to reactor technology. These isotopes included {sup 234-238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238-242}Pu, {sup 241,243}Am and {sup 244}Cm. These isotopes were examined, and the best of gamma-ray data, including line energies and relative strengths were selected.

  17. Gamma-ray burst variability above 4 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Ling, J. C.; Mahoney, W. A.; Wheaton, W. A.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the hard X-ray and gamma ray emissions during four bursts using the anti-coincidence shields of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 3 (HEAO 3) Gamma Ray Spectrometer is explored. Recent observations of gamma ray bursts by the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) have shown that high energy emission above 1 MeV is a common and energetically important feature (Matz et al. 1985). Time histories of four gamma ray bursts in 3 energy bands ( keV, around 511 keV, and 4 MeV) with 10.24 a resolution show that the 4 MeV flux is only weakly coupled to the spectrum below approximately 600 keV.

  18. Ultrahigh-speed ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography system for in-vivo small animal retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yifan; Xu, Jing; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2013-03-01

    Small animal models of human retinal diseases are a critical component of vision research. In this report, we present an ultrahigh-resolution ultrahigh-speed adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system for small animal retinal imaging (mouse, fish, etc.). We adapted our imaging system to different types of small animals in accordance with the optical properties of their eyes. Results of AO-OCT images of small animal retinas acquired with AO correction are presented. Cellular structures including nerve fiber bundles, capillary networks and detailed double-cone photoreceptors are visualized.

  19. The LXeCAT instrument for gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Xu, F.; Zhou, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Masuda, K.; Chupp, E. L.; Dunphy, P. P.; Fishman, G.; Pendelton, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Xenon Coded Aperture Telescope (LXeCAT) and its capability to image astrophysical gamma-ray sources in the MeV region is described. The gamma-ray detector is a Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber (LXeTPC) triggered by the primary scintillation light. Effective background rejection is a direct consequence of the intrinsic three-dimensional imaging capability of the LXeTPC. Initial results with a 10 liter prototype confirm an energy resolution of 6% FWHM, a position resolution of 1 mm RMS and a light triggering efficiency higher than 90% for 1 MeV gamma-rays.

  20. Broadband superluminescent diode-based ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for ophthalmic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dexi; Shen, Meixiao; Jiang, Hong; Li, Ming; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Yuhong; Ge, Lili; Qu, Jia; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-12-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with ultrahigh resolution can be used to measure precise structures in the context of ophthalmic imaging. We designed an ultrahigh resolution SD-OCT system based on broadband superluminescent diode (SLD) as the light source. An axial resolution of 2.2 ?m in tissue, a scan depth of 1.48 mm, and a high sensitivity of 93 dB were achieved by the spectrometer designed. The ultrahigh-resolution SD-OCT system was employed to image the human cornea and retina with a cross-section image of 2048 2048 pixels. Our research demonstrated that ultrahigh -resolution SD-OCT can be achieved using broadband SLD in a simple way.

  1. Gamma-ray imaging with germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Callas, J. L.; Ling, J. C.; Radocinski, R. G.; Skelton, R. T.; Varnell, L. S.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Externally segmented germanium detectors promise a breakthrough in gamma-ray imaging capabilities while retaining the superb energy resolution of germanium spectrometers. By combining existing position-sensitive detectors with an appropriate code aperture, two-dimensional imaging with 0.2-deg angular resolution becomes practical for a typical balloon experiment. Much finer resolutions are possible with larger separations between detectors and the coded aperture as would be applicable for space-based or lunar-based observatories. Two coaxial germanium detectors divided into five external segments have been fabricated and have undergone extensive performance evaluation and imaging testing in our laboratory. These tests together with detailed Monte Carlo modeling calculations have demonstrated the great promise of this sensor technology for future gamma-ray missions.

  2. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  3. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS): A new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A. F.; Maccallum, C. J.; Stang, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload, a balloon program was initiated to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments.

  4. Arcsec source location measurements in gamma-ray astronomy from a lunar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.

    1990-01-01

    The physical processes typically used in the detection of high energy gamma-rays do not permit good angular resolution, which makes difficult the unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects emitting at other wavelengths. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For the purpose of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above about 20 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

  5. Performance of the EGRET astronomical gamma ray telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, P.L.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E.B.; Lin, Y.C.; Michelson, P.F. ); Bertsch, D.L.; Fichtel, C.E.; Hartman, R.C.; Hunter, S.D.; Mattox, J.R.; Sreekumar, P.; Thompson, D.J. . Goddard Space Flight Center)

    1992-08-01

    On April 5, 1991, the Space Shuttle Atlantis carried the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) into orbit, deploying the satellite on April 7. This paper reports on the EGRET instrument which was activated on April 15, and the first month of operations was devoted to verification of the instrument performance. Measurements made during that month and in the subsequent sky survey phase have verified that the instrument time resolution, angular resolution, and gamma ray detection efficiency are all within nominal limits.

  6. Ultrahigh-resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent probes

    PubMed Central

    Lacoste, Thilo D.; Michalet, Xavier; Pinaud, Fabien; Chemla, Daniel S.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Weiss, Shimon

    2000-01-01

    An optical ruler based on ultrahigh-resolution colocalization of single fluorescent probes is described in this paper. It relies on the use of two unique families of fluorophores, namely energy-transfer fluorescent beads (TransFluoSpheres) and semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots, that can be excited by a single laser wavelength but emit at different wavelengths. A multicolor sample-scanning confocal microscope was constructed that allows one to image each fluorescent light emitter, free of chromatic aberrations, by scanning the sample with nanometer scale steps with a piezo-scanner. The resulting spots are accurately localized by fitting them to the known shape of the excitation point-spread function of the microscope. We present results of two-dimensional colocalization of TransFluoSpheres (40 nm in diameter) and of nanocrystals (3–10 nm in diameter) and demonstrate distance-measurement accuracy of better than 10 nm using conventional far-field optics. This ruler bridges the gap between fluorescence resonance energy transfer, near- and far-field imaging, spanning a range of a few nanometers to tens of micrometers. PMID:10931959

  7. Gamma Ray Pulsars: Multiwavelength Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy gamma rays are a valuable tool for studying particle acceleration and radiation in the magnetospheres of energetic pulsars. The seven or more pulsars seen by instruments on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) show that: the light curves usually have double-peak structures (suggesting a broad cone of emission); gamma rays are frequently the dominant component of the radiated power; and all the spectra show evidence of a high-energy turnover. For all the known gamma-ray pulsars, multiwavelength observations and theoretical models based on such observations offer the prospect of gaining a broad understanding of these rotating neutron stars. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), now in planning for a launch in 2006, will provide a major advance in sensitivity, energy range, and sky coverage.

  8. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo, Patrizia A.

    2014-08-01

    Isolated neutron stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. In the 1970s, only two sources had been identified, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space in both the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star (NS) magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. We are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known gamma-ray-emitting NSs. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011, and we are now over 150. The gamma-ray-emitting NS population exhibits roughly equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet young INSs, plus an astonishing, and unexpected, group of isolated and binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The number of MSPs is growing so rapidly that they are on their way to becoming the most numerous members of the family of gamma-ray-emitting NSs. Even as these findings have set the stage for a revolution in our understanding of gamma-ray-emitting NSs, long-term monitoring of the gamma-ray sky has revealed evidence of flux variability in the Crab Nebula as well as in the pulsed emission from PSR J2021+4026, challenging a four-decades-old, constant-emission paradigm. Now we know that both pulsars and their nebulae can, indeed, display variable emission.

  9. The solar gamma ray and neutron capabilities of COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M.; Lockwood, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging Compton telescope COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) has unusual spectroscopic capabilities for measuring solar gamma-ray and neutron emission. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990 near the peak of the sunspot cycle. With a 30 to 40 percent probability for the Sun being in the COMPTEL field-of-view during the sunlit part of an orbit, a large number of flares will be observed above the 800 keV gamma-ray threshold of the telescope. The telescope energy range extends to 30 MeV with high time resolution burst spectra available from 0.1 to 10 MeV. Strong Compton tail suppression of instrumental gamma-ray interactions will facilitate improved spectral analysis of solar flare emissions. In addition, the high signal to noise ratio for neutron detection and measurement will provide new neutron spectroscopic capabilities. Specifically, a flare similar to that of 3 June 1982 will provide spectroscopic data on greater than 1500 individual neutrons, enough to construct an unambiguous spectrum in the energy range of 20 to 200 MeV. Details of the instrument and its response to solar gamma-rays and neutrons will be presented.

  10. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

  11. A directional low energy gamma-ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G.; Pieper, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    The sensitivity of a directional gamma ray detector, which relies on blocking a source to determine its direction and energy spectrum, is calculated and compared to the more conventional well-shaped shielded detectors. It is shown that such an anticollimator detection system provides a basis for measuring the celestial diffuse gamma ray background, gamma ray sources and bursts with good energy, angular, and time resolution, and that additionally the system is 20 to 50 times as sensitive as conventional detectors when compared on a per unit mass basis.

  12. Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-Rays (IGETAGRAY)

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P. ); Harrison, F.A. . Dept. of Physics California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Space Sciences Lab.); Fleischmann, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The Germanium Drift Chamber (GDC) is a gamma-ray detector with excellent energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution. Due to recent developments in coded aperture optics, it is feasible to couple one-dimensional coded apertures and GDCs in a special array geometry producing a telescope with true two-dimensional imaging. This Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-Rays (IGETAGRAY) has made a comparable field of view and sensitivity to true two-dimensional systems, but simplified engineering requirements. IGETAGRAY will make possible high sensitivity spectroscopy of the gamma-ray sky. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Imaging germanium telescope array for gamma-rays (IGETAGRAY)

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P. ); Harrison, F.A. Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA ); Fleischmann, J. )

    1990-08-10

    The Germanium Drift Chamber (GDC) is a gamma-ray detector with excellent energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution. Due to recent developments in coded aperture optics, it is feasible to couple one-dimensional coded apertures and GDCs in a special array geometry producing a telescope with true two-dimensional imaging. This Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-rays (IGETAGRAY) has made a comparable field of view and sensitivity to true two-dimensional systems, but simplified engineering requirements. IGETAGRAY will make possible high sensitivity spectroscopy of the gamma-ray sky.

  14. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Vassiliev, V.V.; /UCLA

    2011-06-14

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory being planned in the U.S. The anticipated sensitivity of AGIS is about one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of current observatories, allowing it to measure gamma-ray emission from a large number of Galactic and extra-galactic sources. We present here results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance - collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity - are discussed.

  15. Retinal oximetry using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yufeng; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Meixiao; Lam, Byron L; DeBuc, Delia Cabrera; Ge, Lili; Sehi, Mitra; Wang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the repeatability of retinal oximetry using slit-lamp adapted ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (SL-UHR-OCT). Methods SL-UHR-OCT was developed and fringe patterns were obtained for a major retinal artery and a major retinal vein. A-scans at the central wavelengths of 805 nm and 855 nm were analyzed for calculating optical density ratios (ODRs), from which the percentage oxygen saturation was calculated. Measurements were made on two occasions for each person. Repeatability and coefficients of repeatability were calculated. Results The mean ODRs of the artery were 0.79 ± 0.86 and 0.88 ± 0.97 in sessions 1 and 2, respectively. The mean ODRs of the vein were −0.08 ± 0.69 and 0.14 ± 0.77 between the two sessions, and were significantly lower than that of the artery (P < 0.05). The coefficients of repeatability were 1.44 and 1.81 for the artery and vein, respectively. The mean oxygen saturation of the major retinal artery was 94% ± 45% and 98% ± 51% in sessions 1 and 2, respectively, and the mean oxygen saturation of the major retinal vein was 48% ± 36% and 60% ± 40% between sessions. Conclusion Optical coherence tomographic oximetry for evaluating retinal oxygen saturation was subject to variation, although the averaged measurements in repeated sessions were matched. Further work on reducing variation will be needed. PMID:23271891

  16. Ultra-high resolution and high-brightness AMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Ghosh, Amal; Prache, Olivier; Draper, Russ; Fellowes, Dave

    2012-06-01

    As part of its continuing effort to improve both the resolution and optical performance of AMOLED microdisplays, eMagin has recently developed an SXGA (1280×3×1024) microdisplay under a US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD contract that combines the world's smallest OLED pixel pitch with an ultra-high brightness green OLED emitter. This development is aimed at next-generation HMD systems with "see-through" and daylight imaging requirements. The OLED pixel array is built on a 0.18-micron CMOS backplane and contains over 4 million individually addressable pixels with a pixel pitch of 2.7 × 8.1 microns, resulting in an active area of 0.52 inches diagonal. Using both spatial and temporal enhancement, the display can provide over 10-bits of gray-level control for high dynamic range applications. The new pixel design also enables the future implementation of a full-color QSXGA (2560 × RGB × 2048) microdisplay in an active area of only 1.05 inch diagonal. A low-power serialized low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) interface is integrated into the display for use as a remote video link for tethered systems. The new SXGA backplane has been combined with the high-brightness green OLED device developed by eMagin under an NVESD contract. This OLED device has produced an output brightness of more than 8000fL with all pixels on; lifetime measurements are currently underway and will presented at the meeting. This paper will describe the operational features and first optical and electrical test results of the new SXGA demonstrator microdisplay.

  17. Pulsars as gamma ray sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arons, J.

    1996-11-01

    Aspects of the physics of rotation powered pulsars as gamma ray sources are discussed. The shock excitation of pulsar powered nebulae (plerions) is discussed, based on recent theoretical work on the structure of relativistic, collisionless magnetosonic shock waves. This theory is used to outline a model in which the ?^-2^ injection spectrum of the Crab Nebula is satisfactorily accounted for. The same theory suggests a model of the ``wisp'' features in the Crab Nebula which accounts for these time variable features in the surface bightness as compressions associated with the magnetic overshoots within the shock structure. It is pointed out that this theory suggests observable variability in the high energy gamma rays from the Crab Nebula (?>50MeV.) The energetics of pulsed gamma ray emission from the six known EGRET pulsars are reviewed and shown to fit a simple efficiency {prop.to}{PHI}_open_^-k^ law, where k~0.8 and {PHI}_open_={OMEGA}_*_^2mu/c^2^=10^13^(?(P)_15_ /P^3^)^1/2^ is a measure of the total voltage available on a pulsar's open field lines. Here ?(P)_15_=?(P)/10^-15^. This result is used to define a criterion for cessation of gamma ray emission in voltage-P space, such that empirically pulsars should stop being gamma ray emitters when the total spindown luminosity falls to ~2x10^32^ergs/sec. A simple result of the same form as the empirical gamma ray emission efficency is derived for the acceleration efficiency of particle beams extracted from the polar cap, and for high voltage pulsars, where curvature radiation reaction is important, equated to the gamma ray efficiency. However, it is also argued that since radio emission from the polar caps continues to lower voltages and spin down luminosities than inferred for the gamma ray emission, that this correspondence is a coincidence and that the EGRET gamma rays come from the outer magnetosphere. The most popular of outer magnetosphere models are shown to be unable to simultanously account for gamma ray efficiencies approaching unity and having most of the gamma ray luminosity in sharp pulses, suggesting that the gamma ray emission has something to do with dense return current boundary layers whose physics has yet to be quantified.

  18. HARPO: beam characterization of a TPC for gamma-ray polarimetry and high angular-resolution astronomy in the MeV-GeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaobo; Bernard, Denis; Bruel, Philippe; Frotin, Mickael; Geerebaert, Yannick; Giebels, Berrie; Gros, Philippe; Horan, Deirdre; Louzir, Marc; Poilleux, Patrick; Semeniouk, Igor; Attié, David; Calvet, Denis; Colas, Paul; Delbart, Alain; Sizun, Patrick; Götz, Diego; Amano, Sho; Kotaka, Takuya; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Minamiyama, Yasuhito; Takemoto, Akinori; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Miyamoto, Shuji; Daté, Schin; Ohkuma, Haruo

    2015-11-01

    A time projection chamber (TPC) can be used to measure the polarization of gamma rays with excellent angular precision and sensitivity in the MeV-GeV energy range through the conversion of photons to e+e‑ pairs. The Hermetic ARgon POlarimeter (HARPO) prototype was built to demonstrate this concept. It was recently tested in the polarized photon beam at the NewSUBARU facility in Japan. We present this data-taking run, which demonstrated the excellent performance of the HARPO TPC.

  19. X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

  20. Elemental mapping of planetary surfaces using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma rays escaping from a planet can be used to map the concentrations of various elements in its surface. In a planet, the high-energy particles in the galactic cosmic rays induce a cascade of particles that includes many neutrons. The {gamma} rays are made by the nuclear excitations induced by these cosmic-ray particles and their secondaries (especially capture or inelastic-scattering reactions induced by neutrons) and decay of the naturally-occurring radioelements. After a short history of planetary {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and its applications, the {gamma}-ray spectrometer planned for the Mars Observer mission is presented. The results of laboratory experiments that simulate the cosmic-ray bombardments of planetary surfaces or measure cross sections for the production of {gamma} rays and the status of the theoretical calculations for the processes that make and transport neutrons and {gamma} rays will be reviewed. The emphasis here is on studies of Mars and on new ideas, concepts, and problems that have arisen over the last decade, such as Doppler broadening and peaks from neutron scattering with germanium nuclei in a high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometer. 31 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

    X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

  2. Survey of candidate gamma-ray sources at TeV energies using a high-resolution Cerenkov imaging system - 1988-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, P. T.; Akerlof, C. W.; Cawley, M. F.; Chantell, M.; Fegan, D. J.; Hillas, A. M.; Lamb, R. C.; Lang, M. J.; Lawrence, M. A.; Lewis, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The steady TeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula has been used to optimize the sensitivity of the Whipple Observatory atmospheric Cerenkov imaging telescope. Using this method, which is of order 20 times more sensitive than the standard method using a simple non-imaging detector, it is possible to detect the Crab Nebula at a significance level in excess of 6 standard deviations (6 sigma) in under 1 hr on source (with a corresponding time observing a background comparison region); a source one-tenth the strength of the Crab Nebula can be detected at the 4 sigma level after 40 hr on the source (and 40 hr on a background region). A variety of sources have been monitored using this technique over the period 1988-1991, but none were detected apart from the Crab Nebula. Upper limits are presented which in many instances are a factor of 10 below the flux of the Crab Nebula. These upper limits assume steady emission from the source and cannot rule out sporadic gamma-ray emission with short duty cycles.

  3. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J. )

    1990-03-20

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes.

  4. Gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy is a valuable source of information on solar activity, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis. Cosmic gamma-ray lines were first observed from solar flares and more recently from the galactic center and a transient event. The latter may give an important insight into nuclear reactions taking place near neutron stars and black holes and a measure of the gravitational redshifts of such objects.

  5. Gamma-ray spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    The experiments in gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the geochemical composition of the lunar surface are reported. The theory is discussed of discrete energy lines of natural radioactivity, and the lines resulting from the bombardment of the lunar surface by high energy cosmic rays. The gamma-ray spectrometer used in lunar orbit and during transearth coast is described, and a preliminary analysis of the results is presented.

  6. TIGRE Gamma-Ray Balloon Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Allen D.; O'Neill, T. J.; Bhattacharya, D.; Trojanowski, C.; Polsen, M.; Kong, V.; Wijeratne, S.

    2006-09-01

    The prototype TIGRE Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment has been development for the past decade. Its first balloon flight is anticipated in fall, 2006. TIGRE is a Compton telescope for 0.5-10 MeV gamma rays and a pair telescope for 10-100 MeV gammas. It uses multiple layers of thin silicon strip detectors as both the Compton and pair converter and the charged particle tracker. The event coincidence requirement is completed with arrays of CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors surrounding the converter/tracker and large Na(Tl)-PMT detectors below. The purpose of this flight is to demonstrate the background suppression capabilities of the TIGRE instrument with Compton recoil electron tracking and the improved angular resolution for pairs with silicon as the converter material. Very preliminary results will be presented.

  7. TIGRE prototype gamma-ray balloon instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, A. D.; O'Neill, T. J.; Bhattacharya, D.; Trojanowski, C.; Wijeratne, S.; Teichegaeber, C.; Mathews, M.

    2006-08-01

    The prototype TIGRE Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment is being prepared for a scientific balloon flight in fall, 2006. TIGRE is a Compton telescope for 0.5-10 MeV gamma rays and a pair telescope for 10-100 MeV gammas. It uses multiple layers of thin silicon strip detectors as both the Compton and pair converter and the charged particle tracker. The event coincidence requirement is completed with arrays of CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors surrounding the converter/tracker and large Na(Tl)-PMT detectors below. The purpose of this flight is to demonstrate the background suppression capabilities of the TIGRE instrument with Compton recoil electron tracking and the improved angular resolution for pairs with silicon as the converter material. Details of the control and readout of the detectors will be described. Calibration results using laboratory radioisotopes will likewise be presented.

  8. SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco; Barbiellini, Guido; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, Ennio; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2006-05-19

    The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

  9. Gamma ray spectroscopic measurements of Mars.

    PubMed

    Metzger, A E; Arnold, J R

    1970-06-01

    A gamma ray spectrometer placed in orbit around Mars is expected to yield significant compositional data which can be related to the evolution of that planet. Components of the observable gamma ray flux come from the Martian surface, galactic and intergalactic space, and the spacecraft itself. The flux can be detected by a scintillation crystal or solid state detector, either of which combines efficiency of detection with energy resolution, and returns information to the earth as a pulse height distribution in order to detect characteristic energy line structure. The data will be evaluated for evidence of elemental differentiation with reference to terrestrial, meteoritic, solar, and lunar abundances. A lengthy mission will allow the surface of Mars to be mapped in a search for possible correlations between composition and topography or albedo. PMID:20076376

  10. Nucleosynthesis and astrophysical gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Allan S.

    1987-01-01

    The HEAO-3 gamma ray spectrometer has provided evidence in the quest for the understanding of complex element formation in the universe with the discovery of Al-26 in the interstellar medium. It has demonstrated that the synthesis of intermediate mass nuclei is currently going on in the galaxy. This discovery was confirmed by the Solar Maximum Mission. The flux is peaked near the galactic center and indicates about 3 solar masses of Al-26 in the interstellar medium, with an implied ratio of Al-26/Al-27 = .00001. Several possible distributions were studied but the data gathered thus far do not allow discrimination between them. It is felt that only the spaceflight of a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer with adequate sensitivity will ultimately resolve the issue of the source of this material.

  11. Gamma Ray Bursts: a 1983 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect; energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all; burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective; finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

  12. Gamma ray bursts: a 1983 overview

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, T.L.

    1983-10-01

    Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect. Energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all. Burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective. Finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

  13. The HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Jacobson, A. S.; Tapphorn, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO 3), successfully launched into low earth orbit on September 20, 1979, carries a large high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer designed for cosmic nuclear spectroscopy. This gamma-ray spectrometer (the HEAO C-1 experiment) consists of a cluster of four coaxial high-purity germanium detectors, each with a volume of approximately 100 cu cm. Surrounding the germanium detectors is a 6.6-cm thick CsI shield operating in active anticoincidence with the central detectors and defining a field of view of about 30 deg FWHM. An initial energy resolution of 3 keV FWHM at 1.46 MeV was achieved for each detector. All valid events in the germanium detectors are individually analyzed by an 8192-channel pulse area analyzer and transmitted at a maximum rate of 15.6 evens/s for each detector. During a 6-month mission, the experiment will perform a complete sky survey for narrow cosmic gamma-ray line emission to the sensitivity level of about 0.0001 photons/sq cm s over an operating energy range of 0.05-10 MeV.

  14. Early Time Optical Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopac, D.; Gomboc, A.; Japelj, J.

    We present the study of a sample of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with contemporaneous early time optical and gamma-ray detections. By performing detailed temporal and spectral analysis of 18 GRBs which show optical peaks during prompt gamma-ray emission, we find that in most cases early time optical emission shows sharp and steep behavior, with a rich diversity of GRBs' broadband spectral properties. These observational results, supported by a simple internal shock dissipation model, show that the standard external shock interpretation for early time optical emission is disfavored in most cases where early time optical peaks are sharp (Delta t/t < 1$) and have steep rise/decay indices. Although the sample of GRBs with contemporaneous optical and gamma-ray detections has become sufficiently larger after the launch of the Swift satellite, this field of research is still poorly developed, mainly due to inadequate optical time resolution and often too long response time of robotic optical telescopes.

  15. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory being released from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-35 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered the Earth's atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, GRO's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center, kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientist to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of star, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in BATSE's science program.

  16. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  17. Improvement of {gamma}-ray energy resolution of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} scintillation detectors by Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Alekhin, M. S.; Haas, J. T. M. de; Khodyuk, I. V.; Dorenbos, P.; Kraemer, K. W.; Menge, P. R.; Ouspenski, V.

    2013-04-22

    Commercially available LaBr{sub 3}:5% Ce{sup 3+} scintillators show with photomultiplier tube readout about 2.7% energy resolution for the detection of 662 keV {gamma}-rays. Here we will show that by co-doping LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} with Sr{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} the resolution is improved to 2.0%. Such an improvement is attributed to a strong reduction of the scintillation light losses that are due to radiationless recombination of free electrons and holes during the earliest stages (1-10 ps) inside the high free charge carrier density parts of the ionization track.

  18. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    ScienceCinema

    Isabelle Grenier

    2010-01-08

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  19. Cosmic Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Roland

    2013-07-01

    Penetrating gamma-rays require complex instrumentation for astronomical spectroscopy measurements of gamma-rays from cosmic sources. A combination of multiple-interaction detectors in space and post-processing of detector events on ground have lead to a spectroscopy performance which is now capable to provide new astrophysical insights. Spectral signatures in the MeV regime originate from transitions in atomic nuclei, stimulated by either radioactive decays or high-energy nuclear collisions such as with cosmic rays. Lines have been detected from radioactive isotopes produced in stellar and supernova nuclear burning, and from energetic-particle interactions in solar flares. Radioactive-decay gamma-rays from 56Ni directly reflect the power source of supernova light. 44Ti is produced in core-collapse supernova interiors and the largely unknown and dynamical conditions herein. From 26Al and 60Fe which are distributed in interstellar space from massive-star nucleosynthesis over millions of years. Additionally, nuclear de-excitation lines have been measured in solar-flare events, and convey information about energetic particle production in these outbursts, and their interaction in the solar atmosphere. Annihilating positrons add another very special astrophysical source, which has been puzzling so far, with its characteristic gamma-rays at 511 keV; it has been measured both in such solar flares, and throughout the interstellar medium of our Milky Way galaxy. We discuss instrumentation and data processing for cosmic gamma-ray spectroscopy, and the astrophysical issues and insights from these measurements.

  20. LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS: BIASES IN THE SWIFT SAMPLE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Thoene, C. C.; Jakobsson, P.; Bjoernsson, G.; De Cia, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Nardini, M.; Chen, H.-W.; Bloom, J. S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, L.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present a sample of 77 optical afterglows (OAs) of Swift detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which spectroscopic follow-up observations have been secured. Our first objective is to measure the redshifts of the bursts. For the majority (90%) of the afterglows, the redshifts have been determined from the spectra. We provide line lists and equivalent widths (EWs) for all detected lines redward of Ly{alpha} covered by the spectra. In addition to the GRB absorption systems, these lists include line strengths for a total of 33 intervening absorption systems. We discuss to what extent the current sample of Swift bursts with OA spectroscopy is a biased subsample of all Swift detected GRBs. For that purpose we define an X-ray-selected statistical sample of Swift bursts with optimal conditions for ground-based follow-up from the period 2005 March to 2008 September; 146 bursts fulfill our sample criteria. We derive the redshift distribution for the statistical (X-ray selected) sample and conclude that less than 18% of Swift bursts can be at z > 7. We compare the high-energy properties (e.g., {gamma}-ray (15-350 keV) fluence and duration, X-ray flux, and excess absorption) for three subsamples of bursts in the statistical sample: (1) bursts with redshifts measured from OA spectroscopy; (2) bursts with detected optical and/or near-IR afterglow, but no afterglow-based redshift; and (3) bursts with no detection of the OA. The bursts in group (1) have slightly higher {gamma}-ray fluences and higher X-ray fluxes and significantly less excess X-ray absorption than bursts in the other two groups. In addition, the fractions of dark bursts, defined as bursts with an optical to X-ray slope {beta}{sub OX} < 0.5, is 14% in group (1), 38% in group (2), and >39% in group (3). For the full sample, the dark burst fraction is constrained to be in the range 25%-42%. From this we conclude that the sample of GRBs with OA spectroscopy is not representative for all Swift bursts, most likely due to a bias against the most dusty sight lines. This should be taken into account when determining, e.g., the redshift or metallicity distribution of GRBs and when using GRBs as a probe of star formation. Finally, we characterize GRB absorption systems as a class and compare them to QSO absorption systems, in particular the damped Ly{alpha} absorbers (DLAs). On average GRB absorbers are characterized by significantly stronger EWs for H I as well as for both low and high ionization metal lines than what is seen in intervening QSO absorbers. However, the distribution of line strengths is very broad and several GRB absorbers have lines with EWs well within the range spanned by QSO-DLAs. Based on the 33 z > 2 bursts in the sample, we place a 95% confidence upper limit of 7.5% on the mean escape fraction of ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies.

  1. The Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific goals and the design of the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO), planned for launch in mid-1990, are described together with the experiments to be performed on the GRO mission and the instruments to be flown on the Observatory. GRO contains a complement of four instruments to span the spectrum from 0.03 to 20,000 MeV in energy, three of which are optimized to make gamma-ray observations using either the photoelectric effect, the Compton scatter, or the pair production processes; the fourth instrument is optimized for high-sensitivity observations of transient events and time-variable sources. The instruments are the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment, the Compton Telescope, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope, and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment.

  2. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  3. The project EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope) on NASA's Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbach, G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hughlock, B. W.; Favale, A.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.

    1988-01-01

    The design, predicted performance, and scientific objectives of the 20-30,000-MeV gamma-ray telescope EGRET for the NASA GRO spacecraft (scheduled for Space Shuttle launch to a 450-km 28.5-deg orbit in 1990) are reviewed. The other GRO instruments are briefly characterized, including the burst and transient-source experiment, the oriented scintillation spectrometer, and the imaging Compton telescope. EGRET comprises an anticoincidence system, a spark chamber, a triggering telescope, an NaI total-absorption spectrometer, a gas supply capable of refilling the chamber four times, and support electronics. EGRET will operate with energy resolution about 15 percent, effective area about 2000 sq cm, sensitivity about 5 x 10 to the -8th/sq cm sec, angular resolution 0.1-0.4 deg, and FOV about 40 deg FWHM. Observations of Galactic point sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, gamma-ray bursts, and solar flares are planned.

  4. Sub-aperture coherence method to realize ultra-high resolution laser beam deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhenhui; Wang, Xiangru; Huang, Ziqiang; Tan, Qinggui; Duan, Yingying; Suo, Guoguo; Du, Jing; Qiu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A new phase controlled method is proposed to realize ultra-high resolution laser beam deflection on the physics of coherence between sub-apertures on one device of liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA). Sub-apertures are electronically switchable and divided from a uniform device of LC-OPA. In the approach of sub-aperture coherence (SAC), numerical simulation results show the characteristics of far field including SAC steering step and angular width. Meanwhile, the method of SAC has also been verified by experiments showing a good agreement with the simulation results of ultra-high resolution beam deflection.

  5. A search for optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Sook

    1995-03-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) are mysterious flashes of gamma rays lasting several tens to hundreds of seconds that occur approximately once per day. NASA launched the orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to study GRB's and other gamma ray phenomena. CGRO carries the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) specifically to study GRB's. Although BATSE has collected data on over 600 GRB's, and confirmed that GRB's are localized, high intensity point sources of MeV gamma rays distributed isotropically in the sky, the nature and origin of GRB's remains a fundamental problem in astrophysics. BATSE's 8 gamma ray sensors located on the corners of the box shaped CGRO can detect the onset of GRB's and record their intensity and energy spectra as a function of time. The position of the burst on the sky can be determined to less than plus or minus 10 deg from the BATSE data stream. This position resolution is not sufficient to point a large, optical telescope at the exact position of a GRB which would determine its origin by associating it with a star. Because of their brief duration it is not known if GRB's are accompanied by visible radiation. Their seemingly large energy output suggests that this should be. Simply scaling the ratio of visible to gamma ray intensities of the Crab Nebula to the GRB output suggests that GRB's ought to be accompanied by visible flashes of magnitude 10 or so. A few photographs of areas containing a burst location that were coincidentally taken during the burst yield lower limits on visible output of magnitude 4. The detection of visible light during the GRB would provide information on burst physics, provide improved pointing coordinates for precise examination of the field by large telescope and provide the justification for larger dedicated optical counterpart instruments. The purpose of this experiment is to detect or set lower limits on optical counterpart radiation simultaneously accompanying the gamma rays from GRB.

  6. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  7. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  8. Gamma ray flares in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.

    1992-01-01

    The inner regions of accretion disks of supermassive black holes can become unstable when the existing temperatures are sufficiently high. This naturally occurs for two-temperature disks in the case of rapidly spinning (Kerr) black holes. Physical effects in the hot, inner regions are such that non-steady flows can result. Effects which would be relevant in producing variability in intense gamma-ray sources (MeV to GeV range), such as the recent discovery of strong gamma-ray emission in 3C 279, are discussed.

  9. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A.M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A.I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mocchiutti, E.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Picozza, P.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons + positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approx. 0.01 deg (E(sub gamma) > 100 GeV), the energy resolution approx. 1% (E(sub gamma) > 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approx 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  10. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  11. Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

  12. Development of liquid xenon detectors for gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena; Suzuki, Masayo

    1989-01-01

    The application of liquid xenon in high-resolution detectors for gamma-ray astronomy is being investigated. Initial results from a pulse-shape analysis of ionization signals in a liquid-xenon gridded chamber indicate that it is possible to achieve the necessary liquid purity for the transport of free electrons with simple techniques. The energy resolution has been measured as a function of applied electric field, using electrons and gamma-rays from a 207Bi source. At a field of 12 kV/cm the noise-substracted energy resolution of the dominant 569-keV gamma-ray line is 34 keV FWHM (full width at half maximum). This value is mostly determined by recombination of electron-ion pairs on delta-electron tracks.

  13. Multicavity X-Ray Fabry-Perot Resonance with Ultrahigh Resolution and Contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Huang X. R.; Siddons D.; Macrander, A.T.; Peng, R.W.; Wu, X.S.

    2012-05-31

    Realization of x-ray Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in back-Bragg-reflection crystal cavities has been proposed and explored for many years, but to date no satisfactory performance has been achieved. Here we show that single-cavity crystal resonators intrinsically have limited finesse and efficiency. To break this limit, we demonstrate that monolithic multicavity resonators with equal-width cavities and specific plate thickness ratios can generate ultrahigh-resolution FP resonance with high efficiency, steep peak tails, and ultrahigh contrast simultaneously. The resonance mechanism is similar to that of sequentially cascaded single-cavity resonators. The ultranarrow-bandwidth FP resonance is anticipated to have various applications, including modern ultrahigh-resolution or precision x-ray monochromatization, spectroscopy, coherence purification, coherent diffraction, phase contrast imaging, etc.

  14. Gamma-ray camera flyby

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Animation based on an actual classroom demonstration of the prototype CCI-2 gamma-ray camera's ability to image a hidden radioactive source, a cesium-137 line source, in three dimensions. For more information see http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/06/02/applied-nuclear-physics/.

  15. Cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

  16. Quasars, blazars, and gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Dermer, C D; Schlickeiser, R

    1992-09-18

    Before the launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), the only source of >100-megaelectron volt (MeV) gamma radiation known outside our galaxy was the quasar 3C 273. After less than a year of observing, 13 other extragalactic sources have been discovered with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on CGRO, and it is expected that many more will be found before the full sky survey is complete. All 14 sources show evidence of blazar properties at other wavelengths; these properties include high optical polarization, extreme optical variability, flat-spectrum radio emission associated with a compact core, and apparent superluminal motion. Such properties are thought to be produced by those few, rare extragalactic radio galaxies and quasars that are favorably aligned to permit us to look almost directly down a relativistically outflowing jet of matter expelled from a supermassive black hole. Although the origin of the gamma rays from radio jets is a subject of much controversy, the gamma-ray window probed by CGRO is providing a wealth of knowledge about the central engines of active galactic nuclei and the most energetic processes occurring in nature. PMID:17841159

  17. Time correlations between low and high energy gamma rays from discrete sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Activities covered the following areas: (1) continuing analysis of the Cygnus Experiment data on the shadowing of cosmic rays by the moon and sun, which led to a direct confirmation of the angular resolution of the CYGNUS EAS array; and (2) development of analysis methods for the daily search overlapping with EGRET targets. To date, no steady emission of ultrahigh energy (UHE) gamma rays from any source has been detected by the Cygnus Experiment, but some evidence for sporadic emission had been found. Upper limits on steady fluxes from 49 sources in the northern hemisphere have been published. In addition, a daily search of 51 possible sources over the interval April 1986 to June 1992 found no evidence for emission. From these source lists, four candidates were selected for comparison with EGRET data.

  18. Feasibility study of gamma-ray medical radiography.

    PubMed

    Alyassin, Abdalmajeid M; Maqsoud, Hamza A; Mashat, Ahmad M; Al-Mohr, Al-Sayed; Abdulwajid, Subhan

    2013-02-01

    This research explores the feasibility of using gamma-ray radiography in medical imaging. We will show that gamma-ray medical radiography has the potential to provide alternative diagnostic medical information to X-ray radiography. Approximately one Ci Am-241 radioactive source which emits mono-energetic 59.5 keV gamma rays was used. Several factors that influence the feasibility of this study were tested. They were the radiation source uniformity, image uniformity, and image quality parameters such as contrast, noise, and spatial resolution. In addition, several gamma-ray and X-ray images were acquired using humanoid phantoms. These images were recorded on computed radiography image receptors and displayed on a standard monitor. Visual assessments of these images were then conducted. The Am-241 radioactive source provided relatively uniform radiation exposure and images. Image noise and image contrast were mainly dependent on the exposure time and source size, whereas spatial resolution was dependent on source size and magnification factor. The gamma-ray humanoid phantom images were of lower quality than the X-ray images mainly due to the low radioactivity used and not enough exposure time. Nevertheless, the gamma-ray images displayed most of the main structures contained in the humanoid phantoms. Higher exposure rates and thus lower exposure times were estimated for different pure Am-241 source sizes that are hypothesized to provide high quality images similar to X-ray images. For instance, a 10mm source size of pure Am-241 with 7s exposure time should produce images similar in contrast and noise to X-ray images. This research paves the way for the production and usage of a highly radioactive Am-241 source with the potential to lead to the feasibility of acceptable quality medical gamma-ray radiography. PMID:23208227

  19. Ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry characterization of a-pinene ozonolysis SOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of ?-pinene ozonolysis with and without hydroxyl radical scavenging hexane was characterized by ultrahigh-resolution. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Molecular formulas for more than 900 negative ions were i...

  20. Ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry characterization of a-pinene ozonolysis SOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of α-pinene ozonolysis with and without hydroxyl radical scavenging hexane was characterized by ultrahigh-resolution. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Molecular formulas for more than 900 negative ions were i...

  1. Advances in gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma ray line observations of solar flares, gamma ray transients, and the galactic center are reviewed and interpreted. Prospects of future line detections are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N82-27200

  2. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  3. Calibration of the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) for the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Hunter, S. D.; Hughlock, B. W.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The calibration of the (EGRET) prior to its launch aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the continuing calibration after launch, and instrument-performance results based on calibrations and early postlaunch data, are described. Particular attention is given to the effective area, the annular resolution, and the energy resolution.

  4. The Agile Gamma-Ray Mission and Gamma-Ray Burst Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Francesco; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Caraveo, Patrizia; Chen, Andrew; Fiorini, Mauro; Giuliani, Andrea; Mereghetti, Sandro; Perotti, Francesco; Vercellone, Stefano; Barbiellini, Guido; Fedel, Giulio; Pontoni, Cristian; Prest, Michela; Vallazza, Erik; Costa, Enrico; Feroci, Marco; Lapshov, Igor; Rapisarda, Massimo; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Cocco, Veronica; Morselli, Aldo; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Pittori, Carlotta; Auricchio, Natalia; Di Cocco, Guido; Galli, Marcello; Labanti, Claudio; Morelli, Ennio; Rossi, Elio; Trifoglio, Massimo; Lipari, Paolo; Zanello, Dino

    2002-12-01

    The AGILE satellite (the first of ASI Small Scientific Missions) is planned to be operational in 2003 and will be the only space mission entirely dedicated to gamma-ray astrophysics in the energy range 30 MeV - 50 GeV. AGILE is based on innovative solid state detector technology and will have two imaging detectors: a Silicon tracker (30 MeV-50 GeV), and a coded mask system with Si detectors (Super-AGILE, 10-40 keV). In addition, a CsI Mini-Calorimeter will be able to detect gamma-rays in the range 250 keV - 200 MeV. The instrument large field of view (~1/4 of the whole sky), excellent spatial resolution (a few arcminutes for Super-AGILE, 10-20 arcminutes for the Si-tracker), and unprecedented timing resolution and short deadtimes (~5-100 microseconds) improving EGRET capabilities by three orders of magnitude make of AGILE an ideal instrument to detect gamma-ray bursts

  5. Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Observation of the Bright Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 950822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Zand, J. J. M. in't.; Palmer, D. M.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N. W.; Pehl, R.

    1997-12-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) on the Wind satellite is designed to perform spectroscopy of bright gamma-ray bursts in the ~20-8000 keV energy range, having a resolution 5-30 times better than that of earlier generation detectors. GRB 950822 was the brightest burst observed by TGRS in its first year of operation, with a peak flux (1024 ms) of ~78.3 photons cm-2 s-1 and a fluence (50-300 keV) of ~1.4 10-4 ergs cm-2 therefore, the GRB data in this paper represent the first high-resolution spectroscopy ever performed on a burst of this brightness. The continuum spectrum of GRB 950822 has the classical gamma-ray burst shape and exhibits typical evolution from hard to soft over the course of the burst. We found no evidence of line features or any other spectral fine structure with significance greater than 3.5 ? in our data.

  6. Cosmic gamma-rays from pion decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    The production of gamma rays from the decay of neutral pions produced in interstellar cosmic ray interactions was studied, limited to the total gamma ray intensity. Using the upper-limit gamma ray production, an upper-limit is obtained consistent with that obtained by Kraushaar. It is shown that whatever the shape of the gamma ray spectrum, the normalization has to be consistent with data of the total cross sections.

  7. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Oldaker, Mark E. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  8. The INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teegarden, B.; INTEGRAL Science Working Team

    1999-01-01

    The INTEGRAL mission is dedicated to fine spectroscopy ( 2 keV energy resolution) and fine imaging ( 12 arcmin angular resolution of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range from 15 keV to 10 MeV. The scientific payload consists of two gamma-ray instruments, the Ge spectrometer (SPI) and the CdTe/CsI imager (IBIS) and two monitors, the X-ray monitor (JEM-X) and optical monitor (OMC). The INTEGRAL observatory will provide the scientific community at large with an unprecedented combination of imaging and spectroscopy over a wide range of X-ray and gamma-ray energies as well as in the optical band. Most of the observing time will be open to the scientific community interfacing with the INTEGRAL Science Data Center.

  9. The INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; INTEGRAL Science Working Team

    1999-04-01

    The INTEGRAL mission is dedicated to fine spectroscopy ( 2 keV energy resolution) and fine imaging ( 12 arcmin angular resolution of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range from 15 keV to 10 MeV. The scientific payload consists of two gamma-ray instruments, the Ge spectrometer (SPI) and the CdTe/CsI imager (IBIS) and two monitors, the X-ray monitor (JEM-X) and optical monitor (OMC). The INTEGRAL observatory will provide the scientific community at large with an unprecedented combination of imaging and spectroscopy over a wide range of X-ray and gamma-ray energies as well as in the optical band. Most of the observing time will be open to the scientific community interfacing with the INTEGRAL Science Data Center.

  10. Labr3:Ce scintillators for gamma ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.S.; Glodo, J.; Klugerman, M.; Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.

    2002-12-02

    In this paper, we report on a relatively new scintillator -LaBr3 for gamma ray spectroscopy. Crystals of this scintillator have beengrown using Bridgman process. This material when doped with cerium hashigh light output (~;60,000 photons/MeV) and fast principal decayconstant (less than 25 ns). Furthermore, it shows excellent energyresolution for gamma-ray detection. Energy resolution of 3.2 percent(FWHM) has been achieved for 662 keV photons (137Cs source) at roomtemperature. High timing resolution (260 ps - FWHM) has been recordedwith LaBr3-PMT and BaF2-PMT detectors operating in coincidence mode using511 keV positron annihilation gamma-ray pairs. Details of itsscintillation properties, and variation of these properties with changingcerium concentration are reported. Potential applications of thismaterial are also addressed.

  11. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-08-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166{degrees}C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen.

  12. Direct observation of hydrogen atom dynamics and interactions by ultrahigh resolution neutron protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Julian C-H; Hanson, B Leif; Fisher, S Zo; Langan, Paul; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y

    2012-09-18

    The 1.1 ?, ultrahigh resolution neutron structure of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanged crambin is reported. Two hundred ninety-nine out of 315, or 94.9%, of the hydrogen atom positions in the protein have been experimentally derived and resolved through nuclear density maps. A number of unconventional interactions are clearly defined, including a potential O?H? interaction between a water molecule and the aromatic ring of residue Y44, as well as a number of potential C?HO hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding networks that are ambiguous in the 0.85 ? ultrahigh resolution X-ray structure can be resolved by accurate orientation of water molecules. Furthermore, the high resolution of the reported structure has allowed for the anisotropic description of 36 deuterium atoms in the protein. The visibility of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the nuclear density maps is discussed in relation to the resolution of the neutron data. PMID:22949690

  13. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L. (Editor); Ramaty, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

  14. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  15. Recommended Priorities for NASA's Gamma Ray Astronomy Program 1999-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carol, Ladd

    1999-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Astronomy Program Working Group (GRAPWG) recommends priorities for the NASA Gamma-Ray Astronomy Program. The highest priority science topic is nuclear astrophysics and sites of gamma ray line emission. Other high priority topics are gamma ray bursts, hard x-ray emission from accreting black holes and neutron stars, the Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the High-resolution Spectroscopic Imager (HSI), and the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The recommendations include special consideration for technology development, TeV astronomy, the ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) program, the International Space Station, optical telescope support, and data analysis and theory.

  16. The structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Stecker, F. W.

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy with emphasis on the implications of the new gamma ray observations. Topics discussed include: (1) results from the COS-B gamma ray satellite; (2) results from SAS-2 on gamma ray pulsar, Cygnus X-3, and maps of the galactic diffuse flux; (3) recent data from CO surveys of the galaxy; (4) high resolution radio surveys of external galaxies; (5) results on the galactic distribution of pulsars; and (6) theoretical work on galactic gamma ray emission.

  17. The gamma-ray spectrometer experiment on the solar maximum mission satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    The major activities summarized include: Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument response and flight operation; solar flare studies; cosmic gamma-ray studies; summary of computer operations; search for flare-precursor protons; diffuse galactic annihilation radiation; cosmic ray bursts; atmospheric gamma ray spectrum; gamma ray line emission from supernovae and novae; improved angular resolutions using Earth occultation; and production processing of NASA IPD data. In addition, an updated list of published papers and invited papers or contributed papers presented at scientific meetings is provided.

  18. Development of the NPL gamma-ray spectrometer NANA for traceable nuclear decay and structure studies.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, G; Shearman, R; Regan, P H; Judge, S M; Bell, S; Collins, S M; Larijani, C; Ivanov, P; Jerome, S M; Keightley, J D; Lalkovski, S; Pearce, A K; Podolyak, Zs

    2016-03-01

    We present a brief report on the progress towards the construction of the National Nuclear Array (NANA), a gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer for discrete-line nuclear structure and decay measurements. The proposed spectrometer will combine a gamma-ray energy resolution of approximately 3% at 1MeV with sub-nanosecond timing discrimination between successive gamma rays in mutually coincident decay cascades. We also review a number of recent measurements using coincidence fast-timing gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear structure studies, which have helped to inform the design criteria for the NANA spectrometer. PMID:26795270

  19. Design of a compact spectrometer for high-flux MeV gamma-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Corvan, D J; Sarri, G; Zepf, M

    2014-06-01

    A novel design for a compact gamma-ray spectrometer is presented. The proposed system allows for spectroscopy of high-flux multi-MeV gamma-ray beams with MeV energy resolution in a compact design. In its basic configuration, the spectrometer exploits conversion of gamma-rays into electrons via Compton scattering in a low-Z material. The scattered electron population is then spectrally resolved using a magnetic spectrometer. The detector is shown to be effective for gamma-ray energies between 3 and 20 MeV. The main properties of the spectrometer are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24985864

  20. Design of a compact spectrometer for high-flux MeV gamma-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corvan, D. J.; Sarri, G.; Zepf, M.

    2014-06-01

    A novel design for a compact gamma-ray spectrometer is presented. The proposed system allows for spectroscopy of high-flux multi-MeV gamma-ray beams with MeV energy resolution in a compact design. In its basic configuration, the spectrometer exploits conversion of gamma-rays into electrons via Compton scattering in a low-Z material. The scattered electron population is then spectrally resolved using a magnetic spectrometer. The detector is shown to be effective for gamma-ray energies between 3 and 20 MeV. The main properties of the spectrometer are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Design of a compact spectrometer for high-flux MeV gamma-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Corvan, D. J. Sarri, G.; Zepf, M.

    2014-06-15

    A novel design for a compact gamma-ray spectrometer is presented. The proposed system allows for spectroscopy of high-flux multi-MeV gamma-ray beams with MeV energy resolution in a compact design. In its basic configuration, the spectrometer exploits conversion of gamma-rays into electrons via Compton scattering in a low-Z material. The scattered electron population is then spectrally resolved using a magnetic spectrometer. The detector is shown to be effective for gamma-ray energies between 3 and 20 MeV. The main properties of the spectrometer are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA ASSOCIATED WITH THE GAMMA-RAY SOURCE HESS J1640-465

    SciTech Connect

    Lemiere, A.; Slane, P.; Murray, S.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray observation of the very high energy gamma-ray source HESS J1640 - 465. We identify a point source surrounded by a diffuse emission that fills the extended object previously detected by XMM-Newton at the centroid of the HESS source, within the shell of the radio supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3 - 0.0. The morphology of the diffuse emission strongly resembles that of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and extends asymmetrically to the southwest of a point source presented as a potential pulsar. The spectrum of the putative pulsar and compact nebula are well characterized by an absorbed power-law model which, for a reasonable N{sub H} value of 14 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, exhibit an index of 1.1 and 2.5 respectively, typical of Vela-like PWNe. We demonstrate that, given the H I absorption features observed along the line of sight, the SNR and the H II surrounding region are probably connected and lie between 8 kpc and 13 kpc. The resulting age of the system is between 10 and 30 kyr. For a 10 kpc distance (also consistent with the X-ray absorption) the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities of the putative pulsar and nebula are L{sub PSR} approx 1.3 x 10{sup 33} d {sup 2}{sub 10kpc} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub PWN} approx 3.9 x 10{sup 33} d {sup 2}{sub 10} erg s{sup -1} (d {sub 10} = d/10 kpc). Both the flux ratio of L {sub PWN}/L{sub PSR} approx 3.4 and the total luminosity of this system predict a pulsar spin-down power around E-dotapprox4 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. We finally consider several reasons for the asymmetries observed in the PWN morphology and discuss the potential association with the HESS source in terms of a time-dependent one-zone leptonic model.

  3. Full-field optical coherence microscopy with optimized ultrahigh spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Federici, Antoine; Dubois, Arnaud

    2015-11-15

    Full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) with isotropic spatial resolution of 0.5?m (in water), at 700nm center wavelength, is reported. A theoretical study of the FF-OCM axial response is carried out for maximizing the axial resolution of the system, considering the effect of optical dispersion. The lateral resolution is optimized by using water-immersion microscope objectives with a numerical aperture of 1.2. This ultrahigh-resolution FF-OCM system is applied to animal and human skin tissue imaging, revealing ultra-fine in-depth structures at the sub-cellular level. PMID:26565871

  4. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs) by Gamma-Ray Telescopes. These were: (1) BATSE /Compton Observatory, (2) Solar Spectroscopic Imager, (3) AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope, and (4) Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It contains charts which display the counts over time, a map or the TGFs observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). and a map showing the latitude and longitude of 85 of the TGFs observed by the Fermi GBM.

  5. Multi-modal ultra-high resolution structural 7-Tesla MRI data repository

    PubMed Central

    Forstmann, Birte U; Keuken, Max C; Schafer, Andreas; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Alkemade, Anneke; Turner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Structural brain data is key for the understanding of brain function and networks, i.e., connectomics. Here we present data sets available from the atlasing of the basal ganglia (ATAG) project, which provides ultra-high resolution 7?Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from young, middle-aged, and elderly participants. The ATAG data set includes whole-brain and reduced field-of-view MP2RAGE and T2*-weighted scans of the subcortex and brainstem with ultra-high resolution at a sub-millimeter scale. The data can be used to develop new algorithms that help building high-resolution atlases both relevant for the basic and clinical neurosciences. Importantly, the present data repository may also be used to inform the exact positioning of electrodes used for deep-brain-stimulation in patients with Parkinsons disease and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:25977801

  6. In vivo Ultrahigh-Resolution Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography Using Gaussian-Shaped Supercontinuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Adachi, Muneyuki; Nakanishi, Jun; Ueno, Tokio; Ito, Yasuki; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated the in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the human eye using a Gaussian-shaped supercontinuum source. Using an ultrashort-pulse Ti:sapphire laser and a polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber, a linearly polarized, high-power, low-noise, Gaussian-shaped supercontinuum is generated in the wavelength region from 700 to 950 nm. For ophthalmic imaging, a wideband Gaussian-shaped supercontinuum with a bandwidth of 140 nm is generated at a center wavelength of 830 nm. The observed axial resolutions are 2.9 µm in air and 2.1 µm in tissue. The generated supercontinuum is combined with a modified ophthalmic OCT system, and sidelobe-free ultrahigh-resolution OCT images of the human retina and cornea are obtained.

  7. The goals of gamma-ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.; Higdon, James C.; Leventhal, Marvin; Ramaty, Reuven; Woosley, Stanford E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy in astrophysics is discussed with specific attention given to the application of the Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer (NAE). The gamma-ray lines from nuclear transitions in radionucleic decay and positron annihilation permits the study of current sites, rates and models of nucleosynthesis, and galactic structure. Diffuse galactic emission is discussed, and the high-resolution observations of gamma-ray lines from discrete sites are also described. Interstellar mixing and elemental abundances can also be inferred from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of nucleosynthetic products. Compact objects can also be examined by means of gamma-ray emissions, allowing better understanding of neutron stars and the accreting black hole near the galactic center. Solar physics can also be investigated by examining such features as solar-flare particle acceleration and atmospheric abundances.

  8. PROGRESS ON MARGIE, A GAMMA-RAY BURST ULTRA-LONG DURATION BALLOON MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    D. BAND; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    We are designing the Minute of Arc Resolution Gamma-ray Imaging Experiment (MARGIE) as a 100 day Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) mission to: (1) detect and localize gamma-ray bursts; and (2) survey the hard X-ray sky. Major advances in designing the CZT detectors increase the sensitivity to higher energy. Design of the gondola has also progressed.

  9. Progress on MARGIE, a Gamma-Ray Burst Ultra-long Duration Balloon Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, D.; Cherry, M.; Stacy, J.; Guzik, T.; Kappadath, S.; Buckley, J.; Hink, P.; Macri, J.; McConnell, M.; Ryan, J.; Matteson, J.

    We are designing the Minute of Arc Resolution Gamma-ray Imaging Experiment (MARGIE) as a 100 day Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) mission to: a) detect and localize gamma-ray bursts; and b) survey the hard X-ray sky. Major advances in designing the CZT detectors increase the senstitivity to higher energy. Design of the gondola has also progressed.

  10. POSITION SENSITIVE GERMANIUM DETECTORS FOR GAMMA-RAY IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gamma-ray imaging with position-sensitive germanium detectors offers the advantages of excellent energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and potentially good sptial resolution. The development of the amorphous-semiconductor electrical contact technology for germanium detec...

  11. Sky and Elemental Planetary Mapping Via Gamma Ray Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Low-energy gamma ray emissions ((is) approximately 30keV to (is) approximately 30MeV) are significant to astrophysics because many interesting objects emit their primary energy in this regime. As such, there has been increasing demand for a complete map of the gamma ray sky, but many experiments to do so have encountered obstacles. Using an innovative method of applying the Radon Transform to data from BATSE (the Burst And Transient Source Experiment) on NASA's CGRO (Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory) mission, we have circumvented many of these issues and successfully localized many known sources to 0.5 - 1 deg accuracy. Our method, which is based on a simple 2-dimensional planar back-projection approximation of the inverse Radon transform (familiar from medical CAT-scan technology), can thus be used to image the entire sky and locate new gamma ray sources, specifically in energy bands between 200keV and 2MeV which have not been well surveyed to date. Samples of these results will be presented. This same technique can also be applied to elemental planetary surface mapping via gamma ray spectroscopy. Due to our method's simplicity and power, it could potentially improve a current map's resolution by a significant factor.

  12. A balloon-borne imaging gamma-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althouse, W. E.; Cook, W. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Finger, M. H.; Prince, T. A.; Schindler, S. M.; Starr, C. H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    A balloon-borne coded-aperture gamma-ray telescope for galactic and extragalactic astronomy observations is described. The instrument, called Gamma Ray Imaging Payload (GRIP), is designed for measurements in the energy range from 30 keV to 5 MeV with an angular resolution of 0.6 deg over a 20 deg field of view. Distinguishing characteristics of the telescope are a rotating hexagonal coded-aperture mask and a thick NaI scintillation camera. Rotating hexagonal coded-apertures and the development of thick scintillation cameras are discussed.

  13. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) - Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a US-led concept for a next-generation instrument in ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The most important design requirement for AGIS is a sensitivity of about 10 times greater than current observatories like Veritas, H.E.S.S or MAGIC. We present results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

  14. A balloon-borne imaging gamma-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althouse, W. E.; Cook, W. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Finger, M. H.; Prince, T. A.; Schindler, S. M.; Starr, C. H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    A balloon-borne coded-aperture gamma-ray telescope for galactic and extragalactic astronomy observations is described. The instrument, called GRIP (Gamma Ray Imaging Payload), is designed for measurements in the energy range from 30 keV to 5 MeV with an angular resolution of 0.6 deg over a 20 deg field of view. Distinguishing characteristics of the telescope are a rotating hexagonal coded-aperture mask and a thick NaI scintillation camera. Rotating hexagonal coded-apertures and the development of thick scintillation cameras are discussed.

  15. Future directions in experimental gamma ray astronomy. [technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymes, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Better vehicles and instruments are needed if gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics and cosmology is to advance. A gamma ray observatory will (1) permit long-term observations of selected sources to measure their variability and to achieve high sensitivity; (2) measure periods in days or weeks; and (3) assess the entire sky to observe various predicted sources, to measure the energy spectrum, and to map the isotropy of the cosmic ray background over larger collecting areas (of the order of a square meter). Conventional and unconventional instruments must cover the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 20 MeV with improved sensitivity. Angular resolution must be improved one degree or more to study discrete X-ray sources in the galactic center. Actively collimated detectors, improved double Compton instruments, and gamma ray correlators to actively synthesize the absolute energy spectrum of the sky protons are discussed as well as the need for scientific balloons.

  16. Miniature gamma-ray camera for tumor localization

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.C.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Cross, E.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop technology for a miniature gamma-ray camera for use in nuclear medicine. The camera will meet a need of the medical community for an improved means to image radio-pharmaceuticals in the body. In addition, this technology-with only slight modifications-should prove useful in applications requiring the monitoring and verification of special nuclear materials (SNMs). Utilization of the good energy resolution of mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detectors provides a means for rejecting scattered gamma-rays and improving the isotopic selectivity in gamma-ray images. The first year of this project involved fabrication and testing of a monolithic mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detector arrays and appropriate collimators/apertures. The second year of the program involved integration of the front-end detector module, pulse processing electronics, computer, software, and display.

  17. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  18. Gamma-ray imaging with coaxial HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Niedermayr, T; Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Schmid, G J; Beckedahl, D; Kammeraad, J; Blair, J

    2005-04-12

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of Compton imaging of gamma rays with a single coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. This imaging capability is realized by two-dimensional segmentation of the outside contact in combination with digital pulse-shape analysis, which enables to image gamma rays in 4{pi} without employing a collimator. We are able to demonstrate the ability to image the 662keV gamma ray from a {sup 137}Cs source with preliminary event selection with an angular accuracy of 5 degree with an relative efficiency of 0.2%. In addition to the 4{pi} imaging capability, such a system is characterized by its excellent energy resolution and can be implemented in any size possible for Ge detectors to achieve high efficiency.

  19. Observational evidence for extraterrestrial gamma-ray line sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A. S.; Ling, J. C.; Mahoney, W. A.; Willett, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    During the 1974 balloon flight of a high spectral resolution gamma-ray telescope, observing in the energy range of about 50 keV to 10 Mev, evidences were gathered for two cosmic sources of gamma-ray lines. These are a 73 keV line feature superimposed on a power law continuum spectrum in the 55 to 300 keV range from the Crab nebula; and a flare-like event lasting about twenty minutes, during which four intense gamma-ray lines were measured at .41, 1.79, 2.22 and 5.95 MeV. The properties and operation of the detector used are described. The measured spectrum and count rate are discussed.

  20. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Lichti, G. G.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Kienlin, A. von; Fishman, G. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kippen, R. M.

    2009-05-25

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope launched on June 11, 2008 carries two experiments onboard--the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The primary mission of the GBM instrument is to support the LAT in observing {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs) by providing low-energy measurements with high temporal and spectral resolution as well as rapid burst locations over a large field-of-view ({>=}8 sr). The GBM will complement the LAT measurements by observing GRBs in the energy range 8 keV to 40 MeV, the region of the spectral turnover in most GRBs. The GBM detector signals are processed by the onboard digital processing unit (DPU). We describe some of the hardware features of the DPU and its expected limitations during intense triggers.

  1. Technical evaluation of software for gamma-ray logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report contains results of a technical review of software, identified as LGCALC, that processes data collected by a high-resolution gamma-ray borehole logging system. The software presently operates within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Department of Geosciences, to process data collected by the Radionuclide Logging System. The software has been reviewed for its suitability for processing data to be collected by new high-resolution gamma-ray logging trucks scheduled to begin operational tests within Westinghouse Tank Waste Remediation Systems during 1994. Examination of the program code and hands-on operational tests have shown that this software is suitable for its intended use of processing high-resolution gamma-ray data obtained from borehole logging. Most of the code requires no changes, but in a few limited cases, suggestions have been made to correct errors or improve operation. Section 4 describes these changes. The technical review has confirmed the appropriateness, correctness, completeness, and coding accuracy of algorithms used to process spectral gamma-ray data, leading to a calculation of subsurface radionuclide contaminants. Running the program with test data from calibration models has confirmed that the program operates correctly. Comparisons with hand calculations have shown the correctness of the output from the program, based on known input data. Section 3 describes these tests. The recommended action is to make the near term programming changes suggested in Section 4.1 and then use the LGCALC analysis program with the new high-resolution logging systems once they have been properly calibrated.

  2. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  3. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  4. Gamma rays and cosmic rays at Venus: The Pioneer Venus gamma ray detector and considerations for future measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lawrence, David J.

    2015-05-01

    We draw attention to, and present a summary archive of the data from, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma-ray Burst Detector (OGBD), an instrument not originally conceived with Venus science in mind. We consider the possibility of gamma-ray flashes generated by lightning and model the propagation of gamma rays in the Venusian atmosphere, finding that if gamma rays originate at the upper range of reported cloud top altitudes (75 km altitude), they may be attenuated by factors of only a few, whereas from 60 km altitude they are attenuated by over two orders of magnitude. The present archive is too heavily averaged to reliably detect such a source (and we appeal to investigators who may have retained a higher-resolution archive), but the data do provide a useful and unique record of the cosmic ray flux at Venus 1978-1993. We consider other applications of future orbital gamma ray data, such as atmospheric occultations and the detection of volcanic materials injected high in the atmosphere.

  5. Developmental and morphological studies in Japanese medaka with ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gladys, Fanny Moses; Matsuda, Masaru; Lim, Yiheng; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Imai, Takuto; Otani, Yukitoshi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Cense, Barry

    2015-01-01

    We propose ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography to study the morphological development of internal organs in medaka fish in the post-embryonic stages at micrometer resolution. Different stages of Japanese medaka were imaged after hatching in vivo with an axial resolution of 2.8 m in tissue. Various morphological structures and organs identified in the OCT images were then compared with the histology. Due to the medakas close resemblance to vertebrates, including humans, these morphological features play an important role in morphogenesis and can be used to study diseases that also occur in humans. PMID:25780725

  6. Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles at ultrahigh-speed and ultrahigh-resolution using OCT with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaoglu, Omer Pars; Cense, Barry; Wang, Qiang; Bruestle, Jeremy; Besecker, Jason; Gao, Weihua; Jonnal, Ravi; Miller, Donald T.

    2010-02-01

    Ultrahigh speed line scan detectors based on CMOS technology have been recently demonstrated in ultrahigh resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (UHR-SD-OCT) for retinal imaging. While successful, fundamental tradeoffs exist been image acquisition time, image sampling density, and sensitivity, all of which impact the extent of motion artifacts, visualization of fine spatial detail, and detection of faint reflections. Here we investigate these tradeoffs for imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles (RNFBs) using UHR-SD-OCT with adaptive optics (AO). Volume scans of 3x3 and 1.5x1.5 were acquired at retinal locations of 3 nasal and 6 superior to the fovea on a healthy subject. Dynamic AO compensation across a 6 mm pupil provided near-diffraction-limited performance. The acquisition rates were 22.5k lines/s and 125k lines/s with A-lines spaced at 0.9 ?m and 1.8 ?m and B-scans at 1.8 ?m and 9 ?m. Focus was optimized for visualizing the retinal nerve fiber bundles (RNFBs). En face projection and crosssectional views of the RNFBs were extracted from the volumes and compared to images acquired with established conventional CCD-based line-scan camera. The projection view was found highly sensitive to eye motion artifacts, yet could only be partially compensated with coarser sampling, since fine sampling was necessary to observe the microscopic features in the RNFBs. For the cross-sectional view, speckle noise rather than eye motion artifacts limited bundle clarity. The highest B-scan density (1.8 ?m spacing) coupled with B-scan averaging proved the best combination. Regardless of view, the higher line rate provided better RNFB clarity.

  7. Low-resolution Spectroscopy of Gamma-ray Burst Optical Afterglows: Biases in the Swift Sample and Characterization of the Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.; Prochaska, J. X.; Malesani, D.; Ledoux, C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Nardini, M.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wiersema, K.; Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Chen, H.-W.; Thne, C. C.; Bjrnsson, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Christensen, L.; De Cia, A.; Fruchter, A. S.; Gorosabel, J.; Graham, J. F.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Jensen, B. L.; Kann, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Levan, A. J.; Maund, J.; Masetti, N.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Palazzi, E.; Perley, D. A.; Pian, E.; Rol, E.; Schady, P.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; Watson, D. J.; Xu, D.; Augusteijn, T.; Grundahl, F.; Telting, J.; Quirion, P.-O.

    2009-12-01

    We present a sample of 77 optical afterglows (OAs) of Swift detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which spectroscopic follow-up observations have been secured. Our first objective is to measure the redshifts of the bursts. For the majority (90%) of the afterglows, the redshifts have been determined from the spectra. We provide line lists and equivalent widths (EWs) for all detected lines redward of Ly? covered by the spectra. In addition to the GRB absorption systems, these lists include line strengths for a total of 33 intervening absorption systems. We discuss to what extent the current sample of Swift bursts with OA spectroscopy is a biased subsample of all Swift detected GRBs. For that purpose we define an X-ray-selected statistical sample of Swift bursts with optimal conditions for ground-based follow-up from the period 2005 March to 2008 September; 146 bursts fulfill our sample criteria. We derive the redshift distribution for the statistical (X-ray selected) sample and conclude that less than 18% of Swift bursts can be at z > 7. We compare the high-energy properties (e.g., ?-ray (15-350 keV) fluence and duration, X-ray flux, and excess absorption) for three subsamples of bursts in the statistical sample: (1) bursts with redshifts measured from OA spectroscopy; (2) bursts with detected optical and/or near-IR afterglow, but no afterglow-based redshift; and (3) bursts with no detection of the OA. The bursts in group (1) have slightly higher ?-ray fluences and higher X-ray fluxes and significantly less excess X-ray absorption than bursts in the other two groups. In addition, the fractions of dark bursts, defined as bursts with an optical to X-ray slope ?OX < 0.5, is 14% in group (1), 38% in group (2), and >39% in group (3). For the full sample, the dark burst fraction is constrained to be in the range 25%-42%. From this we conclude that the sample of GRBs with OA spectroscopy is not representative for all Swift bursts, most likely due to a bias against the most dusty sight lines. This should be taken into account when determining, e.g., the redshift or metallicity distribution of GRBs and when using GRBs as a probe of star formation. Finally, we characterize GRB absorption systems as a class and compare them to QSO absorption systems, in particular the damped Ly? absorbers (DLAs). On average GRB absorbers are characterized by significantly stronger EWs for H I as well as for both low and high ionization metal lines than what is seen in intervening QSO absorbers. However, the distribution of line strengths is very broad and several GRB absorbers have lines with EWs well within the range spanned by QSO-DLAs. Based on the 33 z > 2 bursts in the sample, we place a 95% confidence upper limit of 7.5% on the mean escape fraction of ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under programs 275.D-5022 (PI: Chincarini), 075.D-0270 (PI: Fynbo), 077.D-0661 (PI: Vreeswijk), 077.D-0805 (PI: Tagliaferri), 177.A-0591 (PI: Hjorth), 078.D-0416 (PI: Vreeswijk), 079.D-0429 (PI: Vreeswijk), 080.D-0526 (PI: Vreeswijk), 081.A-0135 (PI: Greiner), 281.D-5002 (PI: Della Valle), and 081.A-0856 (PI: Vreeswijk). Also based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Some of the data obtained herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck foundation.

  8. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1999-02-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

  9. Stroboscopic ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Moneron, G; Boccara, A C; Dubois, A

    2005-06-01

    We present a new technique that produces en face tomographic images with a 10-micros acquisition time per image. The setup consists of an interference microscope with stroboscopic illumination provided by a xenon arc flash lamp (10-micros flashes at 15 Hz). The tomographic images are obtained from two phase-opposed interferometric images recorded simultaneously by two synchronized CCD cameras. Transverse resolution better than 1.0 microm is achieved by use of high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives. The short coherence length of the source yields an axial resolution of 0.9 microm. 3 x 3 pixel binning leads to a detection sensitivity of 71 dB. Our system is suitable for various applications, particularly in biology for in vivo cellular-level imaging. PMID:15981530

  10. Stroboscopic ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moneron, G.; Boccara, A. C.; Dubois, A.

    2005-06-01

    We present a new technique that produces en face tomographic images with a 10-?s acquisition time per image. The setup consists of an interference microscope with stroboscopic illumination provided by a xenon arc flash lamp (10-?s flashes at 15 Hz). The tomographic images are obtained from two phase-opposed interferometric images recorded simultaneously by two synchronized CCD cameras. Transverse resolution better than 1.0 ?m is achieved by use of high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives. The short coherence length of the source yields an axial resolution of 0.9 ?m. 33 pixel binning leads to a detection sensitivity of 71 dB. Our system is suitable for various applications, particularly in biology for in vivo cellular-level imaging.

  11. The Impact of Multiple-Site Interactions on the Energy Resolution of a High-Pressure Xenon Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kiff, Scott D.; He, Zhong

    2007-11-30

    High-pressure xenon (HPXe) ionization chambers have generated interest as a radiation detection medium for purposes requiring good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and uniform response over a broad temperature range, such as homeland security and well logging applications. These chambers generally exhibit a substantial degradation of the measured energy resolution relative to theoretical limits. This investigation studies the impact of the number of interaction sites in an event sequence on the measured energy resolution using a benchmarked simulation package. The prominence of single and multiple-site interactions is investigated in addition to the photopeak broadening due to each event class. A radial position-sensing technique developed for coplanar-anode HPXe chambers is shown to have benefit for only single-site events.

  12. High-Speed Multipass Coulter Counter with Ultrahigh Resolution.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Martin A; German, Sean R; Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J; White, Henry S

    2015-12-22

    Coulter counters measure the size of particles in solution by passing them through an orifice and measuring a resistive pulse, i.e., a drop in the ionic current flowing between two electrodes placed on either side of the orifice. The magnitude of the pulse gives information on the size of the particle; however, resolution is limited by variability in the path of the translocation, due to the Brownian motion of the particle. We present a simple yet powerful modified Coulter counter that uses programmable data acquisition hardware to switch the voltage after sensing the resistive pulse of a nanoparticle passing through the orifice of a nanopipet. Switching the voltage reverses the direction of the driving force on the particle and, when this detect-switch cycle is repeated, allows us to pass an individual nanoparticle through the orifice thousands of times. By measuring individual particles more than 100 times per second we rapidly determine the distribution of the resistive pulses for each particle, which allows us to accurately determine the mean pulse amplitude and deliver considerably improved size resolution over a conventional Coulter counter. We show that single polystyrene nanoparticles can be shuttled back and forth and monitored for minutes, leading to a precisely determined mean blocking current equating to sub-angstrom size resolution. PMID:26549738

  13. Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hess, Samuel T; Girirajan, Thanu P K; Mason, Michael D

    2006-12-01

    Biological structures span many orders of magnitude in size, but far-field visible light microscopy suffers from limited resolution. A new method for fluorescence imaging has been developed that can obtain spatial distributions of large numbers of fluorescent molecules on length scales shorter than the classical diffraction limit. Fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) analyzes thousands of single fluorophores per acquisition, localizing small numbers of them at a time, at low excitation intensity. To control the number of visible fluorophores in the field of view and ensure that optically active molecules are separated by much more than the width of the point spread function, photoactivatable fluorescent molecules are used, in this case the photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PA-GFP). For these photoactivatable molecules, the activation rate is controlled by the activation illumination intensity; nonfluorescent inactive molecules are activated by a high-frequency (405-nm) laser and are then fluorescent when excited at a lower frequency. The fluorescence is imaged by a CCD camera, and then the molecules are either reversibly inactivated or irreversibly photobleached to remove them from the field of view. The rate of photobleaching is controlled by the intensity of the laser used to excite the fluorescence, in this case an Ar+ ion laser. Because only a small number of molecules are visible at a given time, their positions can be determined precisely; with only approximately 100 detected photons per molecule, the localization precision can be as much as 10-fold better than the resolution, depending on background levels. Heterogeneities on length scales of the order of tens of nanometers are observed by FPALM of PA-GFP on glass. FPALM images are compared with images of the same molecules by widefield fluorescence. FPALM images of PA-GFP on a terraced sapphire crystal surface were compared with atomic force microscopy and show that the full width at half-maximum of features approximately 86 +/- 4 nm is significantly better than the expected diffraction-limited optical resolution. The number of fluorescent molecules and their brightness distribution have also been determined using FPALM. This new method suggests a means to address a significant number of biological questions that had previously been limited by microscope resolution. PMID:16980368

  14. Gamma ray observatory productivity showcase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. L.; Molgaard, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) Program has been proclaimed to be the showcase productivity program for NASA and TRW. Among the multiple disciplines of a large-scale program, there is opportunity and need for improved efficiency, effectiveness, and reduction in the cost of doing business. The efforts and tools that will or have been implemented to achieve this end are described. Since the GRO Program is mainly an engineering program with the build of one satellite, the primary emphasis is placed on improving the efficiency and quality of management and engineering.

  15. Anomalous Thermal Behavior in Microcalorimeter Gamma-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Horansky, Robert D.; Beall, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Ullom, Joel N.

    2009-12-16

    Improving the resolution of gamma-ray detectors is important for many fields, including determinations of the Lamb shift in atoms with high atomic numbers, nuclear treaty verification, and environmental monitoring. High-purity germanium detectors are currently the tool of choice for precision gamma-ray spectroscopy. The resolution of these detectors is limited to about 500 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 100 keV by Fano statistics. In comparison, low-temperature microcalorimeters can provide over an order of magnitude improvement in photon resolution. For instance, a gamma-ray microcalorimeter has achieved 25 eV FWHM resolution at 103 keV. These calorimeters consist of two components, a bulk absorber to stop incident gamma rays and a thermometer made from a thin film electrically biased in the superconducting-to-normal phase transition, called a Transition Edge Sensor, or TES. The standard absorber is bulk, superconducting tin. While tin has historically been the best performing absorber, pulse decays in Sn devices are much slower than predicted. We have begun a systematic study of absorber behavior in order to assess and improve response times. This study leverages two capabilities: the ability to microfabricate highly uniform arrays of gamma-ray detectors and the ability to read out many detectors in a single cool-down using SQUID multiplexer circuits. Here, we present two experiments to identify the source of thermal time constants. The first involves varying properties of the Sn absorber including purity, vendor, and crystal grain size. The second examines the role of the other elements in the microcalorimeter assembly.

  16. Matter-antimatter gigaelectron volt gamma ray laser rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2012-12-01

    It is shown that the idea of a photon rocket through the complete annihilation of matter with antimatter, first proposed by Snger, is not a utopian scheme as it is widely believed. Its feasibility appears to be possible by the radiative collapse of a relativistic high current pinch discharge in a hydrogen-antihydrogen ambiplasma down to a radius determined by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Through this collapse to ultrahigh densities the proton-antiproton pairs in the center of the pinch can become the upper gigaelectron volt laser level for the transition into a coherent gamma ray beam by proton-antiproton annihilation, with the magnetic field of the collapsed pinch discharge absorbing the recoil momentum of the beam and transmitting it by the Moessbauer effect to the spacecraft. The gamma ray laser beam is launched as a photon avalanche from one end of the pinch discharge channel. Because of the enormous technical problems to produce and store large amounts of anti-matter, such a propulsion concept may find its first realization in small unmanned space probes to explore nearby solar systems. The laboratory demonstration of a gigaelectron volt gamma ray laser by comparison requiring small amounts of anti-matter may be much closer.

  17. Ultra-high resolution optical trap with single fluorophore sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemla, Yann

    2011-03-01

    We present a new single-molecule instrument that combines ultra- high resolution optical tweezers with single-fluorophore fluorescence microscopy. The new instrument will enable the simultaneous measurement of angstrom-scale mechanical motion of individual DNA-binding proteins (e.g., single base-pair stepping of DNA translocases) along with the detection of fluorescently labeled protein properties (e.g., internal configuration). The optical tweezers portion of the instrument is based on a timeshared dual optical trap design and is interlaced with a confocal fluorescence microscope. In a demonstration experiment, individual single-fluorophore labeled DNA oligonucleotides can be observed to bind and unbind to complementary DNA suspended between two trapped beads. Simultaneous with the single-fluorophore detection, coincident angstrom-scale changes in tether extension can be clearly observed.

  18. In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, Alexandre R; Povazay, Boris; Hariri, Lida P; McNally, James; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermann, Boris; Sattmann, Harald; Drexler, Wolfgang; Barton, Jennifer K

    2006-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables collection of minimally invasive cross-sectional images in vivo, which may be used to facilitate rapid development of reliable mouse models of colon disease as well as assess chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. The small physical scale of mouse colon makes light penetration less problematic than in other tissues and high resolution acutely necessary. In our 2-mm diameter endoscopic time domain OCT system, isotropic ultrahigh-resolution is supported by a center wavelength of 800 nm and full-width-at-half-maximum bandwidth of 150 nm (mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser) combined with 1:1 conjugate imaging of a small core fiber. A pair of KZFSN5/SFPL53 doublets provides excellent color correction to support wide bandwidth throughout the imaging depth. A slight deviation from normal beam exit angle suppresses collection of the strong back reflection at the exit window surface. Our system achieves axial resolution of 3.2 microm in air and 4.4-microm lateral spot diameter with 101-dB sensitivity. Microscopic features too small to see in mouse tissue with conventional resolution systems, including colonic crypts, are clearly resolved. Resolution near the cellular level is potentially capable of identifying abnormal crypt formation and dysplastic cellular organization. PMID:17212526

  19. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, John P.

    2014-07-03

    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  20. Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

  1. Gamma-Ray Bursts: a Centauro's Cry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silagadze, Z. K.

    2004-02-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are enigmatic flashes of gamma-rays at cosmological distances, so bright that the implied energetics is astounding: energies of order of about solar rest-energy are liberated in a time scale of the order of seconds in space regions only a few kilometres in size. Central engines capable to produce such enormous explosions, leading to a highly relativistic expending fireballs, remain a mystery. Here we propose a new candidate for the gamma-ray bursts central engine.

  2. Gamma-ray burst models.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts. PMID:17293332

  3. The CSPD-2 gamma-ray imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Smith, L.E.; Wehe, D.K.; Knoll, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    A compact portable {gamma}-ray vision system consisting of a lead multi-hole collimator, CsI(Tl)/photodiode detector array, CCD camera and personal computer, has been constructed and tested. The optical picture obtained with a CCD camera is overlaid with {gamma}-ray intensity distributions at different energies to enable immediate localization of multiple radioactive sources. The {gamma}-ray detector employs a shielded array of sixteen 1 x 1 x 3 cm CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals, each of which is viewed by a 1 cm square Hamamatsu PIN silicon photodiode. The device operates in the energy range from 100 keV to 3 MeV with an average energy resolution of about 7% FWHM and angular resolution of about 4{degrees} FWHM at 662 keV. The collected {gamma}-ray distribution is processed using a maximum-likelihood algorithm to provide a more precise reconstruction of the {gamma}-emitter distribution. The detector system is mounted on a pan-and-tilt table; the total weight of the imaging system is about 30 kg. The performance of this instrument has been tested in our laboratory and the results show that this system should be a competitive candidate for radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities.

  4. Telescope for x ray and gamma ray studies in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. D.; Desai, Upendra D.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging of x-rays has been achieved by various methods in astrophysics, nuclear physics, medicine, and material science. A new method for imaging x-ray and gamma-ray sources avoids the limitations of previously used imaging devices. Images are formed in optical wavelengths by using mirrors or lenses to reflect and refract the incoming photons. High energy x-ray and gamma-ray photons cannot be reflected except at grazing angles and pass through lenses without being refracted. Therefore, different methods must be used to image x-ray and gamma-ray sources. Techniques using total absorption, or shadow casting, can provide images in x-rays and gamma-rays. This new method uses a coder made of a pair of Fresnel zone plates and a detector consisting of a matrix of CsI scintillators and photodiodes. The Fresnel zone plates produce Moire patterns when illuminated by an off-axis source. These Moire patterns are deconvolved using a stepped sine wave fitting or an inverse Fourier transform. This type of coder provides the capability of an instantaneous image with sub-arcminute resolution while using a detector with only a coarse position-sensitivity. A matrix of the CsI/photodiode detector elements provides the necessary coarse position-sensitivity. The CsI/photodiode detector also allows good energy resolution. This imaging system provides advantages over previously used imaging devices in both performance and efficiency.

  5. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  6. Future prospects for gamma-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1980-01-01

    Astrophysical phenomena discussed are: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; astrophysical nucleo-synthesis; solar particle acceleration; the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies, especially active ones; and the degree of matter antimater symmetry of the universe. The gamma ray results of GAMMA-I, the gamma ray observatory, the gamma ray burst network, solar polar, and very high energy gamma ray telescopes on the ground provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes.

  7. Ultra-high Resolution Imaging of Cepheid Pulsation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasselov, D.; Karovska, M.; Marengo, M.

    2004-05-01

    Classical Cepheids continue to provide the most accurate distances in the local group of galaxies. Their value as tracers of medium to recent star formation has been increasing in the past years, as galaxy evolution has matured as a field. Their value arises from the use of their regular radial pulsations. Getting the precise parameters of the pulsation (apart from period and amplitude) is still a difficult und unresolved problem. The coming few years are going to contribute direct interferometric observations of the pulsation of Cepheids. However the basic issues of wave propagation in the Cepheid atmosphere can only be studied with spectroscopic signatures in the optical (e.g., CaII H&K) and UV (e.g., MgII h&k). Significant emission and its variability during the pulsational cycle have been known since the pioneering IUE observations. More recently it was shown that the combination of UV and optical spectral lines trace accurately wave propagation in a Cepheid atmosphere. A significant insights into pulsation processes in Cepheids, and consequently on the pulsation effects on their atmospheres and distance estimates, could be gained from spatially resolved spectroscopic imaging using sub-milliarsecond resolution. We show examples of the advances that can be achieved using a long-baseline space-based UV-Optical interferometer. Work partially supported by NSF grant AST98-76734.

  8. GLAST: Exploring Nature's Highest Energy Processes with the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, Seth; Myers, J. D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international and multi-agency space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV. Several successful exploratory missions in gamma-ray astronomy led to the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). Launched in 1991, EGRET made the first complete survey of the sky in the 30 MeV-10 GeV range. EGRET showed the high-energy gamma-ray sky to be surprisingly dynamic and diverse, with sources ranging from the sun and moon to massive black holes at large redshifts. Most of the gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET remain unidentified. In light of the discoveries with EGRET, the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope vastly more capable than instruments flown previously, as well as a secondary instrument to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. The main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), will have superior area, angular resolution, field of view, and deadtime that together will provide a factor of 30 or more advance in sensitivity, as well as provide capability for study of transient phenomena. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will have a field of view several times larger than the LAT and will provide spectral coverage of gamma-ray bursts that extends from the lower limit of the LAT down to 10 keV. The basic parameters of the GBM are compared to those of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument on CGRO in Table 1-2. With the LAT and GBM, GLAST will be a flexible observatory for investigating the great range of astrophysical phenomena best studied in high-energy gamma rays. NASA plans to launch GLAST in late 2005.

  9. Gamma rays of 1-30 MeV from the Galactic Center Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, T.; Long, J.; Zanrosso, E.; Zych, A.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported for gamma rays from the Galactic Center Region at 1-30 MeV made with a balloon-borne double Compton scatter gamma ray telescope. The Compton scatter angle, energy, and arrival time of the incident gamma ray and direction of the Compton scattered secondary for downward-moving gamma rays were measured. The handling of the data is described, and the results of Monte Carlo simulation angular resolutions and absolute efficiencies for different zenith angles of incident gamma rays are given. A contour sky map of the weighted fluxes for a southern sky region is shown whose primary feature is a significant enhancement in the Galactic Center Region. It is concluded that several discrete sources contribute to broaden the maximum in the horizontal or RA direction. Less broadening is indicated along the galactic plane.

  10. Gamma-ray burst spectra and time histories from 2 to 400 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1998-07-01

    The Gamma-Ray burst detector on Ginga consisted of a proportional counter to observe the x-rays and a scintillation counter to observe the gamma-rays. Both instrument recorded the time histories in phase with each other and with 0.03125 s temporal resolution. The author compares the average of 21 gamma-ray bursts to determine the delay, in any, between the peak of the x-rays and the peak of the gamma-rays. The delay is less than or about equal to 30 msec. Thus, models must content with two average features of the temporal behavior. First, as a function of energy, the time structure scales as {approximately}E{sup {minus}0.45}. Second, the x-rays are not appreciable delayed relative to the gamma-rays. Some cooling models might have difficulties explaining these features.

  11. Measurements of gamma-ray production cross sections for shielding materials of space nuclear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orphan, V. J.; John, J.; Hoot, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of secondary gamma ray production from neutron interactions have been made over the entire energy range of interest in shielding applications. The epithermal capture gamma ray yields for both resolved gamma ray lines and continuum have been measured from thermal energies to 100 KeV for natural tungsten and U-238, two important candidate shield materials in SNAP reactor systems. Data are presented to illustrate the variation of epithermal capture gamma ray yields with neutron energy. The gamma ray production cross sections from (n,xy) reactions have been measured for Fe and Al from the threshold energies for inelastic scattering to approximately 16 MeV. Typical Fe and Al cross sections obtained with high-neutron energy resolution and averaged over broad neutron-energy groups are presented.

  12. The status of low-energy gamma-ray astronomy and the Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief sketch of the objectives and status of the various subdisciplines in gamma-ray astronomy (below 10 GeV) are presented. The Gamma-Ray Observatory planned for launch in 1988 is described. This NASA observatory and several planned French-Soviet spacecraft are expected to elevate gamma-ray astronomy into a mature observational science for the Space Station era.

  13. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; /more authors..

    2012-04-11

    The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

  14. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. approximately 140g/cm2 for inelastic scattering and approximately 50 g/cm2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum on order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  15. Gamma-ray observations with the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Hurley, K. H.; Madden, N.; Owens, A.; Palmer, D. M.; Pehl, R.; Ramaty, R.

    1996-12-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS), a high-resolution germanium detector, was launched aboard the WIND satellite on November 1, 1994. After ~2 years and several deep space orbits the spacecraft will eventually be injected into a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth L_1_ point. Although TGRS is primarily designed to perform high resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and solar flares, it equally well lends itself to the study of transient X-ray sources and, using an on-board passive occulter, the long-term monitoring of steady sources such as the Crab and the Galactic Center. Since launch, TGRS has been working exceedingly well and has proven to be very stable in its performance. TGRS has been detecting on the average ~5 GRBs per month and to date has observed three solar flares. Preliminary analysis of our data also indicates that TGRS is indeed sensitive to sources such as the X-ray transient GRO J1655-40, the Crab, and the Galactic Center.

  16. Ultrahigh-resolution and non-contact diameter measurement of metallic wire using eddy current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new method using eddy current sensor (ECS) for online non-contact diameter measurement of metallic wires with ultrahigh resolution. A prototype sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested for copper wires with diameters ranging from 1.12 mm to 1.30 mm. A solenoid coil with dimensions of 16 mm long and 2.1 mm in diameter is used as sensing element with a working frequency of 1.3 MHz. With a well-designed bridge, the sensing coil's inductance variation can be detected and the wire's diameter can be calculated. The ECS system demonstrated a dynamic resolution better than 2.2 ?m and a static resolution better than 0.42 nm for a wire with a diameter of 1.3 mm. This non-contact method has competitive advantages over other methods in many aspects, especially in terms of measurement resolution.

  17. Ultrahigh-resolution and non-contact diameter measurement of metallic wire using eddy current sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new method using eddy current sensor (ECS) for online non-contact diameter measurement of metallic wires with ultrahigh resolution. A prototype sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested for copper wires with diameters ranging from 1.12 mm to 1.30 mm. A solenoid coil with dimensions of 16 mm long and 2.1 mm in diameter is used as sensing element with a working frequency of 1.3 MHz. With a well-designed bridge, the sensing coil's inductance variation can be detected and the wire's diameter can be calculated. The ECS system demonstrated a dynamic resolution better than 2.2 ?m and a static resolution better than 0.42 nm for a wire with a diameter of 1.3 mm. This non-contact method has competitive advantages over other methods in many aspects, especially in terms of measurement resolution. PMID:25173300

  18. A thick Anger camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R.; Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    The NaI(Tl) Anger camera is a natural candidate for a position sensitive detector in imaging of astrophysical gamma-ray sources. Here laboratory measurements are presented of the response of a relatively thick (5.1 cm) NaI(Tl) Anger camera designed for coded aperture imaging in the 50 keV to 2 MeV energy range. A position resolution of 10.5 mm FWHM at 122 keV and 6.3 mm FWHM at 662 keV. The energy resolution was 7 percent FWHM at 662 keV. The ability of the detector to resolve the depth of the gamma-ray interaction and the use of this depth resolution to reduce back-incident and internal background is discussed.

  19. High-resolution laser infrared spectroscopy of orthohydrogen impurity pair in solid parahydrogen and of gamma-ray irradiated solid parahydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu

    1998-11-01

    I have conducted high-resolution laser infrared spectroscopic studies of ortho-H2 impurity (<=0.2%)-pair [/cal Q]1(1) (/nu/ = 1 gets 0, J = 1 gets 1) transitions in solid para-H2 (p- H2). Several hundred spectral lines were observed between 4142.9 and 4150.3 cm-1, with 7 to 200 MHz HWHM. Using calculated relative intensities for [/cal Q]1(1) transitions of nearest-neighbor (nn) and next- nearest-neighbor (nnn) ortho pair, and the accurate energy levels of the ground states by microwave spectroscopy (B. W. Statt et al., Can. J. Phys. 58, 1326 (1980)), I have assigned 180 spectral lines. Widths of the observed spectral lines differ by more than an order of magnitude depending on the levels. It is noticed that only the F = 2, M = 0 level, which has the highest energy among all the F, M components due to the EQQ interaction, has significant homogeneous broadening of about 100 MHz HWHM due to relaxation to lower F, M levels. Complete energy level patterns for the six excited states: nn-ip (s, a), nn-op (s, a), and nnn (s, a) have been determined and discussed. From the observed splitting for the nn-ip ortho pair, 0.4505 cm-1,/ direct vibron hopping matrix element between the nn H2 molecules was calculated to be -0.1904 cm-1. On a different experiment, nineteen transitions were observed in p-H2 crystals after irradiation by γ-ray with a dosage of ~3 M rad. Similar structure of the spectrum was observed using tone burst and Condon modulation. Except for one spectral line that is induced by the macroscopic electric field of the net charges in the crystal (T. Momose et al., J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7840 (1994)), all newly observed spectral lines were assigned to the [/cal Q]1(0)(/vert/nu = 1, j = 0/rangle/gets/vert /nu = 0, j = 0/rangle) transitions of p-H2 molecules located close to ions generated by the γ-ray irradiation. The pattern is semi- quantitatively explained using the Hamiltonian matrix of a finite-sized HCP lattice, taking account of vibron hopping, Stark shift, and dielectric shielding effect. From the integrated absorption of the observed spectral lines, the densities of both ions were estimated to be 3× 1013/ cm-3 and [-]3× 1010/ cm-3 for the net charge density.

  20. Gamma-Ray Line Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.

    2011-05-01

    Nuclear gamma-ray lines provide a unique window on the high energy Universe, especially so for supernovae and nuclear astrophysics. The potential for significant contributions to the understanding of SNe Ia, as well as the large potential for new discoveries, has long been recognized, but technical progress in this challenging energy band has been slow. I will review the groundbreaking discoveries of CGRO and INTEGRAL, and discuss how these have inspired and driven the development of powerful new instrumentation over the past decade. I will preview the expected results from NuSTAR, where the next major advances in nuclear line astronomy will be achieved. In addition I will look forward to the next generation of MeV instruments currently under development, including wide-field Compton and focusing Laue lens telescopes.

  1. Gamma Rays from Classical Novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA at the University of Chicago, provided support for a program of theoretical research into the nature of the thermonuclear outbursts of the classical novae and their implications for gamma ray astronomy. In particular, problems which have been addressed include the role of convection in the earliest stages of nova runaway, the influence of opacity on the characteristics of novae, and the nucleosynthesis expected to accompany nova outbursts on massive Oxygen-Neon-Magnesium (ONeMg) white dwarfs. In the following report, I will identify several critical projects on which considerable progress has been achieved and provide brief summaries of the results obtained:(1) two dimensional simulation of nova runaway; (2) nucleosynthesis of nova modeling; and (3) a quasi-analytic study of nucleosynthesis in ONeMg novae.

  2. Nuclear {gamma}-ray superradiance.

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B. W.; X-Ray Science Division

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear {gamma}-ray-resonant superradiance is discussed, comparing Dicke's original approach 1 and recent extensions 2,3 of Scully et al. 2-52, 3, 4, 5 involving conditional excitation to the classical resonant-scattering 6-106, 7, 8, 9, 10 and the Hannon-Trammell 11-1411, 12, 13, 14 quantum theories. Relevant questions are whether the sample is optically thin or thick in the excitation and re-radiation processes, the role of superpositions between ground and excited states, Fermi's golden rule, and decoherence due to spatially-dependent near-field interactions 15-1715, 16, 17. The relation of these considerations to experimental results is discussed.

  3. Visualization of 3D cell migration using high speed ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Sara; Harwood, Adrian; Povazay, Boris; Hofer, Bernd; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermann, Boris; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Using high speed ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 800nm, non-invasive 3D cellular imaging has been accomplished. Cellular resolution imaging on and within these types of substrates is not possible with conventional microscopy techniques such as interference contrast microscopy, and requires the use of fluorescent staining. It is possible to achieve data acquisition rates of 20,000 samples per second with OCT which, in combination with its high axial and transverse resolution (>2-3?m), allows it to be used as a non-invasive technique to analyze cell migration in 3D with time. Comparatively high penetration depth also makes OCT a uniquely suited imaging technique for visualization of cells within a 3D construct. In this paper it is demonstrated that it is possible to resolve ~10?m Dictyostelium discoideum cells, a well established and useful model for investigation of cell motility and chemotaxis, in 3D and follow them in time lapse using an 800nm ultrahigh resolution high speed frequency domain based OCT microscope. Ultimately, these visualization techniques could enable monitoring of cell behavior in regenerative medicine, for example tracking of individual cells within a cell scaffold.

  4. Ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography using supercontinuum light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yiheng; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2016-02-01

    An ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was developed using a cost-effective supercontinuum laser. A spectral filter consists of a dispersive prism, a cylindrical lens and a right-angle prism was built to transmit the wavelengths in range 680-940 nm to the OCT system. The SD-OCT has achieved 1.9 μm axial resolution and the sensitivity was estimated to be 91.5 dB. A zero-crossing fringes matching method which maps the wavelengths to the pixel indices of the spectrometer was proposed for the OCT spectral calibration. A double sided foam tape as a static sample and the tip of a middle finger as a biological sample were measured by the OCT. The adhesive and the internal structure of the foam of the tape were successfully visualized in three dimensions. Sweat ducts was clearly observed in the OCT images at very high resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ultra-high resolution visualization of sweat duct by OCT.

  5. Direct observation of hydrogen atom dynamics and interactions by ultrahigh resolution neutron protein crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Julian C.-H.; Hanson, B. Leif; Fisher, S. Zoë; Langan, Paul; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.

    2012-01-01

    The 1.1 Å, ultrahigh resolution neutron structure of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanged crambin is reported. Two hundred ninety-nine out of 315, or 94.9%, of the hydrogen atom positions in the protein have been experimentally derived and resolved through nuclear density maps. A number of unconventional interactions are clearly defined, including a potential O─H…π interaction between a water molecule and the aromatic ring of residue Y44, as well as a number of potential C─H…O hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding networks that are ambiguous in the 0.85 Å ultrahigh resolution X-ray structure can be resolved by accurate orientation of water molecules. Furthermore, the high resolution of the reported structure has allowed for the anisotropic description of 36 deuterium atoms in the protein. The visibility of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the nuclear density maps is discussed in relation to the resolution of the neutron data. PMID:22949690

  6. Gamma Ray Measurement Information Barriers for the FMTT Demonstration System

    SciTech Connect

    Wolford Jr., J.K.

    2000-08-16

    The gamma ray attribute measurement information barrier discussion directly complements the discussion of gamma ray measurement, presented in the measurements paper by Gosnell and the general discussion of information barriers (IBs) by MacArthur. It focuses on the information barrier features applied specifically to the gamma-ray measurement and attribute analysis system. The FMTT demonstration instrument represents the second application of an IB design paradigm developed in conjunction with the Joint DOE/DoD Information Barriers Working Group (IBWG) as well as representatives from the Russian Federation's delegations to the Trilateral Initiative and meetings on the agreement for transparency at the Mayak Fissile Storage Facility (FMSF). It is also the second evolutionary step in constructing hardware to embody these jointly developed ideas. The first step was the prototype instrument developed for the Trilateral Initiative, the so-called Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Plutonium with Classified Characteristics utilizing Neutron Multiplicity Counting and High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (AVNG), that was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory in June 1999. Several improvements are evident in this second effort, and will be discussed. Improved, though this information barrier may be, it is still a prototype meant only for demonstration purposes. Its evolving specification and design are appropriately a subject for joint discussion and development. Part of that development must include creating components that the respective governments can trust enough to certify.

  7. Future Gamma-Ray Imaging of Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Solar eruptive events, the combination of large solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), accelerate ions to tens of Gev and electrons to hundreds of MeV. The energy in accelerated particles can be a significant fraction (up to tens of percent) of the released energy and is roughly equipartitioned between ions and electrons. Observations of the gamma-ray signatures produced by these particles interacting with the ambient solar atmosphere probes the distribution and composition of the accelerated population, as well as the atmospheric parameters and abundances of the atmosphere, ultimately revealing information about the underlying physics. Gamma-ray imaging provided by RHESSI showed that the interacting approx.20 MeV/nucleon ions are confined to flare magnetic loops rather than precipitating from a large CME-associated shock. Furthermore, RHESSI images show a surprising, significant spatial separation between the locations where accelerated ions and electrons are interacting, thus indicating a difference in acceleration or transport processes for the two types of particles. Future gamma-ray imaging observations, with higher sensitivity and greater angular resolution, can investigate more deeply the nature of ion acceleration. The technologies being proven on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS), a NASA balloon instrument, are possible approaches for future instrumentation. We discuss the GRIPS instrument and the future of studying this aspect of solar eruptive events.

  8. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  9. Gamma-ray spectral analysis algorithm library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-06

    The routines of the Gauss Algorithms library are used to implement special purpose products that need to analyze gamma-ray spectra from Ge semiconductor detectors as a part of their function. These routines provide the ability to calibrate energy, calibrate peakwidth, search for peaks, search for regions, and fit the spectral data in a given region to locate gamma rays.

  10. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Candidates for GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.; Smith, D. A.; Dumora, D.; Guillemot, L.; Parent, D.; Reposeur, T.; Grove, E.; Romani, R. W.; Thorsett, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will be launched less than a year from now, and its Large Area Telescope (LAT) is expected to discover scores to hundreds of gamma-ray pulsars. This poster discusses which of the over 1700 known pulsars, mostly visible only at radio Erequencies, are likely to emit greater than l00 MeV gamma rays with intensities detectable by the LAT. The main figure of merit used to select gamma-ray pulsar candidates is sqrt(E-dot)/d^2, where E-dot is the energy loss due to rotational spindown, and d is the distance to the pulsar. The figure of merit incorporates spin-down flux at earth (proportional to E-dot/d^2) times efficiency, assumed proportional to 1/sqrt(E-dot). A few individual objects are cited to illustrate the issues. Since large E-dot pulsars also tend to have large timing noise and occasional glitches, their ephemerides can become inaccurate in weeks to months. To detect and study the gamma-ray emission the photons must be accurately tagged with the pulse phase. With hours to days between gamma-ray photon arrival times from a pulsar and months to years of LAT exposure needed for good detections, GLAST will need timing measurements throughout the continuous gamma-ray observations. The poster will describe efforts to coordinate pulsar timing of the candidate gamma-ray pulsars.

  11. A 16N gamma-ray facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Stanley, Michelle R.; Foster, Charles C.; Komisarcik, Kevin; East, Gary W.; Vanderwerp, John D.; Friesel, Dennis L.

    1997-02-01

    A practical 16N gamma-ray source is created in a medium-energy cyclotron environment. A 16N source emits 6129 and 7115 keV gamma rays. The viability of this several ?Ci source for detector calibration and studying detector physics is established.

  12. Observations of diffuse galactic gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The observations of galactic diffuse gamma radiation are reviewed. The connections of the gamma ray observations with galactic structure and cosmic rays are discussed. The high latitude galactic component and the low latitude emission from the galactic plane are examined. The observations in other regions of the gamma ray spectrum are discussed.

  13. Gamma rays from 'hidden' millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, M.

    1993-01-01

    The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

  14. Gamma rays from hidden millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1992-01-01

    The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

  15. Gamma-ray Spectral Analysis Algorithm Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-09-25

    The routines of the Gauss Algorithm library are used to implement special purpose products that need to analyze gamma-ray spectra from GE semiconductor detectors as a part of their function. These routines provide the ability to calibrate energy, calibrate peakwidth, search for peaks, search for regions, and fit the spectral data in a given region to locate gamma rays.

  16. Gamma rays from extragalactic astrophysical sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.

    2011-11-01

    Presently there are several classes of detected gamma-ray extragalactic sources. They are mostly associated to active galactic nuclei (AGN) and (at soft gamma rays) to gamma-ray bursts (GRB), but not only.Active galactic nuclei consist of accreting supermassive black holeshosted by a galaxy that present in some cases powerful relativistic jet activity. Thesesources, which have been studied in gamma rays for several decades, areprobably the most energetic astrophysical objects, and their appearancedepends much on whether their jets point to us. Gamma-ray bursts, thought to be associated to collapsing or merging stellar-mass objects atcosmological distances, are also accreting highly relativistic jet sources that shine strongly at high energies. These are very short-duration events, but they are also the most luminous. Recently, star formation galaxies have turned out to be also gamma-ray emitters.On the other hand, clusters of galaxies have not been detected beyond X-rays yet. These are the largest knownstructures in the Universe; in their formation through accretion andmerging, shocks and turbulence are generated, which may lead to gamma-ray production. In thiswork, the gamma-ray physics of AGNs is briefly presented, as well as that of starburst galaxies, GRBs and clusters of galaxies.Afterwards, we consider some particular cases ofgamma-ray production in non-blazar AGN jets interacting with their medium at different scales.

  17. Ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography: toward isotropic 3 ?m resolution for in vivo retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Zhang, Yan; Jones, Steven M.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Choi, Stacey S.; Cense, Barry; Evans, Julia W.; Chen, Diana; Miller, Donald T.; Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.

    2007-02-01

    Ultrahigh axial resolution in adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) is fundamentally limited by the intrinsic chromatic aberrations of the human eye. Variation in refractive index of the ocular media with wavelength causes the spectral content of broadband light sources to focus at different depths in the retina for light entering the eye and at the imaging detector for light exiting. This effect has not been previously reported for ultrahigh-resolution OCT (without AO) likely because the effect is masked by the relatively long depth of focus dictated by the small pupils used in these systems. With AO, the pupil size is much larger and depth of focus substantially narrower. As such the chromatic aberrations of the eye can counteract the lateral resolution benefit of AO when used with broadband light sources. To more fully tap the potential of AO-OCT, compensation of the eye's chromatic and monochromatic aberrations must occur concurrently. One solution is to insert an achromatizing lens in front of the eye whose chromatic aberrations are equal but opposite in sign to that of the eye. In this paper we evaluate the efficacy of a novel design that uses a custom achromatizing lens placed near the fiber collimating optic. AO-OCT images are acquired on several subjects with and without the achromatizing lens and in combination with two light sources of different spectral width. The combination of the achromatizing lens and broadband light source yielded the sharpest images of the retina and the smallest speckle.

  18. Future Missions for Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy has made great advances in recent years, due largely to the recently completed 9-year mission of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. In this talk I will give an overview of what advances we may expect in the near future, with particular emphasis on earth-orbiting missions scheduled for flight within the next 5 years. Two missions, the High Energy Transient Explorer and Swift, will provide important new information on the sources of gamma-ray bursts. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope will investigate high energy emission from a wide variety of sources, including active galaxies and gamma-ray pulsars. The contributions of ground-based and multiwavelength observations will also be addressed.

  19. Atmospheric gamma-ray and neutron flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, L. P. Kudryavtsev, A. Yu. Kudryavtseva, M. L. Kutsyk, I. M.

    2008-01-15

    Gamma-ray pulses are calculated from 2D numerical simulations of an upward atmospheric discharge in a self-consistent electric field using the multigroup approach to the kinetics of relativistic runaway electrons (REs). Computed {gamma}-ray numbers and spectra are consistent with those of terrestrial {gamma}-ray flashes (TGFs) observed aboard spacecrafts. The RE flux is concentrated mainly within the domain of the Blue Jet fluorescence. This confirms that exactly the domain adjacent to a thundercloud is the source of the observed {gamma}-ray flashes. The yield of photonuclear neutrons is calculated. One {gamma}-ray pulse generates {approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} neutrons. The possibility of the direct deposition of REs to the detector readings and the origin of the lightning-advanced TGFs are discussed.

  20. Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    A history and overview of the observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are presented. The phenomenon of gamma-ray bursts is without precedent in astronomy, having no observed property that would be a direct indicator of their distance and no counterpart object in another wavelength region. Their brief, random appearance only in the gamma-ray region has made their study difficult. The observed time profiles, spectral properties, and durations of gamma-ray bursts cover a wide range. All proposed models for their origin must be considered speculative. It is humbling to think that even after 25 years since their discovery, the distance scale of gamma-ray bursts is still very much debatable.

  1. Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumlinson, Alexandre R.; McNally, James; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermann, Boris; Sattmann, Harald; Hariri, Lida; Drexler, Wolfgang; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2005-04-01

    Mouse models are increasingly important for studying human GI pathology. OCT provides minimally invasive, cross-sectional images that indicate the thickness and scattering density of underlying tissue. We have developed endoscopic ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) for the purpose of in vivo imaging in mouse colon. The reduced scale of the mouse colon makes tissue light penetration much less problematic, and high resolution acutely necessary. Higher lateral resolution requires a departure from the traditional cemented GRIN lens design. We support the need for better chromatic aberration than can be achieved by a GRIN lens using commercial raytracing software. We have designed and built a 2mm diameter endoscopic UHR-OCT system achromatized for 770-1020nm for use with a Titanium:sapphire laser with 260 nm bandwidth at full-width-half-maximum centered at 800 nm while achieving a 4.4um lateral spot dimension at focus. A pair of KZFSN5/SFPL53 doublets provides excellent primary and secondary color correction to maintain wide bandwidth through the imaging depth. A slight deviation from normal beam exit angle suppresses collection of the strong back reflection at the exit window surface. The novel design endoscope was built and characterized for through focus bandwidth, axial resolution, signal to noise, and lateral spot dimension. Performance is demonstrated on a variety of ex vivo tissues and in situ mouse colon. Ultrahigh-resolution images of mouse tissue enable the visualization of microscopic features, including crypts that have previously been observed with standard resolution OCT in humans but were too small to see in mouse tissue. Resolution near the cellular level is potentially capable of identifying abnormal crypt formation and dysplastic cellular organization.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of ultra-high resolution multilayer-coated blazed gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov,, Dmitriy; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Dhuey, Scott; Gullikson, Eric; Salmassi, Farhad; Yashchuk, Tony; Padmore, Howard

    2011-07-26

    Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the most promising candidate for ultra-high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy. They combine the ability of blazed gratings to concentrate almost all diffraction energy in a desired high diffraction order with high reflectance soft x-ray multilayers. However in order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a near perfect groove profile with an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on successful fabrication and testing of ultra-dense saw-tooth substrates with 5,000 and 10,000 lines/mm.

  3. Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, G.; Du, S.; Niedermayr, T.; Payne, S.; Cherepy, N.; Drobshoff, A.; Fabris, L.

    2008-04-01

    Scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors are being actively pursued for homeland security applications. A key property of such detectors is their energy resolution which enables faster detection and more precise identification of gamma-ray sources. In order to obtain the best energy resolution with a given scintillator material, it is crucial to collect the largest fraction possible of the light emitted after gamma-ray absorption. Different techniques to maximize the light collection efficiency were investigated and tested experimentally. In particular, the effect of the scintillator geometry has been simulated with Detect2000. Also, a number of wrapping materials have been tested for their reflectivity and their performance in terms of improving the energy resolution in a BGO-based gamma-ray detector. The best results were obtained with a tapered cylinder geometry and the GORE DRP tape.

  4. Ultrahigh-resolution microstructural diffusion tensor imaging reveals perforant path degradation in aged humans in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Michael A; Muftuler, L Tugan; Stark, Craig E L

    2010-07-13

    The perforant path (PP) undergoes synaptic changes in the course of aging and dementia. Previous studies attempting to assess the integrity of the PP in humans using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were limited by low resolution and the inability to identify PP fibers specifically. Here we present an application of DTI at ultrahigh submillimeter resolution that has allowed us to successfully identify diffusion signals unique to the PP and compare the intensity of these signals in a sample of young adults and older adults. We report direct evidence of age-related PP degradation in humans in vivo. We find no evidence of such loss in a control pathway, the alveus, suggesting that these findings are not evidence for a global decline. We also find no evidence for specific entorhinal gray matter atrophy. The extent of PP degradation correlated with performance on a word-list learning task sensitive to hippocampal deficits. We also show evidence for gray matter diffusion signals consistent with pyramidal dendrite orientation in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Ultrahigh-resolution microstructural DTI is a unique biomarker that can be used in combination with traditional structural and functional neuroimaging methods to enhance detection of Alzheimer disease in its earliest stages, test the effectiveness of new therapies, and monitor disease progression. PMID:20616040

  5. Hybrid gamma ray imagingModel and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonho; Wehe, David

    2007-08-01

    We report on a hybrid gamma-ray radiation imaging system for industrial applications that combine the advantages of a multi-aperture mechanical collimator with electronic collimation. The combination offers both efficiency and good angular resolution, and is unique since a single gamma ray can contribute information to both modalities simultaneously. The mechanically collimated camera is most effective for imaging lower energy photons while electronic collimation uncouples spatial resolution from efficiency for higher energies. Our proposed Hybrid Gamma Ray Imager combines a high-resolution URA coded aperture with a Compton scatter camera to provide a broader range of energy response suitable for a wider range of industrial applications (50 keV-2 MeV). The primary detector is a large-area LaCl 3:Ce scintillator coupled directly to a Hammamatsu PSPMT, chosen to provide portability, efficiency and energy resolution. A pixellated CsI(Na)/PSPMT combination serves as the secondary absorption detector. Point and ring-shaped radiation sources (140, 364, 662 and 1275 keV) are simulated. The results show coverage over a broad energy range of radiation and better images than either a mechanical or an electronic imager at intermediate energies. The sensitivity loss of the electronic imager due to the introduction of the mechanical collimator is recognized.

  6. En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation.

    PubMed

    Wiesauer, Karin; Pircher, Michael; Gtzinger, Erich; Bauer, Siegfried; Engelke, Rainer; Ahrens, Gisela; Grtzner, Gabi; Hitzenberger, Christoph; Stifter, David

    2005-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique for cross-sectional imaging, originally developed for biological structures. When OCT is employed for material investigation, high-resolution and short measurement times are required, and for many applications, only transversal (en-face) scans yield substantial information which cannot be obtained from cross-sectional images oriented perpendicularly to the sample surface alone. In this work, we combine transversal with ultra-high resolution OCT: a broadband femto-second laser is used as a light source in combination with acousto-optic modulators for heterodyne signal generation and detection. With our setup we are able to scan areas as large as 3 x 3 mm2 with a sensitivity of 100 dB, representing areas 100 times larger compared to other high-resolution en-face OCT systems (full field). We demonstrate the benefits of en-face scanning for different applications in materials investigation. PMID:19494965

  7. Modeling gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxham, Amanda

    Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary central engine activity and compare the model results with the observational data. We show that the observed X-ray flare phenomenology can be explained within the internal shock model. The number, width and occurring time of flares are then used to diagnose the central engine activity, putting constraints on the energy, ejection time, width and number of ejected shells. We find that the observed X-ray flare time history generally reflects the time history of the central engine, which reactivates multiple times after the prompt emission phase with progressively reduced energy. This shell model code can be used to constrain broadband observations of GRB 090926A, which showed two flares in both the Swift UVOT and XRT bands. Using the prompt emission fluence to constrain the total energy contained in the blastwave, the internal shock model requires that Lorentz factors of the shells causing flares must be less than the Lorentz factor of the blastwave when the shells are ejected. Recent observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) revealed a power law decay feature of the high energy emission (above 100 MeV), which led to the suggestion that it originates from an external shock. We analyze four GRBs (080916C, 090510, 090902B and 090926A) jointly detected by Fermi LAT and Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), which have high quality lightcurves in both instrument energy bands. Using the MeV prompt emission (GBM) data, we can record the energy output from the central engine as a function of time. Assuming a constant radiative efficiency, we are able to track energy accumulation in the external shock using our internal/external shell model code and show that the late time lightcurves fit well within the external shock model, but the early time lightcurves are dominated by the internal shock component which has a shallow decay phase due to the initial pile-up of shells onto the blast wave.

  8. Novel ultrahigh resolution data acquisition and image reconstruction for multi-detector row CT

    SciTech Connect

    Flohr, T. G.; Stierstorfer, K.; Suess, C.; Schmidt, B.; Primak, A. N.; McCollough, C. H.

    2007-05-15

    We present and evaluate a special ultrahigh resolution mode providing considerably enhanced spatial resolution both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction for a routine medical multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) system. Data acquisition is performed by using a flying focal spot both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction in combination with tantalum grids that are inserted in front of the multi-row detector to reduce the aperture of the detector elements both in-plane and in the z-axis direction. The dose utilization of the system for standard applications is not affected, since the grids are moved into place only when needed and are removed for standard scanning. By means of this technique, image slices with a nominal section width of 0.4 mm (measured full width at half maximum=0.45 mm) can be reconstructed in spiral mode on a CT system with a detector configuration of 32x0.6 mm. The measured 2% value of the in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) is 20.4 lp/cm, the measured 2% value of the longitudinal (z axis) MTF is 21.5 lp/cm. In a resolution phantom with metal line pair test patterns, spatial resolution of 20 lp/cm can be demonstrated both in the scan plane and along the z axis. This corresponds to an object size of 0.25 mm that can be resolved. The new mode is intended for ultrahigh resolution bone imaging, in particular for wrists, joints, and inner ear studies, where a higher level of image noise due to the reduced aperture is an acceptable trade-off for the clinical benefit brought about by the improved spatial resolution.

  9. Tracking and imaging gamma-ray experiment (TIGRE) for 300-keV to 100-MeV gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Bhattacharya, Dipen; Blair, Scott C.; Case, Gary; Dixon, David D.; Liu, Chia-Ling; O'Neill, Terrence J.; White, R. Stephen; Zych, Allen D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment (TIGRE) uses multilayers of silicon strip detectors both as a gamma-ray converter and to track Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. The silicon strip detectors also measure the energy losses of these particles. For Compton events, the direction and energy of the Compton scattered gamma ray are measured with arrays of small CsI(TI)-photodiode detectors so that an unique direction and energy can be found for each incident gamma ray. The incident photon direction for pair events is found from the initial pair particle directions. TIGRE is the first Compton telescope with a direct imaging capability. With a large (pi) -steradian field-of-view, it is sensitive to gamma rays from 0.3 to 100 MeV with a typical energy resolution of 3% (FWHM) and a 1-(sigma) angular resolution of 40 arc-minutes at 2 MeV. A small balloon prototype instrument is being constructed that has a high absolute detection efficiency of 8% over the full energy range and a sensitivity of 10 milliCrabs for an exposure of 500,000 s. TIGRE's innovative design also uses the polarization dependence of the Klein-Nishina formula for gamma-ray source polarization measurements. The telescope will be described in detail and new results from measurements at 0.5 MeV and Monte Carlo calculations from 1 to 100 MeV will be presented.

  10. Observing gamma-ray bursts with the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, G. K.; Connell, P. H.; Naya, J. E.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1997-01-01

    The spectrometer for INTEGRAL (SPI) is a germanium spectrometer with a wide field of view and will provide the International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission with the opportunity of studying gamma ray bursts. Simulations carried out to assess the response of the instrument using data from real burst data as input are reported on. It is shown that, despite the angular resolution of 3 deg, it is possible to locate the direction of bursts with an accuracy of a few arcmin, while offering the high spectral resolution of the germanium detectors. It is remarked that the SPI field of view is similar to the size of the halo of bursts expected around M 31 on galactic models. The detectability of bursts with such a halo is discussed.

  11. Software tool for xenon gamma-ray spectrometer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, I. V.; Novikov, A. S.; Shustov, A. E.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Pyae Nyein, Sone; Petrenko, D.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.

    2016-02-01

    Software tool "Acquisition and processing of gamma-ray spectra" for xenon gamma-ray spectrometers control was developed. It supports the multi-windows interface. Software tool has the possibilities for acquisition of gamma-ray spectra from xenon gamma-ray detector via USB or RS-485 interfaces, directly or via TCP-IP protocol, energy calibration of gamma-ray spectra, saving gamma-ray spectra on a disk.

  12. Research in particle and gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    This research program is directed toward the investigation of the astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays and gamma rays and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets. The emphasis was on precice measurements with high resolution in charge, mass and energy. These investigations were carried out by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

  13. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Some basic observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Although some properties were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the Compton Observatory in the past three years. The new observation with the greatest impact has been the observed isotropic distribution of bursts along with a deficiency of weak bursts which would be expected from a homogeneous burst distribution. This is not compatible with any known Galactic population of objects. Gamma-ray bursts show an enormous variety of burst morphologies and a wide spread in burst durations. The spectra of gamma-ray bursts are characterized by rapid variations and peak power which is almost entirely in the gamma-ray energy range. Delayed gamma-ray burst photons extending to GeV energies have been detected for the first time. A time dilation effect has also been reported to be observed in gamma-ray, bursts. The observation of a gamma-ray burst counterpart in another wavelength region has yet to be made.

  14. Gamma-Ray Emission from Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman Bernado, M. M.

    2005-04-01

    Microquasars, X-ray binary systems that generate relativistic jets, were discovered in our Galaxy in the last decade of the XXth century. Their name indicates that they are manifestations of the same physics as quasars but on a completely different scale. Parallel to this discovery, the EGRET instrument on board of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected 271 point like gamma-ray sources 170 of which were not clearly identified with known objects. This marked the beginning of gamma-ray source population studies in the Galaxy. We present in this thesis models for gamma-ray production in microquasars with the aim to propose them as possible parent populations for different groups of EGRET unidentified sources. These models are developed for a variety of scenarios taking into account several possible combinations, i.e. black holes or neutron stars as the compact object, low mass or high mass stellar companions, as well as leptonic or hadronic gamma-ray production processes. We also show that the presented models for gamma-rays emitting microquasars can be used to explain observations from well known sources that are detected in energy ranges other than EGRET's. Finally, we include an alternative gamma-ray producing situation that does not involve microquasars but a specific unidentified EGRET source possibly linked to a magnetized accreting pulsar.

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Physics with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, N.; /INFN, Pisa

    2006-10-06

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV, the upper end of which is one of the last poorly observed region of the celestial electromagnetic spectrum. The ancestor of the GLAST/LAT was the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector, which flew onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The amount of information and the step forward that the high energy astrophysics made thanks to its 9 years of observations are impressive. Nevertheless, EGRET uncovered the tip of the iceberg, raising many questions, and it is in the light of EGRET's results that the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) vastly more capable than instruments own previously, as well as a secondary instrument, the GLAST Bursts Monitor, or GBM, to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) science is one of the most exciting challenges for the GLAST mission, exploring the high energy emission of one of the most intense phenomena in the sky, shading light on various problems: from the acceleration of particles to the emission processes, to more exotic physics like Quantum Gravity effect. In this paper we report the work done so far in the simulation development as well as the study of the LAT sensitivity to GRB.

  16. Cosmic Connections:. from Cosmic Rays to Gamma Rays, Cosmic Backgrounds and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusenko, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Combined data from gamma-ray telescopes and cosmic-ray detectors have produced some new surprising insights regarding intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, as well as extragalactic background light. We review some recent advances, including a theory explaining the hard spectra of distant blazars and the measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields based on the spectra of distant sources. Furthermore, we discuss the possible contribution of transient galactic sources, such as past gamma-ray bursts and hypernova explosions in the Milky Way, to the observed ux of ultrahigh-energy cosmicrays nuclei. The need for a holistic treatment of gamma rays, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields serves as a unifying theme for these seemingly unrelated phenomena.

  17. Portable wide-angle {gamma}-ray vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Guru, S.V.; Wehe, D.K.; Knoll, G.F.; Truman, A.; Ramsden, D.

    1995-08-01

    The characteristics of two portable {gamma}-ray vision systems, which could be transported by a robot, have been explored and compared. The detector of the first system (CSPMT) consists of an array of 37 CsI(Na) scintillation crystals viewed by a single 5 inch diameter position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT), while the second system (CSPD) employs an array of 40 CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors coupled to PIN silicon photodiodes. These devices are designed to operate in the energy range from 70 keV to 1.5 MeV, which encompasses most energies of {gamma}-ray radiation from the radioactive nuclides of interest to the nuclear industry. These systems have good angular resolutions of about 3{degree} FWHM at the central field of view of 10{degree} x 10{degree} or better when image reconstruction is employed, and coarser angular resolutions of about 10{degree} FWHM elsewhere within a wide field of view of 50{degree} x 50{degree}. The energy resolution of both systems have been tested using individual detector elements, and the imaging performance of proposed full systems have been simulated using a prototype. The results show that these devices should be good candidates for the next generation portable {gamma}-ray imaging systems.

  18. NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

  19. Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2007-12-01

    We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range. PMID:18233353

  20. Cosmic gamma-ray lines - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1980-01-01

    The various processes that lead to gamma-ray line emission and the possible astrophysical sources of such emission are reviewed. The processes of nuclear excitation, radiative capture, positron annihilation, and cyclotron radiation, which may produce gamma-ray line emission from such diverse sources as the interstellar medium, novas, supernovas, pulsars, accreting compact objects, the galactic nucleus and the nuclei of active galaxies are considered. The significance of the relative intensities, widths, and frequency shifts of the lines are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding those gamma-ray lines that have already been observed from astrophysical sources.

  1. HEAO-1 observations of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, G. J.; Matteson, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A search of data from the High Energy X-Ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment on HEAO-1 uncovered 14 gamma ray bursts. Nine of these events are reported for the first tiome. Except for the faintest events, all of the bursts detected by this experiment have been measured above an MeV, thereby confirming the hard spectral character of gamma ray burst spectra reported by SMM. Results give a burst rate of at least 105 per year above 6 times 10 to the minus 7th power ergs, which is consistent with previous measurements of burst frequency.

  2. The AGILE gamma ray satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basset, M.; AGILE Team

    2007-03-01

    AGILE (Light Imager for Gamma-ray Astrophysics) will be launched on an equatorial orbit in 2007 by the PSLV Indian launcher. It is a small scientific satellite for the detection of ?-ray cosmic sources in the energy range 50 MeV 30 GeV with a field of view of 15 of the sky, and will become the only detector in that energy range till the launch of GLAST. Three different detectors and an anticoincidence system are the components of the scientific instrument. The main detector is a silicon tungsten tracker. The second detector is a X-ray detector in the range 15 45 keV; its main aim is to highlight the X-ray emission associated to the gamma emissions. The third detector is a small calorimeter made of 30 CsI scintillating bars read out by photodiodes; its energy range is 150 300 keV. The large number of channels (about 37 000, with analog read out), requires very reliable components. Each part of the instrument has undergone several tests during the assembly phase; then the whole instrument has been calibrated on a dedicated photon tagged beam-line developed at the DAPHNE BTF (Beam Test Facility, INFN Frascati) and has been integrated with the satellite.

  3. Continuum gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.

    1981-06-01

    When angular momentum is added to a nucleus, it is, of course, carried by the individual nucleons, but two limiting types of behavior may be distinguished: (1) a small number of high-j particles align with the rotation axis and (2) the nucleus is deformed and rotates as a whole. At high spin all nuclei seem to show a compromise utilizing both motions. The excited nuclei left as products of (HI,xn) reactions have so many pathways down that none of the ..gamma..-ray transitions have enough intensity to be seen individually until the population gathers near the yrast line. This occurs usually between spin 20 to 40 h-bar. All our information on the higher states comes from their continuum spectra. With the new techniques that are developing, including the use of multiplicity filters, total-energy spectrometers, energy correlation studies, crystal balls, and observation of giant dipole resonances in the continuum spectra, there is hope to learn much about the nature of the high-spin states.

  4. Gamma-ray burst cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Liang, E. W.

    2015-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, which emit up to 8.8 × 1054 erg isotropic equivalent energy in the hard X-ray band. The high luminosity makes them detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. GRBs, as bright beacons in the deep Universe, would be the ideal tool to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. In this article, we review the luminosity correlations of GRBs, and implications for constraining the cosmological parameters and dark energy. Observations show that the progenitors of long GRBs are massive stars. So it is expected that long GRBs are tracers of star formation rate. We also review the high-redshift star formation rate derived from GRBs, and implications for the cosmic reionization history. The afterglows of GRBs generally have broken power-law spectra, so it is possible to extract intergalactic medium (IGM) absorption features. We also present the capability of high-redshift GRBs to probe the pre-galactic metal enrichment and the first stars.

  5. Quantification of photoreceptor layer thickness in different macular pathologies using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Hermann, Boris; Unterhuber, Angelika; Sattmann, Harald; Wirtitsch, Matthias; Stur, Michael; Scholda, Christoph; Ergun, Erdem; Anger, Elisabeth; Ko, Tony H.; Schubert, Christian; Ahnelt, Peter K.; Fujimoto, James G.; Fercher, Adolf F.

    2004-07-01

    In vivo ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT has been performed in more than 300 eyes of 200 patients with several retinal pathologies, demonstrating unprecedented visualization of all major intraretinal layers, in particular the photoreceptor layer. Visualization as well as quantification of the inner and outer segment of the photoreceptor layer especially in the foveal region has been acvhieved. In normal subjects the photoreceptor layer thickness in the center of the fovea is about of 90 ?m, approximately equally distributed to the inner and the outer photoreceptor segment. In the parafoveal region this thickness is reduced to ~50 ?m (~30 ?m for the inner and ~20 ?m for the outer segment). This is in good agreement with well known increase of cone outer segments in the central foveal region. Photoreceptor layer impairment in different macular pathologies like macular hole, central serous chorioretinopathy, age related macular degeneration, foveomacular dystrophies, Stargardt dystrophy as well as retinitis pigmentosa has been investigated. Photoreceptor layer loss significantly correlated with visual acuity (R2 = 0.6, p < 0.001) and microperimetry findings for the first time in 22 eyes with Stargardt dystrophy. Visualization and quantification of photoreceptor inner and outer segment using ultrahigh resolution OCT has the potential to improve early ophthalmic diagnosis, contributes to a better understanding of pathogenesis of retinal diseases as well as might have impact in the development and monitoring of novel therapy approaches.

  6. The TIGRE instrument for 0.3 - 100 MeV gamma-ray astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumer, O. T.; Akyuz, A.; Bhattacharya, D.; Blair, S. C.; Case, G. L.; Dixon, D. D.; Liu, C.-J.; O'Neill, T. J.; Samimi, J.; White, R. S.; Zych, A. D.

    1995-08-01

    The Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment (TIGRE) uses multilayers of silicon strip detectors both as a gamma-ray converter and to track Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. The direction and energy of the Compton scattered gamma ray and pair particles are measured with arrays of small CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors. With a large ?-steradian field-of-view, the prototype instrument described is sensitive to gamma rays from 0.3 to 100 MeV with a typical energy resolution of 3% (FWHM) and a 1-? angular resolution of 120 arcmin, at 2 MeV. It has a high absolute detection efficiency of 8% over the full energy range. The telescope is described and Monte Carlo calculations are presented.

  7. Observation of New Rydberg Series and Resonances in Doubly Excited Helium at Ultrahigh Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, K.; Kaindl, G.; Domke, M.; Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Schlachter, A.S.; Rost, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    We report on a striking improvement in spectral resolution in the soft x-ray range to 1.0meV at 64.1eV, measured via the {mu}eV-wide 2,{minus}1{sub 3} double-excitation resonance of helium. This ultrahigh resolution combined with the high photon flux at undulator beam line 9.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source have allowed observation of new Rydberg series and resonances below the {ital N}=3 threshold of doubly excited He. The obtained resonance parameters (energies, lifetime widths, and Fano-{ital q} parameters) are in excellent agreement with the results of state-of-the-art calculations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Optimization of dual-band continuum light source for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2007-04-01

    We demonstrate a dual-band continuum light source centered at 830 and 1300 nm for optical coherence tomography (OCT) generated by pumping a photonic crystal fiber having two closely spaced zero-dispersion wavelengths with a femtosecond laser at 1059 nm. By use of polarization control, sidelobe suppression can be improved up to approximately 7.7 dB. By employing compression of the pump pulses, the generated spectrum is smooth and near-Gaussian, resulting in a point-spread function with negligible sidelobes. We demonstrate ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of biological tissue in vivo and in vitro using this light source and compare it with conventional-resolution OCT imaging at 1300 nm.

  9. In vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V. J.; Wojtkowski, M.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Duker, J. S.

    2006-08-01

    Noninvasive in vivo functional optical imaging of the intact retina is demonstrated by using high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Imaging was performed with 2.8 ?m resolution at a rate of 24,000 axial scans per second. A white-light stimulus was applied to the dark-adapted rat retina, and the average reflectivities from different intraretinal layers were monitored as a function of time. A 10%-15% increase in the average amplitude reflectance of the photoreceptor outer segments was observed in response to the stimulus. The spatial distribution of the change in the OCT signal is consistent with an increase in backscatter from the photoreceptor outer segments. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo demonstration of OCT functional imaging in the intact retina.

  10. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of lung structure using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, N.; Ishida, S.; Ohta, T.; Itoh, K.; Kitatsuji, M.; Ohshima, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Matsushima, M.; Kawabe, T.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and material with um resolution. In the field of pulmonary medicine, non-invasive high resolution cross-sectional imaging is desired for investigation of diseases in lung. So far, a few works have been reported about OCT imaging of lung. Since the lung consists of alveoli separated by thin wall, ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT is supposed to be effective for the imaging of fine structure in lung tissue. In this work, ex vivo cross-sectional imaging of isolated rat and hamster lungs was demonstrated using UHR-OCT. A 120 nm-wide, high-power, Gaussian-like supercontinuum (SC) was generated at wavelength of 0.8 um region. The generated SC was used in a time-domain OCT system, and UHR-OCT imaging was demonstrated. An ultrahigh resolution of 2.9 um in air and 2.1 um in tissue was obtained. The achieved sensitivity was 105 dB. Using this system, ex vivo UHR-OCT imaging of isolated rat and hamster lungs was demonstrated for the first time. The structures of the trachea, visceral pleura, and alveoli were observed clearly. When saline was instilled into the lung, the penetration depth was improved, and clear images of the fine structure of the lung, including alveoli, were observed owing to the index matching effect. We have also demonstrated the UHR-OCT imaging of lung tissue using 1.3 um and 1.7 um SC sources. As the results, owing to the precise structures of lung tissues and index matching by saline, the finest images were observed with 0.8 um UHR-OCT system.

  11. Fermi LAT measurements of diffuse gamma-ray emission: results at the first-year milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Tibaldo, Luigi

    2010-03-26

    For more than one year the Fermi Large Area Telescope has been surveying the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV with unprecedented statistics and angular resolution. One of the key science targets of the Fermi mission is diffuse gamma-ray emission. Galactic interstellar gamma-ray emission is produced by interactions of high-energy cosmic rays with the interstellar gas and radiation field. We review the most important results on the subject obtained so far: the non-confirmation of the excess of diffuse GeV emission seen by EGRET, the measurement of the gamma-ray emissivity spectrum of local interstellar gas, the study of the gradient of cosmic-ray densities and of the X{sub CO} = N(H{sub 2})/W{sub CO} ratio in the outer Galaxy. We also catch a glimpse at diffuse gamma-ray emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These results allow the improvement of large-scale models of Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission and new measurements of the extragalactic gamma-ray background.

  12. Application of nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques for the safeguarding of irradiated fuel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.R.; Halbig, J.K.; Lee, D.M.; Beach, S.E.; Bement, T.R.; Dermendjiev, E.; Hatcher, C.R.; Kaieda, K.; Medina, E.G.

    1980-05-01

    Nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques were used to characterize the irradiation exposures of irradiated fuel assemblies. Techniques for the rapid measurement of the axial-activity profiles of fuel assemblies have been developed using ion chambers and Be(..gamma..,n) detectors. Detailed measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and passive neutron techniques were correlated with operator-declared values of cooling times and burnup.

  13. Zapping Mars Rocks with Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Because we do not know what deadly microorganisms might be lurking inside samples returned from Mars, the samples will either have to be sterilized before release or kept in isolation until biological studies declare them safe. One way to execute microorganisms is with radiation, such as gamma rays. Although quite effective in snuffing out bacteria and viruses, gamma rays might also affect the mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions of the zapped rocks and soils. Carl Allen (Lockheed Martin Space Operations, Houston) and a team of 18 other analysts tested the effect of gamma rays on rock and mineral samples like those we expect on Mars. Except for some darkening of some minerals, high doses of gamma rays had no significant effect on the rocks, making gamma radiation a feasible option for sterilizing samples returned from Mars.

  14. Gamma-ray bursts: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts were discovered by researchers studying data from gamma ray detectors aboard the Vela satellites. Since the original discovery, over 500 bursts have been observed by more than a dozen experiments on planetary spacecraft, earth orbiters, balloon flights, and even ground based instruments. Unfortunately, a description of the nature of these transient phenomena is no closer today than two decades ago. Part of the problem lies in the large variability in their physical characteristics. This variability has spawned more than 40 gamma ray burst models. Each model claims some subset of the 500 observed bursts that conclusively proves its validity. A very brief overview is presented of the gamma ray burst phenomenon.

  15. The EGRET high energy gamma ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is sensitive in the energy range from about 20 MeV to about 30,000 MeV. Electron-positron pair production by incident gamma photons is utilized as the detection mechanism. The pair production occurs in tantalum foils interleaved with the layers of a digital spark chamber system; the spark chamber records the tracks of the electron and positron, allowing the reconstruction of the arrival direction of the gamma ray. If there is no signal from the charged particle anticoincidence detector which surrounds the upper part of the detector, the spark chamber array is triggered by two hodoscopes of plastic scintillators. A time of flight requirement is included to reject events moving backward through the telescope. The energy of the gamma ray is primarily determined by absorption of the energies of the electron and positron in a 20 cm deep NaI(Tl) scintillator.

  16. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

  17. POPULATION SYNTHESIS AND GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. FREYER

    2000-12-11

    Population synthesis studies of binaries are always limited by a myriad of uncertainties from the poorly understood effects of binary mass transfer and common envelope evolution to the many uncertainties that still remain in stellar evolution. But the importance of these uncertainties depends both upon the objects being studied and the questions asked about these objects. Here I review the most critical uncertainties in the population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors. With a better understanding of these uncertainties, binary population synthesis can become a powerful tool in understanding, and constraining, gamma-ray burst models. In turn, as gamma-ray bursts become more important as cosmological probes, binary population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors becomes an important tool in cosmology.

  18. Technical innovations in Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarazo, Juan

    2002-03-01

    An abondoned solar power plant has been converted to an instrument for measuring the Cherenkov light component of extensive air showers induced by cosmic particles. The Atmospheric Gamma Ray Observatory (AGRO) has been operating during the Winter months of 2001-02 and a large sample of Cherenkov events has been collected. Our prelimary results indicate an excess of gamma ray showers emanating from the direction of the Crad Nebula, which is a known gamma ray source and the standard candle of gamma ray astrophysics. Further improvements to the detector will consist of lowering of the energy threshold and dramatic increase in data collection efficiency. Present day detectors, with their thresholds in the 100-200 GeV range are unable to measure extinction properties of AGN spectra, thus limiting their ability to constrain the inter-galactic infra-red photon density. I will present a discussion of a technique and algorithms that will make this possible.

  19. Gamma Rays in a Spectrum from the Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Evans, L. G.; Brueckner, J.; Kim, K. J.; Boynton, W. V.

    2003-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum from a long sum over the middle latitudes of Mars measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer was analyzed. About 250 peaks and features were observed, including many seen during the cruise to Mars. The sources of about 85% of these gamma rays were identified. Most were background lines from the Ge detector or from Ti, Mg, and Zn near the detector.

  20. Gamma-ray constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual supernova explosions via short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring current global Galactic supernova nucleosynthesis with longer-lived radioactivity. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both Co-56 and Co-57 were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions and nucleosynthesis. Live Al-26 in the Galaxy might come from Type II supernovae, and if it is eventually shown to be so, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, and the Galactic Type II supernova rate. Type Ia supernovae, thought to be thermonuclear explosions, have not yet been detected in gamma-rays. This is somewhat surprising given current models and recent Co-56 detection attempts. Ultimately, gamma-ray measurements can confirm their thermonuclear nature, probe the nuclear burning conditions, and help evaluate their contributions to Galactic nucleosynthesis. Type Ib/c supernovae are poorly understood. Whether they are core collapse or thermonuclear events might be ultimately settled by gamma-ray observations. Depending on details of the nuclear processing, any of these supernova types might contribute to a detectable diffuse glow of Fe-60 gamma-ray lines. Previous attempts at detection have come very close to expected emission levels. Remnants of any type of age less that a few centuries might be detectable as individual spots of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission. It is in fact quite surprising that previous surveys have not discovered such spots, and the constraints on the combination of nucleosynthesis yields and supernova rates are very interesting. All of these interesting limits and possibilities mean that the next mission, International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), if it has sufficient sensitivity, is very likely to lead to the realization of much of the great potential of gamma-ray spectroscopy for understanding supernovae.

  1. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain on of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics in spite of recent observational advances and intense theoretical work. Although some of the basic properties of bursts were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in the past five years. Recent observations of bursts and some proposed models will be discussed.

  2. Simulating The Gamma-Ray Observatory Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, J.

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft constitutes major advance in gamma-ray astronomy by offering first opportunity for comprehensive observations in range of 0.1 to 30,000 MeV. GRO Attitude Dynamics Simulator (GROSS) computer program designed to simulate mission. Consists of three separate programs: stand-alone profile program; simulator program, containing simulation control input/output (SCIO) subsystem, truth model (TM) subsystem, and on-board computer (OBC) subsystem; and postprocessor program. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  3. Seabed gamma-ray spectrometry: applications at IAEA-MEL.

    PubMed

    Osvath, I; Povinec, P P

    2001-01-01

    The technique of underwater gamma-ray spectrometry has been developed to complement or replace the traditional sampling-sample analysis approach for applications with space-time constraints, e.g. large areas of investigation, emergency response or long-term monitoring. IAEA-MEL has used both high-efficiency NaI(Tl) and high-resolution HPGe spectrometry to investigate contamination with anthropogenic radionuclides in a variety of marine environments. Surveys at the South Pacific nuclear test sites of Mururoa and Fangataufa have been used to guide sampling in areas of high contamination around ground zero points. In the Irish Sea offshore from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant, a gamma-ray survey of seabed sediment was carried out to obtain estimates of the distribution and subsequently, for the inventory of 137Cs in the investigated area. PMID:11379061

  4. Dark matter annihilation bound from the diffuse gamma ray flux

    SciTech Connect

    Kachelriess, M.; Serpico, P.D.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    An upper limit on the total annihilation rate of dark matter (DM) has been recently derived from the observed atmospheric neutrino background. It is a very conservative upper bound based on the sole hypothesis that the DM annihilation products are the least detectable final states in the Standard Model (SM), neutrinos. Any other decay channel into SM particles would lead to stronger constraints. We show that comparable bounds are obtained for DM masses around the TeV scale by observations of the diffuse gamma ray flux by EGRET, because electroweak bremsstrahlung leads to non-negligible electromagnetic branching ratios, even if DM particles only couple to neutrinos at tree level. A better mapping and the partial resolution of the diffuse gamma-ray background into astrophysical sources by the GLAST satellite will improve this bound in the near future.

  5. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGFs) Above Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are being observed with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detectors on Fermi about once every four weeks. These intense millisecond flashes of MeV photons have been observed with four space-borne experiments since their initial discovery by the BATSE-CGRO experiment in the early 1990s. TGFs have extremely hard spectra (harder than GRBs) and photons are seen to extend to over 30 MeV. The GBM-Fermi observations have the highest temporal resolution of any previous TGF observations and time-resolved coarse spectra can be derived. These features will be crucial for testing the leading current model of TGF production: relativistic run-away electron cascades formed in the intense electric fields within thunderstorms.

  6. Gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) for lunar polar orbiter SELENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Shibamura, Eido; Miyachi, Takashi; Takashima, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Sakurai, Kunitomo; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masayuki; Narasaki, Keisuke; Takai, Shigeki; Tsurumi, Katsuhiro; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Michio; Mori, Kunishiro; Gasnault, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; d'Uston, Claude; Reedy, Robert C.; Grande, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    The high-precision gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) on the lunar polar orbiter SELENE is designed to measure 200 keV—12 MeV gamma rays in order to determine elemental compositions of the lunar surface. The GRS consists of a large germanium (Ge) crystal as a main detector and a massive bismuth germanate crystal and a plastic scintillator as anticoincidence detectors. The Ge detector is cooled by a Stirling cryocooler with its compressor attached to a passive radiator facing the cold space. The cooling system maintains the Ge detector below 90 K during the observation. The flight model of the GRS has achieved an energy resolution of 3.0 keV (FWHM) at 1333 keV. Energy spectra obtained by the GRS will show sharp gamma-ray lines whose energies identify the elements and whose intensities determine the concentrations of the elements, permitting global mapping of the elemental abundances in the sub-surface of the Moon. The elemental maps obtained by the GRS with such high-energy resolution enable us to study lunar geoscience problems.

  7. Miniaturization in x ray and gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wang, Yuzhong J.; Bradley, James G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents advances in two new sensor technologies and a miniaturized associated electronics technology which, when combined, can allow for very significant miniaturization and for the reduction of weight and power consumption in x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems: (1) Mercuric iodide (HgI2) x-ray technology, which allows for the first time the construction of truly portable, high-energy resolution, non-cryogenic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analyzer systems, with parameters approaching those of laboratory quality cryogenic instruments; (2) the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD), which is a solid-state light sensitive device with internal amplification, capable of uniquely replacing the vacuum photomultiplier tube in scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer applications, and offering substantial improvements in size, ruggedness, low power operation and energy resolution; and (3) miniaturized (hybridized) low noise, low power amplification and processing electronics, which take full advantage of the favorable properties of these new sensors and allow for the design and fabrication of advanced, highly miniaturized x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. The paper also presents experimental results and examples of spectrometric systems currently under construction. The directions for future developments are discussed.

  8. Toward an ultra-high resolution community climate system model for the BlueGene platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, John M.; Jacob, Robert; Vertenstein, Mariana; Craig, Tony; Loy, Raymond

    2007-07-01

    Global climate models need to simulate several small, regional-scale processes which affect the global circulation in order to accurately simulate the climate. This is particularly important in the ocean where small scale features such as oceanic eddies are currently represented with adhoc parameterizations. There is also a need for higher resolution to provide climate predictions at small, regional scales. New high-performance computing platforms such as the IBM BlueGene can provide the necessary computational power to perform ultra-high resolution climate model integrations. We have begun to investigate the scaling of the individual components of the Community Climate System Model to prepare it for integrations on BlueGene and similar platforms. Our investigations show that it is possible to successfully utilize Script O(32K) processors. We describe the scalability of five models: the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice CodE (CICE), the Community Land Model (CLM), and the new CCSM sequential coupler (CPL7) which are components of the next generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM); as well as the High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) which is a dynamical core currently being evaluated within the Community Atmospheric Model. For our studies we concentrate on 1/10 resolution for CICE, POP, and CLM models and 1/4 resolution for HOMME. The ability to simulate high resolutions on the massively parallel petascale systems that will dominate high-performance computing for the foreseeable future is essential to the advancement of climate science.

  9. Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

    2007-06-14

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

  10. Perspectives of the GAMMA-400 space observatory for high-energy gamma rays and cosmic rays measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is intended to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV. Such measurements concern the following scientific tasks: investigation of point sources of gamma-rays, studies of the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, studies of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun, as well as high precision measurements of spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons. Also the GAMMA- 400 instrument provides the possibility for protons and nuclei measurements up to knee. But the main goal for the GAMMA-400 mission is to perform a sensitive search for signatures of dark matter particles in high-energy gamma-ray emission. To fulfill these measurements the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope possesses unique physical characteristics in comparison with previous and present experiments. The major advantage of the GAMMA-400 instrument is excellent angular and energy resolution for gamma-rays above 10 GeV. The GAMMA-400 experiment will be installed onboard of the Navigator space platform, manufactured by the NPO Lavochkin Association. The expected orbit will be a highly elliptical orbit (with apogee 300.000 km and perigee 500 km) with 7 days orbital period. An important profit of such an orbit is the fact that the full sky coverage will always be available for gamma ray astronomy.

  11. Gamma-ray astronomy: Promise for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrels, Neil; Macomb, Daryl

    1997-01-10

    We are in a very active period in gamma-ray astronomy due primarily to new discoveries from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). While the near future looks bright with the ESA INTEGRAL mission scheduled for launch in {approx}2001, there are currently no major missions being planned beyond INTEGRAL and none being planned at all by NASA. This paper reviews current missions and then looks beyond INTEGRAL to see what mission concepts are being considered. Based on new technologies that are under development such as Si strip detectors for tracking electron-positron pairs in high-energy instruments, CdZnTe strip detectors for fine spatial resolution of hard x-rays, and grazing incidence mirrors with multilayer coatings that work in the 10-100 keV range, several exciting new concepts for future instruments and missions are under study. These include intermediate class high-energy gamma-ray missions (30 MeV-300 GeV) with two order-of-magnitude better point-source sensitivity than the current EGRET instrument on CGRO, intermediate class focusing-optics hard x-ray missions with micro-Crab sensitivities (two order-of-magnitude better than the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer), MIDEX class hard x-ray (10-200 keV) all-sky survey missions with much better sensitivity and angular resolution than previous surveys, and SMEX and MIDEX class gamma-ray burst missions that can locate bursts to arcsecond accuracies to allow deep counterpart searches at other wavelengths.

  12. Plutonium Isotopic Gamma-Ray Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-08

    The MGA8 (Multiple Group Analysis) program determines the relative abundances of plutonium and other actinide isotopes in different materials. The program analyzes spectra taken of such samples using a 4096-channel germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer. The code can be run in a one or two detector mode. The first spectrum, which is required and must be taken at a gain of 0.075 Kev/channel with a high resolution planar detector, contains the 0-300 Kev energy region. Themore »second spectrum, which is optional, must be taken at a gain of 0.25 Kev/channel; it becomes important when analyzing high burnup samples (concentration of Pu241 greater than one percent). Isotopic analysis precisions of one percent or better can be obtained, and no calibrations are required. The system also measures the abundances of U235, U238, Np237, and Am241. A special calibration option is available to perform a one-time peak-shape characterization when first using a new detector system.« less

  13. Plutonium Isotopic Gamma-Ray Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-08

    The MGA8 (Multiple Group Analysis) program determines the relative abundances of plutonium and other actinide isotopes in different materials. The program analyzes spectra taken of such samples using a 4096-channel germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer. The code can be run in a one or two detector mode. The first spectrum, which is required and must be taken at a gain of 0.075 Kev/channel with a high resolution planar detector, contains the 0-300 Kev energy region. Themore » second spectrum, which is optional, must be taken at a gain of 0.25 Kev/channel; it becomes important when analyzing high burnup samples (concentration of Pu241 greater than one percent). Isotopic analysis precisions of one percent or better can be obtained, and no calibrations are required. The system also measures the abundances of U235, U238, Np237, and Am241. A special calibration option is available to perform a one-time peak-shape characterization when first using a new detector system.« less

  14. High-resolution microscope for tip-enhanced optical processes in ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidtner, Jens; Pettinger, Bruno

    2007-10-01

    An optical microscope based on tip-enhanced optical processes that can be used for studies on adsorbates as well as thin layers and nanostructures is presented. The microscope provides chemical and topographic informations with a resolution of a few nanometers and can be employed in ultrahigh vacuum as well as gas phase. The construction involves a number of improvements compared to conventional instruments. The central idea is to mount, within an UHV system, an optical platform with all necessary optical elements to a rigid frame that also carries the scanning tunneling microscope unit and to integrate a high numerical aperture parabolic mirror between the scanning probe microscope head and the sample. The parabolic mirror serves to focus the incident light and to collect a large fraction of the scattered light. The first experimental results of Raman measurements on silicon samples as well as brilliant cresyl blue layers on single crystalline gold and platinum surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum are presented. For dye adsorbates a Raman enhancement of 106 and a net signal gain of up to 4000 was observed. The focus diameter (?/2) was measured by Raman imaging the focal region on a Si surface. The requirements of the parabolic mirror in terms of alignment accuracy were experimentally determined as well.

  15. The gamma ray large area space telescope - an astro-particle mission to explore the high energy gamma ray sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latronico, L.

    2003-04-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission under development for launch by NASA in 2006, will survey the sky in the rich yet poorly explored high-energy band between 20 MeV and 1 TeV with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. The LAT, which benefits from the application of particle physics detection technologies to astrophysics instrumentation, has a pair-conversion silicon-strips tracker and an imaging CsI calorimeter to measure the direction and energies of gamma rays. The relatively very intense background of charged particles will be rejected primarily by an anticoincidence shield of segmented plastic scintillators. In this paper we give an overview of the many physics goals and potential reach of the LAT, describe the instrument design and performance, and report on the status of the tracker construction. on behalf of the GLAST-LAT collaboration

  16. The BATSE experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory: Solar flare hard x ray and gamma-ray capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Parnell, T. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Hudson, H. S.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.; Cline, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) for the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) consists of eight detector modules that provide full-sky coverage for gamma-ray bursts and other transient phenomena such as solar flares. Each detector module has a thin, large-area scintillation detector (2025 sq cm) for high time-resolution studies, and a thicker spectroscopy detector (125 sq cm) to extend the energy range and provide better spectral resolution. The total energy range of the system is 15 keV to 100 MeV. These 16 detectors and the associated onboard data system should provide unprecedented capabilities for observing rapid spectral changes and gamma-ray lines from solar flares. The presence of a solar flare can be detected in real-time by BATSE; a trigger signal is sent to two other experiments on the GRO. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990, so that BATSE can be an important component of the Max '91 campaign.

  17. Method of incident low-energy gamma-ray direction reconstruction in the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Zverev, V. G.; Galper, A. M.; Arkhangelskaya, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Dalkarov, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space-based telescope has as its main goals to measure cosmic γ-ray fluxes and the electron-positron cosmic-ray component produced, theoretically, in dark-matter-particles decay or annihilation processes, to search for discrete γ-ray sources and study them in detail, to examine the energy spectra of diffuse γ-rays — both galactic and extragalactic — and to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and γ-rays from the active Sun. Scientific goals of GAMMA-400 telescope require fine angular resolution. The telescope is of a pair-production type. In the converter-tracker, the incident gamma-ray photon converts into electron-positron pair in the tungsten layer and then the tracks are detected by silicon- strip position-sensitive detectors. Multiple scattering processes become a significant obstacle in the incident-gamma direction reconstruction for energies below several gigaelectronvolts. The method of utilising this process to improve the resolution is proposed in the presented work.

  18. Ultra-high-energy gamma-rays from Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanmugam, G.; Brecher, K.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrahigh-energy gamma-ray emission with photon energies up to 20 PeV has been detected from the galactic X-ray source Cygnus X-3, implying acceleration of charged particles to even greater energies. A model for acceleration of particles to such energies in a binary containing an accreting neutron star with a magnetic field of about 100 MG is presented. The acceleration occurs in an accretion disk surrounding the neutron star, by an unipolar-inductor mechanism.

  19. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the global properties of the Universe B. Schmidt; How good are SNe Ia as standard candles? A. Sandage, G. Tammann and A. Saha; Type Ia supernovae and their implications for cosmology M. Livio; Conference summary: supernovae and gamma-ray bursts J. Wheeler.

  20. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo mouse colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumlinson, Alexandre Rex

    In vivo monitoring of mouse models of colon cancer promises to reduce the cost of research by improving sacrifice timing and allowing serial studies that observe the progression of disease and drug efficacy in a relatively small set of animals. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical analog of ultrasound imaging, capable of minimally-invasive mapping of light scatter intensity up to 2 mm deep in tissue. In this work, factors limiting resolution in OCT were examined and devices were created and applied to mouse colon imaging that extended the state-of-the-art in endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT. First, axial chromatic aberration of the objective optics acts as a spectral filter in the sample arm limiting the effective bandwidth of the system. An achromatized endoscope design was demonstrated that achieved axial resolution of 2.3 mum in tissue and 4.4 mum lateral spot diameter with 101 dB sensitivity when interfaced with a time domain OCT system utilizing a 10-femtosecond laser (Deltalambda=150 nm FWHM, lambdac=800 nm). Second, dispersion matching between the sample and reference arms presents the practical resolution limit to endoscopic implementations including a separate, fiber-based reference arm. A second endoscope incorporated the reference arm into the tip of the endoscope using a novel custom beamsplitter prism and achieved 2.4 mum axial resolution in tissue without adjustments for pathlength or dispersion matching when interfaced with a spectrometer-based frequency domain OCT system and a similar laser. Third, non-linear dispersion of the sample media with respect to wavelength causes distortion and broadening of the axial point spread function when data are sampled uniformly in optical frequency. An experiment was performed on high dispersion glass to demonstrate that dispersion artifact free imaging can be achieved without post process corrections if the samples are acquired at equal intervals of media index of refraction divided by vacuum wavelength. Finally, other microscopic modalities that depend on tissue scatter intensity are used to find the origins of scatter in the mouse colonic mucosa. These observations are used to explain unexpected features found in ultrahigh-resolution tomograms collected with the two endoscopes presented.

  1. Ultrahigh resolution photographic films for X-ray/EUV/FUV astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Deforest, Craig E.; Watts, Richard; Tarrio, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The quest for ultrahigh resolution full-disk images of the sun at soft X-ray/EUV/FUV wavelengths has increased the demand for photographic films with broad spectral sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. These requirements were made more stringent by the recent development of multilayer telescopes and coronagraphs capable of operating at normal incidence at soft X-ray/EUV wavelengths. Photographic films are the only detectors now available with the information storage capacity and dynamic range such as is required for recording images of the solar disk and corona simultaneously with sub arc second spatial resolution. During the Stanford/MSFC/LLNL Rocket X-Ray Spectroheliograph and Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) programs, we utilized photographic films to obtain high resolution full-disk images of the sun at selected soft X-ray/EUV/FUV wavelengths. In order to calibrate our instrumentation for quantitative analysis of our solar data and to select the best emulsions and processing conditions for the MSSTA reflight, we recently tested several photographic films. These studies were carried out at the NIST SURF II synchrotron and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. In this paper, we provide the results of those investigations.

  2. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M.

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  3. Ultrahigh resolution photographic films for X-ray/EUV/FUV astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Deforest, Craig E.; Watts, Richard; Tarrio, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The quest for ultrahigh resolution full-disk images of the sun at soft X-ray/EUV/FUV wavelengths has increased the demand for photographic films with broad spectral sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. These requirements were made more stringent by the recent development of multilayer telescopes and coronagraphs capable of operating at normal incidence at soft X-ray/EUV wavelengths. Photographic films are the only detectors now available with the information storage capacity and dynamic range such as is required for recording images of the solar disk and corona simultaneously witharc second spatial resolution. During the Stanford/MSFC/LLNL Rocket X-Ray Spectroheliograph and Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) programs, we utilized photographic films to obtain high resolution full-disk images of the sun at selected soft X-ray/EUV/FUV wavelengths. In order to calibrate our instrumentation for quantitative analysis of our solar data and to select the best emulsions and processing conditions for the MSSTA reflight, we recently tested several photographic films. These studies were carried out at the NIST SURF II synchrotron and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. In this paper, we provide the results of those investigations.

  4. Gamma-400 Science Objectives Built on the Current HE Gamma-Ray and CR Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander; Mitchell, John; Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    The main scientific interest of the Russian Gamma-400 team: Observe gamma-rays above approximately 50 GeV with excellent energy and angular resolution with the goals of: (1) Studying the fine spectral structure of the isotropic high-energy gamma-radiation, (2) Attempting to identify the many still-unidentified Fermi-LAT gamma-ray sources. Gamma-400 will likely be the only space-based gamma-ray observatory operating at the end of the decade. In our proposed Gamma-400-LE version, it will substantially improve upon the capabilities of Fermi LAT and AGILE in both LE and HE energy range. Measuring gamma-rays from approx 20 MeV to approx 1 TeV for at least 7 years, Gamma-400-LE will address the topics of dark matter, cosmic ray origin and propagation, neutron stars, flaring pulsars, black holes, AGNs, GRBs, and actively participate in multiwavelength campaigns.

  5. Recent results with a combined gamma-ray and neutron imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundara-Pandian, L.; Whitney, C. M.; Johnson, E. B.; Vinci, R.; Glodo, J.; Christian, J. F.; Gervais, J.; Vogel, Sam; Nagarkar, E.; Robertson, F.; Squillante, M. S.; Waer, P.; Squillante, M. R.

    2014-09-01

    Numerous instruments have been developed for performing gamma-ray imaging and neutron imaging for research, nondestructive testing, medicine and national security. However, none are capable of imaging gamma-rays and neutrons simultaneously while also discriminating gamma-rays from the neutron. This paper will describe recent experimental results obtained using a gamma/neutron camera based on Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillation crystals, which can discriminate gamma-rays from neutrons. The ability to do this while also having good energy resolution provides a powerful capability for detecting and identifying shielded special nuclear materials for security applications. Also discussed are results obtained using a LaBr3 scintillation crystal.

  6. Digital discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in organic scintillation detectors using moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xufei; Zhang, Xing; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Fan, Tieshuan; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2012-09-01

    Digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by moment analysis. Signals induced by an americium-beryllium (Am/Be) isotropic neutron source in a stilbene crystal detector have been sampled with a flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) of 1 GSamples/s sampling rate and 10-bit vertical resolution. Neutrons and gamma-rays have been successfully discriminated with a threshold corresponding to gamma-ray energy about 217 keV. Moment analysis has also been verified against the results assessed by a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. It is shown that the classification of neutrons and gamma-rays afforded by moment analysis is consistent with that achieved by digital TOF measurement. This method has been applied to analyze the data acquired from the stilbene crystal detector in mixed radiation field of the HL-2A tokamak deuterium plasma discharges and the results are described.

  7. Digital discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in organic scintillation detectors using moment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Xufei; Zhang Xing; Yuan Xi; Chen Jinxiang; Li Xiangqing; Zhang Guohui; Fan Tieshuan; Yuan Guoliang; Yang Jinwei; Yang Qingwei

    2012-09-15

    Digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by moment analysis. Signals induced by an americium-beryllium (Am/Be) isotropic neutron source in a stilbene crystal detector have been sampled with a flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) of 1 GSamples/s sampling rate and 10-bit vertical resolution. Neutrons and gamma-rays have been successfully discriminated with a threshold corresponding to gamma-ray energy about 217 keV. Moment analysis has also been verified against the results assessed by a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. It is shown that the classification of neutrons and gamma-rays afforded by moment analysis is consistent with that achieved by digital TOF measurement. This method has been applied to analyze the data acquired from the stilbene crystal detector in mixed radiation field of the HL-2A tokamak deuterium plasma discharges and the results are described.

  8. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

  9. The Measurements of Gamma-ray Spectrometers from China's Chang'E-1/2 Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Hua; Chang, Jin; Ma, T.

    2012-07-01

    Gamma ray spectrometers, as one of the major payloads onboard China's Chang'E-1/2 spacecrafts, were aimed to provide maps of the abundances of major elements, O, Si, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Na, and Fe, and of the natural radioactive elements, U, Th, and K, in the subsurface of the Moon. These elements presented on the lunar surface are the end products of a series of processes (i.e., accumulation, collision, and modification), their measurements, therefore, could provide many important clues to understand the formation and evolution of the Moon. Gamma ray spectrometer onboard Chang'E-1spacecraft used a large CsI(Tl) crystal as its main detector to measure gamma rays from the Moon with energy resolution of 9%@662 keV while Chang'E-2 gamma ray spectrometer firstly used big LaBr3 crystal in the planetary detection with energy resolution of 3.61%@662 keV. Both gamma ray spectrometers used coincident technique to suppress the Compton effects and reduce the background gamma rays from the interactions from GCRs with spacecraft materials. Gamma rays from the Moon were measured in the energy range of 0.3 10 MeV with 512-channel spectrum every 3 seconds from a circle, polar-orbit but at a nominal altitude of 200 km and 100 km, respectively. Thorium and Potassium maps were derived from the one-year gamma ray measurements of Chang'E-1spacecraft. All these maps show good consistent with previous results from Lunar Prospector and Kaguya missions. Lunar terrains could be clearly classified on the basis of these compositions in relation with other characteristics. Chang'E-2 gamma ray spectrometer has only half-year detections, but since large LaBr3 crystal has higher energy resolution and higher detection efficiency, element distribution across the lunar surface could be obtained with higher precision. With the data set from Chang'E-2 gamma ray spectrometer, radioactive elements (K, and Th), and major elements (Fe, Ti, Si, Mg, Al, O, and Ca) distributions on the lunar surface have been derived. From present research, several new features have been found that are different from the results of Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer.

  10. Multilayer Monochromator For Hard X Rays And Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Compact monochromator for hard x rays and gamma rays provides high spectral resolution with high throughput. Resembles instruments in "Compact X-Ray and Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28499), "Scanning X-Ray or Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28492), "Ultra-High-Spectral-Resolution X-Ray/EUV Monochromator" (MFS-28500), and "Four-Mirror X-Ray and Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28498). Operates on principle of multilayer Bragg reflector. Used in nuclear, astronomical, and biomedical research, x-ray crystallography, research on processing materials, research in x-ray lasers, and x-ray lithography.

  11. Crystal structure of rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas to ultra-high 0.68 A resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.-J. . E-mail: cjchen@nsrrc.org.tw; Lin, Y.-H.; Huang, Y.-C.; Liu, M.-Y. . E-mail: mingliu@nsrrc.org.tw

    2006-10-13

    Rubredoxin (D.g. Rd) is a small non-heme iron-sulfur protein shown to function as a redox coupling protein from the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio gigas. The protein is generally purified from anaerobic bacteria in which it is thought to be involved in electron transfer or exchange processes. Rd transfers an electron to oxygen to form water as part of a unique electron transfer chain, composed by NADH:rubredoxin oxidoreductase (NRO), rubredoxin and rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (ROO) in D.g. The crystal structure of D.g. Rd has been determined by means of both a Fe single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) signal and the direct method, and refined to an ultra-high 0.68 A resolution, using X-ray from a synchrotron. Rd contains one iron atom bound in a tetrahedral coordination by the sulfur atoms of four cysteinyl residues. Hydrophobic and {pi}-{pi} interactions maintain the internal Rd folding. Multiple conformations of the iron-sulfur cluster and amino acid residues are observed and indicate its unique mechanism of electron transfer. Several hydrogen bonds, including N-H..., SG of the iron-sulfur, are revealed clearly in maps of electron density. Abundant waters bound to C-O peptides of residues Val8, Cys9, Gly10, Ala38, and Gly43, which may be involved in electron transfer. This ultrahigh-resolution structure allows us to study in great detail the relationship between structure and function of rubredoxin, such as salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, water structures, cysteine ligands, iron-sulfur cluster, and distributions of electron density among activity sites. For First time, this information will provide a clear role for this protein in a strict anaerobic bacterium.

  12. Gamma-ray identification of nuclear weapon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, T. B., LLNL; Hall, J. M.; Jam, C. L.; Knapp, D. A.; Koenig, Z. M.; Luke, S. J.; Pohl, B. A.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Wolford, J. K.

    1997-02-03

    There has been an accelerating national interest in countering nuclear smuggling. This has caused a corresponding expansion of interest in the use of gamma-ray spectrometers for checkpoint monitoring, nuclear search, and within networks of nuclear and collateral sensors. All of these are fieldable instruments--ranging from large, fixed portal monitors to hand-held and remote monitoring equipment. For operational reasons, detectors with widely varying energy resolution and detection efficiency will be employed. In many instances, such instruments must be sensitive to weak signals, always capable of recognizing the gamma-ray signatures from nuclear weapons materials (NWM), often largely insensitive to spectral alteration by radiation transport through intervening materials, capable of real-time implementation, and able to discriminate against signals from commonly encountered legitimate gamma-ray sources, such as radiopharmaceuticals. Several decades of experience in classified programs have shown that all of these properties are not easily achieved and successful approaches were of limited scope--such as the detection of plutonium only. This project was originally planned as a two-year LDRD-ER. Since funding for 1997 was not sustained, this is a report of the first year's progress.

  13. Determination of the gamma-ray spectrum in a strong neutron/gamma-ray mixed field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yi-Chun; Nievaart, Sander; Chou, Wen-Tsae; Liu, Hong-Ming; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of gamma-ray spectrum highly affects the accuracy of the correspondingly derived gamma-ray dose and the correctness of calculated neutron dose in the neutron/gamma-ray mixed field dosimetry when using the paired ionization chambers technique. It is of our interest to develop a method to determine the gamma-ray spectrum in a strong neutron/gamma-ray mixed field. The current type detector, Mg(Ar) ionization chamber with 6 different thick caps incorporated with the unfolding technique, was used to determine the gamma-ray spectrum in the THOR epithermal neutron beam, which contains intense neutrons and gamma rays. The applied caps had nominal thicknesses from 1 to 6 mm. Detector response functions of the applied Mg(Ar) chamber with different caps were calculated using MCNP5 with a validated chamber model. The spectrum unfolding process was performed using the well-known SAND-II algorithm. The unfolded result was found much softer than the originally calculated spectrum at the design stage. A large portion of low energy continuum was shown in the adjusted spectrum. This work gave us a much deeper insight into the THOR epithermal neutron beam and also showed a way to determine the gamma-ray spectrum.

  14. Gamma-Ray Focusing Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivovaroff, M. J.; Barber, W. C.; Craig, W. W.; Hasegawa, B. H.; Ramsey, B. D.; Taylor, C.

    2004-01-01

    There is a well-established need for high-resolution radionuclide imaging techniques that provide non-invasive measurement of physiological function in small animals. We, therefore, have begun developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system using grazing incidence mirrors to focus low-energy gamma-rays emitted by I-125, and other radionuclides. Our initial prototype optic, fabricated from thermally-formed glass, demonstrated a resolution of 1500 microns, consistent with the performance predicted by detailed simulations. More recently, we have begun constructing mirrors using a replication technique that reduces low spatial frequency errors in the mirror surface, greatly improving the resolution. Each technique offers particular advantages: e.g., multilayer coatings are easily deposited on glass, while superior resolution is possible with replicated optics. Scaling the results from our prototype optics, which only have a few nested shells, to system where the lens has a full complement of several tens of nested shells, a sensitivity of approx. 1 cps/micro Ci is possible, with the exact number dependent on system magnification and radionuclide species. (Higher levels of efficiency can be obtained with multi-optic imaging systems.) The gamma-ray lens will achieve a resolution as good as 100 microns, independent of the final sensitivity. The combination of high spatial resolution and modest sensitivity will enable in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animals.

  15. Ultra-high resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for old master paintings.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C S; Spring, M; Liang, H

    2015-04-20

    In the last 10 years, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been successfully applied to art conservation, history and archaeology. OCT has the potential to become a routine non-invasive tool in museums allowing cross-section imaging anywhere on an intact object where there are no other methods of obtaining subsurface information. While current commercial OCTs have shown potential in this field, they are still limited in depth resolution (> 4 ?m in paint and varnish) compared to conventional microscopic examination of sampled paint cross-sections (~1 ?m). An ultra-high resolution fiber-based Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system with a constant axial resolution of 1.2 ?m in varnish or paint throughout a depth range of 1.5 mm has been developed. While Fourier domain OCT of similar resolution has been demonstrated recently, the sensitivity roll-off of some of these systems are still significant. In contrast, this current system achieved a sensitivity roll-off that is less than 2 dB over a 1.2 mm depth range with an incident power of ~1 mW on the sample. The high resolution and sensitivity of the system makes it convenient to image thin varnish and glaze layers with unprecedented contrast. The non-invasive 'virtual' cross-section images obtained with the system show the thin varnish layers with similar resolution in the depth direction but superior clarity in the layer interfaces when compared with conventional optical microscope images of actual paint sample cross-sections obtained micro-destructively. PMID:25969057

  16. An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Angel, J. R. P.; Jacobsen, B.; Woolf, N.; Fugate, R. Q.; Black, J. H.; Lloyd-Hart, M.

    2002-08-01

    A prototype cross-dispersed optical echelle spectrograph of very high resolution has been designed and built at Steward Observatory and tested at the Starfire Optical Range 1.5 m telescope. It is the first spectrograph to take advantage of diffraction-limited images provided by adaptive optics in order to achieve a potential resolving power of R~600,000. The wavelength coverage in a single exposure is about 300 Å, which is approximately 100 times that of conventional spectrographs operating at comparable resolution. This was achieved by recording 60 cross-dispersed orders across the 18×18 mm2 area of the CCD detector. The total efficiency of the system, including the sky and telescope transmission, spectrograph, and CCD detector, is measured to be 1.3% at peak, much higher than that of other ultrahigh-resolution spectrographs. Sample stellar spectra with R~250,000 are presented. Observations here were made at the Starfire Optical Range 1.5 m telescope, operated by the Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory.

  17. In vivo volumetric imaging of the human upper eyelid with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizheva, Kostadinka; Lee, Patrick; Sorbara, Luigina; Hutchings, Natalie; Simpson, Trefford

    2010-07-01

    The upper eyelid is a biological tissue with complex structure, essential for the maintenance of an optically clear ocular surface due to its physical (blinking) effect. The Meibomian glands (MGs) are structures that lie beneath the surface of the inner eyelid and are partially responsible for the production of the superficial oily layer of the tear film. The MGs are only superficially visible under magnification when the eyelid is everted. We present for the first time in vivo 3-D images of healthy and inflamed human MGs. Tomograms were acquired from the tarsal plate of everted human eyelids with a 1060-nm ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHOCT) system, with ~3 ?m10 ?m (axiallateral) resolution in biological tissue at the rate of 91,911 A-scans/s. Comparison with histology shows that the UHOCT images reveal a spatial distribution of structures that appear to correspond with the MGs' acini and ducts (in healthy subjects), and accumulation of heterogeneous, highly scattering biological material and clear fluids in the visibly blocked glands. Noninvasive, volumetric high-resolution morphological imaging of the human tarsal area could have a significant impact in the clinical diagnosis of inflammatory and noninflammatory lid pathologies.

  18. Ultrahigh resolution optical fiber strain sensor using dual Pound-Drever-Hall feedback loops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiageng; Liu, Qingwen; Fan, Xinyu; He, Zuyuan

    2016-03-01

    We present an ultrahigh resolution optical fiber strain sensor with a broad frequency range from quasi-static to several hundred hertz. The sensor consists of a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating for strain sensing and a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer as reference. The laser carrier and sideband are locked to the reference and sensing elements, respectively, via two individual feedback loops, in which the Pound-Drever-Hall technique is employed to generate the error signals. The sampling rate is up to 500 samples/s in the demonstrational experiments, only limited by the updating rate of the frequency counter. The strain resolution exhibits a 1/f characteristic in the bandwidth of 0.01-250 Hz, and is better than 0.01 nϵ at 10 Hz with a dynamic range up to 149 dB. Compared with the traditional static strain sensors, the proposed sensor shows a great improvement in both resolution and sensing bandwidth, and can be a powerful tool for geophysical applications. PMID:26974117

  19. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  20. Searching for Dark Matter with Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes about 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce gamma rays via annihilation or decay in the Universe. These gamma rays would be detected by space-based detectors like the Fermi Large Area Telescope or by ground-based arrays like VERITAS and H.E.S.S. A detection of gamma rays from WIMPs would not only confirm the existence of dark matter through a non-gravitational force, but also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. I will present recent results from WIMP searches including looking for gamma-ray spectral lines and gamma-ray excesses in areas of large dark matter concentration like the Galactic center and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We have entered an exciting era of dark matter searches since we are becoming sensitive to the natural cross section for WIMPs in some mass ranges and annihilation channels.

  1. Gamma-ray Emission from Nova Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission, with the 511 keV line and a continuum. Gamma-ray spectra and light curves are potential unique tools to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected with the Fermi satellite in V407 Cyg, a nova in a symbiotic binary, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main sequence star as in the cataclysmic variables hosting classical novae. Two more novae have been detected recently (summer 2012) by Fermi, apparently in non symbiotic binaries, thus challenging our understanding of the emission mechanism. Both scenarios (radioactivities and acceleration) of gamma-ray production in novae are discussed.

  2. Short gamma-ray bursts: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avanzo, P.

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are rapid, bright flashes of radiation peaking in the gamma-ray band occurring at an average rate of one event per day at cosmological distances. They are characterized by a collimated relativistic outflow pushing through the interstellar medium shining in gamma-rays powered by a central engine. This prompt phase is followed by a fading afterglow emission at longer wavelength, powered in part by the expanding outflow, and in part by continuous energy injection by the central engine. The observed evidences of supernovae associated to long GRBs (those with a duration of the gamma-ray emission > 2 s) brought to a general consensus on indicating the core collapse of massive stars as the progenitor of these events. Following the most accredited model, short GRBs (the events with a duration of the gamma-ray emission ? 2 s) originate from the coalescence of compact binary systems (two neutron stars or neutron star-black hole systems). This paper presents a review of the observational properties of short GRBs and shows how the study of these properties can be used as a tool to unveil their elusive progenitors and provide information on the nature of the central engine powering the observed emission. The increasing evidence for compact object binary progenitors makes short GRBs one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves for the forthcoming Advanced LIGO/Virgo experiments.

  3. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor: The First Hundred TGFs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) is now detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. At this rate, nearly a hundred TGFs will have been detected by the time of this Meeting. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. The high time resolution (2 microseconds) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented.

  4. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-ray Burst Monitor: Temporal and Spectral Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, W.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) was detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. Further upgrades to Fermi-GBM to allow observations of weaker TGFs are in progress. The high time resolution (2 s) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented along with spectral characteristics and properties of several electron-positron TGF events that have been identified.

  5. Search for TeV gamma-ray emission from Hercules X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, P. T.; Cawley, M. F.; Fegan, D. J.; Lang, M. J.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Hillas, A. M.; Kwok, P. W.; Lamb, R. C.; Lewis, D. A.; Macomb, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Six years of observations of Hercules X-1 with the Whipple Observatory gamma-ray telescope have been subjected to a Fourier analysis to search for emission at the 0.8079 Hz neutron star frequency. Evidence for a signal is found at the 99.5 percent confidence level for data taken with the medium-resolution imaging camera with some indications of emission at frequencies blueshifted from the fundamental frequency. However, analysis of the high-resolution camera data base have failed to substantiate this effect. Selection of events on the basis of gamma-ray-like image parameters did not enhance the signal from the medium-resolution data nor produce any indication of a signal from the high-resolution data. The overall conclusion is that no statistically significant evidence for TeV gamma-ray emission was found in the Whipple Observatory data base when the 6 years of data are taken as a whole.

  6. CdZnTe gamma ray spectrometer for orbital planetary missions

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W. C.; Storms, S. A.; Fuller, K. R.; Moss, C. E.; Browne, M. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Ianakiev, K. D.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of surface elemental composition is needed to understand the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. Gamma rays and neutrons produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with surface materials can be detected from orbit and analyzed to determine composition. Using gamma ray spectroscopy, major rock forming elements such as Fe, Ti, Al, Si, Mg, and Ca can be detected. The accuracy of elemental abundance is limited by the resolution of the spectrometer. For space missions, scintillators such as BGO and NaI(Tl) have been used for gamma ray spectroscopy. New planetary science missions are being planned to explore Mars, Mercury, the asteroid belt, and the outer planets. Significant improvements in the pulse height resolution relative to scintillation detectors can be made using CdZnTe, a new room temperature detector technology. For an orbiting instrument, a CdZnTe detector at least 16 cm{sup 3} in size is needed. A 4 x 4 array of 1-cm{sup 3} coplanar grid detectors can be manufactured that meets requirements for resolution and counting efficiency. The array will shielded from gamma rays produced in the spacecraft by a BGO detector. By improving pulse height resolution by a factor of three at low energy, the CdZnTe detector will be able to make accurate measurements of elements that are currently difficult to measure using scintillation technology. The BGO shield will provide adequate suppression of gamma rays originating in the spacecraft, enabling the gamma ray spectrometer to be mounted on the deck of a spacecraft. To test this concept, we are constructing a flight qualified, prototype CdZnTe detector array. The prototype consists of a 2 x 2 array of coplanar grid detectors. We will present the results of mechanical and electronic testing and radiation damage tests, and the performance of the array for gamma ray spectroscopy.

  7. Celestial Gamma Ray Bursts Detector Development and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Patrick Charles

    1993-12-01

    Celestial gamma-ray bursts are a poorly understood astrophysical phenomenon. These transient events were discovered over twenty years ago, yet their origin is still an unsolved mystery. At present no quiescent counterpart to a gamma ray burst source has been conclusively identified, partly because the poor angular resolution of gamma ray detectors and the short durations of the bursts make it difficult to determine precise source positions. (A few precise source positions have been determined by analysis of burst arrival times at widely separated detectors.) The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), described by Ricker, et al. (1992), is a new gamma ray astronomy satellite designed to overcome these difficulties. It can determine precise source positions by simultaneously observing a gamma ray burst with gamma ray x-ray, and ultraviolet (UV) instruments and utilizing the better angular resolutions available with the x-ray and UV instruments. In the first part of this dissertation I present experimental research which contributes to the development of a UV-sensitive solid-state imaging detector for the HETE satellite. The detector is a thinned, backside-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD). The UV quantum efficiency (QE) is very sensitive to the results of the back-surface treatment, which stabilizes and protects that surface. As part of the detector development I designed and built an instrument to measure the quantum efficiency of a CCD over the wavelength range of 200--500~nm. With this instrument I measured the QE of seven prototype devices that were manufactured with three different back-surface technologies. I derived a statistical test to measure the mean number of electrons per photon, which increases from unity with increasing photon energy above a threshold of ~3.65~eV (340 nm). This effect is critically important when making photometric measurements at these wavelengths with solid state detectors. I also developed a simple physically-motivated model of the back surface, which provides adequate fits to the measured QE. I find that the best back-surface technology yields CCDs that have stable QEs of >40\\% in the HETE UV band of 220-310 nm. This is significantly better than the QE of 20% required by the HETE UV instrument (Ricker, et al. 1992). This encouraging result enhances the ability of the HETE UV instrument to detect a gamma-ray burst, which will ultimately lead to the discovery of the underlying physical sources. While the origin of gamma-ray bursts is unknown, the rapid variability and hard spectra indicate that the sources are compact objects. Many different models of gamma-ray bursts assume that the bursts originate from neutrons stars. Blaes, et al. (1990) put forth the idea that the natural evolution of a slowly-accreting, isolated neutron star leads to the formation of density inversions which might become unstable and thereby lead to a gamma-ray burst. However, the recent measurements of the gamma-ray burst distribution reported by Meegan, et al. (1992) rule out many galactic models. Recent theoretical work is split between galactic halo models and cosmological models, many of which still associate gamma-ray bursts with neutron stars. In any event, slowly-accreting neutron stars should exist in the galaxy. Their evolution is the focus of the second part of this dissertation. I present computational research on the evolution of this class of slowly accreting neutron stars. I describe an evolution code, which simulates the crust of a slowly accreting neutron star, and report on the evolution of the structure, composition, density inversions, and stored energy of fifteen different models. This evolution code is a version of ASTRA, an evolution code originally developed by Rakavy, et al. (1967). It is based on the version developed by Joss (1978) to simulate thermonuclear flashes in the crust of an accreting neutron star. The major changes are a new set of thermodynamic equations, a new nuclear reaction network, and a new thermal conductivity algorithm. The thermodynamic equations are based on

  8. Galaxies and gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the high-energy spectra of several types of active galaxies and their contribution to the measured diffuse gamma-ray emission between 1 and 150 MeV are considered, using X-ray spectra of active galaxies and SAS 2 data regarding the intensity upper limits to the gamma-ray emission above 35 MeV. It is found that a substantial increase in slope of the photon energy spectrum must occur in the low energy gamma-ray region for Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and emission line galaxies; the power-law spectra observed in the X-ray range must steepen substantially between 50 keV and 50 MeV. In addition, a cosmological integration shows that Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and quasars may account for most of the 1-150 MeV diffuse background, even without significant evolution.

  9. Solar gamma rays and neutron observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Suri, A. N.

    1972-01-01

    The present status of knowledge concerning the impulsive and the continuous emission of solar gamma rays and neutrons is reviewed in the light of the recent solar activity in early August 1972. The gamma ray spectrometer on OSO-7 has observed the sun continuously for most of the activity period except for occultation by the earth. In association with the 2B flare on 4 August 1972 and the 3B flare on 7 August 1972, the monitor provides evidence for solar gamma ray line emission in the energy range from 300 keV to 10 MeV. A summary of all the results available from preliminary analysis of the data will be given. Significant improvements in future experiments can be made with more sensitive instruments and more extensive time coverage of the sun.

  10. Gamma-ray imaging with stochastic apertures.

    PubMed

    May, R S; Akcasu, Z; Knoll, G F

    1974-11-01

    The spatial distribution of a radioactive fluid can be measured indirectly by observing the emerging gamma rays. A method is proposed and analyzed for gamma-ray imaging by stochastic time modulation and cross-correlation. Theoretical comparison is made to collimation and coded aperture techniques in gamma-ray image formation. Computed results are presented that illustrate the mean response and statistical error characteristics of this technique. Monte Carlo simulations are performed as a further verification. Because it relies upon a point-by-point reconstruction, rather than upon the integral properties of any particular aperture, the time modulation approach is seen to provide a theoretical basis for obtaining a smooth three-dimensional point response. PMID:20134739

  11. Gamma-ray spectroscopy - Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Contemporary gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments and their results are reviewed. Sensitivities of 10 to the -4th to 10 to the -3rd ph/sq cm-sec have been achieved for steady sources and 10 to the -2nd to 1 ph/sq cm-sec for transient sources. This has led to the detection of gamma-ray lines from more than 40 objects representing 6 classes of astrophysical phenomena. The lines carry model-independent information and are of fundamental importance to theoretical modeling and our understanding of the objects. The objectives and anticipated results of future instruments are discussed. Several instruments in development will have a factor of 10 sensitivity improvement to certain phenomena over contemporary instruments. A factor of 100 improvement in sensitivity will allow the full potential of gamma-ray spectroscopy to be realized. Instrument concepts which would achieve this with both present and advanced techniques are discussed.

  12. Gamma rays from pulsar wind shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1990-01-01

    A shock forming in the wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs from a pulsar, as a result of confinement by surrounding material, could convert part of the pulsar spin-down luminosity to high energy particles through first order Fermi acceleration. High energy protons could be produced by this mechanism both in supernova remnants and in binary systems containing pulsars. The pion-decay gamma-rays resulting from interaction of accelerated protons with surrounding target material in such sources might be observable above 70 MeV with EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) and above 100 GeV with ground-based detectors. Acceleration of protons and expected gamma-ray fluxes from SN1987A, Cyg X-3 type sources and binary pulsars are discussed.

  13. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Nishitani, Takeo; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-01

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  14. Neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy: simulations for chemical mapping of planetary surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brueckner, J.; Waenke, H.; Reedy, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic rays interact with the surface of a planetary body and produce a cascade of secondary particles, such as neutrons. Neutron-induced scattering and capture reactions play an important role in the production of discrete gamma-ray lines that can be measured by a gamma-ray spectrometer on board of an orbiting spacecraft. These data can be used to determine the concentration of many elements in the surface of a planetary body, which provides clues to its bulk composition and in turn to its origin and evolution. To investigate the gamma rays made by neutron interactions, thin targets were irradiated with neutrons having energies from 14 MeV to 0.025 eV. By means of foil activation technique the ratio of epithermal to thermal neutrons was determined to be similar to that in the Moon. Gamma rays emitted by the targets and the surrounding material were detected by a high-resolution germanium detector in the energy range of 0.1 to 8 MeV. Most of the gamma-ray lines that are expected to be used for planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy were found in the recorded spectra and the principal lines in these spectra are presented. 58 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Structure and nature of gamma-ray binaries by means of VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldn, J.

    2015-05-01

    Gamma-ray binaries are extreme systems that produce non-thermal emission from radio to very-high-energy (>TeV) gamma rays, with the energy output in the spectral energy distribution (SED) dominated by the MeV-GeV photons. Their broadband emission is usually modulated by the orbital cycle of the system, which suggests that the physical conditions are also periodic and reproducible. The diversity of systems, together with the reproducibility of the conditions within each system, makes gamma-ray binaries excellent physical laboratories. These systems produce outflows of relativistic particles emitting synchrotron radio emission that extend up to several astronomical units, which correspond to projected angular scales of a few milliarcseconds (mas) at typical distances of 2-3 kpc. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provide mas resolution and therefore can be used to directly see this radio outflow. Here we present VLBI observations of five of the six gamma-ray binaries known. We have revealed for the first time the radio structure of two gamma-ray binaries, and found periodic changes in the structure of other two. Based on these results we have established the basic properties and behaviour of the radio emission of gamma-ray binaries on AU scales, and we have contributed to find characteristics that are common to all of them.

  16. A search for optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hye-Sook

    1995-03-09

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBS) are mysterious flashes of gamma rays lasting several tens to hundreds of seconds that occur approximately once per day. NASA launched the orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to study GRBs and other gamma ray phenomena. CGRO carries the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) specifically to study GRBS. Although BATSE has collected data on over 600 GRBS, and confirmed that GRBs are localized, high intensity point sources of MeV gamma rays distributed isotropically in the sky, the nature and origin of GRBs remains a fundamental problem in astrophysics. BATSE`s 8 gamma ray sensors located on the comers of the box shaped CGRO can detect the onset of GRBs and record their intensity and energy spectra as a function of time. The position of the burst on the sky can be determined to < {plus_minus}10{degrees} from the BATSE data stream. This position resolution is not sufficient to point a large, optical telescope at the exact position of a GRB which would determine its origin by associating it with a star. Because of their brief duration it is not known if GRBs are accompanied by visible radiation. Their seemingly large energy output suggests thatthis should be. Simply scaling the ratio of visible to gamma ray intensities of the Crab Nebula to the GRB output suggests that GRBs ought to be accompanied by visible flashes of magnitude 10 or so. A few photographs of areas containing a burst location that were coincidentally taken during the burst yield lower limits on visible output of magnitude 4. The detection of visible light during the GRB would provide information on burst physics, provide improved pointing coordinates for precise examination of the field by large telescope and provide the justification for larger dedicated optical counterpart instruments. The purpose of this experiment is to detect or set lower limits on optical counterpart radiation simultaneously accompanying the gamma rays from

  17. COMBINED GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRON DETECTOR FOR MEASURING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AIRLESS PLANETARY BODIES.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David J. ,; Barraclough, B. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Wiens, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) constant1,y itnpinge all planetary bodies and produce characteristic gamma-ray lines and leakage neutrons as reaction products. Together with gamma-ray lines produced by radioactive decay, these nuclear emissions provide a powerful technique for remotely measuring the chemical composition of airless planetary surfaces. While lunar gamma-ray spectroscopy was first demonstrated with Apollo Gamma-Ray measurements, the full value of combined gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy was shown for the first time with the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray (LP-GRS) and Neutron Spectrometers (LP-NS). Any new planetary mission will likely have the requirement that instrument mass and power be kept to a minimum. To satisfy such requirements, we have been designing a GR/NS instrument which combines all the functionality of the LP-GRS and LP-NS for a fraction of the mass and power. Specifically, our design uses a BGO scintillator crystal to measure gamma-rays from 0.5-10 MeV. A borated plastic scintillator and a lithium gliiss scintillator are used to separately measure thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons as well as serve as an anticoincidence shield for the BGO. All three scintillators are packaged together in a compact phoswich design. Modifications to this design could include a CdZnTe gamma-ray detector for enhanced energy resolution at low energies (0.5-3 MeV). While care needs to be taken to ensure that an adequate count rate is achieved for specific mission designs, previous mission successes demonstrate that a cornbined GR/NS provides essential information about planetary surfaces.

  18. Gamma ray astronomy and black hole astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1990-01-01

    The study of soft gamma emissions from black-hole candidates is identified as an important element in understanding black-hole phenomena ranging from stellar-mass black holes to AGNs. The spectra of Cyg X-1 and observations of the Galactic Center are emphasized, since thermal origins and MeV gamma-ray bumps are evident and suggest a thermal-pair cloud picture. MeV gamma-ray observations are suggested for studying black hole astrophysics such as the theorized escaping pair wind, the anticorrelation between the MeV gamma bump and the soft continuum, and the relationship between source compactness and temperature.

  19. Fermi's Gamma-ray Treasure Hunt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Acero, F.; Donato, D.; Ojha, R.; Lovell, J.; Blanchard, J.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) has been providing a wealth of high-interest gamma-ray sources where the multiwavelenth counterpart was either inconclusive or missing altogether. We report on a number of new detections of active galactic nuclei resulting from follow-up observations of high-galactic latitude LAT targets in the southern hemisphere. We selected these targets because their multiwavelength properties made them strong candidates to contain AGN. We discuss the selection criteria for the sources, their associations with new AGN, and the success rate of our approach.

  20. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  1. Noiseless coding for the Gamma Ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, R.; Lee, J. J.

    1985-06-01

    The payload of several future unmanned space missions will include a sophisticated gamma ray spectrometer. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return from this instrument. This report investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to represent gamma ray spectrometer data more efficiently without any loss in data integrity. Performance results demonstrate compression factors from 2.5:1 to 20:1 in comparison to a standard representation. Feasibility was also demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using an Intel 8086 processor.

  2. Radioactivities and gamma-rays from supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the implications of several calculations relevant to the estimation of gamma-ray signals from various explosive astronomical phenomena. After discussing efforts to constrain the amounts of Ni-57 and Ti-44 produced in SN 1987A, attention is given to the production of Al-27 in massive stars and SNs. A 'delayed detonation' model of type Ia SNs is proposed, and the gamma-ray signal which may be expected when a bare white dwarf collapses directly into a neutron star is discussed.

  3. Gamma ray line observations with OSSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurfess, J. D.; Grove, J. E.; Johnson, W. N.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Purcell, W. R.; Leising, M. D.; Harris, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Observations from the oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment of the gamma ray lines originating from a variety of Galactic center sources are reviewed. Extensive observations were acquired of the Galactic center region, including the 0.511 MeV positron annihilation line and associated positronium continuum and Al-26 emission. The results reviewed include: Co-57 from SN 1987A; limits on Co-56 from SN 1991T; gamma ray lines from solar flares; searches for Ti-44 emission from Cas A, and searches for C-12 and O-16 lines from the Orion region.

  4. Noiseless coding for the Gamma Ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R.; Lee, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The payload of several future unmanned space missions will include a sophisticated gamma ray spectrometer. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return from this instrument. This report investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to represent gamma ray spectrometer data more efficiently without any loss in data integrity. Performance results demonstrate compression factors from 2.5:1 to 20:1 in comparison to a standard representation. Feasibility was also demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using an Intel 8086 processor.

  5. Nucleotide-binding flexibility in ultrahigh-resolution structures of the SRP GTPase Ffh

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, Ursula D.; Focia, Pamela J.; Freymann, Douglas M.

    2008-10-01

    Crystal structures of the Ffh NG GTPase domain at < 1.24 resolution reveal multiple overlapping nucleotide binding modes. Two structures of the nucleotide-bound NG domain of Ffh, the GTPase subunit of the bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP), have been determined at ultrahigh resolution in similar crystal forms. One is GDP-bound and one is GMPPCP-bound. The asymmetric unit of each structure contains two protein monomers, each of which exhibits differences in nucleotide-binding conformation and occupancy. The GDP-bound Ffh NG exhibits two binding conformations in one monomer but not the other and the GMPPCP-bound protein exhibits full occupancy of the nucleotide in one monomer but only partial occupancy in the other. Thus, under the same solution conditions, each crystal reveals multiple binding states that suggest that even when nucleotide is bound its position in the Ffh NG active site is dynamic. Some differences in the positioning of the bound nucleotide may arise from differences in the crystal-packing environment and specific factors that have been identified include the relative positions of the N and G domains, small conformational changes in the P-loop, the positions of waters buried within the active site and shifts in the closing loop that packs against the guanine base. However, loose binding may have biological significance in promoting facile nucleotide exchange and providing a mechanism for priming the SRP GTPase prior to its activation in its complex with the SRP receptor.

  6. Three-dimensional ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of retinal pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Boris; Michels, Stephan; Povazay, Boris; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Sacu, Stefan; Ahlers, C.; Sattmann, Harald; Scholda, Christoph; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Fercher, Adolf F.; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    The clinical feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) ultrahigh resolution (UHR) optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been investigated to visualize macular pathologies in more than 140 eyes. Three-dimensional retinal imaging was performed with high axial resolution of 3 ?m employing a compact, commercially available ultrabroad bandwidth (160 nm) Titanium: sapphire laser at video-rate with up to 50 B-scans/second, each tomogram consisting of 512x1024 pixels, resulting in 25 Megavoxels/second. 3D UHR OCT allows identifying the contour of the hyaloid membrane, epiretinal membranes, inner limiting membrane, the topography of tractive forces from the retinal surface down to the level of the photoreceptor segments. Photoreceptor inner and outer segments are clearly delineated in configuration and size in micrometer with a characteristic peak in the subfoveal area. The pattern of the retinal vasculature is distinctly recognized by the hyperreflectivity of the vascular walls and the resulting reflectance shadow exhibiting a three-dimensional angiographic image of the entire vascular net without the use of fluorescent markers. 3D UHR OCT offers unprecedented, realistic threedimensional imaging of pathologies at all epi-, intra- and subretinal levels. Ultrastructural changes are identified and displayed using a dynamic video technique.

  7. Noninvasive in vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh resolution OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V. J.; Wojtkowski, M.; Ko, T. H.; Duker, J. S.; Clermont, A.; Bursell, S.; Fujimoto, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    Non-invasive in vivo functional optical imaging is emonstrated using high-speed, ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). A high-speed, UHR-OCT system using spectral/Fourier domain detection was developed for functional imaging experiments in the rodent retina. Using a spectrally multiplexed superluminescent diode light source, imaging was performed with 2.8 ?m resolution at a rate of 24,000 axial scans per second. OCT measurement protocols were designed to minimize noise sources that cause undesired fluctuations in the measured OCT signal. A white light stimulus was applied to the retina and the average reflectivity from each intraretinal layer was monitored over time using OCT. A white light stimulus induces a response consisting of an increase in the reflectance of the photoreceptor outer segments. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo demonstration of functional imaging using OCT in the retina. Further systematic investigation will be required to fully characterize the observed optical changes. Eventually, this may prove to be an objective method for measuring photoreceptor function in the human retina.

  8. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  9. Evaluation of the Doppler-Broadening of Gamma-Ray Spectra from Neutron Inelastic Scattering on Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, Phillip C.; Barzilov, Alexander; Novikov, Ivan; Howard, Joseph; Musser, Jason

    2009-03-10

    Neutron-induced gamma-ray reactions are extensively used in the nondestructive analysis of materials and other areas where the information about the chemical composition of a substance is crucial. The common technique to find the intensity of the gamma ray is to fit gamma-ray line shape with an analytical function, for example, a Gaussian. However, the Gaussian fitting may fail if the gamma-ray peak is Doppler-broadened since this leads to the miscalculation of the area of the peak and, therefore, to misidentification of the material. Due to momentum considerations, Doppler-broadening occurs primarily with gamma rays from neutron-induced inelastic scattering reactions with light nuclei. The recoiling nucleus of interest must have excited states whose lifetimes are much smaller than the time of flight in the material. We have examined various light nuclei bombarded by 14 MeV neutrons to predict when the peak shape of a neutron-induced gamma ray emitted from these nuclei will be Doppler-broadened. We have found that nearly all the gamma rays from neutron-induced gamma-ray reactions on light elements (A<20) are Doppler-broadened with only a few exceptions. This means that utilization of resolution curves derived from isotopic sources or thermal neutron capture reactions have little value in the analysis.

  10. Parallel pulse processing for mercuric iodide gamma-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerle, A.; Gerrish, V.; Hull, K.

    1985-01-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) is a semiconductor material of interest for use as a gamma ray detector because of its wide band-gap and high atomic number. The current work is with detectors of intermediate thickness (2-5mm), to be used to get good energy resolution with some reasonable gamma ray efficiency. The work reported covers the parallel pulse processing to obtain interaction depth information which is used to extend the usable thickness through resolution enhancements, and to obtain better detector performance from selected portions of the thicker detectors through pulse rejection techniques. A sample spectrum from a 2.5-mm-thick detector is shown. Resolution is about 10% and peak-to-valley ratio about 4:1. After taking advantage of the enhancement techniques described, resolution of 5% and peak-to-valley ratios of 8:1 are common. Poor hole mobility has been used to advantage to obtain interaction depth information. Two techniques are demonstrated for extracting conventional energy spectra from two-parameter spectra - the spectral enhancement technique which corrects for hole losses in every interaction in the detector and increases the number which fall under the full energy peak, and the pulse rejection technique which selects only those pulses which need no correction. (LEW)

  11. Parallel pulse processing for mercuric iodide gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, A.; Gerrish, V.; Hull, K.

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) is a semiconductor material of interest for use as a gamma ray detector because of its wide band-gap and high atomic number. The current work is with detectors of intermediate thickness (2 to 5mm), to be used to get good energy resolution with some reasonable gamma ray efficiency. The work reported covers the parallel pulse processing to obtain interaction depth information which is used to extend the usable thickness through resolution enhancements, and to obtain better detector performance from selected portions of the thicker detectors through pulse rejection techniques. A sample spectrum from a 2.5-mm-thick detector is shown. Resolution is about 10% and peak-to-valley ratio about 4:1. After taking advantage of the enhancement techniques described, resolution of 5% and peak-to-valley ratios of 8:1 are common. Poor hole mobility has been used to advantage to obtain interaction depth information. Two techniques are demonstrated for extracting conventional energy spectra from two-parameter spectra - the spectral enhancement technique which corrects for hole losses in every interaction in the detector and increases the number which fall under the full energy peak, and the pulse rejection technique which selects only those pulses which need no correction.

  12. A Ge/Li/ spectrometer for gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. B.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    A space-borne instrument to measure the spectral and temporal characteristics of astronomical gamma rays in the .05 to 10 Mev energy range is described. The spectrometer consists of four 60 cc Ge(Li) detectors with an energy resolution of 2.5 Kev (FWHM) at 1.33 Mev. The Ge(Li) detectors are actively shielded with CsI(Na) for angular collimation and background reduction. Cooling of the Ge(Li) detectors to 88 K for orbital lifetimes of up to two years is provided by a two-stage solid subliming refrigerator.

  13. Gamma-ray spectrometer onboard Chang'E-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Chang, J.; Zhang, N.; Jian, W.; Cai, M. S.; Gong, Y. Z.; Tang, H. S.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, N. S.; Yu, M.; Mao, J. P.; Hu, Y. M.; Xu, A. A.; Zhu, M. H.

    2013-10-01

    Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is included in the payload of Chinese second lunar mission Chang'E-2 that has been launched in October 2010. Specific objectives of the GRS are to map abundance of O, Si, Fe, Ti, U, Th, K, and, perhaps, Mg, Al, and Ca, to depth of about 20 cm. The energy resolution and detection efficiency were improved compared with Chang'E-1 GRS. We will describe the design of GRS, which used LaBr3 for its main detector, and present its performance in this paper. Moreover, the initial result of Chang'E-2 GRS is reported.

  14. Quasielastic gamma-ray scattering from polydimethylsiloxane in benzene solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hammouda, B.; Schupp, G.; Maglic, S. Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO )

    1990-10-15

    Quasielastic gamma-ray scattering of 46.5-keV Moessbauer photons by polydimethylsiloxane has been studied at room temperature as a function of dilution in benzene. The high energy resolution of this novel technique allowed the separation of the scattering signal into a narrow component associated with stiff motions along the polymer chain backbone and a quasielastic component associated with softer side group motions. The narrow component disappears upon dilution in benzene while the intensity of the quasielastic component grows proportionately. This result is interpreted as a softening of the backbone normal modes upon dilution.

  15. High-revolution gamma-ray imaging from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, William A.

    1990-01-01

    An observatory is suggested for exploiting unique lunar features to perform sensitive, subarcsecond cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray imaging. The observatory would be built in an evolutionary manner and would eventually include several different position-sensitive detector systems which together would cover a broad energy range and address a wide variety of astrophysical problems. High angular resolution would be obtained by using a mobile crane on the flat lunar mare regions to move a coded aperture mask for source tracking with detector/mask separations of up to 5 kilometers.

  16. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  17. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  18. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  19. Cascade model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Harding, A. K.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    If, in a neutron star magnetosphere, an electron is accelerated to an energy of 10 to the 11th or 12th power eV by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field, motion of the electron along the curved field line leads to a cascade of gamma rays and electron-positron pairs. This process is believed to occur in radio pulsars and gamma ray burst sources. Results are presented from numerical simulations of the radiation and photon annihilation pair production processes, using a computer code previously developed for the study of radio pulsars. A range of values of initial energy of a primary electron was considered along with initial injection position, and magnetic dipole moment of the neutron star. The resulting spectra was found to exhibit complex forms that are typically power law over a substantial range of photon energy, and typically include a dip in the spectrum near the electron gyro-frequency at the injection point. The results of a number of models are compared with data for the 5 Mar., 1979 gamma ray burst. A good fit was found to the gamma ray part of the spectrum, including the equivalent width of the annihilation line.

  20. HAWC observatory catches first gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frías Villegas, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    The world's largest and most modern gamma-ray observatory has carried out its first successful observations. Located inside the Pico de Orizaba national park in the Mexican state of Puebla, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is a collaboration between 26 Mexican and US institutions.

  1. Physics issues of gamma ray burst emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison

    1987-01-01

    The critical physics issues in the interpretation of gamma-ray-burst spectra are reviewed. An attempt is made to define the emission-region parameter space satisfying the maximum number of observational and theoretical constraints. Also discussed are the physical mechanisms responsible for the bursts that are most consistent with the above parameter space.

  2. Gamma-ray Astrophysics with AGILE

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco |; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2007-07-12

    AGILE will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational in spring 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources. Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV AGILE is now (March 2007) undergoing launcher integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

  3. Gamma-ray Astrophysics with AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Francesco; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Liello, F.; Lipari, P.; Marisaldi, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Mattaini, E.; Mauri, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Morselli, A.; Pacciani, L.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Picozza, P.; Pittori, C.; Pontoni, C.; Porrovecchio, G.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rossi, E.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Traci, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Zanello, D.

    2007-07-01

    AGILE will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational in spring 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources. Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering ~ 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV AGILE is now (March 2007) undergoing launcher integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

  4. Gamma-ray Pulsars: Models and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding Alice K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is, dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 13) G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers of the primary curvature emission around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. Next-generation gamma-ray telescopes sensitive to GeV-TeV emission will provide critical tests of pulsar acceleration and emission mechanisms.

  5. Gamma-ray imaging in Fourier space.

    PubMed

    Chou, C; Barrett, H H

    1978-11-01

    A new coded-aperture configuration for gamma-ray imaging is described. It measures a single Fourier component of the object distribution at a time and does not require a position-sensitive detector. If, however, a position-sensitive detector is used, three-dimensional information about the source can be obtained. PMID:19684741

  6. Gamma ray imaging probes. 1: Formalism.

    PubMed

    Wild, W J

    1990-02-10

    A mathematical matrix formalism for a class of I-D temporal coded aperture gamma ray imaging probes is developed. Various code categories are presented. Object estimation is discussed as well as the effect of noise on the reconstruction. PMID:20556163

  7. Theories of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1983-07-01

    Gamma ray bursts have remained an enigma for a decade. This is attributable to the difficulty of obtaining accurate positions, the low duty cycle of burst sources which prevents planned observation, and their low mean power which rules out arguments based on gross energetics. Several lines of evidence now point to an origin in neutron star magnetospheres, confirming early speculations largely based on the availability of high energy density. The evidence includes spectral features interpreted as cyclotron and gravitationally redshifted annihilation lines, and temporal periodicity interpreted as rotation. The reason for the outbursts remains as much as a mystery as when they were first discovered. It is unclear whether gamma ray bursters are located in binary stars, or whether this is incidental or essential to their activity. It is not known if there is any evoltionary connection or physical resemblance between gamma ray bursters and pulsars or accretional x-ray sources. I discuss some of the problems which arise in constructing models for gamma ray bursters, with particular attention to the event of March 5, 1979, physical processes at high energy density, and the role of electron-positron pairs in producing line and continuum radiation.

  8. The Gamma-Ray Observatory: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) is a 16,000 kg spacecraft containing four instruments which span almost six decades of energy from about 50 keV to about 30 GeV. It will provide the first opportunity to make simultaneous observations over such a broad band of gamma-ray energies. GRO is assembled and undergoing testing prior to its scheduled June 4, 1990 launch aboard the Space Shuttle. The orbit will be circular with an altitude of 450 km and with an inclination of 28 degrees. Data will be recorded at 32 kilobits per second and dumped once per orbit via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized and timing will be maintained to .1 ms. The observing schedule will begin with an all sky survey, consisting of 30 two week pointings, covering the first 15 months of science operations. Following observations will emphasize source studies and deep searches. Originally selected as a Principal Class spacecraft with a two year mission, extension of the mission to six to ten years makes a vigorous Guest Investigator Program both possible and desirable. Such a program will be fully in place by the third year of the mission, with limited opportunities earlier. Each of the four instruments has a capability for observing both gamma-ray bursts and solar flare gamma-rays, and there is some solar neutron capability. Correlated observations with those at other wavelengths is also receiving considerable attention in the mission planning.

  9. A low activity gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, C.; Sarracino, A.; Sverzellati, P. P.; Zanotti, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on the features of a gamma ray spectrometer designed for very low activity measurement. Part of the measurements have been performed in an underground laboratory in the Mont Blanc tunnel. Comparative results obtained in different experiment conditions are reported.

  10. Experimental investigation of wavelength dependence of penetration depth and imaging contrast for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, S.; Nishizawa, N.; Itoh, K.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non invasive optical imaging technology for micron-scale cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and materials. Although OCT has many advantages in medical equipments, low penetration depth is a serious limitation for other applications. To realize the ultrahigh resolution and the high penetration depth at the same time, it is effective to choose the proper wavelength to maximize the light penetration and enhance the image contrast at deeper depths. Recently, we have demonstrated ultrahigh resolution and high penetration depth OCT by use of all-fiber based Gaussian shaped supercontinuum source at 1.7 ?m center wavelength. Gaussian-like supercontinuum with 360 nm bandwidth at center wavelength of 1.7 ?m was generated by ultrashort pulse Er doped fiber laser based system. In this paper, using 0.8 ?m and 1.3 ?m SC sources in addition to the 1.7 ?m SC source, we have investigated the wavelength dependence of ultrahigh resolution OCT in terms of penetration depth. Longitudinal resolutions at each wavelength region are almost 4.6 ?m in air. The obtained sensitivity was 95 dB for all wavelength regions. We confirmed the difference of imaging contrast and penetration depth with hamster's cheek pouch and so on. As the wavelength was increased, the magnitude of penetration depth was increased for these samples.

  11. Status of the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Palmer, D.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Owens, A.; Hurley, K.; Pehl, R.; Madden, N.

    1995-09-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) was launched aboard the GGS/WIND spacecraft on November 1, 1994. After several deep space orbits (2 yrs) WIND will eventually be injected into a halo orbit around the Sun-EarthL 1 point. TGRS consists of a 215 cm3 high purityn-type Ge crystal which is kept at cryogenic temperatures by a passive radiative cooler. The energy range covered by the instrument is 25 8000 keV with an energy resolution of 2 3 keV. The primary task of TGRS is to perform high resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. Additional objectives are the study of transient x-ray pulsars and, using an on-board passive occulter, the long-term monitoring of sources such as the Crab and the Galactic Center. Since launch, TGRS has been performing exceedingly well, and all the important experiment parameters such as background levels, gain, and resolution have proven to be very stable. To date, TGRS has detected 27 GRBs and three solar flares. Preliminary analysis of our data also indicates that TGRS is indeed sensitive to sources such as the Crab and the Galactic Center.

  12. Quantitative criteria for assessment of gamma-ray imager performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, Steve; Keller, Kristi; Malik, Hans

    2015-08-01

    In recent years gamma ray imagers such as the GammaCamTM and Polaris have demonstrated good imaging performance in the field. Imager performance is often summarized as "resolution", either angular, or spatial at some distance from the imager, however the definition of resolution is not always related to the ability to image an object. It is difficult to quantitatively compare imagers without a common definition of image quality. This paper examines three categories of definition: point source; line source; and area source. It discusses the details of those definitions and which ones are more relevant for different situations. Metrics such as Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM), variations on the Rayleigh criterion, and some analogous to National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) are discussed. The performance against these metrics is evaluated for a high resolution coded aperture imager modeled using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP), and for a medium resolution imager measured in the lab.

  13. Pulsed-gas glow discharge for ultrahigh mass resolution measurements with fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Watson, C H; Barshick, C M; Wronka, J; Laukien, F H; Eyler, J R

    1996-02-01

    A new pulsed-gas glow discharge (GD) source has been developed for use with an external ion source Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. With pulsed argon gas introduction into the GD source, the gas load and pressure in the mass analyzer region were greatly reduced; this resulted in improved mass resolution. Mass resolution of greater than 1?450?000 (fwhm) has been achieved for Cu(+) ions from a brass sample, the highest reported for any type of GD mass spectrometer. The pulsed-gas GD source promises analytical usefulness for ultrahigh resolution measurements in GD mass spectrometry. PMID:21619092

  14. Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography using spatial coherence gating and quasi-monochromatic illumination.

    PubMed

    Safrani, Avner; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2012-02-15

    We developed an ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) microscope that is based on the spatial, rather than the temporal, coherence gating. The microscope is capable of observing three-dimensional microbiological structures as small as 0.4 μm × 0.4 μm × 1.0 μm (xyz) using quasi-monochromatic light and a liquid crystal retarder. Unlike traditional FF-OCT systems, this microscope can be operated in high resolution for any preferable wavelength with minimized defocusing and dispersion effects. High-resolution images of an onion cell are presented. PMID:22344072

  15. Demystifying an Unidentified EGRET Source by VHE gamma-ray Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, Olaf; Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-04-17

    In a novel approach in observational high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, observations carried out by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes provide necessary templates to pinpoint the nature of intriguing, yet unidentified EGRET gamma-ray sources. Using GeV-photons detected by CGRO EGRET and taking advantage of high spatial resolution images from H.E.S.S. observations, we were able to shed new light on the EGRET observed gamma-ray emission in the Kookaburra complex, whose previous coverage in the literature is some-what contradictory. 3EGJ1420-6038 very likely accounts for two GeV gamma-ray sources (E>1 GeV), both in positional coincidence with the recently reported pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) by HESS in the Kookaburra/Rabbit complex. PWN associations at VHE energies, supported by accumulating evidence from observations in the radio and X-ray band, are indicative for the PSR/plerionic origin of spatially coincident, but still unidentified Galactic gamma-ray sources from EGRET. This not only supports the already suggested connection between variable, but unidentified low-latitude gamma-ray sources with pulsar wind nebulae (3EGJ1420-6038 has been suggested as PWN candidate previously), it also documents the ability of resolving apparently confused EGRET sources by connecting the GeV emission as measured from a large-aperture space-based gamma-ray instrument with narrow field-of-view but superior spatial resolution observations by ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, a very promising identification technique for achieving convincing individual source identifications in the era of GLAST-LAT.

  16. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  17. Accelerator test of the coded aperture mask technique for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, T. L.; Frye, G. M., Jr.; Owens, A.; Carter, J. N.; Ramsden, D.

    1982-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray telescope employing the coded aperture mask technique has been constructed and its response to a point source of 20 MeV gamma-rays has been measured. The point spread function is approximately a Gaussian with a standard deviation of 12 arc minutes. This resolution is consistent with the cell size of the mask used and the spatial resolution of the detector. In the context of the present experiment, the error radius of the source position (90 percent confidence level) is 6.1 arc minutes.

  18. Calibration of a gamma-ray telescope using tagged position annihilation photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Dodge, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of detection efficiency, angular resolution, and energy resolution properties of a gamma ray telescope used to study celestial gamma rays from balloon flight altitudes are described. Nearly monochromatic photons produced at the National Bureau of Standards tagged photon facility were used for the calibration. Details of the photon beam configuration and properties and results of the measurements made at photon energies of 15.1 and 31.1 MeV are presented. Finally, the data are compared with a Monte Carlo analysis of the instrument properties.

  19. Studying the High Energy Gamma Ray Sky with Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamae, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Thompson, D. J.; Watanabe, K.

    1998-01-01

    Building on the success of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will make a major step in the study of such subjects as blazars, gamma Ray bursts, the search for dark matter, supernova remnants, pulsars, diffuse radiation, and unidentified high energy sources. The instrument will be built on new and mature detector technologies such as silicon strip detectors, low-power low-noise LSI, and a multilevel data acquisition system. GLAST is in the research and development phase, and one full tower (of 25 total) is now being built in collaborating institutes. The prototype tower will be tested thoroughly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the fall of 1999.

  20. Swift's 500th Gamma Ray Burst - Duration: 64 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 13, 2010, NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer satellite discovered its 500th burst. Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst (GRB), report its position so that others...

  1. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics: Solar gamma ray astronomy on solar maximum mission. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The SMM gamma ray experiment and the important scientific capabilities of the instrument are discussed. The flare size detectable as a function of spectrum integration time was studied. A preliminary estimate indicates that a solar gamma ray line at 4.4 MeV one-fifth the intensity of that believed to have been emitted on 4 August 1972 can be detected in approximately 1000 sec with a confidence level of 99%.

  2. Optophysiology using functional ultrahigh resolution OCT: from in vitro animal to in vivo human measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterhuber, A.; Bizheva, K.; Hermann, B.; Povazay, B.; Pflug, R.; Qui, P.; Lessl, M.; Sattmann, H.; Anger, E.; Reitsamer, H.; Popov, S.; Schmidt-Erfurth, U.; Taylor, J. R.; Ahnelt, P.; Drexler, W.

    2006-02-01

    A functional extension of ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR OCT) has been developed, that has the potential to establish this technique as an optical analogue to electrophysiology, by detecting depth resolved variations in optical backscattering caused by physiological tissue changes. This technique has been used to perform in vitro studies on excised, but physiologically intact, rabbit retinas and in vivo experiments on human retinas. UHR OCT has been synchronized with the white light stimulus to properly detected spatially resolved alterations in optical backscattering over time caused by lightinduced intraretinal, physiological changes and has been correlated with simultaneous ERG recordings. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential of this novel extension of UHR OCT to detect time-dependent optical backscattering changes after application of a white light stimulus in specific retinal layers, especially in the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptor layer. Control experiments, including no light stimulus or application of drugs (in in vitro studies only) that inhibit the physiological responses of certain type of retinal cells confirm the physiological origin of the detected backscattering changes. Detection of cell activity and cell physiology by UHR OCT would enable a better understanding of basic physiological phenomena and may also contribute to better understanding of retinal pathogenesis.

  3. Nucleotide-binding flexibility in ultrahigh-resolution structures of the SRP GTPase Ffh

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, U.D.; Focia, P.J.; Freymann, D.M.

    2008-10-24

    Two structures of the nucleotide-bound NG domain of Ffh, the GTPase subunit of the bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP), have been determined at ultrahigh resolution in similar crystal forms. One is GDP-bound and one is GMPPCP-bound. The asymmetric unit of each structure contains two protein monomers, each of which exhibits differences in nucleotide-binding conformation and occupancy. The GDP-bound Ffh NG exhibits two binding conformations in one monomer but not the other and the GMPPCP-bound protein exhibits full occupancy of the nucleotide in one monomer but only partial occupancy in the other. Thus, under the same solution conditions, each crystal reveals multiple binding states that suggest that even when nucleotide is bound its position in the Ffh NG active site is dynamic. Some differences in the positioning of the bound nucleotide may arise from differences in the crystal-packing environment and specific factors that have been identified include the relative positions of the N and G domains, small conformational changes in the P-loop, the positions of waters buried within the active site and shifts in the closing loop that packs against the guanine base. However, 'loose' binding may have biological significance in promoting facile nucleotide exchange and providing a mechanism for priming the SRP GTPase prior to its activation in its complex with the SRP receptor.

  4. Photolysis pathway of imazapic in aqueous solution: ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry analysis of intermediates.

    PubMed

    Harir, M; Gaspar, A; Frommberger, M; Lucio, M; El Azzouzi, M; Martens, D; Kettrup, A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph

    2007-11-28

    Direct degradation of imazapic, an herbicide of the imidazoline family, has been investigated in aqueous solution at different concentrations, pH values, and temperatures. The efficiency of the photodegradation process has been evaluated through degradation rate constants that could be fitted best with pseudo-first-order kinetics ( Ct = C0 e(- kt )). Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR/MS) was used in electrospray ionization mode as a tool to study the photolysis process on a molecular level, whereas UV-vis and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis were used to follow, by time, the evolution of the intermediates. Taking advantage of the high resolving power of FTICR/MS to perform precise formula assignments taking account of the natural abundance of isotopes, we herein propose and demonstrate an approach using 2D-derived van Krevelen visualization (O/C, H/C, m/z) to confirm the formation of imazapic intermediates. Such an approach allows a qualitative analysis of intermediates and elucidates the plausible reaction pathways of the photolysis process. More than eight photoproducts were separated and identified as a phototransformation of the imidazole ring. A mechanistical pathway was proposed. PMID:17960882

  5. Simultaneous optical/gamma-ray observations of GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, J.; Wenzel, W.; Hudec, R.; Moskalenko, E. I.; Metlov, V.; Chernych, N. S.; Getman, V. S.; Ziener, Rainer; Birkle, K.; Bade, N.

    1994-01-01

    Details on the project to search for serendipitous time correlated optical photographic observations of Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB's) are presented. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which were exposed simultaneously with a gamma ray burst detected by the gamma ray instrument team (BATSE) and contain the burst position. The results for the first two years of the gamma ray instrument team operation are presented.

  6. Gamma-ray astronomy--A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-rays provide us with powerful insight into the highest energy processes occurring in the cosmos. This review highlights some of the progress in our understanding of gamma-ray astronomy that has been enabled by new data from GRANAT and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observaatory, and suggests requirements for future progress. In particular, the unique role of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission and concurrent multiwavelength observations is highlighted.

  7. The origin and implications of gamma rays from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1975-01-01

    Solar flares studied in the gamma ray region provide essential information on accelerated nuclei that can be obtained in no other way. A multitude of physical processes, such as particle acceleration, nuclear reactions, positron and neutron physics, and kinematical line broadening, come into consideration at gamma ray energies. Gamma ray observations are complementary to hard X ray observations, since both provide information on accelerated particles. It appears that only in the gamma ray region do these particles produce distinct spectral lines.

  8. Applications of Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    A short, convenient computer program based on the Monte Carlo method that was developed to generate simulated gamma-ray spectra has been found to have useful applications in research and teaching. In research, we use it to predict spectra in neutron activation analysis (NAA), particularly in prompt gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA). In teaching, it is used to illustrate the dependence of detector response functions on the nature of gamma-ray interactions, the incident gamma-ray energy, and detector geometry.

  9. Monte Carlo calibration of the SMM gamma ray spectrometer for high energy gamma rays and neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Reppin, C.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was primarily designed and calibrated for nuclear gamma ray line measurements, but also has a high energy mode which allows the detection of gamma rays at energies above 10 MeV and solar neutrons above 20 MeV. The GRS response has been extrapolated until now for high energy gamma rays from an early design study employing Monte Carlo calculations. The response to 50 to 600 MeV solar neutrons was estimated from a simple model which did not consider secondary charged particles escaping into the veto shields. In view of numerous detections by the GRS of solar flares emitting high energy gamma rays, including at least two emitting directly detectable neutrons, the calibration of the high energy mode in the flight model has been recalculated by the use of more sophisticated Monte Carlo computer codes. New results presented show that the GRS response to gamma rays above 20 MeV and to neutrons above 100 MeV is significantly lower than the earlier estimates.

  10. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  11. Preliminary design and performance of an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer for future orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Parker, R. H.; Arnold, J. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Trombka, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    A knowledge of the composition of planets, satellites, and asteroids is of primary importance in understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is capable of measuring the composition of meter-depth surface material from orbit around any body possessing little or no atmosphere. Measurement sensitivity is determined by detector efficiency and resolution, counting time and the background flux, while the effective spatial resolution depends upon the field-of-view and counting time together with the regional contrast in composition. The advantages of using germanium as a detector of gamma rays in space are illustrated experimentally and a compact instrument cooled by passive thermal radiation is described. Calculations of the expected sensitivity of this instrument at the moon and Mars show that at least a dozen elements should be measurable, twice the number which have been isolated in the Apollo gamma-ray data

  12. EXPLORING THE NATURE OF THE GALACTIC CENTER {gamma}-RAY SOURCE WITH THE CHERENKOV TELESCOPE ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Tim; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-11-20

    Observations from multiple {gamma}-ray telescopes have uncovered a high-energy {gamma}-ray source spatially coincident with the Galactic center. Recently, a compelling model for the broadband {gamma}-ray emission has been formulated, which posits that high-energy protons emanating from Sgr A* could produce {gamma}-rays through {pi}{sup 0} decays resulting from inelastic collisions with the traversed interstellar gas in the region. Models of the gas distribution in the Galactic center region imply that the resulting {gamma}-ray morphology would be observed as a point source with all current telescopes, but that the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) may be able to detect an extended emission profile with an unmistakable morphology. Here, we critically evaluate this claim, employing a three-dimensional gas distribution model and a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and using the anticipated effective area and angular resolution of CTA. We find that the impressive angular resolution of CTA will be key to test hadronic emission models conclusively against, for example, point source or dark matter annihilation scenarios. We comment on the relevance of this result for searches for dark matter annihilation in the Galactic center region.

  13. Gamma-ray detectors; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, Elena

    The present status of research and development, and future trends in gamma-ray detectors for nuclear medical imaging, astrophysics, nuclear and particle physics, oil-well logging, and radiation monitoring and control are reviewed. Particular attention is given to well-type phoswich counters for low-flux X-ray/gamma-ray detection; energy resolution and other properties of CsI(TI) crystals; gamma-ray astronomy using a high-pressure gas scintillation drift chamber with a wave shifting fiber readout; position-sensitive semiconductor detectors for 0.5-MeV gamma rays; In photodetectors for scintillation spectroscopy; new applications of position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes; a high-bandwidth gamma monochromator; Compton-scatter imaging with energy-sensitive high-resolution detectors; a wide-range, permanent-magnet Compton spectrometer; and a high-pressure-xenon-filled cylindrical gamma-ray detector. (For individual items see A93-30102 to A93-30115)

  14. Ultrahigh-resolution seismic reflection imaging of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, A. E.; Green, A. G.; Campbell, F. M.; Horstmeyer, H.; Manukyan, E.; Langridge, R. M.; McClymont, A. F.; Mancktelow, N.; Finnemore, M.; Nobes, D. C.

    2009-11-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection surveys across active fault zones are capable of supplying key structural information required for assessments of seismic hazard and risk. We have recorded a 360 m long ultrahigh-resolution seismic reflection profile across the Alpine Fault in New Zealand. The Alpine Fault, a continental transform that juxtaposes major tectonic plates, is capable of generating large (M > 7.8) damaging earthquakes. Our seismic profile across a northern section of the fault targets fault zone structures in Holocene to late Pleistocene sediments and underlying Triassic and Paleozoic basement units from 3.5 to 150 m depth. Since ultrashallow seismic data are strongly influenced by near-surface heterogeneity and source-generated noise, an innovative processing sequence and nonstandard processing parameters are required to produce detailed information on the complex alluvial, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments and shallow to steep dipping fault-related features. We present high-quality images of structures and deformation within the fault zone that extend and complement interpretations based on shallow paleoseismic and ground-penetrating radar studies. Our images demonstrate that the Alpine Fault dips 75-80 to the southeast through the Quaternary sediments, and there is evidence that it continues to dip steeply between the shallow basement units. We interpret characteristic curved basement surfaces on either side of the Alpine Fault and deformation in the footwall as consequences of normal drag generated by the reverse-slip components of displacement on the fault. The fault dip and apparent 35 m vertical offset of the late Pleistocene erosional basement surface across the Alpine Fault yield a provisional dip-slip rate of 2.0 0.6 mm/yr. The more significant dextral-slip rate cannot be determined from our seismic profile.

  15. Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cense, Barry; Nassif, Nader A.; Chen, Teresa C.; Pierce, Mark C.; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Hyle Park, B.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2004-05-01

    We present the first ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) structural intensity images and movies of the human retina in vivo at 29.3 frames per second with 500 A-lines per frame. Data was acquired at a continuous rate of 29,300 spectra per second with a 98% duty cycle. Two consecutive spectra were coherently summed to improve sensitivity, resulting in an effective rate of 14,600 A-lines per second at an effective integration time of 68 ?s. The turn-key source was a combination of two super luminescent diodes with a combined spectral width of more than 150 nm providing 4.5 mW of power. The spectrometer of the spectraldomain OCT (SD-OCT) setup was centered around 885 nm with a bandwidth of 145 nm. The effective bandwidth in the eye was limited to approximately 100 nm due to increased absorption of wavelengths above 920 nm in the vitreous. Comparing the performance of our ultrahighresolution SD-OCT system with a conventional high-resolution time domain OCT system, the A-line rate of the spectral-domain OCT system was 59 times higher at a 5.4 dB lower sensitivity. With use of a software based dispersion compensation scheme, coherence length broadening due to dispersion mismatch between sample and reference arms was minimized. The coherence length measured from a mirror in air was equal to 4.0 ?m (n= 1). The coherence length determined from the specular reflection of the foveal umbo in vivo in a healthy human eye was equal to 3.5 ?m (n = 1.38). With this new system, two layers at the location of the retinal pigmented epithelium seem to be present, as well as small features in the inner and outer plexiform layers, which are believed to be small blood vessels.

  16. Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub--millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction--limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon--borne imaging systems requiring ultra--high resolution.

  17. An Ultra-High Resolution Investigation of Environmental Signals at Colle Gnifetti, Swiss-Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, N. E.; Bohleber, P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Wagenbach, D.; Sneed, S. B.; McCormick, M.; Erhardt, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Colle Gnifetti (CG) glacier saddle (4450m asl, Monte Rosa, Swiss-Italian Alps) is the only ice core drilling site within the European Alps suitable for archiving multi-millennial records in spite of its limited ice thickness (typically < 100 meters). Deciphering past climate signals in CG ice cores is particularly challenging due to rapid annual layer thinning and high glaciometeorological noise. As the latest addition to a unique multi-core array, our new ice core (drilled in 2013) is specifically designated for investigation using novel ultra-high resolution techniques in combination with traditional ice core analysis methods. Our novel technique - laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) produced > 8000 samples per meter for this project in comparison with the < 200 samples per meter achievable by the most state of the art continuous flow analysis (CFA) systems. Here we present LA calcium (Ca) measurements from our new ice core in comparison with co-registered CFA Ca. This dual approach emphasizes the benefits of increased resolution in the deepest sections while simultaneously demonstrating that both systems capture similar trends in the more shallow sections, including annual layers of greater age than previously established at CG. Additionally, we further examine the composition of selected depth sections, initially found to contain anomalously high Ca, Na, or S, using LA, CFA, and liquid-ICP-MS measurement of discrete acidified meltwater samples. The comprehensive characterization afforded by the combination of all three techniques may enable us to classify the anomalies, quantify their frequency of occurrence and then speculate about the atmospheric conditions connected with such changes.

  18. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and indicator species analysis to identify marker components of soil- and plant biomass-derived organic matter fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical properties of organic matter affect important soil processes such as speciation, solubilization, and transport of plant nutrients and metals. This work uses ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to determine the molecula...

  19. Spatial normalization of ultrahigh resolution 7 T magnetic resonance imaging data of the postmortem human subthalamic nucleus: a multistage approach.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Marcel; Alkemade, Anneke; Keuken, Max C; M?ller-Axt, Christa; Geyer, Stefan; Turner, Robert; Forstmann, Birte U

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel processing strategy for the spatial normalization of ultrahigh resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of small ex vivo samples into MNI standard space. We present a multistage scanning and registration method for data of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) obtained using ultrahigh 7 T MRI on four human postmortem brain samples. Four whole brains were obtained and subjected to multistage MRI scanning, corresponding to four different brain dissection stages. Data sets were acquired with an isotropic resolution of 100 ?m enabling accurate manual segmentation of the STN. Spatial normalization to MNI reference space was performed, probability maps were calculated, and results were cross-checked with an independent in vivo dataset showing significant overlay. Normalization of results obtained from small tissue samples into MNI standard space will facilitate comparison between individual subjects, as well as between studies. When combining ultrahigh resolution MRI of ex vivo samples with histological studies via blockface imaging, our method enables further insight and inference as multimodal data can be compared within the same reference space. This novel technique may be of value for research purposes using functional MRI techniques, and in the future may be of assistance for anatomical orientation in clinical practice. PMID:24663802

  20. Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses topics related to high-energy, gamma-ray astronomy (including cosmic radiation, gamma-ray detectors, high-energy gamma-ray sources, and others). Also considers motivation for the development of this field, the principal results to date, and future prospects. (JN)