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1

A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Cryostat for Ultrahigh Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

We are developing ultra-high energy resolution gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear non-proliferation and fundamental science applications. They use bulk tin absorbers attached to molybdenum-copper multilayer TESs, and have achieved an energy resolution between 50 and 90 eV FWHM for gamma-ray energies below 122 keV. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a cryostat that attains the required detector operating temperature of 0.1 K at the push of a button without the use of cryogenic liquids. It uses a two-stage mechanical pulse tube refrigerator for precooling to {approx}3 K, and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for cooling to the base temperature. The cryostat is fully automated, attains a base temperature below 30 mK without the use of cryogenic liquids, and has a hold time of {approx}2 days at 0.1 K between 1-hour demagnetization cycles. Here we discuss the performance of the cryostat for operation in a Gamma-spectrometer with 112-pixel arrays of superconducting TES detectors.

Dreyer, J G; Hertrich, T; Drury, O B; Hohne, J; Friedrich, S

2008-06-30

2

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Prompt TeV Gamma Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as one {\\it possible} class of sources of the Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) events observed up to energies $\\gsim10^{20}\\ev$. The synchrotron radiation of the highest energy protons accelerated within the GRB source should produce gamma rays up to TeV energies. Here we briefly discuss the implications on the energetics of the GRB from the point of view of the detectability of the prompt TeV gamma rays of proton-synchrotron origin in GRBs in the up-coming ICECUBE muon detector in the south pole.

Pijushpani Bhattacharjee; Nayantara Gupta

2003-05-12

3

Gamma-ray burst observations by the HEAO3 high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of cosmic gamma-ray bursts with the JPL High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on HEAO-3 are discussed. Two bursts seen on 1979 November 16 are of particular interest. The first event occurred at 14:16:41 UT and lasted for eight seconds. This event was detected only by the instrument’s five CsI shield segments. The second event occurred 61 sec later, at 14:17:42 UT,

Wm. A. Wheaton; James C. Ling; William A. Mahoney; Guenter R. Riegler; Allan S. Jacobson

1982-01-01

4

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts: Implications of the Recent Observational Results by Milagro  

E-print Network

It has been speculated earlier that Gamma Ray Bursts are sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Recently, the search for high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts by Milagro group has put limits on the isotropic luminosity of these transient sources in very high energy photons. The implications of the results obtained by Milagro to our understanding of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum from these sources have been discussed in the present work.

Nayantara Gupta

2004-10-07

5

Detecting Gamma-Ray Bursts with Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray bursts are candidate sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. While cosmic rays are scattered in the intervening magnetic field, neutrinos point back to their sources being charge neutral and make neutrino astronomy possible. Detection of ultrahigh energy neutrinos by future experiments such as ANITA, ANTARES, Ice-Cube and RICE can provide useful information such as particle acceleration, radiation mechanism and magnetic field about the sources and their progenitors. Detection of ultrahigh energy neutrinos which point back to their sources may establish gamma-ray bursts as the sources of GZK cosmic rays.

Razzaque, Soebur; Mészáros, Peter; Waxman, Eli

6

The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer: A New High Resolution Detector for Gamma-Ray Burst Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) to be flown aboard the WIND spacecraft is primarily designed to perform high resolution spectroscopy of transient gamma-ray events, such as cosmic [gamma]-ray bursts and solar flares, over the energy range 20 keV to 10 MeV with an expected spectroscopic resolution of E\\/[delta]E = 500. The detector itself consists of a 215 cm[sup 3] high

H. Seifert; R. Baker; T. L. Cline; N. Gehrels; J. Jermakian; T. Nolan; R. Ramaty; D. A. Sheppard; G. Smith; D. E. Stilwell; B. J. Teegarden; J. Trombka; A. Owens; C. P. Cork; D. A. Landis; P. N. Luke; N. W. Madden; D. Malone; R. H. Pehl; H. Yaver; K. Hurley; S. Mathias; A. H. Post Jr.

1992-01-01

7

PANGU: A high resolution gamma-ray space telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the instrument concept of a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV (from >=10 MeV to >=1 GeV) gamma-ray photon detection. This mission, named PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), has been suggested as a candidate for the joint small mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with PANGU, covering Galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for dark matter decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented point spread function can be achieved with a pair-production telescope with a large number of thin active tracking layers to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The frequent full-sky survey at sub-GeV with PANGU's large field of view and significantly improved point spread function would provide crucial information to GeV-TeV astrophysics for current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA, and other multi-wavelength telescopes.

Wu, Xin; Su, Meng; Bravar, Alessandro; Chang, Jin; Fan, Yizhong; Pohl, Martin; Walter, Roland

2014-07-01

8

PANGU: A High Resolution Gamma-Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV gamma-ray astronomy as a candidate for the CAS-ESA joint small mission. This mission, called PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), will open up a unique window of electromagnetic spectrum that has never been explored with great precision. A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with a telescope that has an angular resolution about one order of magnitude better than the currently operating Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) in the sub-GeV range, covering galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for Dark Matter (DM) decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented resolution can be achieved with a pair-production telescope that, instead of the high-Z converter commonly used, relies on a large number of thin active tracking layers to increase the photon conversion probability, and to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon conversion identification and photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range, where the opening angle between the electron and positron is relatively large. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The sub-GeV full sky survey by PANGU would provides crucial link with GeV to TeV maps from current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA.

Su, Meng

2014-08-01

9

16 November 1979 gamma-ray bursts observed with HEAO3 High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 1979 November 16, two gamma-ray bursts were observed by the High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on HEAO-3. The first event occurred at 14:16:41 U.T. and lasted about eight seconds. This event was detected only by the instrument's five CsI anticoincidence shield pieces. The second event occurred 61 sec later, at 14:17:42, and lasted about 18 sec. This event was clearly detected

W. A. Wheaton; J. C. Ling; W. A. Mahoney; A. S. Jacobson

1981-01-01

10

The HEAO-3 high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features and results produced by the HEAO 3 spacecraft gamma ray spectrometer are outlined. The instrument had high resolution germanium detectors, each 55 mm diam and 45 mm long, surrounded by a cesium iodide anticoincidence shield with four quadrants of well-crystal and a collimayor crystal. The crystals had a total effective area of 70 sq cm at 100 keV and 26.4 sq cm at .511 MeV with a spectral resolution at launch of .23 percent at 1.33 MeV. The spacecraft travels a circular orbit of 500 km altitude with an inclination of 43.6 deg. Solid methane and ammonia cryogenic fluids refrigerated the crystals for 8.5 mos, after which the shield crystals functioned as isotropic detectors for solar flare events and gamma ray bursts until mission termination in May 1981. A total of 37 solar flare type events were observed, with gamma ray events occurring with flares of class X1 or stronger.

Jacobson, A. S.

1982-01-01

11

Pointlike gamma ray sources as signatures of distant accelerators of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays.  

PubMed

We discuss the possibility of observing distant accelerators of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in synchrotron gamma rays. Protons propagating away from their acceleration sites produce extremely energetic electrons during photopion interactions with cosmic microwave background photons. If the accelerator is embedded in a magnetized region, these electrons will emit high energy synchrotron radiation. The resulting synchrotron source is expected to be pointlike, steady, and detectable in the GeV-TeV energy range if the magnetic field is at the nanoGauss level. PMID:16384444

Gabici, Stefano; Aharonian, Felix A

2005-12-16

12

Are gamma-ray bursts the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconsider the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the internal shock model, assuming a pure proton composition of the UHECRs. For the first time, we combine the information from gamma-rays, cosmic rays, prompt neutrinos, and cosmogenic neutrinos quantitatively in a joint cosmic ray production and propagation model, and we show that the information on the cosmic energy budget can be obtained as a consequence. In addition to the neutron model, we consider alternative scenarios for the cosmic ray escape from the GRBs, i.e., that cosmic rays can leak from the sources. We find that the dip model, which describes the ankle in UHECR observations by the pair production dip, is strongly disfavored in combination with the internal shock model because (a) unrealistically high baryonic loadings (energy in protons versus energy in electrons/gamma-rays) are needed for the individual GRBs and (b) the prompt neutrino flux easily overshoots the corresponding neutrino bound. On the other hand, GRBs may account for the UHECRs in the ankle transition model if cosmic rays leak out from the source at the highest energies. In that case, we demonstrate that future neutrino observations can efficiently test most of the parameter space - unless the baryonic loading is much larger than previously anticipated.

Baerwald, Philipp; Bustamante, Mauricio; Winter, Walter

2015-03-01

13

High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in uranium exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary-type uranium deposits accumulate at favorable sites along a migration path which may be kilometers in length. Their source is a large volume of rock from which the uranium has been leached. The geochemical mobilities and half lives of uranium and its daughter products vary widely so that they are transported from the source rocks, at different rates, along the migration path to their ultimate site. The radioactive disequilibrium resulting from this process has been well documented in the immediate vicinity of ore deposits, and disequilibrium is commonly recorded on gamma-ray logs up the hydraulic gradient from uranium ore. Little is known about the state of secular equilibrium in the leached host rocks, which often represent the only part of the migration path that is at or near the surface and is thus most accessible to the exploration geophysicist. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry provides a means of investigating the disequilibrium associated with uranium leaching and migration. Direct measurement of uranium can be made by this method, and the equivalent weight percents can be determined for six of the seven daughter-product decay groups that characterize the state of radioactive equilibrium. The technique has been used quantitatively in laboratory studies, where the results compare favorably with radiochemical analyses; field experiments suggest that semi-quantitative data may be obtained at the outcrop.

Moxham, Robert M.; Tanner, Allan B.

1977-01-01

14

Generation of ultrahigh-energy gamma rays in accreting x ray pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relativistic protons producing ultrahigh energy gamma rays as a result of nuclear collisions ought to be generated in close proximity to the surface of a neutron star due to accretion. The main features of the mechanism in question are a high efficiency of conversion of the gravitational energy of the accreting matter into acceleration energy and a high efficiency of the acceleration itself. It is shown that in accretion to a neutron star with a strong magnetic field, a loss cone type distribution of accreting protons is formed, which due to instability effectively generates small scale Alfven and proton cyclotron waves, as well as nonlinear waves (magneto-acoustic and Alfven solitons). The electric field of the moving solitons may accelerate the protons to energies of greater than 10(exp 15) eV. The region of acceleration is not locally isolated, but extends from its surface. New possible sources of ultrahigh energy gamma rays are predicted. They may be binary x ray systems containing neutron stars with magnetic fields of about 10(exp 9) gauss.

Gnedin, Yu. N.; Ikhsanov, N. R.

1991-01-01

15

The Transient Gamma-ray Spectrometer: a new high resolution detector for gamma-ray burst spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) to be flown aboard the WIND spacecraft is primarily designed to perform high resolution spectroscopy of transient ?-ray events, such as cosmic ?-ray bursts and solar flares, over the energy range 15 keV to 8.2 MeV with an unexpected spectroscopic resolution of 2 keV at 1 MeV. The detector itself consists of a 215 cc

H. Seifert; R. Baker; T. L. Cline; N. Gehrels; J. Jermakian; T. Nolan; R. Ramaty; D. A. Sheppard; G. Smith; D. E. Stilwell; B. J. Teegarden; J. Trombka; A. Owens; C. P. Cork; D. A. Landis; P. N. Luke; N. W. Madden; D. Malone; R. H. Pehl; H. Yaver; K. Hurley; S. Mathias; A. H. Post Jr.

1993-01-01

16

High resolution spectroscopy from low altitude satellites. [gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The P 78 1 satellite to be placed in a synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 550-660 km will carry two identical high resolution spectrometers each consisting of a single (approximately 85 cc) intrinsic germanium IGE detector. The payload also includes a pair of phoswitch scintillators, an array of CdTe detectors and several particle detectors, all of which are mounted on the wheel of the satellite. The intrinsic high purity IGE detectors receive cooling from two Stirling cycle refrigerators and facilitate the assembly of large and complex detector arrays planned for the next generation of high sensitivity instruments such as those planned for the gamma ray observatory. The major subsystems of the spectrometer are discussed as well as its capabilities.

Nakano, G. H.; Imhof, W. L.

1978-01-01

17

High-Energy Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy by High-Resolution Spectrometer:. Hhs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate response of the high-resolution high-energy photon spectrometer (HHS) to high-energy gamma rays and obtain reliable response functions of the detector, the response to a monochromatic 10,763-keV gamma ray, produced through 27Al(p,?)28Si reaction at Ep = 992 keV resonance, was measured using the HHS. The observed response of the HHS to the gamma ray shows supreme resolution and S/N ratio for the gamma ray.

Furutaka, K.; Harada, H.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Sugimoto, S.; Osaka, K.; Igashira, M.; Ohsaki, T.

2003-06-01

18

Monte Carlo Simulations of UltraHigh Energy Resolution Gamma Detectors for Nuclear Safeguards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high energy resolution superconducting gamma-ray detectors can improve the accuracy of non-destructive analysis for unknown radioactive materials. These detectors offer an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over conventional high purity germanium detectors. The increase in resolution reduces errors from line overlap and allows for the identification of weaker gamma-rays by increasing the magnitude of the peaks above the background.

A Robles; O B Drury; S Friedrich

2009-01-01

19

High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at GANIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray spectroscopy is intensively used at GANIL to measure low lying states in exotic nuclei on the neutron-rich as well as on the neutron-deficient side of the nuclear chart. On the neutron deficient border, gamma-rays have been observed for the first time in 92Pd . The level scheme which could be established points to the role of isoscalar pairing. On the neutron rich side, the lifetime of excited states in nuclei around 68Ni have been been measured using the plunger technique. This allows us to study the evolution of collectivity in a broad range of nuclei. In 2014 GANIL will host the AGATA array for a campaign of at least 2 years. This array is based on the gamma-ray tracking technique, which allows an impressive gain in resolving power.

de France, G.

2014-11-01

20

16 November 1979 gamma-ray bursts observed with HEAO-3 High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 1979 November 16, two gamma-ray bursts were observed by the High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on HEAO-3. The first event occurred at 14:16:41 U.T. and lasted about eight seconds. This event was detected only by the instrument's five CsI anticoincidence shield pieces. The second event occurred 61 sec later, at 14:17:42, and lasted about 18 sec. This event was clearly detected by the high-resolution germanium detectors. Because of the close temporal coincidence of the two events, the possibility is considered that both events originated from one celestial source, and that the scanning motion of HEAO-3 (nominal spin period 20 min) excluded the first from the approximately 30 deg FWHM field of view of the germanium detectors but included the second. Directional information from the relative response of the five shield pieces and the earth occultation constraint are all consistent with this interpretation and suggest a source location near RA equals 10 hr, Dec equals 45 deg. No significant spectral features appear in the high-resolution data from the second burst.

Wheaton, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Mahoney, W. A.; Jacobson, A. S.

1982-01-01

21

CONSTRAINING THE EMISSIVITY OF ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS IN THE DISTANT UNIVERSE WITH THE DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

Ultrahigh cosmic rays (UHECRs) with energies {approx}> 10{sup 19} eV emitted at cosmological distances will be attenuated by cosmic microwave and infrared background radiation through photohadronic processes. Lower energy extragalactic cosmic rays ({approx}10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} eV) can only travel a linear distance smaller than {approx}Gpc in a Hubble time due to the diffusion if the extragalactic magnetic fields are as strong as nano-Gauss. These prevent us from directly observing most of the UHECRs in the universe, and thus the observed UHECR intensity reflects only the emissivity in the nearby universe within hundreds of Mpc. However, UHECRs in the distant universe, through interactions with the cosmic background photons, produce UHE electrons and gamma rays that in turn initiate electromagnetic cascades on cosmic background photons. This secondary cascade radiation forms part of the extragalactic diffuse GeV-TeV gamma-ray radiation and, unlike the original UHECRs, is observable. Motivated by new measurements of extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background radiation by Fermi/Large Area Telescope, we obtained upper limit placed on the UHECR emissivity in the distant universe by requiring that the cascade radiation they produce not exceed the observed levels. By comparison with the gamma-ray emissivity of candidate UHECR sources (such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei) at high redshifts, we find that the obtained upper limit for a flat proton spectrum is {approx_equal} 10{sup 1.5} times larger than the gamma-ray emissivity in GRBs and {approx_equal} 10 times smaller than the gamma-ray emissivity in BL Lac objects. In the case of iron nuclei composition, the derived upper limit of UHECR emissivity is a factor of 3-5 times higher. Robust upper limit on the cosmogenic neutrino flux is further obtained, which is marginally reachable by the Icecube detector and the next-generation detector JEM-EUSO.

Wang Xiangyu; Liu Ruoyu [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Aharonian, Felix [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-08-01

22

THE FIRST LIMITS ON THE ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINO FLUENCE FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

We set the first limits on the ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino fluence at energies greater than 10{sup 9} GeV from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on data from the second flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA). During the 31 day flight of ANITA-II, 26 GRBs were recorded by Swift or Fermi. Of these, we analyzed the 12 GRBs which occurred during quiet periods when the payload was away from anthropogenic activity. In a blind analysis, we observe 0 events on a total background of 0.0044 events in the combined prompt window for all 12 low-background bursts. We also observe 0 events from the remaining 14 bursts. We place a 90% confidence level limit on the E{sup -4} prompt neutrino fluence between 10{sup 8} GeV < E < 10{sup 12} GeV of E{sup 4}{Phi} = 2.5 x 10{sup 17} GeV{sup 3} cm{sup -2} from GRB090107A. This is the first reported limit on the UHE neutrino fluence from GRBs above 10{sup 9} GeV, and the strongest limit above 10{sup 8} GeV.

Vieregg, A. G.; Belov, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Palladino, K.; Allison, P.; Baughman, B. M.; Beatty, J. J.; Connolly, A.; Grashorn, E. W. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Besson, D. Z.; Detrixhe, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Bevan, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Binns, W. R.; Dowkontt, P. F. [Department of Physics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Chen, C.; Chen, P. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Clem, J. M.; De Marco, D. [Department of Physics, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); DuVernois, M.; Gorham, P. W.; Hill, B., E-mail: avieregg@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2011-07-20

23

New high-resolution gamma-ray burst detector: all-sky x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy monitor (AXGAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide field-of-view, arcsecond imaging, high energy resolution x-ray and low energy gamma ray detector is proposed for a future space mission. It is specifically designed to monitor and study gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with high energy and angular resolution and also find counterparts at other wavelengths. Detection of GRBs requires wide field-of-view ((pi) to 2 (pi) field-of-view) and high

Tumay O. Tuemer; Terrence J. O'Neill; Kevin Hurley; Hakki Ogelman; Robert J. Paulos; Richard C. Puetter; Eric Beuville; William J. Hamilton; Ray Proctor

1997-01-01

24

Development of a high resolution liquid xenon imaging chamber for gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to develop the technology of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays from astrophysical sources emitting in the low to medium energy regime. In particular, the technical challenges and the physical processes relevant to the realization of the LXe detector operated as a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) were addressed and studied. Experimental results were obtained on the following topics: (1) long distance drift of free electrons in LXe (purity); (2) scintillation light yield for electrons and alphas in LXe (triggering); and (3) ionization yield for electrons and gamma rays in LXe (energy resolution). The major results from the investigations are summarized.

Aprile, Elena

1991-01-01

25

High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals  

DOEpatents

A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

2011-05-17

26

High Resolution Gamma Ray Tomography and its Application to the Measurement of Phase Fractions in Chemical Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied gamma ray tomography to the problem of phase fraction measurement in chemical reactors. Therefore, we used a new tomography device that is operated with a Cs-137 source and a high resolution gamma ray detector. One application example is the reconstruction of the fluid distribution and the measurement of radial gas fraction profiles in a laboratory scale stirred vessel.

Uwe Hampel; Andre Bieberle; Eckhard Schleicher; Günther Hessel; Cornelius Zippe; Hans-Jürgen Friedrich

2007-01-01

27

Ultrahigh resolution AMOLED  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on

Ihor Wacyk; Olivier Prache; Amal Ghosh

2011-01-01

28

High-resolution gamma-ray detectors for nuclear spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transition-edge sensor (TES) calorimeters are an attractive technology for precision measurements of electromagnetic radiation. However, in order to have a high-energy resolution detector, a small detector volume must be used, thereby limiting the count-rate and efficiency of the detector. As a result, many TES calorimeters must be operated simultaneously in order to achieve an appreciable detector count rate and stopping

Mark Forrest Cunningham

2002-01-01

29

High resolution X- and gamma-ray spectroscopy of cosmic X-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high resolution X-ray spectrometer and large area phoswich detector were designed and co-aligned in a common elevation mounting in order to measure solar and cosmic X-ray and gamma ray emission in the 13 to 600 KeV energy range from a balloon. The instrument is described and results obtained for the Crab Nebula, the supernova remnant Cas A, and the Sun are discussed and analyzed.

Lin, R. P.

1983-01-01

30

A High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray TES Microcalorimeter with Fast Response Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development of the fast response gamma-ray TES microcalorimeter composed of a bulk Sn absorber coupled to\\u000a a Ti\\/Au TES. In order to realize a TES microcalorimeter with a large absorber and a fast response time, besides taking saturation\\u000a and linearity into account, study of the effect of thermal diffusion in the absorber on energy resolution is

T. Oshima; Y. Yamakawa; H. Kurabayashi; A. Hoshino; Y. Ishisaki; T. Ohashi; K. Mitsuda; K. Tanaka

2008-01-01

31

High resolution correlation studies of continuum gamma rays of /sup 170/Hf  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a high resolution gamma-gamma energy correlation study using 18 anti-Compton shielded GE detectors in the Spin Spectrometer along with 52 NaI elements. The fusion reaction /sup 130/Te /plus/ /sup 44/Ca was produced with a 200-MeV /sup 44/Ca beam from the HHIRF tandem accelerator. A total of 5 /times/ 10/sup 8/ two- and higher-fold Ge coincidence events, along with the associated information from the 52 NaI detectors of the Spin Spectrometer were recorded. The data were first corrected for the variation in gains of the detectors and then the total pulse height of the gamma ray (H) and the coincidence fold (k) for each event were calculated. From these data, we can extract the spin and excitation energy dependence of the correlation properties of the continuum gamma rays. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Lee, I.Y.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Johnson, N.R.; McGowan, F.K.; Riley, M.A.; Sarantites, D.G.

1988-01-01

32

High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals  

DOEpatents

A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

2008-12-23

33

New high-resolution gamma-ray burst detector: all-sky x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy monitor (AXGAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide field-of-view, arcsecond imaging, high energy resolution x-ray and low energy gamma ray detector is proposed for a future space mission. It is specifically designed to monitor and study gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with high energy and angular resolution and also find counterparts at other wavelengths. Detection of GRBs requires wide field-of-view ((pi) to 2 (pi) field-of-view) and high sensitivity. This is achieved by using high quantum efficiency CdZnTe pixel detectors with a low energy threshold (few keV) to observe the larger flux levels at lower energies, and large effective area (625 to 1,000 cm(superscript 2)) per coded aperture imaging module. Counterpart searches can only be done with ultra high angular resolution detectors (10 to 30 arcsecond FWHM) which gives 1 to 5 arcsecond position determination especially for strong GRBs. A few arcsecond size error box is expected to contain at most one object observed at another wavelength. This will be achieved by using ultra high spatial resolution pixel detectors (100 by 100 microns) and a similar resolution coded aperture to achieve the required angular resolution. AXGAM also has two other important advantages over similar detectors: (1) excellent low energy response (greater than 1 keV) and (2) high energy resolution (less than 6% at 5.9 keV, less than 3% at 14 keV, less than 4% at 122 keV). The low energy range may provide important new information on GRBs and the high energy resolution is expected to help in the observation and identification of emission and absorption lines in the GRB spectrum. The effective energy range is planned to be 2 to 200 keV which is exceptionally wide for such a detector. AXGAM will be built in the form of a 'bucky ball' using a coded aperture mask in a semi-geodesic dome arrangement placed over a two-dimensional, high resolution CdZnTe pixel detector array using newly developed p-i-n detector technology. The p-i-n structure decreases the electron and hole trapping effect and increases energy resolution significantly. The major scientific goals of the proposed mission in addition to continuously monitoring gamma- ray bursts, is to observe AGNs, transient phenomena, isolated and binary pulsars, and solar flares. A space deployed AXGAM detector is expected to observe several hundred gamma ray bursts per year.

Tuemer, Tumay O.; O'Neill, Terrence J.; Hurley, Kevin; Ogelman, Hakki; Paulos, Robert J.; Puetter, Richard C.; Beuville, Eric; Hamilton, William J.; Proctor, Ray

1997-10-01

34

Simulating gamma-ray energy resolution in scintillators due to electron-hole pair statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The best-possible limit to gamma-ray energy resolution in scintillators is given by the statistics of the number of electron-hole pairs produced by an incident gamma-ray, characterized by the Fano factor. The Fano factor is primarily controlled by the inelastic scattering during the electron cascade, which could be modeled by Monte Carlo simulation. Commonly used radiation transport codes do not follow the electrons to low enough energies to calculate electron-hole pair distributions. A Monte Carlo simulation for inelastic electron scattering is introduced based on cross-sections derived from data measured by Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) for fast electrons. This inelastic scattering model was incorporated into the radiation transport code Penelope so that it could accurately count the number of electron-hole pairs produced by a gamma-ray. The Fano factor was calculated for the scintillators cerium fluoride (CeF 3) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (Lu 2SiO 5).

Narayan, R. D.; Miranda, R.; Rez, P.

2011-11-01

35

High resolution X- and gamma-ray spectroscopy of solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A balloon-borne X- and gamma-ray instrument was developed, fabricated, and flown. This instrument has the highest energy resolution of any instrument flown to date for measurements of solar and cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray emission in the 13 to 600 keV energy range. The purpose of the solar measurements was to study electron acceleration and solar flare energy release processes. The cosmic observations were to search for cyclotron line features from neutron stars and for low energy gamma-ray lines from nucleosynthesis. The instrument consists of four 4 cm diameter, 1.3 cm thick, planar intrinsic germanium detectors cooled by liquid nitrogen and surrounded by CsI and NaI anti-coincidence scintillation crystals. A graded z collimator limited the field of view to 3 deg x 6 deg and a gondola pointing system provided 0.3 deg pointing accuracy. A total of four flights were made with this instrument. Additional funding was obtained from NSF for the last three flights, which had primarily solar objectives. A detailed instrument description is given. The main scientific results and the data analysis are discussed. Current work and indications for future work are summarized. A bibliography of publications resulting from this work is given.

Lin, R. P.

1984-01-01

36

High resolution gamma-ray spectra for {sup 235}U(n{sub th},ff)  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution gamma ray spectra from thermal fission of {sup 235}U have been measured for 21 delay time intervals in the range 0.2s to nearly 100,000s. More than 170 gamma transitions have so far been studied out to 1000s in 27 different fission products. Relative line intensities and time evolutions for the gamma lines provide information on relative production probabilities for fission products, direct-vs.-beta chain production ratios, isomeric to ground-state production ratios, as well as precursor halflives, for comparison with ENDF/B-VI.

Pullen, D.J.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, Shengjie; Nguyen, Hung V.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H.; Tipnis, S.V. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States); England, T.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-12-31

37

On the categorization of uranium materials using low resolution gamma ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

In order to characterize uranium materials during e.g. nuclear safeguards inspections and in initial stages of nuclear forensic investigations, hand-held low resolution gamma ray detection instruments with automatic uranium categorization capabilities may be used. In this paper, simulated response curves for a number of matrices applied on NaI(Tl) scintillation detector spectra show that the result of the categorization is strongly dependent on the physical properties of the uranium material. Recommendations on how to minimize the possibility of misclassification are discussed. PMID:23208231

Vesterlund, A; Ulvsand, T; Lidström, K; Skarnemark, G; Ekberg, C; Ramebäck, H

2013-02-01

38

Gamma ray spectroscopy at high energy and high time resolution at JET.  

PubMed

In fusion plasmas gamma ray emission is caused by reactions of fast particles, such as fusion alpha particles, with impurities. Gamma ray spectroscopy at JET has provided valuable diagnostic information on fast fuel as well as fusion product ions. Improvements of these measurements are needed to fully exploit the flux increase provided by future high power experiments at JET and ITER. Limiting aspects are, for instance, the count rate capability due to a high neutron/gamma background combined with slow detector response and a modest energy resolution due to the low light yield of the scintillators. This paper describes the solutions developed for achieving higher energy resolution, signal to background, and time resolution. The detector design is described based on the new BrLa3 scintillator crystal. The paper will focus on hardware development, including a photomultiplier tube capable of stable operation at counting rate as high as 1 MHz, the magnetic shielding, and the fast digital data acquisition system. PMID:19068513

Tardocchi, M; Proverbio, L I; Gorini, G; Grosso, G; Locatelli, M; Chugonov, I N; Gin, D B; Shevelev, A E; Murari, A; Kiptily, V G; Syme, B; Fernandes, A M; Pereira, R C; Sousa, J

2008-10-01

39

Limits on the transient ultra-high energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRB) derived from RICE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present limits on ultra-high energy (UHE; E? > 1015 eV) neutrino fluxes from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), based on recently presented data, limits, and simulations from the RICE experiment. We use data from five recorded transients with sufficient photon spectral shape and redshift information to derive an expected neutrino flux, assuming that the observed photons are linked to neutrino production through pion decay via the well-known “Waxman Bahcall” prescription. Knowing the declination of the observed burst, as well as the RICE sensitivity as a function of polar angle and the previously published non-observation of any neutrino events allows an estimate of the sensitivity to a given neutrino flux. Although several orders of magnitude weaker than the expected fluxes, our GRB neutrino flux limits are nevertheless the first in the PeV EeV energy regime. For completeness, we also provide a listing of other bursts, recorded at times when the RICE experiment was active, but requiring some assumptions regarding luminosity and redshift to permit estimates of the neutrino flux.

Besson, D.; Razzaque, S.; Adams, J.; Harris, P.

2007-01-01

40

Topics in gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1986-01-01

41

High resolution gamma ray tomography scanner for flow measurement and non-destructive testing applications  

SciTech Connect

We report on the development of a high resolution gamma ray tomography scanner that is operated with a Cs-137 isotopic source at 662 keV gamma photon energy and achieves a spatial image resolution of 0.2 line pairs/mm at 10% modulation transfer function for noncollimated detectors. It is primarily intended for the scientific study of flow regimes and phase fraction distributions in fuel element assemblies, chemical reactors, pipelines, and hydrodynamic machines. Furthermore, it is applicable to nondestructive testing of larger radiologically dense objects. The radiation detector is based on advanced avalanche photodiode technology in conjunction with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate scintillation crystals. The detector arc comprises 320 single detector elements which are operated in pulse counting mode. For measurements at fixed vessels or plant components, we built a computed tomography scanner gantry that comprises rotational and translational stages, power supply via slip rings, and data communication to the measurement personal computer via wireless local area network.

Hampel, U.; Bieberle, A.; Hoppe, D.; Kronenberg, J.; Schleicher, E.; Suehnel, T.; Zimmermann, F.; Zippe, C. [Institute of Safety Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., P.O. Box 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Safety Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., P.O. Box 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden, Germany and AREVA NP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Safety Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., P.O. Box 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); AREVA NP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Safety Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., P.O. Box 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2007-10-15

42

Development of a High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for Medium Energy Gamma Ray Astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the third year of the research project, we have (1) tested a 3.5 liter prototype of the Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber, (2) used a prototype having a 4.4 cm drift gap to study the charge and energy resolution response of the 3.5 liter chamber, (3) obtained an energy resolution as good as that previously measured by us using chambers with drift gaps of the order of millimeters, (4) observed the induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays, (4) used the 20 hybrid charge sensitive preamplifiers for a nondestructive readout of the electron image on the induction wires, (5) performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations to obtain results on efficiency, background rejection capability, and source flux sensitivity, and (6) developed a reconstruction algorithm for events with multiple interaction points.

Aprile, Elena

1992-01-01

43

High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 × 105 at + 20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ± 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to <= 400 kcps per channel. We selected Ce-doped (Lu,Y)2(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) and a brand-new scintillator, Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) due to their high light yield and density. To improve the spatial resolution, these scintillators were fabricated into 15 × 15 matrices of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 pixels. The Ce:LYSO and Ce:GAGG scintillator matrices were assembled into phosphor sandwich (phoswich) detectors, and then coupled to the MPPC array along with an acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

Kato, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Kawabata, N.; Ikeda, H.; Kamada, K.

2013-05-01

44

CAN ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS COME FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS? COSMIC RAYS BELOW THE ANKLE AND GALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

The maximum cosmic-ray energy achievable by acceleration by a relativistic blast wave is derived. It is shown that forward shocks from long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the interstellar medium accelerate protons to large enough energies, and have a sufficient energy budget, to produce the Galactic cosmic-ray component just below the ankle at 4 x 10{sup 18} eV, as per an earlier suggestion. It is further argued that, were extragalactic long GRBs responsible for the component above the ankle as well, the occasional Galactic GRB within the solar circle would contribute more than the observational limits on the outward flux from the solar circle, unless an avoidance scenario, such as intermittency and/or beaming, allows the present-day local flux to be less than 10{sup -3} of the average. Difficulties with these avoidance scenarios are noted.

Eichler, David [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Be'er-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Pohl, Martin [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

2011-09-10

45

Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications  

DOEpatents

A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA); Wojcik, Randolph F. (Yorktown, VA); Steinbach, Daniela (Williamsburg, VA)

1999-01-01

46

a Quantitative Method for Analyzing Radioactive Nuclides in Infinite Composite Materials Using High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theory is formulated in which the concentration of a radionuclide uniformly distributed throughout an infinite medium is related to the photopeak count rate of a signature gamma ray acquired by a detector within the medium. The mass fraction of the i('th) radionuclide in the medium is given by f(,i) = W(,i)(psi)(,i) (E)/(lamda)(,i)I(,I)(E)K(E); where (psi)(,i)(E) and I(,i)(E) are the observed photopeak count rate and absolute intensity for a gamma-ray emission of energy E. (lamda)(,i) and W(,i) are the decay constant and isotopic mass, respectively. It is shown that the function K(E) is a source volume integration over(' )(epsilon)(E,R)B(E,R)exp( -(SIGMA)(mu)(E)r(R))/(VBAR)R(VBAR)('2) which depends on gamma-ray energy only. Values of the narrow-beam attenuation coefficient (mu) are known for many materials. However, several laboratory experiments are performed in order to obtain data from which to empirically determine the detector response function (epsilon)(E,R)(' )and the gamma-ray build -up-factor(' )B(E,R). Special experimental instrumentation for analyzing radionuclides in infinite composite materials using high -resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is introduced. A probe is constructed which contains a coaxial high-purity germanium crystal to detect the gamma rays, a cryostat to cool the crystal and electronic circuitry to process the signal from the detector. Laboratory models of natural formations are prepared using high-grade radioactive samples diluted with silicon dioxide to obtain the desired concentrations. Each model is sampled to obtain X-ray fluorescence, delayed neutron and fluorimetric analysis from independent laboratories to compare with results using the method presented in this work.

Day, John Henry, Jr.

1982-03-01

47

A high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer based on superconducting microcalorimeters  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in superconductor device fabrication, detector hybridization techniques, and superconducting quantum interference device readout have made square-centimeter-sized arrays of gamma-ray microcalorimeters, based on transition-edge sensors (TESs), possible. At these collecting areas, gamma microcalorimeters can utilize their unprecedented energy resolution to perform spectroscopy in a number of applications that are limited by closely-spaced spectral peaks, for example, the nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials. We have built a 256 pixel spectrometer with an average full-width-at-half-maximum energy resolution of 53 eV at 97 keV, a useable dynamic range above 400 keV, and a collecting area of 5 cm{sup 2}. We have demonstrated multiplexed readout of the full 256 pixel array with 236 of the pixels (91%) giving spectroscopic data. This is the largest multiplexed array of TES microcalorimeters to date. This paper will review the spectrometer, highlighting the instrument design, detector fabrication, readout, operation of the instrument, and data processing. Further, we describe the characterization and performance of the newest 256 pixel array.

Bennett, D. A.; Horansky, R. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80208 (United States); Schmidt, D. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Kotsubo, V.; Mates, J. A. B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Hoover, A. S.; Winkler, R.; Rabin, M. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Alpert, B. K.; Beall, J. A.; Fitzgerald, C. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; O'Neil, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schima, F. J.; Swetz, D. S.; Vale, L. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); and others

2012-09-15

48

Compact, inexpensive, high-energy-resolution, room-temperature-operated, semiconductor gamma-ray detectors for isotope identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many homeland security applications involving gamma-ray detectors require energy resolution of better than 1%-2% for isotope identification. Existing High-Purity germanium (HPGe) detectors have the needed energy resolution but suffer from large size and the need for liquid-nitrogen or electromechanical cooling. Compact, inexpensive, room-temperature-operated devices are needed for handheld monitors, portal monitors, and monitors for nuclear materials in storage or transit.

P. Ugorowski; A. Ariesanti; D. S. McGregor; A. Kargar

2010-01-01

49

A high resolution imaging detector for TeV gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details are presented of an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for use in very high energy gamma-ray astronomy which consists of a cluster of 109 close-packed photomultiplier tubes at the focus of a 10 meter optical reflector. The images of the Cherenkov flashes generated both by gamma-ray and charged cosmic-ray events are digitized and recorded. Subsequent off-line analysis of the images improves

M. F. Cawley; D. J. Fegan; K. Harris; A. M. Hillas; P. W. Kwok; R. C. Lamb; M. J. Lang; D. A. Lewis; D. Macomb; P. T. Reynolds; D. J. Schmid; G. Vacanti; T. C. Weekes

1990-01-01

50

Coupled multi-group neutron photon transport for the simulation of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. In these applications, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used to preserve as much information as possible about the

Kimberly Ann Burns; Kimberly A

2009-01-01

51

Analysis of high resolution satellite data for cosmic gamma ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic gamma ray bursts detected a germanium spectrometer on the low altitude satellite 1972-076B were surveyed. Several bursts with durations ranging from approximately 0.032 to 15 seconds were found and are tabulated. The frequency of occurrence/intensity distribution of these events was compared with the S to the -3/2 power curve of confirmed events. The longer duration events fall above the S to the -3/2 power curve of confirmed events, suggesting they are perhaps not all true cosmic gamma-ray bursts. The narrow duration events fall closely on the S to the -3/2 power curve. The survey also revealed several counting rate spikes, with durations comparable to confirmed gamma-ray bursts, which were shown to be of magnetospheric origin. Confirmation that energetic electrons were responsible for these bursts was achieved from analysis of all data from the complete payload of gamma-ray and energetic particle detectors on board the satellite. The analyses also revealed that the narrowness of the spikes was primarily spatial rather than temporal in character.

Imhof, W. L.; Nakano, G. H.; Reagan, J. B.

1976-01-01

52

Ultra-high resolution AMOLED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

2011-06-01

53

High resolution gamma-ray astronomy - Observations and predictions of line shapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shapes of gamma-ray lines carry unique information about the physical processes and conditions in astrophysical sites. Galactic center and SN 1987A lines have been observationally resolved allowing their shapes to be studied. There are also significant new theoretical results concerning line shapes from Type I supernovae, supernova remnants and the interstellar medium. New work is presented on a simple treatment of line profiles for rotating disks and spherical shells.

Bhattacharya, Dipen; Gehrels, Neil

1991-01-01

54

A balloon-borne high-resolution spectrometer for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and balloon-flight verification of a payload for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares are reported. The payload incorporates a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector, standard NIM and CAMAC electronics modules, a thermally stabilized pressure housing, and regulated battery power supplies. The flight system is supported on the ground with interactive data-handling equipment comprised of similar electronics hardware. The modularity and flexibility of the payload, together with the resolution and stability obtained throughout a 30-hour flight, make it readily adaptable for high-sensitivity, long-duration balloon fight applications.

Crannell, C. J.; Starr, R.; Stottlemyre, A. R.; Trombka, J. I.

1984-01-01

55

New room temperature high resolution solid-state detector (CdZnTe) for hard x rays and gamma rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new CdZnTe high 'Z' material represents a significant improvement in detectors for high energy photons. With the thicknesses available, photons up to 100 keV can be efficiently detected. This material has a wide band gap of 1.5 - 2.2 eV which allows it to operate at room temperature while providing high spectral resolution. Results of resolution evaluations are presented. This detector can be used for high resolution spectral measurements of photons in x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, offering a significant reduction in the weight, power, and volume of the detector system compared to more conventional detector types such as scintillation counters. In addition, the detector will have the simplicity and reliability of solid-state construction. The CdZnTe detector, as a new development, has not yet been evaluated in space. The Get Away Special program can provide this opportunity.

Stewart, Amyelizabeth C.; Desai, Upendra D.

1993-01-01

56

High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/?(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=?/??>10{sup 3}.

Noroozian, Omid [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States) [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Kang, Zhao [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2013-11-11

57

Large scale telescopes for high resolution X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. [using widely separated satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper shows that angular-resolution, energy-range, and structural constraints on image-modulated X-ray telescopes are not fundamental and that the limits on angular resolution can be overcome by constructing such telescopes on a very large spatial scale. It is proposed that widely separated satellites be used for the modulating mask and detector array. Implementation of this concept is discussed in terms of a simple system consisting of a pinhole camera (i.e., a hole in an opaque mask on one subsatellite and a detector array on another). Advantages and problems of such systems are briefly discussed, and a solar X-ray telescope intended for deployment from a Shuttle orbiter is described. It is noted that such large-scale telescopes can be constructed to image gamma rays and even energetic neutrons as well.

Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.

1978-01-01

58

The Application of High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (HRGS) to Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Activities  

SciTech Connect

While well-developed methodologies exist for the employment of high- resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) in determining the isotopic composition of plutonium samples, the potential capabilities of such measurements in determining the properties of nuclear materials otherwise remain largely unexploited. These measurements contain information sufficiently detailed such that not only can the isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium materials be determined, but the details of the spectrum obtained will depend reproducibly upon other factors including the total mass, density, chemical composition, and geometrical configuration of the material, and for certain materials, the elapsed time since chemical processing. The potential thus exists to obtain a `gamma-ray fingerprint` for typical containers or assemblies of nuclear material which will then serve to identify that class of item in a later confirmatory measurement. These measurements have the additional advantage that, by comparison with active interrogation techniques which usually require the introduction of some extraneous form of radiation or other intrusive activity, they are totally passive, and thus impose only minimal additional safety or regulatory burdens on the operators. In the application of these measurements to the verification of treaty-limited items, where the information acquired may be sensitive in nature, the use of the CIVET (Controlled Intrusiveness Verification Technique) approach, where a computer-based interface is employed to limit access to the information obtained, may be followed.

Kane, Walter R.; Lemley, James R.; Forman, Leon

1997-12-31

59

Monte Carlo Simulations of Ultra-High Energy Resolution Gamma Detectors for Nuclear Safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-high energy resolution superconducting gamma-ray detectors can improve the accuracy of non-destructive analysis for unknown radioactive materials. These detectors offer an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over conventional high purity germanium detectors. The increase in resolution reduces errors from line overlap and allows for the identification of weaker gamma-rays by increasing the magnitude of the peaks above the background. In order to optimize the detector geometry and to understand the spectral response function Geant4, a Monte Carlo simulation package coded in C++, was used to model the detectors. Using a 1 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber and a monochromatic gamma source, different absorber geometries were tested. The simulation was expanded to include the Cu block behind the absorber and four layers of shielding required for detector operation at 0.1 K. The energy spectrum was modeled for an Am-241 and a Cs-137 source, including scattering events in the shielding, and the results were compared to experimental data. For both sources the main spectral features such as the photopeak, the Compton continuum, the escape x-rays and the backscatter peak were identified. Finally, the low energy response of a Pu-239 source was modeled to assess the feasibility of Pu-239 detection in spent fuel. This modeling of superconducting detectors can serve as a guide to optimize the configuration in future spectrometer designs.

Robles, A; Drury, O B; Friedrich, S

2009-08-19

60

High energy resolution hard X-ray and gamma-ray imagers using CdTe diode devices  

E-print Network

We developed CdTe double-sided strip detectors (DSDs or cross strip detectors) and evaluated their spectral and imaging performance for hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Though the double-sided strip configuration is suitable for imagers with a fine position resolution and a large detection area, CdTe diode DSDs with indium (In) anodes have yet to be realized due to the difficulty posed by the segmented In anodes. CdTe diode devices with aluminum (Al) anodes were recently established, followed by a CdTe device in which the Al anodes could be segmented into strips. We developed CdTe double-sided strip devices having Pt cathode strips and Al anode strips, and assembled prototype CdTe DSDs. These prototypes have a strip pitch of 400 micrometer. Signals from the strips are processed with analog ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). We have successfully performed gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with a position resolution of 400 micrometer. Energy resolution of 1.8 keV (FWHM: full width at half maximum) was obtained at 59.54 keV. Moreover, the possibility of improved spectral performance by utilizing the energy information of both side strips was demonstrated. We designed and fabricated a new analog ASIC, VA32TA6, for the readout of semiconductor detectors, which is also suitable for DSDs. A new feature of the ASIC is its internal ADC function. We confirmed this function and good noise performance that reaches an equivalent noise charge of 110 e- under the condition of 3-4 pF input capacitance.

Shin Watanabe; Shin-nosuke Ishikawa; Hiroyuki Aono; Shin'ichiro Takeda; Hirokazu Odaka; Motohide Kokubun; Tadayuki Takahashi; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Hiroyasu Tajima; Mitsunobu Onishi; Yoshikatsu Kuroda

2008-11-04

61

Gamma-ray imaging using a CdZnTe pixel array and a high-resolution, parallel-hole collimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor performance of current parallel-hole collimators is an impediment to planar high-resolution gamma-ray imaging, even when high-resolution semiconductor detector arrays are available. High-resolution parallel-hole collimators are possible but have not been fabricated because conventional collimator construction techniques severely limit achievable bore size and septal thickness. We describe development and testing of a high-resolution collimator with 4096 260-?m square bores

G. A. Kastis; H. B. Barber; H. H. Barrett; S. J. Balzer; D. Lu; D. G. Marks; G. Stevenson; J. M. Woolfenden; M. Appleby; J. Tueller

2000-01-01

62

Gamma-ray imaging using a CdZnTe pixel array and a high-resolution, parallel-hole collimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor performance of current parallel-hole collimators is an impediment to planar high-resolution gamma-ray imaging, even when high-resolution semiconductor detector arrays are available. High-resolution parallel-hole collimators are possible but have not been fabricated because current collimator construction techniques severely limit achievable bore size and septal thickness. We describe development and testing of a high-resolution collimator with 4096 260-?m square bores

G. A. Kastis; H. B. Barber; H. H. Barrett; S. J. Balzer; D. Lu; D. G. Marks; G. Stevenson; J. M. Woolfenden; M. Appleby; J. Tueller

1999-01-01

63

Assay for uranium and determination of disequilibrium by means of in situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two sealed sondes, using germanium gamma-ray detectors cooled by melting propane, have been field tested to depths of 79 m in water-filled boreholes at the Pawnee Uranium Mine in Bee Co., Texas. When, used as total-count devices, the sondes are comparable in logging speed and counting rate with conventional scintillation detectors for locating zones of high radioactivity. When used with a multichannel analyzer, the sondes are detectors with such high resolution that individual lines from the complex spectra of the uranium and thorium series can be distinguished. Gamma rays from each group of the uranium series can be measured in ore zones permitting determination of the state of equilibrium at each measurement point. Series of 10-minute spectra taken at 0.3- to 0.5-m intervals in several holes showed zones where maxima from the uranium group and from the 222Rn group were displaced relative to each other. Apparent excesses of 230Th at some locations suggest that uranium-group concentrations at those locations were severalfold greater some tens of kiloyears, ago. At the current state of development a 10-minute count yields a sensitivity of about 80 ppm U308. Data reduction could in practice be accomplished in about 5 minutes. The result is practically unaffected by disequilibrium or radon contamination. In comparison with core assay, high-resolution spectrometry samples a larger volume; avoids problems due to incomplete core recovery, loss of friable material to drilling fluids, and errors in depth and marking; and permits use of less expensive drilling methods. Because gamma rays from the radionuclides are accumulated simultaneously, it also avoids the problems inherent in trying to correlate logs made in separate runs with different equipment. Continuous-motion delayed-gamma activation by a 163-?g 252Cf neutron source attached to the sonde yielded poor sensitivity. A better neutron-activation method, in which the sonde is moved in steps so as to place the detector at the previous activation point, could not be evaluated because of equipment failure.

Tanner, Allan B.; Moxham, Robert M.; Senftle, F.E.

1977-01-01

64

Influence of the thorium decay series on the background of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers.  

PubMed

The background induced by the members of the thorium decay sequence in six high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometers was analyzed. For the analysis, the count rates in the peaks of the background spectra, normalized to the unit of emission probability and detection probability, were used. The energy dependence of these normalized count rates carries information about the location of the sources of contamination. The contributions of the detector contamination, the contamination of the shielding material and the radiation penetrating the shield were calculated. The comparison of these contributions among the spectrometers pointed to the weaknesses of some shields, making such a comparison a useful tool for assessing the effectiveness of the shields. PMID:22464929

Bu?ar, K; Korun, M; Vodenik, B

2012-06-01

65

Gamma Ray Bursts and CETI  

E-print Network

Gamma ray burst sources are isotropically distributed. They could be located at distances $\\sim 1000$ AU. (Katz \\cite{JK92}) GRB signals have many narrow peaks that are unresolved at the millisecond time resolution of existing observations. \\cite{JK87} CETI could use stars as gravitational lenses for interstellar gamma ray laser beam communication. Much better time resolution of GRB signals could rule out (or confirm?) the speculative hypothesis that GRB = CETI.

Frank D. Smith Jr

1993-02-10

66

Ocular Imaging Combining Ultrahigh Resolution and High Speed OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of ultrahigh-resolution and ultrahigh-speed OCT technique on corneal and retinal imaging is shown. The capabilities of advanced OCT system for imaging of the cornea and the thickness determination of the tear film, corneal epithelium, and Bowman's layer over a wide field of view are demonstrated. The high transverse and axial resolution of OCT system allowing one to image individual nerve fiber bundles, the parafoveal capillary network, and individual cone photoreceptors is described.

Schmoll, Tilman; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

67

Orbital Measurement of Bulk Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Sulfur of Carbonaceous Asteroids via High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various populations of low-albedo asteroids (C-complex, D, and P spectral types) dominate the outer Main Asteroid Belt, Hildas, and Trojan clouds and are thought to be related to carbonaceous meteorites. However, carbonaceous meteorites are themselves a diverse group and it remains unclear which types represent which asteroids or asteroid populations. A high-energy-resolution (HPGe) gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) experiment on an asteroid orbiter would be sensitive to many of the elements that differentiate carbonaceous chondrite subclasses from each other and from the ureilites, including H, C, O, and S, in the outer ~20-50 cm of the asteroid surface. We have therefore conducted new simulations of the performance of a GRS experiment in orbit around asteroids with carbonaceous chondriticcompositions at levels of hydration ranging from CI-like 17 wt% structural water) to CO-like (<2 wt% structural water). Cosmic-ray interactions with the asteroid surfaces were modeled using the MCNPX Monte-Carlo radiation transport code. A spacecraft background (based on a Dawn-like spacecraft model) was also modeled using MCNPX: this included background due to direct GCR/spacecraft interactions as well as background due to asteroidal neutron flux on the spacecraft. A Dawn-like mission scenario was modeled withthe altitude equal to the asteroid radius for a 4.5-month low-orbit phase. The detector model was based on Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MOGRS), the largest and most sensitive HPGe GRS flown to date. The spectra from the MCNPX output were broadened to a resolution based on the in-flight performance of MOGRS, FWHM = 4.1 keV at 1332 keV. Doppler broadening was also modeled where applicable. Line fluxes were then extracted from the combined background + asteroid spectrum and statistical uncertainties evaluated.We find that within 4.5 months the GRS can measure H/Si, O/Si, C/Si, and S/Si with sufficient precision to distinguish OH-rich CI and CM chondrites from drier CO-like compositions, and Fe/Si and S/Si to distinguish chondrites from ureilites and other achondrites. Comparison with in-flight MOGRS count rates for Martian Fe, Si, S, K, and Cl will also be discussed.

Lim, Lucy F.; Starr, Richard D.; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Boynton, William V.; Thomas, Cristina A.

2014-11-01

68

Array-compatible transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter {gamma}-ray detector with 42 eV energy resolution at 103 keV  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a microcalorimeter {gamma}-ray detector with measured energy resolution of 42 eV full width at half maximum for 103 keV photons. This detector consists of a thermally isolated superconducting transition-edge thermometer and a superconducting bulk tin photon absorber. The absorber is attached with a technique compatible with producing arrays of high-resolution {gamma}-ray detectors. The results of a detailed characterization of the detector, which includes measurements of the complex impedance, detector noise, and time-domain pulse response, suggest that a deeper understanding and optimization of the thermal transport between the absorber and thermometer could significantly improve the energy resolution of future detectors.

Zink, B. L.; Ullom, J. N.; Beall, J. A.; Irwin, K. D.; Doriese, W. B.; Duncan, W. D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Horansky, R. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway MC 817.03, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2006-09-18

69

Prospects for High Energy Resolution Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with Europium-Doped Strontium  

SciTech Connect

Europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators offer a light yield exceeding 100,000 photons/MeV and excellent light yield proportionality, while at the same time, SrI2 is readily grown in single crystal form. Thus far, our collaboration has demonstrated an energy resolution with strontium iodide of 2.6% at 662 keV and 7.6% at 60 keV, and we have grown single crystals surpassing 30 cm3 in size (with lower resolution). Our analysis indicates that SrI2(Eu) has the potential to offer 2% energy resolution at 662 keV with optimized material, optics, and read-out. In particular, improvements in feedstock purity may result in crystal structural and chemical homogeneity, leading to improved light yield uniformity throughout the crystal volume, and consequently, better energy resolution. Uniform, efficient light collection and detection, is also required to achieve the best energy resolution with a SrI2(Eu) scintillator device.

Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hawrami, Rastgo [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Van Loef, Edgar [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Shah, Kanai [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA

2009-01-01

70

The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications.

Nelson, K E; Gosnell, T B; Knapp, D A

2009-03-05

71

High resolution gamma-ray astronomy and polarimetry above e+e- pair creation threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case for and a characterization of the use of a thin detector such as a TPC as an active target for an excellent angular resolution ?-ray telescope for cosmic sources in the [MeV - GeV] energy range, with sensitivity to the fraction of linear polarization of the radiation.

Bernard, D.

2014-06-01

72

Background radiation reduction for a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer used for environmental radioactivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis is presented of background radiation spectra for a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer used to measure environmental radioactivity, for various shielding configurations. The main goal is to improve the detection limits of low-level activity measurements by reducing the background as much as possible. Passive shielding configurations are used to decrease the total background counting rate by adding new layers. Subsequently, for the maximum shielding configuration, the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) is improved by at least 13-fold for 137Cs, 8-fold for 214Bi (609.31 keV), 7-fold for 40K and 5.5-fold for 208Tl (2614.53 keV). A reduction factor of 240 for the 137Cs peak (counting rate) at maximum shielding and an insignificant peak for this radionuclide was determined. For other radionuclides, peaks below the detection limit of the detector system were also found. These results show that the shielding was successful in reducing and removing peaks from the background spectrum.

Radulescu, I.; Blebea-Apostu, A. M.; Margineanu, R. M.; Mocanu, N.

2013-07-01

73

High resolution correlation studies of continuum gamma rays of ¹⁷°Hf  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed a high resolution gamma-gamma energy correlation study using 18 anti-Compton shielded GE detectors in the Spin Spectrometer along with 52 NaI elements. The fusion reaction ¹³°Te \\/plus\\/ ⁴⁴Ca was produced with a 200-MeV ⁴⁴Ca beam from the HHIRF tandem accelerator. A total of 5 \\/times\\/ 10⁸ two- and higher-fold Ge coincidence events, along with the associated information

I. Y. Lee; C. Baktash; J. R. Beene; M. L. Halbert; D. C. Hensley; N. R. Johnson; F. K. McGowan; M. A. Riley; D. G. Sarantites

1988-01-01

74

A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using a novel interpolating technique based on the drift strip signals. The position determination in the detector depth direction, is made using the DOI technique based the detector cathode and anode signals. The position determination along the anode strips is made with the help of 10 cathode strips orthogonal to the anode strips. The position resolutions are at low energies dominated by the electronic noise and improve therefore with increased signal to noise ratio as the energy increases. The achievable position resolution at higher energies will however be dominated by the extended spatial distribution of the photon produced ionization charge. The main sources of noise contribution of the drift signals are the leakage current between the strips and the strip capacitance. For the leakage current, we used a metallization process that reduces the leakage current by means of a high resistive thin layer between the drift strip electrodes and CZT detector material. This method was applied to all the proto type detectors and was a very effective method to reduce the surface leakage current between the strips. The proto type detector was recently investigated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble which provided a fine 50 × 50 ?m2 collimated X-ray beam covering an energy band up to 600 keV. The Beam positions are resolved very well with a ~ 0.2 mm position resolution (FWHM ) at 400 keV in all directions.

Kuvvetli, I.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Zappettini, A.; Zambelli, N.; Benassi, G.; Kalemci, E.; Caroli, E.; Stephen, J. B.; Auricchio, N.

2014-07-01

75

Mercuric iodine room temperature gamma-ray detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

high resolution mercuric iodide room temperature gamma-ray detectors have excellent potential as an essential component of space instruments to be used for high energy astrophysics. Mercuric iodide detectors are being developed both as photodetectors used in combination with scintillation crystals to detect gamma-rays, and as direct gamma-ray detectors. These detectors are highly radiation damage resistant. The list of applications includes gamma-ray burst detection, gamma-ray line astronomy, solar flare studies, and elemental analysis.

Patt, Bradley E.; Markakis, Jeffrey M.; Gerrish, Vernon M.; Haymes, Robert C.; Trombka, Jacob I.

1990-01-01

76

Gamma ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes recents results in gamma-ray astronomy, most of which were derived with data from groundbased gamma-ray detectors. Many of the contributions presented at this conference involve multiwavelength studies which combine ground-based gamma-ray measurements with optical data or space-based X-ray and gamma-ray measurements. Besides measurements of the diffuse emission from the Galaxy, observations of blazars, gamma-ray bursts, and supernova

Martin Pohl

2001-01-01

77

Improving spatial resolution of high stopping power X- and gamma-ray cameras:. fibers or slat-structured detectors?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For medical imaging applications, the earliness of the detection is an essential factor to increase chances of recovery; in the field of industrial imaging, nondestructive testing with lower detectivity threshold to ensure quality and safe conduct. Accordingly, in all areas using the up-to-date compact (much less-expensive facilities) high-energy pulsed electron accelerators (HF or induction linac, Marx generator) to produce energetic photons (bremsstrahlung), such as industrial and medical numerical imaging, flash radiography, radiotherapy positioning, computed tomography, detection of small- or low-contrasted details require two-dimensional (2D) detectors with an even more improved combination of sensitivity (which implies high stopping power), spatial resolution (millimetric or sub-millimetric) and speed, working in integrating mode (i.e. dose measurement) because bremsstrahlung X-ray sources provide short pulses. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the issues involved in the development of high-performance position-sensitive X- and gamma-ray cameras for high-energy flash imaging. The basic idea is that, examining in detail the energy deposition and its statistics (quantum noise), we shall be able to determine in real detectors the following features, such as detectors composition and pixel size, which can simultaneously lead to good detection efficiency and good spatial resolution. In general, conclusions can be transposed to other particle imaging detectors as neutron imagers (changing "dense" metal by "high energy transfer" material). There are, of course, challenges to get such detectors, although new technologies have already provided some prototypes offering more than 30% stopping power and less than 2 mm spatial resolution (blur) for 50 ns long 5 MeV X-ray pulses. There are various detector-segmentation methods that can be applied in order to improve the stopping power (macroscopic cross-section) and reduce the effect of the lateral energy spread on the resolution. Technologies such as scintillator arrays (bundles), photoconductor plate piling, multi-hole- and multi-slat-solid detectors into gas chamber are employed. The first experimental results obtained at CEA are encouraging for applications such as high-energy low-dose fast imaging, flash radiography, radiotherapy positioning, nuclear waste or fuel survey, and, may be, high angular resolution imaging in the field of high-energy astrophysics. The relevance of "future" solutions is then examined, exhibiting theoretical and experimental frontiers: the most efficient structure for a future high-performance 2D integrating imager shall be a piling of thin metal layers, able to boost the quantum efficiency, sandwiched between a few hundreds of micrometers sensitive detectors as low-dark-current photoconductor (micro-strips) or parallel high-performance scintillating fiber sheets.

Gerstenmayer, J.-L.

2000-11-01

78

Diagnosis of physical parameters of fast particles in high power fusion plasmas with high resolution neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) and gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements of fast ions in high power fusion plasmas are reviewed. NES is a well established diagnostics of the velocity distribution of fast fuel ions and was recently used to investigate the interaction of energetic ions with MHD instabilities. High energy resolution GRS on fusion plasmas is a more recent application and was shown to provide information on the distribution function of fast minority ions accelerated by ICRH, such as 4He and 3He. Starting from measurements on today's high power D plasmas, fast ion measurements with NES and GRS in a DT burning plasma of next step tokamaks, such as ITER, are discussed. The enhanced neutron and gamma-ray fluxes expected on ITER will allow for time-resolved measurements of the fast fuel and minority ion dynamics in the ms time scale. The intensity of the alpha knock-on component in the 14 MeV neutron spectrum and of the 4.44 and 3.21 MeV gamma-ray peaks from the 9Be(?,n?)12C reaction is studied as a diagnostics for the ? particle slowing down distribution in a DT plasma. The results show that the two techniques are sensitive to different regions of the ? particle phase space and thus provide complementary information.

Tardocchi, M.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

2013-07-01

79

An observation of the Galactic center region with the HEXAGONE high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. [Sgr A; 1742-289  

SciTech Connect

The galactic center region was observed for 6 hours on 22 May 1989 from a high altitude balloon with the HEXAGONE high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The instrument had a 285 cm{sup 2} array of cooled germanium detectors with an energy resolution of 2.2 keV at 511 keV and an 18{degree} FWHM field of view. 511 keV gamma-rays from electron-positron annihilation and 1809 keV gamma-rays from the radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al were observed to have fluxes of 8.9{times}10{sup {minus}4} and 1.9{times}10{sup {minus}4} ph/cm{sup 2}-s, respectively. Continuum emission was detected from 20 to 800 keV and preliminary results have been obtained for the spectrum. Below 120 keV this is well described by power law with a slope of {minus}2.6. In the 120--250 keV band the spectrum contains a broad line-like feature with a flux of (2 to 6){times}10{sup {minus}3} ph/cm{sup 2}-s, depending on the assumed underlying continuum. This is interpreted as the result of Compton backscattering of {similar to}511 keV photons from a compact source of electron-positron annihilation radiation.

Matteson, J.; Pelling, M.; Bowman, B.; Briggs, M.; Gruber, D.; Lingenfelter, R.; Peterson, L. (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0111 (United States)); Lin, R.; Smith, D.; Feffer, P.; Hurley, K. (Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Cork, C.; Landis, D.; Luke, P.; Madden, N.; Malone, D.; Pehl, R.; Pollard, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); von Ballmoos, P.; Niel, M.; Slassi, S.; Vedrenne, G. (Centre d'Etudes Spatiale Des Rayonnements, 31029 Toulouse Cedex (France)); Durouchoux, P.; Chapuis, C. (Service d'Astrophysique, Departement de Physique Generale, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France))

1991-08-01

80

Preliminary results from the high resolution gamma-ray and hard x-ray spectrometer (HIREGS) '92-'93 long duration balloon flight in Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

HIREGS consists of an array of twelve 6.7 cm diameter x 6.1 cm long liquid nitrogen-cooled segmented germanium detectors enclosed in a bismuth germanate (BGO) active anticoincidence shield. A CsI front collimator defines a 24 degree FWHM field-of-view. The energy resolution is one to several keV FWHM over the instrument energy range of 20 keV to 16 MeV. HIREGS was flown on a 10-day (31 Dec 92--10 Jan 93) circumpolar balloon flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 30.5 hours of observation were obtained between 31 Dec 0400-2130 UT and 1 Jan 0600-1900 UT. Because the Sun was inactive during the flight, only one small flare was detected on 31 Dec 1933 UT. Excellent high resolution [open quotes]quiet[close quotes] Sun hard X-ray and gamma-ray spectra were obtained. These provide stringent upper limits for solar gamma-ray line and hard X-ray and gamma-ray continuum emission, which in turn can constrain the storage and/or continuous acceleration of ions and electrons by the Sun.

Lin, R.P.; Feffer, P.T.; Slassi, S.; Whiteside, W.; Smith, D.M.; Hurley, K.C.; Kane, S.R.; McBride, S.; Primbsch, J.H.; Youssefi, K.; Zimmer, G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Pelling, R.M. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Cotin, F.; Lavigne, J.M.; Rouaix, G.; Vedrenne, G.; Pehl, R.; Cork, C.; Luke, P.; Madden, N.; Malone, D.

1993-01-01

81

High-Resolution Timing Observations of Spin-Powered Pulsars with the AGILE Gamma-Ray Telescope  

E-print Network

AGILE is a small gamma-ray astronomy satellite mission of the Italian Space Agency dedicated to high-energy astrophysics launched in 2007 April. Its 1 microsecond absolute time tagging capability coupled with a good sensitivity in the 30 MeV-30 GeV range, with simultaneous X-ray monitoring in the 18-60 keV band, makes it perfectly suited for the study of gamma-ray pulsars following up on the CGRO/EGRET heritage. In this paper we present the first AGILE timing results on the known gamma-ray pulsars Vela, Crab, Geminga and B 1706-44. The data were collected from 2007 July to 2008 April, exploiting the mission Science Verification Phase, the Instrument Timing Calibration and the early Observing Pointing Program. Thanks to its large field of view, AGILE collected a large number of gamma-ray photons from these pulsars (about 10,000 pulsed counts for Vela) in only few months of observations. The coupling of AGILE timing capabilities, simultaneous radio/X-ray monitoring and new tools aimed at precise photon phasing, exploiting also timing noise correction, unveiled new interesting features at sub-millisecond level in the pulsars' high-energy light-curves.

A. Pellizzoni; M. Pilia; A. Possenti; F. Fornari; P. Caraveo; E. Del Monte; S. Mereghetti; M. Tavani; A. Argan; A. Trois; M. Burgay; A. Chen; I. Cognard; E. Costa; N. D'Amico; P. Esposito; Y. Evangelista; M. Feroci; F. Fuschino; A. Giuliani; J. Halpern; G. Hobbs; A. Hotan; S. Johnston; M. Kramer; F. Longo; R. N. Manchester; M. Marisaldi; J. Palfreyman; P. Weltevrede; G. Barbiellini; F. Boffelli; A. Bulgarelli; P. W. Cattaneo; V. Cocco; F. D'Ammando; G. De Paris; G. Di Cocco; I. Donnarumma; M. Fiorini; T. Froysland; M. Galli; F. Gianotti; A. Harding; C. Labanti; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; P. Lipari; F. Mauri; A. Morselli; L. Pacciani; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; M. Prest; G. Pucella; M. Rapisarda; A. Rappoldi; P. Soffitta; M. Trifoglio; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; V. Vittorini; A. Zambra; D. Zanello; C. Pittori; F. Verrecchia; B. Preger; P. Santolamazza; P. Giommi; L. Salotti

2008-10-10

82

Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be a valuable tool in glaucoma assessment. We investigated a new ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) imaging system in glaucoma patients and compared the findings with those obtained by conventional-resolution OCT. Design Retrospective comparative case series. Participants A normal subject and 4 glaucoma patients representing various stages of glaucomatous damage. Testing All participants were scanned with StratusOCT (axial resolution of ~10 ?m) and UHR-OCT (axial resolution of ~3 ?m) at the same visit. Main Outcome Measure Comparison of OCT findings detected with StratusOCT and UHR-OCT. Results Ultrahigh-resolution OCT provides a detailed cross-sectional view of the scanned retinal area that allows differentiation between retinal layers. These UHR images were markedly better than those obtained by the conventional-resolution OCT. Conclusions Ultrahigh-resolution OCT provides high-resolution images of the ocular posterior segment, which improves the ability to detect retinal abnormalities due to glaucoma. PMID:15691556

Wollstein, Gadi; Paunescu, Leila A.; Ko, Tony H.; Fujimoto, James G.; Kowalevicz, Andrew; Hartl, Ingmar; Beaton, Siobahn; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Mattox, Cynthia; Singh, Omah; Duker, Jay; Drexler, Wolfgang; Schuman, Joel S.

2007-01-01

83

Investigation of gamma-ray families originating from nucleus-nucleus interactions at ultrahigh energies E{sub 0} in excess of 10{sup 16} eV  

SciTech Connect

Various spatial and energy features of gamma-ray families originating from the interactions of primary nuclei of galactic cosmic rays with nuclei of atmospheric atoms (AA interactions) are studied. The mass composition of galactic cosmic rays is analyzed on the basis of data from x-ray emulsion chambers of the Pamir experiment with the aid of a criterion for selecting gamma-ray families originating from AA interactions (A families) at energies E{sub 0} of primary galactic cosmic rays in excess of 10{sup 16} eV. According to the results obtained in this way only the experimental spatial parameters R{sub 1E} and ? differ from their counterparts in the MC0 model.

Yuldashbaev, T. S.; Nuritdinov, Kh., E-mail: husnudin@uzsci.net [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics and Technology, Fizika-Solntse Research and Production Association (Uzbekistan)

2013-12-15

84

a Quantitative Method for Analyzing Radioactive Nuclides in Infinite Composite Materials Using High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is formulated in which the concentration of a radionuclide uniformly distributed throughout an infinite medium is related to the photopeak count rate of a signature gamma ray acquired by a detector within the medium. The mass fraction of the i('th) radionuclide in the medium is given by f(,i) = W(,i)(psi)(,i) (E)\\/(lamda)(,i)I(,I)(E)K(E); where (psi)(,i)(E) and I(,i)(E) are the observed

John Henry Day Jr.; J. H. Jr

1982-01-01

85

Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merging of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) and adaptive optics (AO), resulting in high axial (3 µm) and improved transverse resolution (5-10 µm) is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge in in vivo retinal imaging. A compact (300 mm × 300 mm) closed-loop AO system, based on a real-time Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor operating at 30 Hz and

B. Hermann; E. J. Fernández; A. Unterhuber; H. Sattmann; A. F. Fercher; W. Drexler; P. Artal

2004-01-01

86

GRI: The Gamma-Ray Imager mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are the major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime With the INTEGRAL observatory ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community and has put Europe in the lead in the field of gamma-ray astronomy INTEGRAL provides an unprecedented survey of the soft gamma-ray sky revealing hundreds of sources new classes of objects extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes While INTEGRAL has provided the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky there is a growing need to perform deeper more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein satellite to the XMM Newton observatory Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution Such a

Knödlseder, J.; Gri Consortium

87

Gamma-ray waveguides  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an approach for gamma-ray optics using layered structures acting as planar waveguides. Experiments demonstrating channeling of 122 keV gamma rays in two prototype waveguides validate the feasibility of this technology. Gamma-ray waveguides allow one to control the direction of radiation up to a few MeV. The waveguides are conceptually similar to polycapillary optics, but can function at higher gamma-ray energies. Optics comprised of these waveguides will be able to collect radiation from small solid angles or concentrate radiation into small area detectors. Gamma-ray waveguides may find applications in medical imaging and treatment, astrophysics, and homeland security.

Tournear, D. M.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Akhadov, E. A.; Chen, A. T.; Pendleton, S. J.; Williamson, T. L.; Cha, K. C.; Epstein, R. I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2008-04-14

88

Gamma-ray astronomy  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes recents results in gamma-ray astronomy, most of which were derived with data from ground-based gamma-ray detectors. Many of the contributions presented at this conference involve multiwavelength studies which combine ground-based gamma-ray measurements with optical data or space-based X-ray and gamma-ray measurements. Besides measurements of the diffuse emission from the Galaxy, observations of blazars, gamma-ray bursts, and supernova remnants this paper also covers theoretical models for the acceleration of radiating particles and their emission mechanisms in these sources.

Martin Pohl

2001-11-29

89

Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather  

SciTech Connect

We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

2007-01-01

90

The BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog. I. High Time Resolution Spectroscopy of Bright Bursts using High Energy Resolution Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in a series of gamma-ray burst spectroscopy catalogs from\\u000athe Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray\\u000aObservatory, each covering a different aspect of burst phenomenology. In this\\u000apaper, we present time-sequences of spectral fit parameters for 156 bursts\\u000aselected for either their high peak flux or fluence. All bursts have at

R. D. Preece; M. S. Briggs; R. S. Mallozzi; G. N. Pendleton; W. S. Paciesas; D. L. Band

1999-01-01

91

Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technologically enhanced levels of radiation in 34 representative soil samples that have been collected from an inshore oil field area which was found to have, in a previous study, the highest observed value of 226Ra concentration among 129 soil samples. The activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra have been inferred from gamma-ray transitions associated with their decay progenies and measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for all the samples collected from NW Dukhan. Discrete-line, gamma-ray energy transitions from spectral lines ranging in energy from ?100 keV up to 2.6 MeV have been associated with characteristic decays of the various decay products within the 235.8U and 232Th radioactive decay chains. These data have been analyzed, under the assumption of secular equilibrium for the U and Th decay chains. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented. The weighted mean value of the activity concentrations of 226Ra in one of the samples was found to be around a factor of 2 higher than the values obtained in the previous study and approximately a factor of 10 higher than the accepted worldwide average value of 35 Bq/kg. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of 232Th and 40K were also deduced and found to be within the worldwide average values of 30 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. Our previous study reported a value of 201.9±1.5Stat.±13Syst.Bq/kg for 226Ra in one sample and further investigation in the current work determined a measured value for 226Ra of 342.00±1.9Stat.±25Syst.Bq/kg in a sample taken from the same locality. This is significantly higher than all the other investigated soil samples in the current and previous works. Notably, the Th levels in the same sample are within the worldwide average expectations, implying that the increased 226Ra concentration arises from TENORM processes. PMID:22244196

Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K S; Alkhomashi, N; Al-Dahan, N; Al-Dosari, M; Bradley, D A; Bukhari, S; Matthews, M; Regan, P H; Santawamaitre, T; Malain, D; Habib, A

2012-07-01

92

Energy resolution and throughput of a new real time digital pulse processing system for x-ray and gamma ray semiconductor detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New generation spectroscopy systems have advanced towards digital pulse processing (DPP) approaches. DPP systems, based on direct digitizing and processing of detector signals, have recently been favoured over analog pulse processing electronics, ensuring higher flexibility, stability, lower dead time, higher throughput and better spectroscopic performance. In this work, we present the performance of a new real time DPP system for X-ray and gamma ray semiconductor detectors. The system is based on a commercial digitizer equipped with a custom DPP firmware, developed by our group, for on-line pulse shape and height analysis. X-ray and gamma ray spectra measurements with cadmium telluride (CdTe) and germanium (Ge) detectors, coupled to resistive-feedback preamplifiers, highlight the excellent performance of the system both at low and high rate environments (up to 800 kcps). A comparison with a conventional analog electronics showed the better high-rate capabilities of the digital approach, in terms of energy resolution and throughput. These results make the proposed DPP system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research and for the development of advanced detection systems for high-rate-resolution spectroscopic imaging, recently proposed in diagnostic medicine, industrial imaging and security screening.

Abbene, L.; Gerardi, G.; Raso, G.; Basile, S.; Brai, M.; Principato, F.

2013-07-01

93

Instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of gamma-ray-telescope technology for ground, airborne, and space observations is surveyed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs and tables of typical data. For the low- and medium-energy ranges, consideration is given to detectors and detector cooling systems, background-rejection methods, radiation damage, large-area detectors, gamma-ray imaging, data analysis, and the Compton-interaction region. Also discussed are the gamma-ray interaction process at high energies; multilevel automated spark-chamber gamma-ray telescopes; the Soviet Gamma-1 telescope; the EGRET instrument for the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory; and Cerenkov, air-shower, and particle-detector instruments for the TeV and PeV ranges. Significant improvements in resolution and sensitivity are predicted for the near future.

Bertsch, David L.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

1988-01-01

94

Ultrahigh-resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical ruler based on ultrahigh-resolution colocalization of single fluorescent probes is described in this paper. It relies on the use of two unique families of fluorophores, namely energy-transfer fluorescent beads (TransFluoSpheres) and semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots, that can be excited by a single laser wavelength but emit at different wavelengths. A multicolor sample-scanning confocal microscope was constructed that allows

Thilo D. Lacoste; Xavier Michalet; Fabien Pinaud; Daniel S. Chemla; A. Paul Alivisatos; Shimon Weiss

2000-01-01

95

Gamma ray transients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

Cline, Thomas L.

1987-01-01

96

Gamma Ray Bursts Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays  

E-print Network

Gamma Ray Bursts #12;The Case Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays come from nowhere and disappear with out a trace. Incredibly powerful: A single gamma ray burst is hundreds of times brighter a supernova #12;Who Vela (1960's) Looking for arms testing, found gamma ray bursts Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

97

Gamma-ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conference papers on gamma ray astrophysics are summarized. Data cover the energy region from about 0.3 MeV to a few hundred GeV and theoretical models of production mechanisms that give rise to both galactic and extragalactic gamma rays.

Stecker, F. W. (editor); Trombka, J. I. (editor)

1973-01-01

98

Gamma-Ray Pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the detection of over 80 gamma-ray pulsars. Several new populations have been discovered, including 24 radio quiet pulsars found through gamma-ray pulsations alone and about 20 millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The gamma-ray pulsations from millisecond pulsars were discovered by both folding at periods of known radio millisecond pulsars or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -35 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. The higher sensitivity and larger energy range of the Fermi Large Area Telescope has produced detailed energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectroscopy on brighter pulsars, that have ruled out polar cap models as the major source of the emission in favor of outer magnetosphere accelerators. The large number of gamma-ray pulsars now allows for the first time meaningful population and sub-population studies that are revealing surprising properties of these fascinating sources.

Harding, Alice K.

2011-01-01

99

Gamma ray detector shield  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

1985-08-26

100

Gamma ray detector shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

R. D. Ohlinger; H. W. Humphrey

1985-01-01

101

Gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief description is given of the present status of gamma-ray astronomy, both galactic and extragalactic. More detailed attention is given to a specific question: the nature of the apparent 'gamma-ray sources'. The undoubted correlation of at least some of the sources with dense clouds of gas in the interstellar medium is discussed. A new analysis of the SAS II

B. Houston; A. W. Wolfendale

1982-01-01

102

Gamma ray astronomy. [survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the instruments developed for gamma ray astronomy is given together with a brief summary of the current status of the observational results. These include the studies of galactic gamma ray emission, the diffuse, presumably extragalactic, gamma radiation, and localized gamma ray sources. The study of the spatial distribution of galactic gamma radiation is beginning to provide a new means for the study of galactic structure and dynamics. The diffuse emission may provide evidence of gamma ray emission in the cosmological past, although improved observations must be obtained before the picture can be clarified. The study of localized sources has shown NP0532, the Crab radio pulsar, to be a gamma ray pulsar also and strong emission from Vela may be due to supernova produced cosmic rays interacting with the remnant gas.

Kniffen, D.

1975-01-01

103

Gamma Ray Astronomy with Magnetized Zevatrons  

E-print Network

Nearby sources of cosmic rays up to a ZeV(=10^21 eV) could be observed with a multi-messenger approach including secondary gamma-rays and neutrinos. If cosmic rays above ~10^18 eV are produced in magnetized environments such as galaxy clusters, the flux of secondary gamma-rays below ~1 TeV can be enhanced up to several orders of magnitudes compared to unmagnetized sources. A particular source of enhancement are synchrotron and cascade photons from e^+e^- pairs produced by protons from sources with relatively steep injection spectra proportional to E^-2.6. Such sources should be visible at the same time in ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiments and gamma-ray telescopes.

Eric Armengaud; Guenter Sigl; Francesco Miniati

2005-11-09

104

Extreme Terrestrial Gamma ray Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial gamma ray flashes were first discovered by the Compton GRO observatory and such event have been observed later on-board Rhessi satellite and more recently by the Fermi and Agile missions. These events are believed to be associated with the thunderstorm activity in the lower atmosphere. When observed from the satellite instruments, the observed time structure. Shows short milliseconds bursts probably due to lightning discharges , however an other type of long bursts with a duration of a few seconds to a few minutes have been observed only in the lower atmosphere. Such behaviour is natural as the upward moving photons go through a large atmospheric depth several 100 gms which will affect both the time structure and the spectral nature as the thunderstorms normally originate only in the lower troposphere just above the convective boundary layer. We report the observations of extreme terrestrial gamma ray events with time duration ~150-250 min observed during the thunderstorm activity in Hyderabad South, India. At 17.3o lat. and 78.6o long., Hyderabad is located in the convergence zone with high level of thunderstorm activity during the monsoon period. Spectral data suggest a continuum flux of the gamma ray from 100 keV to 10 MeV for hours. Temporal characteristics studied with time resolution of 100 microsec do not show any excess power density at any frequency. The data suggest that unlike gamma ray flashes which are generated just during the lightening flash, large electric field disturbances during long thunderstorm activity may lead to large flux of accelerated particles, which emit continuum gamma rays flux.

Manchanda, R. K.; Kamble, Nilima

2012-07-01

105

Development of an ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head GAGG coincidence imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for high resolution PET systems due to its small channel size and high gain. Using Si-PMs, it will be possible to develop a high resolution imaging systems. For this purpose, we developed a small field-of-view (FOV) ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head coincidence imaging system for small animals and plant research. A new scintillator, Ce doped Gd3Al12Ga3O12 (GAGG), was selected because of its high light output and its emission wavelength matched with the Si-PM arrays and contained no radioactivity. Each coincidence imaging block detector consists of 0.5×0.5×5 mm3 GAGG pixels combined with a 0.1-mm thick reflector to form a 20×17 matrix that was optically coupled to a Si-PM array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 1.5-mm thick light guide. The GAGG block size was 12.0×10.2 mm2. Two GAGG block detectors were positioned face to face and set on a flexible arm based detector stand. All 0.5 mm GAGG pixels in the block detectors were clearly resolved in the 2-dimensional position histogram. The energy resolution was 14.4% FWHM for the Cs-137 gamma ray. The spatial resolution was 0.7 mm FWHM measured using a 0.25 mm diameter Na-22 point source. Small animal and plant images were successfully obtained. We conclude that our developed ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head coincidence imaging system is promising for small animal and plant imaging research.

Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

2013-03-01

106

Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies with GLAST  

E-print Network

Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

D. J. Thompson

2007-11-27

107

Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST  

SciTech Connect

Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

2011-11-23

108

A High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for 0.3-10 MeV Gamma Ray Astrophysics: Construction and Initial Balloon Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results achieved with a 3.5 liter liquid xenon time projection chamber (LXe-TPC) prototype during the first year include: the efficiency of detecting the primary scintillation light for event triggering has been measured to be higher than 85%; the charge response has been measured to be stable to within 0.1% for a period of time of about 30 hours; the electron lifetime has been measured to be in excess of 1.3 ms; the energy resolution has been measured to be consistent with previous results obtained with small volume chambers; X-Y gamma ray imaging has been demonstrated with a nondestructive orthogonal wires readout; Monte Carlo simulation results on detection efficiency, expected background count rate at balloon altitude, background reduction algorithms, telescope response to point-like and diffuse sources, and polarization sensitivity calculations; and work on a 10 liter LXe-TPC prototype and gas purification/recovery system.

Aprile, Elena

1993-01-01

109

Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography uses broadband light sources to achieve axial image resolutions on the few micron scale. Fourier domain detection methods enable more than an order of magnitude increase in imaging speed and sensitivity, thus overcoming the sensitivity limitations inherent in ultrahigh-resolution OCT using standard time domain detection. Fourier domain methods also provide direct access to the spectrum of

Maciej Wojtkowski; Vivek J. Srinivasan; Tony H. Ko; James G. Fujimoto; Andrzej Kowalczyk; Jay S. Duker

2004-01-01

110

Initial studies of a new detector design for ultra-high resolution positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a novel detector concept for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) that will facilitate ultrahigh spatial resolution, high sensitivity and optimal light collection efficiency. Spatial resolution in PCT can be improved by using finer scintillation crystal array elements. Several groups are developing arrays with <2 mm crystal pixels for ultra-high resolution small animal PET systems. The challenge with finer

Craig S. Levin; Frezghi Habte

2002-01-01

111

An achromatized endoscope for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mouse models are increasingly important for studying human GI pathology. OCT provides minimally invasive, cross-sectional images that indicate the thickness and scattering density of underlying tissue. We have developed endoscopic ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) to imaging mouse colon in vivo. The reduced scale of the mouse colon makes tissue light penetration much less problematic, and high resolution acutely necessary. Higher lateral resolution requires a departure from the traditional cemented GRIN lens design. We support the need for better chromatic aberration than can be achieved by a GRIN lens using commercial raytracing software. We have designed and built a 2mm diameter endoscopic UHR-OCT system achromatized for 770-1020nm for use with a Titanium:sapphire laser with 260 nm bandwidth at full-width-half-maximum centered at 800 nm while achieving a 4.4um lateral spot dimension at focus. A pair of KZFSN5/SFPL53 doublets provides excellent primary and secondary color correction to maintain wide bandwidth through the imaging depth. A slight deviation from normal beam exit angle suppresses collection of the strong back reflection at the exit window surface. The novel design endoscope was built and characterized for through focus bandwidth, axial resolution, signal to noise, and lateral spot dimension. Performance is demonstrated on in vivo mouse colon. Ultrahigh-resolution images of mouse tissue enable the visualization of microscopic features, including crypts that have previously been observed with standard resolution OCT in humans but were too small to see in mouse tissue. Resolution near the cellular level is potentially capable of identifying abnormal crypt formation and dysplastic cellular organization.

Tumlinson, Alexandre R.; Barton, Jennifer K.; McNally, James; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermann, Boris; Sattmann, Harald; Drexler, Wolfgang

2005-08-01

112

Gamma-ray Astronomy and GLAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high energy gamma-ray (30 MeV to 100 GeV) sky has been relatively poorly studied. Most of our current knowledge comes from observations made by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), which revealed that the GeV gamma-ray sky is rich and vibrant. Studies of astrophysical objects at GeV energies are interesting for several reasons: The high energy gamma-rays are often produced by a different physical process than the better studied X-ray and optical emission, thus providing a unique information for understanding these sources. Production of such high-energy photons requires that charged particles are accelerated to equally high energies, or much greater. Thus gamma-ray astronomy is the study of extreme environments, with natural and fundamental connections to cosmic-ray and neutrino astrophysics. The launch of GLAST in 2008 will herald a watershed in our understanding of the high energy gamma-ray sky, providing dramatic improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution and energy range. GLAST will open a new avenue to study our Universe as well as to answer scientific questions EGRET observations have raised. In this talk, I will describe the GLAST instruments and capabilities and highlight some of the science we expect to address.

McEnery, Julie

2007-01-01

113

Future prospects for gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As gamma-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of gamma-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the gamma-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system, the structure of our galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The gamma-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the gamma-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy gamma-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

Fichtel, C.

1981-01-01

114

Ultrahigh resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent probes  

DOEpatents

A novel optical ruler based on ultrahigh-resolution colocalization of single fluorescent probes is described. Two unique families of fluorophores are used, namely energy-transfer fluorescent beads and semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) quantum dots, that can be excited by a single laser wavelength but emit at different wavelengths. A novel multicolor sample-scanning confocal microscope was constructed which allows one to image each fluorescent light emitter, free of chromatic aberrations, by scanning the sample with nanometer scale steps using a piezo-scanner. The resulting spots are accurately localized by fitting them to the known shape of the excitation point-spread-function of the microscope.

Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier; Lacoste, Thilo D.

2005-01-18

115

Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts originate from cosmological distances and represent the largest known explosions in the Universe. The observed temporal and spectral characteristics of bursts in the gamma-ray region, primarily from data obtained with the BATSE experiment on the Compton Observatory, will be described. The talk will concentrate on recent studies of burst properties, correlations of GRB parameters and other statistical studies that have recently come to light. A summary of recent discoveries and observations in other wavelength regions will also be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism. Various models for the energy source of gamma-ray bursts will be described.

Fishman, Gearld J.

2003-01-01

116

Gamma-ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

The relevance of gamma-ray astronomy to the search for the origin of the galactic and, to a lesser extent, the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays has long been recognised. The current renaissance in the TeV gamma-ray field has resulted in a wealth of new data on galactic and extragalactic particle accelerators, and almost all the new results in this field were presented at the recent International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC). Here I summarise the 175 papers submitted on the topic of gamma-ray astronomy to the 30th ICRC in Merida, Mexico in July 2007.

Jim Hinton

2007-12-20

117

Gamma ray astrophysics to the year 2000. Report of the NASA Gamma Ray Program Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important developments in gamma-ray astrophysics up to energies of 100 GeV during the last decade are reviewed. Also, the report seeks to define the major current scientific goals of the field and proposes a vigorous program to pursue them, extending to the year 2000. The goals of gamma-ray astronomy include the study of gamma rays which provide the most direct means of studying many important problems in high energy astrophysics including explosive nucleosynthesis, accelerated particle interactions and sources, and high-energy processes around compact objects. The current research program in gamma-ray astronomy in the U.S. including the space program, balloon program and foreign programs in gamma-ray astronomy is described. The high priority recommendations for future study include an Explorer-class high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy mission and a Get Away Special cannister (GAS-can) or Scout class multiwavelength experiment for the study of gamma-ray bursts. Continuing programs include an extended Gamma Ray Observatory mission, continuation of the vigorous program of balloon observations of the nearby Supernova 1987A, augmentation of the balloon program to provide for new instruments and rapid scientific results, and continuation of support for theoretical research. Long term recommendations include new space missions using advanced detectors to better study gamma-ray sources, the development of these detectors, continued study for the assembly of large detectors in space, collaboration with the gamma-ray astronomy missions initiated by other countries, and consideration of the Space Station attached payloads for gamma-ray experiments.

1988-01-01

118

A novel gamma-ray detector with submillimeter resolutions using a monolithic MPPC array with pixelized Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) array consisting of 4×4 channels with a three-side buttable package. Each channel has a photosensitive area of 3×3 mm2 and 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs). For typical operational gain of 7.5×105 at +20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ±5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to ?400 kcps per channel. We first fabricated a gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array with one-to-one coupling to a Ce-doped (Lu, Y)2(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) crystal array (4×4 array of 3×3×10 mm3 crystals). Energy and time resolutions of 11.5±0.5% (FWHM at 662 keV) and 493±22 ps were obtained, respectively. When using the charge division resistor network, which compiles signals into four position-encoded analog outputs, the ultimate positional resolution is estimated as 0.19 mm in both X and Y directions, while energy resolution of 10.2±0.4% (FWHM) was obtained. Finally, we fabricated submillimeter Ce:LYSO and Ce-doped Gd3Ga3Al2O12 (Ce:GGAG) scintillator matrices each consisting of 1.0×1.0, 0.7×0.7 and 0.5×0.5 mm2 pixels, to further improve the spatial resolution. In all types of Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG matrices, each crystal was clearly resolved in the position histograms when irradiated by a 137Cs source. The energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays for each Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG scintillator matrix were ?14.3%. These results suggest excellent potential for its use as a high spatial medical imaging device, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET).

Kato, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Miura, T.; Matsuda, H.; Kishimoto, A.; Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Nakamura, S.; Kawabata, N.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Kamada, K.

2013-01-01

119

Gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic gamma rays, the physical processes responsible for their production and the astrophysical sites from which they were seen are reported. The bulk of the observed gamma ray emission is in the photon energy range from about 0.1 MeV to 1 GeV, where observations are carried out above the atmosphere. There are also, however, gamma ray observations at higher energies obtained by detecting the Cerenkov light produced by the high energy photons in the atmosphere. Gamma ray emission was observed from sources as close as the Sun and the Moon and as distant as the quasar 3C273, as well as from various other galactic and extragalactic sites. The radiation processes also range from the well understood, e.g. energetic particle interactions with matter, to the still incompletely researched, such as radiation transfer in optically thick electron positron plasmas in intense neutron star magnetic fields.

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1982-01-01

120

High Energy Gamma Rays  

E-print Network

This article reviews the present status of high energy gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 30 MeV. Observations in the past decade using both space- and ground-based experiments have been primarily responsible for giving a tremendous boost to our knowledge of the high energy Universe. High energy gamma-rays have been detected from a wide range of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysical sources, such as gamma-ray bursters, pulsars, and active galaxies. These observations have established high energy gamma-ray astronomy as a vital and exciting field, that has a bright future. This review summarizes the experimental techniques, observations and results obtained with recent experiments, and concludes with a short description of future prospects.

R. Mukherjee

2000-09-22

121

Gamma ray line astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interpretations and implications of the astrophysical observations of gamma-ray lines are reviewed. At the Galactic Center e(+)-e(-) pairs from a compact object produce an annihilation line that shows no redshift, indicating an annihilation site far removed from this object. In the jets of SS433, gamma-ray lines are produced by inelastic excitations, probably in dust grains, although line emission from fusion reactions has also been considered. Observations of diffuse galactic line emission reveal recently synthesized radioactive aluminum in the interstellar medium. In gamma-ray bursts, redshifted pair annihilation lines are consistent with a neutron star origin for the bursts. In solar flares, gamma-ray line emission reveals the prompt acceleration of protons and nuclei, in close association with the flare energy release mechanism.

Ramaty, R.

1984-01-01

122

Gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Bursts and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to analysis of archival data from balloon flight experiments were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

Paciesas, William S.

1991-01-01

123

Gamma ray optics  

SciTech Connect

Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape {gamma} ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E{sup 2}, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E{sup 2} extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

Jentschel, M.; Guenther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F38042 Grenoble (France); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-07-09

124

Precision X-Band Linac Technologies for Nuclear Photonics Gamma-Ray Sources  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear photonics is an emerging field of research requiring new tools, including high spectral brightness, tunable gamma-ray sources; high photon energy, ultrahigh-resolution crystal spectrometers; and novel detectors. This presentation focuses on the precision linac technology required for Compton scattering gamma-ray light sources, and on the optimization of the laser and electron beam pulse format to achieve unprecedented spectral brightness. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology will be shown to offer optimal performance in a compact package, when used in conjunction with the appropriate pulse format, and photocathode illumination and interaction laser technologies. The nascent field of nuclear photonics is enabled by the recent maturation of new technologies, including high-gradient X-band electron acceleration, robust fiber laser systems, and hyper-dispersion CPA. Recent work has been performed at LLNL to demonstrate isotope-specific detection of shielded materials via NRF using a tunable, quasi-monochromatic Compton scattering gamma-ray source operating between 0.2 MeV and 0.9 MeV photon energy. This technique is called Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Energetic Radiation (or FINDER). This work has, among other things, demonstrated the detection of {sup 7}Li shielded by Pb, utilizing gamma rays generated by a linac-driven, laser-based Compton scattering gamma-ray source developed at LLNL. Within this context, a new facility is currently under construction at LLNL, with the goal of generating tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range, at a repetition rate of 120 Hz, and with a peak brightness in the 10{sup 20} photons/(s x mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x 0.1% bw).

Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Houck, T L; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Adolphsen, C E; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Raubenheimer, T O; Ighigeanu, D; Toma, M; Cutoiu, D

2011-08-31

125

The gamma-ray observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

1991-01-01

126

Prospects for gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Maximum Mission and the Gamma Ray Experiment aboard the SMM spacecraft are discussed. Mission plans for interplanetary probes are also discussed. The Gamma Ray observatory and its role in future gamma ray astronomy is highlighted. It is concluded that gamma ray astronomy will be of major importance in the development of astronomical models and in the development of comsological theory.

1981-01-01

127

gamma ray astronomy with muons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gamma ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard gamma ray spectra there is a relative ``enhancement'' of muons from gamma ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower gamma rays above the

Francis Halzen; Todor Stanev; Gaurang B. Yodh

1997-01-01

128

Gamma-ray spectroscopy: An historical perspective  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of MeV-range gamma-rays from extraterrestrial sources had been speculated on by cosmic-ray physicists since the late 1940's. The first definitive detection occurred with balloon-borne cosmic-ray instrumentation during a class 2 solar flare in March 1958, apparently associated with the acceleration of a nonthermal particle population. Following this detection, physicists were motivated to develop instrumentation specific for observation of astronomical gamma-ray sources. Gamma-ray lines were also first observed during the flares of August 1972, apparently associated with accelerated particles undergoing nuclear interactions in the solar atmosphere. The development of low background, high resolution Ge counters has permitted construction of gamma-ray telescopes with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. Even modest versions of these devices have measured discrete gamma-ray lines from sources as diverse as cosmic gamma-ray bursts, the galactic center and the galactic plane. Many other predictions are within the range of modern detectors.

Peterson, L.E.

1988-09-25

129

Ultrahigh-Resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a white-light interference microscope for ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography of biological media. The experimental setup is based on a Linnik-type interferometer illuminated by a tungsten halogen lamp. En face tomographic images are calculated by a combination of interferometric images recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. Spatial resolution of 1.8 µm × 0.9 µm (transverse × axial) is achieved owing to the extremely short coherence length of the source, the compensation of dispersion mismatch in the interferometer arms, and the use of relatively high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives. A shot-noise-limited detection sensitivity of 90 dB is obtained in an acquisition time per image of 4 s. Subcellular-level images of plant, animal, and human tissues are presented.

Dubois, Arnaud; Grieve, Kate; Moneron, Gael; Lecaque, Romain; Vabre, Laurent; Boccara, Claude

2004-05-01

130

Ultrahigh resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

A new method for in vitro and possibly in vivo ultrahigh-resolution colocalization and distance measurement between biomolecules is described, based on semiconductor nanocrystal probes. This ruler bridges the gap between FRET and far-field (or near-field scanning optical microscope) imaging and has a dynamic range from few nanometers to tens of micrometers. The ruler is based on a stage-scanning confocal microscope that allows the simultaneous excitation and localization of the excitation point-spread-function (PSF) of various colors nanocrystals while maintaining perfect registry between the channels. Fit of the observed diffraction and photophysics-limited images of the PSFs with a two-dimensional Gaussian allows one to determine their position with nanometer accuracy. This new high-resolution tool opens new windows in various molecular, cell biology and biotechnology applications.

Michalet, X.; Lacoste, T.D.; Pinaud, F.; Chemla, D.S.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Weiss, S.

2000-12-20

131

EFFECTIVENESS OF QUIKSCAT'S ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES IN DETERMINING TROPICAL CYCLONE EYE LOCATION  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVENESS OF QUIKSCAT'S ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES IN DETERMINING TROPICAL CYCLONE EYE be enhanced to yield a 2.5km ultra-high resolution (UHR) product that can be used to identify hurricane eye centers more accurately. A comparison is made between the ana- lyst's choice of eye location based on UHR

Long, David G.

132

The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are the major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. With the INTEGRAL observatory, ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community revealing hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources. In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein and the EXOSAT satellites to the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow to study particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

2006-09-01

133

GRI: the gamma-ray imager mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are the major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. With the INTEGRAL observatory, ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community revealing hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources. In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein and the EXOSAT satellites to the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques hav paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow to study particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Knödlseder, Jürgen

2006-06-01

134

Gamma ray optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape ? ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E2, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E2 extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

Jentschel, M.; Günther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.

2012-07-01

135

Gamma ray camera  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1997-01-21

136

Gamma ray camera  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01

137

Techniques for gamma rays.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detecting systems used in high energy astrophysics are generally more similar to particle detectors than to optical devices. The basic design of the gamma ray instrument depends on whether the energy range is below about 10 MeV and therefore in the region where the Compton effect predominates in the absorption of the gamma-rays, or above that energy where electron-positron pair production is most important. The most usual approach to the detector system in the lower of the two energy intervals is to use a scintillation counter in the center of the detector system to absorb the photons and permit a measure of their energy, and to surround it by another detector which is employed as an active anticoincidence shield to discriminate against charged particles. In the gamma-ray interval above about 10 MeV, the very low flux of gamma rays and the high particle background has directed the development of high energy gamma-ray telescopes towards complicated techniques and large detector arrays. As a result, several investigators have now turned to the spark chamber as the heart of a detector system. Generally, it is surrounded by an anticoincidence system and is triggered by a counter telescope.

Fichtel, C. E.

1971-01-01

138

Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

1980-01-01

139

Characteristics of the Telescope for High Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy Selected for Definition Studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high energy gamma-ray selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Johansson, A.; Rolfe, J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

1979-01-01

140

Mercuric iodine room temperature gamma-ray detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

high resolution mercuric iodide room temperature gamma-ray detectors have excellent potential as an essential component of space instruments to be used for high energy astrophysics. Mercuric iodide detectors are being developed both as photodetectors used in combination with scintillation crystals to detect gamma-rays, and as direct gamma-ray detectors. These detectors are highly radiation damage resistant. The list of applications includes

Bradley E. Patt; Jeffrey M. Markakis; Vernon M. Gerrish; Robert C. Haymes; Jacob I. Trombka

1990-01-01

141

Gamma-ray measurements at the WNR white neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photon production data have been acquired in the incident neutron energy range, 1 < E{sub n} < 400 MeV, for a number of target nuclei, gamma-ray energy ranges, and reactions, using the continuous-energy neutron beam of the WNR facility at Los Alamos. Gamma-ray production measurements using high resolution Ge detectors have been employed for gamma-rays in the energy range, 0.1

R. O. Nelson; S. A. Wender; D. R. Mayo

1994-01-01

142

A Gamma-Ray Camera for Inspection Control  

SciTech Connect

The Research Institute of Pulse Technique has constructed a gamma-ray camera for imaging radioactive materials. The work was performed under the DOE Lab to Lab Dismantlement Transparency Program with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA). The gamma-ray camera was intended for imaging radioactive materials, including fissile materials, in a storage container. In this case, the spatial resolution established in the specifications for the gamma ray camera was limited for reasons of inspection non-intrusiveness.

Danilenko, K.N.; Ignatyev, G.N.; Semenov, D.S; D Chernov, M.Y.; Morgan, J.

2000-06-29

143

GAMMA RAY IMAGING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The research is a three year development program to apply high resolution gamma-ray imaging technologies to environmental remediation of radioactive hazards. High resolution, position-sensitive germanium detectors are being developed at the Naval Research Laboratory for space app...

144

Gamma-ray bursts.  

PubMed

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow. PMID:22923573

Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

2012-08-24

145

Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

2012-01-01

146

Gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is given of recent papers in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. It is mentioned that the strongest feature of the gamma ray sky is the general radiation from the galactic plane which is superimposed on what appears to be a general diffuse radiation, whose properties are not yet defined. The observation of high-energy galactic gamma radiation by the SAS-2 satellite is considered as is the observation of point and localized sources (the Crab Nebula, Vela, etc.). The observation of diffusive gamma radiation is discussed.

Fichtel, C. E.

1975-01-01

147

CdZnTe gamma ray spectrometer for orbital gamma ray spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and analysis of a new gamma ray spectrometer for planetary science that uses an array of CdZnTe detectors to achieve the detection efficiency needed for orbital measurements. The use of CdZnTe will provide significantly improved pulse height resolution relative to scintillation-based detectors, with commensurate improvement in the accuracy of elemental abundances determined by gamma ray and

T. H. Prettyman; W. C. Feldman; K. R. Fuller; S. A. Storms; S. A. Soldner; David J. Lawrence; M. C. Browne; C. E. Moss

2001-01-01

148

Soft gamma rays from black holes versus neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent launches of GRANAT and GRO provide unprecedented opportunities to study compact collapsed objects from their hard x ray and gamma ray emissions. The spectral range above 100 keV can now be explored with much higher sensitivity and time resolution than before. The soft gamma ray spectral data is reviewed of black holes and neutron stars, radiation, and particle energization mechanisms and potentially distinguishing gamma ray signatures. These may include soft x ray excesses versus deficiencies, thermal versus nonthermal processes, transient gamma ray bumps versus power law tails, lines, and periodicities. Some of the highest priority future observations are outlines which will shed much light on such systems.

Liang, Edison P.

1992-01-01

149

Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray bursts have been detected at photon energies up to tens of GeV. We review some recent developments in the X-ray to GeV photon phenomenology in the light of Swift and Fermi observations, and some of the theoretical models developed to explain them, with a view towards implications for C.T.A.

Peter Mészáros

2012-04-12

150

Gamma-ray bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, and their origin and mechanism are the focus of intense research and debate. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with the recently launched Swift satellite. The interplay between these observations and theoretical models

P. Mészáros

2006-01-01

151

Gamma Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

Wu, S. T.

2000-01-01

152

Gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the MSFC Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

Paciesas, William S.

1991-01-01

153

Gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miscellaneous tasks related to mission operations and data analysis for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory, to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the Marshall Space Flight Center Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program, and to compilation and analysis of induced radioactivity data were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

Paciesas, William S.

1992-01-01

154

Gamma-ray telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in ??ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent\\u000a research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as ??ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of 26Al.

Neil Gehrels; John K. Cannizzo

2009-01-01

155

Response of a high-resolution high-energy photon spectrometer (HHS) to monochromatic high-energy gamma rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response function of a high-resolution high-energy photon spectrometer (HHS), consisting of a twin Ge detector and BGO (Bi 3Ge 4O 12) anti-coincidence shields, has been measured for 10.763 MeV monochromatic ?-rays generated in a resonant reaction 27Al(p,?) 28Si. The experimental response functions measured with and without the anti-coincidence were compared with results by Monte Carlo simulations, in which a pulse-height degradation effect associated with a surface channel of the twin Ge detector has been included. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental response functions and the simulations.

Harada, H.; Furutaka, K.; Nakamura, S.; Osaka, K.; Akimune, H.; Utsunomiya, H.; Ohsaki, T.; Igashira, M.

2005-12-01

156

Broadband superluminescent diode–based ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for ophthalmic imaging  

PubMed Central

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with ultrahigh resolution can be used to measure precise structures in the context of ophthalmic imaging. We designed an ultrahigh resolution SD-OCT system based on broadband superluminescent diode (SLD) as the light source. An axial resolution of 2.2 ?m in tissue, a scan depth of 1.48 mm, and a high sensitivity of 93 dB were achieved by the spectrometer designed. The ultrahigh-resolution SD-OCT system was employed to image the human cornea and retina with a cross-section image of 2048 × 2048 pixels. Our research demonstrated that ultrahigh -resolution SD-OCT can be achieved using broadband SLD in a simple way. PMID:22191923

Zhu, Dexi; Shen, Meixiao; Jiang, Hong; Li, Ming; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Yuhong; Ge, Lili; Qu, Jia; Wang, Jianhua

2011-01-01

157

Broadband superluminescent diode-based ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for ophthalmic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with ultrahigh resolution can be used to measure precise structures in the context of ophthalmic imaging. We designed an ultrahigh resolution SD-OCT system based on broadband superluminescent diode (SLD) as the light source. An axial resolution of 2.2 ?m in tissue, a scan depth of 1.48 mm, and a high sensitivity of 93 dB were achieved by the spectrometer designed. The ultrahigh-resolution SD-OCT system was employed to image the human cornea and retina with a cross-section image of 2048 × 2048 pixels. Our research demonstrated that ultrahigh -resolution SD-OCT can be achieved using broadband SLD in a simple way.

Zhu, Dexi; Shen, Meixiao; Jiang, Hong; Li, Ming; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Yuhong; Ge, Lili; Qu, Jia; Wang, Jianhua

2011-12-01

158

Ultrahigh-speed ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography system for in-vivo small animal retinal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small animal models of human retinal diseases are a critical component of vision research. In this report, we present an ultrahigh-resolution ultrahigh-speed adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system for small animal retinal imaging (mouse, fish, etc.). We adapted our imaging system to different types of small animals in accordance with the optical properties of their eyes. Results of AO-OCT images of small animal retinas acquired with AO correction are presented. Cellular structures including nerve fiber bundles, capillary networks and detailed double-cone photoreceptors are visualized.

Jian, Yifan; Xu, Jing; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

2013-03-01

159

The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. ESA's INTEGRAL observatory currently provides the astronomical community with a unique tool to investigate the sky up to MeV energies and hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes have been discovered. NASA's GLAST mission will similarly take the next step in surveying the high-energy ( GeV) sky, and NuSTAR will pioneer focusing observations at hard X-ray energies (to 80 keV). There will be clearly a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources in the 100-keV to MeV regime. Recent technological advances in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow the study of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

2008-03-01

160

Gamma-Ray Burst Wallsheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gamma-ray Burst Wallsheet was developed to illustrate the properties of light emanating from a gamma-ray burst as seen by three distant satellites, including NASA's Swift. The back of the wallsheet has one of the three activities in the accompanying educator guide (Angling for Gamma-ray Bursts).

2005-01-01

161

Gamma ray astronomy in perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of the development of gamma ray astronomy is presented. Gamma ray telescopes and other optical measuring instruments are highlighted. Emphasis is placed on findings that were unobtainable before gamma ray astronomy. Information on evolution of the solar system, the relationship of the solar system to the galaxy, and the composition of interstellar matter is discussed.

1981-01-01

162

Gamma ray spectrometer for Lunar Scout 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review the current status of the Los Alamos program to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for the Lunar Scout-II mission, which is the second of two Space Exploration Initiative robotic precursor missions to study the Moon. This instrument will measure gamma rays in the energy range of approximately 0.1 - 10 MeV to determine the composition of the lunar surface. The instrument is a high-purity germanium crystal surrounded by an CsI anticoincidence shield and cooled by a split Stirling cycle cryocooler. It will provide the abundance of many elements over the entire lunar surface.

Moss, C. E.; Burt, W. W.; Edwards, B. C.; Martin, R. A.; Nakano, George H.; Reedy, R. C.

1993-01-01

163

GRI: The Gamma-Ray Imager mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the INTEGRAL observatory, ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community revealing hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources. In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein and the EXOSAT satellites to the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction have paved the way towards a new gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow the study of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Knödlseder, Jürgen; GRI Consortium

2006-06-01

164

GRI: The Gamma-Ray Imager mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the INTEGRAL observatory ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community revealing hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources. In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein and the EXOSAT satellites to the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction have paved the way towards a new gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow studies of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Knödlseder, Jürgen

165

New shield for gamma-ray spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray shield that can be evacuated, refilled with a clean gas, and pressurized for exclusion of airborne radioactive contaminants effectively lowers background noise. Under working conditions, repeated evacuation and filling procedures have not adversely affected the sensitivity and resolution of the crystal detector.

Brar, S. S.; Gustafson, P. F.; Nelson, D. M.

1969-01-01

166

Fuzzy correlations of gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of gamma-ray bursts is not known, both in the sense of the nature of the source emitting the radiation and literally, the position of the burst on the sky. Lacking unambiguously identified counterparts in any wavelength band studied to date, statistical approaches are required to determine the burster distance scale. Angular correlation analysis is one of the most powerful tools in this regard. However, poor detector resolution gives large localization errors, effectively beam smearing the positions. The resulting fuzzy angular correlation function is investigated and the generic isotropization that smearing induces on any intrinsic clustering is discussed. In particular, the extent to which gamma-ray burst observations by the BATSE detector aboard the Gamma-Ray Observatory might recover an intrinsic source correlation is investigated.

Hartmann, Dieter H.; Linder, Eric V.; Blumenthal, George R.

1991-01-01

167

Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

Gehrels, Neil

2011-01-01

168

Solar Flares: Gamma Rays  

E-print Network

We briefly review the theory of gamma ray production in solar flares and present the highlights of the observations and their implications. Specifically: (i) the gamma ray data show that a large fraction of the released flare energy is in accelerated ions, mostly around 1 MeV/nucleon; (ii) the accelerated He-3, heavy ion, and relativistic electron abundances are enriched, implying that the particle acceleration is dominated by stochastic gyroresonant interactions with plasma turbulence; (iii) there is evidence for the enhancement of the abundances of ambient chromospheric elements with low first ionization potentials; (iv) the observed Li-7 and Be-7 lines, at 0.429 MeV and 0.478 MeV due to alpha-alpha interactions, show that both the accelerated alpha particle and the ambient He abundances are significantly enhanced.

Reuven Ramaty; Natalie Mandzhavidze

1998-10-06

169

Gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) is one of four instruments on the Compton observatory which was launched by the space shuttle Atlantis on April 5, 1991. As of mid-March, 1994, BATSE detected more than 925 cosmic gamma-ray bursts and more than 725 solar flares. Pulsed gamma rays have been detected from at least 16 sources and emission from at least 28 sources (including most of the pulsed sources) has been detected by the earth occultation technique. UAH participation in BATSE is extensive but can be divided into two main areas, operations and data analysis. The daily BATSE operations tasks represent a substantial level of effort and involve a large team composed of MSFC personnel as well as contractors such as UAH. The scientific data reduction and analysis of BATSE data is also a substantial level of effort in which UAH personnel have made significant contributions.

Paciesas, William S.

1994-01-01

170

Ultrahigh-resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent probes  

PubMed Central

An optical ruler based on ultrahigh-resolution colocalization of single fluorescent probes is described in this paper. It relies on the use of two unique families of fluorophores, namely energy-transfer fluorescent beads (TransFluoSpheres) and semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots, that can be excited by a single laser wavelength but emit at different wavelengths. A multicolor sample-scanning confocal microscope was constructed that allows one to image each fluorescent light emitter, free of chromatic aberrations, by scanning the sample with nanometer scale steps with a piezo-scanner. The resulting spots are accurately localized by fitting them to the known shape of the excitation point-spread function of the microscope. We present results of two-dimensional colocalization of TransFluoSpheres (40 nm in diameter) and of nanocrystals (3–10 nm in diameter) and demonstrate distance-measurement accuracy of better than 10 nm using conventional far-field optics. This ruler bridges the gap between fluorescence resonance energy transfer, near- and far-field imaging, spanning a range of a few nanometers to tens of micrometers. PMID:10931959

Lacoste, Thilo D.; Michalet, Xavier; Pinaud, Fabien; Chemla, Daniel S.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Weiss, Shimon

2000-01-01

171

Gamma ray collimator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gamma ray collimator including a housing having first and second sections is disclosed. The first section encloses a first section of depleted uranium which is disposed for receiving and supporting a radiation emitting component such as cobalt 60. The second section encloses a depleted uranium member which is provided with a conical cut out focusing portion disposed in communication with the radiation emitting element for focusing the emitted radiation to the target.

Casanova, Edgar J. (inventor)

1991-01-01

172

Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: Hunting Gamma-Ray Blazars  

SciTech Connect

One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the large improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated to low energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of Active Galactic Nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated to the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated to {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, A.Paggi.D.

2012-04-02

173

UNIDENTIFIED {gamma}-RAY SOURCES: HUNTING {gamma}-RAY BLAZARS  

SciTech Connect

One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the major improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one-third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated with low-energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of active galactic nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated with the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray LAT catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart to each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated with {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

Massaro, F.; Ajello, M. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Gasparrini, D. [ASI Science Data Center, ESRIN, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)

2012-06-10

174

Gamma-ray tracking method for pet systems  

DOEpatents

Gamma-ray tracking methods for use with granular, position sensitive detectors identify the sequence of the interactions taking place in the detector and, hence, the position of the first interaction. The improved position resolution in finding the first interaction in the detection system determines a better definition of the direction of the gamma-ray photon, and hence, a superior source image resolution. A PET system using such a method will have increased efficiency and position resolution.

Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

2010-06-08

175

Fresnel lenses for X-ray and Gamma-ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

Phase Fresnel lenses have the same imaging properties as zone plates, but with the possibility of concentrating all of the incident power into the primary focus, increasing the maximum theoretical efficiency from 11% to close to 100%. For X-rays, and in particular for gamma-rays, large, diffraction-limited phase Fresnel lenses can be made relatively easily. The focal length is very long - for example up to a million kms. However, the correspondingly high `plate-scale' of the image means that the ultra-high (sub-micro-arc-second) angular resolution possible with a diffraction limited gamma-ray lens a few metres in diameter can be exploited with detectors having \\~mm spatial resolution. The potential of such systems for ultra-high angular resolution astronomy, and for attaining the sensitivity improvements desperately needed for certain other studies, are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages vis-a-vis alternative approaches are discussed. We report on reduced-scale 'proof-of-principle tests' which are planned and on mission studies of the implementation of a Fresnel telescope on a space mission with lens and detector on two spacecraft separated by one million km. Such a telescope would be capable of resolving emission from super-massive black holes on the scale of their event horizons and would have the sensitivity necessary to detect gamma-ray lines from distant supernovae. We show how diffractive/refractive optics leads to a continuum of possible system designs between filled aperture lenses and wideband interferometric arrays.

Gerry Skinner; Peter von Ballmoos; Neil Gehrels; John Krizmanic

2003-08-25

176

Measurement of the mass attenuation coefficients of Ge and BGO for high-energy gamma-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of important materials for gamma-ray detection have been measured using the laser-Compton backscattering gamma-rays (LCS gamma-rays) and the high-resolution high-energy photon spectrometer (HHS). The preliminary results performed for materials (Ge and BGO) are presented for gamma-ray energy of 5.1 MeV. The measured data are compared with tabulated theoretical calculations.

Hideo Harada; Fumito Kitatani; Kaoru Y. Hara; Hiroyuki Toyokawa; Takeshi Kaihori; Hiroaki Utsunomiya

2007-01-01

177

A high resolution liquid xenon imaging telescope for 0.3-10 MeV gamma-ray astrophysics: Construction and initial balloon flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument is described which will provide a direct image of gamma-ray line or continuum sources in the energy range 300 keV to 10 MeV. The use of this instrument to study the celestial distribution of the (exp 26)Al isotope by observing the 1.809 MeV deexcitation gamma-ray line is illustrated. The source location accuracy is 2' or better. The imaging telescope is a liquid xenon time projection chamber coupled with a coded aperture mask (LXe-CAT). This instrument will confirm and extend the COMPTEL observations from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) with an improved capability for identifying the actual Galactic source or sources of (exp 26)Al, which are currently not known with certainty. sources currently under consideration include red giants on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), novae, Type 1b or Type 2 supernovae, Wolf-Rayet stars and cosmic-rays interacting in molecular clouds. The instrument could also identify a local source of the celestial 1.809 MeV gamma-ray line, such as a recent nearby supernova.

Aprile, Elena

1994-01-01

178

Gamma-ray localization of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes.  

PubMed

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high-energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of ?5-10° at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the subsatellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space. PMID:20867680

Marisaldi, M; Argan, A; Trois, A; Giuliani, A; Tavani, M; Labanti, C; Fuschino, F; Bulgarelli, A; Longo, F; Barbiellini, G; Del Monte, E; Moretti, E; Trifoglio, M; Costa, E; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A; D'Ammando, F; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Froysland, T; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Mereghetti, S; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Piano, G; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Pucella, G; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Vittorini, V; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Cutini, S; Giommi, P; Lucarelli, F; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L

2010-09-17

179

Development of an ultra-high resolution SPECT system with a CdTe semiconductor detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this work was to evaluate an ultra-high spatial resolution SPECT system with a semiconductor detector and a high-resolution\\u000a parallel-hole collimator or a pinhole collimator for small animal imaging.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We evaluated an ultra-high spatial resolution SPECT system with a high-resolution parallel-hole collimator attached to a cadmium\\u000a telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detector for small animal imaging. The sizes of an

Koichi Ogawa; Naoka Ohmura; Hirokazu Iida; Kayoko Nakamura; Tadaki Nakahara; Atsushi Kubo

2009-01-01

180

Ultra-high resolution and high-brightness AMOLED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its continuing effort to improve both the resolution and optical performance of AMOLED microdisplays, eMagin has recently developed an SXGA (1280×3×1024) microdisplay under a US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD contract that combines the world's smallest OLED pixel pitch with an ultra-high brightness green OLED emitter. This development is aimed at next-generation HMD systems with "see-through" and daylight imaging requirements. The OLED pixel array is built on a 0.18-micron CMOS backplane and contains over 4 million individually addressable pixels with a pixel pitch of 2.7 × 8.1 microns, resulting in an active area of 0.52 inches diagonal. Using both spatial and temporal enhancement, the display can provide over 10-bits of gray-level control for high dynamic range applications. The new pixel design also enables the future implementation of a full-color QSXGA (2560 × RGB × 2048) microdisplay in an active area of only 1.05 inch diagonal. A low-power serialized low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) interface is integrated into the display for use as a remote video link for tethered systems. The new SXGA backplane has been combined with the high-brightness green OLED device developed by eMagin under an NVESD contract. This OLED device has produced an output brightness of more than 8000fL with all pixels on; lifetime measurements are currently underway and will presented at the meeting. This paper will describe the operational features and first optical and electrical test results of the new SXGA demonstrator microdisplay.

Wacyk, Ihor; Ghosh, Amal; Prache, Olivier; Draper, Russ; Fellowes, Dave

2012-06-01

181

New Optical Design and Image Assessment of Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnifying Endoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The image resolution of a conventional ultrahigh-resolution endoscope is limited to 20-30 lp\\/mm. In this study, magnified and 64 lp\\/mm high-resolution images are obtained using a new optical design with a 0.23 pitch gradient index lens and a high-resolution fiber-optic image guide. The resolution and magnification of the obtained images are measured and analyzed. Also, the MTFs of images from

Bongsoo Lee; Dong Hyun Cho; Soon-Cheol Chung; Gwang-Moon Eom; Kyeong-Seop Kim; Yeon June Kang

2004-01-01

182

Arcsec source location measurements in gamma-ray astronomy from a lunar observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical processes typically used in the detection of high energy gamma-rays do not permit good angular resolution, which makes difficult the unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects emitting at other wavelengths. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For the purpose of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above about 20 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.

1990-01-01

183

{gamma} ray astronomy with muons  

SciTech Connect

Although {gamma} ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard {gamma} ray spectra there is a relative {open_quotes}enhancement{close_quotes} of muons from {gamma} ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower {gamma} rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons N{sub {mu}}, which is thus proportional to the primary {gamma} ray energy. With {gamma} ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the {gamma}{close_quote}s of about 1{percent}, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by 10{sup 4}. The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal, and by {gamma} ray detectors such as MILAGRO. TeV muons from {gamma} ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy {gamma} rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal, and MILAGRO detectors. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Halzen, F. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanev, T. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)] [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Yodh, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92715 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92715 (United States)

1997-04-01

184

Gamma Ray Astronomy with Muons  

E-print Network

Although gamma ray showers are muon-poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard gamma ray spectra there is a relative `enhancement' of muons from gamma ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower gamma rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons $N_\\mu$, which is thus proportional to the primary gamma ray energy. With gamma ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the gammas of about 1\\%, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by $10^4$. The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal and by gamma ray detectors like MILAGRO. TeV muons from gamma ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy gamma rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal and MILAGRO detectors.

F. Halzen; T. Stanev; G. B. Yodh

1996-08-29

185

Digital Pulse Processing and Gamma Ray Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two of the big changes in new generations of Nuclear Physics instrumentation will be the incorporation of digital processing and the use of gamma ray tracking. The Nuclear Physics Group at Daresbury has set up a project to investigate digital pulse processing for gamma ray detectors and how best to implement gamma ray tracking in large Germanium gamma ray detectors. Topics on this site include but are not limited to: gamma ray tracking, overview of the Gamma Ray Tracking Project, pictures of one of the tracking gamma ray detectors (TIGRE), pictures of test experiment, gamma ray tracking project publications, and links to other gamma ray tracking pages.

186

The gamma-ray spectrum of Centaurus A: A high-resolution observation between 70 keV and 8 MeV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Low Energy Gamma ray Spectrometer (LEGS) observed the nearby active nucleus galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) during a balloon flight on 1981 November 19. There is no evidence of a break in the spectrum or of any line features. The 1.6 MeV limit is a factor of 8 lower than the 1974 line flux, indicating that, if the 1974 feature was real, and, if it was narrow, then the line intensity decreased significantly between 1974 and 1981. The lack of observed annihilation radiation from Cen A, combined with the temporal variations that are seen in the X-ray and gamma-ray intensities, constrain the size of the emission region to be between 10 to the 13th power and 5 x 10 to the 17th power cm.

Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Teegarden, B. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Tueller, J.; Durouchoux, P.; Hameury, J. M.

1983-01-01

187

The gamma-ray spectrum of Centaurus A - A high-resolution observation between 70 keV and 8 MeV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Low Energy Energy Gamma ray Spectrometer (LEGS) observed the nearby active nucleus galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) during a balloon flight on 1981 November 19. There is no evidence of a break in the spectrum or of any line features. The 1.6 MeV limit is a factor of 8 lower than the 1974 line flux, indicating that, if the 1974 feature was real, and, if it was narrow, then the line intensity decreased significantly between 1974 and 1981. The lack of observed annihilation radiation from Cen A, combined with the temporal variations that are seen in the X-ray and gamma-ray intensities, constrain the size of the emission region to be between 10 to the 13th power and 5 x 10 to the 17th power cm. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35990

Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Teegarden, B. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Tueller, J.; Durouchoux, PH.; Hameury, J. M.

1984-01-01

188

VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAY Tadashi KIFUNE  

E-print Network

VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAY ASTRONOMY Tadashi KIFUNE Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University for the photon of background radiation field. The gamma ray reactions characterize VHE gamma ray astronomy­based tech­ nique to detect TeV gamma rays. The current status of gamma ray astronomy in its growing stage

Enomoto, Ryoji

189

Gamma-Ray Astronomy of Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

Many of the basic problems in the astrophysics of charged Cosmic Rays remain on principle unresolved by in situ observations in the Solar System due to the chaotic nature of the propagation of these particles in Interstellar space. This concerns the existence and the nature of localized individual particle sources as well as the transport in the Galaxy and establishes the need for astronomical observations of secondary gamma-rays. The only exception may be the highest energy particles at energies around $10^{20}$ eV which possibly reach us on straight line orbits from their production sites. Recently such gamma-ray observations, both in space and on the ground, have made great progress even though the instrumental sensitivities are still low. It is argued that two basic questions, regarding first of all the Supernova Remnant source hypothesis and secondly the contributions to the diffuse gamma-ray background, have come close to an empirical resolution. Apart from motivations deriving from extragalactic astronomy this expectation is at the root of the construction of a new generation of high-sensitivity gamma-ray instruments. As a representative example the H.E.S.S. array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes is described.

Heinrich Voelk

2002-02-22

190

The solar gamma ray and neutron capabilities of COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The imaging Compton telescope COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) has unusual spectroscopic capabilities for measuring solar gamma-ray and neutron emission. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990 near the peak of the sunspot cycle. With a 30 to 40 percent probability for the Sun being in the COMPTEL field-of-view during the sunlit part of an orbit, a large number of flares will be observed above the 800 keV gamma-ray threshold of the telescope. The telescope energy range extends to 30 MeV with high time resolution burst spectra available from 0.1 to 10 MeV. Strong Compton tail suppression of instrumental gamma-ray interactions will facilitate improved spectral analysis of solar flare emissions. In addition, the high signal to noise ratio for neutron detection and measurement will provide new neutron spectroscopic capabilities. Specifically, a flare similar to that of 3 June 1982 will provide spectroscopic data on greater than 1500 individual neutrons, enough to construct an unambiguous spectrum in the energy range of 20 to 200 MeV. Details of the instrument and its response to solar gamma-rays and neutrons will be presented.

Ryan, James M.; Lockwood, John A.

1989-01-01

191

Multiwavelength Study of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate total intensity radio images of 6 gamma-ray bright blazars (BL Lac, 3C 279, 3C 273, W Com, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A) and their optical and gamma-ray light curves to study connections between gamma-ray and optical brightness variations and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure. We use high-resolution maps obtained by the BU group at 43 GHz with the VLBA, optical light curves constructed by the St.Petersburg State U. (Russia) team using measurements with the 0.4 m telescope of St.Petersburg State U. (LX200) and the 0.7 m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (AZT-8), and gamma-ray light curves, which we have constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Over the period from August 2008 to November 2009, superluminal motion is found in all 6 objects with apparent speed ranging from 2c to 40c. The blazars with faster apparent speeds, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A, exhibit stronger variability of the gamma-ray emission. There is a tendency for sources with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares to have faster jet speed than sources with gamma-ray light curves with no sharp peaks. Gamma-ray light curves with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares possess a stronger gamma-ray/optical correlations. The research at St.Petersburg State U. was funded by the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (state contract N#P123). The research at BU was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX08AV65G and by NSF grant AST-0907893. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

Morozova, Daria; Larionov, V. M.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Troitskii, I. S.

2011-01-01

192

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

1994-01-01

193

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

1994-06-01

194

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments,

N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. Kniffen

1994-01-01

195

CdZnTe gamma ray spectrometer for orbital gamma ray spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and analysis of a new gamma ray spectrometer for planetary science that uses an array of CdZnTe detectors to achieve the detection efficiency needed for orbital measurements. The use of CdZnTe will provide significantly improved pulse height resolution relative to scintillation-based detectors, with commensurate improvement in the accuracy of elemental abundances determined by gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy. The spectrometer can be flown either on the instrument deck of the spacecraft or on a boom. For deck-mounted systems, a BGO anticoincidence shield is included in the design to suppress the response of the CdZnTe detector to gamma rays that originate in the spacecraft. The BGO shield also serves as a backup spectrometer, providing heritage from earlier planetary science missions and reducing the risk associated with the implementation of new technology.

Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.); Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Fuller, K. R. (Kenneth R.); Storms, S. A. (Steven A.); Soldner, S. A.; Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Browne, M. C. (Michael C.); Moss, C. E. (Calvin E.)

2001-01-01

196

New Optical Design and Image Assessment of Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnifying Endoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image resolution of a conventional ultrahigh-resolution endoscope is limited to 20-30 lp/mm. In this study, magnified and 64 lp/mm high-resolution images are obtained using a new optical design with a 0.23 pitch gradient index lens and a high-resolution fiber-optic image guide. The resolution and magnification of the obtained images are measured and analyzed. Also, the MTFs of images from a new magnifying endoscope are measured. A new type of high-resolution magnifying endoscope which can be developed based on this research, can take an image of less than 10 ?m resolution in the human body.

Lee, Bongsoo; Cho, Dong Hyun; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Kang, Yeon June

2004-11-01

197

Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. There has been tremendous recent progress in our understanding of bursts with the new data from the Swift mission. Swift was launched in November 2004 and is a multiwave length observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. It was developed and is being operated by an international team of scientists from the US, UK and Italian. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. A large step forward has been made in our understanding of the mysterious short GRBs. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow. These, and other topics, will be discussed.

Gehrels, Neil

2006-01-01

198

Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

2010-01-01

199

Gamma-Ray Polarimetry with Compton Telescope  

SciTech Connect

Compton telescope is a promising technology to achieve very high sensitivity in the soft gamma-ray band (0.1-10 MeV) by utilizing Compton kinematics. Compton kinematics also enables polarization measurement which will open new windows to study gamma-ray production mechanism in the universe. CdTe and Si semiconductor technologies are key technologies to realize the Compton telescope in which their high energy resolution is crucial for high angular resolution and background rejection capability. We have assembled a prototype module using a double-sided silicon strip detector and CdTe pixel detectors. In this paper, we present expected polarization performance of a proposed mission (NeXT/SGD). We also report results from polarization measurements using polarized synchrotron light and validation of EGS4 MC simulation.

Tajima, H

2004-07-06

200

The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation studies  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory being planned in the U.S. The anticipated sensitivity of AGIS is about one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of current observatories, allowing it to measure gamma-ray emission from a large number of Galactic and extra-galactic sources. We present here results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance - collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity - are discussed.

Maier, G.; /McGill U.; Buckley, J.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Bugaev, V.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Fegan, S.; /UCLA; Funk, S.; /SLAC; Konopelko, A.; /Pittsburgh U.; Vassiliev, V.V.; /UCLA

2011-06-14

201

Gamma-Ray Pulsar Revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated neutron stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. In the 1970s, only two sources had been identified, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space in both the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star (NS) magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. We are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known gamma-ray-emitting NSs. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011, and we are now over 150. The gamma-ray-emitting NS population exhibits roughly equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet young INSs, plus an astonishing, and unexpected, group of isolated and binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The number of MSPs is growing so rapidly that they are on their way to becoming the most numerous members of the family of gamma-ray-emitting NSs. Even as these findings have set the stage for a revolution in our understanding of gamma-ray-emitting NSs, long-term monitoring of the gamma-ray sky has revealed evidence of flux variability in the Crab Nebula as well as in the pulsed emission from PSR J2021+4026, challenging a four-decades-old, constant-emission paradigm. Now we know that both pulsars and their nebulae can, indeed, display variable emission.

Caraveo, Patrizia A.

2014-08-01

202

Ultrahigh resolution characterizing nanoscale Seebeck coefficient via the heated, conductive AFM probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrahigh resolution probe technique for charactering nanoscale Seebeck coefficient was developed based on a modified conductive AFM probe with local heating function. The heated AFM conductive tip realizes nanoscale thermal contact between the AFM tip and the thermoelectric samples and successfully excites nanoscale thermoelectric signal. Excellent agreement was found between nanoscale Seebeck coefficient values and their corresponding macroscopy measurements in thermoelectric bulk and thin films. Such AFM-based thermoelectric probe technique provides a very convenient and promising tool for measuring nanoscale thermoelectric parameters with ultrahigh resolution up to 15 nm.

Xu, K. Q.; Zeng, H. R.; Yu, H. Z.; Zhao, K. Y.; Li, G. R.; Song, J. Q.; Shi, X.; Chen, L. D.

2015-01-01

203

Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy with Cherenkov telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high-energy (>100 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy is emerging as an important discipline in both high-energy astrophysics and astro-particle physics. This field is currently dominated by imaging atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) and arrays of these telescopes. Such arrays have achieved the best angular resolution and energy flux sensitivity in the gamma-ray domain and are still far from the fundamental limits of the

Jim Hinton

2009-01-01

204

X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

205

X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

1994-01-01

206

Prospects in space-based Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

With the unequalled INTEGRAL observatory, ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community that has made Europe the world leader in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. INTEGRAL provides an unprecedented survey of the soft gamma-ray sky, revealing hundreds of sources of different kinds, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the longly awaited global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources, comparable to the step that has been taken in X-rays by going from the ROSAT survey satellite to the more focused XMM-Newton observatory. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction techniques have paved the way towards a future European gamma-ray mission, that will outreach past missions by large factors in sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow to study particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented depth, providing essential clues on the intimate nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Jürgen Knödlseder

2005-06-21

207

High energy gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

Fichtel, Carl E.

1987-01-01

208

Ultrahigh-speed imaging of the rat retina using ultrahigh-resolution spectral/Fourier domain OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed OCT imaging of the rat retina at 70,000 axial scans per second with ~3 ?m axial resolution. Three-dimensional OCT (3D-OCT) data sets of the rat retina were acquired. The high speed and high density data sets enable improved en face visualization by reducing eye motion artifacts and improve Doppler OCT measurements. Minimal motion artifacts were visible and the OCT fundus images offer more precise registration of individual OCT images to retinal fundus features. Projection OCT fundus images show features such as the nerve fiber layer, retinal capillary networks and choroidal vasculature. Doppler OCT images and quantitative measurements show pulsatility in retinal blood vessels. Doppler OCT provides noninvasive in vivo quantitative measurements of retinal blood flow properties and may benefit studies of diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Ultrahigh speed imaging using ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT promises to enable novel protocols for measuring small animal retinal structure and retinal blood flow. This non-invasive imaging technology is a promising tool for monitoring disease progression in rat and mouse models to assess ocular disease pathogenesis and response to treatment.

Liu, Jonathan J.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Chen, Yueli; Gorczynska, Iwona; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.

2010-02-01

209

Fission-fragment gamma-ray multiplicities  

SciTech Connect

The gamma ray multiplicity (M{gamma}) of fission fragments is a valuable experimental clue to the physics of the fission process in particular and the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions in general. Apparatus for measuring M{gamma} as a function of mass asymmetry was constructed and commissioned. The apparatus consisted of a time-of-flight telescope with a time resolution for fission fragments of {approx}1.5 ns and a solid angle of some 0.04 strad. The telescope was constructed using a micro-channel plate start detector and a parallel plate avalanche counter as a stop detector. Gamma rays from the fragments were detected in an array of three 5{double prime} {times} 6{double prime} NaI(Tl) detectors placed approximately 55 cm from the target. When used in beam this apparatus provided sufficient mass resolution for the detected fission fragments and allowed excellent separation of the {gamma}-rays and neutrons from the reaction on the basis of their time-of-flight.

Hook, D.E.

1987-01-01

210

The HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO 3), successfully launched into low earth orbit on September 20, 1979, carries a large high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer designed for cosmic nuclear spectroscopy. This gamma-ray spectrometer (the HEAO C-1 experiment) consists of a cluster of four coaxial high-purity germanium detectors, each with a volume of approximately 100 cu cm. Surrounding the germanium detectors is a 6.6-cm thick CsI shield operating in active anticoincidence with the central detectors and defining a field of view of about 30 deg FWHM. An initial energy resolution of 3 keV FWHM at 1.46 MeV was achieved for each detector. All valid events in the germanium detectors are individually analyzed by an 8192-channel pulse area analyzer and transmitted at a maximum rate of 15.6 evens/s for each detector. During a 6-month mission, the experiment will perform a complete sky survey for narrow cosmic gamma-ray line emission to the sensitivity level of about 0.0001 photons/sq cm s over an operating energy range of 0.05-10 MeV.

Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Jacobson, A. S.; Tapphorn, R. M.

1980-01-01

211

The diffuse galactic gamma ray emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope) detector will provide a much more detailed view of the diffuse galactic gamma ray intensity in terms of higher resolution, greater statistical significance, and broader energy range than earlier missions. These observations will furnish insight into a number of very important questions related to the dynamics and structure of the Galaxy. A diffuse emission model is being developed that incorporates the latest information on matter distribution and source functions. In addition, it is tailored to the EGRET instrument response functions. The analysis code of the model maintains flexibility to accommodate the quality of the data that is anticipated. The discussion here focuses on the issues of the distributions of matter, cosmic rays, and radiation fields, and on the important source functions that enter into the model calculation of diffuse emission.

Bertsch, David L.

1990-01-01

212

Nucleosynthesis and astrophysical gamma ray spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HEAO-3 gamma ray spectrometer has provided evidence in the quest for the understanding of complex element formation in the universe with the discovery of Al-26 in the interstellar medium. It has demonstrated that the synthesis of intermediate mass nuclei is currently going on in the galaxy. This discovery was confirmed by the Solar Maximum Mission. The flux is peaked near the galactic center and indicates about 3 solar masses of Al-26 in the interstellar medium, with an implied ratio of Al-26/Al-27 = .00001. Several possible distributions were studied but the data gathered thus far do not allow discrimination between them. It is felt that only the spaceflight of a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer with adequate sensitivity will ultimately resolve the issue of the source of this material.

Jacobson, Allan S.

1987-01-01

213

SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco [IASF-INAF Rome (Italy); Barbiellini, Guido [INFN Trieste (Italy); Mastropietro, Marcello [CNR Montelibretti (Italy); Morelli, Ennio [IASF-INAF-Bologna (Italy); Rapisarda, Massimo [ENEA Frascati (Italy)

2006-05-19

214

Chemical analysis by ultrahigh-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance in the Earth's  

E-print Network

LETTERS Chemical analysis by ultrahigh-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance in the Earth spectroscopy2 in the Earth's magnetic field. We show that in the Earth's field the transverse relaxation time T electronics Data acquisition d.c. transmission coil Earth's field N S B0 B0 = 1 T Figure 1 Setup of mobile

Loss, Daniel

215

A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution QuikSCAT Winds of hurricanes. I. INTRODUCTION Space-borne scatterometers such as SeaWinds on QuikSCAT are instruments designed these is the observation and tracking of tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Several fea- tures of interest

Long, David G.

216

Ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography of traumatic maculopathy.  

PubMed

The authors describe a patient who suffered traumatic maculopathy following blunt trauma to the eye with commotio retinae, subretinal and preretinal hemorrhage, traumatic macular hole, and outer retinal and retinal pigment epithelium disruption. Serial imaging with commercially available and ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography characterized the evolution of the injury. PMID:19772281

Seider, Michael I; Seider, Michael; Lujan, Brandon J; Gregori, Giovanni; Jiao, Shuliang; Murray, Timothy G; Puliafito, Carmen A

2009-01-01

217

Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride probed by ultrahigh-resolution transmission electron microscopy  

E-print Network

Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride probed by ultrahigh-resolution transmission electron to prepare monolayer and multilayer suspended sheets of hexagonal boron nitride h-BN , using a combinationRevB.80.155425 PACS number s : 68.37.Og I. INTRODUCTION Boron nitride BN is a synthetic material

Zettl, Alex

218

Ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry characterization of a -pinene ozonolysis SOA  

EPA Science Inventory

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of a-pinene ozonolysis with and without hydroxyl radical scavenging hexane was characterized by ultrahigh-resolution. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Molecular formulas for more than 900 negative ions were i...

219

Gamma-Ray Burst Lines  

E-print Network

The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

Michael S. Briggs

1999-10-20

220

Gamma-ray burst afterglows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of counterparts in X-ray and optical to radio wavelengths has revolutionized the study of gamma-ray bursts, until recently the most enigmatic of astrophysical phenomena. We now know that gamma-ray bursts are the biggest explosions in nature, caused by the ejection of ultrarelativistic matter from a powerful energy source and its subsequent collision with its environment. We have just

Paradijs van J. A; Chryssa Kouveliotou; Ralph A. M. J. Wijers

2000-01-01

221

Multiwavelength Astronomy: Gamma Ray Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dieter Hartmann, a high-energy physicist, presents a story-based lesson on the science of Gamma-Ray astronomy. The lesson focuses on gamma-ray bursts; examining their sources, types, and links to the origin and evolution of the Universe. The story-based format of the lesson also provides insights into the nature of science. Students answer questions based on the reading guide. A list of supplemental websites is also included.

222

Gamma-ray line astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray astronomy is a valuable source of information on solar activity, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis. Cosmic gamma-ray lines were first observed from solar flares and more recently from the galactic center and a transient event. The latter may give an important insight into nuclear reactions taking place near neutron stars and black holes and a measure of the gravitational redshifts of such objects.

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1979-01-01

223

Swift: Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the late 1960s, scientists accidentally discovered gamma-ray bursts, intense flashes of energy that typically last no more than a few seconds or minutes. For decades after the discovery of these powerful bursts, they remained one of the greatest mysteries in astronomy. This video segment discusses the Swift satellite mission, launched in 2004 to investigate gamma-ray bursts, and presents some theories as to their origins. The segment is four minutes fourteen seconds in length.

224

Absolute intensities of {gamma} rays in {sup 182}Hf decay  

SciTech Connect

The absolute intensities of {gamma} rays produced in the decay of {sup 182}Hf were determined by measuring its {gamma}-ray spectra with high-resolution Ge spectrometers. Because the sample was chemically purified more than 30 years ago, the daughter {sup 182}Ta (t{sub 1/2}=114.43 d) was in secular equilibrium with {sup 182}Hf (t{sub 1/2}=8.90x10{sup 6} yr). The absolute intensities of {sup 182}Hf {gamma} rays were determined with respect to the intensities of {sup 182}Ta {gamma} lines. In order to minimize summing losses from the peak areas, spectra were measured at low absolute efficiencies. The absolute intensity of the 270.4-keV-{gamma} ray was found to be (79.0{+-}0.6)% per {sup 182}Hf {beta}{sup -} decay.

Ahmad, I.; Greene, J.P.; Moore, E.F.; Kutschera, W.; Vockenhuber, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Institute for Isotope Research and Nuclear Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

2004-10-01

225

Early Time Optical Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the study of a sample of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with contemporaneous early time optical and gamma-ray detections. By performing detailed temporal and spectral analysis of 18 GRBs which show optical peaks during prompt gamma-ray emission, we find that in most cases early time optical emission shows sharp and steep behavior, with a rich diversity of GRBs' broadband spectral properties. These observational results, supported by a simple internal shock dissipation model, show that the standard external shock interpretation for early time optical emission is disfavored in most cases where early time optical peaks are sharp (Delta t/t < 1$) and have steep rise/decay indices. Although the sample of GRBs with contemporaneous optical and gamma-ray detections has become sufficiently larger after the launch of the Swift satellite, this field of research is still poorly developed, mainly due to inadequate optical time resolution and often too long response time of robotic optical telescopes.

Kopac, D.; Gomboc, A.; Japelj, J.

226

Advanced gamma-ray astronomy telescope experiment: AGATE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to continue the achievements in high energy (10 MeV - 100 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy made with the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), a 'next generation' high energy gamma- ray telescope with a large increase in sensitivity coupled with improved angular resolution will be required. This 'next generation' telescope is envisioned as a 2 m X 2 m active area telescope using drift chambers for the imaging detector. The four major components of the instrument are the anticoincidence shield, the track imaging system, the coincidence/time-of- flight system and the energy measurement system. In this paper we discuss the design goals and challenges for the four subsystems and the techniques we are utilizing to achieve them as well as the design and performance of high speed electronics that we have developed specifically for this application.

Dingus, Brenda L.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cuddapah, Rajani; Fichtel, Carl E.; Hunter, Stanley D.; Thompson, D. J.

1993-10-01

227

Direct observation of hydrogen atom dynamics and interactions by ultrahigh resolution neutron protein crystallography  

PubMed Central

The 1.1 ?, ultrahigh resolution neutron structure of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanged crambin is reported. Two hundred ninety-nine out of 315, or 94.9%, of the hydrogen atom positions in the protein have been experimentally derived and resolved through nuclear density maps. A number of unconventional interactions are clearly defined, including a potential O?H…? interaction between a water molecule and the aromatic ring of residue Y44, as well as a number of potential C?H…O hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding networks that are ambiguous in the 0.85 ? ultrahigh resolution X-ray structure can be resolved by accurate orientation of water molecules. Furthermore, the high resolution of the reported structure has allowed for the anisotropic description of 36 deuterium atoms in the protein. The visibility of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the nuclear density maps is discussed in relation to the resolution of the neutron data. PMID:22949690

Chen, Julian C.-H.; Hanson, B. Leif; Fisher, S. Zoë; Langan, Paul; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.

2012-01-01

228

Gamma ray bursts ROBERT S MACKAY  

E-print Network

Gamma ray bursts ROBERT S MACKAY COLIN ROURKE We propose that a gamma ray burst is a kinematic Gamma ray bursts are intense flashes of electromagnetic radiation of cosmic origin lasting from ten accepted mechanism. We propose that a gamma ray burst is simply a kinematic effect, namely the effect

Rourke, Colin

229

VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAY Tadashi KIFUNE  

E-print Network

VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAY ASTRONOMY Tadashi KIFUNE Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University radiation eld. The gamma ray reactions characterize VHE gamma ray astronomy. The Universe, through the high primordial black holes, acted, to some extent, as impetus for promoting gamma ray astronomy. Although

Enomoto, Ryoji

230

Ultrahigh resolution photographic films for X-ray\\/EUV\\/FUV astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quest for ultrahigh resolution full-disk images of the sun at soft X-ray\\/EUV\\/FUV wavelengths has increased the demand for photographic films with broad spectral sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. These requirements were made more stringent by the recent development of multilayer telescopes and coronagraphs capable of operating at normal incidence at soft X-ray\\/EUV wavelengths. Photographic films are

Richard B. Hoover; Arthur B. C. Walker Jr.; Craig E. Deforest; Richard Watts; Charles Tarrio

1993-01-01

231

The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope  

ScienceCinema

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

Isabelle Grenier

2010-01-08

232

The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008. In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

Grenier, Isabelle (University Paris Diderot and CEA Saclay, France) [University Paris Diderot and CEA Saclay, France

2009-04-01

233

The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

Isabelle Grenier

2009-04-01

234

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

1993-01-01

235

Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

1991-01-01

236

Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory being released from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-35 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered the Earth's atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, GRO's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center, kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientist to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of star, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in BATSE's science program.

1991-01-01

237

Grasp as a prospective European Space Agency Gamma Ray Astronomy mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GRASP (Gamma Ray Astronomy with Spectroscopy and Positioning) telescope, which is currently undergoing a Phase A study by the European Space Agency (ESA) as a possible future space mission, is designed to generate high-resolution images of the gamma-ray sky with high sensitivity and fine spectral resolution. The telescope employs a coded aperture mask and the capability to function as

B. McBreen; G. Bignami; G. Villa; A. J. Dean; D. Ramsden

1988-01-01

238

Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons + positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approx. 0.01 deg (E(sub gamma) > 100 GeV), the energy resolution approx. 1% (E(sub gamma) > 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approx 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

Galper, A.M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A.I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mocchiutti, E.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Picozza, P.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.

2012-01-01

239

Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /  

SciTech Connect

The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

Reedy, R. C. (Robert C.)

2001-01-01

240

Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu

2012-01-01

241

LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS: BIASES IN THE SWIFT SAMPLE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ABSORBERS  

SciTech Connect

We present a sample of 77 optical afterglows (OAs) of Swift detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which spectroscopic follow-up observations have been secured. Our first objective is to measure the redshifts of the bursts. For the majority (90%) of the afterglows, the redshifts have been determined from the spectra. We provide line lists and equivalent widths (EWs) for all detected lines redward of Ly{alpha} covered by the spectra. In addition to the GRB absorption systems, these lists include line strengths for a total of 33 intervening absorption systems. We discuss to what extent the current sample of Swift bursts with OA spectroscopy is a biased subsample of all Swift detected GRBs. For that purpose we define an X-ray-selected statistical sample of Swift bursts with optimal conditions for ground-based follow-up from the period 2005 March to 2008 September; 146 bursts fulfill our sample criteria. We derive the redshift distribution for the statistical (X-ray selected) sample and conclude that less than 18% of Swift bursts can be at z > 7. We compare the high-energy properties (e.g., {gamma}-ray (15-350 keV) fluence and duration, X-ray flux, and excess absorption) for three subsamples of bursts in the statistical sample: (1) bursts with redshifts measured from OA spectroscopy; (2) bursts with detected optical and/or near-IR afterglow, but no afterglow-based redshift; and (3) bursts with no detection of the OA. The bursts in group (1) have slightly higher {gamma}-ray fluences and higher X-ray fluxes and significantly less excess X-ray absorption than bursts in the other two groups. In addition, the fractions of dark bursts, defined as bursts with an optical to X-ray slope {beta}{sub OX} < 0.5, is 14% in group (1), 38% in group (2), and >39% in group (3). For the full sample, the dark burst fraction is constrained to be in the range 25%-42%. From this we conclude that the sample of GRBs with OA spectroscopy is not representative for all Swift bursts, most likely due to a bias against the most dusty sight lines. This should be taken into account when determining, e.g., the redshift or metallicity distribution of GRBs and when using GRBs as a probe of star formation. Finally, we characterize GRB absorption systems as a class and compare them to QSO absorption systems, in particular the damped Ly{alpha} absorbers (DLAs). On average GRB absorbers are characterized by significantly stronger EWs for H I as well as for both low and high ionization metal lines than what is seen in intervening QSO absorbers. However, the distribution of line strengths is very broad and several GRB absorbers have lines with EWs well within the range spanned by QSO-DLAs. Based on the 33 z > 2 bursts in the sample, we place a 95% confidence upper limit of 7.5% on the mean escape fraction of ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies.

Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Thoene, C. C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark); Jakobsson, P.; Bjoernsson, G.; De Cia, A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 ReykjavIk (Iceland); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ledoux, C.; De Ugarte Postigo, A. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Nardini, M. [SISSA, Via Beirut 2/4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chen, H.-W. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J. [IAA-CSIC, P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Christensen, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fruchter, A. S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] (and others)

2009-12-01

242

Development of liquid xenon detectors for gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of liquid xenon in high-resolution detectors for gamma-ray astronomy is being investigated. Initial results from a pulse-shape analysis of ionization signals in a liquid-xenon gridded chamber indicate that it is possible to achieve the necessary liquid purity for the transport of free electrons with simple techniques. The energy resolution has been measured as a function of applied electric field, using electrons and gamma-rays from a 207Bi source. At a field of 12 kV/cm the noise-substracted energy resolution of the dominant 569-keV gamma-ray line is 34 keV FWHM (full width at half maximum). This value is mostly determined by recombination of electron-ion pairs on delta-electron tracks.

Aprile, Elena; Suzuki, Masayo

1989-01-01

243

Ultrahigh Speed Imaging of the Rat Retina Using Ultrahigh Resolution Spectral/Fourier Domain OCT  

E-print Network

We performed OCT imaging of the rat retina at 70,000 axial scans per second with ~3 ?m axial resolution. Three-dimensional OCT (3D-OCT) data sets of the rat retina were acquired. The high speed and high density data sets ...

Liu, Jonathan Jaoshin

244

Neutrino astronomy and gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

The construction of large volume detectors of high energy, >1 TeV, neutrinos is mainly driven by the search for extra-Galactic neutrino sources. The existence of such sources is implied by observations of ultra-high energy, >10^{19} eV, cosmic-rays, the origin of which is a mystery. In this lecture I briefly discuss the expected extra-Galactic neutrino signal and the current state of the experimental efforts. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are likely sources of both high energy protons and neutrinos, is discussed in some detail. The detection of the predicted GRB neutrino signal, which may become possible in the coming few years, will allow one to identify the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays and to resolve open questions related to the underlying physics of GRB models. Moreover, detection of GRB neutrinos will allow one to test for neutrino properties (e.g. flavor oscillations and coupling to gravity) with an accuracy many orders of magnitude better than is currently possible.

E. Waxman

2007-01-07

245

Quest for ultrahigh resolution in X-ray optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of solar X-ray astronomy using grazing incidence optics has culminated in X-ray images of the corona having one arc second spatial resolution. These images have demonstrated that, in general, X-ray optics can be fabricated to their specifications and can provide the level of resolution for which they are designed. Several aspects of these programs relating to the performance

J. M. Davis; A. S. Krieger; J. K. Silk; R. C. Chase

1979-01-01

246

Application of high resolution NMR, ESR, and gamma-ray scintillation spectroscopy to the study of ligand binding in proteins. [Torpedo californica  

SciTech Connect

Electron spin resonance spectroscopy has been employed to study the nature of the ligand binding site of alpha-1-antitrypsin. Spectra of spin-labeled alpha-1-antitrypsin were recorded at pH's ranging from 2.4 to 12.5. This data demonstrates the tight binding of the spin-label to the protease, and the sensitivity of the bound spin-label to informational changes in the protease inhibitor. A molecular dipstick approach has also been applied to this system and has yielded information on the geometry of the cleft accommodating the spin-label. /sup 160/Terbium(III) exchange experiments have been performed on the acetylcholine receptor protein isolated from Torpedo californica, employing a specially designed flow dialysis apparatus constructed in the laboratory. The apparatus is designed to allow continuous monitoring of /sup 160/Tb(III) gamma-ray emission from the protein compartment of the flow dialysis cell. Nicotinic ligand-induced displacement of /sup 160/Tb(III) from the nicotinic binding site of the receptor was monitored as a funtion of (1) the concentration of nicotinic ligand in the washout buffer, and (2) the nature of the nicotinic ligand in the buffer. Measured /sup 160/Tb(III) exchange half-lives indicate (1) a direct relationship between /sup 160/Tb(III) displacement and nicotinic ligand concentration in the wash-out buffer, and (2) an enhanced /sup 160/Tb(III) displacement for nicotinic agents possessing quaternary ammonium functions.

Lancione, G.V.

1982-01-01

247

Developmental and morphological studies in Japanese medaka with ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We propose ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography to study the morphological development of internal organs in medaka fish in the post-embryonic stages at micrometer resolution. Different stages of Japanese medaka were imaged after hatching in vivo with an axial resolution of 2.8 µm in tissue. Various morphological structures and organs identified in the OCT images were then compared with the histology. Due to the medaka’s close resemblance to vertebrates, including humans, these morphological features play an important role in morphogenesis and can be used to study diseases that also occur in humans. PMID:25780725

Gladys, Fanny Moses; Matsuda, Masaru; Lim, Yiheng; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Imai, Takuto; Otani, Yukitoshi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Cense, Barry

2015-01-01

248

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

2013-08-01

249

Cosmogenic gamma rays and the composition of cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the prospects of detecting the sources of ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) nuclei via their emission of cosmogenic {gamma} rays in the GeV to TeV energy range. These {gamma} rays result from electromagnetic cascades initiated by high energy photons, electrons, and positrons that are emitted by CRs during their propagation in the cosmic radiation background and are independent of the simultaneous emission of {gamma} rays in the vicinity of the source. The corresponding production power by UHE CR nuclei (with mass number A and charge Z) is dominated by pion photo production ({proportional_to}A) and Bethe-Heitler pair production ({proportional_to}Z{sup 2}). We show that the cosmogenic {gamma}-ray signal from a single steady UHE CR source is typically more robust with respect to variations of the source composition and injection spectrum than the accompanying signal of cosmogenic neutrinos. We study the diffuse emission from the sum of extragalactic CR sources as well as the point-source emission of the closest sources.

Ahlers, Markus [C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Salvado, Jordi [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, 647 Diagonal, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

250

Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We show that the detection of neutrinos from a typical gamma ray burst requires a kilometer-scale detector. We argue that large bursts should be visible with the neutrino telescopes under construction. We emphasize the 3 techniques by which neutrino telescopes can perform this search: by triggering on i) bursts of muons from muon neutrinos, ii) muons from air cascades initiated by high energy gamma rays and iii) showers made by relatively low energy ($\\simeq 100\\,\\mev$) electron neutrinos. Timing of neutrino-photon coincidences may yield a measurement of the neutrino mass to order $10^{-5}$~eV, an interesting range in light of the solar neutrino anomaly.

F. Halzen; G. Jaczko

1996-02-07

251

Gamma-ray Imaging Methods  

SciTech Connect

In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

2006-10-05

252

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography at two infrared wavelength regions using a single light source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An off-the-shelf turn-key supercontinuum light source based on a passively mode-locked fiber laser, a fiber amplifier and a highly nonlinear fiber is evaluated for its application in ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Two spectral bands - one red shifted and one blue shifted in reference to the wavelength of the fiber laser - are employed as low coherence sources

Felix Spöler; Stefan Kray; Patrik Grychtol; Barbara Hermes; Jörg Bornemann; Michael Först; Heinrich Kurz

2007-01-01

253

Enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels using ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT at 1050 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the ability of ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image small choroidal blood vessels below the highly reflective and absorbing retinal pigment epithelium is demonstrated for the first time. A new light source (lc= 1050 nm, Dl = 165 nm, Pout= 10 mW), based on a photonic crystal fiber pumped by a compact, self-starting Ti:Al2O3 laser has therefore been developed. Ex-vivo ultrahigh resolution OCT images of freshly excised pig retinas acquired with this light source demonstrate enhanced penetration into the choroid and better visualization of choroidal vessels as compared to tomograms acquired with a state-of-the art Ti:Al2O3 laser (Femtolasers Compact Pro, lc= 780 nm, Dl= 160 nm, Pout= 400 mW), normally used in clinical studies for in vivo ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT imaging. These results were also compared with retinal tomograms acquired with a novel, spectrally broadened fiber laser (MenloSystems, lc= 1350 nm, Dl= 470 nm, Pout = 4 mW) permitting even greater penetration in the choroid. Due to high water absorption at longer wavelengths retinal OCT imaging at ~1300 nm may find applications in animal ophthalmic studies. Detection and follow-up of choroidal neovascularization improves early diagnosis of many retinal pathologies, e.g. age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy and can aid development of novel therapy approaches.

Povazay, B.; Bizheva, K.; Hermann, B.; Unterhuber, A.; Sattmann, H.; Fercher, A. F.; Drexler, W.; Schubert, C.; Ahnelt, P. K.; Mei, M.; Holzwarth, R.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Knight, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.

2003-08-01

254

A preliminary report on the determination of natural radioactivity levels of the State of Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technically enhanced levels of radiation in soil samples collected across the landscape of Qatar. Representative soil samples from various locations across the Qatarian peninsula have been collected and analyzed in order to establish activity concentrations associated with the 235,8U and 232Th natural decay chains and also the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40K. The activity concentrations have been measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the preliminary values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for six soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. Sample 228, which has been collected from an inshore oil-field area, was observed to have the highest observed value of 226Ra concentration among the six samples. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in one particular sample (sample 228) were, respectively, found to be 213.9±1.4, 4.55±0.11 and 111.4±3.6 Bq/kg, which compare with the worldwide weighted mean values in soil samples, 33, 45 and 420 Bq/kg, respectively. The deduced activity concentration of 238U in sample 228 in the current work was found to be significantly higher than the worldwide average value and was also significantly higher than the values determined for the five other initial samples discussed here. The mean values of the activity concentration of the 232Th series, 40K and 137Cs in Bq/kg from the six investigated soil samples were found to be 9.4±1.3, 204±22 and 5.8±5.6, respectively, with the quoted uncertainty referring to the standard deviation among these measurements.

Al-Sulaiti, H.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.; Malain, D.; Santawamaitre, T.; Habib, A.; Matthews, M.; Bukhari, S.; Al-Dosari, M.

2010-07-01

255

Labr3:Ce scintillators for gamma ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report on a relatively new scintillator -LaBr3 for gamma ray spectroscopy. Crystals of this scintillator have beengrown using Bridgman process. This material when doped with cerium hashigh light output (~;60,000 photons/MeV) and fast principal decayconstant (less than 25 ns). Furthermore, it shows excellent energyresolution for gamma-ray detection. Energy resolution of 3.2 percent(FWHM) has been achieved for 662 keV photons (137Cs source) at roomtemperature. High timing resolution (260 ps - FWHM) has been recordedwith LaBr3-PMT and BaF2-PMT detectors operating in coincidence mode using511 keV positron annihilation gamma-ray pairs. Details of itsscintillation properties, and variation of these properties with changingcerium concentration are reported. Potential applications of thismaterial are also addressed.

Shah, K.S.; Glodo, J.; Klugerman, M.; Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.

2002-12-02

256

Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with Scintillation Light in Liquid Xenon  

E-print Network

Scintillation light from gamma ray irradiation in liquid xenon is detected by two Hamamatsu R9288 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) immersed in the liquid. UV light reflector material, PTFE, is used to optimize the light collection efficiency. The detector gives a high light yield of 6 photoelectron per keV (pe/keV), which allows efficient detection of the 122 keV gamma-ray line from Co-57, with a measured energy resolution of (8.8+/-0.6)% (sigma). The best achievable energy resolution, by removing the instrumental fluctuations, from liquid xenon scintillation light is estimated to be around 6-8% (sigma) for gamma-ray with energy between 662 keV and 122 keV.

K. Ni; E. Aprile; K. L. Giboni; P. Majewski; M. Yamashita

2006-08-04

257

Recommended Priorities for NASA's Gamma Ray Astronomy Program 1999-2013  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma-Ray Astronomy Program Working Group (GRAPWG) recommends priorities for the NASA Gamma-Ray Astronomy Program. The highest priority science topic is nuclear astrophysics and sites of gamma ray line emission. Other high priority topics are gamma ray bursts, hard x-ray emission from accreting black holes and neutron stars, the Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the High-resolution Spectroscopic Imager (HSI), and the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The recommendations include special consideration for technology development, TeV astronomy, the ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) program, the International Space Station, optical telescope support, and data analysis and theory.

Carol, Ladd

1999-01-01

258

The structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented dealing with galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy with emphasis on the implications of the new gamma ray observations. Topics discussed include: (1) results from the COS-B gamma ray satellite; (2) results from SAS-2 on gamma ray pulsar, Cygnus X-3, and maps of the galactic diffuse flux; (3) recent data from CO surveys of the galaxy; (4) high resolution radio surveys of external galaxies; (5) results on the galactic distribution of pulsars; and (6) theoretical work on galactic gamma ray emission.

Fichtel, C. E.; Stecker, F. W.

1976-01-01

259

Design of a compact spectrometer for high-flux MeV gamma-ray beams  

SciTech Connect

A novel design for a compact gamma-ray spectrometer is presented. The proposed system allows for spectroscopy of high-flux multi-MeV gamma-ray beams with MeV energy resolution in a compact design. In its basic configuration, the spectrometer exploits conversion of gamma-rays into electrons via Compton scattering in a low-Z material. The scattered electron population is then spectrally resolved using a magnetic spectrometer. The detector is shown to be effective for gamma-ray energies between 3 and 20 MeV. The main properties of the spectrometer are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

Corvan, D. J., E-mail: dcorvan01@qub.ac.uk; Sarri, G. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University of Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast (United Kingdom); Zepf, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University of Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast (United Kingdom); Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Föstengraben 1, 07740 Jena (Germany)

2014-06-15

260

Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Using Femtosecond Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging optical imaging modality for biomedical research and clinical medicine.\\u000a OCT can perform high resolution, cross-sectional tomographic imaging in materials and biological systems by measuring the\\u000a echo time delay and magnitude of backreflected or backscattered light [1]. In medical applications, OCT has the advantage\\u000a that imaging can be performed in situ and in real

J. G. Fujimoto; A. D. Aguirre; Y. Chen; P. R. Herz; P.-L. Hsiung; T. H. Ko; N. Nishizawa; F. X. Kärtner

2008-01-01

261

Ultrahigh resolution fiber-optic quasi-static strain sensors for geophysical research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of our recent work on ultrahigh resolution optical fiber sensors in the quasi-static region is presented, and their applications in crustal deformation measurement are introduced. Geophysical research such as studies on earthquake and volcano requires monitoring the earth's crustal deformation continuously with a strain resolution on the order of nano-strains (n?) in static to low frequency region. Optical fiber sensors are very attractive due to their unique advantages such as low cost, small size, and easy deployment. However, the resolution of conventional optical fiber strain sensors is far from satisfactory in the quasi-static domain. In this paper, several types of recently developed fiber-optic sensors with ultrahigh resolution in the quasi-static domain are introduced, including a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogated with a narrow linewidth tunable laser, an FBG based fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) sensor by using a phase modulation technique, and an FFPI sensor with a sideband interrogation technique. Quantificational analyses and field experimental results demonstrated that the FBG sensor can provide nano-order strain resolution. The sub-nano strain resolution was also achieved by the FFPI sensors in laboratory. Above achievements provide the basis to develop powerful fiber-optic tools for geophysical research on crustal deformation monitoring.

He, Zuyuan; Liu, Qingwen; Tokunaga, Tomochika

2013-12-01

262

On Gamma-Ray Bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high

Remo Ruffini; M. G. Bernardini; C. L. Bianco; Letizia Caito; Pascal Chardonnet; Christian Cherubini; M. G. Dainotti; Federico Fraschetti; Andrea Geralico; Roberto Guida; Barbara Patricelli; Michael Rotondo; J. A. Rueda Hernandez; Gregory Vereshchagin; She-Sheng Xue

2008-01-01

263

Cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the observation of cosmic gamma-ray bursts are discussed and available theoretical models are presented. Emphasis is placed on a cosmological model in which a gamma burst results from a powerful (? 1051–1053 erg) and very short ( ?10 –100 s) energy release which occurs in a compact ( ? 106–107 cm) region and gives rise to a

Konstantin A Postnov

1999-01-01

264

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than

N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

1993-01-01

265

Gamma-ray camera flyby  

SciTech Connect

Animation based on an actual classroom demonstration of the prototype CCI-2 gamma-ray camera's ability to image a hidden radioactive source, a cesium-137 line source, in three dimensions. For more information see http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/06/02/applied-nuclear-physics/.

None

2010-01-01

266

The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

Thompson, David J.

2012-01-01

267

Advances in gamma-ray line astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray line observations of solar flares, gamma ray transients, and the galactic center are reviewed and interpreted. Prospects of future line detections are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N82-27200

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1983-01-01

268

POSITION SENSITIVE GERMANIUM DETECTORS FOR GAMMA-RAY IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gamma-ray imaging with position-sensitive germanium detectors offers the advantages of excellent energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and potentially good sptial resolution. The development of the amorphous-semiconductor electrical contact technology for germanium detec...

269

Waveguide image-slicers for ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveguide image-slicer prototypes with resolutions up to 310.000 for the fiber fed PEPSI echelle spectrograph at the LBT and single waveguide thicknesses of down to 30 ?m have been manufactured. The waveguides were macroscopically prepared, stacked up to an order of 7 and thinned back to square stack cross sections. A high filling ratio was achieved by realizing homogenous adhesive gaps of 4.6 ?m, using index matching adhesives for TIR within the waveguides. The image-slicer stacks can be used in immersion mode and are miniaturized to be implemented in a set of four, measurements indicate an overall efficiency of above 80% for them.

Beckert, Erik; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas; Andersen, Michael

2008-07-01

270

Ultrahigh-resolution 14,400-pixel trilinear color image sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra-high resolution 14,400 pixel trilinear image sensor is under development to meet customer requirements as they progress into next generation, high-end color scanning systems. High-performance features being incorporated into this device include an enhanced color filter scheme providing improved blue and green responsivity, electronic exposure control, and antiblooming protection. To our knowledge, this will be the highest resolution trilinear sensor to date and is being designed to provide common optical length to Kodak's current line of long trilinear imagers.

Carducci, Thomas; Ciccarelli, Antonio S.; Kecskemety, Brent

1999-10-01

271

Zone-Doubling Technique to Produce Ultrahigh-Resolution X-Ray Optics  

SciTech Connect

A method for the fabrication of ultrahigh-resolution Fresnel zone plate lenses for x-ray microscopy is demonstrated. It is based on the deposition of a zone plate material (Ir) onto the sidewalls of a prepatterned template structure (Si) using an atomic layer deposition technique. This results in a doubling of the effective zone density, thus improving the achievable resolution of x-ray microscopes. Test structures with lines and spaces down to 15 nm were resolved in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope at 1 keV photon energy.

Jefimovs, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); EMPA, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Vila-Comamala, J. [Laboratori de Llum Sincrotro, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Pilvi, T.; Ritala, M. [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Raabe, J.; David, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2007-12-31

272

Evaluation of Optical Properties for Development of Ultrahigh-Resolution Flexible Contact Endoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new flexible contact endoscope that is similar to a fiber-optic ultrathin endoscope is examined. Using a new optical design with a 0.23 pitch gradient index lens and an ultrathin fiber-optic image guide, we have obtained 228 line pairs/mm ultrahigh-resolution images. The resolution and magnification of the obtained images are measured and analyzed. Also, the relationship between magnification and the working distance from the target to the gradient index (GRIN) lens using GRIN lenses of different pitch lengths is determined. Finally, we have taken an image of red blood corpuscles of 6-9 ?m average size.

Lee, Bongsoo; Cho, Dong Hyun; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Jeong-Whan; Tack, Gye-Rae; Yi, Jeong Han; Jun, Jae Hun; Kang, Yeon June

2006-11-01

273

Portable compton gamma-ray detection system  

DOEpatents

A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Oldaker, Mark E. (Pleasanton, CA)

2008-03-04

274

Light Curves of Swift Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Recent observations from the Swift gamma-ray burst mission indicate that a fraction of gamma ray bursts are characterized by a canonical behaviour of the X-ray afterglows. We present an effective theory which allows us to account for X-ray light curves of both (short - long) gamma ray bursts and X-ray rich flashes. We propose that gamma ray bursts originate from massive magnetic powered pulsars.

Paolo Cea

2006-09-22

275

Gamma-ray astronomy at high energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in high-energy gamma-ray astronomy has depended upon the development of sophisticated detectors and analysis techniques. Observations in this decade using space-based and ground-based detectors have observed gamma-ray emission from a variety of sources. For the first time a consistent picture of the gamma-ray sky has emerged. This article describes the detection techniques in gamma-ray astronomy, the nature of the

C. M. Hoffman; C. Sinnis; P. Fleury; M. Punch

1999-01-01

276

Monte Carlo calibration of the SMM gamma ray spectrometer for high energy gamma rays and neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was primarily designed and calibrated for nuclear gamma ray line measurements, but also has a high energy mode which allows the detection of gamma rays at energies above 10 MeV and solar neutrons above 20 MeV. The GRS response has been extrapolated until now for high energy gamma rays

J. F. Cooper; C. Reppin; D. J. Forrest; E. L. Chupp; G. H. Share; R. L. Kinzer

1985-01-01

277

Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

Cline, T. L. (editor); Ramaty, R. (editor)

1978-01-01

278

Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

Stecker, F. W.

1974-01-01

279

Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1978-01-01

280

Gamma-ray signatures of classical novae  

E-print Network

The role of classical novae as potential gamma-ray emitters is reviewed, on the basis of theoretical models of the gamma-ray emission from different nova types. The interpretation of the up to now negative results of the gamma-ray observations of novae, as well as the prospects for detectability with future instruments (specially onboard INTEGRAL) are also discussed.

M. Hernanz; J. Gomez-Gomar; J. Jose

2001-09-06

281

A history of gamma ray bursts and other astronomical conundrums  

E-print Network

line between X-ray and gamma ray astronomy has nothing to doray astronomers and gamma-ray astronomy is done by gamma rayGamma Ray Bursts and Other Astronomical Conundrums Virginia Trimble Department of Physics & Astronomy

Trimble, V

2006-01-01

282

Space experiments on-board of lomonosov mission to study gamma-ray bursts and UHECRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of experiments on-board Lomonosov spacecraft are preparing now at SINP MSU in co-operation with other organisations. The main idea of Lomonosov mission is to study extreme astrophysical phenomena, such as cosmic gamma-ray bursts and ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These phenomena connect with processes occurred in very distant astrophysical objects of the Early Universe and give us information about first stages of Universe evolution. Thus, the Lomonosov mission scientific equipment includes several instruments for gamma-ray burst observation in optics, ultra-violet, X-rays and gamma-rays and the wide aperture telescope for ultra-high energy particle study by detection of ionisation light along its tracks in the atmosphere. The main parameters and a brief description of these instruments are presented.

Amelushkin, A. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Benghin, V. V.; Garipov, G. K.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Grossan, B.; Klimov, P. A.; Khrenov, B. A.; Lee, J.; Lipunov, V. M.; Na, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Park, I. H.; Petrov, V. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Svertilov, S. I.; Shprits, Yu.; Vedenkin, N. N.; Yashin, I. V.

2013-07-01

283

The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) - Simulation Studies  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a US-led concept for a next-generation instrument in ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The most important design requirement for AGIS is a sensitivity of about 10 times greater than current observatories like Veritas, H.E.S.S or MAGIC. We present results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

Maier, G. [Department of Physics, McGill University, H3A 2T8 Montreal, QC (Canada); Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Fegan, S.; Vassiliev, V. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Funk, S. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC, CA-94025 (United States); Konopelko, A. [Department of Physics, Pittsburgh State University, Pittsburgh, KS 66762 (United States)

2008-12-24

284

Ground based gamma-ray astronomy with Cherenkov Telescopes  

E-print Network

Very-high-energy (>100 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy is emerging as an important discipline in both high energy astrophysics and astro-particle physics. This field is currently dominated by Imaging Atmospheric-Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) and arrays of these telescopes. Such arrays have achieved the best angular resolution and energy flux sensitivity in the gamma-ray domain and are still far from the fundamental limits of the technique. Here I will summarise some key aspects of this technique and go on to review the current status of the major instruments and to highlight selected recent results.

Jim Hinton

2008-06-02

285

Observation of gamma ray low state of Cygnus X-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cygnus X-1 was observed on 25 Sep. 1980 with a high-resolution cooled germanium spectrometer in the Low Energy Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (LEGS) balloon-borne experiment. The source was in a very low gamma-ray state: the differential flux at 45 keV was 1.3 x 10 exp -3 ph/sq cm sec keV. The results of a power low fit to our data are compared with three other observations of a similar state. All of these spectra represent significantly lower gamma-ray fluxes than normally observed in the x-ray low or high state. Only HEAO-3 has simultaneous x-ray data and, for that case, Cygnus X-1 was in the x-ray low state which normally corresponds to the highest gamma-ray emission. The similarity of the gamma-ray spectra suggest that all these measurements may correspond to the unusual state observed by HEAO-3.

Tueller, T.; Cline, T.; Teegarden, B.; Paciesas, W.; Boclet, D.; Durouchoux, P.; Hameury, J.; Haymes, R.

1987-01-01

286

Ultrahigh-resolution and non-contact diameter measurement of metallic wire using eddy current sensor.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a new method using eddy current sensor (ECS) for online non-contact diameter measurement of metallic wires with ultrahigh resolution. A prototype sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested for copper wires with diameters ranging from 1.12 mm to 1.30 mm. A solenoid coil with dimensions of 16 mm long and 2.1 mm in diameter is used as sensing element with a working frequency of 1.3 MHz. With a well-designed bridge, the sensing coil's inductance variation can be detected and the wire's diameter can be calculated. The ECS system demonstrated a dynamic resolution better than 2.2 ?m and a static resolution better than 0.42 nm for a wire with a diameter of 1.3 mm. This non-contact method has competitive advantages over other methods in many aspects, especially in terms of measurement resolution. PMID:25173300

Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

2014-08-01

287

Ultrahigh-resolution and non-contact diameter measurement of metallic wire using eddy current sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new method using eddy current sensor (ECS) for online non-contact diameter measurement of metallic wires with ultrahigh resolution. A prototype sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested for copper wires with diameters ranging from 1.12 mm to 1.30 mm. A solenoid coil with dimensions of 16 mm long and 2.1 mm in diameter is used as sensing element with a working frequency of 1.3 MHz. With a well-designed bridge, the sensing coil's inductance variation can be detected and the wire's diameter can be calculated. The ECS system demonstrated a dynamic resolution better than 2.2 ?m and a static resolution better than 0.42 nm for a wire with a diameter of 1.3 mm. This non-contact method has competitive advantages over other methods in many aspects, especially in terms of measurement resolution.

Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

2014-08-01

288

Gamma-ray bursts – a puzzle being resolved  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a few seconds a gamma-ray burst (GRB) becomes the brightest object in the universe, over-shining the rest of the universe combined! Clearly, this reflects extreme conditions that are fascinating and worth exploring. The recent discovery of GRB afterglow have demonstrated that we are on the right track towards the resolution of this long standing puzzle. These observations have confirmed

Tsvi Piran

2000-01-01

289

Miniature gamma-ray camera for tumor localization  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop technology for a miniature gamma-ray camera for use in nuclear medicine. The camera will meet a need of the medical community for an improved means to image radio-pharmaceuticals in the body. In addition, this technology-with only slight modifications-should prove useful in applications requiring the monitoring and verification of special nuclear materials (SNMs). Utilization of the good energy resolution of mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detectors provides a means for rejecting scattered gamma-rays and improving the isotopic selectivity in gamma-ray images. The first year of this project involved fabrication and testing of a monolithic mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detector arrays and appropriate collimators/apertures. The second year of the program involved integration of the front-end detector module, pulse processing electronics, computer, software, and display.

Lund, J.C.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Cross, E. [and others

1997-08-01

290

Gamma-ray imaging with coaxial HPGe detector  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first experimental demonstration of Compton imaging of gamma rays with a single coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. This imaging capability is realized by two-dimensional segmentation of the outside contact in combination with digital pulse-shape analysis, which enables to image gamma rays in 4{pi} without employing a collimator. We are able to demonstrate the ability to image the 662keV gamma ray from a {sup 137}Cs source with preliminary event selection with an angular accuracy of 5 degree with an relative efficiency of 0.2%. In addition to the 4{pi} imaging capability, such a system is characterized by its excellent energy resolution and can be implemented in any size possible for Ge detectors to achieve high efficiency.

Niedermayr, T; Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Schmid, G J; Beckedahl, D; Kammeraad, J; Blair, J

2005-04-12

291

Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification  

SciTech Connect

Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

2012-11-01

292

Future directions in experimental gamma ray astronomy. [technology assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Better vehicles and instruments are needed if gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics and cosmology is to advance. A gamma ray observatory will (1) permit long-term observations of selected sources to measure their variability and to achieve high sensitivity; (2) measure periods in days or weeks; and (3) assess the entire sky to observe various predicted sources, to measure the energy spectrum, and to map the isotropy of the cosmic ray background over larger collecting areas (of the order of a square meter). Conventional and unconventional instruments must cover the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 20 MeV with improved sensitivity. Angular resolution must be improved one degree or more to study discrete X-ray sources in the galactic center. Actively collimated detectors, improved double Compton instruments, and gamma ray correlators to actively synthesize the absolute energy spectrum of the sky protons are discussed as well as the need for scientific balloons.

Haymes, R. C.

1978-01-01

293

Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a final report for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program from 06/01/91-07/31/97. The topics include: 1) Solar Flare Neutron Spectra and Accelerated Ions; 2) Gamma Ray Lines From The Orion Complex; 3) Implications of Nuclear Line Emission From The Orion Complex; 4) Possible Sites of Nuclear Line Emission From Massive OB Associations; 5) Gamma-Ray Burst Repitition and BATSE Position Uncertainties; 6) Effects of Compton Scattering on BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra; and 7) Selection Biases on the Spectral and Temporal Distribution of Gamma Ray Bursts.

Lingenfelter, Richard E.

1997-01-01

294

Gamma rays from globular clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Globular clusters are known to contain a relatively large number of pulsars whose individual and collective emission in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands may be detectable by the instruments on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), ROSAT, and possibly SIGMA. We discuss the several types of high-energy emission expected from isolated and interacting binary pulsars in globular clusters. Individual or collective high-energy emission from isolated pulsars is expected to be too low to be detected with current instruments. However, a class of high-luminosity hidden millisecond pulsars enshrouded in the evaporating material from irradiated companion stars can produce unpulsed shock emission detectable by the high-sensitivity instruments of ROSAT and CGRO. Establishing upper limits of high-energy emission from globular clusters will be valuable in constraining models for the formation of cluster millisecond pulsars.

Tavani, Marco

1993-01-01

295

High-energy gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject of gamma-ray astronomy is discussed with emphasis on celestial gamma rays with energies in excess of 10 MeV. Early observations of such gamma rays are reviewed, a gamma-ray spark-chamber telescope is described together with a gas Cerenkov-counter telescope, and the gamma-ray sky is delineated. It is shown that the diffuse high-energy gamma radiation from the galactic plane probably results primarily from cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar matter. Mechanisms for gamma-ray production are identified, and it is noted that the general galactic radiation may prove to be of great value in studies of galactic structure. Possible sources are considered for the diffuse celestial radiation, and discrete sources are described, including the Crab pulsar, the Vela remnant, the Cygnus region, and Gould's Belt. Future developments in gamma-ray astronomy are considered.

Fichtel, C.; Kniffen, D.; Greisen, K.

1975-01-01

296

Gamma-ray free-electron lasers: Quantum fluid model  

E-print Network

A quantum fluid model is used to describe the interacion of a nondegenerate cold relativistic electron beam with an intense optical wiggler taking into account the beam space-charge potential and photon recoil effect. A nonlinear set of coupled equations are obtained and solved numerically. The numerical results shows that in the limit of plasma wave-breaking an ultra-high power radiation pulse are emitted at the$\\gamma$-ray wavelength range which can reach an output intensity near the Schwinger limit depending of the values of the FEL parameters such as detuning and input signal initial phase at the entrance of the interaction region.

Silva, H M

2014-01-01

297

Gamma-ray burst afterglows  

E-print Network

Extended, fading emissions in multi-wavelength are observed following Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent broad-band observational campaigns led by the Swift Observatory reveal rich features of these GRB afterglows. Here we review the latest observational progress and discuss the theoretical implications for understanding the central engine, composition, and geometric configuration of GRB jets, as well as their interactions with the ambient medium.

Bing Zhang

2007-01-10

298

STS-37: Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video release presents footage of pre-flight activities involving the STS-37 primary payload, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). The GRO is shown being removed from the transport aircraft to one of the runways at Kennedy. Other footage includes Kennedy work crews moving the GRO into position as well as discussions between the STS-37 astronauts and the work crews regarding GRO operation.

1991-01-01

299

Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

1978-01-01

300

Endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution OCT for in vivo imaging colon disease model mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mouse models are increasingly important for studying human GI pathology. OCT provides minimally invasive, cross-sectional images that indicate the thickness and scattering density of underlying tissue. We have developed endoscopic ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) for the purpose of in vivo imaging in mouse colon. The reduced scale of the mouse colon makes tissue light penetration much less problematic, and high resolution acutely necessary. Higher lateral resolution requires a departure from the traditional cemented GRIN lens design. We support the need for better chromatic aberration than can be achieved by a GRIN lens using commercial raytracing software. We have designed and built a 2mm diameter endoscopic UHR-OCT system achromatized for 770-1020nm for use with a Titanium:sapphire laser with 260 nm bandwidth at full-width-half-maximum centered at 800 nm while achieving a 4.4um lateral spot dimension at focus. A pair of KZFSN5/SFPL53 doublets provides excellent primary and secondary color correction to maintain wide bandwidth through the imaging depth. A slight deviation from normal beam exit angle suppresses collection of the strong back reflection at the exit window surface. The novel design endoscope was built and characterized for through focus bandwidth, axial resolution, signal to noise, and lateral spot dimension. Performance is demonstrated on a variety of ex vivo tissues and in situ mouse colon. Ultrahigh-resolution images of mouse tissue enable the visualization of microscopic features, including crypts that have previously been observed with standard resolution OCT in humans but were too small to see in mouse tissue. Resolution near the cellular level is potentially capable of identifying abnormal crypt formation and dysplastic cellular organization.

Tumlinson, Alexandre R.; McNally, James; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermann, Boris; Sattmann, Harald; Hariri, Lida; Drexler, Wolfgang; Barton, Jennifer K.

2005-04-01

301

Micrometer scale contact lens movements imaged by ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To dynamically evaluate contact lens movement and ocular surface shape using ultra-high resolution and ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT). DESIGN Clinical research study of a laboratory technique. METHODS Four different types of soft contact lenses were tested on the left eye of 10 subjects (6 males and 4 females). Lenses edges at primary gaze and temporal and nasal gazes were imaged by ultra-high resolution OCT. Excursion lag was obtained as the distance between the lens edge at primary gaze and immediately after the eye was quickly turned either nasally or temporally. The inferior lens edges were imaged continuously to track vertical movements during blinking. Ultra-long scan depth OCT provided quantifiable images of the ocular surface, and the contour was acquired using custom software. RESULTS Excursion lag at the horizontal meridian was 366 ± 134 ?m at temporal gaze and 320 ± 137 ?m at nasal gaze (P > .05). The lens uplift at the vertical meridian was 342 ± 155 ?m after blinking. There were significant differences in horizontal lags and vertical movements among different lenses (P < .05). Horizontal lags were correlated with radii of curvatures and sagittal heights at 6- and 14- mm horizontal meridian radii (P < .05). The blink-induced lens uplift first lowered by 104 ± 8 ?m, and then lifted 342 ± 155 ?m after the blink. CONCLUSIONS Ultra-high resolution and ultra-long scan depth OCT can assess micrometer scale lens movements and ocular surface contours. Both lens design and ocular surface shape affected lens movements. PMID:21920493

Cui, Lele; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua

2011-01-01

302

Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study.56.Fk, 82.56.Pp, 82.56.Jn Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is often regarded as one of the most

303

Novel ultrahigh resolution data acquisition and image reconstruction for multi-detector row CT  

SciTech Connect

We present and evaluate a special ultrahigh resolution mode providing considerably enhanced spatial resolution both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction for a routine medical multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) system. Data acquisition is performed by using a flying focal spot both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction in combination with tantalum grids that are inserted in front of the multi-row detector to reduce the aperture of the detector elements both in-plane and in the z-axis direction. The dose utilization of the system for standard applications is not affected, since the grids are moved into place only when needed and are removed for standard scanning. By means of this technique, image slices with a nominal section width of 0.4 mm (measured full width at half maximum=0.45 mm) can be reconstructed in spiral mode on a CT system with a detector configuration of 32x0.6 mm. The measured 2% value of the in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) is 20.4 lp/cm, the measured 2% value of the longitudinal (z axis) MTF is 21.5 lp/cm. In a resolution phantom with metal line pair test patterns, spatial resolution of 20 lp/cm can be demonstrated both in the scan plane and along the z axis. This corresponds to an object size of 0.25 mm that can be resolved. The new mode is intended for ultrahigh resolution bone imaging, in particular for wrists, joints, and inner ear studies, where a higher level of image noise due to the reduced aperture is an acceptable trade-off for the clinical benefit brought about by the improved spatial resolution.

Flohr, T. G.; Stierstorfer, K.; Suess, C.; Schmidt, B.; Primak, A. N.; McCollough, C. H. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Computed Tomography CTE PA Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany) and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Siemens Medical Solutions, Computed Tomography CTE PA Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

2007-05-15

304

Figure 5. The LAT and the GLAST spacecraft. GLAST will also carry a gamma-ray burst monitor, the GBM instrument. For more information about GLAST, see  

E-print Network

-energy gamma-ray astronomy, owing to the poor angular resolutions of the detectors and the limited statistics Astronomy The history of gamma-ray astronomy is relatively short. The technical challenges for detectingFigure 5. The LAT and the GLAST spacecraft. GLAST will also carry a gamma-ray burst monitor

Strong, Andrew W.

305

Anomalous Thermal Behavior in Microcalorimeter Gamma-Ray Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Improving the resolution of gamma-ray detectors is important for many fields, including determinations of the Lamb shift in atoms with high atomic numbers, nuclear treaty verification, and environmental monitoring. High-purity germanium detectors are currently the tool of choice for precision gamma-ray spectroscopy. The resolution of these detectors is limited to about 500 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 100 keV by Fano statistics. In comparison, low-temperature microcalorimeters can provide over an order of magnitude improvement in photon resolution. For instance, a gamma-ray microcalorimeter has achieved 25 eV FWHM resolution at 103 keV. These calorimeters consist of two components, a bulk absorber to stop incident gamma rays and a thermometer made from a thin film electrically biased in the superconducting-to-normal phase transition, called a Transition Edge Sensor, or TES. The standard absorber is bulk, superconducting tin. While tin has historically been the best performing absorber, pulse decays in Sn devices are much slower than predicted. We have begun a systematic study of absorber behavior in order to assess and improve response times. This study leverages two capabilities: the ability to microfabricate highly uniform arrays of gamma-ray detectors and the ability to read out many detectors in a single cool-down using SQUID multiplexer circuits. Here, we present two experiments to identify the source of thermal time constants. The first involves varying properties of the Sn absorber including purity, vendor, and crystal grain size. The second examines the role of the other elements in the microcalorimeter assembly.

Horansky, Robert D.; Beall, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

2009-12-16

306

Gamma-ray astronomy: Nuclear transition region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This monograph reviews the major theoretical and experimental efforts made during the past 12 years in gamma-ray astronomy over the energy range from 10 keV to about 100 MeV, where nuclear-transition lines are expected. Early attempts to detect celestial gamma rays are recounted, mechanisms of gamma-ray line and continuum production are examined, and formulas giving the various possible differential gamma-ray spectral shapes are provided. Predicted fluxes are discussed for solar gamma rays as well as for gamma emission from supernova remnants, supernovae, neutron stars, flare stars, the galactic core and disk, black holes, and diffuse sources. Gamma-ray interactions with matter are analyzed, particularly the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering from free electrons, and pair production in nuclear fields. Significant results are summarized for observations of gamma rays from the sun as well as from point and extended sources within and beyond the Galaxy, including diffuse fluxes and transient gamma-ray bursts. Factors pertaining to the design of gamma-ray astronomy experiments are considered, especially detector background limitations, gamma-ray production within instruments, and present-day detection methods.

Chupp, E. L.

1976-01-01

307

Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

Teegarden, B. J.

1999-02-01

308

GLAST: Exploring Nature's Highest Energy Processes with the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international and multi-agency space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV. Several successful exploratory missions in gamma-ray astronomy led to the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). Launched in 1991, EGRET made the first complete survey of the sky in the 30 MeV-10 GeV range. EGRET showed the high-energy gamma-ray sky to be surprisingly dynamic and diverse, with sources ranging from the sun and moon to massive black holes at large redshifts. Most of the gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET remain unidentified. In light of the discoveries with EGRET, the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope vastly more capable than instruments flown previously, as well as a secondary instrument to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. The main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), will have superior area, angular resolution, field of view, and deadtime that together will provide a factor of 30 or more advance in sensitivity, as well as provide capability for study of transient phenomena. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will have a field of view several times larger than the LAT and will provide spectral coverage of gamma-ray bursts that extends from the lower limit of the LAT down to 10 keV. The basic parameters of the GBM are compared to those of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument on CGRO in Table 1-2. With the LAT and GBM, GLAST will be a flexible observatory for investigating the great range of astrophysical phenomena best studied in high-energy gamma rays. NASA plans to launch GLAST in late 2005.

Digel, Seth; Myers, J. D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

309

Development of liquid xenon detectors for gamma ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of liquid xenon in high-resolution detectors for gamma-ray astronomy is being investigated. Initial results from a pulse-shape analysis of ionization signals in a liquid-xenon gridded chamber indicate that it is possible to achieve the necessary liquid purity for the transport of free electrons with simple techniques. The energy resolution has been measured as a function of applied electric

Elena Aprile; Masayo Suzuki

1989-01-01

310

Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and accurate mass measurements for high-throughput food lipids profiling.  

PubMed

In the present study, accurate mass measurements by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry with Orbitrap-Exactive working at resolving power R: 100,000 (m/z 200, full width at half maximum) with an accuracy better than 2?ppm in all the mass range (m/z 200 to 2000) were used to show a detailed molecular composition of diverse edible oils and fats. Flow injection was used to introduce samples into the mass spectrometer, obtaining a complete analysis of each sample in less than 10 min, including blanks. Meticulous choice of organic solvents and optimization of the ion source and Orbitrap mass analyzer parameters were carried out, in order to achieve reproducible mass spectra giving reliable elemental compositions of the lipid samples and to prevent carry over. More than 200 elemental compositions attributable to diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols (TAGs), and their oxidation products have been found in the spectra of food lipids from different origin. Several compounds with very close molecular mass could only be resolved through ultrahigh resolution, allowing detailed and robust TAG profiling with a high characterization potential. PMID:22972786

Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep

2012-09-01

311

Constraining Lorentz violations with Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma ray bursts are excellent candidates to constrain physical models which break Lorentz symmetry. We consider deformed dispersion relations which break the boost invariance and lead to an energy-dependent speed of light. In these models, simultaneously emitted photons from cosmological sources reach Earth with a spectral time delay that depends on the symmetry breaking scale. We estimate the possible bounds which can be obtained by comparing the spectral time delays with the time resolution of available telescopes. We discuss the best strategy to reach the strongest bounds. We compute the probability of detecting bursts that improve the current bounds. The results are encouraging. Depending on the model, it is possible to build a detector that within several years will improve the present limits of 0.015 m_pl.

Maria Rodriguez Martinez; Tsvi Piran

2006-05-17

312

Measurements of gamma-ray production cross sections for shielding materials of space nuclear systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of secondary gamma ray production from neutron interactions have been made over the entire energy range of interest in shielding applications. The epithermal capture gamma ray yields for both resolved gamma ray lines and continuum have been measured from thermal energies to 100 KeV for natural tungsten and U-238, two important candidate shield materials in SNAP reactor systems. Data are presented to illustrate the variation of epithermal capture gamma ray yields with neutron energy. The gamma ray production cross sections from (n,xy) reactions have been measured for Fe and Al from the threshold energies for inelastic scattering to approximately 16 MeV. Typical Fe and Al cross sections obtained with high-neutron energy resolution and averaged over broad neutron-energy groups are presented.

Orphan, V. J.; John, J.; Hoot, C. G.

1972-01-01

313

Quasars, blazars, and gamma rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the extragalactic sources that have been discovered with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope. All of the sources demonstrate evidence of blazar properties at other wavelengths, including high optical polarization, extreme optical variability, flat-spectrum radio emission associated with a compact core, and apparent superluminal motion. These properties are believed to be produced by those few rare extragalactic quasars and radio galaxies that are favorably aligned to make it possible to observe almost directly down a relativistically outflowing jet of matter expelled from a supermassive black hole.

Dermer, Charles D.; Schlickeiser, Reinhard

1992-01-01

314

High Redshift Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 gamma-ray bursts per year for 7 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. GRBs are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=9.4 giving information on metallicity, star formation rate and reionization. The talk will present the latest results.

Gehrels, Neil

2012-01-01

315

Gamma-ray burst reprocessing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of three theoretical models for the generation of transient optical emission thought to accompany the gamma-ray bursts is presented. The physics of reprocessing by Compton-heated electrons in the magnetosphere of a highly magnetized neutron star, the surface layers of a companion star, and an accretion disk are discussed. The spectral shapes, time scales, and arrival time delays between low and high energy photons predicted by the models are compared. These predictions are so different that broad band monitoring could be used to indicate which of the three scenarios (if any) is correct.

Melia, Fulvio

1988-01-01

316

Two-axis MEMS Scanning Catheter for Ultrahigh Resolution Three-dimensional and En Face Imaging.  

PubMed

Ultrahigh resolution two and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging was performed using a miniaturized, two-axis scanning catheter based upon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror technology. The catheter incorporated a custom-designed and fabricated, 1-mm diameter MEMS mirror driven by angular vertical comb (AVC) actuators on both an inner mirror axis and an outer, orthogonal gimbal axis. Using a differential drive scheme, a linearized position response over +/- 6 degrees mechanical angle was achieved. The flexible, fiber-optic catheter device measured < 5 mm in outer diameter with a rigid length of ~ 2.5 cm at the distal end. In vivo and ex vivo images are presented with < 4 microm axial and ~ 12 microm transverse resolution in tissue. PMID:19532481

Aguirre, Aaron D; Hertz, Paul R; Chen, Yu; Fujimoto, James G; Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Fan, Li; Wu, Ming C

2007-03-01

317

Gamma-Ray Attenuation Coefficient Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper, published by the authors elsewhere, it was shown that for 661.6-keV gamma rays the measurements of gamma-ray attenuation coefficients would greatly improve if one uses the counting sequence of Conner et al. together with a new criterion mut<1, where mu is the gamma-ray attenuation coefficient and t is the thickness of the sample. In this paper

S. Gopal; B. Sanjeevaiah

1973-01-01

318

Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

2012-01-01

319

The physics of gamma-ray bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray bursts (GRB's), short and intense pulses of low-energy gamma rays, have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in the late sixties. During the last decade, several space missions---BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, BeppoSAX and now HETE II (High-Energy Transient Explorer)---together with ground-based optical, infrared, and radio observatories have revolutionized our understanding

Tsvi Piran

2004-01-01

320

Black Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but are frozen near the Schwarzschild horizon are termed ``black stars''. Collisions of black stars, in contrast to black hole collisions, may be sources of gamma ray bursts, whose basic parameters are estimated quite simply and are found to be consistent with observed gamma ray bursts. Black star gamma ray bursts should be preceded by gravitational wave emission similar to that from the coalescence of black holes.

Tanmay Vachaspati

2007-06-08

321

Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not

B. J Teegarden

1999-01-01

322

Galaxies and gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons between the recently measured X-ray spectra of active galaxies, the intensity upper limits to the ..gamma..-ray emission above 35 MeV from the same objects obtained from data from SAS 2, and other ..gamma..-ray data are used to address the nature of the high-energy spectra of several types of active galaxies, their contribution to the measured diffuse ..gamma..-ray emission between

G. F. Bignami; C. E. Fichtel; R. C. Hartman; D. J. Thompson

1979-01-01

323

Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of the current status of very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The development of the atmospheric Cerenkov imaging technique for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has led to a rapid growth in the number of observatories. The detection of TeV gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei was unexpected and is providing new insights into the emission mechanisms in the jets.

Michael Catanese; Trevor C. Weekes

1999-01-01

324

Some aspects of gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of gamma-ray astronomy is reviewed. The basic understanding of the processes by which gamma radiation is generated and absorbed is outlined. The basic observational results in various gamma-ray energy ranges are presented. The nature of the gamma bursts, the radiation source at the center of the local galaxy, etc., are discussed for the range of soft gamma-ray

Vitalii L Ginzburg

1989-01-01

325

Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes  

SciTech Connect

The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; /SLAC; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Padua U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Pisa /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; /more authors..

2012-04-11

326

Fermi large area telescope measurements of the diffuse gamma-ray emission at intermediate galactic latitudes.  

PubMed

The diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess gamma-ray emission greater, > or approximately equal to 1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called "EGRET GeV excess"). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse gamma-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10 degrees < or = |b| < or = 20 degrees. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess. PMID:20366246

Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Anderson, B; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Dereli, H; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Di Bernardo, G; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gaggero, D; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stecker, F W; Striani, E; Strickman, M S; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

2009-12-18

327

The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

Fishman, Gerald J.

2004-01-01

328

Hard gamma ray emission from blazars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray emission expected from compact extragalactic sources of nonthermal radiation is examined. The highly variable objects in this class should produce copious amounts of self-Compton gamma-rays in the compact relativistic jet. This is shown to be a likely interpretation of the hard gamma-ray emission recently detected from the quasar 3C 279 during a period of strong nonthermal flaring at lower frequencies. Ways of discriminating between the self-Compton model and other possible gamma-ray emission mechanisms are discussed.

Marscher, Alan P.; Bloom, Steven D.

1992-01-01

329

LaCl3:Ce scintillator for gamma-ray detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on a relatively new cerium-doped scintillator-LaCl3 for gamma-ray spectroscopy. Crystals of this scintillator have been grown using Bridgman method. This material when doped with 10% cerium has high light output (~50,000 photons\\/MeV) and fast principal decay time constant (~20ns). Furthermore, it shows excellent energy resolution for gamma-ray detection. For example, energy resolution as low as

K. S. Shah; J. Glodo; M. Klugerman; L. Cirignano; W. W. Moses; S. E. Derenzo; M. J. Weber

2003-01-01

330

Phase Fresnel Lens Development for X-ray & Gamma-ray Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations in the hard X-ray and gamma- ray energy regimes are constrained by limited sensitivity and angular resolution. Significant gains could be made if these high-energy photons could be concentrated from a large area onto a small detector element and if diffraction-limited measurements could be obtained. Furthermore, the angular resolution in the gamma-ray band would be superior to that possible

John Krizmanic; Robert Streitmatter; Zaven Arzoumanian; Vlad Badilita; Keith Gendreau; Neil Gehrels; Reza Ghodssi; Brian Morgan; Gerry Skinner; Lance Mosher

331

A thick Anger camera for gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NaI(Tl) Anger camera is a natural candidate for a position sensitive detector in imaging of astrophysical gamma-ray sources. Here laboratory measurements are presented of the response of a relatively thick (5.1 cm) NaI(Tl) Anger camera designed for coded aperture imaging in the 50 keV to 2 MeV energy range. A position resolution of 10.5 mm FWHM at 122 keV and 6.3 mm FWHM at 662 keV. The energy resolution was 7 percent FWHM at 662 keV. The ability of the detector to resolve the depth of the gamma-ray interaction and the use of this depth resolution to reduce back-incident and internal background is discussed.

Cook, W. R.; Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.

1985-01-01

332

Origin of Gamma Ray Bursters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major advances have been made in the field of gamma-ray bursts in the last two years. The successful discovery of X-ray, optical and radio afterglows has made possible the identification of host galaxies at cosmological distances. The energy release inferred in these outbursts place them among the most energetic and violent events in the Universe. They are thought to be the outcome of a cataclysmic stellar collapse or compact stellar merger, leading to a relativistically expanding fireball, in which particles are accelerated at shocks and produce nonthermal radiation. The substantial agreement between observations and the theoretical predictions of the standard fireball shock model provides confirmation of the basic aspects of this scenario. New issues being raised by the most recent observations concern the amount and the nature of the collimation of the outflow and its implications for the energetics, the production of prompt bright flashes at wavelengths much longer than gamma-rays, the time structure of the afterglow, its dependence on the central engine or progenitor system behavior, and the role of the environment on the evolution of the afterglow.

Mészáros, P.

333

Gamma-ray burst models.  

PubMed

I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts. PMID:17293332

King, Andrew

2007-05-15

334

The Correlation between Gamma-ray and Radio Emissions in gamma-ray Loud Blazars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collect 119 gamma-ray-loud blazars (97 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 22 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs)), and investigate possible correlations between their gamma-ray emission (maximum, minimum and average values) at 1 GeV and the radio emission at 8.4 GHz. Our main results are as follows. For the lower state gamma-ray data, there is no correlation between the gamma-ray

Jiang-He Yang; Jun-Hui Fan

2005-01-01

335

The status of low-energy gamma-ray astronomy and the Gamma-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief sketch of the objectives and status of the various subdisciplines in gamma-ray astronomy (below 10 GeV) are presented. The Gamma-Ray Observatory planned for launch in 1988 is described. This NASA observatory and several planned French-Soviet spacecraft are expected to elevate gamma-ray astronomy into a mature observational science for the Space Station era.

Fishman, G. J.

1985-01-01

336

Future Gamma-Ray Imaging of Solar Eruptive Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar eruptive events, the combination of large solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), accelerate ions to tens of Gev and electrons to hundreds of MeV. The energy in accelerated particles can be a significant fraction (up to tens of percent) of the released energy and is roughly equipartitioned between ions and electrons. Observations of the gamma-ray signatures produced by these particles interacting with the ambient solar atmosphere probes the distribution and composition of the accelerated population, as well as the atmospheric parameters and abundances of the atmosphere, ultimately revealing information about the underlying physics. Gamma-ray imaging provided by RHESSI showed that the interacting approx.20 MeV/nucleon ions are confined to flare magnetic loops rather than precipitating from a large CME-associated shock. Furthermore, RHESSI images show a surprising, significant spatial separation between the locations where accelerated ions and electrons are interacting, thus indicating a difference in acceleration or transport processes for the two types of particles. Future gamma-ray imaging observations, with higher sensitivity and greater angular resolution, can investigate more deeply the nature of ion acceleration. The technologies being proven on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS), a NASA balloon instrument, are possible approaches for future instrumentation. We discuss the GRIPS instrument and the future of studying this aspect of solar eruptive events.

Shih, Albert

2012-01-01

337

Future Gamma-Ray Imaging of Solar Eruptive Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar eruptive events, the combination of large solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), accelerate ions to tens of Gev and electrons to hundreds of MeV. The energy in accelerated particles can be a significant fraction (up to tens of percent) of the released energy and is roughly equipartitioned between ions and electrons. Observations of the gamma-ray signatures produced by these particles interacting with the ambient solar atmosphere probes the distribution and composition of the accelerated population, as well as the atmospheric parameters and abundances of the atmosphere, ultimately revealing information about the underlying physics. Gamma-ray imaging provided by RHESSI showed that the interacting 20 MeV/nucleon ions are confined to flare magnetic loops rather than precipitating from a large CME-associated shock. Furthermore, RHESSI images show a surprising, significant spatial separation between the locations where accelerated ions and electrons are interacting, thus indicating a difference in acceleration or transport processes for the two types of particles. Future gamma-ray imaging observations, with higher sensitivity and greater angular resolution, can investigate more deeply the nature of ion acceleration. The technologies being proven on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS), a NASA balloon instrument, are possible approaches for future instrumentation. We discuss the GRIPS instrument and the future of studying this aspect of solar eruptive events.

Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, R. P.; Hurford, G. J.; Duncan, N. A.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H. M.; Smith, D. M.

2012-05-01

338

Gamma Ray Measurement Information Barriers for the FMTT Demonstration System  

SciTech Connect

The gamma ray attribute measurement information barrier discussion directly complements the discussion of gamma ray measurement, presented in the measurements paper by Gosnell and the general discussion of information barriers (IBs) by MacArthur. It focuses on the information barrier features applied specifically to the gamma-ray measurement and attribute analysis system. The FMTT demonstration instrument represents the second application of an IB design paradigm developed in conjunction with the Joint DOE/DoD Information Barriers Working Group (IBWG) as well as representatives from the Russian Federation's delegations to the Trilateral Initiative and meetings on the agreement for transparency at the Mayak Fissile Storage Facility (FMSF). It is also the second evolutionary step in constructing hardware to embody these jointly developed ideas. The first step was the prototype instrument developed for the Trilateral Initiative, the so-called Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Plutonium with Classified Characteristics utilizing Neutron Multiplicity Counting and High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (AVNG), that was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory in June 1999. Several improvements are evident in this second effort, and will be discussed. Improved, though this information barrier may be, it is still a prototype meant only for demonstration purposes. Its evolving specification and design are appropriately a subject for joint discussion and development. Part of that development must include creating components that the respective governments can trust enough to certify.

Wolford Jr., J.K.

2000-08-16

339

Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors are being actively pursued for homeland security applications. A key property of such detectors is their energy resolution which enables faster detection and more precise identification of gamma-ray sources. In order to obtain the best energy resolution with a given scintillator material, it is crucial to collect the largest fraction possible of the light emitted after gamma-ray absorption. Different techniques to maximize the light collection efficiency were investigated and tested experimentally. In particular, the effect of the scintillator geometry has been simulated with Detect2000. Also, a number of wrapping materials have been tested for their reflectivity and their performance in terms of improving the energy resolution in a BGO-based gamma-ray detector. The best results were obtained with a tapered cylinder geometry and the GORE DRP tape.

Hull, G.; Du, S.; Niedermayr, T.; Payne, S.; Cherepy, N.; Drobshoff, A.; Fabris, L.

2008-04-01

340

Characterization of unknown brominated disinfection byproducts during chlorination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with natural organic matter in the presence of bromide in raw water, are generally more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogues. To date, only a few Br-DBPs in drinking water have been identified, while a significant portion of Br-DBPs in drinking water is still unknown. In this study, negative ion electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown Br-DBPs in artificial drinking water. In total, 441 formulas for one-bromine-containing products and 37 formulas for two-bromine-containing products, most of which had not been previously reported, were detected in the chlorinated sample. Most Br-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO composition. In addition, on-resonance collision-induced dissociation (CID) of single ultrahigh resolved bromine containing mass peaks was performed in the ICR cell to isolate single bromine-containing components in a very complex natural organic matter spectrum and provide structure information. Relatively abundant neutral loss of CO2 was observed in MS-MS spectra, indicating that the unknown Br-DBPs are rich in carboxyl groups. The results demonstrate that the ESI FT-ICR MS method could provide valuable molecular composition and structure information on unknown Br-DBPs. PMID:24568637

Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan; Zheng, Hongdie; Yang, Min

2014-03-18

341

Development of gamma-ray detector for lunar and planetary landing mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a study of the origin and eveolution of a planet, its chemical composition holds an important information. The abundances of certain elements with different condensation temperature and with various types of geochemical behavior can provide valuable information for its history. Gamma-ray lines from the planet are generally used to determine the chemical composition of a planet without atmosphere. These gamma-ray lines are produded by the decay of nat-ural radionuclides or nuclear-reactions between planetary material and galactic cosmic rays. Abundance of elements is determined by measuring the intensity of gamma-ray lines specific to each element. From a orbital remote-sensing observation, global distribution of elements is acquired but its spatial resolution is limited, sim 10s km, because of difficulty of collimation of gamma-rays. Therefore in-situ gamma-ray observation is necessary to measure the elemental abundances in meter-scale topography. To survey the gamma-ray flux, a gamma-ray detec-tor aboard a rover on a planet is desired. Because of its limited electrical power and weight resources, we are developing small gamma-ray detector using a Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) semiconductor. CdTe has been regarded as a promising semiconductor material for gamma-ray detector because of such features as room temperature operation and large band-gap energy. The high atomic number of the materials gives a high absorption efficiency. On the surface of the moon, CdTe must be used in high temperature condition without any cooling system. Since CdTe spectral performance above room temperature is not established, we have examined the detector property in detail up to 40 degrees Celsius. Based on the results, we design total observation system and estimate the sensitivity of specific elements. Here we present the development status of gamma-ray detector system and the sensitivty estimate for the lunar observation.

Mitani, Takefumi; Inoue, Yousuke; Kobayashi, Shingo; Iijima, Yuichi; Takashima, Takeshi

342

Measurement of $gamma$-ray attenuation coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients have been determined for aluminum, ; copper, tin, platinum and lead (elements with Z between 13 and 82) using gamma -; rays with energies between 295 and 2440 keV from a sealed Ra-226 source. A ; lithium-drifted germanium detector was employed without collimation or shielding. ; The average standard error of the experimental results was 1%. (auth)

Christmas

1974-01-01

343

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and

N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

1994-01-01

344

Temperature distribution in gamma-ray shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical expressions are obtained for the temperature distributions in gamma ray shielding for isotropic and unidirectional beams with boundary conditions of the third kind. These are solved numerically for concrete shielding, and the effects of shield thickness, gamma-ray scattering, boundary conditions and beam geometry on the temperature distribution profile are examined.

D. P. Osanov

1965-01-01

345

Supernovae as sources of gamma rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most supernovae are profoundly radioactive and the Gamma Ray Observatory is an ideal instrument for detecting their unique gamma ray line and X-ray signatures. How the observation of these hard photons can be used to do supernova science will be addressed, with particular emphasis being placed on Type Ia explosions and nearby events.

Burrows, Adam

1992-01-01

346

Concept of new gamma ray detector  

E-print Network

We present a concept of a new gamma ray detector in order to observe undetected TeV gamma ray background. We measure a track of an electron-positron pair made by a pair creation in a magnet. By using Si as a tracker in a magnetic field 3 T, an energy range is up to 10 TeV.

S. Osone

2004-03-15

347

Gamma Ray Burst All-Sky Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gamma Ray Burst All-Sky Spectrometer Experiment (GASE) is designed to detect radio emission from gamma ray bursts (GRB's). Radio emission from GRB's could help us better understand the plasma physics of the blast and might also help us measure dark energy. GASE uses short-baseline interferometry with eight dipole antennas located at the MIT Haystack Observatory. These antennas measure the

Arielle Steger

2011-01-01

348

Ultrahigh-resolution pyroelectric thermal-wave technique for the measurement of thermal diffusivity of low-concentration  

E-print Network

low end of concentrations. The lowest concentration reported using thermal lens spectroscopy is 28% wUltrahigh-resolution pyroelectric thermal-wave technique for the measurement of thermal diffusivity Thermal diffusivities of water-methanol and water-ethanol mixtures were measured using a thermal

Mandelis, Andreas

349

Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.  

PubMed

Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized. PMID:17293337

Chadwick, Paula M

2007-05-15

350

Remarks on Two Gamma Ray Lines from the Inner Galaxy  

E-print Network

Monochromatic gamma-ray lines are thought to be the smoking gun signal of the annihilation or decay of dark matter since they do not suffer from deflection or absorption on galactic scales. A recent claim on strong evidence for two gamma-ray lines from the inner galaxy suggests that two-body final states might be one photon plus a Z boson or one photon plus a Higgs boson. In this study, we investigate which final state is more possible by analyzing the energy resolution of the Fermi-LAT. It is concluded that the former case, i.e. one photon plus a Z boson is more plausible than the latter one, i.e. one photon and a Higgs boson since in the latter case the mass of dark matter particle shows tension with a constraint coming from the energy resolution of the Fermi-LAT.

Ichiro Oda

2012-07-06

351

High Pressure XENON Gamma-Ray Spectrometers for Field Use  

SciTech Connect

This project explored a new concept for high-pressure xenon ionization chambers by replacing the Frisch grid with coplanar grid electrodes similar to those used in wide bandgap semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers. This work is the first attempt to apply the coplanar grid anode design in a gas ionization chamber in order to achieve to improved energy resolution. Three prototype detectors, two cylindrical and one parallel plate configurations, were built and tested. While the detectors did not demonstrate energy resolutions as good as other high pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometers, the results demonstrated that the concept of single polarity charge sending using coplanar grid electrodes will work in a gas detector.

David K. Wehe; Zong He; Glenn K. Knoll

2004-02-16

352

Atmospheric gamma-ray and neutron flashes  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray pulses are calculated from 2D numerical simulations of an upward atmospheric discharge in a self-consistent electric field using the multigroup approach to the kinetics of relativistic runaway electrons (REs). Computed {gamma}-ray numbers and spectra are consistent with those of terrestrial {gamma}-ray flashes (TGFs) observed aboard spacecrafts. The RE flux is concentrated mainly within the domain of the Blue Jet fluorescence. This confirms that exactly the domain adjacent to a thundercloud is the source of the observed {gamma}-ray flashes. The yield of photonuclear neutrons is calculated. One {gamma}-ray pulse generates {approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} neutrons. The possibility of the direct deposition of REs to the detector readings and the origin of the lightning-advanced TGFs are discussed.

Babich, L. P., E-mail: babich@elph.vniief.ru; Kudryavtsev, A. Yu., E-mail: kay@sar.ru; Kudryavtseva, M. L., E-mail: kay@sar.ru; Kutsyk, I. M. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

2008-01-15

353

Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts.

Bai, T.; Dennis, B.

1983-01-01

354

Future Missions for Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray astronomy has made great advances in recent years, due largely to the recently completed 9-year mission of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. In this talk I will give an overview of what advances we may expect in the near future, with particular emphasis on earth-orbiting missions scheduled for flight within the next 5 years. Two missions, the High Energy Transient Explorer and Swift, will provide important new information on the sources of gamma-ray bursts. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope will investigate high energy emission from a wide variety of sources, including active galaxies and gamma-ray pulsars. The contributions of ground-based and multiwavelength observations will also be addressed.

Meegan, Charles; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

355

Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes After CGRO: Prospects From HESSI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brief (1--5~ms) flashes of gamma-rays coming from the direction of Earth's atmosphere were discovered by the BATSE instrument aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) in 1994. CGRO was deorbited in June 2000, but during its lifetime 75 Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) were observed. The source of the photons is generally assumed to lie at atmospheric altitudes of 60--70~km, and to consist of bremmstrahlung radiation from highly relativistic electrons energized by strong mesospheric electric fields overlying thunderstorms. Because of the high altitude and upward-directed nature of this radiation, neither the gamma-rays nor the assumed causative runaway electron beams can be directly observed except by satellite. To date, no clear optical or in situ electron data exist to shed light on this phenomenon. Since CGRO's demise, there is no longer an orbiting gamma-ray instrument that is well suited for detecting TGF's. We describe the prospects for detecting TGFs with the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI), whose launch is imminent. While the BATSE main detectors had an upper energy band of 300~keV -- ~1~MeV, which was too low to resolve the hard (>1~MeV) TGF spectrum, the nine HESSI rear germanium detectors have spectral resolution of 0.1% -- 3% up to >10~MeV. In addition, BATSE's triggering circuitry integrated for at least 64~ms (much longer than the duration of a TGF) while the HESSI spacecraft records and telemeters the energy and time of arrival of each photon event. On the other hand, the geometric factor for the HESSI detectors is small compared with that of BATSE. Altogether, we expect a comparable TGF detection rate from HESSI but superior spectral (and temporal) information, which may provide key new evidence for the underlying mechanisms behind TGFs.

Barrington-Leigh, C. P.

2001-12-01

356

Gamma-ray observations of solar-flare ion acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun can produce ions with energies up to tens of GeV and electrons up to hundreds of MeV, in both large solar flares and fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and is a useful laboratory to investigate the processes of impulsive energy release and particle acceleration that occur throughout the universe. Solar flares are the most powerful explosions in the solar system, releasing up to 1032-1033 ergs of stored magnetic energy in 100-1,000 seconds, with up to ˜10-50% of this energy going into accelerated electrons and a comparable amount into accelerated >˜1 MeV ions. Flare-accelerated particles are observed through the various types of emission produced as they interact with the ambient solar atmosphere energetic ions produce gamma-ray lines through a variety of processes, while energetic electrons produce bremsstrahlung continuum emission. Gamma-ray observations from the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) probe solar-flare ion acceleration and can compare it to electron acceleration. For RHESSI events, there is a tight linear correlation between ion-associated and electron-associated emissions, implying that the relative acceleration of ions above 30 MeV and electrons above 0.3 MeV is roughly independent of flare size, which provides constraints for acceleration models. This correlation does not hold for all flares at lower electron energies, with some flares exhibiting a relative excess of low-energy electron bremsstrahlung. Also, the ratios of accelerated ions and electrons in flares is comparable to ratios in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events, but much larger than ratios in gradual SEP events. RHESSI gamma-ray observations of the temporal variability of gamma-ray lines suggest the possibility of intriguing changes in the ambient environment (e.g., abundances) as a flare progresses. Finally, open questions about solar-flare ion acceleration will be studied by a new balloon-borne instrument, the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS), which is being developed at the University of California, Berkeley. GRIPS will use new detector and imaging technologies to produce gamma-ray images at an unprecedented angular resolution and measure gamma-ray polarization, and will prove these technologies for future space-based missions.

Shih, Albert Young-Ming

357

On emission lines in the cosmic gamma-ray background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composite spectrum of gamma-rays is calculated which results from the decay of Ni-56 to Co-56 to Fe-56 throughout the history of the universe. The results for several cosmological models are presented and compared with the Apollo 15 measurements at low resolution of the cosmic background. The radioactivity background is a significant fraction of the total, and several of its features may be detectable.-

Clayton, D. D.; Ward, R. A.

1975-01-01

358

Research in particle and gamma-ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research program is directed toward the investigation of the astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays and gamma rays and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets. The emphasis was on precice measurements with high resolution in charge, mass and energy. These investigations were carried out by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

1988-01-01

359

On gamma-ray burst progenitors and environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been a challenge for astronomers ever since their serendipitous discovery by the Vela satellites in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In this thesis, we explore plausible observational diagnostics of the surroundings of GRBs. First, we analyze high-resolution grating spectroscopy of GRB 020405 and consider the physical properties of GRB environments including the density and extent

Nestor Rafael Mirabal

2004-01-01

360

A design of gamma ray detecting system based on ARM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma camera is equipment for gamma-rays imaging. It is widely used in the field of nuclear detecting, nuclear medicine, nuclear radiation, environmental monitoring and nation security etc. Modern gamma camera is developed for the goals of high sensitivity, high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) and convenience for handing. The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) systems used on Gamma camera are one of

Ye Mei

2010-01-01

361

A thick anger camera for gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NaI(T1) Anger camera is a natural candidate for a position sensitive detector in imaging of astrophysical ..gamma..-ray sources. Here we present laboratory measurements of the response of a relatively thick (5.1 cm) NaI(T1) Anger camera designed for coded aperture imaging in the 50 keV to 2 MeV energy range. We obtained a position resolution of 10.5 mm FWHM at

W. R. Cook; M. Finger; T. A. Prince

1985-01-01

362

Improved Visualization of Glaucomatous Retinal Damage Using High-speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To test if improving optical coherence tomography (OCT) resolution and scanning speed improves the visualization of glaucomatous structural changes as compared with conventional OCT. Design Prospective observational case series. Participants Healthy and glaucomatous subjects in various stages of disease. Methods Subjects were scanned at a single visit with commercially available OCT (StratusOCT) and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution (hsUHR) OCT. The prototype hsUHR OCT had an axial resolution of 3.4 ?m (3 times higher than StratusOCT), with an A-scan rate of 24 000 hertz (60 times faster than StratusOCT). The fast scanning rate allowed the acquisition of novel scanning patterns such as raster scanning, which provided dense coverage of the retina and optic nerve head. Main Outcome Measures Discrimination of retinal tissue layers and detailed visualization of retinal structures. Results High-speed UHR OCT provided a marked improvement in tissue visualization as compared with StratusOCT. This allowed the identification of numerous retinal layers, including the ganglion cell layer, which is specifically prone to glaucomatous damage. Fast scanning and the enhanced A-scan registration properties of hsUHR OCT provided maps of the macula and optic nerve head with unprecedented detail, including en face OCT fundus images and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness maps. Conclusion High-speed UHR OCT improves visualization of the tissues relevant to the detection and management of glaucoma. PMID:17884170

Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Wollstein, Gadi; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Kagemann, Larry; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Gabriele, Michelle L.; Srinivasan, Vivek; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.; Schuman, Joel S.

2009-01-01

363

DETECTION OF GAMMA RAYS WITH E 300 GeV FROM MARKARIAN 501 J. QUINN,1, 2  

E-print Network

at the Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins in Arizona (elevation 2.3 km). The high-resolution camera, con. WILSON,7 AND J. ZWEERINK 5 Received 1995 October 16; accepted 1995 November 1 ABSTRACT The detection Mrk 421 flux. The new gamma-ray source has not been reported by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

364

Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography for imaging of a developing embryo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new emerging technique for cross-sectional imaging with high spatial resolution of micrometer scale. It enables in vivo and non-invasive imaging with no need to contact the sample and is widely used in biological and clinic application. In this paper a white-light interference microscope is developed for ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (Full-Field OCT) to implement 3D imaging of biological tissue. The experimental setup is based on a Linnik-type interferometer illuminated by a tungsten halogen lamp via a bundle of fiber. En-face tomographic images are obtained by demodulation of a combination of interferometric images recorded by a CCD camera. We use a PZT synchronized with the CCD in the reference arm to get the modulated interferometric image and use a programmed precisely controlled electric lift stage in the sample arm to get a 3D image. To fulfill the requirement of in vivo measurement and better match the index of bio-tissue, a pair of high numerical-aperture water immersion microscope objectives is used. Spatial resolution of 1.8?m×1.12?m (transverse×axial) is achieved owing to the extremely short coherence length of the light source and optimized compensation of dispersion mismatch. A shot-noise limited detection sensitivity of 80 dB is obtained at an acquisition time of 5 seconds per image. The development of a mouse embryo is studied layer by layer with our ultrahigh-resolution full-filed OCT. 3D imaging of the embryo can be reconstructed by the OCT images. Information of cell shape, centroid, reflectivity, mitosis period in the development process can be obtained. The variance of the relative reflectivity of an oocyte with time is calculated as well. It is found that the reflectivity of a living oocyte is much lower than that of a dead. Therefore the reflectivity of the cytoplasm can be a signal of the cell activity. In fact, all these parameters above could be very useful for distinguishing the healthy embryos from the morbid, showing high potential for early diagnosis of procreation diseases at cellular level in clinic. More experimental study is still in progress.

Wang, Bo; Zheng, Jinggao; Wang, Rui; Chen, Dieyan; Xue, Ping

2009-07-01

365

The gamma ray large area space telescope - an astro-particle mission to explore the high energy gamma ray sky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission under development for launch by NASA in 2006, will survey the sky in the rich yet poorly explored high-energy band between 20 MeV and 1 TeV with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. The LAT, which benefits from the application of particle physics detection technologies

L. Latronico

2003-01-01

366

Modeling gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary central engine activity and compare the model results with the observational data. We show that the observed X-ray flare phenomenology can be explained within the internal shock model. The number, width and occurring time of flares are then used to diagnose the central engine activity, putting constraints on the energy, ejection time, width and number of ejected shells. We find that the observed X-ray flare time history generally reflects the time history of the central engine, which reactivates multiple times after the prompt emission phase with progressively reduced energy. This shell model code can be used to constrain broadband observations of GRB 090926A, which showed two flares in both the Swift UVOT and XRT bands. Using the prompt emission fluence to constrain the total energy contained in the blastwave, the internal shock model requires that Lorentz factors of the shells causing flares must be less than the Lorentz factor of the blastwave when the shells are ejected. Recent observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) revealed a power law decay feature of the high energy emission (above 100 MeV), which led to the suggestion that it originates from an external shock. We analyze four GRBs (080916C, 090510, 090902B and 090926A) jointly detected by Fermi LAT and Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), which have high quality lightcurves in both instrument energy bands. Using the MeV prompt emission (GBM) data, we can record the energy output from the central engine as a function of time. Assuming a constant radiative efficiency, we are able to track energy accumulation in the external shock using our internal/external shell model code and show that the late time lightcurves fit well within the external shock model, but the early time lightcurves are dominated by the internal shock component which has a shallow decay phase due to the initial pile-up of shells onto the blast wave.

Maxham, Amanda

367

Prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis of cadmium in municipal solid waste  

E-print Network

as well as to other elements such as Fe, Al, and Cl. Californium-252 neutrons are commonly used and the resultant gamma-ray photopeaks are measured by a high resolution germanium detector. For borehole logging, the source and detector are housed within...PROMPT GAMMA RAY NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF CADMIUM IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE A Thesis by KATHERINE HOGE DENDAHL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Dendahl, Katherine Hoge

1991-01-01

368

Iodine based compound semiconductors for room temperature gamma-ray spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine-based compound semiconductors may allow one to build a portable gamma-ray spectrometer with improved efficiency and energy resolution compared to many other portable spectrometer devices. Iodine-based semiconductors have a wide band gap that allows these detectors to operate without any cooling mechanism. Bismuth iodide (BiI3), lead iodide (PbI2) and mercuric iodide (HgI2) have theoretical gamma-ray detection efficiencies approximately 2-3 times

Azaree T. Lintereur; Wei Qiu; Juan C. Nino; James E. Baciak

2008-01-01

369

Imaging telescope for soft gamma-ray astronomy: the preliminary in-flight tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large area (6000 sq cm) actively shielded low energy gamma-ray telescope is going to be built by an Anglo-Italian collaboration. The telescope, named ZEBRA, will be capable of producing images of the X and gamma ray sky in the energy range 0.015-20 MeV with an intrinsic angular resolution of a few tenths of a degree. A prototype detector has

R. E. Baker; J. N. Carter; P. Charalambous; A. J. Court

1983-01-01

370

CdZnTe gamma ray spectrometer for orbital planetary missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and analysis of a new gamma ray spectrometer for planetary science that uses an array of CdZnTe detectors to achieve the detection efficiency needed for orbital measurements. The use of CdZnTe will provide significantly improved pulse height resolution relative to scintillation-based detectors, with commensurate improvement in the accuracy of elemental abundances determined by gamma ray and

Thomas H. Prettyman; William C. Feldman; Kenneth R. Fuller; Steven A. Storms; Stephen A. Soldner; Csaba Szeles; Frank P. Ameduri; David J. Lawrence; M. C. Brown; Calvin E. Moss

2001-01-01

371

CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometer for orbital planetary missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and analysis of a new gamma-ray spectrometer for planetary science that uses an array of CdZnTe detectors to achieve the detection efficiency needed for orbital measurements. The use of CdZnTe will provide significantly improved pulse-height resolution relative to scintillation-based detectors, with commensurate improvement in the accuracy of elemental abundances determined by gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy. The

Thomas H. Prettyman; William C. Feldman; Kenneth R. Fuller; Steven A. Storms; Stephen A. Soldner; Csaba Szeles; Frank P. Ameduri; David J. Lawrence; Michael C. Browne; Calvin E. Moss

2002-01-01

372

All-sky X-ray and gamma-ray monitor (AXGAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide field-of-view, arcsecond imaging, high energy resolution X-ray and low energy gamma ray detector is proposed for a future space mission. It is specifically designed to detect and find counterparts at other wavelengths for gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Detection of GRBs require wide field-of-view (? to 2? field-of-view) and high sensitivity. This will be achieved by using high quantum

T. O. Tumer; T. J. O'Neill; K. Hurley; H. Ogelman; R. J. Paulos; R. C. Puetter; I. Kipnis; W. J. Hamilton; R. Proctor

1996-01-01

373

Fermi LAT measurements of diffuse gamma-ray emission: results at the first-year milestone  

SciTech Connect

For more than one year the Fermi Large Area Telescope has been surveying the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV with unprecedented statistics and angular resolution. One of the key science targets of the Fermi mission is diffuse gamma-ray emission. Galactic interstellar gamma-ray emission is produced by interactions of high-energy cosmic rays with the interstellar gas and radiation field. We review the most important results on the subject obtained so far: the non-confirmation of the excess of diffuse GeV emission seen by EGRET, the measurement of the gamma-ray emissivity spectrum of local interstellar gas, the study of the gradient of cosmic-ray densities and of the X{sub CO} = N(H{sub 2})/W{sub CO} ratio in the outer Galaxy. We also catch a glimpse at diffuse gamma-ray emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These results allow the improvement of large-scale models of Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission and new measurements of the extragalactic gamma-ray background.

Tibaldo, Luigi [INFN-Sezione di Padova and Dipartimento di Fisica 'G. Galilei'-Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy and Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2010-03-26

374

Gamma-Ray Emission from Microquasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microquasars, X-ray binary systems that generate relativistic jets, were discovered in our Galaxy in the last decade of the XXth century. Their name indicates that they are manifestations of the same physics as quasars but on a completely different scale. Parallel to this discovery, the EGRET instrument on board of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected 271 point like gamma-ray sources 170 of which were not clearly identified with known objects. This marked the beginning of gamma-ray source population studies in the Galaxy. We present in this thesis models for gamma-ray production in microquasars with the aim to propose them as possible parent populations for different groups of EGRET unidentified sources. These models are developed for a variety of scenarios taking into account several possible combinations, i.e. black holes or neutron stars as the compact object, low mass or high mass stellar companions, as well as leptonic or hadronic gamma-ray production processes. We also show that the presented models for gamma-rays emitting microquasars can be used to explain observations from well known sources that are detected in energy ranges other than EGRET's. Finally, we include an alternative gamma-ray producing situation that does not involve microquasars but a specific unidentified EGRET source possibly linked to a magnetized accreting pulsar.

Kaufman Bernado, M. M.

2005-04-01

375

Interpretations and implications of gamma ray lines from solar flares, the galactic center in gamma ray transients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and theories of astrophysical gamma ray line emission are reviewed and prospects for future observations by the spectroscopy experiments on the planned Gamma Ray Observatory are discussed.

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1980-01-01

376

Gamma-Ray Burst Early Afterglows  

E-print Network

The successful launch and operation of NASA's Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer open a new era for the multi-wavelength study of the very early afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRB early afterglow information is essential to explore the unknown physical composition of GRB jets, the link between the prompt gamma-ray emission and the afterglow emission, the GRB central engine activity, as well as the immediate GRB environment. Here I review some of the recent theoretical efforts to address these problems and describe how the latest Swift data give answers to these outstanding questions.

Bing Zhang

2005-09-19

377

Cosmic gamma-ray lines - Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various processes that lead to gamma-ray line emission and the possible astrophysical sources of such emission are reviewed. The processes of nuclear excitation, radiative capture, positron annihilation, and cyclotron radiation, which may produce gamma-ray line emission from such diverse sources as the interstellar medium, novas, supernovas, pulsars, accreting compact objects, the galactic nucleus and the nuclei of active galaxies are considered. The significance of the relative intensities, widths, and frequency shifts of the lines are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding those gamma-ray lines that have already been observed from astrophysical sources.

Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

1980-01-01

378

Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.  

PubMed

We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range. PMID:18233353

Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D

2007-12-01

379

Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

We present a review of the current status of very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The development of the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has led to a rapid growth in the number of observatories. The detection of TeV gamma rays from Active Galactic Nuclei was unexpected and is providing new insights into the emission mechanisms in the jets. Next generation telescopes are under construction and will increase dramatically the knowledge available at this extreme end of the cosmic electromagnetic spectrum.

Michael Catanese; Trevor C. Weekes

1999-06-30

380

NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

1998-01-01

381

Three-dimensional ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of retinal pathologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clinical feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) ultrahigh resolution (UHR) optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been investigated to visualize macular pathologies in more than 140 eyes. Three-dimensional retinal imaging was performed with high axial resolution of 3 ?m employing a compact, commercially available ultrabroad bandwidth (160 nm) Titanium: sapphire laser at video-rate with up to 50 B-scans/second, each tomogram consisting of 512x1024 pixels, resulting in 25 Megavoxels/second. 3D UHR OCT allows identifying the contour of the hyaloid membrane, epiretinal membranes, inner limiting membrane, the topography of tractive forces from the retinal surface down to the level of the photoreceptor segments. Photoreceptor inner and outer segments are clearly delineated in configuration and size in micrometer with a characteristic peak in the subfoveal area. The pattern of the retinal vasculature is distinctly recognized by the hyperreflectivity of the vascular walls and the resulting reflectance shadow exhibiting a three-dimensional angiographic image of the entire vascular net without the use of fluorescent markers. 3D UHR OCT offers unprecedented, realistic threedimensional imaging of pathologies at all epi-, intra- and subretinal levels. Ultrastructural changes are identified and displayed using a dynamic video technique.

Hermann, Boris; Michels, Stephan; Povazay, Boris; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Sacu, Stefan; Ahlers, C.; Sattmann, Harald; Scholda, Christoph; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Fercher, Adolf F.; Drexler, Wolfgang

2005-08-01

382

Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

1993-01-01

383

MICROSTRUCTURAL ABNORMALITIES IN MEWDS DEMONSTRATED BY ULTRAHIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY  

PubMed Central

Background Histopathological studies of acute multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) have not been reported because of the transient and benign nature of the disease. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT), capable of high resolution in vivo imaging, offers a unique opportunity to visualize retinal microstructure in the disease. Methods UHR-OCT images of the maculae of five patients with MEWDS were obtained and analyzed. Diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, examination, visual field testing, and angiography. Results UHR-OCT revealed disturbances in the photoreceptor inner/outer segment junction (IS/OS) in each of the five patients (six eyes) with MEWDS. In addition, thinning of the outer nuclear layer was seen in the case of recurrent MEWDS, suggesting that repeated episodes of MEWDS may result in photoreceptor atrophy. Conclusions Subtle disruptions of the photoreceptor IS/OS are demonstrated in all eyes affected by MEWDS. UHR-OCT may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and monitoring of MEWDS. PMID:17420691

NGUYEN, MY HANH T.; WITKIN, ANDRE J.; REICHEL, ELIAS; KO, TONY H.; FUJIMOTO, JAMES G.; SCHUMAN, JOEL S.; DUKER, JAY S.

2007-01-01

384

Evaluation of hypoxic swelling of human cornea with high speed ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypoxia induced corneal swelling was observed and evaluated in healthy human volunteers by use of high speed, ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHROCT). Two dimensional corneal images were acquired at a speed of 47,000 A-scans/s with 3µm x 10µm (axial x lateral) resolution in corneal tissue. The UHROCT tomograms showed clear visualization of all corneal layers, including the Bowman's layer and the Descemet's membrane - Endothelium complex. A segmentation algorithm was developed and used for automatic detection of the boundaries of the different corneal layers and evaluation the individual layer thickness as a function of location. Corneal hypoxia was induced by wear of a soft contact lens (SCL) and an eye patch by 2 healthy volunteers for duration of 3 hours. The thickness of all corneal layers was measured as a function of time, prior to, with and after removal of the SCL. Results from the hypoxia study showed different rates of swelling and de-swelling of the individual corneal layers. About 10% increase in the total cornea thickness was observed, similar to the changes in the stroma, the Bowman's membrane swelled by 20%, while no significant change in the thickness was observed in the Descemet's - Endothelium complex.

Bizheva, Kostadinka; Hyun, Chulho; Eichel, Justin; Hariri, Sepideh; Mishra, Akshaya; Clausi, David; Fieguth, Paul; Simpson, Trefford; Hutchings, Natalie

2009-02-01

385

Miniaturization in x ray and gamma ray spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents advances in two new sensor technologies and a miniaturized associated electronics technology which, when combined, can allow for very significant miniaturization and for the reduction of weight and power consumption in x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems: (1) Mercuric iodide (HgI2) x-ray technology, which allows for the first time the construction of truly portable, high-energy resolution, non-cryogenic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analyzer systems, with parameters approaching those of laboratory quality cryogenic instruments; (2) the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD), which is a solid-state light sensitive device with internal amplification, capable of uniquely replacing the vacuum photomultiplier tube in scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer applications, and offering substantial improvements in size, ruggedness, low power operation and energy resolution; and (3) miniaturized (hybridized) low noise, low power amplification and processing electronics, which take full advantage of the favorable properties of these new sensors and allow for the design and fabrication of advanced, highly miniaturized x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. The paper also presents experimental results and examples of spectrometric systems currently under construction. The directions for future developments are discussed.

Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wang, Yuzhong J.; Bradley, James G.

1993-01-01

386

Solar Gamma Rays Powered by Secluded Dark Matter  

E-print Network

Secluded dark matter models, in which WIMPs annihilate first into metastable mediators, can present novel indirect detection signatures in the form of gamma rays and fluxes of charged particles arriving from directions correlated with the centers of large astrophysical bodies within the solar system, such as the Sun and larger planets. This naturally occurs if the mean free path of the mediator is in excess of the solar (or planetary) radius. We show that existing constraints from water Cerenkov detectors already provide a novel probe of the parameter space of these models, complementary to other sources, with significant scope for future improvement from high angular resolution gamma-ray telescopes such as Fermi-LAT. Fluxes of charged particles produced in mediator decays are also capable of contributing a significant solar system component to the spectrum of energetic electrons and positrons, a possibility which can be tested with the directional and timing information of PAMELA and Fermi.

Brian Batell; Maxim Pospelov; Adam Ritz; Yanwen Shang

2009-10-08

387

Gamma-ray Burst Monitor for the CALET Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to provide a gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) for the CALET mission to monitor gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) simultaneously with the CALET main detector. The major purpose is to derive a wide-band energy spectrum of GRB over an unprecedented 9 decades of energy (from a few keV to 10 TeV) in combination with the CALET tower detector. Hence it is desirable to have the CALET-GBM covering an energy range from a few keV to about 20 MeV to avoid a gap in observational energy band. The design of GBM is underway to fulfill this requirement. The current detector candidate is LaBr3(Ce) scintillator which has a superior energy resolution to that of NaI(Tl). The design and expected performance of the CALET-GBM will be presented in this paper.

Yamaoka, K.; Yoshida, A.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; et al.

388

Gamma-ray astronomy: Promise for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in a very active period in gamma-ray astronomy due primarily to new discoveries from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). While the near future looks bright with the ESA INTEGRAL mission scheduled for launch in ~2001, there are currently no major missions being planned beyond INTEGRAL and none being planned at all by NASA. This paper reviews current missions and then looks beyond INTEGRAL to see what mission concepts are being considered. Based on new technologies that are under development such as Si strip detectors for tracking electron-positron pairs in high-energy instruments, CdZnTe strip detectors for fine spatial resolution of hard x-rays, and grazing incidence mirrors with multilayer coatings that work in the 10-100 keV range, several exciting new concepts for future instruments and missions are under study. These include intermediate class high-energy gamma-ray missions (30 MeV-300 GeV) with two order-of-magnitude better point-source sensitivity than the current EGRET instrument on CGRO, intermediate class focusing-optics hard x-ray missions with micro-Crab sensitivities (two order-of-magnitude better than the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer), MIDEX class hard x-ray (10-200 keV) all-sky survey missions with much better sensitivity and angular resolution than previous surveys, and SMEX and MIDEX class gamma-ray burst missions that can locate bursts to arcsecond accuracies to allow deep counterpart searches at other wavelengths.

Gehrels, Neil; Macomb, Daryl

1997-01-01

389

Gamma-ray astronomy: Promise for the future  

SciTech Connect

We are in a very active period in gamma-ray astronomy due primarily to new discoveries from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). While the near future looks bright with the ESA INTEGRAL mission scheduled for launch in {approx}2001, there are currently no major missions being planned beyond INTEGRAL and none being planned at all by NASA. This paper reviews current missions and then looks beyond INTEGRAL to see what mission concepts are being considered. Based on new technologies that are under development such as Si strip detectors for tracking electron-positron pairs in high-energy instruments, CdZnTe strip detectors for fine spatial resolution of hard x-rays, and grazing incidence mirrors with multilayer coatings that work in the 10-100 keV range, several exciting new concepts for future instruments and missions are under study. These include intermediate class high-energy gamma-ray missions (30 MeV-300 GeV) with two order-of-magnitude better point-source sensitivity than the current EGRET instrument on CGRO, intermediate class focusing-optics hard x-ray missions with micro-Crab sensitivities (two order-of-magnitude better than the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer), MIDEX class hard x-ray (10-200 keV) all-sky survey missions with much better sensitivity and angular resolution than previous surveys, and SMEX and MIDEX class gamma-ray burst missions that can locate bursts to arcsecond accuracies to allow deep counterpart searches at other wavelengths.

Gehrels, Neil; Macomb, Daryl [Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); University Space Research Association Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

1997-01-10

390

Neutrinos from Decaying Muons, Pions, Kaons and Neutrons in Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

In the internal shock model of gamma ray bursts ultrahigh energy muons, pions, neutrons and kaons are likely to be produced in the interactions of shock accelerated relativistic protons with low energy photons (KeV-MeV). These particles subsequently decay to high energy neutrinos/antineutrinos and other secondaries. In the high internal magnetic fields of gamma ray bursts, the ultrahigh energy charged particles ($\\mu^+$, $\\pi^+$, $K^+$) lose energy significantly due to synchrotron radiations before decaying into secondary high energy neutrinos and antineutrinos. The relativistic neutrons decay to high energy antineutrinos, protons and electrons. We have calculated the total neutrino flux (neutrino and antineutrino) considering the decay channels of ultrahigh energy muons, pions, neutrons and kaons. We have shown that the total neutrino flux generated in neutron decay can be higher than that produced in $\\mu^+$ and $\\pi^+$ decay. The charged kaons being heavier than pions, lose energy slowly and their secondary total neutrino flux is more than that from muons and pions at very high energy. Our detailed calculations on secondary particle production in $p\\gamma$ interactions give the total neutrino fluxes and their flavour ratios expected on earth. Depending on the values of the parameters (luminosity, Lorentz factor, variability time, spectral indices and break energy in the photon spectrum) of a gamma ray burst the contributions to the total neutrino flux from the decay of different particles (muon, pion, neutron and kaon) may vary and they would also be reflected on the neutrino flavour ratios.

Reetanjali Moharana; Nayantara Gupta

2012-05-27

391

Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays  

SciTech Connect

The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

Tuli, J.K.

1983-01-01

392

Optical reprocessing of gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One model for the optical flashes associated with three cosmic gamma-ray burst sources invokes the reprocessing of some of the gamma-radiation emitted by a hypothesized collapsed object in the surface layers of a nearby companion star. This model was investigated by carrying out detail, fully hydrodynamical calculations of such reprocessing in the surface layers of very low mass stars. It is found that, at most, 7 percent of the gamma-ray fluence incident on the companion star is reprocessed into the blue band; the time scale for this reprocessing is typically 100 s, which is long compared to the duration of the gamma-ray burst itself. Using this result, it is shown that there is marginal agreement between the observed and calculated ratios of gamma-ray fluence to optical fluence at earth.

Melia, F.; Rappaport, S.; Joss, P. C.

1986-01-01

393

Optical reprocessing of gamma-ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

One model for the optical flashes associated with three cosmic gamma-ray burst sources invokes the reprocessing of some of the gamma-radiation emitted by a hypothesized collapsed object in the surface layers of a nearby companion star. This model was investigated by carrying out detail, fully hydrodynamical calculations of such reprocessing in the surface layers of very low mass stars. It is found that, at most, 7 percent of the gamma-ray fluence incident on the companion star is reprocessed into the blue band; the time scale for this reprocessing is typically 100 s, which is long compared to the duration of the gamma-ray burst itself. Using this result, it is shown that there is marginal agreement between the observed and calculated ratios of gamma-ray fluence to optical fluence at earth. 18 references.

Melia, F.; Rappaport, S.; Joss, P.C.

1986-06-01

394

Neutron Detection Gamma Ray Sensitivity Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The shortage of 3He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security and safeguards applications. Any new detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: (1) it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and (2) it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level, while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. It is the purpose of this paper to define measureable gamma ray sensitivity criteria for neutron detectors. Quantitative requirements are specified for: intrinsic gamma ray detection efficiency and gamma ray absolute rejection. The ratio GARRn is defined, and it is proposed that the requirement for neutron detection be 0.9 < GARRn < 1.1 at a 10 mR/h exposure rate. An example of results from a 3He based neutron detector are provided showing that this technology can meet the stated requirements. Results from tests of some alternative technologies are also reported.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Mace, Emily K.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2011-10-21

395

Experimental investigation of wavelength dependence of penetration depth and imaging contrast for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non invasive optical imaging technology for micron-scale cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and materials. Although OCT has many advantages in medical equipments, low penetration depth is a serious limitation for other applications. To realize the ultrahigh resolution and the high penetration depth at the same time, it is effective to choose the proper wavelength to maximize the light penetration and enhance the image contrast at deeper depths. Recently, we have demonstrated ultrahigh resolution and high penetration depth OCT by use of all-fiber based Gaussian shaped supercontinuum source at 1.7 ?m center wavelength. Gaussian-like supercontinuum with 360 nm bandwidth at center wavelength of 1.7 ?m was generated by ultrashort pulse Er doped fiber laser based system. In this paper, using 0.8 ?m and 1.3 ?m SC sources in addition to the 1.7 ?m SC source, we have investigated the wavelength dependence of ultrahigh resolution OCT in terms of penetration depth. Longitudinal resolutions at each wavelength region are almost 4.6 ?m in air. The obtained sensitivity was 95 dB for all wavelength regions. We confirmed the difference of imaging contrast and penetration depth with hamster's cheek pouch and so on. As the wavelength was increased, the magnitude of penetration depth was increased for these samples.

Ishida, S.; Nishizawa, N.; Itoh, K.

2011-03-01

396

Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

1989-01-01

397

Gamma-ray binaries and related systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After initial claims and a long hiatus, it is now established that several binary stars emit high- (0.1-100 GeV) and very high-energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays. A new class has emerged called "gamma-ray binaries", since most of their radiated power is emitted beyond 1 MeV. Accreting X-ray binaries, novae and a colliding wind binary ( ? Car) have also been detected—"related systems" that confirm the ubiquity of particle acceleration in astrophysical sources. Do these systems have anything in common? What drives their high-energy emission? How do the processes involved compare to those in other sources of gamma rays: pulsars, active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants? I review the wealth of observational and theoretical work that have followed these detections, with an emphasis on gamma-ray binaries. I present the current evidence that gamma-ray binaries are driven by rotation-powered pulsars. Binaries are laboratories giving access to different vantage points or physical conditions on a regular timescale as the components revolve on their orbit. I explain the basic ingredients that models of gamma-ray binaries use, the challenges that they currently face, and how they can bring insights into the physics of pulsars. I discuss how gamma-ray emission from microquasars provides a window into the connection between accretion-ejection and acceleration, while ? Car and novae raise new questions on the physics of these objects—or on the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Indeed, explaining the gamma-ray emission from binaries strains our theories of high-energy astrophysical processes, by testing them on scales and in environments that were generally not foreseen, and this is how these detections are most valuable.

Dubus, Guillaume

2013-08-01

398

Gamma Ray Bursts from Ordinary Cosmic Strings  

E-print Network

We give an upper estimate for the number of gamma ray bursts from ordinary (non-superconducting) cosmic strings expected to be observed at terrestrial detectors. Assuming that cusp annihilation is the mechanism responsible for the bursts we consider strings arising at a GUT phase transition and compare our estimate with the recent BATSE results. Further we give a lower limit for the effective area of future detectors designed to detect the cosmic string induced flux of gamma ray bursts.

R. H. Brandenberger; A. T. Sornborger; M. Trodden

1993-02-12

399

Classification of Swift's gamma-ray bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Two classes of gamma-ray bursts have been identified in the BATSE catalogs characterized by durations shorter and longer than about 2 s. There are, however, some indications for the existence of a third class. Swift satellite detectors have different spectral sensitivity than pre-Swift ones for gamma-ray bursts. Therefore we reanalyze the durations and their distribution and also the classi-

I. Horváth; L. G. Balázs; Z. Bagoly; P. Veres

2008-01-01

400

Swift Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swift mission, launched on 20 November 2004, is detecting ~ 100 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) each year, and immediately (within ~ 90 s) starting X-ray and UV\\/optical observations of the afterglow. It has already collected an impressive database including prompt emission to higher sensitivities than BATSE, uniform monitoring of afterglows, and rapid follow-up by other observatories notified through the Gamma-ray

Neil Gehrels

2008-01-01

401

High altitude balloons and gamma ray astronomy  

SciTech Connect

The author's experience with scientific high altitude ballooning will be presented. Usefulness of satellite versus balloon platforms will be contrasted in the context of gamma ray astronomy. General principles of gamma ray astronomy instrumentation will be discussed and illustrated in terms of our current instrument, GRIS. Some words about the supernova phenomenon and its necessity for the existence of life in the universe will be followed by a brief glimpse of our preliminary data from Supernova 1987a.

MacCallum, C.J.

1988-01-01

402

Neutrinos and Gamma Rays from Galaxy Clusters  

E-print Network

The next generation of neutrino and gamma-ray detectors should provide new insights into the creation and propagation of high-energy protons within galaxy clusters, probing both the particle physics of cosmic rays interacting with the background medium and the mechanisms for high-energy particle production within the cluster. In this paper we examine the possible detection of gamma-rays (via the GLAST satellite) and neutrinos (via the ICECUBE and Auger experiments) from the Coma cluster of galaxies, as well as for the gamma-ray bright clusters Abell 85, 1758, and 1914. These three were selected from their possible association with unidentified EGRET sources, so it is not yet entirely certain that their gamma-rays are indeed produced diffusively within the intracluster medium, as opposed to AGNs. It is not obvious why these inconspicuous Abell-clusters should be the first to be seen in gamma-rays, but a possible reason is that all of them show direct evidence of recent or ongoing mergers. Their identification with the EGRET gamma-ray sources is also supported by the close correlation between their radio and (purported) gamma-ray fluxes. Under favorable conditions (including a proton spectral index of 2.5 in the case of Abell 85, and sim 2.3 for Coma, and Abell 1758 and 1914), we expect ICECUBE to make as many as 0.3 neutrino detections per year from the Coma cluster of galaxies, and as many as a few per year from the Abell clusters 85, 1758, and 1914. Also, Auger may detect as many as 2 events per decade at ~ EeV energies from these gamma-ray bright clusters.

Brandon Wolfe; Fulvio Melia; Roland M. Crocker; Raymond R. Volkas

2008-07-04

403

The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts remain on of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics in spite of recent observational advances and intense theoretical work. Although some of the basic properties of bursts were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in the past five years. Recent observations of bursts and some proposed models will be discussed.

Fishman, Gerald J.

1998-01-01

404

Gamma Ray Astronomy with Underground Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground detectors measure the directions of up-coming muons of neutrino origin. They can also observe down-going muons made by gamma rays in the Earth's atmosphere. Although gamma ray showers are muon-poor, they produce a sufficient number of muons to detect the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes. With a threshold higher by one hundred and a probability of muon

F. Halzen; T. Stanev

1995-01-01

405

VHE gamma-ray astronomy: observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent operation of a new generation of Cherenkov telescopes is providing unprecedented results which are opening in the last months a truly new age in VHE cosmic gamma-ray observations. We're in the down of the setting of a new window in our observation of the cosmos: VHE gamma-ray astronomy. The techniques and concepts used by these new telescopes is

Manel Martínez

2006-01-01

406

Gamma ray astronomy with COS-B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational results in the field of gamma-ray astronomy that have been obtained to date with the COS-B satellite are discussed and questions raised by these observations are summarized. Following a brief review of the instrumental characteristics of COS-B and the extent of COS-B gamma-ray coverage of the sky, particular attention is given to the questions raised by the discovery of

B. N. Swanenburg

1981-01-01

407

Microsatellite gamma-ray spectroscopy experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results from Gamma ray experiment installed on a micro-satellite, Techsat 1, are reported. The experiment is based on CdZnTe detectors coupled to custom designed CMOS electronics, which includes low noise charge sensitive preamplifiers, pulse shaping amplifiers and sampling circuits. It was realized as a mile stone towards a micro- satellite mounted Gamma ray space telescope. The experiment is a

G. Asa; Arie Ruzin; Claudio G. Jakobson; G. Shaviv; Yael Nemirovsky

1999-01-01

408

High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light  

SciTech Connect

Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

1983-01-01

409

Lifetime measurement of the correlated continuum gamma rays in /sup 170/Hf  

SciTech Connect

Continuum gamma rays are generally emitted at the early stages of the gamma decay of a compound nucleus. These gamma rays are from states with higher angular momentum and excitation energy than the discrete gamma rays. Therefore, from the study of continuum gamma rays it is possible to obtain information on nuclear properties in regions unreachable through studies of discrete transitions. In the current measurements we have applied the Doppler-Shift Attenuation Method to the full gamma-gamma correlation matrix, enabling us to determine the lifetime of the ridge in /sup 170/Hf over a large range of energy. With our Compton Suppression Spectrometer System, it was possible to carry out these measurements with good energy resolution and a high peak-to-Compton ratio. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Lee, I.Y.

1988-01-01

410

Recent results with a combined gamma-ray and neutron imaging detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous instruments have been developed for performing gamma-ray imaging and neutron imaging for research, nondestructive testing, medicine and national security. However, none are capable of imaging gamma-rays and neutrons simultaneously while also discriminating gamma-rays from the neutron. This paper will describe recent experimental results obtained using a gamma/neutron camera based on Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillation crystals, which can discriminate gamma-rays from neutrons. The ability to do this while also having good energy resolution provides a powerful capability for detecting and identifying shielded special nuclear materials for security applications. Also discussed are results obtained using a LaBr3 scintillation crystal.

Soundara-Pandian, L.; Whitney, C. M.; Johnson, E. B.; Vinci, R.; Glodo, J.; Christian, J. F.; Gervais, J.; Vogel, Sam; Nagarkar, E.; Robertson, F.; Squillante, M. S.; Waer, P.; Squillante, M. R.

2014-09-01

411

Digital discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in organic scintillation detectors using moment analysis  

SciTech Connect

Digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by moment analysis. Signals induced by an americium-beryllium (Am/Be) isotropic neutron source in a stilbene crystal detector have been sampled with a flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) of 1 GSamples/s sampling rate and 10-bit vertical resolution. Neutrons and gamma-rays have been successfully discriminated with a threshold corresponding to gamma-ray energy about 217 keV. Moment analysis has also been verified against the results assessed by a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. It is shown that the classification of neutrons and gamma-rays afforded by moment analysis is consistent with that achieved by digital TOF measurement. This method has been applied to analyze the data acquired from the stilbene crystal detector in mixed radiation field of the HL-2A tokamak deuterium plasma discharges and the results are described.

Xie Xufei; Zhang Xing; Yuan Xi; Chen Jinxiang; Li Xiangqing; Zhang Guohui; Fan Tieshuan [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yuan Guoliang; Yang Jinwei; Yang Qingwei [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)

2012-09-15

412

Gamma-400 Science Objectives Built on the Current HE Gamma-Ray and CR Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main scientific interest of the Russian Gamma-400 team: Observe gamma-rays above approximately 50 GeV with excellent energy and angular resolution with the goals of: (1) Studying the fine spectral structure of the isotropic high-energy gamma-radiation, (2) Attempting to identify the many still-unidentified Fermi-LAT gamma-ray sources. Gamma-400 will likely be the only space-based gamma-ray observatory operating at the end of the decade. In our proposed Gamma-400-LE version, it will substantially improve upon the capabilities of Fermi LAT and AGILE in both LE and HE energy range. Measuring gamma-rays from approx 20 MeV to approx 1 TeV for at least 7 years, Gamma-400-LE will address the topics of dark matter, cosmic ray origin and propagation, neutron stars, flaring pulsars, black holes, AGNs, GRBs, and actively participate in multiwavelength campaigns.

Moiseev, Alexander; Mitchell, John; Thompson, David

2012-01-01

413

Four extended gamma-ray supernova remnants newly identified by Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants is crucial to determine the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. Despite the excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, it has proven difficult to clearly identify these sources as they are buried in the bright diffuse Galactic background and may be confused with other gamma-ray sources, such as pulsars. Here we report the detection of extended emission from four supernova remnants - CTB 109, PKS 1209-51/52, CTB 37A, RCW 86 - using 5 years of observations with Fermi and the new Pass 8 event reconstruction developed by the LAT collaboration. The improvements with Pass 8 promise to rapidly grow the population of gamma-ray supernova remnants identified through their spatial extension.

Hewitt, John W.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

2015-01-01

414

ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ~6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 1013-1017 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 1016-1020 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution for the expected burn widths of 10-20 ps associated with ignition. Multiple channels at each phase will allow for increased redundancy, reliability, accuracy and flexibility. In addition, inherent energy thresholding capability combined with this multiplicity will allow exploration of interesting gamma-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign.

Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Batha, S.; Schmitt, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Malone, R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Cox, B. C.; Frogget, B.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.; Tunnell, T. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

2010-08-01

415

Neutron-induced gamma-ray production  

SciTech Connect

High resolution Ge detectors coupled with the WNR high-intensity, high-energy, pulsed neutron source at LAMPF recently have been used to measure a variety of reactions including (n,xn) for 1 {le} x {le} 11, (n,n{alpha}), (n,np), etc. The reactions are identified by the known gamma-ray energies of prompt transitions between the low lying states in the final nuclei. With our spallation neutron source cross section data are obtained at all neutron energies from a few MeV to over 200 MeV. Applications of the data range from assisting the interpretation of the planned Mars Observer mission to map the elemental composition of the martian surface, to providing data for nuclear model verification and understanding reaction mechanisms. For example, a study of the Pb(n,xn) reactions for 2 {le} x {le} 11 populating the first excited states of the even Pb isotopes is underway. These data will be used to test preequilibrium and other reaction models. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Nelson, R.O.; Drake, D.M.; Haight, R.C.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.; Young, P.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Drosg, M.; Pavlik, A.; Vonach, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik); Larson, D.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

416

Studying the WHIM with Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We assess the possibility to detect and characterize the physical state of the missing baryons at low redshift by analyzing the X-ray absorption spectra of the Gamma Ray Burst [GRB] afterglows, measured by a micro calorimeters-based detector with 3 eV resolution and 1000 cm2 effective area and capable of fast re-pointing, similar to that on board of the recently proposed X-ray satellites EDGE and XENIA. For this purpose we have analyzed mock absorption spectra extracted from different hydrodynamical simulations used to model the properties of the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium [WHIM]. These models predict the correct abundance of OVI absorption lines observed in UV and satisfy current X-ray constraints. According to these models space missions like EDGE and XENIA should be able to detect about 60 WHIM absorbers per year through the OVII line. About 45 % of these have at least two more detectable lines in addition to OVII that can be used to determine the density and the temperature of the gas. Systematic error...

Branchini, E; Corsi, A; Martizzi, D; Amati, L; Herder, J W den; Galeazzi, M; Gendre, B; Kaastra, J; Moscardini, L; Nicastro, F; Ohashi, T; Paerels, F; Piro, L; Roncarelli, M; Takei, Y; Viel, M

2009-01-01

417

Observation of Cyg X-3 in the primary gamma-ray energy range greater than about 10 to the 14th eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines observations of Cyg X-3 at primary gamma-ray energies exceeding 10 to the 14 eV made with the Kover facility of the Baksan neutrino observatory from July 1, 1984 to June 30, 1985. Phase curves for the Cyg X-3 cell are presented, and ultrahigh-energy gamma-ray fluxes are assessed according to data from various experimental facilities.

Alekseenko, V. V.; Lidvanskii, A. S.; Ozrokov, S. S.; Skliarov, V. V.; Tizengauzen, V. A.

1987-10-01

418

Nature of gamma-ray burst spectra  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of low-energy absorption features in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) reported by Murakami et al. (1988) is discussed in the context of a new model for gamma-ray emission in isolated neutron-star sources. It is shown that the whole GRB spectrum may be due to irradiation of a reprocessing and reflecting boundary near a source of power-law gamma radiation. In this picture, the gamma-rays originate far above the surface of a magnetized neutron star where attenuation of the spectrum by pair production is minimal. The surface layers of the neutron star absorb a fraction of the gamma-ray energy and reflect some of the gamma-rays. The resultant spectrum is comprised of a power law at high energy, a steep component at intermediate energy, and a thermal component at low energy. There is a slight enhancement of the gamma-ray flux near E0 that may be the cause of the apparent d(-)d(+) annihilation line seen in some bursts. 27 references.

Melia, F.

1988-11-01

419

Gamma-ray albedo of the moon  

E-print Network

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation; this makes it a useful "standard candle" for gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo gamma rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter

2007-08-15

420

The Biggest Bangs The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts,  

E-print Network

grail of gamma-ray burst astronomy for a quarter of a century. From the discovery of gamma-ray burstsThe Biggest Bangs The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts, The Most Violent Explosions in The Universe J. I a Gamma-Ray Burst Kill the Dinosaurs? Will a Burst Kill Us? · Glossary · Sources · Index viii #12;Chapter

Katz, Jonathan I.

421

Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In particular results on point source searches are presented, followed by results on nuclear astrophysics, exemplified by the study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from radioactive 26Al nuclei produced by the ongoing stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. Finally a review on the study of the positron-electron annihilation in the Galactic center region, producing 511 keV gamma-rays, is presented.

S. Schanne

2006-06-22

422

Neutron-induced gamma ray spectroscopy: Simulations for chemical mapping of planetary surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays interact with the surface of a planetary body and produce a cascade of secondary particles, such as neutrons. Neutron-induced scattering and capture reactions play an important role in the production of discrete gamma ray lines that can be measured by a gamma ray spectrometer on board an orbiting spacecraft. These data can be used to determine the concentration of many elements in the surface of a planetary body, which enables us to recognize individual geological units and provides clues to the bulk composition and in turn the origin and evolution of the body. To investigate the gamma ray fluxes induced by accelerator neutrons, experiments were carried out by irradiating thin targets with neutrons of energies from 14 MeV to 0.025 eV. The neutron fluxes at target position were measured by foil activation techniques. The ratio of the epithermal to thermal neutron flux was determined to be 2.0, a value that is similar to that in the moon. Gamma rays in the energy range of 0.1 to 8 MeV emitted by the targets and the surrounding material were measured by a high-resolution germanium detector. Most of the gamma ray lines that are expected to be used for planetary gamma ray Spectroscopy were found in the recorded spectra. These spectra were unfolded, background was subtracted, and gamma ray attenuation corrections were made to obtain the corresponding gamma ray fluxes from the targets. The majority of gamma ray lines were narrow without noticeable Doppler broadening except for the very broad 4.4-MeV line of carbon and five asymmetric germanium lines produced by the detector itself. The agreement of measured gamma ray flux ratios with calculated flux ratios for neutron-capture reactions showed that thermal neutron data can be used for theoretical calculations of low-energy neutron-induced gamma ray fluxes. This study was a first step toward a more realistic simulation of cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray production and it indicates the importance of accelerator irradiation experiments to future planetary missions.

Brückner, J.; Wänke, H.; Reedy, R. C.

423

Gamma-Ray Imager Using Three-Dimensional Position-Sensitive CdZnTe Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Portable gamma-ray spectrometers with imaging capability are of interest in radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities, radiation inspections, nuclear nonproliferation, medical imaging, gamma-ray astronomy, and high-energy physics. The incident direction of gamma-ray photons can be obtained based on Compton scattering if the energy depositions and their spatial coordinates in three dimensions can be recorded for each gamma-ray event. This paper reports our progress on developing the first Compton gamma-ray imaging device using three-dimensional (3-D) position-sensitive CdZnTe detectors. Each detector was built using a 1-cm cube of CdZnTe. Energy resolutions of {approx}1.7% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for single-pixel events and position resolutions of {approx}1 mm were obtained at the gamma-ray energy of 662 keV. Good angular resolution of a gamma-ray imager based on Compton scattering requires good position and energy resolution of gamma-ray detectors. The position resolution of {approx}1 mm in three dimensions and the measured energy resolution on our detectors provide unique advantages in constructing compact devices having good angular resolution ({approx}3 to 4 deg FWHM at 662 keV). In addition, the wide band-gap of the CdZnTe semiconductor allows room-temperature operation, in contrast to high-purity germanium detectors that must be cryogenically cooled. Over the last few decades, the use of wide band-gap semiconductors has been hindered primarily by problems of charge trapping and material nonuniformity, which resulted in energy resolution that was too poor to be useful. Introduced in 1994, single polarity charge sensing on semiconductor detectors has shown great promise in avoiding the hole trapping problem, and the newly demonstrated 3-D position-sensing technique can significantly mitigate the degradation of energy resolution due to the nonuniformity of detector material. As the result, it is now possible to construct portable gamma-ray imaging devices with good spectroscopic performance operating at room temperatures.

He,Z.; Du, Y.F.; Wehe, D.K.

2001-06-17

424

On Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

(Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the process of gravitational collapse, leading to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma: the basic self-accelerating system explaining both the energetics and the high energy Lorentz factor observed in GRBs. We then turn to recall the two basic interpretational paradigms of our GRB model. [...] We then turn to the special role of the baryon loading in discriminating between "genuine" short and long or "fake" short GRBs [...] We finally turn to the GRB-Supernova Time Sequence (GSTS) paradigm: the concept of induced gravitational collapse. [...] We then present some general conclusions.

Remo Ruffini; Maria Grazia Bernardini; Carlo Luciano Bianco; Letizia Caito; Pascal Chardonnet; Christian Cherubini; Maria Giovanna Dainotti; Federico Fraschetti; Andrea Geralico; Roberto Guida; Barbara Patricelli; Michael Rotondo; Jorge Armando Rueda Hernandez; Gregory Vereshchagin; She-Sheng Xue

2008-04-17

425

Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and indicator species analysis to identify marker components of soil- and plant biomass-derived organic matter fractions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chemical properties of organic matter affect important soil processes such as speciation, solubilization, and transport of plant nutrients and metals. This work uses ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to determine the molecula...

426

Gamma-Ray Focusing Optics for Small Animal Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a well-established need for high-resolution radionuclide imaging techniques that provide non-invasive measurement of physiological function in small animals. We, therefore, have begun developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system using grazing incidence mirrors to focus low-energy gamma-rays emitted by I-125, and other radionuclides. Our initial prototype optic, fabricated from thermally-formed glass, demonstrated a resolution of 1500 microns, consistent with the performance predicted by detailed simulations. More recently, we have begun constructing mirrors using a replication technique that reduces low spatial frequency errors in the mirror surface, greatly improving the resolution. Each technique offers particular advantages: e.g., multilayer coatings are easily deposited on glass, while superior resolution is possible with replicated optics. Scaling the results from our prototype optics, which only have a few nested shells, to system where the lens has a full complement of several tens of nested shells, a sensitivity of approx. 1 cps/micro Ci is possible, with the exact number dependent on system magnification and radionuclide species. (Higher levels of efficiency can be obtained with multi-optic imaging systems.) The gamma-ray lens will achieve a resolution as good as 100 microns, independent of the final sensitivity. The combination of high spatial resolution and modest sensitivity will enable in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animals.

Pivovaroff, M. J.; Barber, W. C.; Craig, W. W.; Hasegawa, B. H.; Ramsey, B. D.; Taylor, C.

2004-01-01

427

Identification of possible source markers in marine dissolved organic matter using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the most heterogeneous and largest pools of reactive carbon on earth, rivaling in mass the carbon in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nevertheless, the molecular-level composition of marine DOM has eluded detailed description, impeding inquiry into the specific mechanisms that add or remove compounds from the DOM pool. Here we describe the molecular-level composition of C 18-extracted DOM along an east-west transect of the North Atlantic Ocean. We examine the changes in DOM composition along this transect with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics. We use indicator species analysis (ISA) to identify possible source markers for photochemical degradation and heterotrophic bacterial metabolism. The inclusion of ISA in statistical evaluation of DOM mass spectral data allows investigators to determine the m/z values associated with significant changes in DOM composition. With this technique, we observe indicator m/z values in estuarine water that may represent components of terrestrially-derived chromophoric DOM subject to photochemical degradation. We also observe a unique set of m/z values in surface seawater and show that many of these are present in pure cultures of the marine ?-proteobacterium '' Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique" when grown in natural seawater. These findings indicate that a complex balance of abiotic and biotic processes controls the molecular composition of marine DOM to produce signatures that are characteristic of different environments.

Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.; Longnecker, Krista; Blough, Neil V.; Vecchio, Rossana Del; Finlay, Liam; Kitner, Joshua B.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

2009-08-01

428

Gamma-ray lines from type I supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytic calculations are made of the time-dependent fluxes, shapes, median energies, and effective widths of the gamma-ray lines expected from the decay of nucleosynthetic Ni-56, Co-56, Fe-56, and Co-57 in current models of type I SNe. The attenuation and distortion of the line shapes due to Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption in the SN ejecta, line broadening from the expansion, and further distortion by the lookback effect from the differential light-travel time across the SN and by special relativistic effects are all taken into account. It is shown that several gamma-ray lines from such SNe should be measurable by detectors on the Gamma Ray Observatory and by the high-resolution spectrometer on the proposed Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer. The most intense and most detectable lines are the 0.847 and 1.238 MeV lines from Co-56 decay. Five other Co-56 decay lines, as well as the 0.158 MeV line from Ni-56 decay, should also be measurable. The models which can be tested by such observations are pointed out.

Chan, Kai Wing; Lingenfelter, Richard E.

1991-01-01

429

RHESSI Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (millisecond bursts of gamma-rays seen from space) have been observed by only one instrument until now, the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. BATSE saw less than one event per month, but its 9-year lifetime was enough to establish a connection between these events and thunderstorms, suggesting a connection with other upper-atmosphere phenomena such as sprites and blue jets. Using data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite, we find that these events extend up to extremely high energies (> 10 MeV) as predicted by theories of runaway breakdown -- BATSE was unable to establish this as its highest-energy channel included everything from 300 keV up. We also find an average of 12 events per month, despite having smaller collecting area than BATSE, indicating that the phenomenon is much more common than previously thought. RHESSI returns every photon with a 1-microsecond time tag, while BATSE had to trigger a special burst mode in order to get high-time-resolution data; this may account for RHESSI's ability to find more events. We will present individual and statistical properties of the RHESSI TGFs and report on efforts to correlate them with lightning storms, individual lightning strokes/sferics, and sprites/blue jets.

Smith, D. M.; Lopez, L. I.; Lin, R. P.; Barrington-Leigh, C. P.

2004-12-01

430

Investigation of Nuclear Gamma Ray Line Emission Associated with Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first conclusive observations of X-rays associated with thunderstorm activity were made in the 1980's and the prompt emission has been interpreted as bremsstrahlung produced by lightning-accelerated electrons. In 2004, Greenfield et al. reported the first detection of delayed gamma ray emission, with flux peaking 70 minutes after a lightning stroke and decaying exponentially over 50 minutes. They suggested the delayed gamma rays are a result of nuclear reactions in the atmosphere, creating excited Chlorine-39 and decaying with a 56-minute half-life. These results are compelling, but inconclusive; instrumentation capable of measuring the energy spectrum with high precision is necessary to confirm the existence of nuclear line emission associated with lightning. During June-September 2005, we used a spare RHESSI 7 cm-diameter segmented coaxial germanium spectrometer to continuously monitor gamma radiation on South Baldy Peak (10,800 ft) in New Mexico. The detector monitors gamma rays between ~18 keV-10 MeV with an energy resolution of ~2 keV@835 keV. South Baldy is the site of Langmuir Lab and was chosen to take advantage of other lightning research instrumentation located there, including New Mexico Tech's 3D Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) which can determine the location of a lightning stroke to within about 50m. We describe the experiment and present the initial results.

Boggs, S. E.; Millan, R. M.; Eack, K.; Aulich, G. D.

2005-12-01

431

A cosmic gamma-ray burst on May 14, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cosmic gamma-ray burst is reported that occurred at 29309.11 s UTC, May 14, 1975. The burst was detected at an atmospheric depth of 4 g/sq cm residual atmosphere with the University of California double scatter gamma-ray telescope launched on a balloon from Palestine, Texas at 1150 UTC, May 13, 1975. The burst was observed both in the single scatter mode by the top liquid scintillator tank in anti-coincidence with the surrounding plastic scintillator and in the double scatter mode from which energy and directional information are obtained. The burst is 24 standard deviations above the background for single scatter events. The total gamma-ray flux in the burst, incident on the atmosphere with photon energy greater than 0.5 MeV, is 0.59 + or - 0.15 photons/sq cm. The initial rise time to 90% of maximum is 0.015 + or - 0.005 s and the duration is 0.11 s. Time structure down to the 5 ms resolution of the telescope is seen. The mean flux over this time period is 5.0 + or - 1.3 photons/sq cm/s and the maximum flux is 8.5 + or - 2.1 photons/sq cm/s.

Herzo, D.; Dayton, B.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

1975-01-01

432

New Results from High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

High energy gamma-ray astronomy has recently made significant progresss through ground-based instruments like the {\\it H.E.S.S.} array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The unprecedented angular resolution and the large field of view has allowed to spatially resolve for the first time the morphology of gamma-ray sources in the TeV energy range. The experimental technique is described and the types of sources detected and still expected are discussed. Selected results include objects as different as a Galactic binary Pulsar, the Galactic Center and Supernova Remnants but they also concern the diffuse extragalactic optical/infrared radiation field. Finally, a scan of the Galactic plane in TeV gamma rays is described which has led to a significant number of new TeV sources, many of which are still unidentified in other wavelengths. The field has a close connection with X-ray astronomy which allows the study of the synchrotron emission from these very high energy sources.

Heinrich J. Voelk

2006-03-18

433

Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the global properties of the Universe B. Schmidt; How good are SNe Ia as standard candles? A. Sandage, G. Tammann and A. Saha; Type Ia supernovae and their implications for cosmology M. Livio; Conference summary: supernovae and gamma-ray bursts J. Wheeler.

Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

2001-07-01

434

CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS R. Atkins,1,2  

E-print Network

Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy (HEGRA) has been published for emission above 20 TeV from GRB 920925c (PadillaCONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS R. Atkins,1,2 W. Benbow,3 11; accepted 2005 June 3 ABSTRACT The Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory employs a water Cerenkov detector

California at Santa Cruz, University of

435

DISCOVERY OF LOCALIZED TEV GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND DIFFUSE TEV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC  

E-print Network

OF PHILOSOPHY Department of Physics and Astronomy 2007 #12;ABSTRACT DISCOVERY OF LOCALIZED TEV GAMMA-RAY SOURCESDISCOVERY OF LOCALIZED TEV GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND DIFFUSE TEV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC AND DIFFUSE TEV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC PLANE WITH MILAGRO USING A NEW BACKGROUND REJECTION

California at Santa Cruz, University of

436

Fast Super-Resolution Imaging with Ultra-High Labeling Density Achieved by Joint Tagging Super-Resolution Optical Fluctuation Imaging  

PubMed Central

Previous stochastic localization-based super-resolution techniques are largely limited by the labeling density and the fidelity to the morphology of specimen. We report on an optical super-resolution imaging scheme implementing joint tagging using multiple fluorescent blinking dyes associated with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (JT-SOFI), achieving ultra-high labeling density super-resolution imaging. To demonstrate the feasibility of JT-SOFI, quantum dots with different emission spectra were jointly labeled to the tubulin in COS7 cells, creating ultra-high density labeling. After analyzing and combining the fluorescence intermittency images emanating from spectrally resolved quantum dots, the microtubule networks are capable of being investigated with high fidelity and remarkably enhanced contrast at sub-diffraction resolution. The spectral separation also significantly decreased the frame number required for SOFI, enabling fast super-resolution microscopy through simultaneous data acquisition. As the joint-tagging scheme can decrease the labeling density in each spectral channel, thereby bring it closer to single-molecule state, we can faithfully reconstruct the continuous microtubule structure with high resolution through collection of only 100 frames per channel. The improved continuity of the microtubule structure is quantitatively validated with image skeletonization, thus demonstrating the advantage of JT-SOFI over other localization-based super-resolution methods. PMID:25665878

Zeng, Zhiping; Chen, Xuanze; Wang, Hening; Huang, Ning; Shan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hao; Teng, Junlin; Xi, Peng

2015-01-01

437

Fast super-resolution imaging with ultra-high labeling density achieved by joint tagging super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging.  

PubMed

Previous stochastic localization-based super-resolution techniques are largely limited by the labeling density and the fidelity to the morphology of specimen. We report on an optical super-resolution imaging scheme implementing joint tagging using multiple fluorescent blinking dyes associated with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (JT-SOFI), achieving ultra-high labeling density super-resolution imaging. To demonstrate the feasibility of JT-SOFI, quantum dots with different emission spectra were jointly labeled to the tubulin in COS7 cells, creating ultra-high density labeling. After analyzing and combining the fluorescence intermittency images emanating from spectrally resolved quantum dots, the microtubule networks are capable of being investigated with high fidelity and remarkably enhanced contrast at sub-diffraction resolution. The spectral separation also significantly decreased the frame number required for SOFI, enabling fast super-resolution microscopy through simultaneous data acquisition. As the joint-tagging scheme can decrease the labeling density in each spectral channel, thereby bring it closer to single-molecule state, we can faithfully reconstruct the continuous microtubule structure with high resolution through collection of only 100 frames per channel. The improved continuity of the microtubule structure is quantitatively validated with image skeletonization, thus demonstrating the advantage of JT-SOFI over other localization-based super-resolution methods. PMID:25665878

Zeng, Zhiping; Chen, Xuanze; Wang, Hening; Huang, Ning; Shan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hao; Teng, Junlin; Xi, Peng

2015-01-01

438

CdZnTe gamma ray spectrometer for orbital planetary missions  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of surface elemental composition is needed to understand the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. Gamma rays and neutrons produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with surface materials can be detected from orbit and analyzed to determine composition. Using gamma ray spectroscopy, major rock forming elements such as Fe, Ti, Al, Si, Mg, and Ca can be detected. The accuracy of elemental abundance is limited by the resolution of the spectrometer. For space missions, scintillators such as BGO and NaI(Tl) have been used for gamma ray spectroscopy. New planetary science missions are being planned to explore Mars, Mercury, the asteroid belt, and the outer planets. Significant improvements in the pulse height resolution relative to scintillation detectors can be made using CdZnTe, a new room temperature detector technology. For an orbiting instrument, a CdZnTe detector at least 16 cm{sup 3} in size is needed. A 4 x 4 array of 1-cm{sup 3} coplanar grid detectors can be manufactured that meets requirements for resolution and counting efficiency. The array will shielded from gamma rays produced in the spacecraft by a BGO detector. By improving pulse height resolution by a factor of three at low energy, the CdZnTe detector will be able to make accurate measurements of elements that are currently difficult to measure using scintillation technology. The BGO shield will provide adequate suppression of gamma rays originating in the spacecraft, enabling the gamma ray spectrometer to be mounted on the deck of a spacecraft. To test this concept, we are constructing a flight qualified, prototype CdZnTe detector array. The prototype consists of a 2 x 2 array of coplanar grid detectors. We will present the results of mechanical and electronic testing and radiation damage tests, and the performance of the array for gamma ray spectroscopy.

Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Storms, S. A. (Steven A.); Fuller, K. R. (Kenneth R.); Moss, C. E. (Calvin E.); Browne, M. C. (Michael C.); Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Ianakiev, K. D.; Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.)

2001-01-01

439

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of diseased rat lung using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been investigating ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of lung tissues using fiber super continuum sources. The high power, low-noise, Gaussian shaped supercontinuum generated with ultrashort pulses and optical fibers at several wavelengths were used as the broadband light sources for UHR-OCT. For the 800 nm wavelength region, the axial resolution was 3.0 um in air and 2.0 um in tissue. Since the lung consists of tiny alveoli which are separated by thin wall, the UHR-OCT is supposed to be effective for lung imaging. The clear images of alveoli of rat were observed with and without index matching effects by saline. In this work, we investigated the UHR-OCT imaging of lung disease model. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) model of rat was prepared as the sample with disease and the UHR-OCT imaging of the disease part was demonstrated. The increment of signal intensity by pleural thickening was observed. The accumulation of exudative fluid in alveoli was also observed for two samples. By the comparison with normal lung images, we can obviously show the difference in the ALI/ARDS models. Since the lung consists of alveolar surrounded by capillary vessels, the effect of red-blood cells (RBC) is considered to be important. In this work, ex-vivo UHR-OCT imaging of RBC was demonstrated. Each RBC was able to be observed individually using UHR-OCT. The effect of RBC was estimated with the rat lung perfused with PBS.

Nishizawa, N.; Ishida, S.; Kitatsuji, M.; Ohshima, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Matsushima, M.; Kawabe, T.

2012-02-01

440

Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

We present the first ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) structural intensity images and movies of the human retina in vivo at 29.3 frames per second with 500 A-lines per frame. Data was acquired at a continuous rate of 29,300 spectra per second with a 98% duty cycle. Two consecutive spectra were coherently summed to improve sensitivity, resulting in an effective rate of 14,600 A-lines per second at an effective integration time of 68 micros. The turn-key source was a combination of two super luminescent diodes with a combined spectral width of more than 150 nm providing 4.5 mW of power. The spectrometer of the spectraldomain OCT (SD-OCT) setup was centered around 885 nm with a bandwidth of 145 nm. The effective bandwidth in the eye was limited to approximately 100 nm due to increased absorption of wavelengths above 920 nm in the vitreous. Comparing the performance of our ultrahighresolution SD-OCT system with a conventional high-resolution time domain OCT system, the A-line rate of the spectral-domain OCT system was 59 times higher at a 5.4 dB lower sensitivity. With use of a software based dispersion compensation scheme, coherence length broadening due to dispersion mismatch between sample and reference arms was minimized. The coherence length measured from a mirror in air was equal to 4.0 microm (n= 1). The coherence length determined from the specular reflection of the foveal umbo in vivo in a healthy human eye was equal to 3.5 microm (n = 1.38). With this new system, two layers at the location of the retinal pigmented epithelium seem to be present, as well as small features in the inner and outer plexiform layers, which are believed to be small blood vessels. ?2004 Optical Society of America. PMID:19475080

Cense, Barry; Nassif, Nader; Chen, Teresa; Pierce, Mark; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Park, B; Bouma, Brett; Tearney, Guillermo; de Boer, Johannes

2004-05-31

441

Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil

2014-07-01

442

117Fermi Detects Gamma-Rays from Messier 82 The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space  

E-print Network

telescope is red; Hubble space telescope observations of hydrogen line emission is orange, and the bluest117Fermi Detects Gamma-Rays from Messier 82 The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has recently rays/sec/cm 2 at energies of 10,000 and 100,000 MeV. Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12

443

EGRET observations of gamma-ray emission from the interstellar gas in Orion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-energy diffuse gamma-ray emission from the interstellar gas in Orion was studied using observations from the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and radio surveys of the H I and CO emission. The good correlation of the gamma-ray emission with the atomic and molecular gas permits determination of the gamma-ray emissivity per nucleon in the interstellar medium and the molecular mass calibrating ratio N(H2)/W(sub co) in Orion. The integral gamma-ray emissivity is (1.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp -26)/s/sr for E greater than 100 MeV, in good agreement with expectations from studies of the diffuse emission on larger scales. The N(H2)/W(sub co) ratio is (1.06 +/- 0.14) x 10(exp 20)/sq cm/(K km/s), approximately 40% less than the commonly adopted Galactic average. We find no evidence for variations of the cosmic-ray density or N(H2)/W(sub co) ratio in Orion at the sensitivity and resolution of EGRET.

Digel, S. W.; Hunter, S. D.; Mukherjee, R.

1995-01-01

444

Measuring planetary neutron albedo fluxes by remote gamma-ray sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to measure the planetary neutron albedo fluxes, a neutron-absorbing shield which emits gamma rays of characteristic energy and serves as a neutron detector, is added to a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). The gamma rays representing the neutron flux are observed against interference consisting of cosmic gamma rays, planetary continuum and line emission, and gamma rays arising from the interaction of cosmic rays with the GRS and the spacecraft. The uncertainty and minimum detection limits in neutron albedo fluxes are calculated for two missions, a lunar orbiter and a comet nucleus rendezvous. A GRS on a lunar orbiter at 100 km altitude detects a thermal neutron albedo flux as low as 0.002/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.6/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.001/sq cm/s, for a 100 h observation period. For the comet nucleus, again in a 100 h observing period, a thermal neutron albedo flux is detected at a level of 0.006/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.4/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.004/sq cm/s. The expanded geological capabilities made possible by this technique include improvements in H sensitivity, spatial resolution, and measurement depth; and an improved model of induced gamma-ray emission.

Haines, E. L.; Metzger, A. E.

1984-01-01

445

Neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy: simulations for chemical mapping of planetary surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic rays interact with the surface of a planetary body and produce a cascade of secondary particles, such as neutrons. Neutron-induced scattering and capture reactions play an important role in the production of discrete gamma-ray lines that can be measured by a gamma-ray spectrometer on board of an orbiting spacecraft. These data can be used to determine the concentration of many elements in the surface of a planetary body, which provides clues to its bulk composition and in turn to its origin and evolution. To investigate the gamma rays made by neutron interactions, thin targets were irradiated with neutrons having energies from 14 MeV to 0.025 eV. By means of foil activation technique the ratio of epithermal to thermal neutrons was determined to be similar to that in the Moon. Gamma rays emitted by the targets and the surrounding material were detected by a high-resolution germanium detector in the energy range of 0.1 to 8 MeV. Most of the gamma-ray lines that are expected to be used for planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy were found in the recorded spectra and the principal lines in these spectra are presented. 58 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

Brueckner, J.; Waenke, H.; Reedy, R.C.

1986-01-01

446

A search for optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBS) are mysterious flashes of gamma rays lasting several tens to hundreds of seconds that occur approximately once per day. NASA launched the orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to study GRBs and other gamma ray phenomena. CGRO carries the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) specifically to study GRBS. Although BATSE has collected data on over 600 GRBS, and confirmed that GRBs are localized, high intensity point sources of MeV gamma rays distributed isotropically in the sky, the nature and origin of GRBs remains a fundamental problem in astrophysics. BATSE`s 8 gamma ray sensors located on the comers of the box shaped CGRO can detect the onset of GRBs and record their intensity and energy spectra as a function of time. The position of the burst on the sky can be determined to < {plus_minus}10{degrees} from the BATSE data stream. This position resolution is not sufficient to point a large, optical telescope at the exact position of a GRB which would determine its origin by associating it with a star. Because of their brief duration it is not known if GRBs are accompanied by visible radiation. Their seemingly large energy output suggests thatthis should be. Simply scaling the ratio of visible to gamma ray intensities of the Crab Nebula to the GRB output suggests that GRBs ought to be accompanied by visible flashes of magnitude 10 or so. A few photographs of areas containing a burst location that were coincidentally taken during the burst yield lower limits on visible output of magnitude 4. The detection of visible light during the GRB would provide information on burst physics, provide improved pointing coordinates for precise examination of the field by large telescope and provide the justification for larger dedicated optical counterpart instruments. The purpose of this experiment is to detect or set lower limits on optical counterpart radiation simultaneously accompanying the gamma rays from