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Sample records for ultrananocrystalline diamond layers

  1. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Yonhua; Yeh, Shoupu; Fang, Wei Cheng; Chu, Yuehchieh

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films have been synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) on oxidized silicon which is pre-seeded with diamond nanoparticles. MPECVD of N-UNCD on nanodiamond seeds produces a base layer, from which carbon structures nucleate and grow perpendicularly to form standing carbon platelets. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering measurements reveal that these carbon platelets are comprised of ultrananocrystalline diamond embedded in multilayer-graphene-like carbon structures. The hybrid carbon films are of low electrical resistivity. UNCD grains in the N-UNCD base layer and the hybrid carbon platelets serve as high-density diamond nuclei for the deposition of an electrically insulating UNCD film on it. Biocompatible carbon-based heaters made of low-resistivity hybrid carbon heaters encapsulated by insulating UNCD for possible electrosurgical applications have been demonstrated. PMID:24681781

  2. Systematic studies of the nucleation and growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates coated with a tungsten layer

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Jiang, Gerald; Tu, Chia-Hao; Chang Chi; Liu, Chuan-pu; Ting, Jyh-Ming; Lee, Hsin-Li; Tzeng, Yonhua; Auciello, Orlando

    2012-06-15

    We report on effects of a tungsten layer deposited on silicon surface on the effectiveness for diamond nanoparticles to be seeded for the deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Rough tungsten surface and electrostatic forces between nanodiamond seeds and the tungsten surface layer help to improve the adhesion of nanodiamond seeds on the tungsten surface. The seeding density on tungsten coated silicon thus increases. Tungsten carbide is formed by reactions of the tungsten layer with carbon containing plasma species. It provides favorable (001) crystal planes for the nucleation of (111) crystal planes by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) in argon diluted methane plasma and further improves the density of diamond seeds/nuclei. UNCD films grown at different gas pressures on tungsten coated silicon which is pre-seeded by nanodiamond along with heteroepitaxially nucleated diamond nuclei were characterized by Raman scattering, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy.

  3. Observation of a carbon-based protective layer on the sidewalls of boron doped ultrananocrystalline diamond-based MEMS during in situ tribotests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buja, Federico; Kokorian, Jaap; Gulotty, Richard; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Merlijn van Spengen, W.

    2015-12-01

    We have fabricated dedicated MEMS tribotesters made from boron doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (B-UNCD) as the structural material, and carried out comprehensive nano-tribological measurements when two B-UNCD sidewall surfaces underwent sliding interaction in a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) in a humid and dry atmosphere. We have investigated the evolution of tribological contacts during sliding interactions and corresponding surface modification under repeated cyclic sliding conditions, while measuring displacement and lateral force with 4 nm and 64 nN resolution, respectively. We have observed the formation of carbon-based ultra-thin protective layer at the sliding interface as characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the formation of this protective layer occurs in both a dry and wet atmosphere, albeit at different rates when the energy dissipated due to friction reaches a plateau, starting from 200 000 and 400 000 cycles, respectively. Once this layer is formed, we do not observe any measurable wear indicating stable operation for an extended time period. Our results demonstrate that B-UNCD is a very promising material to overcome the wear-related reliability problems in MEMS.

  4. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  5. Ultrananocrystalline diamond-decorated silicon nanowire field emitters.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Javier; Varshney, Deepak; Resto, Oscar; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo

    2014-08-27

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were uniformly decorated with ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) by a novel route using paraffin wax as the seeding source, which is more efficient in the creation of diamond nuclei than traditional methods. These one-dimensional ultrananocrystalline diamond-decorated SiNWs (UNCD/SiNWs) exhibit uniform diameters ranging from 100 to 200 nm with a bulbous catalytic tip of ?250 nm in diameter and an UNCD grain size of ?5 nm. UNCD/SiNW nanostructures demonstrated enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties with a turn-on field of about 3.7 V/?m. Current densities around 2 mA/cm(2) were achieved at 25 V/?m, which is significantly enhanced as compared to bare SiNWs. PMID:25046006

  6. Charging characteritiscs of ultrananocrystalline diamond in RF MEMS capacitive switches.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, A. V.; Goldsmith, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlisle, J.; Zheng, H.; Hwang, J. C. M.; Palego, C.; Wang, W.; Carpick, R.; Adiga, V.; Datta, A.; Gudeman, C.; O'Brien, S.; Sampath, S.

    2010-05-01

    Modifications to a standard capacitive MEMS switch process have been made to allow the incorporation of ultra-nano-crystalline diamond as the switch dielectric. The impact on electromechanical performance is minimal. However, these devices exhibit uniquely different charging characteristics, with charging and discharging time constants 5-6 orders of magnitude quicker than conventional materials. This operation opens the possibility of devices which have no adverse effects of dielectric charging and can be operated near-continuously in the actuated state without significant degradation in reliability.

  7. Characterization of ultrananocrystalline diamond microsensors for in vivo dopamine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Zeng, Hongjun; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Covey, Dan P.; Carlisle, John A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-06-01

    We show the technical feasibility of coating and micro patterning boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD®) on metal microwires and of applying them as microsensors for the detection of dopamine in vivo using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. UNCD electrode surface consistently generated electrochemical signals with high signal-to-noise ratio of >800 using potassium ferrocyanide-ferricyanide redox couple. Parylene patterned UNCD microelectrodes were effectively applied to detect dopamine reliably in vitro using flow injection analysis with a detection limit of 27 nM and in the striatum of the anesthetized rat during electrical stimulation of dopamine neurons.

  8. Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films functionalized with therapeutically active collagen networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Chen, M.; Bruno, P.; Lam, R.; Robinson, E.; Gruen, D.; Ho, D.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of biologically amenable interfaces in medicine bridges translational technologies with their surrounding biological environment. Functionalized nanomaterials catalyze this coalescence through the creation of biomimetic and active substrates upon which a spectrum of therapeutic elements can be delivered to adherent cells to address biomolecular processes in cancer, inflammation, etc. Here, we demonstrate the robust functionalization of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with type I collagen and dexamethasone (Dex), an anti-inflammatory drug, to fabricate a hybrid therapeutically active substrate for localized drug delivery. UNCD oxidation coupled with a pH-mediated collagen adsorption process generated a comprehensive interface between the two materials, and subsequent Dex integration, activity, and elution were confirmed through inflammatory gene expression assays. These studies confer a translational relevance to the biofunctionalized UNCD in its role as an active therapeutic network for potent regulation of cellular activity toward applications in nanomedicine.

  9. Mechanical stiffness and dissipation in ultrananocrystalline diamond micro-resonators.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, A. V.; Adiga, V. P.; Suresh, S.; Gudeman, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlis, J. A.; Carpick, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized mechanical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films grown using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique at 680 C, significantly lower than the conventional growth temperature of {approx}800 C. The films have {approx}4.3% sp{sup 2} content in the near-surface region as revealed by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The films, {approx}1 {micro}m thick, exhibit a net residual compressive stress of 370 {+-} 1 MPa averaged over the entire 150 mm wafer. UNCD microcantilever resonator structures and overhanging ledges were fabricated using lithography, dry etching, and wet release techniques. Overhanging ledges of the films released from the substrate exhibited periodic undulations due to stress relaxation. This was used to determine a biaxial modulus of 838 {+-} 2 GPa. Resonant excitation and ring-down measurements in the kHz frequency range of the microcantilevers were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions in a customized UHV atomic force microscope system to determine Young's modulus as well as mechanical dissipation of cantilever structures at room temperature. Young's modulus is found to be 790 {+-} 30 GPa. Based on these measurements, Poisson's ratio is estimated to be 0.057 {+-} 0.038. The quality factors (Q) of these resonators ranged from 5000 to 16000. These Q values are lower than theoretically expected from the intrinsic properties of diamond. The results indicate that surface and bulk defects are the main contributors to the observed dissipation in UNCD resonators.

  10. Integration of piezoelectric aluminum nitride and ultrananocrystalline diamond films for implantable biomedical microelectromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalazar, M.; Gurman, P.; Park, J.; Kim, D.; Hong, S.; Stan, L.; Divan, R.; Czaplewski, D.; Auciello, O.

    2013-03-01

    The physics for integration of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) films with underlying insulating ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), and electrically conductive grain boundary nitrogen-incorporated UNCD (N-UNCD) and boron-doped UNCD (B-UNCD) layers, as membranes for microelectromechanical system implantable drug delivery devices, has been investigated. AlN films deposited on platinum layers on as grown UNCD or N-UNCD layer (5-10 nm rms roughness) required thickness of ˜400 nm to induce (002) AlN orientation with piezoelectric d33 coefficient ˜1.91 pm/V at ˜10 V. Chemical mechanical polished B-UNCD films (0.2 nm rms roughness) substrates enabled (002) AlN film 200 nm thick, yielding d33 = 5.3 pm/V.

  11. Effects of pretreatment processes on improving the formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Li-Ju; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I-Nan.

    2007-03-15

    Effects of pretreatment on the nuclei formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) on Si substrates were studied. Either precoating a thin layer of titanium ({approx}400 nm) or ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond and titanium mixed powder (D and T process) enhances the nucleation process on Si substrates markedly, and the UNCD nuclei formed and fully covered the Si substrate, when deposition was processed using the microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition process for 10 min. In contrast, during the same period, ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond powders (D process) can only form large UNCD clusters, which were scarcely distributed on Si substrates. The analyses using x-ray diffractometer, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis reveal that the titanium layer reacted with carbon species in the plasma, forming crystalline TiC phase, which facilitates the subsequent formation of UNCD nuclei. The beneficial effect of Ti layer on enhancing the nucleation of UNCD is presumably owing to high solubility and high diffusivity of carbon species in Ti materials, as compared with those of Si materials.

  12. Surface Functionalization of Plasma Treated Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Amorphous Carbon Composite Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Hermann; Popov, Cyril; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Spassov, G.; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    Diamond possesses a number of outstanding properties which make it a perspective material as platform for preparation of biosensors. The diamond surface needs to be activated before the chemical attachment of crosslinkers with which biomolecules can interact. In the current work we have investigated the modification of ultrananocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon (UNCD/a-C) films by oxygen and ammonia plasmas. Afterwards the layers were functionalized in a further step to obtain thiol-active maleimide groups on the surface. We studied the possibility for direct binding of maleimide to terminal OH-groups on the UNCD surface and for silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to obtain NH2-groups for the following attachment of sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)-cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SSMCC). The thiol-bearing fluorescein-related dye 5-((2-(and-3)-S-(acetylmercapto) succinoyl) amino) fluorescein (SAMSA) was immobilized as an model biomolecule to evaluate the achieved thiol-activity by fluorescence microscopy. The results of the above mentioned surface modification and functionalization steps were investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and contact angle measurements.

  13. A conversion model of graphite to ultrananocrystalline diamond via laser processing at ambient temperature and normal pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, X. D. Yang, H. M.; Zheng, L. M.; Tang, S. X.; Ren, N. F.; Xu, S. D.; Yuan, S. Q.

    2014-07-14

    The synthesis mechanism of ultrananocrystalline diamond via laser shock processing of graphite suspension was presented at room temperature and normal pressure, which yielded the ultrananocrystalline diamond in size of about 5 nm. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and laser Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the nano-crystals. The transformation model and growth restriction mechanism of high power density with short-pulsed laser shocking of graphite particles in liquid was put forward.

  14. Bias-enhanced post-treatment process for enhancing the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H.; Dong, C. L.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-03-16

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films were markedly improved via the bias-enhanced plasma post-treatment (bep) process. The bep-process induced the formation of hybrid-granular structure of the diamond (bep-HiD) films with abundant nano-graphitic phase along the grain boundaries that increased the conductivity of the films. Moreover, the utilization of Au-interlayer can effectively suppress the formation of resistive amorphous-carbon (a-C) layer, thereby enhancing the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Therefore, bep-HiD/Au/Si films exhibit superior EFE properties with low turn-on field of E{sub 0} = 2.6 V/μm and large EFE current density of J{sub e} = 3.2 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 5.3 V/μm)

  15. Diamond nanowires and the insulator-metal transition in ultrananocrystalline diamond films.

    SciTech Connect

    Arenal, R.; Bruno, P.; Miller, D. J.; Bleuel, M.; Lai, J.; Gruen, D. M.

    2007-05-01

    Further progress in the development of the remarkable electrochemical, electron field emission, high-temperature diode, and optical properties of n-type ultrananocrystalline diamond films requires a better understanding of electron transport in this material. Of particular interest is the origin of the transition to the metallic regime observed when about 10% by volume of nitrogen has been added to the synthesis gas. Here, we present data showing that the transition to the metallic state is due to the formation of partially oriented diamond nanowires surrounded by an sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon sheath. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy techniques (high-resolution mode, selected area electron diffraction, and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy), Raman spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering. The nanowires are 80-100 nm in length and consist of {approx}5 nm wide and 6-10 nm long segments of diamond crystallites exhibiting atomically sharp interfaces. Each nanowire is enveloped in a sheath of sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon that provides the conductive path for electrons. Raman spectroscopy on the films coupled with a consideration of plasma chemical and physical processes reveals that the sheath is likely composed of a nanocarbon material resembling in some respects a polymer-like mixture of polyacetylene and polynitrile. The complex interactions governing the simultaneous growth of the diamond core and the sp{sup 2} sheath responsible for electrical conductivity are discussed as are attempts at a better theoretical understanding of the transport mechanism.

  16. Extreme synthesis and characterization of an ultrananocrystalline diamond aerogel in a diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzauskie, Peter

    2013-06-01

    High-surface-area mesostructured carbon materials have attracted a great amount attention in recent years because of a growing number of applications in energy storage, chemical catalysis, separations, and sensing. In particular, amorphous carbon aerogels have attracted much interest since the 1980's due to their low density, large intrinsic surface areas (>1000 m2/g), large pore volume, low dielectric constant, and high strength. In this talk we present the use of high-pressure (>20 GPa) laser-heating (>1500 °C) within a diamond anvil cell (DAC) to convert the amorphous network of a low-density (40 mg/cc) carbon aerogel into an ultrananocrystalline diamond aerogel. Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the amorphous-to-diamond phase transition at pressure within the DAC. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of recovered material indicate diamond crystallite sizes range from 1 to 100 nm, with electron diffraction and electron energy loss confirming the presence of the diamond phase. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and confocal time-correlated single-photon counting indicate the recovered material contains both negatively-charged and neutral nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes. Synchrotron scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) is used to compare the carbon electronic density-of-states of the amorphous starting material with the recovered diamond aerogel with <100 meV energy resolution. Finally, we use nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry to investigate doping of the resorcinol-formaldehyde starting material with the aim of chemically tuning heteroatomic point defects within this diamond material system.

  17. Defects localization and nature in bulk and thin film ultrananocrystalline diamond.

    SciTech Connect

    Shames, A. I.; Panich, A. M.; Porro, S.; Rovere, M.; Musso, S.; Tagliaferro, A.; Baidakova, M. V.; Osipov, V. Yu.; Vul, A. Ya.; Enoki, T.; Takahashi, M.; Osawa, E.; Williams, O. A.; Bruno, P.; Gruen, D. M.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev; Politecnico; Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst.; Tokyo Inst. of Tech.; NanoCarbon Research Inst.

    2007-01-01

    We report about the electron paramagnetic resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance signals in bulk and thin film-type ultrananocrystalline diamond with and without nitrogen. The localization and nature of defects for powder and compact film samples were analyzed. From the analysis of spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times, we have found that spin states sit in sp{sup 2} enriched region belonging to the grain boundaries.

  18. Planar ultrananocrystalline diamond field emitter in accelerator radio frequency electron injector: Performance metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, Sergey V. Antipov, Sergey; Jing, Chunguang; Qiu, Jiaqi; Shao, Jiahang; Liu, Wanming; Gai, Wei; Pérez Quintero, Kenneth J.; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Kanareykin, Alexei D.

    2014-11-17

    A case performance study of a planar field emission cathode (FEC) based on nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond, (N)UNCD, was carried out in an RF 1.3 GHz electron gun. The FEC was a 100 nm (N)UNCD film grown on a 20 mm diameter stainless steel disk with a Mo buffer layer. At surface gradients 45–65 MV/m, peak currents of 1–80 mA (equivalent to 0.3–25 mA/cm{sup 2}) were achieved. Imaging with two YAG screens confirmed emission from the (N)UNCD surface with (1) the beam emittance of 1.5 mm × mrad/mm-rms and (2) longitudinal FWHM and rms widths of non-Gaussian energy spread of 0.7% and 11% at an electron energy of 2 MeV. Current stability was tested over the course of 36 × 10{sup 3} RF pulses (equivalent to 288 × 10{sup 6 }GHz oscillations)

  19. Novel ultrananocrystalline diamond probes for high-resolution low-wear nanolithographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun-Ho; Moldovan, Nicolaie; Ke, Changhong; Espinosa, Horacio D; Xiao, Xingcheng; Carlisle, John A; Auciello, Orlando

    2005-08-01

    A hard, low-wear probe for contact-mode writing techniques, such as dip-pen nanolithography (DPN), was fabricated using ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Molding within anisotropically etched and oxidized pyramidal pits in silicon was used to obtain diamond tips with radii down to 30 nm through growth of UNCD films followed by selective etching of the silicon template substrate. The probes were monolithically integrated with diamond cantilevers and subsequently integrated into a chip body obtained by metal electroforming. The probes were characterized in terms of their mechanical properties, wear, and atomic force microscopy imaging capabilities. The developed probes performed exceptionally well in DPN molecular writing/imaging mode. Furthermore, the integration of UNCD films with appropriate substrates and the use of directed microfabrication techniques are particularly suitable for fabrication of one- and two-dimensional arrays of probes that can be used for massive parallel fabrication of nanostructures by the DPN method. PMID:17193541

  20. Synthesis method for ultrananocrystalline diamond in powder employing a coaxial arc plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Aki; Hanada, Kenji; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-07-01

    A new method that enables us to synthesize ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) in powder is proposed. Highly energetic carbon species ejected from a graphite cathode of a coaxial arc plasma gun were provided on a quartz plate at a high density by repeated arc discharge in a compact vacuum chamber, and resultant films automatically peeled from the plate were aggregated and powdered. The grain size was easily controlled from 2.4 to 15.0 nm by changing the arc discharge energy. It was experimentally demonstrated that the proposed method is a new and promising method that enables us to synthesize UNCD in powder easily and controllably.

  1. Ultrananocrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond thin films for NEMS/MEMS applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.; Carpick, R. W.; Srinivasan, S.; Butler, J. E.

    2010-04-01

    There has been a tireless quest by the designers of micro- and nanoelectro mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) to find a suitable material alternative to conventional silicon. This is needed to develop robust, reliable, and long-endurance MEMS/NEMS with capabilities for working under demanding conditions, including harsh environments, high stresses, or with contacting and sliding surfaces. Diamond is one of the most promising candidates for this because of its superior physical, chemical, and tribomechanical properties. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films, the two most studied forms of diamond films in the last decade, have distinct growth processes and nanostructures but complementary properties. This article reviews the fundamental and applied science performed to understand key aspects of UNCD and NCD films, including the nucleation and growth, tribomechanical properties, electronic properties, and applied studies on integration with piezoelectric materials and CMOS technology. Several emerging diamond-based MEMS/NEMS applications, including high-frequency resonators, radio frequency MEMS and photonic switches, and the first commercial diamond MEMS product - monolithic diamond atomic force microscopy probes - are discussed.

  2. Direct observation of enhanced emission sites in nitrogen implanted hybrid structured ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Kalpataru; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I.-Nan

    2013-02-07

    A hybrid-structured ultrananocrystalline diamond (h-UNCD) film, synthesized on Si-substrates by a two-step microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MPECVD) process, contains duplex structure with large diamond aggregates evenly dispersed in a matrix of ultra-small grains ({approx}5 nm). The two-step plasma synthesized h-UNCD films exhibit superior electron field emission (EFE) properties than the one-step MPECVD deposited UNCD films. Nitrogen-ion implantation/post-annealing processes further improve the EFE properties of these films. Current imaging tunnelling spectroscopy in scanning tunnelling spectroscopy mode directly shows increased density of emission sites in N implanted/post-annealed h-UNCD films than as-prepared one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show increased sp{sup 2} phase content and C-N bonding fraction in N ion implanted/post-annealed films. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the N implantation/post-annealing processes induce the formation of defects in the diamond grains, which decreases the band gap and increases the density of states within the band gap of diamond. Moreover, the formation of nanographitic phase surrounding the small diamond grains enhanced the conductivity at the diamond grain boundaries. Both of the phenomena enhance the EFE properties.

  3. Piezoelectric/ultrananocrystalline diamond heterostructures for a new generation of multifunctional micro/nanoelectromechanical systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, S.; Hiller, J.; Kabius, B.; Auciello, O.

    2007-01-01

    Most current micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) are based on silicon. However, silicon exhibits relatively poor mechanical/tribological properties, compromising applications to some devices. Diamond films with superior mechanical/tribological properties provide an excellent alternative platform material. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{reg_sign}) in film form with 2-5 nm grains exhibits excellent properties for high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices. Concurrently, piezoelectric Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) films provide high sensitivity/low electrical noise for sensing/high-force actuation at relatively low voltages. Therefore, integration of PZT and UNCD films provides a high-performance platform for advanced MEMS/NEMS devices. This letter describes the bases of such integration and demonstration of low voltage piezoactuated hybrid PZT/UNCD cantilevers.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALABLE, LOW-COST, ULTRANANOCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN (CECS) - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will employ the large scale; highly reliable boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BD-UNCD®) electrodes developed during Phase I project to build and test Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation process (EAOP)...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALABLE, LOW-COST, ULTRANANOCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN (CECS) - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will employ the large scale; highly reliable boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BD-UNCD) electrodes developed during Phase I project to build and test Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation process (EAOP)...

  6. Improvement in plasma illumination properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films by grain boundary engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, K. J.; Srinivasu, K.; Chen, H. C.; Dong, C. L.; Leou, K. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Tai, N. H.; Lin, I. N.

    2013-08-01

    Microstructural evolution of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films as a function of substrate temperature (TS) and/or by introducing H2 in Ar/CH4 plasma is investigated. Variation of the sp2 and sp3 carbon content is analyzed using UV-Raman and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra. Morphological and microstructural studies confirm that films deposited using Ar/CH4 plasma at low TS consist of a random distribution of spherically shaped ultra-nano diamond grains with distinct sp2-bonded grain boundaries, which are attributed to the adherence of CH radicals to the nano-sized diamond clusters. By increasing TS, adhering efficiency of CH radicals to the diamond lattice drops and trans-polyacetylene (t-PA) encapsulating the nano-sized diamond grains break, whereas the addition of 1.5% H2 in Ar/CH4 plasma at low TS induces atomic hydrogen that preferentially etches out the t-PA attached to ultra-nano diamond grains. Both cases make the sp3-diamond phase less passivated. This leads to C2 radicals attaching to the diamond lattice promoting elongated clustered grains along with a complicated defect structure. Such a grain growth model is highly correlated to explain the technologically important functional property, namely, plasma illumination (PI) of UNCD films. Superior PI properties, viz. low threshold field of 0.21 V/μm with a high PI current density of 4.10 mA/cm2 (at an applied field of 0.25 V/μm) and high γ-coefficient (0.2604) are observed for the UNCD films possessing ultra-nano grains with a large fraction of grain boundary phases. The grain boundary component consists of a large amount of sp2-carbon phases that possibly form interconnected paths for facilitating the transport of electrons and the electron field emission process that markedly enhance PI properties.

  7. Transient photoresponse of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes in saline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Simonov, Alexandr N.; Laird, Jamie S.; Maturana, Matias I.; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Spiccia, Leone; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Beyond conventional electrically-driven neuronal stimulation methods, there is a growing interest in optically-driven approaches. In recent years, nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) has emerged as a strong material candidate for use in electrically-driven stimulation electrodes. This work investigates the electrochemical activity of N-UNCD in response to pulsed illumination, to assess its potential for use as an optically-driven stimulation electrode. Whilst N-UNCD in the as-grown state exhibits a weak photoresponse, the oxygen plasma treated film exhibits two orders of magnitude enhancement in its sub-bandgap open circuit photovoltage response. The enhancement is attributed to the formation of a dense network of oxygen-terminated diamond nanocrystals at the N-UNCD surface. Electrically connected to the N-UNCD bulk via sub-surface graphitic grain boundaries, these diamond nanocrystals introduce a semiconducting barrier between the sub-surface graphitic semimetal and the electrolyte solution, leading to a photovoltage under irradiation with wavelengths of λ = 450 nm and shorter. Within the safe optical exposure limit of 2 mW mm-2, charge injection capacity of 0.01 mC cm-2 is achieved using a 15 × 15 μm electrode, meeting the requirements for extracellular and intercellular stimulation. The nanoscale nature of processes presented here along with the diamond's biocompatibility and biostability open an avenue for the use of oxygen treated N-UNCD as optically driven stimulating electrodes.

  8. High Stability Electron Field Emitters Synthesized via the Combination of Carbon Nanotubes and N₂-Plasma Grown Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Hsun; Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Kunuku, Srinivasu; Lou, Shiu-Cheng; Manoharan, Divinah; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2015-12-16

    An electron field emitter with superior electron field emission (EFE) properties and improved lifetime stability is being demonstrated via the combination of carbon nanotubes and the CH4/N2 plasma grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) films. The resistance of the carbon nanotubes to plasma ion bombardment is improved by the formation of carbon nanocones on the side walls of the carbon nanotubes, thus forming strengthened carbon nanotubes (s-CNTs). The N-UNCD films can thus be grown on s-CNTs, forming N-UNCD/s-CNTs carbon nanocomposite materials. The N-UNCD/s-CNTs films possess good conductivity of σ = 237 S/cm and marvelous EFE properties, such as low turn-on field of (E0) = 3.58 V/μm with large EFE current density of (J(e)) = 1.86 mA/cm(2) at an applied field of 6.0 V/μm. Moreover, the EFE emitters can be operated under 0.19 mA/cm(2) for more than 350 min without showing any sign of degradation. Such a superior EFE property along with high robustness characteristic of these combination of materials are not attainable with neither N-UNCD films nor s-CNTs films alone. Transmission electron microscopic investigations indicated that the N-UNCD films contain needle-like diamond grains encased in a few layers of nanographitic phase, which enhanced markedly the transport of electrons in the N-UNCD films. Moreover, the needle-like diamond grains were nucleated from the s-CNTs without the necessity of forming the interlayer that facilitate the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Both these factors contributed to the enhanced EFE behavior of the N-UNCD/s-CNTs films. PMID:26600097

  9. Effects of Boron Doping on the Properties of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wen-Xiang; WU, Q. X.; Luo, Z. K.; Wu, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    Boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were fabricated on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. UNCD films containing different concentrations of boron were prepared by using trimethylboron (B(CH3)3, TMB) as boron doping source and varying the amount of boron in the gas mixture from 0 ppm to 1000 ppm. The effects of boron doping on morphology, lattice parameter, phase composition, crystal size, and residual stress of UNCD films were investigated. No obvious change of the morphology was observed on doping with boron, and all the films had the UNCD crystal grains. Boron doping enhanced (111) growth. The preferred growth direction of the UNCD films was . Residual tensile stress was present in all the films, and increased with increasing the amount of boron in the gas mixture.

  10. Method to fabricate portable electron source based on nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD)

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Divan, Ralu; Posada, Chrystian M.; Castano, Carlos H.; Grant, Edwin J.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2016-03-29

    A source cold cathode field emission array (FEA) source based on ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) field emitters. This system was constructed as an alternative for detection of obscured objects and material. Depending on the geometry of the given situation a flat-panel source can be used in tomography, radiography, or tomosynthesis. Furthermore, the unit can be used as a portable electron or X-ray scanner or an integral part of an existing detection system. UNCD field emitters show great field emission output and can be deposited over large areas as the case with carbon nanotube "forest" (CNT) cathodes. Furthermore, UNCDs have better mechanical and thermal properties as compared to CNT tips which further extend the lifetime of UNCD based FEA.

  11. Science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films for multifunctional devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Gruen, D. M.; Krauss, A. R.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Mancini, D.; Moldovan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.

    2000-11-15

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties, and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors, However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophyllic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments. Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS-MMAS) is 10,000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS-MMA applications. A thin film deposition process has been developed that produces phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. We have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of diamond microstructure including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to micro-bearings and gears, making UNCD a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  12. Development of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for multipurpose mechanical pump seals.

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalchenko, A. M.; Elam, J. W.; Erdemir, A.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Libera, J. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Hryn, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and performance of silicon carbide (SiC) shaft seals on multipurpose mechanical pumps are improved by applying a protective coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). UNCD exhibits extreme hardness (97 GPa), low friction (0.1 in air) and outstanding chemical resistance. Consequently, the application of UNCD coatings to multipurpose mechanical pump seals can reduce frictional energy losses and eliminate the downtime and hazardous emissions from seal failure and leakage. In this study, UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition utilizing an argon/methane gas mixture. Prior to coating, the SiC seals were subjected to mechanical polishing using different grades of micron-sized diamond powder to produce different starting surfaces with well-controlled surface roughnesses. Following this roughening process, the seals were seeded by mechanical abrasion with diamond nanopowder, and subsequently coated with UNCD. The coated seals were subjected to dynamic wear testing performed at 3600 RPM and 100 psi for up to 10 days during which the seals were periodically removed and inspected. The UNCD-coated seals were examined using Raman microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and adhesion testing before and after the wear testing. These analyses revealed that delamination of the UNCD films was prevented when the initial SiC seal surface had an initial roughness >0.1 {micro}m. In addition, the UNCD surfaces showed no measurable wear as compared to approximately 0.2 {micro}m of wear for the untreated SiC surfaces.

  13. Nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond based field emitter array for a flat-panel x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Posada, Chrystian M.; Grant, Edwin J.; Lee, Hyoung K.; Castao, Carlos H.; Divan, Ralu; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana

    2014-04-07

    A field emission based flat-panel transmission x-ray source is being developed as an alternative for medical and industrial imaging. A field emitter array (FEA) prototype based on nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond film has been fabricated to be used as the electron source of this flat panel x-ray source. The FEA prototype was developed using conventional microfabrication techniques. The field emission characteristics of the FEA prototype were evaluated. Results indicated that emission current densities of the order of 6?mA/cm{sup 2} could be obtained at electric fields as low as 10?V/?m to 20?V/?m. During the prototype microfabrication process, issues such as delamination of the extraction gate and poor etching of the SiO{sub 2} insulating layer located between the emitters and the extraction layer were encountered. Consequently, alternative FEA designs were investigated. Experimental and simulation data from the first FEA prototype were compared and the results were used to evaluate the performance of alternative single and double gate designs that would yield better field emission characteristics compared to the first FEA prototype. The best simulation results are obtained for the double gate FEA design, when the diameter of the collimator gate is around 2.6 times the diameter of the extraction gate.

  14. Cell adhesion and growth on ultrananocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon films after different surface modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Voss, A.; Kozarova, R.; Kocourek, T.; Pisarik, P.; Ceccone, G.; Kulisch, W.; Jelinek, M.; Apostolova, M. D.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Popov, C.

    2014-04-01

    Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films possess a set of excellent physical and chemical properties which together with a high biocompatibility make them attractive candidates for a number of medical and biotechnological applications. In the current work thin ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and DLC films were comparatively investigated with respect to cell attachment and proliferation after different surface modifications. The UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the DLC films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were comprehensively characterized with respect to their basic properties, e.g. crystallinity, morphology, chemical bonding nature, etc. Afterwards the UNCD and DLC films were modified applying O2 or NH3/N2 plasmas and UV/O3 treatments to alter their surface termination. The surface composition of as-grown and modified samples was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore the films were characterized by contact angle measurements with water, formamide, 1-decanol and diiodomethane; from the results obtained the surface energy with its dispersive and polar components was calculated. The adhesion and proliferation of MG63 osteosarcoma cells on the different UNCD and DLC samples were assessed by measurement of the cell attachment efficiency and MTT assays. The determined cell densities were compared and correlated with the surface properties of as-deposited and modified UNCD and DLC films.

  15. The influence of sterilization on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wei; Tran, Phong A; Turnley, Ann M; Aramesh, Morteza; Prawer, Steven; Brandt, Milan; Fox, Kate

    2016-04-01

    Diamond has shown great potential in different biomedical applications, but the effects of sterilization on its properties have not been investigated. Here, we studied the influence of five sterilization techniques (solvent cleaning, oxygen plasma, UV irradiation, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide) on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond. The chemical modification of the diamond surface was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp(2) bonded carbon etching were found following all sterilization techniques, resulting in an increase of hydrophilicity. Higher viabilities of in vitro mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat cortical neuron cells were observed on oxygen plasma, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide sterilized diamond, which correlated with their higher hydrophilicity. By examination of apatite formation in simulated body fluid, in vivo bioactivity was predicted to be best on those surfaces which have been oxygen plasma treated and lowest on those which have been exposed to UV irradiation. The charge injection properties were also altered by the sterilization process and there appears to be a correlation between these changes and the degree of oxygen termination of the surface. We find that the modification brought by autoclave, oxygen plasma and hydrogen peroxide were most consistent with the use of N-UNCD in biological applications as compared to samples sterilized by solvent cleaning or UV exposure or indeed non-sterilized. A two-step process of sterilization by hydrogen peroxide following oxygen plasma treatment was then suggested. However, the final choice of sterilization technique will depend on the intended end application. PMID:26838856

  16. Formation of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Amorphous Carbon Composite Films in Vacuum Using Coaxial Arc Plasma Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Kenji; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, You; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2010-12-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite films were grown in vacuum using a coaxial arc plasma gun. From the X-ray diffraction measurement, the UNCD crystallite size was estimated to be 1.6 nm. This size is dramatically reduced from that (2.3 nm) of UNCD/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) composite films grown in a hydrogen atmosphere. The sp3/(sp3 + sp2) value, which was estimated from the X-ray photoemission spectrum, was also reduced to be 41%. A reason for it might be the reduction in the UNCD crystallite size. From the near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectrum, it was found that the π*C=C and π*C≡C bonds are preferentially formed instead of the σ*C-H bonds in the UNCD/a-C:H films. Since the extremely small UNCD crystallites (1.6 nm) correspond to the nuclei of diamond, we consider that UNCD crystallite formation should be due predominantly to nucleation. The supersaturated condition required for nucleation is expected to be realized in the deposition using the coaxial arc plasma gun.

  17. Effects of Surface Pretreatment on Nucleation and Growth of Ultra-Nanocrystalline Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cong; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Sijia; Xiong, Liwei; Weng, Jun; Cui, Xiaohui

    2015-06-01

    The effects of different surface pretreatment methods on the nucleation and growth of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films grown from focused microwave Ar/CH4/H2 (argon-rich) plasma were systematically studied. The surface roughness, nucleation density, microstructure, and crystallinity of the obtained UNCD films were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the nucleation enhancement was found to be sensitive to the different surface pretreatment methods, and a higher initial nucleation density leads to highly smooth UNCD films. When the silicon substrate was pretreated by a two-step method, i.e., plasma treatment followed by ultrasonic vibration with diamond nanopowder, the grain size of the UNCD films was greatly decreased: about 7.5 nm can be achieved. In addition, the grain size of UNCD films depends on the substrate pretreatment methods and roughness, which indicates that the surface of substrate profile has a “genetic characteristic”. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175137) and the Research Fund of Wuhan Institute of Technology, China (No. 11111051)

  18. Temperature dependence of mechanical stiffness and dissipation in ultrananocrystalline diamond films grown by the HFCVD techinque.

    SciTech Connect

    Adiga, V. P.; Sumant, A. V.; Suresh, S.; Gudeman, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlisle, J. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Pennsylvania; Innovative Micro Tech.; Advanced Diamond Tech.

    2009-06-01

    We have characterized mechanical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films grown using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique at 680 C, significantly lower than the conventional growth temperature of -800 C. The films have -4.3% sp{sup 2} content in the near-surface region as revealed by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The films, -1 {micro}m thick, exhibit a net residual compressive stress of 370 {+-} 1 MPa averaged over the entire 150 mm wafer. UNCD microcantilever resonator structures and overhanging ledges were fabricated using lithography, dry etching, and wet release techniques. Overhanging ledges of the films released from the substrate exhibited periodic undulations due to stress relaxation. This was used to determine a biaxial modulus of 838 {+-} 2 GPa. Resonant excitation and ring-down measurements in the kHz frequency range of the microcantilevers were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions in a customized UHV atomic force microscope system to determine Young's modulus as well as mechanical dissipation of cantilever structures at room temperature. Young's modulus is found to be 790 {+-} 30 GPa. Based on these measurements, Poisson's ratio is estimated to be 0.057 {+-} 0.038. The quality factors (Q) of these resonators ranged from 5000 to 16000. These Q values are lower than theoretically expected from the intrinsic properties of diamond. The results indicate that surface and bulk defects are the main contributors to the observed dissipation in UNCD resonators.

  19. Ultrathin ultrananocrystalline diamond film synthesis by direct current plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Joo; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2011-10-01

    The synthesis of ultrathin, mirror-smooth, and void-free ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film was investigated using DC-PACVD. The seeding process was investigated in the previously reported "two-step" seeding scheme, where the substrate was pretreated in microwave hydrocarbon plasma prior to the ultrasonic seeding to enhance seed density; in the present study, DC plasma and hot filament process were adopted for the pretreatment, instead of the conventional microwave plasma. Two types of nano-diamond seed powders of similar grain sizes but with different zeta potentials were also compared. The pretreated substrate surface and the synthesized UNCD film were characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure, FTIR, AFM, high-resolution scanning electron microscope, HR-TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrophoretic light scattering spectroscopy was adopted to characterize the zeta potentials of the seeding suspensions and that of the substrates, respectively. Contrary to the previous report, the pretreatments deteriorated the seed density relative to that of the non-treated substrate. By contrast, the seed density was drastically improved by using a proper type of the nano-diamond seed powder. The seed density variation according to the substrate pretreatments and the type of the seed powders was attributed to the relative values of the zeta potentials of the substrates and that of the seed powders, which indicated the electrostatic nature of the seeding process. The variation of the substrate surface zeta potentials was attributed to the variation in the surface terminations induced by the respective pretreatments. The present DC-PACVD environment ensured that the secondary nucleation was also active enough to generate the densely packed UNCD grains in the growth stage. Consequently, the ultrathin, mirror-smooth and void-free UNCD film of 30 nm in thickness was enabled.

  20. Growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond film by DC Arcjet plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. C.; Li, B.; Yan, Z. Q.; Liu, J.; Lu, F. X.; Ye, H.

    2012-06-01

    Self-standing diamond films were grown by DC Arcjet plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The feed gasses were Ar/H2/CH4, in which the flow ratio of CH4 to H2 (F/F) was varied from 5% to 20%. Two distinct morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), i.e. the "pineapple-like" morphology and the "cauliflower-like" morphology. It was found that the morphologies of the as-grown films are strongly dependent on the flow ratio of CH4 to H2 in the feed gasses. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) survey results revealed that there were nanocrystalline grains within the "pineapple-like" films whilst there were ultrananocrystalline grains within "cauliflower-like" films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results suggested that (110) crystalline plane was the dominant surface in the "cauliflower-like" films whilst (100) crystalline plane was the dominant surface in the "pineapple-like" films. Raman spectroscopy revealed that nanostructured carbon features could be observed in both types of films. Plasma diagnosis was carried out in order to understand the morphology dependent growth mechanism. It could be concluded that the film morphology was strongly influenced by the density of gas phases. The gradient of C2 radical was found to be different along the growth direction under the different growth conditions.

  1. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Cantilever Wide Dynamic Range Acceleration/Vibration /Pressure Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2003-09-02

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/V2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  2. Ultrananocrystalline diamond cantilever wide dynamic range acceleration/vibration/pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2002-07-23

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/N2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  3. The potential application of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films for heavy ion irradiation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huang-Chin; Chen, Shih-Show; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, I-Nan; Chang, Ching-Lin; Lee, Chi-Young; Guo, Jinghua

    2013-06-15

    The potential of utilizing the ultra-nanocrystalline (UNCD) films for detecting the Au-ion irradiation was investigated. When the fluence for Au-ion irradiation is lower than the critical value (f{sub c}= 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) the turn-on field for electron field emission (EFE) process of the UNCD films decreased systematically with the increase in fluence that is correlated with the increase in sp{sup 2}-bonded phase ({pi}{sup *}-band in EELS) due to the Au-ion irradiation. The EFE properties changed irregularly, when the fluence for Au-ion irradiation exceeds this critical value. The transmission electron microscopic microstructural examinations, in conjunction with EELS spectroscopic studies, reveal that the structural change preferentially occurred in the diamond-to-Si interface for the samples experienced over critical fluence of Au-ion irradiation, viz. the crystalline SiC phase was induced in the interfacial region and the thickness of the interface decreased. These observations implied that the UNCD films could be used as irradiation detectors when the fluence for Au-ion irradiation does not exceed such a critical value.

  4. Strong attachment of circadian pacemaker neurons on modified ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces.

    PubMed

    Voss, Alexandra; Wei, HongYing; Zhang, Yi; Turner, Stuart; Ceccone, Giacomo; Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Stengl, Monika; Popov, Cyril

    2016-07-01

    Diamond is a promising material for a number of bio-applications, including the fabrication of platforms for attachment and investigation of neurons and of neuroprostheses, such as retinal implants. In the current work ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition, modified by UV/O3 treatment or NH3 plasma, and comprehensively characterized with respect to their bulk and surface properties, such as crystallinity, topography, composition and chemical bonding nature. The interactions of insect circadian pacemaker neurons with UNCD surfaces with H-, O- and NH2-terminations were investigated with respect to cell density and viability. The fast and strong attachment achieved without application of adhesion proteins allowed for advantageous modification of dispersion protocols for the preparation of primary cell cultures. Centrifugation steps, which are employed for pelletizing dispersed cells to separate them from dispersing enzymes, easily damage neurons. Now centrifugation can be avoided since dispersed neurons quickly and strongly attach to the UNCD surfaces. Enzyme solutions can be easily washed off without losing many of the dispersed cells. No adverse effects on the cell viability and physiological responses were observed as revealed by calcium imaging. Furthermore, the enhanced attachment of the neurons, especially on the modified UNCD surfaces, was especially advantageous for the immunocytochemical procedures with the cell cultures. The cell losses during washing steps were significantly reduced by one order of magnitude in comparison to controls. In addition, the integration of a titanium grid structure under the UNCD films allowed for individual assignment of physiologically characterized neurons to immunocytochemically stained cells. Thus, employing UNCD surfaces free of foreign proteins improves cell culture protocols and immunocytochemistry with cultured cells. The fast and strong attachment of neurons was attributed to a favorable combination of topography, surface chemistry and wettability. PMID:27127054

  5. Electroplate and lift lithography for patterned micro/nanowires using ultrananocrystalline diamond (uncd) as a reusable template

    SciTech Connect

    Seley, D. B.; Dissing, D. A.; Divan, R.; Miller, C. S.; Auciello, O.; Terrell, E. A.; Shogren, T. S.; Fahrner, D.; Hamilton, J. P.; Zach, M. P.; Sumant, V.

    2011-01-01

    A fast, simple, scalable technique is described for the controlled, solution-based, electrochemical synthesis of patterned metallic and semiconducting nanowires from reusable, nonsacrificial, ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) templates. This enables the repeated fabrication of arrays of complex patterns of nanowires, potentially made of any electrochemically depositable material. Unlike all other methods of patterning nanowires, this benchtop technique quickly mass-produces patterned nanowires whose diameters are not predefined by the template, without requiring intervening vacuum or clean room processing. This technique opens a pathway for studying nanoscale phenomena with minimal equipment, allowing the process-scale development of a new generation of nanowire-based devices.

  6. Kinetics of the electrochemical mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid on ultrananocrystalline boron doped conductive diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Urtiaga, Ane; Fernández-González, Carolina; Gómez-Lavín, Sonia; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2015-06-01

    This work deals with the electrochemical degradation and mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Model aqueous solutions of PFOA (100mg/L) were electro-oxidized under galvanostatic conditions in a flow-by undivided cell provided with a tungsten cathode and an anode formed by a commercial ultrananocrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) coating on a niobium substrate. A systematic experimental study was conducted in order to analyze the influence of the following operation variables: (i) the supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 (1.4 and 8.4g/L) and Na2SO4 (5g/L); (ii) the applied current density, japp, in the range 50-200 A/m(2) and (iii) the hydrodynamic conditions, in terms of flowrate in the range 0.4×10(-4)-1.7×10(-4)m(3)/s and temperature in the range 293-313K. After 6h of treatment and at japp 200A/m(2), PFOA removal was higher than 93% and the mineralization ratio, obtained from the decrease of the total organic carbon (TOC) was 95%. The electrochemical generation of hydroxyl radicals in the supporting electrolyte was experimentally measured based on their reaction with dimethyl sulfoxide. The enhanced formation of hydroxyl radicals at higher japp was related to the faster kinetics of PFOA removal. The fitting of experimental data to the proposed kinetic model provided the first order rate constants of PFOA degradation, kc(1) that moved from 2.06×10(-4) to 15.58×10(-4)s(-1), when japp varied from 50 to 200A/m(2). PMID:24981910

  7. Toward a Boron-Doped Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Electrode-Based Dielectrophoretic Preconcentrator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenli; Radadia, Adarsh D

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results on immunobeads-based isolation of rare bacteria and their capture at a boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BD-UNCD) electrode in a microfluidic dielectrophoretic preconcentrator. We systematically vary the bead surface chemistry and the BD-UNCD surface chemistry and apply dielectrophoresis to improve the specific and the nonspecific capture of bacteria or beads. Immunobeads were synthesized by conjugating antibodies to epoxy-/sulfate, aldehyde-/sulfate, or carboxylate-modified beads with or without poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coimmobilization. The carboxylate-modified beads with PEG provided the highest capture efficiency (∼65%) and selectivity (∼95%) in isolating live Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cultures containing 1000 E. coli O157:H7 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL, or ∼500 E. coli O157:H7 and ∼500 E. coli K12 cfu/mL. Higher specificity was achieved with the addition of PEG to the antibody-functionalized bead surface, highest with epoxy-/sulfate beads (85-86%), followed by carboxylate-modified beads (76-78%) and aldehyde-/sulfate beads (74-76%). The bare BD-UNCD electrodes of the preconcentrator successfully withstood 240 kV/m for 100 min that was required for the microfluidic dielectrophoresis of 1 mL of sample. As expected, the application of dielectrophoresis increased the specific and the nonspecific capture of immunobeads at the BD-UNCD electrodes; however, the capture specificity remained unaltered. The addition of PEG to the antibody-functionalized BD-UNCD surface had little effect on the specificity in immunobeads capture. These results warrant the fabrication of electrical biosensors with BD-UNCD so that dielectrophoretic preconcentration can be performed directly at the biosensing electrodes. PMID:26829879

  8. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Kalpataru E-mail: phy.kalpa@gmail.com; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-10-20

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17 V/μm with high EFE current density of 5.08 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 7.0 V/μm. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local current–voltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  9. Fast Photoresponse and Long Lifetime UV Photodetectors and Field Emitters Based on ZnO/Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Adhimoorthy; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Lin, Jun-Cheng; Keiser, Gerd; Lin, I-Nan

    2015-11-01

    We have designed photodetectors and UV field emitters based on a combination of ZnO nanowires/nanorods (ZNRs) and bilayer diamond films in a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. The ZNRs were fabricated on different diamond films and systematic investigations showed an ultra-high photoconductive response from ZNRs prepared on ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) operating at a lower voltage of 2 V. We found that the ZNRs/UNCD photodetector (PD) has improved field emission properties and a reduced turn-on field of 2.9 V μm(-1) with the highest electron field emission (EFE) by simply illuminating the sample with ultraviolet (UV) light. The photoresponse (Iphoto /Idark ) behavior of the ZNRs/UNCD PD exhibits a much higher photoresponse (912) than bare ZNRs (229), ZNRs/nanocrystalline diamond (NCD; 518), and ZNRs/microcrystalline diamond (MCD; 325) under illumination at λ=365 nm. A photodetector with UNCD films offers superior stability and a longer lifetime compared with carbon materials and bare ZNRs. The lifetime stability of the ZNRs/UNCD-based device is about 410 min, which is markedly superior to devices that use bare ZNRs (92 min). The ZNRs/UNCD PD possesses excellent photoresponse properties with improved lifetime and stability; in addition, ZNRs/UNCD-based UV emitters have great potential for applications such as cathodes in flat-panel displays and microplasma display devices. PMID:26382200

  10. Improvement on electrical conductivity and electron field emission properties of Au-ion implanted ultrananocrystalline diamond films by using Au-Si eutectic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, K. J.; Sundaravel, B.; Tai, N. H.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, Au-Si eutectic layer was used to enhance the electrical conductivity/electron field emission (EFE) properties of Au-ion implanted ultrananocrystalline diamond (Au-UNCD) films grown on Si substrates. The electrical conductivity was improved to a value of 230 (Ω cm)-1, and the EFE properties was enhanced reporting a low turn-on field of 2.1 V/μm with high EFE current density of 5.3 mA/cm2 (at an applied field of 4.9 V/μm) for the Au-UNCD films. The formation of SiC phase circumvents the formation of amorphous carbon prior to the nucleation of diamond on Si substrates. Consequently, the electron transport efficiency of the UNCD-to-Si interface increases, thereby improving the conductivity as well as the EFE properties. Moreover, the salient feature of these processes is that the sputtering deposition of Au-coating for preparing the Au-Si interlayer, the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process for growing the UNCD films, and the Au-ion implantation process for inducing the nanographitic phases are standard thin film preparation techniques, which are simple, robust, and easily scalable. The availability of these highly conducting UNCD films with superior EFE characteristics may open up a pathway for the development of high-definition flat panel displays and plasma devices.

  11. Structural and Physical Characteristics of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Composite Films Deposited Using a Coaxial Arc Plasma Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi; Nakagawa, You; Nagano, Akira; Ohtani, Ryota; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Eiichi; Sumitani, Kazushi; Agawa, Yoshiaki; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2010-01-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were formed without initial nucleation using a coaxial arc plasma gun. The UNCD crystallite diameters estimated from the X-ray diffraction peaks were approximately 2 nm. The Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum exhibited an intense sp3-CH peak that might originate from the grain boundaries between UNCD crystallites whose dangling bonds are terminated with hydrogen atoms. A narrow sp3 peak in the photoemission spectrum implied that the film comprises a large number of UNCD crystallites. Large optical absorption coefficients at photon energies larger than 3 eV that might be due to the grain boundaries are specific to the UNCD/a-C:H films.

  12. Electrical characteristics of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zkria, Abdelrahman; Gima, Hiroki; Shaban, Mahmoud; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite (UNCD/a-C:H) films were synthesized in nitrogen and hydrogen mixed gas atmospheres by coaxial arc plasma deposition. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity implies that carriers are transported in hopping conduction. Heterojunctions comprising 3 at. % nitrogen-doped films and p-Si substrates exhibited a typical rectifying action. The expansion of a depletion region into the film side was confirmed from the capacitance-voltage characteristics, and the built-in potential and carrier concentration were estimated to be 0.51 eV and 7.5 × 1016 cm-3, respectively. It was experimentally demonstrated that nitrogen-doped UNCD/a-C:H is applicable as an n-type semiconductor.

  13. Synthesis of highly transparent ultrananocrystalline diamond films from a low-pressure, low-temperature focused microwave plasma jet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new low-temperature process underlying the synthesis of highly transparent ultrananocrystalline diamond [UNCD] films by low-pressure and unheated microwave plasma jet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with Ar-1%CH4-10%H2 gas chemistry. The unique low-pressure/low-temperature [LPLT] plasma jet-enhanced growth even with added H2 and unheated substrates yields UNCD films similar to those prepared by plasma-enhanced growth without addition of H2 and heating procedure. This is due to the focused plasma jet which effectively compensated for the sluggish kinetics associated with LPLT growth. The effects of pressure on UNCD film synthesis from the microwave plasma jet were systematically investigated. The results indicated that the substrate temperature, grain size, surface roughness, and sp3 carbon content in the films decreased with decreasing pressure. The reason is due to the great reduction of Hα emission to lower the etching of sp2 carbon phase, resulting from the increase of mean free path with decreasing pressure. We have demonstrated that the transition from nanocrystalline (80 nm) to ultrananocrystalline (3 to 5 nm) diamond films grown via microwave Ar-1%CH4-10%H2 plasma jets could be controlled by changing the pressure from 100 to 30 Torr. The 250-nm-thick UNCD film was synthesized on glass substrates (glass transition temperature [Tg] 557°C) using the unique LPLT (30 Torr/460°C) microwave plasma jet, which produced UNCD films with a high sp3 carbon content (95.65%) and offered high optical transmittance (approximately 86% at 700 nm). PMID:22260391

  14. Ultrananocrystalline diamond films with optimized dielectric properties for advanced RF MEMS capacitive switches

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Mancini, Derrick C.

    2013-01-15

    An efficient deposition process is provided for fabricating reliable RF MEMS capacitive switches with multilayer ultrananocrystalline (UNCD) films for more rapid recovery, charging and discharging that is effective for more than a billion cycles of operation. Significantly, the deposition process is compatible for integration with CMOS electronics and thereby can provide monolithically integrated RF MEMS capacitive switches for use with CMOS electronic devices, such as for insertion into phase array antennas for radars and other RF communication systems.

  15. Fundamentals and application of materials integration for low-power piezoelectrically actuated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond MEMS/NEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Srinivasan, S.; Hiller, J.; Kabius, B.

    2009-01-01

    Most current micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) are based on silicon. However, silicon exhibits relatively poor mechanical/tribological properties, compromising applications to several projected MEMS/NEMS devices, particularly those that require materials with high Young's modulus for MEMS resonators or low surface adhesion forces for MEMS/NEMS working in conditions with extensive surface contact. Diamond films with superior mechanical/tribological properties provide an excellent alternative platform material. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{cflx W}) in film form with 2-5 nm grains exhibits excellent properties for high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices. Concurrently, piezoelectric Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) films provide high sensitivity/low electrical noise for sensing/high-force actuation at relatively low voltages. Therefore, integration of PZT and UNCD films provides a high-performance platform for advanced MEMS/NEMS devices. This paper describes the bases of such integration and demonstration of low voltage piezoactuated hybrid PZT/UNCD cantilevers.

  16. Enhancing electrical conductivity and electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films by copper ion implantation and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H. E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw; Panda, K.; Sundaravel, B.; Lin, I. N. E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2014-02-14

    Copper ion implantation and subsequent annealing at 600 °C achieved high electrical conductivity of 95.0 (Ωcm){sup −1} for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films with carrier concentration of 2.8 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −2} and mobility of 6.8 × 10{sup 2} cm{sup 2}/V s. Transmission electron microscopy examinations reveal that the implanted Cu ions first formed Cu nanoclusters in UNCD films, which induced the formation of nanographitic grain boundary phases during annealing process. From current imaging tunneling spectroscopy and local current-voltage curves of scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements, it is observed that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the grain boundaries. Consequently, the nanographitic phases presence in the grain boundaries formed conduction channels for efficient electron transport, ensuing in excellent electron field emission (EFE) properties for copper ion implanted/annealed UNCD films with low turn-on field of 4.80 V/μm and high EFE current density of 3.60 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 8.0 V/μm.

  17. Hardness and modulus of ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Kenji; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, You; Gima, Hiroki; Tominaga, Aki; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Agawa, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Takeharu; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) composite (UNCD/a-C:H) films were deposited in hydrogen atmospheres by coaxial arc plasma deposition, and the effects of hydrogenation on the mechanical properties were studied on the basis of spectroscopic structural evaluations. The existence of UNCD grains in the films was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Non-hydrogenated films prepared in no hydrogen atmosphere exhibited a 22 GPa hardness and 222 GPa Young's modulus, and the sp 3/( sp 2 + sp 3) ratio estimated from the X-ray photoemission spectra was 41 %. For the films prepared in a 53.3-Pa hydrogen atmosphere, whereas the hardness increases to 23 GPa, the modulus decreases to 184 GPa. The UNCD grain size estimated using Scherrer's equation and the sp 3/( sp 2 + sp 3) ratio were 2.3 nm and 64 %, respectively, both of which are remarkably increased as compared with those of the non-hydrogenated films. From the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra, it is considered that ?*C-H bonds are alternatively formed instead of ?*C=C, which probably results in the enhanced hardness and reduced modulus by hydrogenation. In addition, it was found that the formation of olefinic and aromatic structures remarkably softens the UNCD/a-C:H film.

  18. Electron field emission enhancement of vertically aligned ultrananocrystalline diamond-coated ZnO core-shell heterostructured nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Afsal, Manekkathodi; Lou, Shiu-Cheng; Chen, Huang-Chin; Chen, Chulung; Lee, Chi-Young; Chen, Lih-Juann; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-01-15

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) behavior of a core-shell heterostructure, where ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) form the core and ultrananocrystalline diamond needles (UNCDNs) form the shell, is reported. EFE properties of ZNR-UNCDN core-shell heterostructures show a high emission current density of 5.5 mA cm(-2) at an applied field of 4.25 V μm(-1) , and a low turn-on field of 2.08 V μm(-1) compared to the 1.67 mA cm(-2) emission current density (at an applied field of 28.7 V μm(-1) ) and 16.6 V μm(-1) turn-on field for bare ZNRs. Such an enhancement in the field emission originates from the unique materials combination, resulting in good electron transport from ZNRs to UNCDNs and efficient field emission of electrons from the UNCDNs. The potential application of these materials is demonstrated by the plasma illumination measurements that lowering the threshold voltage by 160 V confirms the role of ZNR-UNCDN core-shell heterostructures in the enhancement of electron emission. PMID:23894092

  19. All diamond self-aligned thin film transistor

    DOEpatents

    Gerbi, Jennifer

    2008-07-01

    A substantially all diamond transistor with an electrically insulating substrate, an electrically conductive diamond layer on the substrate, and a source and a drain contact on the electrically conductive diamond layer. An electrically insulating diamond layer is in contact with the electrically conductive diamond layer, and a gate contact is on the electrically insulating diamond layer. The diamond layers may be homoepitaxial, polycrystalline, nanocrystalline or ultrananocrystalline in various combinations.A method of making a substantially all diamond self-aligned gate transistor is disclosed in which seeding and patterning can be avoided or minimized, if desired.

  20. Fast growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films by bias-enhanced nucleation and growth process in CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H.; Dong, C. L.; Lin, I. N.

    2014-05-05

    This letter describes the fast growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films by bias-enhanced nucleation and growth process in CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma. The UNCD grains were formed at the beginning of the film's growth without the necessity of forming the amorphous carbon interlayer, reaching a thickness of ∼380 nm in 10 min. Transmission electron microscopic investigations revealed that the application of bias voltage induced the formation of graphitic phase both in the interior and at the interface regions of UNCD films that formed interconnected paths, facilitating the transport of electrons and resulting in enhanced electron field emission properties.

  1. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Imaging of Spherical and Flat Counterfaces of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Tribological Contacts: A Correlation of Surface Chemistry and Friction

    SciTech Connect

    A Konicek; C Jaye; M Hamilton; W Sawyer; D Fischer; R Carpick

    2011-12-31

    A recently installed synchrotron radiation near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) full field imaging electron spectrometer was used to spatially resolve the chemical changes of both counterfaces from an ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) tribological contact. A silicon flat and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} sphere were both coated with UNCD, and employed to form two wear tracks on the flat in a linear reciprocating tribometer. The first wear track was produced using a new, unconditioned sphere whose surface was thus conditioned during this first experiment. This led to faster run-in and lower friction when producing a second wear track using the conditioned sphere. The large depth of field of the magnetically guided NEXAFS imaging detector enabled rapid, large area spectromicroscopic imaging of both the spherical and flat surfaces. Laterally resolved NEXAFS data from the tribological contact area revealed that both substrates had an as-grown surface layer that contained a higher fraction of sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon and oxygen which was mechanically removed. Unlike the flat, the film on the sphere showed evidence of having graphitic character, both before and after sliding. These results show that the graphitic character of the sphere is not solely responsible for low friction and short run-in. Rather, conditioning the sphere, likely by removing asperities and passivating dangling bonds, leads to lower friction with less chemical modification of the substrate in subsequent tests. The new NEXAFS imaging spectroscopy detector enabled a more complete understanding of the tribological phenomena by imaging, for the first time, the surface chemistry of the spherical counterface which had been in continual contact during wear track formation.

  2. High efficiency diamond solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2008-05-06

    A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.

  3. Science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films for multifunctional devices

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Mancini, D.; Molodvan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busman, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.

    2000-08-24

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties, and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors. However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophyllic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments. Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS-MMAs) is 10,000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS-MMA applications. A thin film deposition process has been developed that produces phase-pure nanocrystalline diamond with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. The authors have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of diamond microstructure including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to micro-bearings and gears, making nanocrystalline diamond a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  4. Influence of surface passivation on the friction and wear behavior of ultrananocrystalline diamond and tetrahedral amorphous carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konicek, A. R.; Grierson, D. S.; Sumant, A. V.; Friedmann, T. A.; Sullivan, J. P.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Sawyer, W. G.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-04-01

    Highly sp3-bonded, nearly hydrogen-free carbon-based materials can exhibit extremely low friction and wear in the absence of any liquid lubricant, but this physical behavior is limited by the vapor environment. The effect of water vapor on friction and wear is examined as a function of applied normal force for two such materials in thin film form: one that is fully amorphous in structure (tetrahedral amorphous carbon, or ta-C) and one that is polycrystalline with <10 nm grains [ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)]. Tribologically induced changes in the chemistry and carbon bond hybridization at the surface are correlated with the effect of the sliding environment and loading conditions through ex situ, spatially resolved near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. At sufficiently high relative humidity (RH) levels and/or sufficiently low loads, both films quickly achieve a low steady-state friction coefficient and subsequently exhibit low wear. For both films, the number of cycles necessary to reach the steady-state is progressively reduced for increasing RH levels. Worn regions formed at lower RH and higher loads have a higher concentration of chemisorbed oxygen than those formed at higher RH, with the oxygen singly bonded as hydroxyl groups (C-OH). While some carbon rehybridization from sp3 to disordered sp2 bonding is observed, no crystalline graphite formation is observed for either film. Rather, the primary solid-lubrication mechanism is the passivation of dangling bonds by OH and H from the dissociation of vapor-phase H2O. This vapor-phase lubrication mechanism is highly effective, producing friction coefficients as low as 0.078 for ta-C and 0.008 for UNCD, and wear rates requiring thousands of sliding passes to produce a few nanometers of wear.

  5. Hydrogenation effects on carrier transport in boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon films prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Katamune, Yūki Takeichi, Satoshi; Ohmagari, Shinya; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-15

    Boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite (UNCD/a-C:H) films were deposited by coaxial arc plasma deposition with a boron-blended graphite target at a base pressure of <10{sup −3} Pa and at hydrogen pressures of ≤53.3 Pa. The hydrogenation effects on the electrical properties of the films were investigated in terms of chemical bonding. Hydrogen-scattering spectrometry showed that the maximum hydrogen content was 35 at. % for the film produced at 53.3-Pa hydrogen pressure. The Fourier-transform infrared spectra showed strong absorptions by sp{sup 3} C–H bonds, which were specific to the UNCD/a-C:H, and can be attributed to hydrogen atoms terminating the dangling bonds at ultrananocrystalline diamond grain boundaries. Temperature-dependence of the electrical conductivity showed that the films changed from semimetallic to semiconducting with increasing hydrogen pressure, i.e., with enhanced hydrogenation, probably due to hydrogenation suppressing the formation of graphitic bonds, which are a source of carriers. Carrier transport in semiconducting hydrogenated films can be explained by a variable-range hopping model. The rectifying action of heterojunctions comprising the hydrogenated films and n-type Si substrates implies carrier transport in tunneling.

  6. Room-temperature hard coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films on tungsten carbide by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Egiza, Mohamed; Tominaga, Aki; Murasawa, Koki; Gonda, Hidenobu; Sakurai, Masatoshi; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite films were deposited on unheated WC containing Co by coaxial arc plasma deposition. The hardness of the film is 51.3 GPa, which is comparable with the highest values of hard a-C films deposited on nonbiased substrates. The deposited film is approximately 3 µm thick, which is one order larger than that of hard a-C films. The internal compressive stress is 4.5 GPa, which is evidently smaller than that of comparably hard a-C films. The existence of a large number of grain boundaries in the UNCD/a-C film might play a role in the release of the internal stress.

  7. Time-Resolved Spectroscopic Observation of Deposition Processes of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Amorphous Carbon Composite Films by Using a Coaxial Arc Plasma Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Kenji; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2010-08-01

    The deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/amorphous carbon composite films using a coaxial arc plasma gun in vacuum and, for comparison, in a 53.3 Pa hydrogen atmosphere was spectroscopically observed using a high-speed camera equipped with narrow-band-pass filters. UNCD crystallites with diameters of approximately 1.6 nm were formed even in vacuum. These extremely small crystallites imply that the formation is predominantly due to nucleation without the subsequent growth. Even in vacuum, emissions from C+ ions, C atoms, and C2 dimers lasted for approximately 100 µs, although the emission lifetimes of these species are generally 10 ns. We consider that the nucleation is due to the supersaturated environment containing excited carbon species with large number densities.

  8. Patterning of nanocrystalline diamond films for diamond microstructures useful in MEMS and other devices

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Busmann, Hans-Gerd; Meyer, Eva-Maria; Auciello, Orlando; Krauss, Alan R.; Krauss, Julie R.

    2004-11-02

    MEMS structure and a method of fabricating them from ultrananocrystalline diamond films having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm and feature resolution of less than about one micron . The MEMS structures are made by contacting carbon dimer species with an oxide substrate forming a carbide layer on the surface onto which ultrananocrystalline diamond having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm is deposited. Thereafter, microfabrication process are used to form a structure of predetermined shape having a feature resolution of less than about one micron.

  9. Spectroellipsometric characterization of nanocrystalline diamond layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohner, T.; Csíkvári, P.; Petrik, P.; Hárs, G.

    2013-09-01

    The complex refractive index and the layer thickness of nanocrystalline diamond films was determined by ex situ variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the wavelength range of 191-1690 nm. During the layer depositions argon, methane and hydrogen gases were used as source gases. The combined effect of argon addition and substrate bias was investigated in the microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Multilayer optical models were constructed for the evaluation of the measured ellipsometric spectra. The effective medium approximation and the Lorentz dispersion relation were employed for the modeling of the optical properties of the diamond films.

  10. The microstructural evolution of ultrananocrystalline diamond films due to P ion implantation process—the annealing effect

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Sheng-Chang; Yeh, Chien-Jui; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Kurian, Joji; Lin, I.-Nan; Dong, Chung-Li; Niu, Huan

    2014-11-14

    The microstructural evolution of UNCD films which are P-ion implanted and annealed at 600 °C (or 800 °C) is systematically investigated. The difference of interaction that the UNCD content undergoes along the trajectory of the incident P-ions is reflected in the alteration of the granular structure. In regions where the P-ions reside, the “interacting zone,” which is found at about 300 nm beneath the surface of the films, coalescence of diamond grains occurs inducing nano-graphitic clusters. The annealing at 600 °C (or 800 °C) heals the defects and, in some cases, forms interconnected graphitic filaments that result in the decrease in surface resistance. However, the annealing at 600 °C (800 °C) induces marked UNCD-to-Si layers interaction. This interaction due to the annealing processes hinders the electron transport across the interface and degrades the electron field emission properties of the UNCD films. These microstructural evolution processes very well account for the phenomenon elaborating that, in spite of enhanced conductivity of the UNCD films along the film's surface due to the P-ion implantation and annealing processes, the electron field emission properties for these UNCD films do not improve.

  11. Science and technology of piezoelectric/diamond heterostructures for monolithically integrated high performance MEMS/NEMS/CMOS devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Sumant, A. V.; Hiller, J.; Kabius, B.; Ma, Z.; Srinivasan, S.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the fundamental and applied science performed to integrate piezoelectric PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} and AlN films with a novel mechanically robust ultrananocrystalline diamond layer to enable a new generation of low voltage/high-performance piezoactuated hybrid piezoelectric/diamond MEMS/NEMS devices.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALABLE, LOW-COST, ULTRANANOCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN (CECS) - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project will develop and ready for commercialization a scalable, low-cost process for purification of water containing Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) using anodic oxidation with boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diam...

  13. Effects of initial crystal size of diamond powder on surface residual stress and morphology in polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, HongSheng; Jia, XiaoPeng; Xu, Yue; Wan, LianRu; Jie, KaiKai; Ma, HongAn

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond compacts (PDC) were synthesized using diamond powder of average crystal size 3-20 μm by the Ni70Mn25Co5 alloy infiltration technique at high temperature and high pressure (HPHT). The surface residual stress of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layer was measured using micro-Raman spectroscopy with hydrostatic stress model and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Measurements of the stress levels of PCDs show that the residual compressive stresses range from 0.12 to 0.22 GPa, which increase with the crystal size of diamond. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of initial diamond grains and PCD cross-section. The results indicate that PCD has a dense and interlaced microstructure with diamond-diamond (D-D) direct bonding. And the smaller the crystal size of diamond, the better the growth of diamond direct bonding and the smaller the binder metal between diamond boundaries will be.

  14. UV Sensor Based on Layered Ferrite-Diamond Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskiy, P. Y.; Kondrashov, A. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Vitko, V. V.; Kalinikos, B. A.; Semenov, A. A.; Ustinov, A. B.; Butler, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Design of a UV sensor based on an yttrium-iron garnet/diamond layered cavity is presented. The operation principle of the sensor is based on the change in the spin-wave dispersion law and, consequently, in the frequency and Q-factor of eigenmodes of the cavity under study upon appearance of free carriers generated by UV light.

  15. Lamb waves dispersion curves for diamond based piezoelectric layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, B. P.; Kvashnin, G. M.; Telichko, A. V.; Novoselov, A. S.; Burkov, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    The presence of spurious peaks in the amplitude-frequency response of diamond based piezoelectric layered structure was shown. Excitation of such peaks results in deterioration of an useful acoustical signal. It was shown that such spurious peaks should be associated with Lamb waves in a layered structure. By means of FEM analysis, the propagation of acoustic waves of different types in the piezoelectric layered structure "Al/AlN/Mo/(100) diamond" has been investigated in detail. By analyzing the elastic displacement patterns at frequencies from 0 up to 250 MHz, a set of all the possible acoustic waves, especially Lamb modes, have been studied, and dispersive curves of phase velocity have been plotted. A revised classification of Lamb modes has been introduced.

  16. Diamond MEMS: wafer scale processing, devices, and technology insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Diamond has long held the promise of revolutionary new devices: impervious chemical barriers, smooth and reliable microscopic machines, and tough mechanical tools. Yet it's been an outsider. Laboratories have been effectively growing diamond crystals for at least 25 years, but the jump to market viability has always been blocked by the expense of diamond production and inability to integrate with other materials. Advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have given rise to a hierarchy of carbon films ranging from diamond-like carbon (DLC) to vapor-deposited diamond coatings, however. All have pros and cons based on structure and cost, but they all share some of diamond's heralded attributes. The best performer, in theory, is the purest form of diamond film possible, one absent of graphitic phases. Such a material would capture the extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and chemical inertness of natural diamond. Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, Ill., is the first company to develop a distinct chemical process to create a marketable phase-pure diamond film. The material, called UNCD® (for ultrananocrystalline diamond), features grain sizes from 3 to 300 nm in size, and layers just 1 to 2 microns thick. With significant advantages over other thin films, UNCD is designed to be inexpensive enough for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, microelectromechanical machines (MEMS), cell phone circuitry, radio frequency devices, and even biosensors.

  17. Structural transformation of implanted diamond layers during high temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubanov, S.; Fairchild, B. A.; Suvorova, A.; Olivero, P.; Prawer, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the recent years graphitization of ion-beam induced amorphous layers became the basic tool for device fabrication in diamond. The etchable graphitic layers can be removed to form free-standing membranes into which the desired structures can be sculpted using FIB milling. The optical properties of the devices fabricated using this method are assumed on the model of sharp diamond-air interface. The real quality of this interface could depend on degree of graphitization of the amorphous damage layers after annealing. In the present work the graphitization process was studied using conventional and analytical TEM. It was found that annealing at 550 °C results in a partial graphitization of the implanted volume with formation of the nano-crystalline graphitic phase sandwiched between layers of tetrahedral amorphous carbon. Annealing at 1400 °C resulted in complete graphitization of the amorphous layers. The average size of graphite nano-crystals did not exceed 5 nm with predominant orientation of c-planes normal to the sample surface.

  18. Effects of disorder state and interfacial layer on thermal transport in copper/diamond system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, V.; Gengler, J. J.; Muratore, C.; Spowart, J. E.

    2015-02-21

    The characterization of Cu/diamond interface thermal conductance (h{sub c}) along with an improved understanding of factors affecting it are becoming increasingly important, as Cu-diamond composites are being considered for electronic packaging applications. In this study, ∼90 nm thick Cu layers were deposited on synthetic and natural single crystal diamond substrates. In several specimens, a Ti-interface layer of thickness ≤3.5 nm was sputtered between the diamond substrate and the Cu top layer. The h{sub c} across Cu/diamond interfaces for specimens with and without a Ti-interface layer was determined using time-domain thermoreflectance. The h{sub c} is ∼2× higher for similar interfacial layers on synthetic versus natural diamond substrate. The nitrogen concentration of synthetic diamond substrate is four orders of magnitude lower than natural diamond. The difference in nitrogen concentration can lead to variations in disorder state, with a higher nitrogen content resulting in a higher level of disorder. This difference in disorder state potentially can explain the variations in h{sub c}. Furthermore, h{sub c} was observed to increase with an increase of Ti-interface layer thickness. This was attributed to an increased adhesion of Cu top layer with increasing Ti-interface layer thickness, as observed qualitatively in the current study.

  19. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8-17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9-5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  20. Note: Laser ablation technique for electrically contacting a buried implant layer in single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, M. P.; Baldwin, J. W.; Butler, J. E.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2011-05-15

    The creation of thin, buried, and electrically conducting layers within an otherwise insulating diamond by annealed ion implantation damage is well known. Establishing facile electrical contact to the shallow buried layer has been an unmet challenge. We demonstrate a new method, based on laser micro-machining (laser ablation), to make reliable electrical contact to a buried implant layer in diamond. Comparison is made to focused ion beam milling.

  1. Method of forming fluorine-bearing diamond layer on substrates, including tool substrates

    DOEpatents

    Chang, R. P. H.; Grannen, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of forming a fluorine-bearing diamond layer on non-diamond substrates, especially on tool substrates comprising a metal matrix and hard particles, such as tungsten carbide particles, in the metal matrix. The substrate and a fluorine-bearing plasma or other gas are then contacted under temperature and pressure conditions effective to nucleate fluorine-bearing diamond on the substrate. A tool insert substrate is treated prior to the diamond nucleation and growth operation by etching both the metal matrix and the hard particles using suitable etchants.

  2. Lamb Wave Characteristics of Composite Plates Including a Diamond Layer with Distinct Electrode Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Diamond films have been utilized to develop surface acoustic wave filters and micromechanical resonators because of the highest acoustic wave velocity and largest product of frequency and quality factor (f.Q) of diamond among all materials. A theoretical analysis of Lamb wave characteristics in multilayer piezoelectric plates including a diamond layer is presented in this paper. Formulae for effective permittivity are derived using the transfer matrix method and are further employed to calculate Lamb wave phase velocity dispersions. The electromechanical coupling coefficients (ECCs) are also calculated exactly by Green's function method. Detailed calculations are carried out for ZnO/diamond and AlN/diamond composite plates with four distinct electrode arrangements. Results show that the ZnO/diamond structure yields a phase velocity of 6420 m/s and a large ECC of 7.41%, which makes it suitable for high-frequency wideband filter applications. Moreover, in the AlN/diamond structure, the S0 mode exhibits a large phase velocity of up to 10.3 km/s and a moderate ECC of 1.97%. Such favorable characteristics are expected to contribute to the development of AlN/diamond Lamb wave oscillators operating at approximately 5-10 GHz without the need for a sub-micrometer-resolution lithographic process. Therefore, both ZnO/diamond and AlN/diamond Lamb wave devices are highly promising candidates for RF devices in modern communication systems with advantages over conventional surface acoustic wave devices.

  3. Growth and electrical characterisation of {delta}-doped boron layers on (111) diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B.; Sato, Syunsuke; Ishiyama, Yuichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Morris, Richard

    2012-02-01

    A plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition protocol for the growth of {delta}-doping of boron in diamond is presented, using the (111) diamond plane as a substrate for diamond growth. AC Hall effect measurements have been performed on oxygen terminated {delta}-layers and desirable sheet carrier densities ({approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}) for field-effect transistor application are reported with mobilities in excess of what would expected for equivalent but thicker heavily boron-doped diamond films. Temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that the grown layers have metallic-like electrical properties with high cut-off frequencies and low thermal impedance activation energies with estimated boron concentrations of approximately 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}.

  4. Enhancement of the nucleation of smooth and dense nanocrystalline diamond films by using molybdenum seed layers

    SciTech Connect

    Buijnsters, J. G.; Vazquez, L.; Celis, J. P.

    2010-11-15

    A method for the nucleation enhancement of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on silicon substrates at low temperature is discussed. A sputter deposition of a Mo seed layer with thickness 50 nm on Si substrates was applied followed by an ultrasonic seeding step with nanosized detonation diamond powders. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) was used to nucleate and grow NCD films on substrates heated up at 550 deg. C. The nucleation of diamond and the early stages of NCD film formation were investigated at different methane percentages in methane/hydrogen gas mixtures by atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence x-ray analyses in order to gain specific insight in the nucleation process of NCD films. The nucleation kinetics of diamond on the Mo-coated Si substrates was found to be up to ten times higher than on blank Si substrates. The enhancement of the nucleation of diamond on thin Mo interlayers results from two effects, namely, (a) the nanometer rough Mo surface shows an improved embedding of ultrasonically introduced nanosized diamond seeds that act as starting points for the diamond nucleation during HF-CVD and (b) the rapid carbonization of the Mo surface causes the formation of Mo{sub 2}C onto which diamond easily nucleates. The diamond nucleation density progressively increases at increasing methane percentages and is about 5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} at 4.0% methane. The improved nucleation kinetics of diamond on Mo interlayers facilitates the rapid formation of NCD films possessing a very low surface roughness down to {approx}6 nm, and allows a submicron thickness control.

  5. Epitaxial synthesis of diamond layers on a monocrystalline diamond substrate in a torch microwave plasmatron

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeichev, K. F. Lukina, N. A.

    2011-12-15

    The epitaxial growth of a diamond single-crystal film in a torch microwave discharge excited by a magnetron of a domestic microwave oven with the power of {<=}1 kW in an argon-hydrogen-methane mixture with a high concentration of methane (up to 25% with respect to hydrogen) at atmospheric pressure on a sub-strate of a synthetic diamond single crystal (HPHP) with the orientation (100) and 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 mm in size is obtained. A discharge with the torch diameter of {approx}2 mm and the concentration of the microwave power absorbed in the torch volume of >10{sup 3} W/cm{sup 3} is shown to be effective for epitaxial enlargement of a single crystal of synthetic diamond. The structure of the deposited film with the thickness up to 10 {mu}m with high-quality morphology is investigated with an optical microscope as well as using the methods of the Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Hybrid sensors based on colour centres in diamond and piezoactive layers.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianming; Jelezko, Fedor; Plenio, Martin B

    2014-01-01

    The ability to measure weak signals such as pressure, force, electric field and temperature with nanoscale devices and high spatial resolution offers a wide range of applications in fundamental and applied sciences. Here we present a proposal for a hybrid device composed of thin film layers of diamond with colour centres and piezoactive elements for the transduction and measurement of physical signals. The magnetic response of a piezomagnetic layer to an external stress or a stress induced by a signal is shown to affect significantly the spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. Under ambient conditions, realistic environmental noise and material imperfections, we show that this hybrid device can achieve significant improvements in sensitivity over the pure diamond-based approach in combination with nanometre-scale spatial resolution. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid architecture offers novel possibilities for engineering strong coherent couplings between nanomechanical oscillator and solid state spin qubits. PMID:24909637

  7. Design of a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity based on a \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajiri, Takeyoshi; Takahashi, Shun; Tandaechanurat, Aniwat; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We design a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity based on a \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond structure. The designed structure, comprised of self-sustainable layers, is suitable for fabrication by layer stacking techniques. Quality factors (Q-factors) of nanocavities were calculated for the \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond and a commonly-used woodpile structures, both of which are generated from the same diamond lattice with a lattice constant adiamond. The Q-factor of the designed nanocavity can reach as high as 230,000 with 35 stacked layers and a square in-plane PC area of the length of one side of 5\\sqrt{2} a^{\\text{diamond}}. This is 1.5 times higher than that of a 3D PC nanocavity based on the woodpile structure with the same in-plane PC size and with the same number of stacked layers. The higher Q-factor in the \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond structure originates from its stronger in-plane light confinement over the woodpile structure. The \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond structure will be beneficial for improving experimentally attainable Q-factors of 3D PC nanocavities particularly fabricated by a micromanipulation method.

  8. Enhancing secondary yield of a diamond amplifier using a nitrogen layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Shaw, Jonathan L.; Yater, Joan E.; Pate, Bradford B.

    2015-06-07

    A thin nitrogen-doped layer less than 4% of the total thickness in diamond thin film amplifier is shown to reduce losses of generated secondaries to the back contact, generated by a high energy primary electron beam compared to a thin film without the substitutional nitrogen layer modification. Simulation indicates that the losses due to absorption of diffusing electrons by the back contact may be considerably reduced by a factor of 2 (depending on field across the film, width of the nitrogen layer, and boron doping level), thereby mitigating undesirable effects associated with trace amounts of boron.

  9. Systematic studies on transition layers of carbides between CVD diamond films and substrates of strong carbide-forming elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiang-Liu; Zhang, Fang-Qing; Li, Jiang-Qi; Yang, Bin; Chen, Guang-Hua

    1991-12-01

    The nucleation and growth mechanism of polycrystalline diamond films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have received increasing research interest. To verify the existence of the transition layers between CVD diamond films and substrates, and to investigate their composition, structure and properties are very meaningful research topics for understanding the mechanism of diamond film growth and developing the applications of CVD diamond films. In this work, the transition layers of carbides for the substrates of molybdenum (Mo), silicon (Si), tungsten (W), tantalum (Ta), and niobium (Nb) and titanium (Ti) have been systematically studied by x-ray diffraction characterization. The experiment results have provided evidence of the existence of transition layers and have revealed that the transition layers are polycrystalline Mo2C, SiC, WC and W2C, TaC and Ta2C, NbC and Nb2C, as well as TiC for the substrates of Mo, Si, W, Ta, Nb and Ti, respectively.

  10. Demonstration of a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity in a 〈110〉-layered diamond structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tajiri, T.; Takahashi, S.; Ota, Y.; Tatebayashi, J.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.

    2015-08-17

    We experimentally demonstrate a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3D PC) nanocavity in a 〈110〉-layered diamond structure with a quality factor (Q-factor) of 12 800 at a wavelength of 1.1 μm. The observed Q is 1.2 times higher than that of a 3D PC nanocavity in a woodpile structure with the same in-plane size and the same number of stacked layers. This result indicates the potential importance of the 〈110〉-layered diamond structure for getting high Q 3D PC nanocavities within a limited in-plane space.

  11. Low temperature boron doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hongjun; Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Carlisle, John A.

    2013-06-01

    Low temperature boron doped diamond (LT-BDD) film deposited under 600 °C (460 °C minimum) has been reported. Study reveals that the deposition temperature and boron dopant cause nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) instead of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD®). Unlike conventional NCD, LT-BDD has faster renucleation rate, which ensures a low surface roughness (approximately 10 nm at 0.6 μm thickness). The overall characteristics of LT-BDD are mixed with the characteristics of conventional NCD and UNCD. Raman spectrum and electrochemical characterization prove that the quality of LT-BDD is similar to those grown under 650-900 °C. LT-BDD enables diamond applications on microelectromechanical systems, bio- and optical technologies.

  12. Diamonds from the iridium-rich K-T boundary layer at Arroyo el Mimbral, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, R. M.; Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C. T.; Langenhorst, F.; Montanari, A.

    1997-11-01

    Diamonds, up to 30 ?m in size, were found in the iridium-rich layer from the K-T boundary site at Arroyo El Mimbral and the spherule bed from Arroyo El Peon, northeastern Mexico. Stepped heating experiments indicate two or more isotopically distinct diamond components with carbon isotopic compositions characteristic of a mixture of carbon sources. The diamonds' crystal form is cubicnot the hexagonal polymorph of diamond, lonsdaleite, which has been used previously to infer formation due to shock transformation of graphite. The size, crystallography, and mineralogic associations of K-T diamonds are similar to those of impact-produced diamonds from the Ries crater in Germany where both shock transformation of graphite and a mode of formation by condensation from a vapor plume have been inferred. The discovery of impact-produced diamonds in association with high Ir contents for these sediments supports their impact origin, K-T age, and the inference that their source was from the buried impact crater of Chicxulub on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

  13. Assembly of a high-dielectric constant thin TiOx layer directly on H-terminated semiconductor diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jiangwei; Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Coathup, David; Imura, Masataka; Shi, Baogui; Gu, Changzhi; Koide, Yasuo; Ye, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    A high-dielectric constant (high-k) TiOx thin layer was fabricated on hydrogen-terminated diamond (H-diamond) surface by low temperature oxidation of a thin titanium layer in ambient air. The metallic titanium layer was deposited by sputter deposition. The dielectric constant of the resultant TiOx was calculated to be around 12. The capacitance density of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) based on the TiOx/H-diamond was as high as 0.75 μF/cm2 contributed from the high-k value and the very thin thickness of the TiOx layer. The leakage current was lower than 10-13 A at reverse biases and 10-7A at the forward bias of -2 V. The MOS field-effect transistor based on the high-k TiOx/H-diamond was demonstrated. The utilization of the high-k TiOx with a very thin thickness brought forward the features of an ideally low subthreshold swing slope of 65 mV per decade and improved drain current at low gate voltages. The advantages of the utilization high-k dielectric for diamond metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors are anticipated.

  14. Polarization dependent asymmetric magneto-resistance features in nanocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2014-08-18

    Polar angle-dependence of magneto-resistance (AMR) in heavily nitrogen-incorporated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films is recorded by applying high magnetic fields, which shows strong anisotropic features at low temperatures. The temperature-dependence of MR and AMR can reveal transport in the weak-localization regime, which is explained by using a superlattice model for arbitrary values of disorder and angles. While a propagative Fermi surface model explains the negative MR features for low degree of disorder the azimuthal angle-dependent MR shows field dependent anisotropy due to the aligned conducting channels on the layers normal to film growth direction. The analysis of MR and AMR can extract the temperature dependence of dephasing time with respect to the elastic scattering time which not only establishes quasi-two dimensional features in this system but also suggests a potential application in monitoring the performance of UNCD based quantum devices.

  15. Improvement in low-voltage performance of surface-electrode soft-X-ray detectors composed of undoped homoepitaxial CVD/HPHT Ib diamond layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanasugi, M.; Iwakaji, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Maida, O.; Takeda, Y.; Saitoh, Y.; Ito, T.

    2010-09-01

    We have successfully fabricated diamond soft-X-ray (SXR) detectors with interdigitated surface electrodes that significantly improve the low-voltage performance using high-quality chemical-vapour-deposited (CVD) diamond films homoepitaxially grown on high-pressure/high-temperature-synthesised (HPHT) diamond Ib substrates. In the present study, the collection efficiencies of photon-excited carriers were evaluated using monochromatised SXRs at applied voltages ≤12 V for two types of diamond detectors with different stacking structures of the CVD layers. We found that the diamond detectors with an electrically floating B-doped layer sandwiched between two undoped CVD layers yield significantly larger carrier collection efficiencies compared to those without an inserted B-doped layer, even under the no-applied-voltage condition; moreover, the carrier collection efficiencies only slightly increase with increases in applied voltages below 12 V. This result indicates that the inserted B-doped layer can work independently (without electrical connection to any external circuit) as a potential barrier against carrier diffusions to a HPHT diamond substrate with much poorer quality than CVD diamond film of a photon absorption layer. The detector performances are discussed relative to the potential distribution formed in the active undoped diamond layer and the crystalline quality, which is based on the cathodoluminescence intensity of exciton emissions at room temperature.

  16. Tantalum as a buffer layer in diamond-like carbon coated artificial hip joints.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Mirjami; Alakoski, Esa; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Anttila, Asko

    2003-07-15

    The acid resistance of tantalum coated and uncoated human hip joint prostheses was studied with commercial CrCoMo acetabular cups. The samples were exposed to 10% HCl solution and the quantities of dissolved Cr, Co, and Mo were measured with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The absolute quantities were obtained with the use of Cr and Se solution standards. Tantalum coatings (thicknesses 4-6 microm) were prepared in vacuum with magnetron sputtering. Tantalum coating decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of 10(6). As a spinoff from recent wear tests on artificial hip joints it was shown that tantalum has excellent mechanical properties as an intermediate layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. When tantalum was tested together with DLC on three metal-on-metal hip joint pairs in a hip simulator, no observable defects occurred during 15 million walking cycles with a periodic 50-300-kg load (Paul curve). PMID:12808604

  17. Presence of all Three Allotropes of Impact-Diamonds in the Younger Dryas Onset Layer (YDB) Across N America and NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A.; Kennett, J. P.; Kennett, D. J.; Que Hee, S. S.; Wolbach, W. S.; Stich, A.; Bunch, T. E.; Wittke, J. H.; Mercer, C.; Sellers, M.; Culleton, B. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Johnson, J. R.; Stafford, T. W.; Weaver, J. C.; West, G.

    2008-12-01

    We report the discovery of all three diamond allotropes (cubic diamond, lonsdaleite, and n-diamond) in an extraterrestrial (ET) impact layer (the YDB), dating to the Younger Dryas onset at 12.9 ka. YDB diamonds are distributed broadly across N America and NW Europe at 15 sites spanning 9,000 km or 23 percent of Earth's circumference. N-diamonds and lonsdaleite, or hexagonal diamond, do not co-occur with terrestrial diamonds, but are found in meteorites. Lonsdaleite is found on Earth only in association with known ET impacts, and thus, is a definitive impact indicator. The diamonds were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using selected area diffraction (SAED), which display reflections corresponding to the following lattice planar spacings definitive of diamond: (1) cubic: 2.06, 1.26, 1.07, and 0.89 A; (2) lonsdaleite: 2.184, 1.261, 1.092, and 0.826 A; and (3) n-diamond: 2.06, 1.26, 1.07, and 0.89 A, plus "forbidden" reflections of 1.78, 1.04, and 0.796 A. Nanodiamonds are rounded to highly angular, and range in size from 1 to 1700 nm with most between 1 and 50 nm. Concentrations are up to 3700 ppb, equaling more than 1 billion diamonds per cm3 of sediment (comparable to K/T levels of 3600 ppb). No diamonds were detected above or below the YDB layer at any site tested. These diamonds could not have formed from volcanic activity, because they combust at temperatures above 500° C in the presence of atmospheric levels of oxygen, and micrometeoritic diamonds are similarly destroyed. Also, the diamonds could not have accumulated from the constant rain of micrometeoritic debris, because multi-billions occur in YDB layer samples, but yet none have been found in non-YDB strata dating from 55,000 RCYBP to present. YDB diamonds are associated with abundance peaks in magnetic spherules, carbon spherules, soot, and iridium, which can peak in impact layers of known ET events, such as the K/T and the 1908 airburst at Tunguska, Siberia. Furthermore, a high proportion of the nanodiamonds are found deeply embedded within spherical particles of melted plant resins, a fact inexplicable by any normal terrestrial process. Altogether, this evidence strongly suggests that the widespread and abundant nanodiamonds constrained to the thin YDB layer resulted from a major ET impact/airburst at 12.9 ka.

  18. Diamond-Like-Carbon LC-Alignment Layers for Application in LCOS Microdisplays

    SciTech Connect

    Bol,A.; Dvorak, J.; Arena, D.

    2005-01-01

    To improve the lifetime and yield of LCOS microdisplays, non-contact LC alignment techniques using inorganic materials are under investigation. This report focuses on oblique ion-beam treatment of diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers, and in particular on the influence of the ion dose on the LC alignment on DLC, keeping the ion-beam angle (40 degrees) and ion-beam energy (170 eV) the same. LC alignment on ion-milled DLC layers is uniform if the ion dose is between 3.8 x 10{sup -4} C/cm{sup 2} and 5.5x10{sup -3} C/cm{sup 2}. Above and below this ion dose range, non-uniform alignment is observed. NEXAFS experiments show that this is caused by lack of molecular anisotropy on the surface of the ion-milled DLC layers. By varying the ion dose between 3.8 x 10{sup -4} C/cm{sup 2} and 5.5 x 10{sup -3} C/cm{sup 2}, LC molecules have an average pre-tilt between 3 and 5 degrees, which is within the desired range for application in LCOS microdisplays. The lifetime of the LCOS microdisplays with ion-milled DLC for projection-TV application is, however, shorter than the lifetime of microdisplays with PI layers. Ion milling probably creates a reactive surface that is unstable under the high light fluxes used in projection TVs. A solution for this problem could be chemical passivation of the ion-milled alignment layers. Initial experiments with passivation of ion-milled PI resulted in an increase in lifetime, but the lifetime after passivation was still lower than the lifetime of rubbed PI layers (factor 0.7). Nevertheless, ion-milling of DLC or PI can be a good alternative LC alignment technique in other LCD applications. LC-alignment layers based on inorganic layers such as obliquely deposited SiO{sub 2} films would be a better option for application in LCOS microdisplays due to their higher light stability.

  19. N-type droping of nanocrystalline diamond films with nitrogen and electrodes made therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.

    2004-09-21

    An electrically conducting n-type ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having no less than 10.sup.19 atoms/cm.sup.3 of nitrogen is disclosed. A method of making the n-doped UNCD. A method for predictably controlling the conductivity is also disclosed.

  20. Topologic connection between 2-D layered structures and 3-D diamond structures for conventional semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    When coming to identify new 2D materials, our intuition would suggest us to look from layered instead of 3D materials. However, since graphite can be hypothetically derived from diamond by stretching it along its [111] axis, many 3D materials can also potentially be explored as new candidates for 2D materials. Using a density functional theory, we perform a systematic study over the common Group IV, III–V, and II–VI semiconductors along different deformation paths to reveal new structures that are topologically connected to but distinctly different from the 3D parent structure. Specifically, we explore two major phase transition paths, originating respectively from wurtzite and NiAs structure, by applying compressive and tensile strain along the symmetry axis, and calculating the total energy changes to search for potential metastable states, as well as phonon spectra to examine the structural stability. Each path is found to further split into two branches under tensile strain–low buckled and high buckled structures, which respectively lead to a low and high buckled monolayer structure. Most promising new layered or planar structures identified include BeO, GaN, and ZnO on the tensile strain side, Ge, Si, and GaP on the compressive strain side. PMID:27090430

  1. Topologic connection between 2-D layered structures and 3-D diamond structures for conventional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-04-01

    When coming to identify new 2D materials, our intuition would suggest us to look from layered instead of 3D materials. However, since graphite can be hypothetically derived from diamond by stretching it along its [111] axis, many 3D materials can also potentially be explored as new candidates for 2D materials. Using a density functional theory, we perform a systematic study over the common Group IV, III–V, and II–VI semiconductors along different deformation paths to reveal new structures that are topologically connected to but distinctly different from the 3D parent structure. Specifically, we explore two major phase transition paths, originating respectively from wurtzite and NiAs structure, by applying compressive and tensile strain along the symmetry axis, and calculating the total energy changes to search for potential metastable states, as well as phonon spectra to examine the structural stability. Each path is found to further split into two branches under tensile strain–low buckled and high buckled structures, which respectively lead to a low and high buckled monolayer structure. Most promising new layered or planar structures identified include BeO, GaN, and ZnO on the tensile strain side, Ge, Si, and GaP on the compressive strain side.

  2. Topologic connection between 2-D layered structures and 3-D diamond structures for conventional semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    When coming to identify new 2D materials, our intuition would suggest us to look from layered instead of 3D materials. However, since graphite can be hypothetically derived from diamond by stretching it along its [111] axis, many 3D materials can also potentially be explored as new candidates for 2D materials. Using a density functional theory, we perform a systematic study over the common Group IV, III-V, and II-VI semiconductors along different deformation paths to reveal new structures that are topologically connected to but distinctly different from the 3D parent structure. Specifically, we explore two major phase transition paths, originating respectively from wurtzite and NiAs structure, by applying compressive and tensile strain along the symmetry axis, and calculating the total energy changes to search for potential metastable states, as well as phonon spectra to examine the structural stability. Each path is found to further split into two branches under tensile strain-low buckled and high buckled structures, which respectively lead to a low and high buckled monolayer structure. Most promising new layered or planar structures identified include BeO, GaN, and ZnO on the tensile strain side, Ge, Si, and GaP on the compressive strain side. PMID:27090430

  3. Growth of micro- and nanocrystalline dual layer composite diamond films by microwave plasma CVD: Influence of CO2 concentration on growth of nano-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cong; Wang, Jian-Hua; Weng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The high quality and smooth micro-and nanocrystalline dual layer composite diamond films were successfully prepared using H2/CH4/Ar/CO2 plasma with a synthesis process of nucleation/MCD growth/nucleation/NCD growth. The carbon dioxide content is demonstrated to be important in controlling the NCD layer grain size and growth rate. The influences of carbon dioxide concentration on the morphology, microstructure and growth rate of the deposited NCD layer are investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the additional carbonaceous sources supplied by CO2 are favourable to increase the growth rate, and meanwhile, the oxygen related species generated would enhance the etching effect not only to eliminate the non-diamond phase of NCD but also to decrease the growth rate. The appropriate addition of CO2 can increase the high quality and growth rate, decrease the surface roughness. It is demonstrated that adding CO2 strongly affects the contents of various reaction species in plasma, which would determine the growth features of NCD layers. The deposited highly smooth and quality micro-/nano-crystal layered diamond film is also expected to be applicable in surface aroustic wave (SAW) devices and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

  4. Three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of diamond chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, W. J.; May, P. W.; Allan, N. L.; Harvey, J. N.

    2015-06-01

    A three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo model has been developed to simulate the chemical vapor deposition of a diamond (100) surface under conditions used to grow single-crystal diamond (SCD), microcrystalline diamond (MCD), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films. The model includes adsorption of CHx (x = 0, 3) species, insertion of CHy (y = 0-2) into surface dimer bonds, etching/desorption of both transient adsorbed species and lattice sidewalls, lattice incorporation, and surface migration but not defect formation or renucleation processes. A value of ˜200 kJ mol-1 for the activation Gibbs energy, ΔG‡etch, for etching an adsorbed CHx species reproduces the experimental growth rate accurately. SCD and MCD growths are dominated by migration and step-edge growth, whereas in NCD and UNCD growths, migration is less and species nucleate where they land. Etching of species from the lattice sidewalls has been modelled as a function of geometry and the number of bonded neighbors of each species. Choice of appropriate parameters for the relative decrease in etch rate as a function of number of neighbors allows flat-bottomed etch pits and/or sharp-pointed etch pits to be simulated, which resemble those seen when etching diamond in H2 or O2 atmospheres. Simulation of surface defects using unetchable, immobile species reproduces other observed growth phenomena, such as needles and hillocks. The critical nucleus for new layer growth is 2 adjacent surface carbons, irrespective of the growth regime. We conclude that twinning and formation of multiple grains rather than pristine single-crystals may be a result of misoriented growth islands merging, with each island forming a grain, rather than renucleation caused by an adsorbing defect species.

  5. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: From technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcheulov, P.; Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J.; Taylor, A.; Fekete, L.; Fendrych, F.; Vega, R.; Shao, L.; Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S.; Cháb, V.; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, K.; Klimša, L.; Kopeček, J.; Sajdl, P.; Macák, J.; Johnson, S.; Kratochvílová, I.

    2015-12-01

    Zirconium alloys can be effectively protected against corrosion by polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layers grown in microwave plasma enhanced linear antenna chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Standard and hot steam oxidized PCD layers grown on Zircaloy2 surfaces were examined and the specific impact of polycrystalline Zr substrate surface on PCD layer properties was investigated. It was found that the presence of the PCD coating blocks hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface and protects Zircaloy2 material from degradation. PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy2 can significantly prolong life of Zircaloy2 material in nuclear reactors even at temperatures above Zr phase transition temperatures.

  6. Characterization of tribo-layer formed during sliding wear of SiC ball against nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dumpala, Ravikumar; Kumar, N.; Samji, Sunil Kumar; Dash, S.; Ramamoorthy, B.; Ramachandra Rao, M.S.

    2014-09-15

    Tribo-layer formation and frictional characteristics of the SiC ball were studied with the sliding test against nanocrystalline diamond coating under atmospheric test conditions. Unsteady friction coefficients in the range of 0.04 to 0.1 were observed during the tribo-test. Friction and wear characteristics were found to be influenced by the formation of cohesive tribo-layer (thickness ∼ 1.3 μm) in the wear track of nanocrystalline diamond coating. Hardness of the tribo-layer was measured using nanoindentation technique and low hardness of ∼ 1.2 GPa was observed. The presence of silicon and oxygen in the tribo-layer was noticed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping and the chemical states of the silicon were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Large amount of oxygen content in the tribo-layer indicated tribo-oxidation wear mechanism. - Highlights: • Sliding wear and friction characteristics of SiC were studied against NCD coating. • Silicon oxide tribo-layer formation was observed in the NCD coating wear track. • Low hardness 1.2 GPa of tribo-layer was measured using nanoindentation technique. • Chemical states of silicon were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. Quartz Crystal Micro-Balance Gas Sensor with Ink-Jet Printed Nano-Diamond Sensitive Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulha, Pavel; Kroutil, Jiří; Laposa, Alexandr; Procházka, Václav; Husák, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    the paper presents fabrication and characterization of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance based gas sensor with a diamond powder sensitive layer deposited using the ink-jet printing technique. The sensor was exposed to a low concentration of ammonia, acetone vapors and different levels of humidity. Impedance characteristics close to the natural resonant frequency of 10 MHz were examined. The sensor exhibits significant shifts in serial resonant frequency under different gas environments.

  8. Diamond cutters' grinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, B. F.

    1985-03-01

    The development of diamond tool designs is determined by the development of the technology for the synthesis of artificial diamonds. The technology of syntehsizing artificial diamonds involves the production of mono and polycrystalline diamonds and composition diamond-containing materials. High strength and thermally stable monocrystalline diamonds brands AS30 to AS80 in a size of up to 800 micrometers, and polycrystalline diamonds: black diamonds, ballas (Synthetic Fiber) in a size up to 10mm, are manufactured. Production of single-layer and double-layer diamond plates used in cutting tools is organized. The raw materials base with the constant decrease in the use of natural diamonds is the basis for the development of the manufacture of a wide array of diamond tools. New areas of applications for tools using natural diamonds, such as diamond cutters for turning high-precision parts, straightening tools, hardness gages are outlined. Diamond cutters with natural diamonds are used to grind surfaces which have exceptionally high requirements with respect to the reflecting capacity and roughness.

  9. Single-crystal GaN/AlN layers on CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrykin, O. I.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Drozdov, M. N.; Yunin, P. A.; Shashkin, V. I.; Bogdanov, S. A.; Muchnikov, A. B.; Vikharev, A. L.; Radishev, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    Original approach to fabricating a GaN/AlN/nanocrystalline diamond structure has been suggested and implemented. The stages of deposition of a structure of this kind include the following: (a) growth of nanocrystalline CVD-diamond on single-crystal AlN (preliminarily grown on a silicon substrate), (b) etch removal of the silicon substrate, and (c) growth of single-crystal GaN on the surface of single-crystal AlN. Single-crystal gallium nitride with a width of the X-ray rocking curve for the (0002) reflection of 0.35° was obtained on a nanocrystalline-diamond substrate.

  10. Transition layers between CVD diamond films and substrates of strong carbide-forming elements: vanadium, chromium, zirconium, and hafnium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiang-Liu; Zhang, Fang-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Chen, Guang-Hua

    1992-11-01

    Among the strong carbide forming elements, ten of them have melting points above 1400 degrees Centigrade. The observed transition layers between CVD diamond films and the substrates of Mo, Si, W, Ta, Nb, and Ti have been reported previously. In this paper, further research results on transition layers for the substrate elements of V, Cr, Zr, and Hf are presented. The specimens are prepared in an arc discharge plasma CVD system with the substrate temperature of 900 - 1000 degrees Centigrade and characterized by a high resolution X-ray diffusion diffraction instrument. the experimental results show that the transition layers are polycrystalline VC and V2C, Cr7C3 and HfC for the substrates of V, Cr, and Hf respectively. For the transition layers between CVD diamond films and Zr substrates, the composition of polycrystalline ZrH, ZrC, and their complex compound are verified and the content of hydride is comparable to the content of carbide in this case.

  11. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P.

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  12. Sputtered tungsten-based ternary and quaternary layers for nanocrystalline diamond deposition.

    PubMed

    Walock, Michael J; Rahil, Issam; Zou, Yujiao; Imhoff, Luc; Catledge, Shane A; Nouveau, Corinne; Stanishevsky, Andrei V

    2012-06-01

    Many of today's demanding applications require thin-film coatings with high hardness, toughness, and thermal stability. In many cases, coating thickness in the range 2-20 microm and low surface roughness are required. Diamond films meet many of the stated requirements, but their crystalline nature leads to a high surface roughness. Nanocrystalline diamond offers a smoother surface, but significant surface modification of the substrate is necessary for successful nanocrystalline diamond deposition and adhesion. A hybrid hard and tough material may be required for either the desired applications, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond film growth. One possibility is a composite system based on carbides or nitrides. Many binary carbides and nitrides offer one or more mentioned properties. By combining these binary compounds in a ternary or quaternary nanocrystalline system, we can tailor the material for a desired combination of properties. Here, we describe the results on the structural and mechanical properties of the coating systems composed of tungsten-chromium-carbide and/or nitride. These WC-Cr-(N) coatings are deposited using magnetron sputtering. The growth of adherent nanocrystalline diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated on these coatings. The WC-Cr-(N) and WC-Cr-(N)-NCD coatings are characterized with atomic force microscopy and SEM, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation. PMID:22905536

  13. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that crystallographic perfection continuously improved, leading to a diamond surface nearly free of stress.

  14. The Cooling History of Layered Glassy Impactites (Tagamites): Influence Upon Preservation of Impact Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valter, A. A.; Dobraynskii, Yu. P.

    2002-03-01

    The cooling down dynamics was calculated for the rock mass of essentially glassy tagamites from the Boltysh Astrobleme on the Ukrainian Shield and for the body of diamond-bearing tagamites of the Popigai Astrobleme in the north of West Siberia.

  15. Photochromism-induced amplification of critical current density in superconducting boron-doped diamond with an azobenzene molecular layer.

    PubMed

    Natsui, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi; Akahori, Miku; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-14

    A key issue in molecular electronics is the control of electronic states by optical stimuli, which enables fast and high-density data storage and temporal-spatial control over molecular processes. In this article, we report preparation of a photoswitchable superconductor using a heavily boron-doped diamond (BDD) with a photochromic azobenzene (AZ) molecular layer. BDDs electrode properties allow for electrochemical immobilization, followed by copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (a "click" reaction). Superconducting properties were examined with magnetic and electrical transport measurements, such as field-dependent isothermal magnetization, temperature-dependent resistance, and the low-temperature voltage-current response. These measurements revealed reversible amplification of the critical current density by 55% upon photoisomerization. This effect is explained as the reversible photoisomerization of AZ inducing an inhomogeneous electron distribution along the BDD surface that renormalizes the surface pinning contribution to the critical current. PMID:25494096

  16. Direct electrochemistry of Shewanella loihica PV-4 on gold nanoparticles-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes fabricated by layer-by-layer technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenguo; Xie, Ronggang; Bai, Linling; Tang, Zuming; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-05-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are robust devices capable of taping biological energy, converting pollutants into electricity through renewable biomass. The fabrication of nanostructured electrodes with good bio- and electrochemical activity, play a profound role in promoting power generation of MFCs. Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)-modified Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) electrodes are fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique and used for the direct electrochemistry of Shewanella loihica PV-4 in an electrochemical cell. Experimental results show that the peak current densities generated on the Au/PAH multilayer-modified BDD electrodes increased from 1.25 to 2.93 microA/cm(-2) as the layer increased from 0 to 6. Different cell morphologies of S. loihica PV-4 were also observed on the electrodes and the highest density of cells was attached on the (Au/PAH)6/BDD electrode with well-formed three-dimensional nanostructure. The electrochemistry of S. loihica PV-4 was enhanced on the (Au/PAH)4/BDD electrode due to the appropriate amount of AuNPsand thickness of PAH layer. PMID:22852323

  17. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  18. Enhanced actuation of nanocrystalline diamond microelectromechanical disk resonators with AlN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Taro; Reusch, Markus; Holc, Katarzyna; Iankov, Dimitre; Zuerbig, Verena; Zukauskaite, Agne; Nebel, Christoph E.; Ambacher, Oliver; Lebedev, Vadim

    2016-04-01

    A great potential of the use of aluminum nitride (AlN) to enhance the actuation of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) microelectromechanical system disk resonators is revealed. A disk resonator with a unimorph (AlN/NCD) structure is fabricated by depositing a c-axis oriented AlN on a capacitive NCD disk resonator. The unimorph resonator is piezoelectrically actuated with flexural whispering gallery modes with a relatively large electrode gap spacing, i.e., the spacing which is greater than 1 μm, although this is not possible for the capacitive NCD disk resonator. This result is explained by a finite element method simulation where the piezoelectric actuation turns out to be more effective than the capacitive actuation when the electrode gap spacing is >0.8 μm. The simulation also shows that the electrode gap spacing required for the capacitive actuation to be more effective than the piezoelectric actuation exponentially decreases when the resonator dimension is scaled down for higher frequency operations. Our study indicates that the use of AlN is promising to decrease impedance levels of NCD disk resonators especially for their higher frequency operations.

  19. Microstructural evolution of diamond growth during HFCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to study the nucleation and growth mechanism of diamond by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process. A novel technique has shown a direct evidence for the formation of the diamond-like carbon layer 8-14 nm thick in which small diamond micro-crystallites were embedded. These diamond micro-crystallites were formed as a result of transformation of diamond-like carbon into diamond. The diamond micro-crystallites present in the amorphous diamond-like carbon layer provided nucleation sites for diamond growth. Large diamond crystallites were observed to grow from these micro-crystallites. The mechanism of diamond growth will be presented based on experimental findings.

  20. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  1. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  2. Ohmic contact properties of p-type surface conductive layer on H-terminated diamond films prepared by DC arc jet CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-long; Li, Cheng-ming; Zhu, Rui-hua; Chen, Liang-xian; Wang, Jing-jing; Feng, Zhi-hong

    2013-08-01

    With the advantages of high deposition rate and large deposition area, polycrystalline diamond films prepared by direct current (DC) arc jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are considered to be one of the most promising materials for high-frequency and high-power electronic devices. In this paper, high-quality self-standing polycrystalline diamond films with the diameter of 100 mm were prepared by DC arc jet CVD, and then, the p-type surface conductive layer with the sheet carrier density of 1011-1013 cm-2 on the H-terminated diamond film was obtained by micro-wave hydrogen plasma treatment for 40 min. Ti/Au and Au films were deposited on the H-terminated diamond surface as the ohmic contact electrode, respectively, afterwards, they were treated by rapid vacuum annealing at different temperatures. The properties of these two types of ohmic contacts were investigated by measuring the specific contact resistance using the transmission line method (TLM). Due to the formation of Ti-related carbide at high temperature, the specific contact resistance of Ti/Au contact gradually decreases to 9.95 × 10-5 Ω·cm2 as the temperature increases to 820°C. However, when the annealing temperature reaches 850°C, the ohmic contact for Ti/Au is degraded significantly due to the strong diffusion and reaction between Ti and Au. As for the as-deposited Au contact, it shows an ohmic contact. After annealing treatment at 550°C, low specific contact resistance was detected for Au contact, which is derived from the enhancement of interdiffusion between Au and diamond films.

  3. Estimating the magnetic moment of microscopic magnetic sources from their magnetic field distribution in a layer of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, Janis; Berzins, Andris; Gahbauer, Florian H.; Ferber, Ruvin; Erglis, Kaspars; Cebers, Andrejs; Prikulis, Juris

    2016-02-01

    We have used a synthetic diamond with a layer of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres to image the magnetic field distributions of magnetic particles on the surface of the diamond. Magnetic field distributions of 4 µm and 2 µm ferromagnetic and 500 nm diameter superparamagnetic particles were obtained by measuring the position of the optically detected magnetic resonance peak in the fluorescence emitted by the NV centres for each pixel. We fitted the results to a model in order to determine the magnetic moment of the particles from the magnetic field image and compared the results to the measured magnetic moment of the particles. The best-fit magnetic moment differed from the value expected based on measurements by a vibrating sample magnetometer, which implies that further work is necessary to understand the details of magnetic field measurements on the micro scale. However, the measurements of two different types of ferromagnetic particle gave internally consistent results.

  4. On Interlayer Stability and High-Cycle Simulator Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Layers for Articulating Joint Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Thorwarth, Kerstin; Thorwarth, Götz; Figi, Renato; Weisse, Bernhard; Stiefel, Michael; Hauert, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and −3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic. PMID:24921709

  5. Formation of Graphene-on-Diamond Structure by Graphitization of Atomically Flat Diamond (111) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Norio; Fukui, Makoto; Makino, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamsaki, Satoshi; Inokuma, Takao

    2013-11-01

    We succeeded in the formation of a graphene-on-diamond (GOD) structure by the graphitization of a diamond (111) surface. Before the graphitization, atomically flat diamond (111) surfaces were formed by homoepitaxial lateral growth. The graphene layers, which were formed on the atomically flat diamond (111) surfaces horizontally, were observed by cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Update on diamond and diamond-like carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettington, Alan H.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviewed the infrared uses of diamond-like carbon thin films and the potential uses of synthetic diamond layers. Diamond-like carbon is used widely as a protective anti-reflection coating for exposed germanium infrared windows and lenses and as thin protective coatings for front surface aluminium mirrors. This material is also used in protective anti-reflective coatings for zinc sulphide as the outer thin film in multi-layer designs incorporating variable index intermediate layers of germanium carbide. The maximum thickness of diamond-like carbon that can be used is often limited by the stress induced in the layer through the method of deposition and by the absorption present in the basic material. This stress and absorption can be far lower in synthetic diamond layers but there are now problems associated with the high substrate temperatures, difficulties in coating large areas uniformly and problems arising from surface scattering and low deposition rates.

  7. Method and article of manufacture corresponding to a composite comprised of ultra nonacrystalline diamond, metal, and other nanocarbons useful for thermoelectric and other applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2010-05-18

    One provides (101) disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered crystallites that are each sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then reacts (102) these crystallites with a metallic component. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also substantially preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material. The reaction process can comprise combining (201) the crystallites with one or more metal salts in an aqueous solution and then heating (203) that aqueous solution to remove the water. This heating can occur in a reducing atmosphere (comprising, for example, hydrogen and/or methane) to also reduce the salt to metal.

  8. Nanocrystalline Diamond Films for Biosensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Cyril; Kulisch, Wilhelm

    Diamond is a material with quite a number of excellent properties, like extreme hardness, high elastic modulus, high wear resistance, optical transparency in a broad spectral range, resistivity controllable by the level of dopants, etc. which make it a promising candidate for different sensor applications, e.g. for X-ray detection. Due to its outstanding electrochemical properties, superior chemical inertness and biocompatibility, artificially grown diamond has been recognised as an extremely attractive material for both (bio-)chemical sensing and as an interface to biological systems. This holds for all forms of diamond: monocrystalline (natural or artificial) and poly- (PCD), nano- (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline (UNCD) films. This paper is devoted to possible biosensor application of NCD and UNCD films. The first part will briefly introduce UNCD films (composed of diamond nanocrystallites of 3-5 nm diameter embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix with a grain boundary thickness of 1.0-1.5 nm), their deposition by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition, their growth mechanisms and the characterization of their bulk properties, comparing them with other types of diamond films. The second part deals with surface modifications of UNCD films, which is the first step towards preparation of a biosensor, including different plasma and chemical processes, the thorough characterization of the resulting surfaces by a variety of techniques (AFM, XPS, ToF-SIMS, contact angle measurements, etc.) and the possibility to pattern the surface properties. The third part will describe possible pathways for the immobilization of biomolecules (proteins, DNA) on UNCD surfaces and the techniques for the characterization of this step, including force measurements, AFM and spectroscopic analyses. In the final part, different examples of biosensors based on UNCD as well as on NCD will be demonstrated in order to reveal the potential of diamond (films) in this field.

  9. Nanofabrication of sharp diamond tips by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching.

    SciTech Connect

    Moldovan, N.; Divan, R.; Zeng, H.; Carlisle, J. A.; Advanced Diamond Tech.

    2009-12-07

    Ultrasharp diamond tips make excellent atomic force microscopy probes, field emitters, and abrasive articles due to diamond's outstanding physical properties, i.e., hardness, low friction coefficient, low work function, and toughness. Sharp diamond tips are currently fabricated as individual tips or arrays by three principal methods: (1) focused ion beam milling and gluing onto a cantilever of individual diamond tips, (2) coating silicon tips with diamond films, or (3) molding diamond into grooves etched in a sacrificial substrate, bonding the sacrificial substrate to another substrate or electrodepositing of a handling chip, followed by dissolution of the sacrificial substrate. The first method is tedious and serial in nature but does produce very sharp tips, the second method results in tips whose radius is limited by the thickness of the diamond coating, while the third method involves a costly bonding and release process and difficulties in thoroughly filling the high aspect ratio apex of molding grooves with diamond at the nanoscale. To overcome the difficulties with these existing methods, this article reports on the feasibility of the fabrication of sharp diamond tips by direct etching of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{reg_sign}) as a starting and structural material. The UNCD is reactive ion etched using a cap-precursor-mask scheme. An optimized etching recipe demonstrates the formation of ultrasharp diamond tips ({approx} 10 nm tip radius) with etch rates of 650 nm/min.

  10. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H2O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The Al2O3 film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H2O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D2O instead of H2O in the ALD and found that the Al2O3 film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH3 groups than the high-temperature film. This CH3 is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H2O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H2O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D2O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D2O-grown Al2O3 films are smaller than those of H2O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al2O3 films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of the aforementioned new isotope effect will be a basis for further enhancing ALD technologies in general.

  11. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  12. Diamond photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Greentree, Andrew D.; Prawer, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Diamond, a material marvelled for its strength, beauty and perfection, was first used to polish stone axes in Neolithic times. This most ancient of materials is now being touted by many as the ideal platform for quantum-age technologies. In this Review, we describe how the properties of diamond match the requirements of the 'second quantum revolution'. We also discuss recent progress in the development of diamond -- and particularly diamond colour centres -- for transforming quantum information science into practical quantum information technology.

  13. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  14. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  15. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  16. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  17. Spacetime diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Daiqin; Ralph, T. C.

    2016-02-01

    We show that the particle-number distribution of diamond modes, modes that are localized in a finite spacetime region, are thermal for the Minkowski vacuum state of a massless scalar field, an analogue to the Unruh effect. The temperature of the diamond is inversely proportional to its size. An inertial observer can detect this thermal radiation by coupling to the diamond modes using an appropriate energy-scaled detector. We further investigate the correlations between various diamonds and find that entanglement between adjacent diamonds dominates.

  18. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film bioelectrodes: effect of thermal post-treatments and the use of Ti adhesion layer.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Tomi; Rautiainen, Antti; Sintonen, Sakari; Jiang, Hua; Kaivosoja, Emilia; Koskinen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    The effect of thermal post-treatments and the use of Ti adhesion layer on the performance of thin film diamond like carbon bioelectrodes (DLC) have been investigated in this work. The following results were obtained: (i) The microstructure of the DLC layer after the deposition was amorphous and thermal annealing had no marked effect on the structure, (ii) formation of oxygen containing SiOx and Ti[O,C] layers were detected at the Si/Ti and Ti/DLC interfaces with the help of transmission electron microscope (TEM), (iii) thermal post-treatments increased the polar fraction of the surface energy, (iv) cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed that the DLC films had wide water windows and were stable in contact with dilute sulphuric acid and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions, (v) use of Ti interlayer between Pt(Ir) microwire and DLC layer was crucial for the electrodes to survive the electrochemical measurements without the loss of adhesion of the DLC layer, (vi) DLC electrodes with small exposed Pt areas were an order of magnitude more sensitive towards dopamine than Pt electrodes and (vii) thermal post-treatments did not markedly change the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes despite the significant increase in the polar nature of the surfaces. It can be concluded that thin DLC bioelectrodes are stable under physiological conditions and can detect dopamine in micro molar range, but their sensitivity must be further improved. PMID:24268281

  19. Formation of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles in the surface layer of a silicon target during short-pulse carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remnev, G. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Naiden, E. P.; Saltymakov, M. S.; Stepanov, A. V.; Shtan'ko, V. F.

    2009-04-01

    Synthesis of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles is studied during short-pulse implantation of carbon ions and protons into a silicon target. The experiments are carried out using a TEMP source of pulsed powerful ion beams based on a magnetically insulated diode with radial magnetic field B r . The beam parameters are as follows: the ion energy is 300 keV, the pulse duration is 80 ns, the beam consists of carbon ions and protons, and the ion current density is 30 A/cm2. Single-crystal silicon wafers serve as a target. SiC nanoparticles and nanodiamonds form in the surface layer of silicon subjected to more than 100 pulses. The average coherent domain sizes in the SiC particles and nanodiamonds are 12-16 and 8-9 nm, respectively.

  20. Process for buried metallization in diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, M.L.; Ting, J.; Lagounov, A.; Tang, C.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate methods of combining chemical vapor deposition diamond growth techniques with state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition or ion beam enhanced deposition to produce buried metallization of polycrystalline diamond films. The mechanical and electrical integrity of both the insulating and conducting elements following metallization and diamond overgrowth was shown. Both methods were shown to have bonding strength sufficient to withstand tape lift-off, which is regarded to be a good indication of strength needed for die attachment and wire bonding. Diamond overgrowth was also shown, thus enabling buried metallized layers to be created. Electrical resistivity property measurements on metallized layers and between metallization separated by diamond films were shown to be sufficient to allow the use of diamond as an insulating inter-layer material for multi-layer circuit boards. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Diamond detector - material science, design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaowei, Mengjia

    Modern synchrotrons, such as the NSLS-II, will enable unprecedented science by having extremely high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. These capabilities create a harsh and demanding environment for measuring the characteristics of the x-ray beam. In many cases, existing measurement techniques fail completely, requiring the development of new detectors which can meet the demands of the synchrotron. The combination of diamond properties ranked diamond an appealing candidate in the field of radiation detection in extreme conditions and it has been used as x-ray sensor material for decades. However, only until the development of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the synthesis of diamond that has it been considered for wider applications in the state-of-art synchrotron light sources as part of beamline diagnostics, including the detection of x-ray beam flux and position. While defects and dislocations in CVD grown single crystal diamonds are inevitable, there are solutions in other aspects of a device fabrication to compensate this technological downside, including improving device performance in engineering diamond surface electrode materials and patterns and slicing and polishing diamond plates into thinner pieces. The content of this dissertation summarizes our effort in addressing several problems we encounter in the process of design and fabrication of single crystal CVD diamond based electronic devices. In order to study the generation of post-anneal photoconductive gain in our devices we have discussed in section 3 and 4 the two criteria for the observation of photoconductive current. In section 3 we reveal the correlation between structural defects in diamond and the post-anneal photoconductive regions. Section 4 introduces the measurements of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) we applied to investigate the diamond-metal Schottky barrier height for several metals and diamond surface terminations. The position of the diamond valence-band maximum was determined by theoretically calculating the diamond density of states and applying cross section corrections. The diamond-platinum Schottky barrier height was lowered by 0.2 eV after thermal annealing, indicating annealing may increase carrier injection in diamond devices leading to photoconductive gain. In order to adapt our device to soft x-ray applications, efforts are made to develop a thin diamond position monitor for lowering device absorption. In section 5 we have discussed the fabrication and testing of thin diamond x-ray monitors made from diamond plates with nominal thickness of 30microm, which is 1/10th of the thickness of the diamonds we previously used. Calibration results of this detector are presented and discussed in comparison with thicker diamond sensors. Section 6 introduces our effort on the investigation of carrier loss mechanism in diamond detectors. Near edge responsivity in diamond x-ray detectors has been used to confirm the carrier loss mechanism as recombination due to diffusion into the incident electrode. We present a detailed study of the bias dependence of the diamond responsivity across the carbon k-edge. The carrier loss is modeled by incorporating a characteristic recombination length into the absorption model and is shown to agree well with Monte Carlo simulated carrier losses. In addition, nitrogen doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (nUNCD) grown on the surface of a CVD single crystal diamond as an alternative contact to metal is tested in the similar measurements as the metal contact diamond. nUNCD has a much lower x-ray absorption than metal contacts and is designed to improve the performance of our device. This diamond is calibrated over a wide photon energy range from 0.2 keV to 28 keV, and compared with platinum coated diamond. Results of these studies will be presented and discussed in section 7. Future work has been proposed in the last section in improving the design and fabrication of diamond based electronics as well as in the investigation to enhance our understanding of its material and device physics.

  2. Diamond Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isberg, J.

    2010-11-01

    For high-power and high-voltage applications, silicon is by far the dominant semiconductor material. However, silicon has many limitations, e.g. a relatively low thermal conductivity, electric breakdown occurs at relatively low fields and the bandgap is 1.1 eV which effectively limits operation to temperatures below 175° C. Wide-bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and power handling limitations of silicon. Diamond is the most extreme in this class of materials. By the fundamental material properties alone, diamond offers the largest benefits as a semiconductor material for power electronic applications. On the other hand, diamond has a problem with a large carrier activation energy of available dopants which necessitates specialised device concepts to allow room temperature (RT) operation. In addition, the role of common defects on the charge transport properties of diamond is poorly understood. Notwithstanding this, many proof-of-principle two-terminal and three-terminal devices have been made and tested. Two-terminal electronic diamond devices described in the literature include: p-n diodes, p-i-n diodes, various types of radiation detectors, Schottky diodes and photoconductive or electron beam triggered switches. Three terminal devices include e.g. MISFETs and JFETs. However, the development of diamond devices poses great challenges for the future. A particularly interesting way to overcome the doping problem, for which there has been some recent progress, is to make so-called delta doped (or pulse-doped) devices. Such devices utilise very thin (˜1 nm) doped layers in order to achieve high RT activation.

  3. Diamond pixel modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rd42 Collaboration; Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Boer, W.; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Furgeri, A.; Gan, K. K.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hits, D.; Hügging, F.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lagomarsino, S.; La Rosa, A.; Lo Giudice, A.; Mandic, I.; Manfredotti, C.; Manfredotti, C.; Martemyanov, A.; Mathes, M.; Menichelli, D.; Mikuž, M.; Mishina, M.; Moss, J.; Mueller, S.; Oakham, G.; Olivero, P.; Parrini, G.; Pernegger, H.; Potenza, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Robichaud, A.; Roe, S.; Schaffner, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Schreiner, T.; Sciortino, S.; Smith, S.; Sopko, B.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tuve, C.; Velthuis, J.; Vittone, E.; Wallny, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; RD42 Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8×1016 protons/cm2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  4. Mechanisms of suppressing secondary nucleation for low-power and low-temperature microwave plasma self-bias-enhanced growth of diamond films in argon diluted methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ji-heng; Tzeng, Yonhua

    2011-12-01

    We report on mechanisms for suppressing diamond secondary nucleation in microwave plasma self-bias-enhanced growth (SBEG) of diamond films in methane diluted by argon. High-density plasma at a small distance from the substrate induces a floating potential which promotes high-flux, low-energy ion bombardment on diamond growing surfaces along with an equal flux of electrons. Increased atomic hydrogen generated by electron impact dissociation of methane and low-energy ion bombardment help remove hydrocarbon coatings on diamond grains in favor of continuous grain growth and, therefore, the suppression of secondary diamond nucleation. Energetic meta-stable excited argon, abundant C2 dimers, and enhanced effective surface temperature due to low-energy ion bombardment further promote the diamond grain growth resulting in the deposition of a diamond film with columnar diamond grains of much larger grain sizes and a much lower density of grain boundaries than ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films grown under similar conditions without optimized plasma-substrate interactions. SEM, XRD, PL, and Raman scattering help confirm the deposition of diamond films with columnar grains.

  5. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 648 million carats in 2006, with 79 percent of the production coming from Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa, and the U.S. U.S. consumption was was an estimated 602 million carats, imports were over 391 million carats, and exports were about 83 million carats. About 87 percent of the industrial diamonds market uses synthetic diamonds, which are expected to become less expensive as technology improves and competition from low-cost producers increases.

  6. High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Daicho, Akira Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi

    2014-06-14

    Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450 °C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition by ALD with H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500 °C by the passivation with thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film thicker than 38 nm deposited by ALD at 450 °C. After the annealing at 550 °C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films formed from 200 to 400 °C by air annealing at 550 °C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450 °C deposition. Thus, this 450 °C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

  7. Shock consolidation of diamond and graphite mixtures to fused polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, David K.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1988-02-01

    The production of fused compacts of polycrystalline diamond was achieved by subjecting porous (35%-49% porosity) mixtures of diamond crystals plus graphite (13-16 wt. %) to dynamic shock pressures of 10-18 GPa. The recovered material from an initial mixture of 4-8-μm diamond crystals plus graphite revealed a very homogeneous texture with little evidence of original grain boundaries. The preconsolidation addition of graphite also allowed ultrafine (<5 μm) diamond crystals to be consolidated; this was not previously possible with the use of diamond crystals alone. The results are consistent with calculations which suggest that a thin layer of graphite surrounding a diamond crystal delays thermal equilibrium between the surface and interior of the diamond crystal, thus allowing greater surface heating. Consolidation is also probably enhanced by conversion of graphite to diamond, possibly via the liquid state.

  8. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  9. Diamond nanophotonics

    PubMed Central

    Beha, Katja; Wolfer, Marco; Becker, Merle C; Siyushev, Petr; Jamali, Mohammad; Batalov, Anton; Hinz, Christopher; Hees, Jakob; Kirste, Lutz; Obloh, Harald; Gheeraert, Etienne; Naydenov, Boris; Jakobi, Ingmar; Dolde, Florian; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Twittchen, Daniel; Markham, Matthew; Dregely, Daniel; Giessen, Harald; Meijer, Jan; Jelezko, Fedor; Nebel, Christoph E; Bratschitsch, Rudolf; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Summary We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition. PMID:23365803

  10. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time. PMID:25173323

  11. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  12. Nanocrystalline diamond for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitura, Stanislaw

    1997-06-01

    The unique properties of thin amorphous diamond layers make them perspective candidates for producing advanced micro- electronic devices, coatings for cutting tools and optics. Moreover, due to the highest bicompatibility of carbon resulting from the presence of this element in human body, it appears to be a potential biomaterial. Until present the amorphous diamond has found industrial applications in some areas. One of the applications of the carbon layers are coatings for medical implants. The studies of carbon films as coatings for implants in surgery were aimed on the investigations of biological resistance of implants, histopathological investigations on laboratory animals, tests of corrosion resistance, measurements of mechanical properties and a breakdown test in Tyrod solution. The current state of published work in the subject is reviewed in the paper together with a discussion concerning classification of this material.

  13. Advanced Diamond Anvil Techniques (Customized Diamond Anvils)

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11

    A complete set of diamond-based fabrication tools now exists for making a wide range of different types of diamond anvils which are tailored for various high-P applications. Current tools include: CVD diamond deposition (making diamond); Diamond polishing, laser drilling, plasma etching (removal of diamond); and Lithography, 3D laser pantography (patterning features onto diamond); - Metal deposition (putting electrical circuits and metal masks onto diamond). Current applications include the following: Electrical Conductivity; Magnetic Susceptibility; and High-P/High-T. Future applications may include: NMR; Hall Effect; de Haas - Shubnikov (Fermi surface topology); Calorimetry; and thermal conductivity.

  14. High-density fluids and the growth of monocrystalline diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Y.; Kiflawi, I.; Davies, N.; Navon, O.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical nature and composition of the growth medium of monocrystalline (MC) diamonds is still a matter of debate, partially because carbonate-bearing high-density fluids (HDFs) that are common in fibrous diamonds have not been found in MC diamonds. Here we report the first finding of HDF microinclusions in a MC octahedral diamond from Finsch, South Africa and in the MC octahedral core of a coated diamond from Kankan, Guinea; both diamonds carry nitrogen in B-centers. Numerous microinclusions in diamond Finsch_2a_cap1 are restricted to two thin layers parallel to the (1 1 1) face, ∼20 and 200 μm from the diamond rim. Low-Mg carbonatitic HDFs are found along the inner layer while the outer layer trapped saline compositions. The major and trace element compositions of the inclusions and their infrared spectra are highly similar to those of microinclusions found in fibrous diamonds. A few isolated microinclusions of saline compositions are scattered around a sulfide inclusion in the center of the octahedral core of diamond ON-KAN-383. This evidence for the involvement of oxidized fluids in the formation of MC diamonds adds to previous reports on the antiquity of HDFs in fibrous diamonds, the presence of carbonate and halide phases in inclusions in MC diamonds and the similarity of trace element pattern of a MC diamond to those of low-Mg carbonatitic HDF in fibrous diamonds. In addition, we show that the interaction of HDFs with depleted garnets can produce sinusoidal REE patterns which are one of the primary features of lherzolitic and harzburgitic garnet inclusions in MC diamonds. Together, these observations suggest that HDFs are involved in the formation of many types of diamonds from the Archaean to the Phanerozoic. HDFs are trapped in large quantities during rapid, fibrous growth, but must also be present during the growth of many MC diamonds.

  15. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  16. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  17. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven

    2001-01-01

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  18. Superconducting nanowire single photon detector on diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Atikian, Haig A.; Burek, Michael J.; Choy, Jennifer T.; Lončar, Marko; Eftekharian, Amin; Jafari Salim, A.; Hamed Majedi, A.

    2014-03-24

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are fabricated directly on diamond substrates and their optical and electrical properties are characterized. Dark count performance and photon count rates are measured at varying temperatures for 1310 nm and 632 nm photons. A multi-step diamond surface polishing procedure is reported, involving iterative reactive ion etching and mechanical polishing to create a suitable diamond surface for the deposition and patterning of thin film superconducting layers. Using this approach, diamond substrates with less than 300 pm Root Mean Square surface roughness are obtained.

  19. Measurement of barrier height of Pd on diamond (100) surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. N.; Liu, J. W.; Zhang, J. W.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, W.; Liu, Z. C.; Wang, H. X.

    2016-05-01

    Barrier height (ФBH) values for Pd/hydrogen-terminated diamond (H-diamond) and Pd/oxygen-terminated diamond (O-diamond) have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. H-diamond and O-diamond have been formed on the same diamond (100) layer grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,on which Pd layers have been evaporated. The ФBH values for Pd/H-diamond and Pd/O-diamond are determined to be -0.27 eV and 1.73 eV, respectively. It indicates that Pd is a suitable metal for ohmic and Schottky contacts on H-diamond and O-diamond, respectively. The experimental ΦBH values are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation results.

  20. Online, efficient and precision laser profiling of bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels based on a single-layer deep-cutting intermittent feeding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui; Chen, Genyu; He, Jie; Zhou, Cong; Du, Han; Wang, Yanyi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an online, efficient and precision laser profiling approach that is based on a single-layer deep-cutting intermittent feeding method is described. The effects of the laser cutting depth and the track-overlap ratio of the laser cutting on the efficiency, precision and quality of laser profiling were investigated. Experiments on the online profiling of bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels were performed using a pulsed fiber laser. The results demonstrate that an increase in the laser cutting depth caused an increase in the material removal efficiency during the laser profiling process. However, the maximum laser profiling efficiency was only achieved when the laser cutting depth was equivalent to the initial surface contour error of the grinding wheel. In addition, the selection of relatively high track-overlap ratios of laser cutting for the profiling of grinding wheels was beneficial with respect to the increase in the precision of laser profiling, whereas the efficiency and quality of the laser profiling were not affected by the change in the track-overlap ratio. After optimized process parameters were employed for online laser profiling, the circular run-out error and the parallelism error of the grinding wheel surface decreased from 83.1 μm and 324.6 μm to 11.3 μm and 3.5 μm, respectively. The surface contour precision of the grinding wheel significantly improved. The highest surface contour precision for grinding wheels of the same type that can be theoretically achieved after laser profiling is completely dependent on the peak power density of the laser. The higher the laser peak power density is, the higher the surface contour precision of the grinding wheel after profiling.

  1. Epitaxial growth of europium monoxide on diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, A.; Mairoser, T.; Schmehl, A.; Fischer, M.; Gsell, S.; Schreck, M.; Awschalom, D. D.; Heeg, T.; Holländer, B.; Schubert, J.; Schlom, D. G.

    2013-11-01

    We report the epitaxial integration of phase-pure EuO on both single-crystal diamond and on epitaxial diamond films grown on silicon utilizing reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The epitaxial orientation relationship is (001) EuO ‖ (001) diamond and [110] EuO ‖ [100] diamond. The EuO layer is nominally unstrained and ferromagnetic with a transition temperature of 68 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 5.5 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the single-crystal diamond, and a transition temperature of 67 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 2.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the epitaxial diamond film.

  2. Epitaxial growth of europium monoxide on diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, A.; Heeg, T.; Mairoser, T.; Schmehl, A.; Fischer, M.; Gsell, S.; Schreck, M.; Awschalom, D. D.; Holländer, B.; Schubert, J.; Schlom, D. G.; Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853

    2013-11-25

    We report the epitaxial integration of phase-pure EuO on both single-crystal diamond and on epitaxial diamond films grown on silicon utilizing reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The epitaxial orientation relationship is (001) EuO ‖ (001) diamond and [110] EuO ‖[100] diamond. The EuO layer is nominally unstrained and ferromagnetic with a transition temperature of 68 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 5.5 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the single-crystal diamond, and a transition temperature of 67 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 2.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the epitaxial diamond film.

  3. Method to grow carbon thin films consisting entirely of diamond grains 3-5 nm in size and high-energy grain boundaries

    DOEpatents

    Carlisle, John A.; Auciello, Orlando; Birrell, James

    2006-10-31

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having an average grain size between 3 and 5 nanometers (nm) with not more than about 8% by volume diamond having an average grain size larger than 10 nm. A method of manufacturing UNCD film is also disclosed in which a vapor of acetylene and hydrogen in an inert gas other than He wherein the volume ratio of acetylene to hydrogen is greater than 0.35 and less than 0.85, with the balance being an inert gas, is subjected to a suitable amount of energy to fragment at least some of the acetylene to form a UNCD film having an average grain size of 3 to 5 nm with not more than about 8% by volume diamond having an average grain size larger than 10 nm.

  4. Large-area low-temperature ultrananocrystaline diamond (UNCD) films and integration with CMOS devices for monolithically integrated diamond MEMD/NEMS-CMOS systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, A.V.; Auciello, O.; Yuan, H.-C; Ma, Z.; Carpick, R. W.; Mancini, D. C.; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-05-01

    Because of exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties, diamond has a great potential to be used as a material for the development of high-performance MEMS and NEMS such as resonators and switches compatible with harsh environments, which involve mechanical motion and intermittent contact. Integration of such MEMS/NEMS devices with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectronics will provide a unique platform for CMOS-driven commercial MEMS/NEMS. The main hurdle to achieve diamond-CMOS integration is the relatively high substrate temperatures (600-800 C) required for depositing conventional diamond thin films, which are well above the CMOS operating thermal budget (400 C). Additionally, a materials integration strategy has to be developed to enable diamond-CMOS integration. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), a novel material developed in thin film form at Argonne, is currently the only microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) grown diamond film that can be grown at 400 C, and still retain exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties comparable to that of single crystal diamond. We have developed a process based on MPCVD to synthesize UNCD films on up to 200 mm in diameter CMOS wafers, which will open new avenues for the fabrication of monolithically integrated CMOS-driven MEMS/NEMS based on UNCD. UNCD films were grown successfully on individual Si-based CMOS chips and on 200 mm CMOS wafers at 400 C in a MPCVD system, using Ar-rich/CH4 gas mixture. The CMOS devices on the wafers were characterized before and after UNCD deposition. All devices were performing to specifications with very small degradation after UNCD deposition and processing. A threshold voltage degradation in the range of 0.08-0.44V and transconductance degradation in the range of 1.5-9% were observed.

  5. Microstructural Evolution of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films Due to CH4/Ar/H2 Plasma Post-Treatment Process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Chang; Yeh, Chien-Jui; Manoharan, Divinah; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan

    2015-10-01

    Plasma post-treatment process was observed to markedly enhance the electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films. TEM examinations reveal that the prime factor which improves the EFE properties of these films is the coalescence of ultrasmall diamond grains (∼5 nm) forming large diamond grains about hundreds of nanometers accompanied by the formation of nanographitic clusters along the grain boundaries due to the plasma post-treatment process. OES studies reveal the presence of large proportion of atomic hydrogen and C2 (or CH) species, which are the main ingredients that altered the granular structure of the UNCD films. In the post-treatment process, the plasma interacts with the diamond films by a diffusion process. The recrystallization of diamond grains started at the surface region of the material, and the interaction zone increased with the post-treatment period. The entire diamond film can be converted into a nanocrystalline granular structure when post-treated for a sufficient length of time. PMID:26372852

  6. Diamond Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On April 24, a group traveling with Diamond Tours visited StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The trip marked Diamond Tours' return to StenniSphere since Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29, 2005. About 25 business professionals from Georgia enjoyed the day's tour of America's largest rocket engine test complex, along with the many displays and exhibits at the museum. Before Hurricane Katrina, the nationwide company brought more than 1,000 visitors to StenniSphere each month. That contributed to more than 100,000 visitors from around the world touring the space center each year. In past years StenniSphere's visitor relations specialists booked Diamond Tours two or three times a week, averaging 40 to 50 people per visit. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars. For more information or to book a tour, visit http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/home/index.html and click on the StenniSphere logo; or call 800-237-1821 or 228-688-2370.

  7. Diamond formation on platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Stephen J.; Belton, David N.; Weiner, Anita M.; Schmieg, Steven J.

    1989-12-01

    We have made in situ mass spectral measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements at the surface of a diamond film growing on a platinum substrate. We measured the concentrations of CH4, C2H4, and C2H2 and detected additional species with from three to ten carbon atoms. The gas-phase chemical kinetics controlling the concentrations of the C1 and C2 species was modeled, and agreement between the calculated and measured concentrations was good. The presence or absence of the platinum foil had no effect on the measured concentrations, showing that heterogeneous chemistry on platinum did not affect the gas-phase environment. XPS spectra were taken during the course of the diamond growth without exposing the platinum foil to air. After exposure to a room-temperature CH4/H2 mixture but before any growth, the platinum surface was mostly covered with graphitic carbon. Once growth was initiated the graphitic layer was gradually replaced by 1-3 monolayers of hydrocarbon material, which did not thicken with time. Finally, the hydrocarbons were replaced or covered by a diamond film. CO titration experiments demonstrated that practically no active platinum atoms were exposed to the gas-phase reactants during growth. This fact explains the lack of activity of the platinum foil.

  8. Patterning of diamond films by RIE and its MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guifu; Yao, Jinyuan; Yu, Aibin; Zhao, Xiaolin; Wang, Li; Shen, Tianhui

    2000-08-01

    CVD diamond film is an attractive potential material for microelectronics and MEMS application, but patterning of diamond is one of the main difficulties hindering diamond electronics. In this paper, we studied the RIE process for precise patterning of diamond films. Ni/Cr, Cu/Cu or NiTi films were used as maskants, oxygen as reactive gas. The etching results showed that the NiTi film has high etching selectivity when used as mask for diamond etching and its is very convenient to be patterned by the special developed chemical etchant. Using O2 as main etching gas, the RIE can etch the diamond film effectively. The process parameters such as RF power, vacuum pressure have marked influence on the etching rate and the patterning of diamond film has been defined. Combined with sacrifice layer process and electroplating through mask technique, diamond micro hinge has been fabricated on silicon wafer.

  9. Study of diamond film growth and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, Sacharial

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to study diamond film growth and its properties in order to enhance the laser damage threshold of substrate materials. Calculations were performed to evaluate laser induced thermal stress parameter, R(sub T) of diamond. It is found that diamond has several orders of magnitude higher in value for R(sub T) compared to other materials. Thus, the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of diamond is much higher. Diamond films were grown using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system at various conditions of gas composition, pressure, temperature, and substrate materials. A 0.5 percent CH4 in H2 at 20 torr were ideal conditions for growing of high quality diamond films on substrates maintained at 900 C. The diamond films were polycrystalline which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The top surface of the growing film is always rough due to the facets of polycrystalline film while the back surface of the film replicates the substrate surface. An analytical model based on two dimensional periodic heat flow was developed to calculate the effective in-plane (face parallel) diffusivity of a two layer system. The effective diffusivity of diamond/silicon samples was measured using a laser pulse technique. The thermal conductivity of the films was measured to be 13.5 W/cm K, which is better than that of a type Ia natural diamond. Laser induced damage experiments were performed on bare Si substrates, diamond film coated Si, and diamond film windows. Significant improvements in the LIDT were obtained for diamond film coated Si compared to the bare Si.

  10. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H{sub 2}O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi E-mail: qs4a-hriw@asahi-net.or.jp; Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-06-07

    The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H{sub 2}O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D{sub 2}O instead of H{sub 2}O in the ALD and found that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH{sub 3} groups than the high-temperature film. This CH{sub 3} is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H{sub 2}O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H{sub 2}O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D{sub 2}O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D{sub 2}O-grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are smaller than those of H{sub 2}O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of the aforementioned new isotope effect will be a basis for further enhancing ALD technologies in general.

  11. Below-Band-Gap Laser Ablation Of Diamond For TEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Thomas; Foote, Marc C.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Fortier, Edward P.; Posthill, John B.

    1995-01-01

    Thin, electron-transparent layers of diamond for examination in transmission electron microscope (TEM) fabricated from thicker diamond substrates by using laser beam to ablate surface of substrate. Involves use of photon energy below band gap. Growing interest in use of diamond as bulk substrate and as coating material in variety of applications has given rise to increasing need for TEM for characterization of diamond-based materials. Below-band-gap laser ablation method helps to satisfy this need. Also applied in general to cutting and etching of diamonds.

  12. The mechanical properties of various chemical vapor deposition diamond structures compared to the ideal single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the diamond lattice, leading to its outstanding mechanical properties, are discussed. These include the highest elastic moduli and fracture strength of any known material. Its extreme hardness is strongly connected with the extreme shear modulus, which even exceeds the large bulk modulus, revealing that diamond is more resistant to shear deformation than to volume changes. These unique features protect the ideal diamond lattice also against mechanical failure and fracture. Besides fast heat conduction, the fast vibrational movement of carbon atoms results in an extreme speed of sound and propagation of crack tips with comparable velocity. The ideal mechanical properties are compared with those of real diamond films, plates, and crystals, such as ultrananocrystalline (UNC), nanocrystalline, microcrystalline, and homo- and heteroepitaxial single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, produced by metastable synthesis using CVD. Ultrasonic methods have played and continue to play a dominant role in the determination of the linear elastic properties, such as elastic moduli of crystals or the Young's modulus of thin films with substantially varying impurity levels and morphologies. A surprising result of these extensive measurements is that even UNC diamond may approach the extreme Young's modulus of single-crystal diamond under optimized deposition conditions. The physical reasons for why the stiffness often deviates by no more than a factor of two from the ideal value are discussed, keeping in mind the large variety of diamond materials grown by various deposition conditions. Diamond is also known for its extreme hardness and fracture strength, despite its brittle nature. However, even for the best natural and synthetic diamond crystals, the measured critical fracture stress is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the ideal value obtained by ab initio calculations for the ideal cubic lattice. Currently, fracture is studied mainly by indentation or mechanical breaking of freestanding films, e.g., by bending or bursting. It is very difficult to study the fracture mechanism, discriminating between tensile, shear, and tearing stress components (mode I-III fracture) with these partly semiquantitative methods. A novel ultrasonic laser-based technique using short nonlinear surface acoustic wave pulses, developing shock fronts during propagation, has recently been employed to study mode-resolved fractures of single-crystal silicon. This method allows the generation of finite cracks and the evaluation of the fracture strength for well-defined crystallographic configurations. Laser ultrasonics reaches the critical stress at which real diamond fails and therefore can be employed as a new tool for mechanistic studies of the fracture behavior of CVD diamond in the future.

  13. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

    1997-06-03

    A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

  14. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  15. Diamond coated total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, R; Anttila, A; Heinonen, H

    1998-07-01

    Diamond has many superior, desired characteristics of implant materials such as low friction, high wear and corrosion resistance, and well bonding surface to bone. The potential of diamond for total hip replacement implants was studied in the form of amorphous diamond coatings on conventional metal implant materials. Amorphous diamond coatings (sp3 bonding fraction 80%, thickness 0.2 to 10 microns) were deposited on stainless steel AISI316L, Ti6A14V, and CoCrMo alloys using filtered pulsed plasma are discharge method. Superior attachment of coatings to the implant materials was achieved by using high energy plasma beams to deposit amorphous diamond and proper intermediate layers. Previously it was shown that these coatings are biocompatible causing no local tissue reactions. Tribologic studies using a pin on disk apparatus with coated or uncoated implant materials in 1 wt.% NaCl distilled water were performed. A simplified hip joint simulator was used for preliminary testing of metal on polyethylene and metal on metal artificial hip joints modified with amorphous diamond coating. The average coefficients of friction were typically in the range of 0.03 to 0.11 for amorphous diamond coated materials. In the case of metal on metal hip implants, the average friction during initial running in period was improved (coefficient of friction = 0.07) compared with the same metal on metal pair (coefficient of friction = 0.22) and sliding was significantly smoother. In pin on disk wear tests, the average wear factors obtained were 140.10(-6), 5.0.10(-6), and < 0.1.10(-6) mm3/Nm for the pairs of AISI316L, CoCrMo, and the same materials with amorphous diamond coating. The corrosion rates of these implant materials in 10 wt.% HCl solution were decreased by a factor of 10,000 to 15,000 and any damage of the coatings was not observed in 6 months. The results of the tests show that in all the combinations studied, amorphous diamond coating improved definitely the wear and corrosion resistance compared with the uncoated materials. PMID:9678039

  16. Enhanced adhesion of diamond coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhido

    Diamond coatings are of interest for a wide range of applications due to the unique properties of crystalline diamond. Many applications require that the coating adhere strongly to metallic substrates which may have a large difference in thermal expansion coefficient with diamond. These substrates may also have undesirable chemical interactions with carbon during the deposition of the coatings. Intermediate layers are a possible solution to both of these problems. Such layers can act as diffusion barriers preventing the deleterious chemical interactions, and may help to accommodate the thermal expansion mismatch strains. Several aspects of these issues are addressed in this work. The mechanics of the interface for a coating-substrate system loaded by thermal expansion mismatch is modeled. Both continuous coatings and coatings containing a through-thickness hole surrounded by an annular delamination crack are examined. Analytic expressions for the stress distribution in the film and in the substrate are derived by representing the thermal expansion mismatch loads as tractions and moments acting along the outer free edge of the specimen and along the tip of the annular crack. The loads near the center hole are found to vary with the size of the delamination crack, and hence constitute a driving force for growth of such a delamination. The strain energy release rate for the growth of the annular crack surrounding the central hole is derived, and expressed in terms of the thermal expansion misfit between film and substrate; their thickness, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios; and the characteristic dimensions of the film-substrate system. The crack driving force is found to decrease as the delamination crack surrounding the hole propagates, and hence a relationship between crack length and crack driving force is established. The requirements for an effective intermediate layer between diamond films and Fe-group containing substrate materials are described, and two potential layers identified: TiN and TiC. Crystalline diamond coatings are subsequently deposited on these layers by hot filament CVD. A large grained TiC coating with a relatively rough surface was found to provide the best adhesion to the diamond layer. As judged qualitatively by the extent of spallation adjacent to hardness indentation, this intermediate layer performs better than similar TiC layers reported in the literature. The residual stresses in the diamond coatings are analysed using Raman microprobe spectroscopy, and compared with the predictions of the analytical model. The adhesion of the diamond coatings on various substrates with and without an intermediate layer of TiC is quantitatively evaluated by measuring the length of the delamination crack surrounding through-thickness holes in the coating and comparing with the relationship derived between crack length and strain energy release rate. The measured adherence on WC-Co substrates, as characterised by the critical strain energy release rate for growth of the delamination crack, was found to be significantly higher in the presence of the TiC intermediate layer developed during the course of this work.

  17. Physical and Tribological Characteristics of Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Heidger, S.; Korenyi-Both, A. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Shogrin, B.; Wilbur, P. J.; Wu, R. L. C.; Garscadden, A.; Barnes, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural, polished diamond pin in contact with both as-deposited and carbon-ion-implanted diamond films in ultrahigh vacuum. Diamond films were deposited on silicon, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The as-deposited diamond films were impacted with carbon ions at an accelerating energy of 60 keV and a current density of 50 micron A/cm(exp 2) for approximately 6 min, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). The results indicate that the carbon ion implantation produced a thin surface layer of amorphous, nondiamond carbon. The nondiamond carbon greatly decreased both friction and wear of the diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films were less than 0.1, factors of 20 to 30 lower than those for the as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, coarse-grain diamond films were approximately 0.35, a factor of five lower than those for the as-deposited, coarse-grain diamond films. The wear rates for the carbon-ion-implanted, diamond films were on the order of 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/Nm, factors of 30 to 80 lower than that for the as-deposited diamond films, regardless of grain size. The friction of the carbon-ion-implanted diamond films was greatly reduced because the amorphous, nondiamond carbon, which had a low shear strength, was restricted to the surface layers (less than 0.1 micron thick) and because the underlying diamond materials retained their high hardness. In conclusion, the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films can be used effectively as wear resistant, self-lubricating coatings for ceramics, such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide, in ultrahigh vacuum.

  18. Ion implantation of diamond: Damage, doping, and lift-off

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, N.R.; McGucken, E.; Swanson, M.L.; Hunn, J.D.; White, C.W.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    In order to make good quality economical diamond electronic devices, it is essential to grow films and to dope these films to obtain n- and p- type conductivity. This review talk discuss first doping by ion implantation plus annealing of the implantation damage, and second flow to make large area single crystal diamonds. C implantation damage below an estimated Frenkel defect concentration of 7% could be recovered almost completely by annealing at 950C. For a defect concentration between 7 and 10%, a stable damage form of diamond (``green diamond``) was formed by annealing. At still higher damage levels, the diamond graphitized. To introduce p-type doping, we have co-implanted B and C into natural diamond at 77K, followed by annealing up to 1100C. The resulting semiconducting material has electrical properties similar to those of natural B-doped diamond. To create n-type diamond, we have implanted Na{sup +}, P+ and As{sup +} ions and have observed semiconducting behavior. This has been compared with carbon or noble element implantation, in an attempt to isolate the effect of radiation damage. Recently, in order to obtain large area signal crystals, we have developed a novel technique for removing thin layers of diamond from bulk or homoepitaxial films. This method consists of ion implantation, followed by selective etching. High energy (4--5 MeV) implantation of carbon or oxygen ions creates a well-defined layer of damaged diamond buried at a controlled depth. This layer is graphitized and selectivity etched either by heating at 550C in an oxygen ambient or by electrolysis. This process successfully lifts off the diamond plate above the graphite layer. The lift-off method, combined with well-established homoepitaxial growth processes, has potential for fabrication of large area single-crystal diamond sheets.

  19. Migration behaviour of carbon atoms on clean diamond (0 0 1) surface: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuejie; Xia, Qing; Li, Wenjuan; Luo, Hao; Ren, Yuan; Tan, Xin; Sun, Shiyang

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption and migration energies of a single carbon atom and the configuration evolution energies of two carbon atoms on a clean diamond (0 0 1) surface were calculated using the first principle method based on density functional theory to investigate the formation of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film. The activation energy of a single atom diffusing along a dimer row is 1.96 eV, which is almost the same as that of a CH2 migrating along a dimer row under hydrogen-rich conditions. However, the activation energy of a single atom diffusing along a dimer chain is 2.66 eV, which is approximately 1.55 times greater than that of a CH2 migrating along a dimer chain in a hydrogen-rich environment. The configuration evolution of the two carbon atoms is almost impossible at common diamond film deposition temperatures (700-900 °C) because the activation energies reach 4.46 or 5.90 eV. Therefore, the high-energy barrier could result in insufficient migration of adatoms, leading to the formation of amorphous in UNCD films in hydrogen-poor CVD environment.

  20. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co2Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  1. Diamond nonlinear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, B. J. M.; Bulu, I.; Venkataraman, V.; Deotare, P.; Lončar, M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite progress towards integrated diamond photonics, studies of optical nonlinearities in diamond have been limited to Raman scattering in bulk samples. Diamond nonlinear photonics, however, could enable efficient, in situ frequency conversion of single photons emitted by diamond's colour centres, as well as stable and high-power frequency microcombs operating at new wavelengths. Both of these applications depend crucially on efficient four-wave mixing processes enabled by diamond's third-order nonlinearity. Here, we have realized a diamond nonlinear photonics platform by demonstrating optical parametric oscillation via four-wave mixing using single-crystal ultrahigh-quality-factor (1 × 106) diamond ring resonators operating at telecom wavelengths. Threshold powers as low as 20 mW are measured, and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser. We also report the first measurement of the nonlinear refractive index due to the third-order nonlinearity in diamond at telecom wavelengths.

  2. 'Diamond Jenness': After the Grind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic imager mosaic taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rock dubbed 'Diamond Jenness.' It was taken on sol 177 (July 23, 2004) after the rover first ground into the rock with its rock abrasion tool, or 'Rat.' The rover later ground into the rock a second time. A sliced spherule, or 'blueberry,' is visible in the upper left corner of the hole.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  3. 'Diamond Jenness': A Tough Grind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic imager mosaic of the target area called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  4. 'Diamond Jenness': Before the Grind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic imager mosaic of the rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was snapped on sol 177 before NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool, or 'Rat.'

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  5. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  6. Germanium: a new catalyst for diamond synthesis and a new optically active impurity in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palyanov, Yuri N.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Borzdov, Yuri M.; Surovtsev, Nikolay V.

    2015-10-01

    Diamond attracts considerable attention as a versatile and technologically useful material. For many demanding applications, such as recently emerged quantum optics and sensing, it is important to develop new routes for fabrication of diamond containing defects with specific optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Here we report on successful synthesis of diamond from a germanium-carbon system at conditions of 7 GPa and 1,500-1,800 °C. Both spontaneously nucleated diamond crystals and diamond growth layers on seeds were produced in experiments with reaction time up to 60 h. We found that diamonds synthesized in the Ge-C system contain a new optical centre with a ZPL system at 2.059 eV, which is assigned to germanium impurities. Photoluminescence from this centre is dominated by zero-phonon optical transitions even at room temperature. Our results have widened the family of non-metallic elemental catalysts for diamond synthesis and demonstrated the creation of germanium-related optical centres in diamond.

  7. Homoepitaxial Boron Doped Diamond Anvils as Heating Elements in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeffrey; Samudrala, Gopi; Smith, Spencer; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Weir, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in designer-diamond technology have allowed for the use of electrically and thermally conducting homoepitaxially-grown layers of boron-doped diamond (grown at 1200 °C with a 2% mixture of CH4 in H, resulting in extremely high doping levels ~ 1020/cm3) to be used as heating elements in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). These diamonds allow for precise control of the temperature inside of the diamond anvil itself, particularly when coupled with a cryostat. Furthermore, the unmatched thermally conducting nature of diamond ensures that no significant lateral gradient in temperature occurs across the culet area. Since a thermocouple can easily be attached anywhere on the diamond surface, we can also measure diamond temperatures directly. With two such heaters, one can raise sample temperatures uniformly, or with any desired gradient along the pressure axis while preserving optical access. In our continuing set of benchmark experiments, we use two newly created matching heater anvils with 500 μm culets to analyze the various fluorescence emission lines of ruby microspheres, which show more complicated behavior than traditional ruby chips. We also report on the temperature dependence of the high-pressure Raman modes of paracetamol (C8H9NO2) up to 20 GPa.

  8. Germanium: a new catalyst for diamond synthesis and a new optically active impurity in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Palyanov, Yuri N.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Borzdov, Yuri M.; Surovtsev, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond attracts considerable attention as a versatile and technologically useful material. For many demanding applications, such as recently emerged quantum optics and sensing, it is important to develop new routes for fabrication of diamond containing defects with specific optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Here we report on successful synthesis of diamond from a germanium-carbon system at conditions of 7 GPa and 1,500–1,800 °C. Both spontaneously nucleated diamond crystals and diamond growth layers on seeds were produced in experiments with reaction time up to 60 h. We found that diamonds synthesized in the Ge-C system contain a new optical centre with a ZPL system at 2.059 eV, which is assigned to germanium impurities. Photoluminescence from this centre is dominated by zero-phonon optical transitions even at room temperature. Our results have widened the family of non-metallic elemental catalysts for diamond synthesis and demonstrated the creation of germanium-related optical centres in diamond. PMID:26435400

  9. Diamond-Bronze Coatings for Grinding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Vogli, E.; Nebel, J.

    2008-12-01

    Grinding applications for the machining of stone and concrete require composite tools where large diamonds are perfectly embedded into a metallic matrix. With the detonation flame spraying process, it is possible to manufacture these super abrasive composites. Excellent embedment of the voluminous super abrasive particles into the matrix coating material can be realized to produce high quality composite layers for grinding applications of stone and concrete. In this paper, different diamond gradings as well as different volume contents of diamond in matrix are compared. Especially, the influence of particle size on its implantation efficiency is investigated and the influence of process and substrate temperature is analyzed. The thermal sprayed grinding tools are evaluated with respect to their microstructure as well as their grinding abilities. Compared to sintered diamond-bronze samples, the results of an adaptively designed grinding test for the machining of concrete are presented and analyzed.

  10. Diamond bio electronics.

    PubMed

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions. PMID:19745488

  11. Voltammetric and impedance behaviours of surface-treated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. B.; Jing, B.; Cui, Y.; Di, J. J.; Qu, M.

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical performances of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies, phase structures, and chemical states of the two diamond films were analysed by scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the potential window is narrower for the hydrogen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film than for the oxygen-terminated one. The diamond film resistance and capacitance of oxygen-terminated diamond film are much larger than those of the hydrogen-terminated diamond film, and the polarization resistances and double-layer capacitance corresponding to oxygen-terminated diamond film are both one order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to the hydrogen-terminated diamond film. The electrochemical behaviours of the two diamond film electrodes are discussed.

  12. Voltammetric and impedance behaviours of surface-treated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. B.; Jing, B.; Cui, Y.; Di, J. J.; Qu, M.

    2015-04-15

    The electrochemical performances of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies, phase structures, and chemical states of the two diamond films were analysed by scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the potential window is narrower for the hydrogen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film than for the oxygen-terminated one. The diamond film resistance and capacitance of oxygen-terminated diamond film are much larger than those of the hydrogen-terminated diamond film, and the polarization resistances and double-layer capacitance corresponding to oxygen-terminated diamond film are both one order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to the hydrogen-terminated diamond film. The electrochemical behaviours of the two diamond film electrodes are discussed.

  13. Diamond heteroepitaxy by bias enhanced nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, Vidhya Sagar

    Diamond has exceptional semiconducting and optical properties that can be used for a wide variety of new applications such as high temperature, high power devices, and optical windows. Exploitation of these properties of diamond needs the development of heteroepitaxial diamond growth process on traditional substrates such as Silicon and Silicon Carbide. Bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) followed by Plasma Enhanced Chemical vapor Deposition (PECVD) has been recognized as a promising route to achieve this goal. However, the BEN process for heteroepitaxy and its mechanism is not well understood. In this study, a system is designed and fabricated to enable the application of bias during diamond deposition in an ASTEX PECVD system, and heteroepitaxial diamond films are grown. The evolution of the oriented diamond film and its microstructure is studied by SEM, TEM, and XRD techniques revealing the formation of misoriented grains, extensive twinning and low angle grain boundaries. The effect of the BEN process conditions on the degree of orientation is investigated. It is observed that the orientation of the films improved at lower bias durations, methane flow rates and bias voltages. TEM images of the nucleation layer are analyzed, and the changes in the nucleation layer grain structure with process parameters are studied. Significant variation in the microstructure and grain size from an average of about 560 nm to about 10 nm is observed with change in process conditions. The BEN process is investigated and the nature of the deposit forming during this step is revealed using SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy to be predominantly a nanocrystalline diamond film along with rhombohedral and amorphous carbon. A simple model based on the formation of a nanocrystalline diamond particles during BEN, followed by their growth and coalescence under the plasma is proposed to describe the oriented film formation. The variations in microstructures and orientation are correlated with the process conditions under which they are formed.

  14. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  15. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-04-19

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  16. Diamond/aluminium nitride composites for efficient thermal management applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cervenka, J.; Dontschuk, N.; Prawer, S.; Ladouceur, F.; Duvall, S. G.

    2012-07-30

    Synthetic diamond/AlN composite materials have been fabricated by a combination of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. These wide band gap semiconductor heterojunctions show promises for many applications, including thermal management, deep ultraviolet light emitting devices, and high power and high temperature electronics. Here, we report results of an interface study of polycrystalline diamond layers grown on single crystal AlN(0001). High resolution transmission microscopy revealed atomically sharp interfaces between diamond and AlN. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy measurements showed reduced thermal resistance on diamond-coated AlN substrates compared to uncoated AlN at temperatures above 330 K.

  17. Electronic properties of graphene-single crystal diamond heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fang; Thuong Nguyen, Thuong; Golsharifi, Mohammad; Amakubo, Suguru; Jackman, Richard B.; Loh, K. P.

    2013-08-07

    Single crystal diamond has been used as a substrate to support single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition methods. It is possible to chemically functionalise the diamond surface, and in the present case H-, F-, O-, and N-group have been purposefully added prior to graphene deposition. The electronic properties of the resultant heterostructures vary strongly; a p-type layer with good mobility and a band gap of ∼0.7 eV is created when H-terminated diamond layers are used, whilst a layer with more metallic-like character (high carrier density and low carrier mobility) arises when N(O)-terminations are introduced. Since it is relatively easy to pattern these functional groups on the diamond surface, this suggests that this approach may offer an exciting route to 2D device structures on single layer graphene sheets.

  18. The Nature of Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, George E.

    1997-10-01

    The paragon of physical perfection and a sparkling example of Earth's forces at work, the diamond has fascinated all realms of society, from starlets to scientists. The Nature of Diamonds is a comprehensive look at nature's most coveted gem. A handsome, large-format book, The Nature of Diamonds is an authoritative and richly-illustrated tribute to the diamond. Leading geologists, gemologists, physicists, and cultural observers cover every facet of the stone, from its formation in the depths of the Earth, its ascent to the surface, and its economic, regal, social, and technological roles. Cutting-edge research takes the reader to the frontiers of diamond exploration and exploitation, from the Arctic wastes to the laboratories where diamonds are created for massive road shredders that rip up and then re-create superhighways. Here also is an overview of cutting, from the rough stones in Roman rings to the highly-faceted stones we see today, and a glimpse into the business of diamonds. Finally, The Nature of Diamonds chronicles scientific and cultural history and explores the diamond as both a sacred and a social symbol, including a picture history of betrothal rings. Wide-ranging illustrations explain the geology of diamonds, chart the history of mining from its origins in India and Brazil through the diamond rush in South Africa and today's high-tech enterprises, and capture the brilliance and beauty of this extraordinary gem. _

  19. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, A.

    2015-04-01

    With the first three years of the LHC running complete, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond has been used extensively in beam condition monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. The lessons learned in constructing the ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM), Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) and the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) all of which are based on CVD diamond with the goal of elucidating the issues that should be addressed for future diamond based detector systems. The first beam test results of prototype diamond devices with 3D detector geometry should further enhance the radiation tolerance of this material.

  20. Synthesis and morphology of CVD diamond on Ta and TaC film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Ken; Mitsuhashi, Masahiko; Karasawa, Shiro; Ohya, Seishiro; Watanabe, Takeshi

    1993-03-01

    Synthetic diamond films have been deposited on the Si(111) surface, polycrystalline Ta plate, TaC/Si, and TaC/Ta substrates using an electron assisted chemical vapor deposition (EACVD) method. The effects of substrate pretreatment and existence of carbide layer on the diamond nucleation, subsequent growth and morphology have been studied. The substrate pretreatment, scratching by diamond powder, affects nucleation behavior, subsequent growth and morphology of diamond. Existence of carbide layer and formation of carbide on the substrate affects nucleation density, growth rate and morphology of diamond.

  1. Catalytic effect of ultrananocrystalline Fe₃O₄ on algal bio-crude production via HTL process.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Frias-Flores, Cecilia B; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Das, K C; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M

    2015-11-14

    We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions. PMID:26465090

  2. A micro-scale hot wire anemometer based on low stress (Ni/W) multi-layers deposited on nano-crystalline diamond for air flow sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, A.; Gimeno, L.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Viard, R.; Soltani, A.; Mortet, V.; Preobrazhensky, V.; Merlen, A.; Pernod, P.

    2015-12-01

    A linear array of microscale thermal anemometers has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The sensitive element consists of a self-compensated-stress multilayer (Ni/W) patterned to form a wire with length, width, and thickness close to 200 μm, 5 μm and 2 μm respectively. The wire is deposited and supported by prongs made of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) of about 2 μm in thickness. Due to its high Young’s modulus, NCD allows a very high mechanical toughness without the need for thicker support for the hot wire. Also, depending on grain size, the NCD is able to present thermal conductivity smaller than 10 W mK-1, providing good thermal insulation from the substrate and less conductive end losses to the prongs. The sensor was characterized experimentally. Its electrical and thermal properties were obtained first in the absence of fluid flow. The results confirm the effectiveness of thermal insulation and the mechanical robustness of the structure. The fluidic characterizations were performed and analysed in the case of an airflow with velocities of up to 30 m s-1.

  3. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOEpatents

    Lundin, R.L.; Stewart, D.D.; Evans, C.J.

    1992-04-14

    An apparatus is described for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond. 1 figs.

  4. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOEpatents

    Lundin, Ralph L.; Stewart, Delbert D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond.

  5. Diamond anvil technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, Michael

    This paper is largely a review of the techniques used in making diamond anvils and the constraints these put on the shapes of anvil. Techniques available for shaping diamonds include cleaving, sawing, polishing, laser cutting, and bruting. At present the shapes most commonly used for anvils are a modification of the brilliant cut derived from the gem industry, and a design based on an octagonal prism with truncated pyramidal top and base, known as the "Drukker standard design". Diamond orientation and material selection are considered as are future possibilities for the attainment of still higher pressures through modifications of the diamond anvil material or design.

  6. Characterization of diamond thin films: Diamond phase identification, surface morphology, and defect structures

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.E.; Glass, J.T.

    1989-03-01

    Thin carbon films grown from a low pressure methane-hydrogen gas mixture by microwave plasma enhanced CVD have been examined by Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron and x-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. They were determined to be similar to natural diamond in terms of composition, structure, and bonding. The surface morphology of the diamond films was a function of position on the sample surface and the methane concentration in the feedgas. Well-faceted diamond crystals were observed near the center of the sample whereas a less faceted, cauliflower texture was observed near the edge of the sample, presumably due to variations in temperature across the surface of the sample. Regarding methane concentration effects, threefold /111/ faceted diamond crystals were predominant on a film grown at 0.3% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ while fourfold /100/ facets were observed on films grown in 1.0% and 2.0% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/. Transmission electron microscopy of the diamond films has shown that the majority of diamond crystals have a very high defect density comprised of /111/ twins, /111/ stacking faults, and dislocations. In addition, cross-sectional TEM has revealed a 50 A epitaxial layer of ..beta..--SiC at the diamond-silicon interface of a film grown with 0.3% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ while no such layer was observed on a diamond film grown in 2.0% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/.

  7. Effects of gravity and temperature gradient on the diamond formation during synthesis at 4.4 GPa and 1300°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Kap; Park, Jong-Ku; Eun, Kwang Yong

    1992-11-01

    In diamond synthesis, it is observed that the number of diamond particles on each solvent surface are determined by the coupled effects of gravity and temperature gradient in the specimens. At the beginning of the diamond synthesis, the effect of temperature gradient is relatively stronger than that of gravity, which makes more diamond particles form on the bottom surface of the lowest solvent layer in the bottom cool end. As the synthesis proceeds, the diamond particles grow and float up through the liquid solvent from the bottom surface to the top surface. Buoyancy due to the difference in the specific gravities of diamond and liquid solvent causes a difference in the number of the diamond particles formed on the top and bottom surfaces of each solvent layer. More diamond particles are always observed on the top surfaces of the solvent layers than on the bottom surfaces in the respective solvent layers, except for the lowest solvent layer at the beginning of the synthesis.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Multilayered Diamond Coatings for Biomedical Implants

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Leigh; Catledge, Shane A.; Nolen, Dustin; Thompson, Raymond G.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2011-01-01

    With incredible hardness and excellent wear-resistance, nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings are gaining interest in the biomedical community as articulating surfaces of structural implant devices. The focus of this study was to deposit multilayered diamond coatings of alternating NCD and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) layers on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and validate the multilayer coating’s effect on toughness and adhesion. Multilayer samples were designed with varying NCD to MCD thickness ratios and layer numbers. The surface morphology and structural characteristics of the coatings were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Coating adhesion was assessed by Rockwell indentation and progressive load scratch adhesion tests. Multilayered coatings shown to exhibit the greatest adhesion, comparable to single-layered NCD coatings, were the multilayer samples having the lowest average grain sizes and the highest titanium carbide to diamond ratios. PMID:21603588

  9. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Messier, R.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  10. Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  11. Diamond nucleation using polyethene

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, Gerardo; Makarov, Vladimir; Varshney, Deepak; Weiner, Brad

    2013-07-23

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  12. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G. P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  13. High-performance diamond and diamond-like coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Steve J.; Chalker, Paul R.

    1995-04-01

    Diamond is an attractive material for use in many applications where wear and corrosion resistance or high-thermal conductivity are important. Recent developments in the deposition of poly crystalline diamond (and amorphous diamond-like carbon) coatings have opened up a range of new applications. This paper reviews the deposition of diamond and diamond-like carbon coatings, the properties and performance of the materials, and their applications.

  14. Growth optimization of columnar nanostructured diamond films with high electrical performances for SOD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, M.; Saada, S.; Pinault, M.-A.; Andrieu, F.; Faynot, O.; Bergonzo, P.

    2010-11-01

    In today's nanoelectronics devices, thermal management is a major issue to miniaturization. Because of its high thermal conductivity, diamond is an extremely interesting material for heat spreading. SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) technology suffers of the poor thermal dissipation due to the silicon oxide buried layer. Thus, SOD (Silicon-On-Diamond) based on dielectrical diamond layer is seen as a promising candidate for future bulk solution. Polycrystalline diamond layers of extreme insulating properties (>1014Ωṡcm) are successfully synthesis with thickness under 150 nm on 2 inches silicon wafer. However, defects due to the growth and the polycrystal structure are responsible for the detrimental current stimulate by alternative electrical field. The defects activation energies were measured on columnar nanostructured diamond grown under different conditions. Values of 0.56 to 1.56 eV were found for defects in these films and were correlated to the growth parameters as well as the diamond morphology.

  15. The use of thin diamond films in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewska, D.; Karpienko, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of thin diamond films in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometers. Two kinds of diamond surfaces were used: undoped diamond film and boron- doped diamond film. They were deposited on glass plates as well as silicon layers. A conventionally used mirror was used as a reference layer. Diamond films were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (μPE CVD) system. Measurements were performed using two superluminescent diodes (SLD) with wavelengths of 1300 mm and 1550 mm. The optimal conditions for each layers were examined: the required wavelength of the light source and the length of Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity. Metrological parameters of Fabry-Perot interferometer with different mirrors were compared. The presented thin diamond films may be an interesting alternative to the commonly used reflective surfaces.

  16. Diamond and diamond-like carbon films for advanced electronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Siegal, M.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    Aim of this laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project was to develop diamond and/or diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for electronic applications. Quality of diamond and DLC films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is not adequate for electronic applications. Nucleation of diamond grains during growth typically results in coarse films that must be very thick in order to be physically continuous. DLC films grown by CVD are heavily hydrogenated and are stable to temperatures {le} 400{degrees}C. However, diamond and DLC`s exceptional electronic properties make them candidates for integration into a variety of microelectronic structures. This work studied new techniques for the growth of both materials. Template layers have been developed for the growth of CVD diamond films resulting in a significantly higher nucleation density on unscratched or unprepared Si surfaces. Hydrogen-free DLC with temperature stability {le} 800{degrees}C has been developed using energetic growth methods such as high-energy pulsed-laser deposition. Applications with the largest system impact include electron-emitting materials for flat-panel displays, dielectrics for interconnects, diffusion barriers, encapsulants, and nonvolatile memories, and tribological coatings that reduce wear and friction in integrated micro-electro-mechanical devices.

  17. Fundamentals of ultrananocrystallie diamond (UNCD) thin films as biomaterials for developmental biology : embryonic fibroblasts growth on the surface of (UNCD) films.

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, B.; Jin, Q.; Chen, L.; Auciello, O.

    2008-09-13

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films possess numerous valuable good physical, chemical and mechanical properties, making UNCD an excellent material for implantable biodevices. However, one very important property required for biomaterials i.e., biocompatibility has not been studied for UNCD. In this research, biocompatible UNCD films were synthesized. It was found that UNCD film coated substrates can dramatically promote the growth of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), while the uncoated substrates inhabit cell attachment. Through analyzing the microstructure and the surface chemistry of UNCD, the mechanisms of cell growth on UNCD were investigated. Given the unique properties of UNCD on inertness and toughness, the results consolidate UNCD film as the leading coating candidate for the next generation of medical implanted devices.

  18. Fabrication of diamond based sensors for use in extreme environments

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-04-23

    Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. Here, we demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.

  19. Fabrication of diamond based sensors for use in extreme environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-04-23

    Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This methodmore » can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. Here, we demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.« less

  20. Diamond at 800 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D. K.; Eggert, J. H.; Smith, R. F.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Hicks, D. G.; Braun, D. G.; Biener, J.; Hamza, A. V.; Rudd, R. E.; Collins, G. W.

    2009-02-20

    A new compression technique, which enables the study of solids into the TPa regime, is described and used to ramp (or quasi-isentropically) compress diamond to a peak pressure of 1400 GPa. Diamond stress versus density data are reported to 800 GPa and suggest that the diamond phase is stable and has significant material strength up to at least this stress level. Data presented here are the highest ramp compression pressures by more than a factor of 5 and the highest-pressure solid equation-of-state data ever reported.

  1. Mechanical stresses and amorphization of ion-implanted diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelnitsky, R. A.; Dravin, V. A.; Tal, A. A.; Latushko, M. I.; Khomich, A. A.; Khomich, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Terentiev, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Scanning white light interferometry and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the mechanical stresses and structural changes in ion-implanted natural diamonds with different impurity content. The uniform distribution of radiation defects in implanted area was obtained by the regime of multiple-energy implantation of keV He+ ions. A modification of Bosia's et al. (Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 268 (2010) 2991) method for determining the internal stresses and the density variation in an ion-implanted diamond layer was proposed that suggests measuring, in addition to the surface swelling of a diamond plate, the radius of curvature of the plate. It is shown that, under multiple-energy implantation of He+, mechanical stresses in the implanted layer may be as high as 12 GPa. It is shown that radiation damage reaches saturation for the implantation fluence characteristic of amorphization of diamond but is appreciably lower than the graphitization threshold.

  2. Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R.; Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K.

    2014-02-18

    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

  3. Diamond diode-based chemical gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbuz, Yasar

    The successful utilization of microelectronic-based gas sensors (MOS Capacitor, MOSFET, MS, and MIS diodes) in many practical applications such as automotive, aeronautical, commercial, and environmental has not been achieved due to the limited operating temperature range of Si and GaAs semiconductors (less than 200sp°C). Present development in the diamond technology provides an opportunity to address this problem. Along with its well known physical and optical properties, the superior semiconductor properties of diamond over Si, GaAs, and SiC (higher breakdown voltage, energy band gap, carrier mobility, and thermal conductivity) are useful for gas sensor applications. We have developed a novel family of diamond-based chemical gas sensors for the detection of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon monoxide at a higher operating temperature range than currently possible with Si- and GaAs-based microelectronic gas sensors. The new devices were fabricated in the form of a Pd/i-diamond/psp+-diamond MIS structure for the detection hydrogen and a Pt/SnOsb{x}/i-diamond/psp+-diamond CAIS structure for the detection of oxygen and carbon monoxide. Sensor performances have been investigated over a wide temperature range (22sp° C{-}400sp° C). The gas sensitivity of the devices have been found to be large, fast, selective, repeatable, and reproducible. Detection mechanisms of the sensors have been developed. The hydrogen detection mechanism of the diamond-based MIS device is due to hydrogen dipole formation at the Pd/i-diamond interface and a subsequent change in the voltage distribution across the junction. The oxygen and carbon monoxide sensitivity of the CAIS device is attributed to the modification of the oxygen vacancies in the SnOsb{x} layer and the subsequent change in the voltage drop across the oxide. The current transport mechanisms of the sensors have been studied and gas adsorption effects on sensor parameters have been modeled. The current conduction mechanism of the sensors is Space Charge Limited, distinctively different from Si- and GaAs-based diodes. While no significant change was observed on the ideality factor, a change in the barrier height and tunneling factor of the sensors was found upon gas adsorption. The findings of this study form the basis for the utilization of microelectronic devices in wide range of gas sensor applications, requiring large sensitivity, fast, repeatable, and reproducible response, wider operating temperature range, and stability in harsh environments. Furthermore, this study contributes a fundamental knowledge in the operating principles and sensing mechanisms of the high temperature-tolerant microelectronic gas sensors.

  4. PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS

    DOEpatents

    Dugdale, R.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.

  5. Diamond Ranch High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsky, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Highlights award-winning Diamond Ranch High School (California) that was designed and built on a steep site around Los Angeles considered unsatisfactory for building due to its unstable soils. Building organization is discussed, and photos are provided. (GR)

  6. Amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1998-06-09

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  7. Diamond nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Tokano, Yuji; Miyamoto, Iwao; Komuro, Masanori; Hiroshima, Hiroshi

    2002-10-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and oxygen gas reactive ion etching (RIE) were used to fabricate fine patterns in a diamond mould. To prevent charge-up during EB lithography, thin conductive polymer was spin-coated over the PMMA resist, yielding dented line patterns 2 μ m wide and 270 nm deep. The diamond mould was pressed into PMMA on a silicon substrate heated to 130, 150 and 170ºC at 43.6, 65.4 and 87.2 MPa. All transferred PMMA convex line patterns were 2 μ m wide. Imprinted pattern depth increased with rising temperature and pressure. PMMA patterns on diamond were transferred by the diamond mould at 150ºC and 65.4 MPa, yielding convex line patterns 2 μ m wide and 200 nm high. Direct aluminium and copper patterns were obtained using the diamond mould at room temperature and 130.8 MPa. The diamond mould is thus useful for replicating patterns on PMMA and metals.

  8. High-mobility diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstrass, Maurice I.

    1994-04-01

    Recent improvements in the CVD diamond deposition process have made possible the fabrication of diamond photoconductive diodes with carrier mobility and lifetime exceeding the values typical of natural gemstones. One of the more surprising recent results is that the best room-temperature carrier properties have been measured on polycrystalline diamond films. The combined electron- hole mobility, as measured by transient photoconductivity at low carrier densities, is 4000 square centimeters per volt per second at electric field of 200 volts per centimeter and is comparable to that of the best single-crystal IIa natural diamonds. Carrier lifetimes measured under the same conditions are 150 picoseconds for the CVD diamond films. The collection distance within the diamond films, at the highest applied fields, is comparable to the average film grain size, indicative of little or no carrier scattering at grain boundaries. A comparison of SIMS measurements with electrical results suggest that impurity incorporation in the near grain boundary regions are responsible for controlling the carrier mobility.

  9. Isotopic Homojunction Band Engineering from Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, H.; Nebel, C. E.; Shikata, S.

    2009-06-01

    Confinement of charge carriers in semiconductors by quantum wells is usually accomplished with layers that vary in elemental composition, such as aluminum gallium arsenide and gallium arsenide. We fabricated diamond superlattices by creating multilayer structures of isotopically pure carbon isotopes carbon-12 (12C) and carbon-13 (13C), which confine electrons by a difference in band-gap energy of 17 millielectron volts. Cathodoluminescence experiments performed at 80 kelvin showed that excitonic recombination in the higher-energy band of 13C vanishes in favor of increased recombination in the lower-energy 12C material. Carrier confinement was achieved in diamond superlattices made up of both thinner (30 nanometers) and thicker (up to 350 nanometers) layers.

  10. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-01-01

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air. PMID:26831205

  11. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-02-01

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air.

  12. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-01-01

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air. PMID:26831205

  13. Fundamentals and technology for monolithically integrated RF MEMS switches with ultra-nanocrystaline diamond dielectric/CMOS devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Sumant, A.; Goldsmith, C.; O'Brien, S.; Sampath, S.; Gudeman, C; Wang, W.; Hwang, J.; Swonger, J.; Carlisle, J.; Balachandran, S.; MEMtronics Corp.; Innovative Micro Technology; Lehigh Univ.; Peregrine Semiconductor; Advanced Diamond Technologies

    2010-01-01

    Most current capacitive RF-MEMS switch technology is based on conventional dielectric materials such as SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. However, they suffer not only from charging problems but also stiction problems leading to premature failure of an RF-MEMS switch. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{sup (R)}) (2-5 nm grains) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) (10-100 nm grains) films exhibit one of the highest Young's modulus ({approx} 980-1100 GPa) and demonstrated MEMS resonators with the highest quality factor (Q {ge} 10,000 in air for NCD) today, they also exhibit the lowest force of adhesion among MEMS/NEMS materials ({approx}10 mJ/m{sup 2}-close to van der Waals attractive force for UNCD) demonstrated today. Finally, UNCD exhibits dielectric properties (fast discharge) superior to those of Si and SiO{sub 2}, as shown in this paper. Thus, UNCD and NCD films provide promising platform materials beyond Si for a new generation of important classes of high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices.

  14. Polycrystalline diamond cutting element with mating recess

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, C.W.

    1990-03-27

    This patent describes a polycrystalline diamond cutting element with mating recess for use on a cutting tool. It comprises: a mounting body having a leading face and a trailing face and a relatively thin layer of super hard material carried on the leading face of the mounting body and defining a cutting face for the cutting element. Also described is a bit for use in drilling earthen formations.

  15. Facts about Diamond Blackfan Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder ...

  16. Ion-Implanted Diamond Films and Their Tribological Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Richard L. C.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Korenyi-Both, Andras L.; Garscadden, Alan; Barnes, Paul N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the physical characterization and tribological evaluation of ion-implanted diamond films. Diamond films were produced by microwave plasma, chemical vapor deposition technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes (0.3 and 3 microns) and roughness (9.1 and 92.1 nm r.m.s. respectively) were implanted with C(+) (m/e = 12) at an ion energy of 160 eV and a fluence of 6.72 x 10(exp 17) ions/sq cm. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted in ultrahigh vacuum (6.6 x 10(exp -7)Pa), dry nitrogen and humid air (40% RH) environments. The effects of C(+) ion bombardment on fine and coarse-grained diamond films are as follows: the surface morphology of the diamond films did not change; the surface roughness increased (16.3 and 135.3 nm r.m.s.); the diamond structures were damaged and formed a thin layer of amorphous non-diamond carbon; the friction coefficients dramatically decreased in the ultrahigh vacuum (0.1 and 0.4); the friction coefficients decreased slightly in the dry nitrogen and humid air environments.

  17. The Diamond Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1999-08-01

    Since time immemorial, we have treasured diamonds for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled hardness. Yet, most of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and totally unaccessible to us--if only we knew how to fabricate them! In The Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human desire to exceed nature and create a synthetic diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking science, instances of bitter rivalry, cases of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and science to reveal the extraordinary technological advances and devastating failures of the diamond industry. Along the way, readers will be introduced to the brilliant, often eccentric and controversial, pioneers of high-pressure research who have harnessed crushing pressures and scorching temperatures to transform almost any carbon-rich material, from road tar to peanut butter, into the most prized of all gems. Robert M. Hazen is the author of fifteen books, including the bestseller, Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has won numerous awards for his research and scientific writing.

  18. New diamond science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Messier, R.; Roy, R. ); Glass, J.T. ); Butler, J.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Vapor phase diamonds; General, theory, modeling; Natural and synthetic HP/HT diamond; Gas phase and surface measurements; Gas phase and surface chemistry; Properties: Mechanical, chemical, thermal; Properties: Electrical; Diamond-like materials; and Cubic boron nitride.

  19. Making Diamond in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the graphite to diamond transformation and a phase diagram for carbon. Describes high temperature-higher pressure experimental apparatus and growth of diamonds from seed crystals. Reviews properties of the diamond which suggest uses for the synthetic product. Illustrations with text. (GH)

  20. Diamond collecting in northern Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of numerous diamond-bearing kimberlite diatremes in the N Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming is of both scientific and economic interest. Species recovered from heavy-mineral concentrates include Cr-diopside, spinel, Mg-ilmenite, pyrope and diamond. A nodule tentatively identified as a graphite-diamond eclogite was also found. -G.W.R.

  1. Effect of Metal Matrix Alloying on Mechanical Strength of Diamond Particle-Reinforced Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Jianhua; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jianwei; Wang, Xitao

    2015-06-01

    Diamond particle-reinforced Al matrix (Al/diamond) composites were produced by a gas pressure infiltration method, where 0.5-4.0 wt.% Ti was added to Al matrix. An interfacial TiC layer of about 2 μm thickness was formed between Al and diamond at 4.0 wt.% Ti addition. The mechanical properties of the Al/diamond composites were enhanced by both the formation of interfacial layer and the strengthening of the matrix. The mechanical strength increased with increasing alloying Ti content, and a tensile strength of 153 MPa was obtained at 4.0 wt.% Ti addition. The tensile flow stress of the composites was found to be in broad agreement with the prediction of the Mori-Tanaka model. The effect of interfacial layer on mechanical properties provides guideline for the production of mechanically reliable Al/diamond composites.

  2. Au/p-diamond ohmic contacts deposited by RF sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, C. M.; Wang, X. Q.; Wu, X. C.; Liu, C. X.; Hou, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Ohmic contacts have been formed on diamond films using a monolayer Au. Au film was deposited by radio frequency sputtering. I- V measurements show the good ohmic behavior of the contacts in the as-deposited and annealed states and the specific contact resistivity obtained by circular transmission line model was 1.27 × 10 -3 and 5.43 × 10 -4 Ω cm 2, respectively. Radio frequency sputtering makes an obvious interdiffusion between Au and diamond in the as-deposited contacts. Annealing the contact enhances the interdiffusion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and cross-sectional scan electron microscopy reveal the presence of an intermediate layer at the interface due to the intermixing between Au and diamond. Surface native oxide of the diamond film was effectively removed by treating the substrate film in boiling aqua regia solution.

  3. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z.; Bartz, E.; Doroshenko, J.; Hits, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Atramentov, O.; Patel, R.; Barker, A.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Ryjov, V.; Farrow, C.; Pernicka, M.; Steininger, H.; Johns, W.; Halyo, V.; Harrop, B.; Hunt, A.; Marlow, D.; Hebda, P.

    2011-09-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLT's mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope.

  4. Test-beam studies of diamond sensors for SLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uplegger, Lorenzo; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Alagoz, Enver; Andresen, Jeff; Arndt, Kirk; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Marie Brom, Jean; Brosius, Richard; Bubna, Mayur; Chramowicz, John; Cumalat, John; Jensen, Frank; Krzywda, Alex; Kumar, Ashish; Kwan, Simon; Lei, C. M.; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Obertino, Margherita; Osipenkov, Ilya; Perera, Lalith; Prosser, Alan; Rivera, Ryan; Solano, Ada; Tan, Ping; Terzo, Stefano; Tran, Nhan; Robert Wagner, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    Diamond sensors are studied as an alternative to silicon sensors to withstand the high radiation doses that are expected in future upgrades of the pixel detectors for the SLHC. Diamond pixel sensors are intrinsically radiation hard and are considered as a possible solution for the innermost tracker layers close to the interaction point where current silicon sensors cannot cope with the harsh radiation environment.An effort to study possible candidates for the upgrades is undergoing using the Fermilab test-beam facility (FTBF), where diamonds and 3D silicon sensors have been studied. Using a CMS pixel-based telescope built and installed at the FTBF, we are studying charge collection efficiencies for un-irradiated and irradiated devices bump-bonded to the CMS PSI46 pixel readout chip. A description of the test-beam effort and preliminary results on diamond sensors will be presented.

  5. Experimental study of diamond resorption during mantle metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorchuk, Yana; Schmidt, Max W.; Liebske, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Many of kimberlite-derived diamonds are partially dissolved to various degree but show similar resorption style. This resorption style has been observed in experiments with aqueous fluid at the conditions corresponding to kimberlite emplacement (1-2 GPa). At the same time, each diamond population has more than ten percent of diamond crystals with several drastically different resorption styles, which have not been observed in experiments, and may represent partial dissolution of diamonds during metasomatism in different mantle domains. Metasomatic processes modify the composition of subcratonic mantle, may trigger the formation of kimberlite magma, and result in the growth and partial dissolution of diamonds. Composition of metasomatic agents as constrained from studies of the reaction rims on mantle minerals (garnet, clinopyroxene) and experimental studies vary between carbonatitic melt, aqueous silicate melt, and CHO fluid. However, complex chemical pattern of mantle minerals and estimates of redox regime in subcratonic mantle allow different interpretations. Here we explore diamond dissolution morphology as an indicator of the composition of mantle metasomatic agents. Towards this end we examine diamond dissolution morphologies developed in experiments at the conditions of mantle metasomatism in different reacting media and compare them to the mantle-derived dissolution features of natural diamonds. The experiments were conducted in multi-anvil (Walker-Type) apparatus at 6 GPa and 1200-1500oC. Dissolution morphology of natural octahedral diamond crystals (0.5 mg) was examined in various compositions in synthetic system MgO-CaO- SiO2-CO2-H2O. The runs had the following phases present: solid crystals with fluid (various ratio of H2O-CO2-SiO2, and in the air), carbonate melt, carbonate-silicate melt, and carbonate melt with CHO fluid. Experiments produced three different styles of diamond resorption. In the presence of a fluid phase with variable proportions of H2O and CO2 diamond crystals develop ditrigonal outline of {111} faces, striation or hillocks along the edges, and shallow negatively oriented trigonal etch pits with flat or pointed bottom. Presence of SiO2 in the fluid resulted in multi-corner morphology, layering and / or more intensive etching of {111} faces. Dissolution in carbonate melt in the absence of water produced deep stepped-wall hexagonal and trigonal etch pits with negative orientation. The three resorption styles show strong resemblance to the secondary morphology of natural diamonds. This suggests that CHO fluid, aqueous silicate melt, and carbonatatitic melt are metasomatic agents reacting with natural diamonds in subcratonic mantle. The comparison of the experimentally-induced resorption styles to those on natural diamonds show that mantle metasomatism induced by CHO fluid develop morphologies similar to those developed in kimberlite magma. This indicates that significant proportion of kimberlite-hosted diamonds may show resorption features of mantle origin. Aqueous silicate melt induces step-faced multi-corner resorption morphology, similar to natural diamonds with nitrogen aggregation corresponding to eclogitic diamonds. Dissolution in carbonatitic melt results in complex morphologies with deep hexagonal pits similar to natural diamonds with nitrogen data corresponding to peridotitic diamonds.

  6. Laser Patterning of Diamond. Part II. Surface Nondiamond Carbon Formation and its Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, J.; Jaye, C; Bohon, J; Rao, T; Fischer, D

    2009-01-01

    As diamond becomes more prevalent for electronic and research applications, methods of patterning diamond will be required. One such method, laser ablation, has been investigated in a related work. We report on the formation of surface nondiamond carbon during laser ablation of both polycrystalline and single-crystal synthetic diamonds. Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to confirm that the nondiamond carbon layer formed during the ablation was amorphous, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to estimate the thickness of this layer to be {approx} 60 nm. Ozone cleaning was used to remove the nondiamond carbon layer.

  7. Process for making diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasquin, J. R.; Estes, M. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of a device and process for making industrial diamonds. The device is composed of an exponential horn tapering from a large end to a small end, with a copper plate against the large end. A magnetic hammer abuts the copper plate. The copper plate and magnetic hammer function together to create a shock wave at the large end of the horn. As the wave propagates to the small end, the extreme pressure and temperature caused by the wave transforms the graphite, present in an anvil pocket at the small end, into diamonds.

  8. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOEpatents

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  9. High-temperature tolerant diamond diode for carbon monoxide gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbuz, Y.; Kang, W. P.; Davidson, J. L.; Kerns, D. V.

    1998-12-01

    A high-temperature tolerant microelectronic carbon monoxide gas sensor has been developed. This device is based on a diamond diode in the form of catalytic-metal/adsorptive-oxide/intrinsic-diamond/semiconductor-diamond structure. The gas sensing performance and detection mechanisms have been studied over a wide temperature range (50-500 °C). The gas sensitivity of the sensor is large, fast, repeatable, and reproducible. Gas detection mechanism is attributed to the modification of the oxygen vacancies in the SnOx layer of the sensor. This diamond diode sensor can be utilized in applications that require a sensor to operate at a wider operating temperature range.

  10. Diamond/AlN Thin Films for Optical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knoebber, F.; Bludau, O.; Williams, O. A.; Sah, R. E.; Kirste, L.; Baeumler, M.; Nebel, C. E.; Ambacher, O.; Cimalla, V.; Lebedev, V.; Leopold, S.; Paetz, D.

    2010-11-01

    In this work we report on membranes made of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and AlN for the use in tunable micro-optics. For the growth of the AlN and NCD thin films, magnetron sputtering and chemical vapor deposition techniques have been used, respectively. A chemical-mechanical polishing process of NCD layers has been introduced, which is crucial for the growth of c-oriented, fiber textured AlN films. AlN layers deposited on as grown and polished nanocrystalline diamond along with free standing membranes have been compared by studying microstructure, surface morphology, piezoelectrical response as well as optical properties.

  11. Nucleation, growth, and graphitization of diamond nanocrystals during chlorination of carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welz, Sascha; Gogotsi, Yury; McNallan, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    Synthesis of nano- and microcrystalline sp3-bonded carbon (diamond) with cubic and hexagonal structure by extraction of silicon from silicon carbide in chlorine-containing gases has been reported recently. This process is attractive because it can produce diamond at ambient pressure and temperatures below 1000 °C. No plasma or other high-energy activation is required, thus providing an opportunity for large-scale synthesis. However, the mechanism of diamond formation has not been previously analyzed. This work reports on the formation mechanisms of diamond as well as the transformation of diamond to graphite and onionlike carbon upon heating. Study of SiC/carbon interfaces showed that direct epitaxial growth of diamond on SiC is possible, in agreement with previous molecular-dynamics simulation. However, random nucleation of diamond from amorphous sp3-bonded carbon produced as the result of extraction of Si from SiC has also been demonstrated. It has been shown that the presence of hydrogen in the environment is not required for diamond synthesis. However, hydrogen can stabilize the nanocrystals and lead to the growth of thick diamond layers. If no hydrogen is added, diamond nanocrystals transform to graphite, forming carbon onions and other curved graphitic nanostructures.

  12. Improvements in the Formation of Boron-Doped Diamond Coatings on Platinum Wires Using the Novel Nucleation Process (NNP)

    PubMed Central

    Fhaner, Mathew; Zhao, Hong; Bian, Xiaochun; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the initial nucleation density for the growth of boron-doped diamond on platinum wires, we employed the novel nucleation process (NNP) originally developed by Rotter et al. and discussed by others [1–3]. This pretreatment method involves (i) the initial formation of a thin carbon layer over the substrate followed by (ii) ultrasonic seeding of this “soft” carbon layer with nanoscale particles of diamond. This two-step pretreatment is followed by the deposition of boron-doped diamond by microwave plasma-assisted CVD. Both the diamond seed particles and sites on the carbon layer itself function as the initial nucleation zones for diamond growth from an H2-rich source gas mixture. We report herein on the characterization of the pre-growth carbon layer formed on Pt as well as boron-doped films grown for 2, 4 and 6 h post NNP pretreatment. Results from scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical studies are reported. The NNP method increases the initial nucleation density on Pt and leads to the formation of a continuous diamond film in a shorter deposition time than is typical for wires pretreated by conventional ultrasonic seeding. The results indicate that the pregrowth layer itself consists of nanoscopic domains of diamond and functions well to enhance the initial nucleation of diamond without any diamond powder seeding. PMID:21617759

  13. Multiplying Electrons With Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As researchers in the Space Communications Division of NASA s Glenn Research Center in 1992, Dr. Gerald Mearini, Dr. Isay Krainsky, and Dr. James Dayton made a secondary electron emission discovery that became the foundation for Mearini s company, GENVAC AeroSpace Corporation. Even after Mearini departed Glenn, then known as Lewis Research Center, his contact with NASA remained strong as he was awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to further develop his work. Mearini s work for NASA began with the investigation of diamond as a material for the suppression of secondary electron emissions. The results of his research were the opposite of what was expected diamond proved to be an excellent emitter rather than absorber. Mearini, Krainsky, and Dayton discovered that laboratory-grown diamond films can produce up to 45 electrons from a single incident electron. Having built an electron multiplier prototype at NASA, Mearini decided to start his own company to develop diamond structures usable in electron beam devices.

  14. ELECTRON AMPLIFICATION IN DIAMOND.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY, J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RAO, T.; SEGALOV, Z.; WU, Q.

    2006-07-10

    We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission ''amplifiers'' for photocathodes. Secondary emission gain of over 300 has been achieved in transmission mode and emission mode for a variety of diamond samples. Techniques of sample preparation, including hydrogenation to achieve negative electron affinity (NEA), have been adapted to this application.

  15. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  16. DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTOCATHODES.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BOHON, J.; CHANG, X.; GROVER, R.; ISAKOVIC, A.; RAO, T.; WU, Q.

    2007-11-26

    High-average-current linear electron accelerators require photoinjectors capable of delivering tens to hundreds of mA average current, with peak currents of hundreds of amps. Standard photocathodes face significant challenges in meeting these requirements, and often have short operational lifetimes in an accelerator environment. We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission amplifiers for photocathodes, which are intended to increase the achievable average current while protecting the cathode from the accelerator. The amplifier is a thin diamond wafer which converts energetic (few keV) primary electrons into hundreds of electron-hole pairs via secondary electron emission. The electrons drift through the diamond under an external bias and are emitted into vacuum via a hydrogen-terminated surface with negative electron affinity (NEA). Secondary emission gain of over 200 has been achieved. Two methods of patterning diamond, laser ablation and reactive-ion etching (RIE), are being developed to produce the required geometry. A variety of diagnostic techniques, including FTIR, SEM and AFM, have been used to characterize the diamonds.

  17. Photo-stimulated low electron temperature high current diamond film field emission cathode

    DOEpatents

    Shurter; Roger Philips , Devlin; David James , Moody; Nathan Andrew , Taccetti; Jose Martin , Russell; Steven John

    2012-07-24

    An electron source includes a back contact surface having a means for attaching a power source to the back contact surface. The electron source also includes a layer comprising platinum in direct contact with the back contact surface, a composite layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in platinum in direct contact with the layer comprising platinum. The electron source also includes a nanocrystalline diamond layer in direct contact with the composite layer. The nanocrystalline diamond layer is doped with boron. A portion of the back contact surface is removed to reveal the underlying platinum. The electron source is contained in an evacuable container.

  18. Lower pressure synthesis of diamond material

    DOEpatents

    Lueking, Angela; Gutierrez, Humberto; Narayanan, Deepa; Burgess Clifford, Caroline E.; Jain, Puja

    2010-07-13

    Methods of synthesizing a diamond material, particularly nanocrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon and bucky diamond are provided. In particular embodiments, a composition including a carbon source, such as coal, is subjected to addition of energy, such as high energy reactive milling, producing a milling product enriched in hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon compared to the coal. A milling product is treated with heat, acid and/or base to produce nanocrystalline diamond and/or crystalline diamond-like carbon. Energy is added to produced crystalline diamond-like carbon in particular embodiments to produce bucky diamonds.

  19. REMEDIATION OF OIL CONTAMINATED GROUND AND SURFACE WATER USING SULFATE NANOFILTRATION COMBINED WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY ON-SITE GENERATION OF PEROXODISULFATE USING ULTRANANOCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND ELECTRODES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project will employ nanofiltration to generate sulfate ion feedstocks and high current density on-site generation (synthesis) of the powerful oxidant...

  20. Development of Designer Diamond Anvils for High Pressure-High-Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yogesh K. Vohra

    2005-05-12

    The focus of this program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) is to develop the next generation of designer diamond anvils that can perform simultaneous joule heating and temperature profile measurements in a diamond anvil cell. A series of tungsten-rhenium thermocouples will be fabricated onto to the anvil and encapsulated by a chemical vapor deposited diamond layer to allow for a complete temperature profile measurement across the anvil. The tip of the diamond anvil will be engineered to reduce the thermal conductivity so that the tungsten-heating coils can be deposited on top of this layer. Several different approaches will be investigated to engineer the tip of the diamond anvil for reduction in thermal conductivity (a) isotopic mixture of 12C and 13C in the diamond layer, (b) doping of diamond with impurities (nitrogen and/or boron), and (c) growing diamond in a higher concentration of methane in hydrogen plasma. Under this academic alliance with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), PI and his graduate students will use the lithographic and diamond polishing facility at LLNL. This proposed next generation of designer diamond anvils will allow multi-tasking capability with the ability to measure electrical, magnetic, structural and thermal data on actinide materials with unparallel sensitivity in support of the stockpile stewardship program.

  1. A multilayer innovative solution to improve the adhesion of nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulon-Quintin, A.; Faure, C.; Teulé-Gay, L.; Manaud, J. P.

    2015-03-01

    Nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films grown under negative biased substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are widely used as surface overlay coating onto cermet WC-Co cutting tools to get better performances. To improve the diamond adhesion to the cermet substrate, suitable multi-layer systems have been added. They are composed of a cobalt diffusion barrier close to the substrate (single and sequenced nitrides layers) coated with a nucleation extra layer to improve the nucleus density of diamond during CVD processing. For all systems, before and after diamond deposition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been performed for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces and to evaluate the presence of graphitic species at the interface with the diamond. Innovative multilayer system dedicated to the regulation of cobalt diffusion coated with a bilayer system optimized for the carbon diffusion control, is shown as an efficient solution to significantly reduce the graphite layer formation at the interface with the diamond down to 10 nm thick and to increase the adhesion of NCD diamond layer as scratch-tests confirm.

  2. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  3. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  4. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply...

  5. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  6. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  7. Raman investigation of diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Li-Ming

    1993-12-31

    Extensive Raman investigations were conducted on a wide range of diamond films whose structures were dilineated by optical and confocal microscopy. The Raman Spectra from one extreme of this range indicates a very intense 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} line diagnostic of bulk crystalline diamond. Microscopy of the corresponding film shows the presence of many large true diamond crystallite. The 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} Raman line at the other extreme of the range, however, is virtually absent. It is replaced, at this extreme, by a very broad Raman contour whose maxima occur near 1355 cm{sup {minus}1} and 1575 cm{sup {minus}1}. Optical microscopy now reveals a complete lack of diamond crystallites. The ratio of the integrated Raman intensity of the 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} diamond line to the integral of the entire broad contour extending from {approx}1200 cm{sup {minus}1} to 1800 cm{sup {minus}1}, with maxima near 1355 cm{sup {minus}1} and 1575 cm{sup {minus}1}, was determined. This ratio rises with increasing diamond crystallite size, and it decreases as true diamond crystallites are replaced by diamond-like, but amorphous, hard carbon, which produces the broad Raman contour. The measured intensity ratio was analyzed in terms of a differential equation related to phonon coupling. The increase of the intensity ratio of the 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} diagnostic diamond peak is due to phono-phonon coupling between the diamond crystallites, as the concentration of the amorphous diamond-like carbon decreases. Confocal microscopy indicates many amorphous-like regions interspersed between diamond crystallites which account for the intensity loss, and agree with the Raman intensity measurements. These Raman measurements crystallinity versus amorphous hard-carbon character of thin diamond film.

  8. Most diamonds were created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablon, Brooke Matat; Navon, Oded

    2016-06-01

    Diamonds crystallize deep in the mantle (>150 km), leaving their carbon sources and the mechanism of their crystallization debatable. They can form from elemental carbon, by oxidation of reduced species (e.g. methane) or reduction of oxidized ones (e.g. carbonate-bearing minerals or melts), in response to decreasing carbon solubility in melts or fluids or due to changes in pH. The mechanism of formation is clear for fibrous diamonds that grew from the carbonate-bearing fluids trapped in their microinclusions. However, these diamonds look different and, based on their lower level of nitrogen aggregation, are much younger than most monocrystalline (MC) diamonds. In the first systematic search for microinclusions in MC diamonds we examined twinned crystals (macles), assuming that during their growth, microinclusions were trapped along the twinning plane. Visible mineral inclusions (>10 μm) and nitrogen aggregation levels in these clear macles are similar to other MC diamonds. We found 32 microinclusions along the twinning planes in eight out of 30 diamonds. Eight inclusions are orthopyroxene; four contain >50% K2O (probably as K2(Mg, Ca)(CO3)2); but the major element compositions of the remaining 20 are similar to those of carbonate-bearing high-density fluids (HDFs) found in fibrous diamonds. We conclude that the source of carbon for these macles and for most diamonds is carbonate-bearing HDFs similar to those found here and in fibrous diamonds. Combined with the old ages of MC diamonds (up to 3.5 Ga), our new findings suggest that carbonates have been introduced into the reduced lithospheric mantle since the Archaean and that the mechanism of diamond formation is the same for most diamonds.

  9. South Africa, Namibia Diamond Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image covers a portion of the Richtersveld National Park and Orange River (top of image) in the Northern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. The Orange River marks the boundary between South Africa to the south and Namibia to the north. This is an area of active mining for diamonds, which were washed downstream from the famous Kimberley Diamond Area, millions of years ago when the river was much larger. The mining is focused on ancient drainages of the Orange River which are currently buried by think layers of sand and gravel. Scientists are investigating whether these ancient drainages can be seen with the radar's ability to penetrate sand cover in extremely dry regions. A mine, shown in yellow, is on the southern bank of the river in an abandoned bend which is known as an 'oxbow.' The small bright circular areas (left edge of image) west of the mine circles are fields of a large ostrich farm that are being watered with pivot irrigation. The large dark area in the center of the image is the Kubus Pluton, a body of granite rock that broke through the surrounding rocks about 550 million years ago. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is about 55 by 60 kilometers (34 by 37 miles) centered at 28.4 degrees south latitude, 16.8 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired on April 18, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

  10. A charge transport study in diamond, surface passivated by high-k dielectric oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kovi, Kiran Kumar Majdi, Saman; Gabrysch, Markus; Isberg, Jan

    2014-11-17

    The recent progress in the growth of high-quality single-crystalline diamond films has sparked interest in the realization of efficient diamond power electronic devices. However, finding a suitable passivation is essential to improve the reliability and electrical performance of devices. In the current work, high-k dielectric materials such as aluminum oxide and hafnium oxide were deposited by atomic layer deposition on intrinsic diamond as a surface passivation layer. The hole transport properties in the diamond films were evaluated and compared to unpassivated films using the lateral time-of-flight technique. An enhancement of the near surface hole mobility in diamond films of up to 27% is observed when using aluminum oxide passivation.

  11. Surface Design and Engineering Toward Wear-Resistant, Self-Lubricant Diamond Films and Coatings. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter describes three studies on the surface design, surface engineering, and tribology of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films and coatings toward wear-resistant, self-lubricating diamond films and coatings. Friction mechanisms and solid lubrication mechanisms of CVD diamond are stated. Effects of an amorphous hydrogenated carbon on CVD diamond, an amorphous, nondiamond carbon surface layer formed on CVD diamond by carbon and nitrogen ion implantation, and a materials combination of cubic boron nitride and CVD diamond on the adhesion, friction, and wear behaviors of CVD diamond in ultrahigh vacuum are described. How surface modification and the selected materials couple improved the tribological functionality of coatings, giving low coefficient of friction and good wear resistance, is explained.

  12. Progress on Diamond-Based Cylindrical Dielectric Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Conde, M.; Gai, W.

    2006-11-27

    The development of a high gradient diamond-based cylindrical dielectric loaded accelerator (DLA) is presented. A diamond-loaded DLA can potentially sustain accelerating gradients far in excess of the limits experimentally observed for conventional metallic accelerating structures. The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerators: high rf breakdown level, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest available thermoconductive coefficient. We used the hot-filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process to produce high quality 5-10 cm long cylindrical diamond layers. Our collaboration has also been developing a new method of CVD diamond surface preparation that reduces the secondary electron emission coefficient below unity. Special attention was paid to the numerical optimization of the waveguide to structure rf coupling section, where the surface magnetic and electric fields were minimized relative to the accelerating gradient and within known metal surface breakdown limits. We conclude with a brief overview of the use of diamond microstructures for use in compact rf sources.

  13. Thermal diffusivity of diamond films using a laser pulse technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, Sacharia; Winfree, William P.; Crews, B. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. A laser pulse technique was developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate. The effective thermal diffusivity of a diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by laser pulses. An analytical model is presented to calculate the effective in-plane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two-layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamonds/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film. The average effective diffusivity values are 1.47 + or - 0.03 and 1.83 + or - 0.10 yielding thermal diffusivity values of 7.46 + or - 0.90 and 7.33 + or - 0.70 sq cm/s respectively, for the two samples; the calculated thermal con ductivity values are 13.50 and 13.28 W/cmK, which are better than that of type 1a natural diamond. The phase and amplitude measurements give similar results.

  14. Catalytic effect of ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 on algal bio-crude production via HTL process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Frias-Flores, Cecilia B.; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Das, K. C.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.

    2015-10-01

    We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions.We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04404a

  15. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    SciTech Connect

    Clausing, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  16. Self-assembled ultra-nanocrystalline silicon films with preferred <2 2 0> crystallographic orientation for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amit; Das, Debajyoti

    2015-03-01

    Using low-pressure planar inductively coupled plasma CVD at 87% H2-dilution to the SiH4 plasma, nc-Si:H films are prepared that possess preferential growth along <2 2 0> crystallographic orientation with I220/I111 > 1.2, bonded H-content of ∼5.5 at.%, a low microstructure factor of ∼0.56, along with a reasonably high σD ∼ 5.2 × 10-4 S cm-1, ΔE ∼ 143 meV and σPh ∼ 1.4 × 10-3 S cm-1. The growth of the nc-Si:H network has been optimized to a moderately high nanocrystallinity (∼68%), with an average grain size of ∼8 nm. The overall network comprises a significant fraction of ultra-nanocrystalline component, Xunc/Xnc ∼ 0.47, which are dominantly inhabited by the thermodynamically preferred <2 2 0> crystallographic orientation that provides convenient electrical transport perpendicular to the film surface and subsequently could facilitate photovoltaic performance. The cross-sectional view of the fracture surface demonstrates columnar structures, closely correlated to the favored growth of the nanocrystallites along <2 2 0> crystallographic orientation that retains direction perpendicular to the substrate surface. The underlying phenomena could be demonstrated as a consequence of preferential growth induced by high atomic H density present in the planar inductively coupled SiH4 plasma obtained via much lower H2-dilution compared to that realized in conventional capacitively coupled plasma-CVD. The nc-Si:H films with precise material properties as well as the allied low-pressure ICP-CVD growth process could be of significant use in further progress of nc-Si solar cells.

  17. Ultrafast laser processing of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, P. S.; Booth, M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers are used to fabricate 3D structures in single crystal CVD diamond. The interaction of the laser with diamond lattice leads to a permanent structural modification, which is highly localized at the focus. Severe spherical aberrations compromise fabrication precision below the diamond surface. We implement adaptive aberration compensation to ensure optimum fabrication performance. The nature of the structural modification is analysed for both surface and subsurface laser fabrications.

  18. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing a substrate surface covered with a fullerene or diamond coating, positioning a fullerene in an ionization source, creating a fullerene vapor, ionizing fullerene molecules, accelerating the fullerene ions to energies above 250 eV to form a fullerene ion beam, impinging the fullerene ion beam on the substrate surface and continuing these steps to obtain a diamond thickness on the substrate.

  19. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond on a substrate. The method involves providing a substrate surface covered with a fullerene or diamond coating, positioning a fullerene in an ionization source, creating a fullerene vapor, ionizing fullerene molecules, accelerating the fullerene ions to energies above 250 eV to form a fullerene ion beam, impinging the fullerene ion beam on the substrate surface and continuing these steps to obtain a diamond film thickness on the substrate.

  20. Diamond films for laser hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Watkins, L.; Ravi, K.; Yokota, S.

    1989-01-01

    Laser-damage experiments were performed on free-standing polycrystalline diamond films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD. The high laser-induced stress resistance found for this material makes it useful for thin-film coatings for laser optics. Results for diamond-coated silicon substrates demonstrate the enhanced damage threshold imparted by diamond thin-film coatings to materials susceptible to laser damage.

  1. Low Temperature Growth of Nanostructured Diamond Films on Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul A.; Catledge, Shane A.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2001-01-01

    The field of nanocrystalline diamond and tetrahedral amorphous carbon films has been the focus of intense experimental activity in the last few years for applications in field emission display devices, optical windows, and tribological coatings, The choice of substrate used in most studies has typically been silicon. For metals, however, the thermal expansion mismatch between the diamond film and substrate gives rise to thermal stress that often results in delamination of the film. To avoid this problem in conventional CVD deposition low substrate temperatures (less than 700 C) have been used, often with the incorporation of oxygen or carbon monoxide to the feedgas mixture. Conventionally grown CVD diamond films are also rough and would require post-deposition polishing for most applications. Therefore, there is an obvious need to develop techniques for deposition of well-adhered, smooth nano-structured diamond films on metals for various tribological applications. In our work, nanostructured diamond films are grown on a titanium alloy substrate using a two-step deposition process. The first step is performed at elevated temperature (820 C) for 30 minutes using a H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture in order to grow a thin (approx. 600 nm) nanostructured diamond layer and improve film adhesion. The remainder of the deposition involves growth at low temperature (less than 600 C) in a H2/CH4/O2 gas mixture. Laser reflectance Interferometry (LRI) pattern during growth of a nanostructured diamond film on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The first 30 minutes are at a high temperature of 820 C and the rest of the film is grown at a low temperature of 580 T. The fringe pattern is observed till the very end due to extremely low surface roughness of 40 nm. The continuation of the smooth nanostructured diamond film growth during low temperature deposition is confirmed by in-situ laser reflectance interferometry and by post-deposition micro-Raman spectroscopy and surface profilometry. Similar experiments performed without the starting nanostructured diamond layer resulted in poorly adhered films with a more crystalline appearance and a higher surface roughness. This low temperature deposition of nanostructured diamond films on metals offers advantages in cases where high residual thermal stress leads to delamination at high temperatures.

  2. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  3. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  4. DIAMOND PEAK WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    1984-01-01

    No metallic mineral resources were identified during a mineral survey of the Diamond Peak Wilderness in Oregon. Cinder cones within the wilderness contain substantial cinder resources, but similar deposits that are more accessible occur outside the wilderness. The area could have geothermal resources, but available data are insufficient to evaluate their potential. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas of the High Cascades outside the wilderness, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the several Cascade wilderness could be made.

  5. Effect of an Ultraflat Substrate on the Epitaxial Growth of Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yukako; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shin-ichi; Touge, Mutsumi

    2013-02-01

    The performance of diamond power devices depends on the crystalline quality of the drift layer and conduction layer. Because the layers of diamond power device are usually grown by chemical vapor deposition, critical factors determining crystalline quality during this process should be discussed. An important related issue is the reduction of the density of dislocations in the epitaxial layer: the density of dislocations increases during chemical vapor deposition. We show that by using an ultraflat substrate, while existing dislocations in the epitaxial layer remained, no new dislocations were formed.

  6. DIAMOND AMPLIFIER FOR PHOTOCATHODES.

    SciTech Connect

    RAO,T.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CHANG,X.; HULBERT,S.; JOHNSON,P.D.; KEWISCH,J.

    2004-06-21

    We report a new approach to the generation of high-current, high-brightness electron beams. Primary electrons are produced by a photocathode (or other means) and are accelerated to a few thousand electron-volts, then strike a specially prepared diamond window. The large Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) provides a multiplication of the number of electrons by about two orders of magnitude. The secondary electrons drift through the diamond under an electric field and emerge into the accelerating proper of the ''gun'' through a Negative Electron Affinity surface of the diamond. The advantages of the new approach include the following: (1) Reduction of the number of primary electrons by the large SEY, i.e. a very low laser power in a photocathode producing the primaries. (2) Low thermal emittance due to the NEA surface and the rapid thermalization of the electrons. (3) Protection of the cathode from possible contamination from the gun, allowing the use of large quantum efficiency but sensitive cathodes. (4) Protection of the gun from possible contamination by the cathode, allowing the use of superconducting gun cavities. (5) Production of high average currents, up to ampere class. (6) Encapsulated design, making the ''load-lock'' systems unnecessary. This paper presents the criteria that need to be taken into account in designing the amplifier.

  7. Monolithic diamond Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Sean; Savitski, Vasili G; Liu, Hangyu; Gu, Erdan; Dawson, Martin D; Kemp, Alan J

    2015-03-15

    A monolithic diamond Raman laser is reported. It utilizes a 13-mm radius of curvature lens etched onto the diamond surface and dielectric mirror coatings to form a stable resonator. The performance is compared to that of a monolithic diamond Raman laser operating in a plane-plane cavity. On pumping with a compact Q-switched laser at 532 nm (16 μJ pulse energy; 1.5 ns pulse duration; 10 kHz repetition-rate; M2<1.5), laser action was observed at the first, second, and third Stokes wavelengths (573 nm, 620 nm and 676 nm, respectively) in both cases. For the microlens cavity, a conversion efficiency of 84% was achieved from the pump to the total Raman output power, with a slope efficiency of 88%. This compares to a conversion efficiency of 59% and a slope efficiency of 74% for the plane-plane case. Total Raman output powers of 134 and 96 mW were achieved for the microlens and plane-plane cavities, respectively. PMID:25768149

  8. Characteristics of Impact Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skala, R.; Bouska, V. J.

    1992-07-01

    Having studied two Czech diamonds in UV light (lambda=366 nm) they appeared to be an extraordinary dirty orange color [1], the same as in the case of Popigai and ureilites impact diamonds (ID) [2]. SEM images show evidence of a thatch-like surface that is very similar to that of the Abee chondrite [3]. Commonly, the ID contain microscopic black plates which are formed by graphite or a carbon matter with indefinite structure, and they are always associated with hexagonal moissanite [2,4]. One unexplained fact is connected with a fabric of the ID aggregates, i.e. both Czech diamonds are single crystals, otherwise other ID form polycrystalline strongly textured aggregates. [1] Bouska V.J. and Skala R.M. (1992) Abstracts for International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, in press. [2] Masaitis V.L., Shafranovskii G.I., Ezerskii V.A., and Reshetnyak N.B. (1990) Meteoritica 49, 180-196. [3] Russell S.S. and Pillinger C.T. (1991) Abstracts 54th Ann. Meet. Meteor. Soc. 200. [4] Bauer J., Fiala J., and Hrichova R. (1963) Amer. Mineral. 48, 620-634.

  9. Conversion of fullerenes to diamonds

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1995-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond or diamond-like films on a substrate surface. The method involves the steps of providing a vapor selected from the group of fullerene molecules or an inert gas/fullerene molecule mixture, providing energy to the fullerene molecules consisting of carbon-carbon bonds, the energized fullerene molecules breaking down to form fragments of fullerene molecules including C.sub.2 molecules and depositing the energized fullerene molecules with C.sub.2 fragments onto the substrate with farther fragmentation occurring and forming a thickness of diamond or diamond-like films on the substrate surface.

  10. Diamonds in ophiolites: Contamination or a new diamond growth environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D.; Griffin, W. L.; Yang, J.; Gain, S.; Stern, R. A.; Huang, J.-X.; Jacob, D. E.; Xu, X.; Stokes, A. J.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Pearson, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    For more than 20 years, the reported occurrence of diamonds in the chromites and peridotites of the Luobusa massif in Tibet (a complex described as an ophiolite) has been widely ignored by the diamond research community. This skepticism has persisted because the diamonds are similar in many respects to high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic/industrial diamonds (grown from metal solvents), and the finding previously has not been independently replicated. We present a detailed examination of the Luobusa diamonds (recovered from both peridotites and chromitites), including morphology, size, color, impurity characteristics (by infrared spectroscopy), internal growth structures, trace-element patterns, and C and N isotopes. A detailed comparison with synthetic industrial diamonds shows many similarities. Cubo-octahedral morphology, yellow color due to unaggregated nitrogen (C centres only, Type Ib), metal-alloy inclusions and highly negative δ13C values are present in both sets of diamonds. The Tibetan diamonds (n = 3) show an exceptionally large range in δ15N (-5.6 to + 28.7 ‰) within individual crystals, and inconsistent fractionation between {111} and {100} growth sectors. This in contrast to large synthetic HPHT diamonds grown by the temperature gradient method, which have with δ15N = 0 ‰ in {111} sectors and + 30 ‰ in {100} sectors, as reported in the literature. This comparison is limited by the small sample set combined with the fact the diamonds probably grew by different processes. However, the Tibetan diamonds do have generally higher concentrations and different ratios of trace elements; most inclusions are a NiMnCo alloy, but there are also some small REE-rich phases never seen in HPHT synthetics. These characteristics indicate that the Tibetan diamonds grew in contact with a C-saturated Ni-Mn-Co-rich melt in a highly reduced environment. The stable isotopes indicate a major subduction-related contribution to the chemical environment. The unaggregated nitrogen, combined with the lack of evidence for resorption or plastic deformation, suggests a short (geologically speaking) residence in the mantle. Previously published models to explain the occurrence of the diamonds, and other phases indicative of highly reduced conditions and very high pressures, have failed to take into account the characteristics of the diamonds and the implications for their formation. For these diamonds to be seriously considered as the result of a natural growth environment requires a new understanding of mantle conditions that could produce them.

  11. Congenital Anomalies in Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA)

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital Anomalies In Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) CS217857 National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Division of Blood Disorders Congenital Anomalies In Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) ...

  12. Raman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, P. W.; Ludlow, W. J.; Hannaway, M.; Heard, P. J.; Smith, J. A.; Rosser, K. N.

    2007-09-01

    We present data showing how the electrical conductivity and Raman spectra of boron-doped CVD diamond films vary with both B content and crystallite size, for microcrystalline diamond (MCD), facetted nanocrystalline diamond (f-NCD) and 'cauliflower' diamond (c-NCD). The position of the Lorentzian contribution to the 500 cm -1 Raman feature was used to estimate the B content. This underestimated the SIMS concentration of B by a factor of 5 for the f-NCD and c-NCD films, but remained reasonably accurate for MCD films. One explanation for this is that most of the B incorporates at the grain boundaries and not in substitutional sites.

  13. Combustion growth of large diamond crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. H.; Zhu, W.; von Windheim, J.; Glass, J. T.

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the successful growth of optically transparent, individual diamond crystals up to millimeter diameters on silicon substrates by oxygen-acetylene combustion flames at atmospheric pressure. The growth process consisted of three steps: (i) achieve a suitable nucleation density by pretreating the as-received Si substrate in an acetylene-rich flame (oxygen-to-acetylene ratio Rf = 0.95) for about 30 min at a downstream position (7-10 mm away from the tip of the flame inner cone); (ii) grow crystals up to 200 ?m in diameter in an annular area on the substrate at Rf = 0.98 and a substrate-to-tip of the flame inner cone distance of 2 mm; (iii) move the preferred crystals from the annular region into either the central core region of the flame feather or near the edge of the flame feather for further growth up to millimeter diameters under carefully controlled conditions. The final step of moving the crystals into a different growth region was necessary to avoid extensive secondary nucleation and structural defects. The key factor for diamond crystals to grow up to millimeter diameters was to maintain the growth conditions at the growing surface constant throughout the process. It was found that the crystal surface temperature, which was the most sensitive and also one of the most critical parameters, could be effectively maintained constant by decreasing the total gas flow rate as growth continued. Both the crystal growth orientations and the amount of nitrogen impurity incorporated in the diamond lattice were closely related to the crystal surface temperature. It is believed that the gas flow dynamics, or more specifically, the boundary layer thickness, played an important role in the growth and morphological development of large diamond crystals.

  14. Stable metallization for diamond and other materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachli, Andreas (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Nicolet, Marc-Aurele (Inventor); Vandersande, Jan W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An adherent and metallurgically stable metallization system for diamond is presented. The big improvement in metallurgical stability is attributed to the use of a ternary, amorphous Ti--Si--N diffusion barrier. No diffusion between the layers and no delamination of the metallization was observed after annealing the schemes at 400.degree. C. for 100 hours and at 900.degree. C. for 30 minutes. Thermal cycling experiments in air from -65 to 155.degree. C. and adhesion tests were performed. Various embodiments are disclosed.

  15. Observation of higher stiffness in nanopolycrystal diamond than monocrystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, Kenichi; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Kusakabe, Koichi; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Hirao, Masahiko; Ledbetter, Hassel

    2013-08-01

    Diamond is the stiffest known material. Here we report that nanopolycrystal diamond synthesized by direct-conversion method from graphite is stiffer than natural and synthesized monocrystal diamonds. This observation departs from the usual thinking that nanocrystalline materials are softer than their monocrystals because of a large volume fraction of soft grain-boundary region. The direct conversion causes the nondiffusional phase transformation to cubic diamond, producing many twins inside diamond grains. We give an ab initio-calculation twinned model that confirms the stiffening. We find that shorter interplane bonds along [111] are significantly strengthened near the twinned region, from which the superstiff structure originates. Our discovery provides a novel step forward in the search for superstiff materials.

  16. Influence of diamond surface termination on thermal boundary conductance between Al and diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Monachon, Christian; Weber, Ludger

    2013-05-14

    The effect of diamond surface treatment on the Thermal Boundary Conductance (TBC) between Al and diamond is investigated. The treatments consist in either of the following: exposition to a plasma of pure Ar, Ar:H and Ar:O, and HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid dip for various times. The surface of diamond after treatment is analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, revealing hydrogen termination for the as-received and Ar:H plasma treated samples, pure sp{sup 2} termination for Ar treated ones and oxygen (keton-like) termination for the other treatments. At ambient, all the specific treatments improve the TBC between Al and diamond from 23 {+-} 2 MW m{sup -2} K{sup -1} for the as-received to 65 {+-} 5, 125 {+-} 20, 150 {+-} 20, 180 {+-} 20 MW m{sup -2} K{sup -1} for the ones treated by Ar:H plasma, acid, pure Ar plasma, and Ar:O plasma with an evaporated Al layer on top, respectively. The effect of these treatments on temperature dependence are also observed and compared with the most common models available in the literature as well as experimental values in the same system. The results obtained show that the values measured for an Ar:O plasma treated diamond with Al sputtered on top stay consistently higher than the values existing in the literature over a temperature range from 78 to 290 K, probably due a lower sample surface roughness. Around ambient, the TBC values measured lay close to or even somewhat above the radiation limit, suggesting that inelastic or electronic processes may influence the transfer of heat at this metal/dielectric interface.

  17. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Fiori, A.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E.; Bellet-Amalric, E.

    2014-08-25

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV{sup 0} or NV{sup −}. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  18. Friction and Wear Properties of As-Deposited and Carbon Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 keV ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions per cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40% relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and wear properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to lO(exp -8) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4) mm(exp 7) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implantation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, non-diamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp-1)). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the non-diamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp -1). Thus, the carbon ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings not only in air and dry nitrogen, but also in ultrahigh vacuum.

  19. Diamond and other forms of elemental carbon in Saturn’s deep atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Baines, K. H.

    2013-10-01

    The energetic lightning storms in the Saturn atmosphere will dissociate molecules into atoms, ions and plasma. Specifically, methane will be dissociated into elemental carbon, most probably in an amorphous form, such as fluffy turbostratic carbon or irregular soot particles. Once formed, this non-crystalline carbon sinks down through the atmosphere reaching an altitude of similar density. Amorphous carbon is converted to graphite under pressure. Graphite has a density of ~2.2 g/cc at room temperature. The density of diamond is ~3.3 g/cc at STP. However, at much higher pressures, the density of diamond increases dramatically, up to 9 grams/cm3 at P=1500 GPa (15 Mbar). As carbon descends through the atmosphere, amorphous carbon becomes graphite which then is converted into diamond, creating various strata of carbon allotropes according to their densities. Densities of the planets increase with depth. Eventually, at great depths, diamond will melt, forming liquid diamond. The melting point of diamond varies with pressure, reaching a high of ~ 8000 K at 500 GPa (5 Mbar). Using updated adiabats and equation-of-state data from Nettelmann et al. (2011), we determined the altitude at which diamond reaches its melting point on each planet. Combining these adiabats with new data for the carbon phase diagram from high-pressure shockwave experiments indicates that diamond may be a stable layer in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Previously, only Uranus and Neptune were thought to have conditions in their interiors that would allow the formation of diamond at their cores. It appears that the interior of Jupiter gets hot enough to reach the liquid diamond region of the carbon phase diagram, whereas the interior of Saturn includes regions of temperature and pressure where carbon could exist as solid diamond. At the boundaries (locations of sharp increases in density) on Jupiter and Saturn, there may be diamond rain or diamond oceans sitting as a layer. However, in Uranus and Neptune, the temperatures never reach as high as 8000 K. The cores are ~5000K, too cold for diamond to melt on these planets. Therefore, it appears that diamonds are forever on Uranus and Neptune but not on Jupiter and Saturn.

  20. Stress engineering of high-quality single crystal diamond by heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Golding, B.

    2016-02-01

    A method for lateral overgrowth of low-stress single crystal diamond by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is described. The process is initiated by deposition of a thin (550 nm) (001) diamond layer on Ir-buffered a-plane sapphire. The diamond is partially masked by periodic thermally evaporated Au stripes using photolithography. Lateral overgrowth of the Au occurs with extremely effective filtering of threading dislocations. Thermal stress resulting from mismatch of the low thermal expansion diamond and the sapphire substrate is largely accommodated by the ductile Au layer. The stress state of the diamond is investigated by Raman spectroscopy for two thicknesses: at 10 μm where the film has just overgrown the Au mask and at 180 μm where the film thickness greatly exceeds the scale of the masking. For the 10-μm film, the Raman linewidth shows spatial oscillations with the period of the Au stripes with a factor of 2 to 3 reduction relative to the unmasked region. In a 180-μm thick diamond film, the overall surface stress was extremely low, 0.00 ± 0.16 GPa, obtained from the Raman shift averaged over the 7.5 mm diameter of the crystal at its surface. We conclude that the metal mask protects the overgrown diamond layer from substrate-induced thermal stress and cracking. It is also responsible for low internal stress by reducing dislocation density by several orders of magnitude.

  1. Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films by bias-enhanced nucleation and bias-enhanced growth

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Tzeng, Yonhua; Auciello, Orlando

    2014-01-14

    Effects of biasing voltage-current relationship on microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films on (100) silicon in hydrogen diluted methane by bias-enhanced nucleation and bias-enhanced growth processes are reported. Three biasing methods are applied to study their effects on nucleation, growth, and microstructures of deposited UNCD films. Method A employs 320 mA constant biasing current and a negative biasing voltage decreasing from −490 V to −375 V for silicon substrates pre-heated to 800 °C. Method B employs 400 mA constant biasing current and a decreasing negative biasing voltage from −375 V to −390 V for silicon pre-heated to 900 °C. Method C employs −350 V constant biasing voltage and an increasing biasing current up to 400 mA for silicon pre-heated to 800 °C. UNCD nanopillars, merged clusters, and dense films with smooth surface morphology are deposited by the biasing methods A, B, and C, respectively. Effects of ion energy and flux controlled by the biasing voltage and current, respectively, on nucleation, growth, microstructures, surface morphologies, and UNCD contents are confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy, and UV Raman scattering.

  2. Electric-field-driven hole carriers and superconductivity in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Rhim, S. H.; Sugiyama, A.; Sano, K.; Akiyama, T.; Ito, T.; Weinert, M.; Freeman, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    First-principles calculations of electric-field-driven superconductivity at the hydrogenated diamond (110) surface are presented. While the hydrogens on the surface effectively maintain the intrinsic sp3 covalent nature of diamond, the hole carriers induced by an external negative electric field (E-field) lead to a metallic surface region. Importantly, the concentration of hole carriers, confined within a few carbon layers of thickness ˜5-10 Å below the surface, exceeds 1021 cm-3, which is larger than the critical hole density responsible for superconductivity in the boron-doped diamond, while the calculated electron-phonon coupling constants are comparable in magnitude, suggesting the possibility of superconductivity with enhanced critical field.

  3. Fabrication of UV Photodetector on TiO2/Diamond Film

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhangcheng; Li, Fengnan; Li, Shuoye; Hu, Chao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Lin, Fang; Wang, Hongxing

    2015-01-01

    The properties of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated on TiO2/diamond film were investigated. Single crystal diamond layer was grown on high-pressure-high-temperature Ib-type diamond substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method, upon which TiO2 film was prepared directly using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique in Ar and O2 mixing atmosphere. Tungsten was used as electrode material to fabricate metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector. The dark current is measured to be 1.12 pA at 30 V. The photo response of the device displays an obvious selectivity between UV and visible light, and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio can reach 2 orders of magnitude. Compared with that directly on diamond film, photodetector on TiO2/diamond film shows higher responsivity. PMID:26399514

  4. A new hydrogen sensor using a polycrystalline diamond-based Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, W.P.; Gurbuz, Y.; Davidson, J.L.; Kerns, D.V. . Dept. of Applied and Engineering Sciences)

    1994-08-01

    A new hydrogen sensor utilizing plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited diamond in conjunction with palladium (Pd) metal has been developed. The device is fabricated in a layered Pd/Undoped diamond/p-doped diamond Schottky diode configuration. Hydrogen sensing characteristics of the device have been examined in terms of sensitivity, linearity, response rate, and response time as a function of temperature and hydrogen partial pressure. Hydrogen adsorption activation energy is investigated in the temperature range from 27 to 85 C. Analysis of the steady-state reaction kinetics using the I-V method confirm that the hydrogen adsorption process is responsible for the barrier height change in the diamond Schottky diode. The ability to fabricate diamond-based hydrogen sensor on a variety of substrates makes the device very versatile for gas sensing.

  5. Fabrication of UV Photodetector on TiO2/Diamond Film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhangcheng; Li, Fengnan; Li, Shuoye; Hu, Chao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Lin, Fang; Wang, Hongxing

    2015-01-01

    The properties of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated on TiO2/diamond film were investigated. Single crystal diamond layer was grown on high-pressure-high-temperature Ib-type diamond substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method, upon which TiO2 film was prepared directly using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique in Ar and O2 mixing atmosphere. Tungsten was used as electrode material to fabricate metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector. The dark current is measured to be 1.12 pA at 30 V. The photo response of the device displays an obvious selectivity between UV and visible light, and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio can reach 2 orders of magnitude. Compared with that directly on diamond film, photodetector on TiO2/diamond film shows higher responsivity. PMID:26399514

  6. Fabrication of UV Photodetector on TiO2/Diamond Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhangcheng; Li, Fengnan; Li, Shuoye; Hu, Chao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Lin, Fang; Wang, Hongxing

    2015-09-01

    The properties of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated on TiO2/diamond film were investigated. Single crystal diamond layer was grown on high-pressure-high-temperature Ib-type diamond substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method, upon which TiO2 film was prepared directly using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique in Ar and O2 mixing atmosphere. Tungsten was used as electrode material to fabricate metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector. The dark current is measured to be 1.12 pA at 30 V. The photo response of the device displays an obvious selectivity between UV and visible light, and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio can reach 2 orders of magnitude. Compared with that directly on diamond film, photodetector on TiO2/diamond film shows higher responsivity.

  7. The effect of surface treatment on the electrical properties of metal contacts to boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, S.A.; Gildenblat, G.S.; Hatfield, C.W.; Wronski, C.R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Badzian, A.R.; Badzian, T.; Messier, R. . Materials Research Lab.)

    1990-02-01

    Both doped and undoped homoepitaxial diamond films were fabricated using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The conductivity of the diamond film is strongly affected by the surface treatment. In particular, exposure of film surface to a hydrogen plasma results in the formation of a conductive layer which can be used to obtain linear (ohmic) {ital I-V} characteristics of the Au/diamond contacts, regardless of the doping level. The proper chemical cleaning of the boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond surface allows the fabrication of Au-gate Schottky diodes with excellent rectifying characteristics at temperatures of at least 400{degrees}C.

  8. Investigation of the shape transferability of nanoscale multi-tip diamond tools in the diamond turning of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xichun; Tong, Zhen; Liang, Yingchun

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the shape transferability of using nanoscale multi-tip diamond tools in the diamond turning for scale-up manufacturing of nanostructures has been demonstrated. Atomistic multi-tip diamond tool models were built with different tool geometries in terms of the difference in the tip cross-sectional shape, tip angle, and the feature of tool tip configuration, to determine their effect on the applied forces and the machined nano-groove geometries. The quality of machined nanostructures was characterized by the thickness of the deformed layers and the dimensional accuracy achieved. Simulation results show that diamond turning using nanoscale multi-tip tools offers tremendous shape transferability in machining nanostructures. Both periodic and non-periodic nano-grooves with different cross-sectional shapes can be successfully fabricated using the multi-tip tools. A hypothesis of minimum designed ratio of tool tip distance to tip base width (L/Wf) of the nanoscale multi-tip diamond tool for the high precision machining of nanostructures was proposed based on the analytical study of the quality of the nanostructures fabricated using different types of the multi-tip tools. Nanometric cutting trials using nanoscale multi-tip diamond tools (different in L/Wf) fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) were then conducted to verify the hypothesis. The investigations done in this work imply the potential of using the nanoscale multi-tip diamond tool for the deterministic fabrication of period and non-periodic nanostructures, which opens up the feasibility of using the process as a versatile manufacturing technique in nanotechnology.

  9. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  10. Electron energy loss spectrometry of interstellar diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1990-01-01

    The results are reported of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) measurements on diamond residues from carbonaceous meteorites designed to elucidate the structure and composition of interstellar diamonds. Dynamic effective medium theory is used to model the dielectric properties of the diamonds and in particular to synthesize the observed spectra as mixtures of diamond and various pi-bonded carbons. The results are shown to be quantitatively consistent with the idea that diamonds and their surfaces are the only contributors to the electron energy loss spectra of the diamond residues and that these peculiar spectra are the result of the exceptionally small grain size and large specific surface area of the interstellar diamonds.

  11. Subpicotesla Diamond Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Isoya, Junichi; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond are promising solid-state magnetometers. Single centers allow for high-spatial-resolution field imaging but are limited in their magnetic field sensitivity. Using defect-center ensembles, sensitivity can be scaled with √{N } when N is the number of defects. In the present work, we use an ensemble of N ˜1011 defect centers within an effective sensor volume of 8.5 ×10-4 mm3 for sensing at room temperature. By carefully eliminating noise sources and using high-quality diamonds with large NV concentrations, we demonstrate, for such sensors, a sensitivity scaling as 1 /√{t } , where t is the total measurement time. The associated photon-shot-noise-limited magnetic-field sensitivity for ac signals of f =20 kHz is 0.9 pT /√{Hz } . For a total measurement time of 100 s, we reach a standard deviation of about 100 fT. Further improvements using decoupling sequences and material optimization could lead to fT /√{Hz } sensitivity.

  12. Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter describes the nature of clean and contaminated diamond surfaces, Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond film deposition technology, analytical techniques and the results of research on CVD diamond films, and the general properties of CVD diamond films. Further, it describes the friction and wear properties of CVD diamond films in the atmosphere, in a controlled nitrogen environment, and in an ultra-high-vacuum environment.

  13. Friction and Wear Properties of As-deposited and Carbon Ion-implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1994-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 ke V ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2310(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40 percent relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and were properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to 10(exp -8)mm(exp 3)/N-m) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4)mm(exp 3/N-m) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implanation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, nondiamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine- and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7)mm(exp 3/N-m). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the nondiamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6)mm(exp 3)/N-m. Thus, the carbon ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings not only in air and dry nitrogen, but also in ultrahigh vacuum. The wear mechanism of diamond films is that of small fragments chipping off the surface. The size of wear particles is related to the extent of wear rates.

  14. Reducing GaN-on-diamond interfacial thermal resistance for high power transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huarui; Simon, Roland B.; Pomeroy, James W.; Francis, Daniel; Faili, Firooz; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Kuball, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Integration of chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond offers promising thermal performance for GaN-based high power radio frequency amplifiers. One limiting factor is the thermal barrier at the GaN to diamond interface, often referred to as the effective thermal boundary resistance (TBReff). Using a combination of transient thermoreflectance measurement, finite element modeling and microstructural analysis, the TBReff of GaN-on-diamond wafers is shown to be dominated by the SiNx interlayer for diamond growth seeding, with additional impacts from the diamond nucleation surface. By decreasing the SiNx layer thickness and minimizing the diamond nucleation region, TBReff can be significantly reduced, and a TBReff as low as 12 m2K/GW is demonstrated. This enables a major improvement in GaN-on-diamond transistor thermal resistance with respect to GaN-on-SiC wafers. A further reduction in TBReff towards the diffuse mismatch limit is also predicted, demonstrating the full potential of using diamond as the heat spreading substrate.

  15. Direct coating adherent diamond films on Fe-based alloy substrate: the roles of Al, Cr in enhancing interfacial adhesion and promoting diamond growth.

    PubMed

    Li, X J; He, L L; Li, Y S; Yang, Q; Hirose, A

    2013-08-14

    Direct CVD deposition of dense, continuous, and adherent diamond films on conventional Fe-based alloys has long been considered impossible. The current study demonstrates that such a deposition can be realized on Al, Cr-modified Fe-based alloy substrate (FeAl or FeCrAl). To clarify the fundamental mechanism of Al, Cr in promoting diamond growth and enhancing interfacial adhesion, fine structure and chemical analysis around the diamond film-substrate interface have been comprehensively characterized by transmission electron microscopy. An intermediate graphite layer forms on those Al-free substrates such as pure Fe and FeCr, which significantly deteriorates the interfacial adhesion of diamond. In contrast, such a graphite layer is absent on the FeAl and FeCrAl substrates, whereas a very thin Al-rich amorphous oxide sublayer is always identified between the diamond film and substrate interface. These comparative results indicate that the Al-rich interfacial oxide layer acts as an effective barrier to prevent the formation of graphite phase and consequently enhance diamond growth and adhesion. The adhesion of diamond film formed on FeCrAl is especially superior to that formed on FeAl substrate. This can be further attributed to a synergetic effect including the reduced fraction of Al and the decreased substrate thermal-expansion coefficient on FeCrAl in comparison with FeAl, and a mechanical interlocking effect due to the formation of interfacial chromium carbides. Accordingly, a mechanism model is proposed to account for the different interfacial adhesion of diamond grown on the various Fe-based substrates. PMID:23829602

  16. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; McCauley, Thomas G.; Zhou, Dan; Krauss, Alan R.

    2003-07-15

    A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

  17. CVD Diamond Dielectric Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Gat, R.

    2009-01-22

    The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerating structures: high RF breakdown field, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest available thermoconductive coefficient. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) cylindrical diamond structures have been manufactured with dimensions corresponding to fundamental TM{sub 01} mode frequencies in the GHz to THz range. Surface treatments are being developed to reduce the secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient below unity to reduce the possibility of multipactor. The diamond CVD cylindrical waveguide technology developed here can be applied to a variety of other high frequency, large-signal applications.

  18. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic hydrogen defect free diamond or diamond like films on a substrate. The method involves providing vapor containing fullerene molecules with or without an inert gas, providing a device to impart energy to the fullerene molecules, fragmenting at least in part some of the fullerene molecules in the vapor or energizing the molecules to incipient fragmentation, ionizing the fullerene molecules, impinging ionized fullerene molecules on the substrate to assist in causing fullerene fragmentation to obtain a thickness of diamond on the substrate.

  19. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-07-10

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films.

  20. Investigation of nucleation and growth processes of diamond films by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, M. A.; Burger, A.; Collins, Warren E.; Hu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) polycrystalline diamond films were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images were obtained for: (1) nucleated diamond films produced from depositions that were terminated during the initial stages of growth, (2) the silicon substrate-diamond film interface side of diamond films (1-4 micrometers thick) removed from the original surface of the substrate, and (3) cross-sectional fracture surface of the film, including the Si/diamond interface. Pronounced tip effects were observed for early-stage diamond nucleation attributed to tip convolution in the AFM images. AFM images of the films cross-section and interface however were not affected by tip convolution, and the images indicate that the surface of the silicon substrate is initially covered by small grained polycrystalline-like film and the formation of this precursor film is followed by nucleation of the diamond film on top of this layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscoy (XPS) spectra indicates that some silicon carbide is present in the precursor layer.

  1. Investigation of nucleation and growth processes of diamond films by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, M. A.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Davidson, J. L.; Barnes, A. V.; Tolk, N. H.

    1994-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond films were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images were obtained for (1) nucleated diamond films produced from depositions that were terminated during the initial stages of growth, (2) the silicon substrate-diamond film interface side of diamond films (1-4 micrometers thick) removed from the original surface of the substrate, and (3) the cross-sectional fracture surface of the film, including the Si/diamond interface. Pronounced tip effects were observed for early-stage diamond nucleation attributed to tip convolution in the AFM images. AFM images of the film's cross section and interface, however, were not highly affected by tip convolution, and the images indicate that the surface of the silicon substrate is initially covered by a small grained polycrystalline-like film and the formation of this precursor film is followed by nucleation of the diamond film on top of this layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that some silicon carbide is present in the precursor layer.

  2. Electrochemically grafted polypyrrole changes photoluminescence of electronic states inside nanocrystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Galář, P. Malý, P.; Čermák, J.; Kromka, A.; Rezek, B.

    2014-12-14

    Hybrid diamond-organic interfaces are considered attractive for diverse applications ranging from electronics and energy conversion to medicine. Here we use time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy in visible spectral range (380–700 nm) to study electronic processes in H-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) with 150 nm thin, electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) layer. We observe changes in dynamics of NCD photoluminescence as well as in its time-integrated spectra after polymer deposition. The effect is reversible. We propose a model where the PPy layer on the NCD surface promotes spatial separation of photo-generated charge carriers both in non-diamond carbon phase and in bulk diamond. By comparing different NCD thicknesses we show that the effect goes as much as 200 nm deep inside the NCD film.

  3. X-ray diffraction studies using diamond coated rhenium gasket to megabar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Akella, J; Catledge, S A; Chesnut, G N; Prokop, H; Vohra, Y K; Weir, S T

    1999-09-30

    X-ray diffraction studies at megabar pressures are limited by the sample thickness between the diamond anvils. High strength gaskets are desirable to improve the quality of x-ray diffraction data. We present a technique which employs a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposited diamond layer on one side of a rhenium gasket. As a test case, we show energy dispersive x-ray diffraction data on rare earth metal neodymium to 153 GPa using a synchrotron source. The increased sample thickness results in an unambiguous crystal structure determination of a monoclinic phase in neodymium above 75 GPa. [chemical vapor deposition, diamond, rhenium gasket, x-ray diffraction, neodymium

  4. Adhesion of diamond coatings synthesized by oxygen-acetylene flame CVD on tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, S.; Stankovic, S.; Dekanski, A.

    1995-12-31

    The results of a study concerned with chemical vapor deposition of diamond on tungsten carbide cutting tools using an oxygen-acetylene flame in a normal ambient environment are presented. Effects of preparation conditions on the adhesion of the coating have been investigated, including different surface treatment, different position of the flame with respect to the coated surface, effect of an intermediate poorly crystalline diamond layer, etc. In particular, effect of polishing and ultrasonic lapping with diamond powder was compared with that of a corresponding treatment with SiC powder.

  5. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond ceramics fabricated from C60 fullerene by shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, H.; Kondo, K.; Kim, M.; Koinuma, H.; Kurashima, K.; Bando, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Transparent nanocrystalline diamond ceramics, consisting of a few nanometer-sized diamond crystallites that are unstable in themselves because of higher surface energy, were fabricated successfully from C60 fullerene using a shock compression and rapid quenching technique. The platelets were transparent and very hard, nearly comparable to type IIa diamond. Transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that individual crystallites had combined directly or through a very thin and modified sp3 carbon layer, which possibly stabilized the nanometer-sized crystallites. The size order and sp3 configuration of the nanotexture caused the transparency and hardness of the present material.

  6. Electron beam activated diamond devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.H.; Sverdrup, L.H.

    1995-12-31

    Natural type IIa diamond wafers of various thicknesses and active areas were used to construct several electron beam activated diamond devices. The electron bombardment yields a current-voltage characteristic very similar to that of a bipolar transistor. The device on-state resistance is consistent with a simple carrier drift and space charge model. The diamond conduction to bombarding current gain ranges from 1,000 to 3,000 depending upon the target thickness and the bombarding electron energy. Average voltage gradients in diamond targets on the order of a mega-volt per centimeter were obtained. This enabled switch demonstration with delivery of 26kW to a resistive load. Using short duration electron pulses, high-repetition-rate sub-nanosecond switching speed consistent with the circuit time constant is demonstrated.

  7. Method of Dehalogenation using Diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

    1999-02-26

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  8. Diamond family of nanoparticle superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyan; Tagawa, Miho; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Tong; Emamy, Hamed; Li, Huilin; Yager, Kevin G.; Starr, Francis W.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Gang, Oleg

    2016-02-01

    Diamond lattices formed by atomic or colloidal elements exhibit remarkable functional properties. However, building such structures via self-assembly has proven to be challenging because of the low packing fraction, sensitivity to bond orientation, and local heterogeneity. We report a strategy for creating a diamond superlattice of nano-objects via self-assembly and demonstrate its experimental realization by assembling two variant diamond lattices, one with and one without atomic analogs. Our approach relies on the association between anisotropic particles with well-defined tetravalent binding topology and isotropic particles. The constrained packing of triangular binding footprints of truncated tetrahedra on a sphere defines a unique three-dimensional lattice. Hence, the diamond self-assembly problem is solved via its mapping onto two-dimensional triangular packing on the surface of isotropic spherical particles.

  9. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Roslyn Harbor, NY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Lafayette, LA); Ladner, Edward P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Anderson, Richard R. (Brownsville, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  10. Diamond family of nanoparticle superlattices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenyan; Tagawa, Miho; Xin, Huolin L; Wang, Tong; Emamy, Hamed; Li, Huilin; Yager, Kevin G; Starr, Francis W; Tkachenko, Alexei V; Gang, Oleg

    2016-02-01

    Diamond lattices formed by atomic or colloidal elements exhibit remarkable functional properties. However, building such structures via self-assembly has proven to be challenging because of the low packing fraction, sensitivity to bond orientation, and local heterogeneity. We report a strategy for creating a diamond superlattice of nano-objects via self-assembly and demonstrate its experimental realization by assembling two variant diamond lattices, one with and one without atomic analogs. Our approach relies on the association between anisotropic particles with well-defined tetravalent binding topology and isotropic particles. The constrained packing of triangular binding footprints of truncated tetrahedra on a sphere defines a unique three-dimensional lattice. Hence, the diamond self-assembly problem is solved via its mapping onto two-dimensional triangular packing on the surface of isotropic spherical particles. PMID:26912698

  11. Towards electrons floating over diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, M. P.; Baldwin, J. W.; Zalalutdinov, M. K.; Shaw, J. L.; Butler, J. E.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2011-03-01

    The opportunities for development of a 2D electron system of image potential surface electrons over negative electron affinity diamond are examined. Image potential surface electron states, located spatially outside the solid, are well established on a variety of surfaces (metals, semiconductors and dielectrics). In particular, laterally confined electrons above liquid helium have been demonstrated and proposed for advanced computing applications [1,2]. Unlike the surface of liquid helium, the electron affinity of the diamond surface can be varied, providing the ability to lithographically pattern surface electron `pools' and `wires'. We present candidate structures for lateral charge control that make use of buried and surface features patterned in and on diamond. Electronic properties and spectroscopy of electrons over diamond in our fabricated structures are discussed. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. Fabrication of amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1995-12-12

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  13. Near-surface spectrally stable nitrogen vacancy centres engineered in single crystal diamond.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Alastair; Simpson, David A; Karle, Timothy J; Gibson, Brant C; Acosta, Victor M; Huang, Zhihong; Fu, Kai Mei C; Santori, Charles; Beausoleil, Raymond G; McGuinness, Liam P; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Greentree, Andrew D; Prawer, Steven

    2012-07-01

    A method for engineering thin (<100 nm) layers of homoepitaxial diamond containing high quality, spectrally stable, isolated nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres is reported. The photoluminescence excitation linewidth of the engineered NVs are as low as 140 MHz, at temperatures below 12 K, while the spin properties are at a level suitable for quantum memory and spin register applications. This methodology of NV fabrication is an important step toward scalable and practical diamond based photonic devices suitable for quantum information processing. PMID:22628048

  14. Biocompatibility of chemical-vapour-deposited diamond.

    PubMed

    Tang, L; Tsai, C; Gerberich, W W; Kruckeberg, L; Kania, D R

    1995-04-01

    The biocompatibility of chemical-vapour-deposited (CVD) diamond surfaces has been assessed. Our results indicate that CVD diamond is as biocompatible as titanium (Ti) and 316 stainless steel (SS). First, the amount of adsorbed and 'denatured' fibrinogen on CVD diamond was very close to that of Ti and SS. Second, both in vitro and in vivo there appears to be less cellular adhesion and activation on the surface of CVD diamond surfaces compared to Ti and SS. This evident biocompatibility, coupled with the corrosion resistance and notable mechanical integrity of CVD diamond, suggests that diamond-coated surfaces may be highly desirable in a number of biomedical applications. PMID:7654876

  15. Hybrid Group IV Nanophotonic Structures Incorporating Diamond Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Ishiwata, Hitoshi; Babinec, Thomas M; Radulaski, Marina; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Dory, Constantin; Dahl, Jeremy; Edgington, Robert; Soulière, Veronique; Ferro, Gabriel; Fokin, Andrey A; Schreiner, Peter R; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-01-13

    We demonstrate a new approach for engineering group IV semiconductor-based quantum photonic structures containing negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV(-)) color centers in diamond as quantum emitters. Hybrid diamond-SiC structures are realized by combining the growth of nano- and microdiamonds on silicon carbide (3C or 4H polytype) substrates, with the subsequent use of these diamond crystals as a hard mask for pattern transfer. SiV(-) color centers are incorporated in diamond during its synthesis from molecular diamond seeds (diamondoids), with no need for ion-implantation or annealing. We show that the same growth technique can be used to grow a diamond layer controllably doped with SiV(-) on top of a high purity bulk diamond, in which we subsequently fabricate nanopillar arrays containing high quality SiV(-) centers. Scanning confocal photoluminescence measurements reveal optically active SiV(-) lines both at room temperature and low temperature (5 K) from all fabricated structures, and, in particular, very narrow line widths and small inhomogeneous broadening of SiV(-) lines from all-diamond nanopillar arrays, which is a critical requirement for quantum computation. At low temperatures (5 K) we observe in these structures the signature typical of SiV(-) centers in bulk diamond, consistent with a double lambda. These results indicate that high quality color centers can be incorporated into nanophotonic structures synthetically with properties equivalent to those in bulk diamond, thereby opening opportunities for applications in classical and quantum information processing. PMID:26695059

  16. Surface Design and Engineering Toward Wear-Resistant, Self-Lubricating Diamond Films and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    The tribological properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films vary with the environment, possessing a Jekyll-and-Hyde character. CVD diamond has low coefficient of friction and high wear resistance in air but high coefficient of friction and low wear resistance in vacuum. Improving the tribological functionality of materials (such as achieving low friction and good wear resistance) was an aim of this investigation. Three studies on the surface design, surface engineering, and tribology of CVD diamond have shown that its friction and wear are significantly reduced in ultrahigh vacuum. The main criteria for judging whether diamond films are an effective wear-resistant, self-lubricating material were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which must be less than 0.1 and on the order of 10(exp 6) cu mm/N(dot)m, respectively. In the first study the presence of a thin film (less than 1 micron thick) of amorphous, nondiamond carbon (hydrogenated carbon, also called diamondlike carbon or DLC) on CVD diamond greatly decreased the coefficient of friction and the wear rate. Therefore, a thin DLC film on CVD diamond can be an effective wear-resistant, lubricating coating in ultrahigh vacuum. In the second study the presence of an amorphous, nondiamond carbon surface layer formed on CVD diamond by ion implantation significantly reduced the coefficient of friction and the wear rate in ultrahigh vacuum. Therefore, such surface layers are acceptable for effective self-lubricating, wear-resistant applications of CVD diamond. In the third study CVD diamond in contact with cubic boron nitride exhibited low coefficient of friction in ultra high vacuum. Therefore, this materials combination can provide an effective self-lubricating, wear-resistant couple in ultrahigh vacuum.

  17. All-Diamond Microelectrodes as Solid State Probes for Localized Electrochemical Sensing.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduardo L; Gouvêa, Cristol P; Quevedo, Marcela C; Neto, Miguel A; Archanjo, Braulio S; Fernandes, António J S; Achete, Carlos A; Silva, Rui F; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L; Oliveira, Filipe J

    2015-07-01

    The fabrication of an all-diamond microprobe is demonstrated for the first time. This ME (microelectrode) assembly consists of an inner boron doped diamond (BDD) layer and an outer undoped diamond layer. Both layers were grown on a sharp tungsten tip by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a stepwise manner within a single deposition run. BDD is a material with proven potential as an electrochemical sensor. Undoped CVD diamond is an insulating material with superior chemical stability in comparison to conventional insulators. Focused ion beam (FIB) cutting of the apex of the ME was used to expose an electroactive BDD disk. By cyclic voltammetry, the redox reaction of ferrocenemethanol was shown to take place at the BDD microdisk surface. In order to ensure that the outer layer was nonelectrically conductive, a diffusion barrier for boron atoms was established seeking the formation of boron-hydrogen complexes at the interface between the doped and the undoped diamond layers. The applicability of the microelectrodes in localized corrosion was demonstrated by scanning amperometric measurements of oxygen distribution above an Al-Cu-CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) galvanic corrosion cell. PMID:26057348

  18. Thermal and fast neutron detection in chemical vapor deposition single-crystal diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, M.; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Lattanzi, D.; Pillon, M.; Montereali, R. M.; Vincenti, M. A.

    2008-03-01

    Recently, a compact solid-state neutron detector capable of simultaneously detecting thermal and fast neutrons was proposed [M. Marinelli et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143509 (2006)]. Its design is based on a p-type/intrinsic/metal layered structure obtained by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of homoepitaxial diamond followed by thermal evaporation of an Al contact and a L6iF converting layer. Fast neutrons are directly detected in the CVD diamond bulk, since they have enough energy to produce the C12(n,α)B9e reaction in diamond. Thermal neutrons are instead converted into charged particles in the L6iF layer through the L6i(n ,α)T nuclear reaction. These charged particles are then detected in the diamond layer. The thickness of the L6iF converting layer and the CVD diamond sensing layer affect the counting efficiency and energy resolution of the detector both for low- (thermal) and high-energy neutrons. An analysis is carried out on the dynamics of the L6i(n ,α)T and the C12(n,α)B9e reactions products, and the distribution of the energy released inside the sensitive layer is calculated. The detector counting efficiency and energy resolution were accordingly derived as a function of the thickness of the L6iF and CVD diamond layers, both for thermal and fast neutrons, thus allowing us to choose the optimum detector design for any particular application. Comparison with experimental results is also reported.

  19. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly traded diamond companies may be due to investors losing patience with the slow pace or absence of new promising discoveries and switching into shares of base metals and fertilizers for agriculture (potash and phosphates).

  20. Electron microscopy of gallium nitride growth on polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, R. F.; Cherns, D.; Kuball, M.; Jiang, Q.; Allsopp, D.

    2015-11-01

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the growth of gallium nitride (GaN) on polycrystalline diamond substrates grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy with a low-temperature aluminium nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Growth on unmasked substrates was in the (0001) orientation with threading dislocation densities ≈7 × 109 cm-2. An epitaxial layer overgrowth technique was used to reduce the dislocation densities further, by depositing silicon nitride stripes on the surface and etching the unmasked regions down to the diamond substrate. A re-growth was then performed on the exposed side walls of the original GaN growth, reducing the threading dislocation density in the overgrown regions by two orders of magnitude. The resulting microstructures and the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are discussed.

  1. Evolution of the morphology of diamond particles and mechanism of their growth during the synthesis by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feoktistov, N. A.; Grudinkin, S. A.; Golubev, V. G.; Baranov, M. A.; Bogdanov, K. V.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the surface morphology of diamond particles synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on silicon substrates has been investigated. It has been found that, when the diamond particles reach a critical size of less than 800 nm, the surface of the diamond faces is transformed. Particles with sizes of no more than 100-300 nm have a well-faceted surface covered by the {100} and {111} faces. An increase in the size of diamond particles leads to a change in the structure of their surface. The surface is covered by the {100} faces surrounded by a disordered phase. With a further increase in the particle size (up to ˜2000 nm), the {100} faces disappear and the diamond particles are covered by high-index faces. A model explaining the evolution of the surface morphology of diamond particles has been proposed. According to this model, during the evolution of diamond particles with an increase in their size, the mechanism of layer-bylayer growth changes to normal growth, which leads to a significant transformation of the entire surface of the diamond particles. The critical size of a two-dimensional nucleus formed on the {100} and {111} faces, at which the change in the growth mechanism begins to occur, has been calculated. A method has been proposed for controlling the morphology of diamond particles during their synthesis.

  2. The Flowfield Characteristics of a Mach 2 Diamond Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Donnell; Alvi, Farrukh S.; Krothapalli, Anjanevulu

    1997-01-01

    The potential for using a novel diamond-shaped nozzle which may allow for superior mixing characteristics of supersonic jets without significant thrust losses is explored. The results of flow visualization and pressure measurements indicate the presence of distinct structures in the shear layers, not normally observed in shear layers of axisymmetric and rectangular jets. As characteristics of these features suggests that they are a manifestation of significant streamwise vorticity in the shear layers. Despite the distinct nature of the flowfield structure of the present shear layer, the global growth rates of this shear layer were found to be very similar to its two-dimensional and axisymmetric counterparts. These and other observations suggest that the presence of streamwise vorticity may not play a significant role in the global development of a compressible shear layer.

  3. Combined single-crystalline and polycrystalline CVD diamond substrates for diamond electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Vikharev, A. L. Gorbachev, A. M.; Dukhnovsky, M. P.; Muchnikov, A. B.; Ratnikova, A. K.; Fedorov, Yu. Yu.

    2012-02-15

    The fabrication of diamond substrates in which single-crystalline and polycrystalline CVD diamond form a single wafer, and the epitaxial growth of diamond films on such combined substrates containing polycrystalline and (100) single-crystalline CVD diamond regions are studied.

  4. Boron doping of diamond powder by enhanced diffusion and forced diffusion: Diffusion concentrations, mechanical, chemical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshani, Fariborz

    Diamond, with its unique mechanical properties, is an excellent material for a wide range of applications. However, there exist some problems. One such problem is integration of diamond of diamond into tool's (usually tungsten-carbide) lattice matrix for the purpose of increasing its performance. The presence of cobalt in the matrix, which acts as a poison for diamond, causes graphitization and degradation of diamond. In addition, diamond graphitizes at sintering temperatures (1770 K). The results of this work suggest that boron has produced a protective layer for diamond, thus reducing the effects of annealing at high temperatures. Boron has been introduced into single crystal high pressure, high temperature diamond powder by enhanced diffusion and forced diffusion techniques. Enhanced diffusion resulted in higher concentrations of boron in diamond powder. Total boron concentrations of 500 to 600 ppm, and 10sp{20} cmsp{-3} at a depth of 0.5 micrometer, have been achieved. Hardness tests performed on doped samples reveal that diamond did not lose its strength due to diffusion at elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis did not show any change in the "quality" of diamond due to doping. Oxidation experiments performed on doped and undoped samples revealed that the samples with the highest boron concentrations had superior performance and resistance to oxidation. Final weight loss in these samples was much less than in undoped samples and samples with low boron concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy of these samples showed that degradation due to oxidation of heavily doped diamond samples was significantly less than other samples.

  5. Diamond magnetometry of superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waxman, A.; Schlussel, Y.; Groswasser, D.; Acosta, V. M.; Bouchard, L.-S.; Budker, D.; Folman, R.

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, diamond magnetometers based on the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center have been of considerable interest for applications at the nanoscale. An interesting application which is well suited for NV centers is the study of nanoscale magnetic phenomena in superconducting materials. We employ NV centers to interrogate magnetic properties of a thin-layer yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductor. Using fluorescence-microscopy methods and samples integrated with an NV sensor on a microchip, we measure the temperature of phase transition in the layer to be 70.0(2) K and the penetration field of vortices to be 46(4) G. We observe pinning of the vortices in the layer at 65 K and estimate their density after cooling the sample in a ˜10-G field to be 0.45(1) μm-2. These measurements are done with a 10-nm-thick NV layer, so that high spatial resolution may be enabled in the future. Based on these results, we anticipate that this magnetometer could be useful for imaging the structure and dynamics of vortices. As an outlook, we present a fabrication method for a superconductor chip designed for this purpose.

  6. Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?

    PubMed

    Schrand, Amanda M; Huang, Houjin; Carlson, Cataleya; Schlager, John J; Omacr Sawa, Eiji; Hussain, Saber M; Dai, Liming

    2007-01-11

    Finely divided carbon particles, including charcoal, lampblack, and diamond particles, have been used for ornamental and official tattoos since ancient times. With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, nanotubes, nanodiamonds) attract a great deal of interest. Owing to their low chemical reactivity and unique physical properties, nanodiamonds could be useful in a variety of biological applications such as carriers for drugs, genes, or proteins; novel imaging techniques; coatings for implantable materials; and biosensors and biomedical nanorobots. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the possible hazards of nanodiamonds to humans and other biological systems. We have, for the first time, assessed the cytotoxicity of nanodiamonds ranging in size from 2 to 10 nm. Assays of cell viability such as mitochondrial function (MTT) and luminescent ATP production showed that nanodiamonds were not toxic to a variety of cell types. Furthermore, nanodiamonds did not produce significant reactive oxygen species. Cells can grow on nanodiamond-coated substrates without morphological changes compared to controls. These results suggest that nanodiamonds could be ideal for many biological applications in a diverse range of cell types. PMID:17201422

  7. Carbon carbon detection: Diamond detectors and AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcken, K. M.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Dougans, A.; Xu, S.; Galbiati, A.; Oliver, K.

    2010-04-01

    14C ions (290 keV) have been detected with chemically vapour deposited diamond. Potential benefits of diamond detectors are radiation hardness, high charge collection and very fast response time/high bandwidth.

  8. Dynamic consolidation of diamond powder into polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, David K.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-08-01

    The formation of a polycrystalline solid compact, by fusing an initially porous aggregate of diamond crystals under dynamic shock pressure (7.5-18 GPa), is shown to depend critically on the size of the initial crystals. Porous aggregates of 100-150 micron diameter crystals upon shock compaction produced compacts. These exhibited pronounced fracturing of the individual crystals and showed no evidence of fusion. Aggregates consisting of ultrafine crystals also exhibited minimal consolidation. However, samples composed of crystals in the range 4-8 microns produced strong fused compacts of polycrystalline diamond. A model calculation indicates that at 10 GPa less than 0.07 mass fraction of the diamond powder can be melted and this molten material is quenched in 0.8 ns for 8-micron-diam crystals.

  9. Diamond radiation detectors I. Detector properties for IIa diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-05-16

    The detector properties and carrier dynamics of type IIa diamonds are reasonably well understood. The trends in the electron and hole mobilities have been characterized as a function of temperature, impurity content, electric field and carrier density. The carrier lifetimes are coupled through the nitrogen impurity. This leaves us with typical samples with collection distances of 20 to 50 micrometers. The detailed dynamics of the carriers can be modeled using a rate equation analysis. Much progress has been made in understanding the detector properties of diamond, but continued progress has been limited by the geologic processes used to make the material, for example sample size and no synthesis control. CVD diamond promises to eliminate these restrictions.

  10. Diamond-integrated optomechanical circuits.

    PubMed

    Rath, Patrik; Khasminskaya, Svetlana; Nebel, Christoph; Wild, Christoph; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2013-01-01

    Diamond offers unique material advantages for the realization of micro- and nanomechanical resonators because of its high Young's modulus, compatibility with harsh environments and superior thermal properties. At the same time, the wide electronic bandgap of 5.45 eV makes diamond a suitable material for integrated optics because of broadband transparency and the absence of free-carrier absorption commonly encountered in silicon photonics. Here we take advantage of both to engineer full-scale optomechanical circuits in diamond thin films. We show that polycrystalline diamond films fabricated by chemical vapour deposition provide a convenient wafer-scale substrate for the realization of high-quality nanophotonic devices. Using free-standing nanomechanical resonators embedded in on-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometers, we demonstrate efficient optomechanical transduction via gradient optical forces. Fabricated diamond resonators reproducibly show high mechanical quality factors up to 11,200. Our low cost, wideband, carrier-free photonic circuits hold promise for all-optical sensing and optomechanical signal processing at ultra-high frequencies. PMID:23575694

  11. Diamond-integrated optomechanical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Patrik; Khasminskaya, Svetlana; Nebel, Christoph; Wild, Christoph; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2013-04-01

    Diamond offers unique material advantages for the realization of micro- and nanomechanical resonators because of its high Young’s modulus, compatibility with harsh environments and superior thermal properties. At the same time, the wide electronic bandgap of 5.45 eV makes diamond a suitable material for integrated optics because of broadband transparency and the absence of free-carrier absorption commonly encountered in silicon photonics. Here we take advantage of both to engineer full-scale optomechanical circuits in diamond thin films. We show that polycrystalline diamond films fabricated by chemical vapour deposition provide a convenient wafer-scale substrate for the realization of high-quality nanophotonic devices. Using free-standing nanomechanical resonators embedded in on-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometers, we demonstrate efficient optomechanical transduction via gradient optical forces. Fabricated diamond resonators reproducibly show high mechanical quality factors up to 11,200. Our low cost, wideband, carrier-free photonic circuits hold promise for all-optical sensing and optomechanical signal processing at ultra-high frequencies.

  12. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  13. Diamond turning aspheric projector mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenda

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays ultra precision machining of single-point diamond turning has played an important role in manufacturing high-precision optical components where surface finish is critical. This paper describes how diamond turning technology was applied to fabricate two tight-tolerance, high accuracy aspheric mirrors for a big-screen high-resolution television projection system. The system consists of two mirrors, a primary and a secondary mirror. Both mirrors have off axis rotational aspheric form. In order to get a good finish, the mirror surface was nickel plated and then diamond turned. Post polish was applied to remove diamond turning grooves and to improve the surface quality. As the off-axis aspheric surface could not be measured by conventional profile meter, a white interferometer was used to measure the off axis aspheric form. The measurement results were compared with that of the design CAD model. The form deviation was less than 3 um. The optical performance of the mirrors was tested in an optical lab. The result was very satisfactory. As the diamond turned prototype mirrors worked so wonderfully with the system, mass production of the mirrors by plastic injection is on the way to bring the new products to the market.

  14. Nanocrystalline diamond synthesized from C60

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Langehorst, F.; Jacobsen, S.; Liebske, C.

    2010-11-30

    A bulk sample of nanocrystalline cubic diamond with crystallite sizes of 5-12 nm was synthesized from fullerene C{sub 60} at 20(1) GPa and 2000 C using a multi-anvil apparatus. The new material is at least as hard as single crystal diamond. It was found that nanocrystalline diamond at high temperature and ambient pressure kinetically is more stable with respect to graphitization than usual diamonds.

  15. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-05-25

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  16. Genesis of Diamond-bearing and Diamond-free Podiform Chromitites in the Luobusa Ophiolite, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Xiong, F.; Xu, X.; Robinson, P. T.; Dilek, Y.; Griffin, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Micro-diamonds, moissanite and many highly reduced minerals, such as native Fe, Cr, Ni, Si, Al, and metallic alloys, have been reported previously from podiform chromitites and peridotites of the Luobusa ophiolite in the eastern segment of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture of southern Tibet.. Similar mineral associations have now been confirmed in mantle peridotites or chromitites of 11 other ophiolites in 5 orogenic belts, in Tibet, Myanmar, North China and the Polar Urals. However, detailed studies of the Luobusa ophiolite show that not all chromitites contain these UHP and highly reduced minerals. Diamond-bearing chromitites are chiefly massive bodies composed of over 95 modal% magnesiochromite with Cr#s [100Cr/(Cr+Al)] of 77-83 and Mg#s [100Mg/(Mg+Fe)] of 71-82. Most of these bodies have sharp contacts with the host harzburgites and are only rarely enclosed in dunite envelopes. Many magnesiochromite grains in the massive chromitites contain inclusions of forsterite and pyroxene. Forsterite inclusions have Fo numbers of 97-99 and NiO contents of 1.11-1.29 wt%. Mg#s of clinopyroxene inclusions are 96-98 and those of orthopyroxene are 96-97. X-ray studies show that the olivine inclusions have very small unit cells and short cation-oxygen bond distances, suggesting crystallization at high pressure. In contrast, diamond-free chromitites typically occur as layers within thick dunite sequences or as irregular patches surrounded by dunite envelopes. They consist of variable proportions of magnesiochromite (Cr# = 76-78; Mg# = 58-61) and olivine, and have banded, nodular and disseminated textures. The dunite envelopes consist chiefly of granular olivine with a few relatively large, amoeboidal grains of magnesiochromite, and typically grade into the host peridotites with increasing pyroxene. Unlike those in the massive ores, magnesiochromite grains in nodular and disseminated chromitites lack pyroxene inclusions, and their olivine inclusions have relatively low Fo (94-96) and NiO (0.35-0.58 wt%). We propose that the diamond-bearing chromitite ores formed within the deeper parts of the upper mantle and were emplaced at an oceanic spreading ridge, whereas the diamond-free chromitites formed at shallow levels by melt/rock reaction, most likely in a SSZ environment.

  17. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  18. Microinclusions in polycrystalline diamonds: insights into processes of diamond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wirth, R.; Enzmann, F.; Schwarz, J. O.; Kronz, A.

    2009-04-01

    Polycrystalline diamond aggregates (framesites) contain silicates of eclogitic and peridotitic affinity (e.g. Kurat and Dobosi, 2000). The minerals occur mostly in interstices and are intimately intergrown with the diamonds, indicating contemporaneous crystallization within the diamond stability field in the Earth's mantle. In addition to silicates, rarer phases such as Fe-carbide can sometimes be found in framesites that record unusually low local oxygen fugacity at the time of their formation (Jacob et al., 2004). Furthermore, while most gem-sized diamonds have old, often Archaean formation ages, some polycrystalline diamond aggregates have been shown to form directly preceding the kimberlite eruption (Jacob et al., 2000). Thus, these samples may provide a unique source of information on the nature and timing of small scale processes that lead to diamond formation and complement evidence from gem-sized diamonds. Here, we present a study of micro- and nano-inclusions in diamonds from a polycrystalline diamond aggregate (framesite) from the Orapa Mine (Botswana) and combine results from TEM/FIB analyses with high-resolution computerized micro-tomography (HR-µCT) and electron microprobe analyses to further constrain the formation of diamond in the Earth's mantle. Results In total, 14 microinclusions from fifteen FIB foils were investigated. Micro- and nano-inclusions identified by TEM were smaller than 1µm down to ca. 50nm in size, and are both monomineralic and multi-phase. The cavities are often lath-shaped and oriented parallel to each other; many show lattice dislocations in the surrounding diamond. In addition, inclusions are found along open cracks within the diamond single crystals. Mineral phases in the microinclusions comprise rutile, omphacite and a FeS phase (pyrrhotite). The multiphase inclusions most often consist of cavities that are only partly occupied (less than 50% of the total space), suggesting that the empty space was originally filled by a fluid. One multiphase inclusion was found to be still fluid-bearing, showing characteristic continuous changes in diffraction contrast due to density fluctuations caused by the electron beam. No other elements than carbon were detected during AEM of this area which suggests that the fluid consists of relatively pure C-H-O species. In addition to the fluid, this inclusion contained fine-grained FeS, a silicate phase rich in Fe, P, Mg, Al, Ca and K and a quench phase, rich in Fe, P and Si. Macroinclusions (>5µm) are magnetite, often surrounded by hematite, FeS, low-Cr garnet (Py50Alm39Grs11) and omphacite (Jd23). Garnet and cpx were found as non-touching inclusions and yield 1256°C at 5 GPa. Most of the magnetite inclusions are single crystals and some are strongly deformed with signs of recrystallization. Hematite occurs as porous aggregates of nano-granules of ca. 5-7 nm sizes. High Resolution µ-Computer Tomography (HR-µCT) shows pores in the sample and the included mineral phases as areas of differing grey-values. These are a direct function of the specific x-ray density of the specific phase and can be used to differentiate oxides and silicates. Based on the 3D tomogram, the amount of pores per total volume of the diamond plus inclusion matrix is calculated to be 0.65 vol%, while magnetite inclusions amount to 3.16 vol%. The average equivalent radius of the magnetite grains (radius of a sphere with the same volume as the grain) is 17.8 µm, while that of the pores is 12.6µm. Discussion The occurrence of omphacite, rutile and FeS as microinclusions within the diamond crystals clearly shows that these phases are cogenetic to the diamonds. However, magnetite and hematite were only encountered as large inclusions in cavities that appear to be interstitial porosity. Moreover, analysis of the equivalent radius distribution of the pores and the magnetite inclusions derived from HR-µCT shows a complete overlap of the mode, indicating that magnetite preferentially fills the porosity in the sample. Furthermore, hematite occurs exclusively along the outer rim of the magnetite crystals and textural features suggest that this phase is a late replacement product of magnetite. This shows that the magnetite-bearing cavities were not shielded from the outside by the host diamond and may indicate that magnetite itself was introduced after diamond formation or during a secondary event that may still, however, have taken place at PT conditions of the diamond stability field. The microinclusion suite described here is distinct from that found in fibrous (e.g. Klein-BenDavid et al., 2007) and in microdiamonds (Kvasnytsya et al., 2006). Carbonates, halides and phosphates, that are typical for fibrous and microdiamonds were not encountered in our study. Instead, the microinclusion suite found in the framesite consists of the typical eclogitic minerals (rutile, garnet, omphacite, sulphide) plus a C-H-O fluid. Jacob et al., 2004. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 146, 566-576. Jacob et al., 2000. Science, 289, 1182-1185. Klein-BenDavid et al., 2007. Amer. Mineral. 91, 353-365. Kurat and Dobosi, 2000. Mineral. Petrol. 69, 143-159. Kvasnytsya et al., 2006. Ukrainian Geologist 2, 25-36.

  19. Electron microscopic evidence for a tribologically induced phase transformation as the origin of wear in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinyi; Schneider, Reinhard; Müller, Erich; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Mee, Manuel; Meier, Sven; Gumbsch, Peter

    2014-02-14

    Tribological testing of a coarse-grained diamond layer, deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, was performed on a ring-on-ring tribometer with a diamond counterpart. The origin of the wear of diamond and of the low friction coefficient of 0.15 was studied by analyzing the microstructure of worn and unworn regions by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In the worn regions, the formation of an amorphous carbon layer with a thickness below 100 nm is observed. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of the C-K ionization edge reveals the transition from sp{sup 3}-hybridized C-atoms in crystalline diamond to a high fraction of sp{sup 2}-hybridized C-atoms in the tribo-induced amorphous C-layer within a transition region of less than 5 nm thickness. The mechanically induced phase transformation from diamond to the amorphous phase is found to be highly anisotropic which is clearly seen at a grain boundary, where the thickness of the amorphous layer above the two differently oriented grains abruptly changes.

  20. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  1. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  2. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  3. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  4. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  5. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  6. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  7. Diamond photodiodes for x-ray application

    SciTech Connect

    Distel, James R; Smedley, John; Keister, Jeffrey W; Muller, Erik; Jordan - Sweet, Jean; Bohon, Jen; Dong, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Single crystal high purity CVD diamonds have been metallized and calibrated as photodiodes at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Current mode responsivity measurements have been made over a wide range (0.2-28 keV) of photon energies across several beamlines. Linear response has been achieved over ten orders of magnitude of incident flux, along with uniform spatial response. A simple model of responsivity has been used to describe the results, yielding a value of 13.3 {+-} 0.5 eV for the mean pair creation energy. The responsivity vs. photon energy data show a dip for photon energies near the carbon edge (284 eV), indicating incomplete charge collection for carriers created less than one micron from the metallized layer.

  8. A new method for fabrication of diamond-dust blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, H. R.; Hogan, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal embedding of diamond dust onto a polyethylene-coated Al plate has been used to make a blocking filter for FIR applications. The Al plate is sandwiched between two Mylar 'blankets' and the air between the layers is removed by means of a small vacuum pump. After the polyethylene is heated and softened, the diamond dust is applied to the polyethylene coating using a brush. The optimum diamond dust grain sizes corresponding to polyethylene layer thicknesses of 9-12 microns are given in a table, and the application of the blocking filter to spectrometric measurements in the FIR is described. An exploded view diagram of the layered structure of the blocking filter is provided.

  9. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=58 GPa, T=1400K2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  10. Diamond-structured photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin; Thomas, Edwin L

    2004-09-01

    Certain periodic dielectric structures can prohibit the propagation of light for all directions within a frequency range. These 'photonic crystals' allow researchers to modify the interaction between electromagnetic fields and dielectric media from radio to optical wavelengths. Their technological potential, such as the inhibition of spontaneous emission, enhancement of semiconductor lasers, and integration and miniaturization of optical components, makes the search for an easy-to-craft photonic crystal with a large bandgap a major field of study. This progress article surveys a collection of robust complete three-dimensional dielectric photonic-bandgap structures for the visible and near-infrared regimes based on the diamond morphology together with their specific fabrication techniques. The basic origin of the complete photonic bandgap for the 'champion' diamond morphology is described in terms of dielectric modulations along principal directions. Progress in three-dimensional interference lithography for fabrication of near-champion diamond-based structures is also discussed. PMID:15343291

  11. Boron doped nanostructured diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qi

    A chemical vapor deposition hydrogen/methane/nitrogen feed-gas mixture with unconventionally high methane (15% CH4 by volume) normally used to grow ultra-hard and smooth nanostructured diamond films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates was modified to include diborane B2H6 for boron-doping of diamond films. The flow rates for B2H 6 and N2 were varied to investigate their effect on plasma chemistry, film structure, boron incorporation, and mechanical properties. It was found that boron atoms can easily be incorporated into diamond films and change the lattice constant and film structure. Nitrogen, on the other hand, competes with boron in the plasma and acts to prevent boron incorporation into the diamond structure. In addition, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction and Micro-Raman were used as the main tools to investigate the relation between processing and structure. An optimal N2/CH4 ratio of 0.4 was found to result in a film with a minimum in grain size and surface roughness, along with high boron incorporation (˜4 x 1020 cm-3). Mechanical properties and thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films were examined by means of nanoindentation, open air thermal annealing, and nanotribometry. It was found that the films have high hardness close to that of undoped nanostructured diamond films. Thermal stability of these films was evaluated by heating in an oxygen environment above 700°C. Improved thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films was observed. Tribological tests show that although both undoped and boron doped nanostructured diamond films show extremely low coefficient of friction and wear rate as compared with uncoated titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt chrome alloy (Co-Cr-Mo), a critical failure max stress of 2.2 GPa was observed for boron doped nanostructured diamond films. A FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics, gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium calculations involving H 2/CH4/N2/B2H6 mixtures was employed to investigate the chemical interactions leading to boron incorporation and crystalline structure variations. The strong influence of the BH 3 in causing the boron incorporation and the role of CN radical in causing the nanocrystallinity are confirmed by the correlation of their modeled compositions in the gas phase with boron content and degree of nanocrystallinity as determined experimentally. A good degree of agreement was obtained between the theoretically predicted gas phase concentration of species and the experimental concentration trends as measured by the optical emission spectroscopy of the microwave plasma. Overall, high film hardness and toughness, combined with good thermal stability and low surface roughness, indicate that nanostructured boron doped diamond films can be used as wear resistant coatings that are able to withstand high temperature oxidizing environments.

  12. Diamond Quantum Devices in Biology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuzhou; Jelezko, Fedor; Plenio, Martin B; Weil, Tanja

    2016-06-01

    The currently available techniques for molecular imaging capable of reaching atomic resolution are limited to low temperatures, vacuum conditions, or large amounts of sample. Quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond offer great potential to achieve single-molecule detection with atomic resolution under ambient conditions. Diamond nanoparticles could also be prepared with implanted NV centers, thereby generating unique nanosensors that are able to traffic into living biological systems. Therefore, this technique might provide unprecedented access and insight into the structure and function of individual biomolecules under physiological conditions as well as observation of biological processes down to the quantum level with atomic resolution. The theory of diamond quantum sensors and the current developments from their preparation to sensing techniques have been critically discussed in this Minireview. PMID:27120692

  13. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  14. Theory of impurities in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briddon, P. R.; Jones, R.

    1993-04-01

    Recent theoretical investigations into the structure and properties of two major impurities in diamond are reviewed. Particular attention is placed on nitrogen (N), the dominant impurity in natural type I diamond. It is shown how calculations of the structure, electronic and vibrational properties of nitrogen-containing defects have shed light on a variety of experimental information gathered in the last 50 years. Problems considered include nitrogen as an isolated impurity, in the A and B centres (complexes believed to contain two and four nitrogen atoms, respectively) and in the platelet defects which may contain thousands of N atoms. Finally, the present understanding of hydrogen, a major impurity in type II diamond, is reviewed.

  15. Diamond Composite Films for Protective Coatings on Metals and Method of Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, Tiong P. (Inventor); Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Composite films consisting of diamond crystallites and hard amorphous films such as diamond-like carbon, titanium nitride, and titanium oxide are provided as protective coatings for metal substrates against extremely harsh environments. A composite layer having diamond crystallites and a hard amorphous film is affixed to a metal substrate via an interlayer including a bottom metal silicide film and a top silicon carbide film. The interlayer is formed either by depositing metal silicide and silicon carbide directly onto the metal substrate, or by first depositing an amorphous silicon film, then allowing top and bottom portions of the amorphous silicon to react during deposition of the diamond crystallites, to yield the desired interlayer structure.

  16. YBa2Cu3O7 thin films on nanocrystalline diamond films for HTSC bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, G.; Beetz, C. P., Jr.; Boerstler, R.; Steinbeck, J.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been fabricated. A composite buffer layer system consisting of diamond/Si3N4/YSZ/YBCO was explored for this purpose. The as-deposited YBCO films were superconducting with Tc of about 84 K and a relatively narrow transition width of about 8 K. SEM cross sections of the films showed very sharp interfaces between diamond/Si3N4 and between Si3N4/YSZ. The deposited YBCO film had a surface roughness of about 1000 A, which is suitable for high-temperature superconductive (HTSC) bolometer fabrication. It was also found that preannealing of the nanocrystalline diamond thin films at high temperature was very important for obtaining high-quality YBCO films.

  17. Diamond nanowires for highly sensitive matrix-free mass spectrometry analysis of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffinier, Yannick; Szunerits, Sabine; Drobecq, Hervé; Melnyk, Oleg; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports on the use of boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) as an inorganic substrate for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) analysis of small molecules. The diamond nanowires are prepared by reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen plasma of highly boron-doped (the boron level is 1019 B cm-3) or undoped nanocrystalline diamond substrates. The resulting diamond nanowires are coated with a thin silicon oxide layer that confers a superhydrophilic character to the surface. To minimize droplet spreading, the nanowires were chemically functionalized with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and then UV/ozone treated to reach a final water contact angle of 120°. The sub-bandgap absorption under UV laser irradiation and the heat confinement inside the nanowires allowed desorption/ionization, most likely via a thermal mechanism, and mass spectrometry analysis of small molecules. A detection limit of 200 zeptomole for verapamil was demonstrated.

  18. Diamond ionisation chambers for dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, A.; Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Jany, C.; Pochet, T.

    Over the last decade, new techniques have emerged in order to grow diamond from chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques. Here, we concentrate on the use of these films towards individual dose monitoring applications. The energy response of a diamond dosimeter, when exposed to photons of energies ranging from 20 keV up to 6 MeV was simulated using a Monte Carlo transport code. Experimental measurements have been performed with X-rays in the 20-80 keV range in order to characterise the photo-electrical properties of the CVD film studied.

  19. Design and fabrication of nano-scale single crystal diamond cutting tool by focused ion beam (FIB) milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Yub

    2015-07-01

    Micro/nanoscale diamond cutting tools used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by precision grinding, but it is hard to fabricate a tool with a nanometric cutting edge and complex configurations. High-precision geometry accuracy and special shapes for microcutting tools with sharp edges can be achieved by FIB milling. Because the FIB milling method induces much smaller machining stress compared with conventional precision grinding methods. In this study, the FIB milling characteristics of single-crystal diamond were investigated, along with methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools. Lift-off process method and Pt(Platinum) coating process method with FIB milling were investigated to reduce the damage layer on diamond substrate and quadrilateral-shaped single-crystal diamond cutting tool with cutting edge width under 500 nm were obtained.

  20. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2009-10-28

    The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

  1. Fabrication of GaP disk resonator arrays coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicole K.; Barbour, Russell; Song, Yuncheng; Lee, Minjoo L.; Fu, Kai-Mei C.

    2014-02-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to scalable optical networks have the potential to realize solid-state quantum information processing platforms. Toward this goal, we demonstrate coupling of near-surface NV- centers to an array of GaP optical resonators. The use of GaP as the optical waveguiding materials is appealing due to the possibility of realizing integrated photonic switches based on the linear electro-optic effect. We explore large-area integration of GaP on diamond through two routes: molecular beam deposition directly onto diamond substrates and layer transfer of single-crystalline sheets. While the direct deposition benefits from simpler, monolithic processing, the layer transfer route benefits from higher material quality. In the latter approach, we demonstrate the transfer of submicrometer thick, mm2-sized GaP sheets from a GaP/AlGaP/GaP substrate to a diamond sample prepared with near-surface NV- centers. We fabricate large arrays of GaP disk resonators with varying diameters (1 to 20 μm) on the diamond substrate via electron beam lithography and dry etching, and show coupling of the NV- center emission to the cavity structures. Quality factors above 10,000 were observed in 5 μm diameter disks on the non-etched diamond substrate. Similar quality factors in smaller sized devices are expected with diamond substrate etching to further confine the optical mode. This approach opens a path towards the integration of coupled optical components in the hybrid GaP/diamond system, an essential step towards large-scale photonic networks utilizing NV- centers in diamond.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond-coated MEMS probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Sobaszek, Michał; Ficek, Mateusz; Kopiec, Daniel; Moczała, Magdalena; Orłowska, Karolina; Sawczak, Mirosław; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication processes of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) films on silicon-based micro- and nano-electromechanical structures have been investigated. B-NCD films were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method. The variation in B-NCD morphology, structure and optical parameters was particularly investigated. The use of truncated cone-shaped substrate holder enabled to grow thin fully encapsulated nanocrystalline diamond film with a thickness of approx. 60 nm and RMS roughness of 17 nm. Raman spectra present the typical boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond line recorded at 1148 cm-1. Moreover, the change in mechanical parameters of silicon cantilevers over-coated with boron-doped diamond films was investigated with laser vibrometer. The increase of resonance to frequency of over-coated cantilever is attributed to the change in spring constant caused by B-NCD coating. Topography and electrical parameters of boron-doped diamond films were investigated by tapping mode AFM and electrical mode of AFM-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The crystallite-grain size was recorded at 153 and 238 nm for boron-doped film and undoped, respectively. Based on the contact potential difference data from the KPFM measurements, the work function of diamond layers was estimated. For the undoped diamond films, average CPD of 650 mV and for boron-doped layer 155 mV were achieved. Based on CPD values, the values of work functions were calculated as 4.65 and 5.15 eV for doped and undoped diamond film, respectively. Boron doping increases the carrier density and the conductivity of the material and, consequently, the Fermi level.

  3. Thermal Conductivity Of Natural Type IIa Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Jan; Vining, Cronin; Zoltan, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Report describes application of flash diffusivity method to measure thermal conductivity of 8.04 x 8.84 x 2.35-mm specimen of natural, white, type-IIa diamond at temperatures between 500 and 1,250 K. Provides baseline for comparison to isotopically pure (12C) diamond. Results used as reference against which diamond films produced by chemical-vapor deposition at low pressures can be compared. High thermal conductivity of diamond exploited for wide variety of applications, and present results also used to estimate heat-conduction performances of diamond films in high-temperature applications.

  4. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H

    2005-06-21

    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  5. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOEpatents

    Casstevens, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  6. Electron Microscopy of Natural and Epitaxial Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posthill, J. B.; George, T.; Malta, D. P.; Humphreys, T. P.; Rudder, R. A.; Hudson, G. C.; Thomas, R. E.; Markunas, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Semiconducting diamond films have the potential for use as a material in which to build active electronic devices capable of operating at high temperatures or in high radiation environments. Ultimately, it is preferable to use low-defect-density single crystal diamond for device fabrication. We have previously investigated polycrystalline diamond films with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and homoepitaxial films with SEM-based techniques. This contribution describes some of our most recent observations of the microstructure of natural diamond single crystals and homoepitaxial diamond thin films using TEM.

  7. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOEpatents

    Casstevens, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machine optical quality finishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  8. Confocal luminescence study of nitrogen-vacancy distribution within nitrogen-rich single crystal CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shershulin, V. A.; Samoylenko, S. R.; Kudryavtsev, O. S.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ashkinazi, E. E.; Yurov, V. Yu; Ralchenko, V. G.; Konov, V. I.; Vlasov, I. I.

    2016-01-01

    Confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy was used to study a distribution of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) defects within a surface and in a cross section of a homoepitaxial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond layer intentionally grown with a nitrogen concentration close to the solubility limit. A variation in the PL intensity within the whole sample was found to exceed no more than 30% of the intensity maximum. The diamond layers with densely packed NV- arrays are a promising material platform for the design of highly sensitive magnetic field and temperature sensors, as well as for using this material in quantum optics and informatics technologies based on NV- spins.

  9. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of homoepitaxial diamond multilayers and delta-doped structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet, J.; Chicot, G.; Eon, D.; Bustarret, E.

    2014-01-13

    The optimization of diamond-based unipolar electronic devices such as pseudo-vertical Schottky diodes or delta-doped field effect transistors relies in part on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p{sup –}) and heavily boron doped (p{sup ++}) layers with well-controlled thicknesses and steep interfaces. Optical ellipsometry offers a swift and contactless method to characterize the thickness, roughness, and electronic properties of semiconducting and metallic diamond layers. We report ellipsometric studies carried out on delta-doped structures and other epitaxial multilayers with various boron concentrations and thicknesses (down to the nanometer range). The results are compared with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and transport measurements.

  10. OH and H2O of garnets in diamond-bearing and diamond-free garnet-clinopyroxene rocks from the Kumdy-kol area, Kokchetav Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamaki, K.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Garnet-clinopyroxene (Grt-Cpx) rocks consisting mainly of Grt + Na-poor Cpx + calcite with various proportions, occur in the Kumdy-kol area. Diamond-bearing Grt-Cpx rock was first reported by Sobolev and Shatsky (1990) and has been well-known as one of the Kokchetav diamond-bearing rocks. UHP evidence, e.g., coesite exsolution from supersilicic titanite, was discovered also in the diamond-free Grt-Cpx rock (Inoue and Ogasawara, 2003). Presence/lack of diamond in Grt-Cpx rocks is one of important features to understand the stability of diamond in the Kokchetav UHP calcsilicate and carbonate rocks. We focused on OH and H2O in garnets in two types of Grt-Cpx rock to clarify fluid conditions during UHP metamorphism. One of the samples, the diamond-bearing Grt-Cpx rock (sample no. 25018; provided by Prof. H.-P. Schertl) is composed of two monomineralic layers, Grt-layer and Cpx-layer, with minor amounts of rutile and calcite. Coarse-grained diamond (up to 0.15 mm across) is included in garnet. Another Grt-Cpx rock, diamond-free one (sample no. XX16) shows a glanoblastic texture, and consists of Grt (30 %) + Cpx (30 %) + calcite (30 %) × titanite (5 %) with exsolved coesite-needles and plates. The precursor supersilicic compositions of titanite indicate six-coordinated Si at UHP conditions (Ogasawara et al, 2002; Sakamaki and Ogasawara, IGR in press). To understand the fluid environments during the formation of these two calcsilicate rocks, we chose garnets and conducted micro FT-IR spectroscopy. IR spectra of garnets in the diamond-bearing Grt-Cpx rock showed OH bands at 3430 and 3570 cm-1, sometimes with a week band at 3675 cm-1. The absorption band at 3570 cm-1 is the strongest and is sharp, whereas the band at 3430 cm-1 is broad. IR spectra of garnets in diamond-free one show strong OH bands at 3400 and 3555 cm-1, sometimes with week bands at 3590 and 3640 cm-1. The OH band at 3555 cm-1 is the strongest and is sharp, whereas the band at 3400 cm-1 is broad. IR analyses of garnets in the Grt-Cpx rocks show bimodal spectra; the relatively sharp band at ~3550 cm-1 and the broad band at ~3400 cm-1. The former band is attributed to OH in garnet structure and the latter one molecular H2O. The similar bimodal spectra were obtained from garnet in diamond-bearing dolomite marble. When we regard the total absorption at the range of 3100-3750 cm-1 as structural OH, the garnets in diamond-bearing Grt-Cpx rock contain 797 to 2506 ppm wt. H2O, and those in the diamond-free Grt-Cpx rock contain 679 to 2169 ppm wt. H2O. To evaluate the absorption spectra of the garnets in the Grt-Cpx rocks, we analyzed the garnet of different origin, Cr- and pyrope-rich garnet in mantle peridotite from the Garnet Ridge, northern Arizona. This peridotitic garnet shows a single-modal absorption band of OH at 3575 cm-1. No molecular H2O band was detected. Such results suggest that the environment during Kokchetav UHP metamorphism of calcsilicate may be saturated in H2O in contrast with the peridotitic garnet from the Garnet Ridge. The molecular H2O in the garnets of the Kokchetav Grt-Cpx rocks probably is submicron fluid inclusions trapped during UHP metamorphism. We thank Prof. H.-P. Schertl for providing us a very precious sample, diamond-bearing garnet-clinopyroxene rock.

  11. Valleytronics: Electrons dance in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Christoph E.

    2013-08-01

    In addition to manipulating the charge or spin of electrons, another way to control electric current is by using the 'valley' degree-of-freedom of electrons. The first demonstration of the generation, transport and detection of valley-polarized electrons in bulk diamond now opens up new opportunities for quantum control in electronic devices.

  12. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Fabrication of ultra-thin diamond films using hydrogen implantation and Lift-off technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. P.; Antonov, V. A.; Safronov, L. N.; Kupriyanov, I. N.; Pal'yanov, Yu. N.; Rubanov, S.

    2012-11-01

    The Lift-off technique based on high fluence (>3×1016cm-2) implantation of hydrogen (H-) ions has been developed to increase the structural quality and electro-optical properties of the diamond thin membranes. According to the XTEM study the Vacuum Pressure - High Temperature (VPHT) treatment of the H2+ implanted (111) diamond plates at 1200-1600°C and 10-3Pa forms buried glassy like graphite layers in the implanted areas. High Pressure - High Temperature (HPHT) annealing at the same temperatures but under the pressure 4-8 GPa leads to the epitaxial growth of graphite in the buried implanted layers, which could not be etched chemically, but could be easily removed by etching in the anodic cell. Visible light Raman spectroscopy has shown that the H-Lift-off technique is suitable for formation of ultra-thin (down to 30 nm) high quality single crystal diamond membranes and heterostructures. High concentration of nitrogen-vacancy NV- centres (˜1020cm-3) was observed under graphite contacts in thin layer (≤100 nm). Thin, 30 nm single crystal diamond films are the thinnest and largest area single crystal diamond structure produced to date by the Lift-off technique.

  14. Microstructure and tribological performance of self-lubricating diamond/tetrahedral amorphous carbon composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinchun; Peng, Zhijian; Yu, Xiang; Fu, Zhiqiang; Yue, Wen; Wang, Chengbiao

    2011-02-01

    In order to smooth the rough surface and further improve the wear-resistance of coarse chemical vapor deposition diamond films, diamond/tetrahedral amorphous carbon composite films were synthesized by a two-step preparation technique including hot-filament chemical vapor deposition for polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and subsequent filtered cathodic vacuum arc growth for tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). The microstructure and tribological performance of the composite films were investigated by means of various characterization techniques. The results indicated that the composite films consisted of a thick well-grained diamond base layer with a thickness up to 150 μm and a thin covering ta-C layer with a thickness of about 0.3 μm, and sp3-C fraction up to 73.93%. Deposition of a smooth ta-C film on coarse polycrystalline diamond films was proved to be an effective tool to lower the surface roughness of the polycrystalline diamond film. The wear-resistance of the diamond film was also enhanced by the self-lubricating effect of the covering ta-C film due to graphitic phase transformation. Under dry pin-on-disk wear test against Si3N4 ball, the friction coefficients of the composite films were much lower than that of the single PCD film. An extremely low friction coefficient (∼0.05) was achieved for the PCD/ta-C composite film. Moreover, the addition of Ti interlayer between the ta-C and the PCD layers can further reduce the surface roughness of the composite film. The main wear mechanism of the composite films was abrasive wear.

  15. Friction and wear performance of boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinchang; Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong

    2015-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have attracted more attentions due to their excellent mechanical properties. Whereas as-fabricated traditional diamond films in the previous studies don't have enough adhesion or surface smoothness, which seriously impact their friction and wear performance, and thus limit their applications under extremely harsh conditions. A boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond (BD-UM-FGCD) film is fabricated by a three-step method adopting hot filament CVD (HFCVD) method in the present study, presenting outstanding comprehensive performance, including the good adhesion between the substrate and the underlying boron doped diamond (BDD) layer, the extremely high hardness of the middle undoped microcrystalline diamond (UMCD) layer, as well as the low surface roughness and favorable polished convenience of the surface fine grained diamond (FGD) layer. The friction and wear behavior of this composite film sliding against low-carbon steel and silicon nitride balls are studied on a ball-on-plate rotational friction tester. Besides, its wear rate is further evaluated under a severer condition using an inner-hole polishing apparatus, with low-carbon steel wire as the counterpart. The test results show that the BD-UM-FGCD film performs very small friction coefficient and great friction behavior owing to its high surface smoothness, and meanwhile it also has excellent wear resistance because of the relatively high hardness of the surface FGD film and the extremely high hardness of the middle UMCD film. Moreover, under the industrial conditions for producing low-carbon steel wires, this composite film can sufficiently prolong the working lifetime of the drawing dies and improve their application effects. This research develops a novel composite diamond films owning great comprehensive properties, which have great potentials as protecting coatings on working surfaces of the wear-resistant and anti-frictional components.

  16. The boron doping of single crystal diamond for high power diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicley, Shannon Singer

    Diamond has the potential to revolutionize the field of high power and high frequency electronic devices as a superlative electronic material. The realization of diamond electronics depends on the control of the growth process of both lightly and heavily boron doped diamond. This dissertation work is focused on furthering the state of the art of boron doped diamond (BDD) growth toward the realization of high power diamond Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). The achievements of this work include the fabrication of a new dedicated reactor for lightly boron doped diamond deposition, the optimization of growth processes for both heavily and lightly boron doped single crystal diamond (SCD), and the proposal and realization of the corner architecture SBD. Boron doped SCD is grown in microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) plasma disc bell-jar reactors, with feedgas mixtures including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and diborane. Characterization methods for the analysis of BDD are described, including Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and temperature-dependent four point probe conductivity for activation energy. The effect of adding carbon dioxide to the plasma feedgas for lightly boron doped diamond is investigated. The effect of diborane levels and other growth parameters on the incorporated boron levels are reported, and the doping efficiency is calculated over a range of boron concentrations. The presence of defects is shown to affect the doping uniformity. The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in heavily boron doped SCD deposition is investigated. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. The corner architecture SBD structure is proposed as an alternative vertical architecture for the realization of high power, high temperature single crystal diamond diodes. The lightly doped layer of the diode is grown in a direction perpendicular to the previous epitaxial growth of the heavily doped layer, to reduce the threading type dislocations in the active region of the fabricated diodes. The first ever corner architecture SBD is fabricated and evaluated for diode performance, using the regimes identified for high quality boron doped diamond deposition at light and heavy doping levels.

  17. Diamond/diamond-like carbon coated nanotube structures for efficient electron field emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimitrijevic, Steven (Inventor); Withers, James C. (Inventor); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a nanotube coated with diamond or diamond-like carbon, a field emitter cathode comprising same, and a field emitter comprising the cathode. It is also directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from a field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes by coating the nanotube with diamond or diamond-like carbon. In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from an electron field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes, which method comprises coating the nanotubes with diamond or diamond-like carbon.

  18. Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer.

    PubMed

    Kennett, D J; Kennett, J P; West, A; Mercer, C; Hee, S S Que; Bement, L; Bunch, T E; Sellers, M; Wolbach, W S

    2009-01-01

    We report abundant nanodiamonds in sediments dating to 12.9 +/- 0.1 thousand calendar years before the present at multiple locations across North America. Selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal two diamond allotropes in this boundary layer but not above or below that interval. Cubic diamonds form under high temperature-pressure regimes, and n-diamonds also require extraordinary conditions, well outside the range of Earth's typical surficial processes but common to cosmic impacts. N-diamond concentrations range from approximately 10 to 3700 parts per billion by weight, comparable to amounts found in known impact layers. These diamonds provide strong evidence for Earth's collision with a rare swarm of carbonaceous chondrites or comets at the onset of the Younger Dryas cool interval, producing multiple airbursts and possible surface impacts, with severe repercussions for plants, animals, and humans in North America. PMID:19119227

  19. Vibrational study of hydrogen bonding to ion irradiated diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bertin, M.; Lafosse, A.; Azria, R.; Michaelson, Sh.; Ternyak, O.; Hoffman, A.

    2007-02-05

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to probe hydrogenated diamond film surfaces exposed to 1 keV Ar{sup +} ions at a dose of {approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} and thermal annealing. The defects induced on the upper atomic layers were identified with regard to the different hydrogenated species hybridization states as well as their thermal stability. Ion irradiation resulted in the coexistence of a partially hydrogenated disordered near surface region including CH species bonded in sp, sp{sup 2}, and sp{sup 3} bonding configurations and CC dimers. Thermal annealing of the ion beam irradiated hydrogenated surface leads to complete hydrogen desorption at {approx}650 deg. C. This temperature is significantly lower compared to a well defined diamond surface for which an annealing temperature above 900 deg. C is needed.

  20. Zr/oxidized diamond interface for high power Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Traoré, A. Muret, P.; Fiori, A.; Eon, D.; Gheeraert, E.; Pernot, J.

    2014-02-03

    High forward current density of 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} (at 6 V) and a breakdown field larger than 7.7 MV/cm for diamond diodes with a pseudo-vertical architecture, are demonstrated. The power figure of merit is above 244 MW/cm{sup 2} and the relative standard deviation of the reverse current density over 83 diodes is 10% with a mean value of 10{sup −9} A/cm{sup 2}. These results are obtained with zirconium as Schottky contacts on the oxygenated (100) oriented surface of a stack comprising an optimized lightly boron doped diamond layer on a heavily boron doped one, epitaxially grown on a Ib substrate. The origin of such performances are discussed.

  1. Thermal conductivity of ultrathin nano-crystalline diamond films determined by Raman thermography assisted by silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaya, Julian; Rossi, Stefano; Alomari, Mohammed; Kohn, Erhard; Tóth, Lajos; Pécz, Béla; Kuball, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The thermal transport in polycrystalline diamond films near its nucleation region is still not well understood. Here, a steady-state technique to determine the thermal transport within the nano-crystalline diamond present at their nucleation site has been demonstrated. Taking advantage of silicon nanowires as surface temperature nano-sensors, and using Raman Thermography, the in-plane and cross-plane components of the thermal conductivity of ultra-thin diamond layers and their thermal barrier to the Si substrate were determined. Both components of the thermal conductivity of the nano-crystalline diamond were found to be well below the values of polycrystalline bulk diamond, with a cross-plane thermal conductivity larger than the in-plane thermal conductivity. Also a depth dependence of the lateral thermal conductivity through the diamond layer was determined. The results impact the design and integration of diamond for thermal management of AlGaN/GaN high power transistors and also show the usefulness of the nanowires as accurate nano-thermometers.

  2. Multiple Diamond Anvil (MDA) apparatus using nano-polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irifune, T.; Kunimoto, T.; Tange, Y.; Shinmei, T.; Isobe, F.; Kurio, A.; Funakoshi, K.

    2011-12-01

    Thanks to the great efforts by Dave Mao, Bill Bassett, Taro Takahashi, and their colleagues at the University of Rochester through 1960s-70s, diamond anvil cell (DAC) became a major tool to investigate the deep Earth after its invention by scientists at NBS in 1958. DAC can now cover almost the entire pressure and temperature regimes of the Earth's interior, which seems to have solved the longstanding debate on the crystal structure of iron under the P-T conditions of the Earth's inner core. In contrast, various types of static large-volume presses (LVP) have been invented, where tungsten carbide has conventionally been used as anvils. Kawai-type multianvil apparatus (MA), which utilize 6 first-stage harden steel and 8 tungsten carbide anvils, is the most successful LVP, and has been used for accurate measurements of phase transitions, physical properties, element partitioning, etc. at high pressure and temperature. However, pressures using tungsten carbide as the second-stage anvils have been limited to about 30 GPa due to significant plastic deformation of the anvils. Efforts have been made to expand this pressure limit by replacing tungsten carbide anvils with harder sintered diamond (SD) anvils over the last two decades, but the pressures available in KMA with SD anvils have still been limited to below 100 GPa. We succeeded to produce nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD or HIME-Diamond) in 2003, which is known to have ultrahigh hardness, very high toughness and elastic stiffness, high transmittance of light, relatively low thermal conductivity. These properties are feasible for its use as anvils, and some preliminary experiments of application of NPD anvils to laser heated DAC have successfully made in the last few years. We are now able to synthesize NPD rods with about 1cm in both diameter and length using a newly constructed 6000-ton KMA at Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, and have just started to apply this new polycrystalline diamond as anvils for multianvil apparatus. Various versions of the Multiple Diamond Anvil (MDA) apparatus with NPD anvils (Fig.1), amalgamated forms of MA and DAC, are currently being tested for experiments under Mbar regimes without sacrificing the advantages of MA over DAC.

  3. Surface smoothing of CVD-diamond membrane for X-ray lithography by Gas Cluster Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, A.; Adachi, M.; Toyoda, N.; Hagiwara, N.; Matsuo, J.; Yamada, I.

    1999-06-10

    Results of the surface smoothing of a CVD-diamond membrane by gas cluster ion beams are presented. An as-deposited diamond membrane with a surface roughness of 400 Aa Ra was irradiated by Ar cluster ions with a energy of 20 keV. A very smooth surface of 30 Aa Ra was obtained at a dose of 3x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. This result can be clarified by computer simulation which shows that the surface smoothing of the diamond membrane was improved by a lateral sputtering of the cluster ions. However, a thin graphite layer was formed on the surface by contamination of monomer ions in the cluster beam, which decreased the transparency of the diamond membrane. A subsequent irradiation with O{sub 2} cluster ions removed these graphite layers.

  4. Medical applications of diamond particles and surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Boehm, R. D.; Sumant, A. V.

    2011-04-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon that is being considered for use in several medical applications. Ramachandran determined that the crystal structure of diamond consists of two close packed interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices; one lattice is shifted with respect to the other along the elemental cube space diagonal by one-quarter of its length. If one approximates carbon atoms as equal diameter rigid spheres, the filling of this construction is 34%. Due to the carbon-carbon distance (1.54 {angstrom}), diamond crystal exhibits the highest atomic density (1.76 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}) of any solid. The very high bond energy between two carbon atoms (83 kcal/mol) and the directionality of tetrahedral bonds are the main reasons for the high strength of diamond. Diamond demonstrates the highest Vickers hardness value of any material (10,000 kg/mm{sup 2}). The tribological properties of diamond are also impressive; the coefficient of friction of polished diamond is 0.07 in argon and 0.05 in humid air. Diamond is resistant to corrosion except in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures over 800 C. In addition, type IIa diamond exhibits the highest thermal conductivity of all materials (20 W cm{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature).

  5. Integrated microcircuit on a diamond anvil for high-pressure electrical resistivity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yonghao; Gao, Chunxiao; Ma, Yanzhang; Liu, Hongwu; Pan, Yuewu; Luo, Jifeng; Li, Ming; He, Chunyuan; Huang, Xiaowei; Zou, Guangtian; Li, Yanchun; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Jing

    2005-02-01

    A multilayer microcircuit on a diamond surface has been developed for high-pressure resistivity measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Using a film deposition technique, a layer of Mo film was deposited on a diamond anvil as a conductor, topped with a layer of alumina film for insulation. A microelectric circuit was fabricated with a photolithographic shaping method after film encapsulation. With precise control and measurements of all the dimensions of the sample for resistance measurement, including the width of the metallic film and the diameter and thickness of the gasket hole, resistivity of a sample can be accurately determined. This microcircuit can be flexibly fabricated and easily cleaned. It also provides a promising prospect to measure resistivity under in situ high pressure and high temperature. We measured the resistivity of ZnS using this method, and proved the pressure induced phase transition at 13.9-17.9GPa to be a semiconductor to semiconductor transformation.

  6. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or other suitable flow controller. When the liquid enters the low-pressure environment inside the chamber, it evaporates to form a vapor mixture of the same chemical composition. In addition to the inlet for the feedstock liquid, the chamber is fitted with an outlet connected to a vacuum pump (not shown) through a throttle valve (also not shown) that is automatically controlled to keep the pressure at or near the required value throughout the deposition process. Inside the chamber, a spiral filament made of tungsten, tantalum, graphite, or other high-melting-temperature material is electrically heated to a temperature >2,000 C high enough to cause dissociation of vapor molecules into the aforementioned radicals. A deposition substrate typically, a diamond-polished silicon wafer about 2.5 cm square is positioned about 2 cm away from the filament. The exact location of the substrate is chosen so that the substrate becomes heated by the filament to a deposition temperature in the approximate range of 800 to 1,000 C.

  7. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  8. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island... wharf on the easterly side of Little Diamond Island at latitude 43°40′03″, longitude 70°12′15″;...

  9. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island... wharf on the easterly side of Little Diamond Island at latitude 43°40′03″, longitude 70°12′15″;...

  10. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island... wharf on the easterly side of Little Diamond Island at latitude 43°40′03″, longitude 70°12′15″;...

  11. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island... wharf on the easterly side of Little Diamond Island at latitude 43°40′03″, longitude 70°12′15″;...

  12. Boron δ-doped (111) diamond solution gate field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Edgington, Robert; Ruslinda, A Rahim; Sato, Syunsuke; Ishiyama, Yuichiro; Tsuge, Kyosuke; Ono, Tasuku; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Jackman, Richard B

    2012-03-15

    A solution gate field effect transistor (SGFET) using an oxidised boron δ-doped channel on (111) diamond is presented for the first time. Employing an optimised plasma chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) recipe to deposit δ-layers, SGFETs show improved current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in comparison to previous similar devices fabricated on (100) and polycrystalline diamond, where the device is shown to operate in the enhancement mode of operation, achieving channel pinch-off and drain-source current saturation within the electrochemical window of diamond. A maximum gain and transconductance of 3 and 200μS/mm are extracted, showing comparable figures of merit to hydrogen-based SGFET. The oxidised device shows a site-binding model pH sensitivity of 36 mV/pH, displaying fast temporal responses. Considering the biocompatibility of diamond towards cells, the device's highly mutable transistor characteristics, pH sensitivity and stability against anodic oxidation common to hydrogen terminated diamond SGFET, oxidised boron δ-doped diamond SGFETs show promise for the recording of action potentials from electrogenic cells. PMID:22317833

  13. Precision shaping of a diamond surface by using interferometrically controlled laser-ablation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holly, Sandor; Ralchenko, Victor G.; Pimenov, Sergej M.; Kononenko, Taras V.

    1998-10-01

    A novel method for figuring and polishing diamond surfaces is described. It is a three step process, consisting of 1) a diffusion smoothing step using carbon reaction with certain materials at elevated temperatures, 2) a laser polishing and figuring step where UV laser ablation actively coupled with in situ interferometry provides the desired surface finish. The fist step of the process uses carbon diffusion into a hot iron surface to achieve an initial, relatively smooth surface of the as grown chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond surface. The technique can be used on any size CVD diamond and may be applied to curved surfaces. The second step, excimer laser ablation, is the backbone of the proposed method. By using an in situ, interferometric surface measuring and monitoring capability, diamond material may be removed from the surface in an accurately controlled manner, both in depth and width. The method is conceptually similar to single point diamond turning for figuring the optical surfaces of metal mirrors. The last step uses the properties of ion beam technology to change the top layer of the diamond surface into a soft and easily polishable amorphous carbon. The final surface finish of the accurately figured surface is obtained by conventional, high quality polishing techniques.

  14. Pulsed ion beam methods for in situ characterization of diamond film deposition processes

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.; Smentkowski, V.S.; Zuiker, C.D.; Gruen, D.M.; Im, J. |; Schultz, J.A.; Waters, K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1995-06-01

    Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) have properties which in principle make them ideally suited to a wide variety of thin-film applications. Their widespread use as thin films, however, has been limited for a number of reasons related largely to the lack of understanding and control of the nucleation and growth processes. Real-time, in situ studies of the surface of the growing diamond film are experimentally difficult because these films are normally grown under a relatively high pressure of hydrogen, and conventional surface analytical methods require an ultrahigh vacuum environment. It is believed, however, that the presence of hydrogen during growth is necessary to stabilize the corrugated diamond surface structure and thereby prevent the formation of the graphitic phase. Pulsed ion beam-based analytical methods with differentially pumped ion sources and particle detectors are able to characterize the uppermost atomic layer of a film during, growth at ambient pressures 5-7 orders of magnitude higher than other surface-specific analytical methods. We describe here a system which has been developed for the purpose of determining the hydrogen concentration and bonding sites on diamond surfaces as a function of sample temperature and ambient hydrogen pressure under hot filament CVD growth conditions. It is demonstrated that as the hydrogen partial pressure increases, the saturation hydrogen coverage of the surface of a CVD diamond film increases, but that the saturation level depends on the atomic hydrogen concentration and substrate temperature.

  15. Surface electronic properties of H-terminated diamond in contact with adsorbates and electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, C. E.; Rezek, B.; Shin, D.; Watanabe, H.

    2006-10-01

    A comprehensive summary of surface electronic properties of undoped hydrogen terminated diamond covered with adsorbates or in electrolyte solutions is given. The formation of a conductive layer at the surface is characterized using Hall effect, conductivity, contact potential difference (CPM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry experiments. Data are from measurements on homoepitaxially grown CVD diamond films with atomically smooth hydrogen terminated surfaces. The data show that due to electron transfer from the valence band into empty states in of the electrolyte, a highly conductive surface layer is generated. Holes propagate in the layer with mobilities up to 350 cm2/Vs. The sheet hole density in this layer is in the range 1011 to 5 × 1012 cm-2, and dependents on pH of the electrolyte or adsorbate. This has been utilized to manufacture ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFET) from diamond. The drain source conductivity of single crystalline CVD diamond is pH dependent, with about 66 mV/pH, which is in reasonable agreement with the Nernst law. Due to strong coulomb repulsion between positive ions in the electrolyte and the H+-surface termination of diamond, an enlarged tunneling gap is established which prevents electronic interactions between the electrolyte and diamond. This is a virtual gate insulator of diamond ISFETs. Application of potentials larger than the oxidation threshold of +0.7 V (pH 13) to +1.6 V (pH 1) gives rise to strong leakage currents and to partial surface oxidation. In addition, the electronic interaction of diamond with redox couples is characterized using cyclic voltammetry experiments. The results are well described by the transfer doping model which accounts for the specific properties of undoped diamond immersed in electrolyte solutions are covered simply by adsorbates. In addition, numerical solutions of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations are used to show that the density of state distribution of unoccupied valence band states in case of a perfect interface would be governed by two-dimensional properties (2D).

  16. Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,Q.

    2008-10-01

    The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a novel approach to generating electrons. By following the primary electron beam, which is generated by traditional electron sources, with an amplifier, the electron beam available to the eventual application is increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in current. Diamond has a very wide band gap of 5.47eV which allows for a good negative electron affinity with simple hydrogenation, diamond can hold more than 2000MV/m field before breakdown. Diamond also provides the best rigidity among all materials. These two characters offer the capability of applying high voltage across very thin diamond film to achieve high SEY and desired emission phase. The diamond amplifier also is capable of handling a large heat load by conduction and sub-nanosecond pulse input. The preparation of the diamond amplifier includes thinning and polishing, cleaning with acid etching, metallization, and hydrogenation. The best mechanical polishing available can provide high purity single crystal diamond films with no less than 100 {micro}m thickness and <15 nm Ra surface roughness. The ideal thickness for 700MHz beam is {approx}30 {micro}m, which requires further thinning with RIE or laser ablation. RIE can achieve atomic layer removal precision and roughness eventually, but the time consumption for this procedure is very significant. Laser ablation proved that with <266nm ps laser beam, the ablation process on the diamond can easily achieve removing a few microns per hour from the surface and <100nm roughness. For amplifier application, laser ablation is an adequate and efficient process to make ultra thin diamond wafers following mechanical polishing. Hydrogenation will terminate the diamond surface with monolayer of hydrogen, and form NEA so that secondary electrons in the conduction band can escape into the vacuum. The method is using hydrogen cracker to strike hydrogen atoms onto the bare diamond surface to form H-C bonds. Two independent experiments were carried out to determine the transport of the electrons within the diamond and their emission at the surface. In transmission mode measurements, the diamond amplifier was coated with metal on both sides, so results simply depend only on the electron transport within the diamond. The SEY for this mode provides one secondary electron per 20eV energy, which gives the gain of more than 200 for 4.7keV (effective energy) primary electrons under 2MV/m. Laser detrapping can help the signal maintain the gain with lops pulse and duty cycle of 1.67 x 10{sup -7}. In emission mode measurements, in which the diamond is prepared as in the actual application, the SEY is {approx}20 for 700eV (effective energy) primary electrons under 1.21MV/m. The electric field applied and the primary electron energy is limited by the experiment setup, but the results show good trend toward large gain under high field. Thermal emittance of the diamond secondary emission is critical for the beam application. A careful design is setup to measure with very fine precision and accuracy of 0.01eV.

  17. Adhesive bonding and brazing of nanocrystalline diamond foil onto different substrate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodes, Matthias A.; Sailer, Stefan; Rosiwal, Stefan M.; Singer, Robert F.

    2013-10-01

    Diamond coatings are used in heavily stressed industrial applications to reduce friction and wear. Hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) is the favourable coating method, as it allows a coating of large surface areas with high homogeneity. Due to the high temperatures occurring in this CVD-process, the selection of substrate materials is limited. With the desire to coat light materials, steels and polymers a new approach has been developed. First, by using temperature-stable templates in the HFCVD and stripping off the diamond layer afterwards, a flexible, up to 150 μm thick and free standing nanocrystalline diamond foil (NCDF) can be produced. Afterwards, these NCDF can be applied on technical components through bonding and brazing, allowing any material as substrate. This two-step process offers the possibility to join a diamond layer on any desired surface. With a modified scratch test and Rockwell indentation testing the adhesion strength of NCDF on aluminium and steel is analysed. The results show that sufficient adhesion strength is reached both on steel and aluminium. The thermal stress in the substrates is very low and if failure occurs, cracks grow undercritically. Adhesion strength is even higher for the brazed samples, but here crack growth is critical, delaminating the diamond layer to some extent. In comparison to a sample directly coated with diamond, using a high-temperature CVD interlayer, the brazed as well as the adhesively bonded samples show very good performance, proving their competitiveness. A high support of the bonding layer could be identified as crucial, though in some cases a lower stiffness of the latter might be acceptable considering the possibility to completely avoid thermal stresses which occur during joining at higher temperatures.

  18. Growth, delta-doping and characterization of diamond films by hot filament chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtengi, Bokani

    The synthesis of high-quality heteroepitaxial diamond films continues to attract interesting research possibilities for the development of diamond devices. Diamond has great properties; mechanical, optical, electrical and its natural impurities that can be explored for various applications. The color centers are widely recognized as promising solid-state platform for quantum computing applications. We report successful heteroepitaxial growth and delta doping of color centers in hot filament chemical vapor deposited diamond films composed of nitrogen, germanium and silicon indicated by the strong photoluminescence intensity peaks obtained using the confocal microscope. We studied the effect of hot-filament chemical vapor deposition conditions on the quality of diamond films grown on silicon and silicon carbide substrates. The effect of substrate distance, the methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) gases flow rates and ratios, substrate growth and filament temperature, growth time and growth termination procedures on diamond film quality are discussed. The relatively good quality of these films was confirmed by several spectroscopic techniques including, Raman spectroscopy that gave insights into the relative sp2/sp3 bonding configurations, the residual strain and the crystalline quality. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the grain size and morphology. In-situ growth monitoring was studied using the laser reflectance interferometer (LRI) tool, which provides data for thickness, growth rate measurements and guidance for nitrogen doping. Optimal growth conditions that lead to synthesis of high quality heteroepitaxial diamond layer at growth rate of 0.5microm/hr were determined. The delta-doped samples have been analyzed using the confocal optical microscope to measure their spin-dependent photoluminescence intensity (IPL). Electrical properties of the undoped diamond films have been measured using the Hall effects measurement for resistivity and mobility.

  19. Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Panitz, J.K.; Hsu, W.L.; Tallant, D.R.; McMaster, M.; Fox, C.; Staley, D.

    1995-12-01

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors developed techniques for forming diamond powder precursors and densified these precursors in a hot filament-assisted reactor and a microwave plasma-assisted reactor. Densification conditions were varied following a fractional factorial statistical design. A number of conclusions can be drawn as a result of this study. High density diamond powder green bodies that contain a mixture of particle sizes solidify more readily than more porous diamond powder green bodies with narrow distributions of particle sizes. No composite was completely densified although all of the deposits were densified to some degree. The hot filament-assisted reactor deposited more material below the exterior surface, in the interior of the powder deposits; in contrast, the microwave-assisted reactor tended to deposit a CVD diamond skin over the top of the powder precursors which inhibited vapor phase diamond growth in the interior of the powder deposits. There were subtle variations in diamond quality as a function of the CVI process parameters. Diamond and glassy carbon tended to form at the exterior surface of the composites directly exposed to either the hot filament or the microwave plasma. However, in the interior, e.g. the powder/substrate interface, diamond plus diamond-like-carbon formed. All of the diamond composites produced were grey and relatively opaque because they contained flawed diamond, diamond-like-carbon and glassy carbon. A large amount of flawed and non-diamond material could be removed by post-CVI oxygen heat treatments. Heat treatments in oxygen changed the color of the composites to white.

  20. Diamond/diamond-like thin film growth and the alkanes: Methane, ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.; Richardson, J.S. Jr.; Anderson, D.; Starkey, K.

    1995-06-01

    Comparative experimental investigations of diamond/diamond-like thin films on unheated, unetched n-type silicon (100) substrates produced in methane, ethane, propane, and butane alkane plasmas are reported. For fixed Rf power and hydrogen flow rate, alkane flow rates were determined that give diamond/diamond-like indices of refraction. These parameters, along with alkane density, molecular mass and enthalphy of formation, were compared.

  1. Theoretical aspects for low pressure diamond syntheses

    SciTech Connect

    Jitao Wang; Chuanbao Cao; Peiju Zheng

    1994-01-01

    Low pressure diamond syntheses had seemed thermodynamically impossible. Now diamond syntheses under low pressures is very easy. However, the development of the theoretical aspects was rather slow. A chemical pump model, proposed previously by one of the authors, J.T. Wang, together with J.O. Carlsson, gives explanations about the thermodynamics and mechanisms of chemical vapor deposition diamond syntheses under low pressures. Based on the chemical pump model carbon atoms are pumped by excited chemical particles (such as super-equilibrium hydrogen atoms) from the stable graphite phase to the metastable diamond phase. Several sets of chemical pump reactions (thermodynamically coupled reactions) for diamond growth are described in this paper. In spite of the importance of thermodynamic coupled reactions in biochemistry, low pressure diamond syntheses are important developments in ordinary chemistry. Influences of the chemical pump effect on the gas phase are also discussed in this paper. Theoretical calculated results and predictions agree with the experimental observations.

  2. Diamond thermoluminescence properties of different chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Kashkarov, L. L.; Semjonova, L. F.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    It was found that thermoluminescence (TL) glows of diamonds depend on the origin of diamonds and the chondrite metamorphism degree. The investigation of TL of diamonds was continued and the results for diamonds from Murchison CM2, Krymka LL3.0, Kainsaz CO3, and Abee E4 were considered. The diamonds synthesized by CVD-process (samples 133, 159) and by detonation from soot (DDS-B14-89) were also analyzed for comparison. Before the TL measuring samples were annealed at approximately 350 C for a few seconds and then irradiated by gamma-rays of Cs-137 up to dose approximately 200 krad. TL-measurements were performed in the air atmosphere on the standard equipment. TL data for samples are shown. TL glow for some diamonds are also presented.

  3. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, D.; Livramento, V.; Shohoji, N.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Correia, J. B.; Carvalho, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamondDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  4. The Toucan's Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    The Southern constellation Tucana (the Toucan) is probably best known as the home of the Small Magellanic Cloud, one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. But Tucana also hosts another famous object that shines thousands of lights, like a magnificent, oversized diamond in the sky: the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. More popularly known as 47 Tuc, it is surpassed in size and brightness by only one other globular cluster, Omega Centauri. Globular clusters are gigantic families of stars, comprising several tens of thousands of stars, all thought to be born at the same time from the same cloud of gas [1]. As such, they constitute unique laboratories for the study of how stars evolve and interact. This is even more so because they are located at the same distance, so the brightness of different types of stars, at different stages in their evolution can be directly compared. The stars in globular clusters are held together by their mutual gravity which gives them their spherical shape, hence their name. Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in our Milky Way galaxy, and contain therefore mostly old, low-mass stars. ESO PR Photo 20/06 ESO PR Photo 20/06 Globular Cluster 47 Tuc 47 Tucanae is an impressive globular cluster that is visible with the unaided eye from the southern hemisphere. It was discovered in 1751 by the French astronomer Nicholas Louis de Lacaille who cataloged it in his list of southern nebulous objects. Located about 16 000 light years away, it has a total mass of about 1 million times the mass of the Sun and is 120 light years across, making it appear on the sky as big as the full moon. The colour image of 47 Tucanae presented here was taken with FORS1 on ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2001. The image covers only the densest, very central part of the cluster. The globular cluster extends in reality four times further away! As can be seen however, the density of stars rapidly drops off when moving away from the centre. The red giants, stars that have used up all the hydrogen in their core and have increased in size, are especially easy to pick out. 47 Tuc is so dense that stars are less than a tenth of a light year apart, which is about the size of the Solar System. By comparison, the closest star to our Sun, Proxima Centauri, is four light years away. This high density causes many stars to 'bump' into each other, some getting 'married' in the process, or some stars in binary systems exchanging companions. These dynamic processes are the origin of many exotic objects, to be found in the cluster. Thus, 47 Tuc contains at least twenty millisecond pulsars, i.e. neutron stars [2] rotating extremely rapidly around their axis, a few hundreds to one thousand times a second. Such peculiar objects are generally thought to have a companion from which they receive matter. The Hubble Space Telescope recently also looked at 47 Tuc to study planets orbiting very close to their parent stars. This experiment showed that such 'hot Jupiters' must be much less common in 47 Tucanae than around stars in the Sun's neighbourhood. This may tell us either that the dense cluster environment is unhealthy for even such close planets, or that planet formation is a different matter today than it was very early in our Galaxy's history. Technical information: ESO PR Photo 20/06 is based on data obtained with FORS1 on Kueyen, UT2 of the Very Large Telescope. The image, 7 arcmin wide, covers the central core of the 30 arcmin large globular cluster. The observations were taken in three different filters: U, R, and a narrow-band filter centred around 485 nm, for a total exposure time of less than 5 minutes. The data were extracted from the ESO Science Archive and processed by Rubina Kotak (ESO) and the final image processing was done by Henri Boffin (ESO). North is up and East is to the left.

  5. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  6. Nanotwinned diamond with unprecedented hardness and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Quan; Yu, Dongli; Xu, Bo; Hu, Wentao; Ma, Yanming; Wang, Yanbin; Zhao, Zhisheng; Wen, Bin; He, Julong; Liu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yongjun

    2014-06-01

    Although diamond is the hardest material for cutting tools, poor thermal stability has limited its applications, especially at high temperatures. Simultaneous improvement of the hardness and thermal stability of diamond has long been desirable. According to the Hall-Petch effect, the hardness of diamond can be enhanced by nanostructuring (by means of nanograined and nanotwinned microstructures), as shown in previous studies. However, for well-sintered nanograined diamonds, the grain sizes are technically limited to 10-30 nm (ref. 3), with degraded thermal stability compared with that of natural diamond. Recent success in synthesizing nanotwinned cubic boron nitride (nt-cBN) with a twin thickness down to ~3.8 nm makes it feasible to simultaneously achieve smaller nanosize, ultrahardness and superior thermal stability. At present, nanotwinned diamond (nt-diamond) has not been fabricated successfully through direct conversions of various carbon precursors (such as graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon and C60). Here we report the direct synthesis of nt-diamond with an average twin thickness of ~5 nm, using a precursor of onion carbon nanoparticles at high pressure and high temperature, and the observation of a new monoclinic crystalline form of diamond coexisting with nt-diamond. The pure synthetic bulk nt-diamond material shows unprecedented hardness and thermal stability, with Vickers hardness up to ~200 GPa and an in-air oxidization temperature more than 200 °C higher than that of natural diamond. The creation of nanotwinned microstructures offers a general pathway for manufacturing new advanced carbon-based materials with exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties.

  7. Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Yusheng

    2011-06-14

    Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents information on diamond, which is regarded as the world's most popular gemstone. It states that there is strength in the covalent bonding between its carbon atoms, resulting to the strength of its physical properties. The presence of colors in diamonds may be attributed to the impurities that settle in the crystal lattice. Diamonds have been used as decorative items since the ancient era.

  9. The dike type of diamond deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, Boris M.

    This book examines characteristics of kimberlite dikes associated with known diamond-bearing regions of the world, including those of Africa, Arabian Peninsula, South America, Hindustan, Australia, northern China, and Siberia. Special attention is given to the structure, distribution, diamond-bearing capacity, and petrographic and mineralogic characteristics of these kimberlite dikes. Methods are described for prospecting and exploration of kimberlite dikes, and for kimberlite enrichment and diamond extraction.

  10. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  11. Microwave Resonators Containing Diamond Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Maleki, Lutfollah; Wang, Rabi T.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic diamond dielectric bodies proposed for use in cylindrical resonators helping to stabilize frequencies of some microwave oscillators. Acting in conjunction with metal resonator cavities in which mounted, such dielectric bodies support "whispering-gallery" waveguide modes characterized by desired frequencies of resonance and by electro-magnetic-field configurations limiting dissipation of power on metal surfaces outside dielectric bodies. Performances at room temperature might exceed those of liquid-nitrogen-cooled sapphire-based resonators.

  12. Electrical properties of diamond nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, M.

    Nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) can potentially be used in a large variety of applications such as electrochemical electrodes, tribology, cold cathodes, and corrosion resistance. A thorough knowledge of the electrical properties of NCD films is therefore critical to understand and predict their performance in various applications. In the present work the electrical properties of NCD films were analysed using Impedance Spectroscopy and Hall Effect measurements. Impedance Spectroscopy permits to identify and single out the conduction paths within the films tested. Such conduction paths can be through grain interiors and/or grain boundaries. Hall measurements, carried out on Boron doped NCD, permits determination of the mobility of the films. Specific treatments were devised to enhance the properties of the NCD films studied. Detonation nanodiamond (DND) is becoming an increasingly interesting material. It is already used as abrasive material or component for coatings [1], but its potential applications can extend far beyond these. It is therefore essential to understand the structure and electrical properties of DND in order to exploit the full potential of this material. In the present work, electrical properties of DND were studied using Impedance Spectroscopy. The results obtained suggest that DND could be used to manufacture devices able to work as Ammonia detectors. Another major area of study in this work was ultra-violet diamond photodetectors. Using high quality CVD single-crystal diamond, UV photodetection devices were built using standard lithographic techniques. Following the application of heat treatments, the photoconductive properties of these devices were highly enhanced. The devices represent the state-of-the-art UV diamond photodetectors.

  13. Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 bolometer on polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Zheng, Jim P.; Giles, Steven E.; Rao, Rama; Kwok, HoiSing

    1994-05-01

    We have deposited superconducting YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7) thin films on polycrystalline diamond using a composite Si/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) diffusion barrier. 10 - 20 micron thick, free standing diamond films were coated with a micron thick layer of amorphous Si by plasma CVD. This was vacuum annealed at 700 degree(s)C to crystallize Si prior to the in-situ deposition of YSZ and YBCO by laser ablation. A primary layer of Si was found essential to avoid the peeling of the multilayer structure during the cooling of the substrates. A Tc-zero equals 50 K was observed for the best films. A bolometer fabricated from this film exhibited a 18 V/W responsivity and NEP equals 6.3 X 10-9 W/(root)Hz at 60 K. Both the buffer layers and YBCO were polycrystalline. We believe single crystal Si backing CVD grown diamond can be used instead of a polycrystalline Si layer to further improve the quality of the YBCO deposited on polycrystalline diamond.

  14. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOEpatents

    Westerfield, Curtis L.; Morris, John S.; Agnew, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  15. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOEpatents

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  16. (Chemically vapor deposited diamond films)

    SciTech Connect

    Clausing, R.E.; Heatherly, L. Jr.

    1990-09-22

    The NATO-ASI on Diamond and Diamond-Like Films and Coatings'' was an opportunity for us to learn the latest research results from ongoing programs in the leading laboratories of the world and relate them to our work. Specific examples are given in the comprehensive report which follows. The meeting format provided an ideal environment to meet and interact with our international counterparts. It is clear that our studies are well regarded, and that we have established an excellent reputation in a short time. New opportunities for collaboration were identified. A panel discussion at the end of the meeting addressed the needs and opportunities in the synthesis of CVD diamond. The key scientific needs are those related to modeling the nucleation and growth processes and to elucidation of the critical roles of atomic hydrogen and the mechanisms of carbon addition to the growing surfaces. The development and more extensive use of in situ diagnostics for both surface and gas phases are important to solving these issues. The more immediate practical questions concern the identification of the growth-rate-limiting steps, the relation of growth parameters to the resulting film structure, and the dependence of properties on structure.

  17. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  18. Electrochemical patterning of amorphous carbon on diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchywka, Mike; Pehrsson, Pehr E.; Binari, Steven C.; Moses, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The ability to pattern ion-implantation damaged or other nondiamond carbon on a diamond substrate is useful for fabricating a variety of devices. We accomplished such patterning by an unmasked implantation into a diamond substrate followed by photolithography and a selective electrochemical etch. The use of a high resistivity medium coupled with applied biases over 50 V permitted etching without requiring contact between the substrate and an electrode. Many electrolytes gave etches that exhibit high selectivity for nondiamond carbon over both diamond and dielectrics such as photoresist. Optical, electrical, and Raman spectroscopic measurements elucidate the effects of the etch on the implanted diamond surface.

  19. Superconductor-Diamond Hybrid Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semba, Kouichi; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Johansson, Jan E. S.; Zhu, Xiaobo; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Munro, William J.; Saito, Shiro; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro

    This chapter describes recent progress on research into superconducting flux qubit, NV diamond, and superconductor-diamond hybrid quantum systems. First, we describe important physical properties of superconducting macroscopic artificial atoms i.e., the tunability of the qubit energy level spacing, the coherence property, an example of strong coupling to another quantum system such as an LC harmonic oscillator, and qubit state readout through a Josephson bifurcation amplifier. We then introduce the NV center in diamond as an intriguing candidate for quantum information processing, which offers excellent multiple accessibility via visible light, microwaves and magnetic fields. Finally, we describe the superconducting flux qubit - NV centers in a diamond hybrid quantum system.

  20. Crystallographic relationships between diamond and its inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimis, Paolo; Nestola, Fabrizio; Angel, Ross J.; Milani, Sula; Alvaro, Matteo; Anzolini, Chiara; Schiazza, Mariangela; Bruno, Marco; Prencipe, Mauro; Harris, Jeff W.; Hutchison, Mark T.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the crystallographic orientations of minerals included in diamonds can provide an insight into the mechanisms of their incorporation and the timing of their formation relative to the host diamond. The reported occurrence of non-trivial orientations for some minerals in some diamonds, suggesting an epitactic relationship, has long been considered to reflect contemporaneous growth of the diamond and the inclusion (= syngenesis). Correct interpretation of such orientations requires (i) a statistically significant data set, i.e. crystallographic data for single and multiple inclusions in a large number of diamonds, and (ii) a robust data-processing method, capable of removing ambiguities derived from the high symmetry of the diamond and the inclusion. We have developed software which performs such processing, starting from crystallographic orientation matrixes obtained by X-ray diffractometry. Preliminary studies indicate a wide variety of trends in the orientations of different inclusion phases in diamonds. In contrast to previous claims, olivine inclusions in lithospheric diamonds from Udachnaya do not show any preferred orientations with respect to their diamond hosts, but multiple inclusions in a single diamond often show very similar orientations within a few degrees (Nestola et al. 2014). Chromite (spinel) inclusions exhibit a strong tendency for a single (111) plane of each inclusion to be parallel to a (111) plane of their diamond host, but without any statistically significant orientation of the crystallographic axes a, b, and c. By contrast, 7 inclusions of ferropericlase studied in 2 different super deep diamonds (four inclusions in one diamond and three inclusions in the second diamond) from Brazil all exhibit the same orientation with their axes practically coincident with those of diamonds regardless of the position and the shape of the inclusions. The implications of these observations for the mechanisms of diamond growth will be explored. This work was supported by ERC starting grant 307322 to F. Nestola and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's Deep Carbon Observatory project to P. Nimis. Nestola F., et al. (2014) Int Geol Rev, 56,1658-1667.

  1. Negative Electron Affinity Mechanism for Diamond Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, I. L.; Asnin, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The energy distribution of the secondary electrons for chemical vacuum deposited diamond films with Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) was investigated. It was found that while for completely hydrogenated diamond surfaces the negative electron affinity peak in the energy spectrum of the secondary electrons is present for any energy of the primary electrons, for partially hydrogenated diamond surfaces there is a critical energy above which the peak is present in the spectrum. This critical energy increases sharply when hydrogen coverage of the diamond surface diminishes. This effect was explained by the change of the NEA from the true type for the completely hydrogenated surface to the effective type for the partially hydrogenated surfaces.

  2. Electrical applications of CVD diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Naoji

    Electronics applications of CVD diamond films are reported. The properties of epitaxial diamond films are affected by the orientation of the substrate and the deposition conditions. Boron-doped epitaxial films are found to have the same characteristics as natural IIb diamonds. An LED and an FET were successfully fabricated using boron-doped epitaxial films and Schottky junctions. However, these devices did not exhibit satisfactory properties. Other applications of CVD diamond films include speaker diaphragms (as both a thin-film coating and a free-standing film), and as an ideal packaging material (due to its high thermal conductivity and low dielectric constant).

  3. Quantum optics in the solid state with diamond nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ruffin; de Leon, Nathalie; de Greve, Kristiaan; Chu, Yiwen; Shields, Brendan; Hausmann, Birgit; Burek, Michael; Maletinsky, Patrick; Zibrov, Alexander; Park, Hongkun; Loncar, Marko; Lukin, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Quantum networks require interfaces between photons and quantum bits. Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a promising candidate for this interface: they are optically addressable, have spin degrees of freedom with long coherence times, and can be easily integrated into solid-state nanophotonic devices. The crucial optical feature of the NV is its zero-phonon line (ZPL), a cycling transition allowing coherent optical manipulation and read-out of the spin. However, the ZPL only accounts for 3-5% of the NV emission, and previous methods of producing NV centers yield unstable ZPLs. I will present methods for controlling NV emission by coupling NV centers to nanophotonic devices. In particular, we create a high-density layer of NVs with stable ZPLs in high purity diamond; carve waveguides out of the diamond substrate; and fabricate high quality factor, small mode volume photonic crystal cavities around NVs in these waveguides. We observe an enhancement of the NV emission at the cavity resonance by a factor of 100. These devices will become building blocks for quantum information processing such as single photon transistors, enabling distribution of entanglement over quantum networks.

  4. Friction between silicon and diamond at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lichun; Sha, Zhen-Dong; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Wang, Xu; Srolovitz, David J.; Zhou, Kun

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the nanoscale friction between diamond-structure silicon (Si) and diamond via molecular dynamics simulation. The interaction between the interfaces is considered as strong covalent bonds. The effects of load, sliding velocity, temperature and lattice orientation are investigated. Results show that the friction can be divided into two stages: the static friction and the kinetic friction. During the static friction stage, the load, lattice orientation and temperature dramatically affects the friction by changing the elastic limit of Si. Large elastic deformation is induced in the Si block, which eventually leads to the formation of a thin layer of amorphous Si near the Si-diamond interface and thus the beginning of the kinetic friction stage. During the kinetic friction stage, only temperature and velocity have an effect on the friction. The investigation of the microstructural evolution of Si demonstrated that the kinetic friction can be categorized into two modes (stick-slip and smooth sliding) depending on the temperature of the fracture region.

  5. Properties of chemical vapor infiltration diamond deposited in a diamond powder matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Tallant, D.R.; Hills, C.R.; Staley, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors have developed two techniques: electrophoretic deposition and screen printing, to form nonmined diamond powder precursors on substrates. They then densify these precursors in a hot filament assisted reactor. Analysis indicated that a hot filament assisted chemical vapor infiltration process forms intergranular diamond deposits with properties that are to some degree different from predominantly hot-filament-assisted CVD material.

  6. The mechanical and strength properties of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Diamond is an exciting material with many outstanding properties; see, for example Field J E (ed) 1979 The Properties of Diamond (London: Academic) and Field J E (ed) 1992 The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond (London: Academic). It is pre-eminent as a gemstone, an industrial tool and as a material for solid state research. Since natural diamonds grew deep below the Earth's surface before their ejection to mineable levels, they also contain valuable information for geologists. The key to many of diamond's properties is the rigidity of its structure which explains, for example, its exceptional hardness and its high thermal conductivity. Since 1953, it has been possible to grow synthetic diamond. Before then, it was effectively only possible to have natural diamond, with a small number of these found in the vicinity of meteorite impacts. Techniques are now available to grow gem quality synthetic diamonds greater than 1 carat (0.2 g) using high temperatures and pressures (HTHP) similar to those found in nature. However, the costs are high, and the largest commercially available industrial diamonds are about 0.01 carat in weight or about 1 mm in linear dimension. The bulk of synthetic diamonds used industrially are 600 µm or less. Over 75% of diamond used for industrial purposes today is synthetic material. In recent years, there have been two significant developments. The first is the production of composites based on diamond; these materials have a significantly greater toughness than diamond while still maintaining very high hardness and reasonable thermal conductivity. The second is the production at low pressures by metastable growth using chemical vapour deposition techniques. Deposition onto non-diamond substrates was first demonstrated by Spitsyn et al 1981 J. Cryst. Growth 52 219-26 and confirmed by Matsumoto et al 1982 Japan J. Appl. Phys. 21 L183-5. These developments have added further to the versatility of diamond. Two other groups of materials based on carbon, namely the fullerenes and graphines have been identified in recent years and are now the subject of intense research.

  7. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  8. Very High Efficiency, Miniaturized, Long-Lived Alpha Particle Power Source Using Diamond Devices for Extreme Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai U. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source that converts a-particle energy into electricity by coulomb collision in doped diamond films is described. Alpha particle decay from curium-244 creates electron-hole pairs by free- ing electrons and holes inside the crystal lattice in N- and P-doped diamond films. Ohmic contacts provide electrical connection to an electronic device. Due to the built-in electric field at the rectifying junction across the hT- and P-doped diamond films, the free electrons are constrained to traveling in generally one direction. This one direction then supplies electrons in a manner similar to that of a battery. The radioactive curium layer may be disposed on diamond films for even distribution of a-particle radiation. The resulting power source may be mounted on a diamond substrate that serves to insulate structures below the diamond substrate from a-particle emission. Additional insulation or isolation may be provided in order to prevent damage from a-particle collision. N-doped silicon may be used instead of N-doped diamond.

  9. Maskless milling of diamond by a focused oxygen ion beam

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Aiden A.; Randolph, Steven; Botman, Aurelien; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in focused ion beam technology have enabled high-resolution, maskless nanofabrication using light ions. Studies with light ions to date have, however, focused on milling of materials where sub-surface ion beam damage does not inhibit device performance. Here we report on maskless milling of single crystal diamond using a focused beam of oxygen ions. Material quality is assessed by Raman and luminescence analysis, and reveals that the damage layer generated by oxygen ions can be removed by non-intrusive post-processing methods such as localised electron beam induced chemical etching. PMID:25753406

  10. Method and apparatus for making diamond-like carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Pern, Fu-Jann; Touryan, Kenell J.; Panosyan, Zhozef Retevos; Gippius, Aleksey Alekseyevich

    2008-12-02

    Ion-assisted plasma enhanced deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the surface of photovoltaic solar cells is accomplished with a method and apparatus for controlling ion energy. The quality of DLC layers is fine-tuned by a properly biased system of special electrodes and by exact control of the feed gas mixture compositions. Uniform (with degree of non-uniformity of optical parameters less than 5%) large area (more than 110 cm.sup.2) DLC films with optical parameters varied within the given range and with stability against harmful effects of the environment are achieved.

  11. Diamond photonic crystal slab: Leaky modes and modified photoluminescence emission of surface-deposited quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Ondič, Lukáš; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Čtyroký, Jiří; Pelant, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Detailed analysis of a band diagram of a photonic crystal (PhC) slab prepared on a nano-diamond layer is presented. Even though the PhC is structurally imperfect, the existence of leaky modes, determined both theoretically and experimentally in the broad spectral region, implies that an efficient light interaction with a material periodicity occurs in the sample. It is shown that the luminescence emission spectrum of a light source placed directly on the PhC surface can be modified by employing the optical modes of the studied structure. We stress also the impact of intrinsic optical losses of the nano-diamond on this modification. PMID:23209874

  12. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nanostructured diamond film deposition on curved surfaces of metallic temporomandibular joint implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Marc D.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2002-10-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition of nanostructured diamond films was carried out on curved surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V alloy machined to simulate the shape of a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dental implant. Raman spectroscopy shows that the deposited films are uniform in chemical composition along the radius of curvature of the TMJ condyle. Thin film x-ray diffraction reveals an interfacial carbide layer and nanocrystalline diamond grains in this coating. Nanoindentation hardness measurements show an ultra-hard coating with a hardness value of 60+/-5 GPa averaged over three samples.

  13. Site selective growth of heteroepitaxial diamond nanoislands containing single SiV centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arend, Carsten; Appel, Patrick; Becker, Jonas Nils; Schmidt, Marcel; Fischer, Martin; Gsell, Stefan; Schreck, Matthias; Becher, Christoph; Maletinsky, Patrick; Neu, Elke

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the controlled preparation of heteroepitaxial diamond nano- and microstructures on silicon wafer based iridium films as hosts for single color centers. Our approach uses electron beam lithography followed by reactive ion etching to pattern the carbon layer formed by bias enhanced nucleation on the iridium surface. In the subsequent chemical vapor deposition process, the patterned areas evolve into regular arrays of (001) oriented diamond nano-islands with diameters of <500 nm and a height of ≈60 nm. In the islands, we identify single SiV color centers with narrow zero phonon lines down to 1 nm at room temperature.

  14. Phonon-engineered mobility enhancement in the acoustically mismatched silicon/diamond transistor channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nika, Denis L.; Pokatilov, Evghenii P.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors have shown that the low-field electron drift mobility in the ultrathin silicon films can be enhanced if they are embedded within acoustically hard materials such as diamond. The increase results from phonon spectrum modification in the acoustically mismatched silicon/diamond heterostructure and suppression of the deformation-potential electron-phonon scattering. The room temperature mobility in silicon films with 2 nm thickness can be increased by a factor of 2-3 depending on the hardness and thickness of the barrier layers. The obtained results suggest a new phonon-engineering approach for increasing the speed and drive current of downscaled electronic devices.

  15. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOEpatents

    Moss, W.C.

    1988-10-11

    A double or multiple bevel culet geometry is used on a diamond anvil in a high pressure cell apparatus to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. Double or multiple bevel culet geometries can also be used for sapphire or other hard crystal anvils. Pressures up to and above 5 Megabars can be reached. 8 figs.

  16. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A double or multiple bevel culet geometry is used on a diamond anvil in a high pressure cell apparatus to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. Double or multiple bevel culet geometries can also be used for sapphire or other hard crystal anvils. Pressures up to and above 5 Megabars can be reached.

  17. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Gene W.

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  18. Diamond film growth argon-carbon plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Liu, Shengzhong; Pan, Xianzheng; Zuiker, Christopher D.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrogen and hydrocarbon and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate.

  19. The World According to Jared Diamond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the book, "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies" (Jared Diamond). Examines the strengths of the book, focusing on its distinctive aspects, while also offering criticism. States that the final chapter is the most problematic part of Diamond's work. (CMK)

  20. Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Liu, Shengzhong; Krauss, Alan R.; Pan, Xianzheng

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate.

  1. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A. M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J. C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  2. Infrared spectral and carbon isotopic characteristics of micro- and macro-diamonds from the Panda kimberlite (Central Slave Craton, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, G. L.; Stachel, T.; Stern, R. A.; Carlson, J.; Harris, J. W.

    2013-09-01

    One hundred and twenty-one micro-diamonds (< 1 mm) and 90 macro-diamonds (2.5 mm to 3.4 mm) from the Panda kimberlite (Ekati mine, Central Slave Craton, Canada) were analyzed for nitrogen content, nitrogen aggregation state (%B) and platelet and hydrogen peak areas (cm- 2). Micro-diamond nitrogen concentrations range from < 10 at. ppm to 1696 at. ppm (median = 805 at. ppm) and the median aggregation state is 23%B. Macro-diamonds range from < 10 at. ppm to 1260 at. ppm (median = 187 at. ppm) nitrogen and have a median nitrogen aggregation of 26%B. Platelet and hydrogen peaks were observed in 37% and 79% of the micro-diamonds and 79% and 56% of the macro-diamonds, respectively. Nitrogen based time averaged residence temperatures indicate that micro- and macro-diamonds experienced similar thermal mantle residence histories, both populations displaying bimodal residence temperature distributions with a gap between 1130 °C and 1160 °C (at 3.5 Ga residence). In addition, SIMS carbon isotopic analyses for the micro-diamonds were obtained: δ13C compositions range from - 6.9‰ to + 1.8‰ (median = - 4.3‰). CL imaging reveals distinct growth layers that in some samples differ by > 2‰, but mostly vary by < 0.5‰. Comparison of only the “gem-quality” samples (n = 49 micro- and 90 macro-diamonds) between the two diamond sets, indicates a statistically significant shift of + 1.3‰ in average δ13C from macro- to micro-diamonds and this shift documents distinct diamond forming fluids, fractionation process or growth histories. A broad transition to heavier isotopic values is also observed in connection to decreasing mantle residence temperatures. The bimodal mantle residence temperature distribution may coincide with the transition from highly depleted shallow to more fertile deep lithospheric mantle observed beneath the Central Slave Craton. The increase in δ13C with decreasing residence temperature (proxy for decreasing depth) is interpreted to reflect diamond formation from a carbonate-bearing metasomatic fluid/melt that isotopically evolves as it percolates upward through the lithosphere.

  3. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition of amorphous carbon film on diamond grits and induction brazing of the diamond grits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bojiang; Yu, Qingxian

    2012-03-01

    The production of a high-quality brazed diamond tool has gradually drawn the attention of the tool industry. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of amorphous carbon film on diamond grits was conducted. The deposited diamond grits were used to make brazed diamond tools by induction heating. Amorphous carbon film (1-2 μm thick) was deposited onto the diamond surface. The diamond grits protruding from the filler alloy maintain their sharpness after induction brazing of the deposited diamond grits. Discontinuous irregular carbides are distributed evenly on the brazed diamond surface in the filler alloy. This considerably enhances the bonding strength between the filler alloy and diamond grits. Grinding tests of the brazed diamond wheels show a low percentage of pullouts from the matrix and whole grain fracture for the deposited diamond grits brazed by induction heating.

  4. Nature and genesis of Kalimantan diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Chris B.; Bulanova, Galina P.; Kohn, Simon C.; Milledge, H. Judith; Hall, Anne E.; Griffin, Brendan J.; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-11-01

    The origin of alluvial diamonds from the four main diamond mining districts in Kalimantan was studied through characterisation of their properties, and determination of PT and age of formation of representative collections of diamonds from four localities of the island. The diamonds are mostly colourless, yellow or pale brown, shiny surfaced, dodecahedroids, octahedron/dodecahedroids, and more rarely cube combination forms. They are intensively resorbed. They have surface radiation damage and show abrasion features indicative of fluvial transportation and crustal recycling. The diamonds were polished down to expose internal structures and mineral inclusions. The majority of the diamonds are internally homogeneous or have simple octahedral zonation and show plastic deformation. Analysis by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy of their N content and aggregation characteristics shows that many diamonds are well-aggregated type IaB implying a long-term, mantle residence time and/or high temperatures of formation. Identified inclusion parageneses are 68% peridotitic and 32% eclogitic. The peridotitic inclusions are represented by olivine, chromite, garnet, orthopyroxene and pentlandite. Olivines (Fo 92-93) belong to the dunite-harzburgite paragenesis, with one at Fo 90 identified as lherzolitic. Chromite inclusions with 65-66 wt.% Cr 2O 3 and < 1 wt.% TiO 2 are typical of chromite diamond inclusions world-wide. Two garnet inclusions identified are a subcalcic high chrome harzburgite "G10" and a mildly subcalcic type transitional between "G9" and "G10". The eclogitic inclusions are represented by omphacite, rutile, kyanite and coesite. Re/Os dating of a high Ni sulphide inclusion from one peridotitic diamond gave an Archean model age of 3.1 Ga ± 0.2 (2 sigma). In terms of their external and internal morphology, N aggregation characteristics and paragenesis the Kalimantan diamonds resemble those transported to surface by kimberlite or lamproite from sources in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Five distinctive genetic groups of diamond have been recognised but occur mixed in each of the four diamond mining districts due to a presumed long history of sedimentary recycling and alluvial transportation. Thermobarometry calculations from diamond inclusion chemistry (930 °C to 1250 °C; > 4.2 GPa) are consistent with a paleo-heat flow of 38 to 40 mW/m 2 and derivation from 120 to 160 km depth, i.e. subcontinental mantle lithosphere conditions similar to diamonds from African and Yakutian cratonic situations.

  5. Investigation of focused ion beam induced damage in single crystal diamond tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zhen; Luo, Xichun

    2015-08-01

    In this work, transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to characterise the focused ion beam (FIB) induced damage layer in a single crystal diamond tool under different FIB processing voltages. The results obtained from the experiments and the simulations are in good agreement. The results indicate that during FIB processing cutting tools made of natural single crystal diamond, the energetic Ga+ collision will create an impulse-dependent damage layer at the irradiated surface. For the tested beam voltages in a typical FIB system (from 8 kV to 30 kV), the thicknesses of the damaged layers formed on a diamond tool surface increased from 11.5 nm to 27.6 nm. The dynamic damage process of FIB irradiation and ion-solid interactions physics leading to processing defects in FIB milling were emulated by MD simulations. The research findings from this study provide the in-depth understanding of the wear of nanoscale multi-tip diamond tools considering the FIB irradiation induced doping and defects during the tool fabrication process.

  6. Magnetic imaging with an ensemble of nitrogen vacancy-centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipaux, Mayeul; Tallaire, Alexandre; Achard, Jocelyn; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Meijer, Jan; Jacques, Vincent; Roch, Jean-François; Debuisschert, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond is an atom-like system in the solid-state which specific spin properties can be efficiently used as a sensitive magnetic sensor. An external magnetic field induces Zeeman shifts of the NV center levels which can be measured using optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). In this work, we quantitatively map the vectorial structure of the magnetic field produced by a sample close to the surface of a CVD diamond hosting a thin layer of NV centers. The magnetic field reconstruction is based on a maximum-likelihood technique which exploits the response of the four intrinsic orientations of the NV center inside the diamond lattice. The sensitivity associated to a 1 μm2 area of the doped layer, equivalent to a sensor consisting of approximately 104 NV centers, is of the order of 2 μT/√Hz. The spatial resolution of the imaging device is 480 nm, limited by the numerical aperture of the optical microscope which is used to collect the photoluminescence of the NV layer. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated by the accurate reconstruction of the magnetic field created by a DC current inside a copper wire deposited on the diamond sample.

  7. Early diamond making at General Electric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, H. M.

    1989-09-01

    This is an account of how GE's early interest in a new super-hard metal, cobalt cemented tungsten carbide, for drawing tungsten lamp filament wire, led to a broader interest in the realm of super pressure and to diamond synthesis. P. W. Bridgman at Harvard University had demonstrated the new metal's (``Carboloy'') ability to generate pressures of 100 000 atm (100 kbars). Armed with this new capability, GE initiated a diamond project in 1951. In December 1954 two synthesized diamonds emerged in a marginal experiment that for a while could not be reproduced. Nevertheless, that experiment gave the critical clue to the process that now provides 90% of the world's industrial diamond needs. The high-pressure high-temperature process (HPHT) together with the new carbon vapor deposition process (CVD) brings diamonds' unique and valuable properties to applications requiring crystals tailored to fit specific needs.

  8. Diamond as an inert substrate of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Wei; Li Zhenyu; Yang Jinlong

    2013-02-07

    Interaction between graphene and semiconducting diamond substrate has been examined with large-scale density functional theory calculations. Clean and hydrogenated diamond (100) and (111) surfaces have been studied. It turns out that weak van der Waals interactions dominate for graphene on all these surfaces. High carrier mobility of graphene is almost not affected, except for a negligible energy gap opening at the Dirac point. No charge transfer between graphene and diamond (100) surfaces is detected, while different charge-transfer complexes are formed between graphene and diamond (111) surfaces, inducing either p-type or n-type doping on graphene. Therefore, diamond can be used as an excellent substrate of graphene, which almost keeps its electronic structures at the same time providing the flexibility of charge doping.

  9. Structures of diamond-like phases

    SciTech Connect

    Greshnyakov, V. A.; Belenkov, E. A.

    2011-07-15

    The diamond-like phases containing carbon atoms with the same degree of hybridization, which is close to sp{sup 3}, are classified. It is found that twenty such phases can exist, and ten of them are described for the first time. Molecular mechanics and semi-empirical quantum-mechanical methods are used to calculate the geometrically optimized structures of diamond-like phase clusters and to determine their structural parameters and properties, such as the density, the bulk modulus, and the sublimation energy. The difference between the properties of the diamond-like phases and those of diamond is found to be determined by the difference between the structures of these phases and diamond.

  10. Carbon transport in diamond anvil cells

    SciTech Connect

    Prakapenka, V.B.; Shen, G.; Dubrovinsky, L.S.

    2010-11-10

    High-pressure-induced carbon transport from diamond anvils into the pressure chamber of diamond anvil cells (DACs) was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Depending on experimental conditions (temperature and pressure), various carbon phases (amorphous carbon, diamond, microcrystalline or nanocrystalline graphite) were detected in the originally carbon-free samples. Temperature-induced growth of a graphite phase at the sample/diamond interface was observed in situ at high pressure in an externally heated DAC. In laser-heated samples inside the pressure-transmitting medium, at pressures above 6 GPa there was transport of carbon from the diamond culet surface into the heated part of the sample. These observations suggest that account should be taken of possible carbon diffusion in high-pressure research with DACs, such as high-pressure melting, element partitioning, phase transformations, chemical reactions, and electrical resistivity.

  11. Raman Scattering in Natural Diamond Crystals Implanted with High-Energy Ions and Irradiated with Fast Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklonskaya, O. N.; Vyrko, S. A.; Khomich, A. A.; Averin, A. A.; Khomich, A. V.; Khmelnitsky, R. A.; Poklonskia, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Raman scattering is studied in natural diamond crystals with radiation-induced defects produced by implantation of high energy Xe and Kr ions (ion kinetic energy >1 MeV/amu) and by irradiation with fast reactor neutrons (kinetic energy >100 keV). Confocal measurements of the Raman spectra along the surface of an oblique section of the ionimplanted diamonds are used to study the radiation damage profile. The evolution of the Raman scattering spectra with depth of the damaged layer in the ion-implanted diamonds, and as a function of annealing temperature of the neutron-irradiated diamond, is determined by spatial localization of phonons in the radiation disordered crystal lattice and by the formation of associations of intrinsic defects in the lattice.

  12. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-09

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  13. Whispering gallery mode diamond resonator.

    PubMed

    Ilchenko, V S; Bennett, A M; Santini, P; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Maleki, L

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a nearly spherical diamond whispering gallery mode resonator with quality factor (Q factor) Q=2.4×10(7) limited by material loss approaching α=4×10(-3) cm(-1). The Q factor does not depend on the wavelength: it is approximately the same at 1319 and 1550 nm. Resonators with this range of Q (<10 MHz at 1550 nm wavelength) are attractive for laser locking and stabilization. Applications such as stable compact optical comb generators as well as Raman optical frequency shifters will be feasible with further improvement of the material. PMID:24177083

  14. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Zvanya, John Cullen, Christopher Morris, Thomas Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William Basnett, Andrew Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp{sup 3} peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm{sup −1}) and that negligible amounts of the sp{sup 2} band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films.

  15. Low drift and small hysteresis characteristics of diamond electrolyte-solution-gate FET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2010-09-01

    We have investigated drift and hysteresis characteristics on an electrolyte-solution-gate field-effect transistor (SGFET) with a unique structure using polycrystalline diamond and verified the possibility as chemical sensors and biosensors. Silicon-based ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) have not yet solved such time-related issues due to the chemical instability of the passivation layer covering on SiO2 and that is why the Si-ISFET is not wide spread. First of all, we have confirmed that the pH sensitivities of oxygen- and amine-terminated diamond surfaces are 20 mV/pH and 48 mV/pH, respectively, whereas that of hydrogen-terminated surface is only 7 mV/pH. Drift characteristics measurement on diamond SGFET reveals that diamond SGFETs with any surface termination are more stable in electrolyte solution than Si-ISFETs with typical passivation membranes. Hysteresis width, which is known to be a more serious cause of measurement error than drift, proves to be 0.39 mV on amine-terminated SGFET. This is less than 1/10 compared with common Si3N4-ISFET. These results can be explained by high tolerance of diamond against ions in solution due to intrinsic chemical stability and densely packed structure of diamond itself. In this work, we bear out that diamond SGFET is a promising platform for highly sensitive biosensor application owing to the superiority in terms of time response and resulting measurement accuracy.

  16. Impedance analysis of Al2O3/H-terminated diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Meiyong; Liu, Jiangwei; Sang, Liwen; Coathup, David; Li, Jiangling; Imura, Masataka; Koide, Yasuo; Ye, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) analysis is carried out to investigate the electrical properties of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure fabricated on hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond. The low-temperature atomic layer deposition Al2O3 is employed as the insulator in the MOS structure. By numerically analysing the impedance of the MOS structure at various biases, the equivalent circuit of the diamond MOS structure is derived, which is composed of two parallel capacitive and resistance pairs, in series connection with both resistance and inductance. The two capacitive components are resulted from the insulator, the hydrogenated-diamond surface, and their interface. The physical parameters such as the insulator capacitance are obtained, circumventing the series resistance and inductance effect. By comparing the IS and capacitance-voltage measurements, the frequency dispersion of the capacitance-voltage characteristic is discussed.

  17. Molecular dynamic simulation of low-energy FIB irradiation induced damage in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zhen; Xu, Zongwei; Wu, Wei; Luo, Xichun

    2015-09-01

    In this article, a large scale multi-particle molecular dynamics (MD) simulation model was developed to study the dynamic structural changes in single crystal diamond under 5 keV Ga+ irradiation in conjunction with a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiment. The results show that the thickness of ion-induced damaged layer (∼9.0 nm) obtained from experiments and simulations has good accordance, which demonstrates the high accuracy achieved by the developed MD model. Using this model, the evolution of atomic defects, the spatial distributions of implanted Ga particles and the thermal spike at the very core collision area were analysed. The local thermal recrystallizations observed during each single ion collision process and the increase of the density of the non-diamond phase (mostly sp2 bonded) at irradiation area are fund to be the underling mechanisms responsible for ion fluence dependent amorphization of diamond observed in previous experiments.

  18. 16 CFR 23.13 - Disclosure of treatments to diamonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of treatments to diamonds. 23.13... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.13 Disclosure of treatments to diamonds. A diamond is a gemstone product. Treatments to diamonds should be disclosed in the manner prescribed in §...

  19. 16 CFR 23.13 - Disclosure of treatments to diamonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of treatments to diamonds. 23.13... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.13 Disclosure of treatments to diamonds. A diamond is a gemstone product. Treatments to diamonds should be disclosed in the manner prescribed in §...

  20. 16 CFR 23.13 - Disclosure of treatments to diamonds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of treatments to diamonds 23.13... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.13 Disclosure of treatments to diamonds A diamond is a gemstone product. Treatments to diamonds should be disclosed in the manner prescribed in §...

  1. 16 CFR 23.13 - Disclosure of treatments to diamonds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of treatments to diamonds 23.13... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.13 Disclosure of treatments to diamonds A diamond is a gemstone product. Treatments to diamonds should be disclosed in the manner prescribed in §...

  2. 16 CFR 23.13 - Disclosure of treatments to diamonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of treatments to diamonds. 23.13... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.13 Disclosure of treatments to diamonds. A diamond is a gemstone product. Treatments to diamonds should be disclosed in the manner prescribed in §...

  3. Fabrication of diamond and diamond-like carbon molds for nano-imprinting lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jay Wang-Chieh; Cheng, Chiao-Yang; Guo, Yoou-Bin; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-12-01

    Micro- and nano-scale molds were fabricated using nanocrystalline diamond (nano-diamond) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for imprinting lithography. Patterning was first transferred to the resist on nano-diamond and DLC thin films by photolithography and imprint lithography methods, and then deep etching with inductively-coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) was applied to transfer patterns to nano-diamond and DLC films for the fabrication of diamond molds. Nano-diamond films of about 1.5μm in thickness were deposited on silicon substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) by controlling CH4/H2 ratios and substrate temperatures. Thick diamond-like carbon films containing silicon oxide nanoparticles were deposited on silicon substrates by PECVD using gaseous HMDSO (Hexamethyldisiloxane) reactants to release the film stress. E-beam writer was used to pattern the resist on the Cr film-covered thick DLC film. By using ICP-RIE, Cr film was first patterned with the patterned e-beam resist as the etching mask, and then DLC thick film was etched to form nanoimprint mold using the patterned Cr as the etching mask. High fidelity nano-patterns were transferred with nano-imprinting lithography using the nano-diamond and DLC molds. Good mold releasing behavior and high mold strength were observed for the nanocrystalline diamond and DLC molds due to their highly hydrophobic surface and high toughness, respectively.

  4. Microstructure and thermal properties of copper–diamond composites with tungsten carbide coating on diamond particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Qiping; He, Xinbo Ren, Shubin; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Qian; Wu, Mao; Qu, Xuanhui

    2015-07-15

    An effective method for preparing tungsten carbide coating on diamond surfaces was proposed to improve the interface bonding between diamond and copper. The WC coating was formed on the diamond surfaces with a reaction medium of WO{sub 3} in mixed molten NaCl–KCl salts and the copper–diamond composites were obtained by vacuum pressure infiltration of WC-coated diamond particles with pure copper. The microstructure of interface bonding between diamond and copper was discussed. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion behavior of the obtained copper–diamond composites were investigated. Results indicated that the thermal conductivity of as-fabricated composite reached 658 W m{sup −} {sup 1} K{sup −} {sup 1}. Significant reduction in coefficient of thermal expansion of the composite compared with that of pure copper was obtained. - Highlights: • WC coating was successfully synthesized on diamond particles in molten salts. • WC coating obviously promoted the wettability of diamond and copper matrix. • WC coating greatly enhanced the thermal conductivity of Cu–diamond composite. • The composites are suitable candidates for heat sink applications.

  5. Continental mantle signature of Bushveld magmas and coeval diamonds.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Stephen H; Shirey, Steven B

    2008-06-12

    The emplacement of the 2.05-billion-year-old Bushveld complex, the world's largest layered intrusion and platinum-group element (PGE) repository, is a singular event in the history of the Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa, one of Earth's earliest surviving continental nuclei. In the prevailing model for the complex's mineralization, the radiogenic strontium and osmium isotope signatures of Bushveld PGE ores are attributed to continental crustal contamination of the host magmas. The scale of the intrusion and lateral homogeneity of the PGE-enriched layers, however, have long been problematical for the crustal contamination model, given the typically heterogeneous nature of continental crust. Furthermore, the distribution of Bushveld magmatism matches that of seismically anomalous underlying mantle, implying significant interaction before emplacement in the crust. Mineral samples of the ancient 200-km-deep craton keel, encapsulated in macrodiamonds and entrained by proximal kimberlites, reveal the nature of continental mantle potentially incorporated by Bushveld magmas. Here we show that sulphide inclusions in approximately 2-billion-year-old diamonds from the 0.5-billion-year-old Venetia and 1.2-billion-year-old Premier kimberlites (on opposite sides of the complex) have initial osmium isotope ratios even more radiogenic than those of Bushveld sulphide ore minerals. Sulphide Re-Os and silicate Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope compositions indicate that continental mantle harzburgite and eclogite components, in addition to the original convecting mantle magma, most probably contributed to the genesis of both the diamonds and the Bushveld complex. Coeval diamonds provide key evidence that the main source of Bushveld PGEs is the mantle rather than the crust. PMID:18548068

  6. Alpha-Voltaic Sources Using Diamond as Conversion Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Jagadish U.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A family of proposed miniature sources of power would exploit the direct conversion of the kinetic energy of a particles into electricity in diamond semiconductor diodes. These power sources would function over a wide range of temperatures encountered in terrestrial and outer-space environments. These sources are expected to have operational lifetimes of 10 to 20 years and energy conversion efficiencies >35 percent. A power source according to the proposal would include a pair of devices like that shown in the figure. Each device would contain Schottky and p/n diode devices made from high-band-gap, radiation-hard diamond substrates. The n and p layers in the diode portion would be doped sparsely (<1014 cm-3) in order to maximize the volume of the depletion region and thereby maximize efficiency. The diode layers would be supported by an undoped diamond substrate. The source of a particles would be a thin film of 244Cm (half-life 18 years) sandwiched between the two paired devices. The sandwich arrangement would force almost every a particle to go through the active volume of at least one of the devices. Typical a particle track lengths in the devices would range from 20 to 30 microns. The a particles would be made to stop only in the undoped substrates to prevent damage to the crystalline structures of the diode portions. The overall dimensions of a typical source are expected to be about 2 by 2 by 1 mm. Assuming an initial 244Cm mass of 20 mg, the estimated initial output of the source is 20 mW (a current of 20 mA at a potential of 1 V).

  7. Study of diamond film nucleation by ultrasonic seeding in different solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Marián; Ižák, Tibor; Kromka, Alexander; Veselý, Marian; Hruška, Karel; Michalka, Miroslav

    2012-02-01

    In this study we have investigated diamond nucleation on Si substrates by ultrasonic seeding with different liquid solutions of Ultradispersed Detonation Diamond (UDD) powder in a mixture of metal nano- or microparticles (Ni, Co, Y). The influence of different solutions on nucleation efficiency was investigated. For highlighting nucleation centers and better evaluation of the nucleation process the nucleated samples were moved into a Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW CVD) reactor and a "short-time" (10 min), then followed by a "long-time" (+1 hour), diamond deposition was performed. The morphology of samples was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the chemical composition of grown diamond layer was investigated by Raman Spectroscopy. From the measurements we found out that microsized metal particles positively influenced nucleation and the uniformity of the deposited diamond thin film. The lowest surface roughness was achieved in the case of nanodiamond powder mixed with Co and Y metal powder. The influence of Ni, Co and Y to the nucleation and early growth stage are discussed.

  8. Creation of deep blue light emitting nitrogen-vacancy center in nanosized diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himics, L.; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Balogh, Z.; Koós, M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the formation of complex defect centers related to the N3 center in nanosized diamond by employing plasma immersion and focused ion beam implantation methods. He+ ion implantation into nanosized diamond "layer" was performed with the aim of creating carbon atom vacancies in the diamond structure, followed by the introduction of molecular N2+ ion and heat treatment in vacuum at 750 °C to initiate vacancy diffusion. To decrease the sp2 carbon content of nanosized diamond formed during the implantation processes, a further heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing air atmosphere was used. The modification of the bonding properties after each step of defect creation was monitored by Raman scattering measurements. The fluorescence measurements of implanted and annealed nanosized diamond showed the appearance of an intensive and narrow emission band with fine structures at 2.98 eV, 2.83 eV, and 2.71 eV photon energies.

  9. An Isothermal Device Configuration for Diamond Based Photon-Enhanced Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianyin; Koeck, Franz; Nemanich, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Diamond can obtain a negative electron affinity (NEA) after hydrogen termination. With NEA and n-type doping, a low effective work function and efficient thermionic emission has been observed from these diamond films. Photo-induced electron emission from nitrogen doped diamond with visible light illumination has also been established by our group. Recently several reports have described efficient energy conversion based on the photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) mechanism. This study proposes a multi-layer emitter and collector structure for an isothermal PETE converter. The emitter structure is based on an n-type NEA diamond film deposited on a p-type Si substrate to enable electron emission across a vacuum gap. In this structure the above-bandgap light is absorbed in the Si and establishs an enhanced electron population for emission through the low work function surface, while sub-bandgap light is absorbed in the collector for transfer to a heat engine. Spectroscopy measurements of the n-type diamond on Si indicate strong electron emissivity with photon illumination, and the emission intensity is significantly increased at elevated temperatures. A simplified model describing the efficiency and performance of an isothermal PETE device is presented. This research is supported through ONR under grant number # N00014-10-1-0540.

  10. An insight into what superconducts in polycrystalline boron-doped diamonds based on investigations of microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Wirth, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Papageorgiou, T.; Braun, H. F.; Miyajima, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) synthesized under high pressure and high temperatures [Ekimov, et al. (2004) Nature 428:542–545] has raised a number of questions on the origin of the superconducting state. It was suggested that the heavy boron doping of diamond eventually leads to superconductivity. To justify such statements more detailed information on the microstructure of the composite materials and on the exact boron content in the diamond grains is needed. For that we used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. For the studied superconducting BDD samples synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures the diamond grain sizes are ≈1–2 μm with a boron content between 0.2 (2) and 0.5 (1) at %. The grains are separated by 10- to 20-nm-thick layers and triangular-shaped pockets of predominantly (at least 95 at %) amorphous boron. These results render superconductivity caused by the heavy boron doping in diamond highly unlikely. PMID:18697937

  11. Solar-blind field-emission diamond ultraviolet detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2015-11-01

    We report our studies on the responsivity of sulfur-doped diamond films to ultraviolet radiation using two types of device configurations: the planar configuration with electrodes directly on the diamond surface, and the electron field emission configuration with a bias electrode suspended above the diamond surface. Diamond films of different grain sizes were employed: microcrystalline diamond, sub-microcrystalline diamond, and nanocrystalline diamond. The responsivity values of diamond films in the field emission configuration reached ˜10 mA/W at around 220 nm, which is ˜40% higher than that of the planar configuration. These responsivity values of diamond films are comparable to those of commercially available photodiodes in the wavelength range of 210-300 nm, but with the advantage of being solar blind. The responsivity data were correlated with the bandgap structure of sulfur-doped diamond.

  12. Diamonds and the african lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Boyd, F R; Gurney, J J

    1986-04-25

    Data and inferences drawn from studies of diamond inclusions, xenocrysts, and xenoliths in the kimberlites of southern Africa are combined to characterize the structure of that portion of the Kaapvaal craton that lies within the mantle. The craton has a root composed in large part of peridotites that are strongly depleted in basaltic components. The asthenosphere boundary shelves from depths of 170 to 190 kilometers beneath the craton to approximately 140 kilometers beneath the mobile belts bordering the craton on the south and west. The root formed earlier than 3 billion years ago, and at that time ambient temperatures in it were 900 degrees to 1200 degrees C; these temperatures are near those estimated from data for xenoliths erupted in the Late Cretaceous or from present-day heat-flow measurements. Many of the diamonds in southern Africa are believed to have crystallized in this root in Archean time and were xenocrysts in the kimberlites that brought them to the surface. PMID:17743571

  13. Diamond Detectors for Compton Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. W.; Dutta, D.; Narayan, A.; Wang, P.

    2009-12-01

    Parity-violating electron scattering experiments aim to test the standard model of particle physics through precise low-energy determinations of the weak mixing angle. These experiments require determination of the polarization of the incident electron beam to the 1% level or better. An example of this type of experiment is the Q-weak experiment, which will be conducted in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in 2010 and beyond. We are constructing a Compton polarimeter in Hall C to provide continuous monitoring of the polarization with the goal of 1% absolute polarization determination. In our Compton polarimeter, circularly polarized laser light will impinge upon the electron beam. Electrons scattered by the Compton process will be momentum-analyzed in a dipole magnet downstream of the interaction point. A diamond strip tracker will be placed further downstream of the dipole to sense the Compton-scattered electrons and determine their momenta. The design of the polarimeter, focusing on electron detection, and our progress in prototyping and constructing the diamond strip tracker, are discussed.

  14. Infrared Optical Properties of Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Karstens, William

    2001-03-01

    We have developed a Taylor-series representation for the refractive index of intrinsic elemental semiconductors in a transparent region starting from the Kramers-Kronig relations. Cauchy proposed a similar expansion on the basis of aether theory, but the present formulation requires just causality and linear response. Only terms in even powers of energy occur; their coefficients are the inverse odd moments of the interband extinction coefficient. Inclusion of low-energy extrinsic absorptions yields a Laurent series; coefficients of the negative-power terms are the odd moments of the extrinsic absorption. We demonstrate this formulation for natural diamond over the energy range 0.05 - 5 eV. An index vs. photon-energy-squared plot is very nearly linear, corresponding to the first terms in a Taylor-series for interband absorption. However, the index dips sharply below 0.5 eV. Experience(D.Y. Smith, Mitio Inokuti, and W. Karstens, Physics Essays) (in press) with similar deviations in Si and Ge indicates this corresponds to Laurent-series terms for free-electron intraband or defect absorption. The coefficient of the ω-2 term is related to the f-sum rule and gives the plasma frequency for the extrinsic absorption. We find that, unlike nominally pure silicon where free-carriers account for the low-energy absorption, absorption by defects or impurities are the most likely extrinsic culprits in diamond.

  15. Diamond turning microstructure optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenda

    2009-05-01

    Microstructure optical components in the form of Fresnel, TIR, microgroove, micro lens array provide a lot design freedom for high compact optical systems. It is a key factor which enables the cutting edge technology for telecommunication, surveillance and high-definition display system. Therefore, the demand of manufacturing such element is rapidly increasing. These elements usually contain high precision, tiny structure and complex form, which have posed many new challenges for tooling, programming as well as ultra-precision machining. To cope with the fast development of the technology and meet the increasing demand of the market, we have developed our own manufacturing process to fabricate microstructure optical components by way of Diamond tuning, Shaping, Raster cutting, Slow Slide Servo (SSS), Diamond milling and Post polishing. This paper is to focus on how we employed these methods to produce complex prototype of microstructure optical components and precision mold inserts which either contains aspheric lens array or freeform V grooves. The high quality finish of these surfaces meets application requirements. Measurement results are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are compared and discussed in the paper.

  16. Diamond Detectors for Compton Polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J. W.; Dutta, D.; Narayan, A.; Wang, P.

    2009-12-17

    Parity-violating electron scattering experiments aim to test the standard model of particle physics through precise low-energy determinations of the weak mixing angle. These experiments require determination of the polarization of the incident electron beam to the 1% level or better. An example of this type of experiment is the Q-weak experiment, which will be conducted in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in 2010 and beyond. We are constructing a Compton polarimeter in Hall C to provide continuous monitoring of the polarization with the goal of 1% absolute polarization determination. In our Compton polarimeter, circularly polarized laser light will impinge upon the electron beam. Electrons scattered by the Compton process will be momentum-analyzed in a dipole magnet downstream of the interaction point. A diamond strip tracker will be placed further downstream of the dipole to sense the Compton-scattered electrons and determine their momenta. The design of the polarimeter, focusing on electron detection, and our progress in prototyping and constructing the diamond strip tracker, are discussed.

  17. Comparison theorems for causal diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthiere, Clément; Gibbons, Gary; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2015-09-01

    We formulate certain inequalities for the geometric quantities characterizing causal diamonds in curved and Minkowski spacetimes. These inequalities involve the redshift factor which, as we show explicitly in the spherically symmetric case, is monotonic in the radial direction, and it takes its maximal value at the center. As a by-product of our discussion we rederive Bishop's inequality without assuming the positivity of the spatial Ricci tensor. We then generalize our considerations to arbitrary, static and not necessarily spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the case of spacetimes with a horizon our generalization involves the so-called domain of dependence. The respective volume, expressed in terms of the duration measured by a distant observer compared with the volume of the domain in Minkowski spacetime, exhibits behaviors which differ if d =4 or d >4 . This peculiarity of four dimensions is due to the logarithmic subleading term in the asymptotic expansion of the metric near infinity. In terms of the invariant duration measured by a comoving observer associated with the diamond we establish an inequality which is universal for all d . We suggest some possible applications of our results including comparison theorems for entanglement entropy, causal set theory, and fundamental limits on computation.

  18. Diamond formation - Where, when and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, T.; Luth, R. W.

    2015-04-01

    Geothermobarometric calculations for a worldwide database of inclusions in diamond indicate that formation of the dominant harzburgitic diamond association occurred predominantly (90%) under subsolidus conditions. Diamonds in eclogitic and lherzolitic lithologies grew in the presence of a melt, unless their formation is related to strongly reducing CHO fluids that would increase the solidus temperature or occurred at pressure-temperature conditions below about 5 GPa and 1050 °C. Three quarters of peridotitic garnet inclusions in diamond classify as "depleted" due to their low Y and Zr contents but, based on LREEN-HREEN ratios invariably near or greater than one, they nevertheless reflect re-enrichment through either highly fractionated fluids or small amounts of melt. The trace element signatures of harzburgitic and lherzolitic garnet inclusions are broadly consistent with formation under subsolidus and supersolidus conditions, respectively. Diamond formation may be followed by cooling in the range of ~ 60-180 °C as a consequence of slow thermal relaxation or, in the case of the Kimberley area in South Africa, possibly uplift due to extension in the lithospheric mantle. In other cases, diamond formation and final residence took place at comparable temperatures or even associated with small temperature increases over time. Diamond formation in peridotitic substrates can only occur at conditions at least as reducing as the EMOD buffer. Evaluation of the redox state of 225 garnet peridotite xenoliths from cratons worldwide indicates that the vast majority of samples deriving from within the diamond stability field represent fO2 conditions below EMOD. Modeling reveals that less than 50 ppm fluid are required to completely reset the redox state of depleted cratonic peridotite to that of the fluid. Consequently, the overall reduced state of diamond stable peridotites implies that the last fluids to interact with the deep cratonic lithosphere were generally reducing in character. A further consequence of the extremely limited redox buffering capacity of cratonic peridotites is that redox reactions with infiltrating fluid/melt likely cannot produce large diamonds or high diamond grades. Evaluating the shift in maximum carbon content in CHO fluids during either isobaric cooling or ascent along a cratonic geotherm, however, reveals that isochemical precipitation of carbon from CHO fluids provides an efficient mode of diamond crystallization. Since subsolidus fluids are permissible in harzburgites only, and supersolidus melts in lherzolite we suggest that CHO fluid metasomatism may explain the long observed close association between diamonds and harzburgitic garnets. In the absence of thermodynamic data we cannot evaluate if supersolidus carbonate-bearing melts, stable at fO2 conditions below EMOD, would experience a similar decrease in maximum carbon solubility during cooling or ascent along a geotherm. The absence of a clear association between diamond and lherzolitic garnets, however, suggests that this is not the case. A very strong association between diamond and eclogite likely relates to the fact that the transition from carbonate to diamond stable conditions occurs at redox conditions that are at least about 1 log unit more oxidizing than EMOD. At this time we cannot quantitatively evaluate the redox buffering capacity of cratonic eclogites but given their much higher Fe contents it has to be significantly higher than for peridotites. Alternatively, diamond in eclogite may precipitate directly from cooling carbonate-bearing melts that may be too oxidizing to crystallize diamond in olivine-bearing lithologies.

  19. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km) in the Earth's mantle, are old (about 3 Ga), and are emplaced volcanically into continental crust (cratons), at specific times geologically. Clusters of diamond volcanoes are common throughout the world, and in Africa spill over into several countries. Although there are subtle distinctions in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of diamondiferous settings globally, these differences decrease within provinces (1000 sq km), and are minor at the district level (10-100 sq km). For diamonds: clear, sharp edged octahedra are typical of Siberia; pink stones are mostly from W. Australia; Cape yellow and blue diamonds occur in South Africa and India; corroded and etched diamonds are prevalent in E. Africa; and fibrous diamonds, once considered the domain of the Congo Republic and Sierra Leone were recently discovered in the non conflict, Slave Province, Canada. These examples are neither craton nor site specific. Is there a non destructive analytical method to uniquivocally identify diamonds regionally, or ideally at a more localized level? The intrinsic approach (vs applied) is challenging because geographical boundaries do not correspond to geological contacts. Spectroscopy, trace elements, isotopes, mineral inclusions, and the conductivities of diamonds show some promise but the overlaps are large. Refinements will evolve and analytical innovations will develop. However, legally acquired conflict diamonds are needed on which to perform basic experiments, establish background levels, and develop a data base for global comparisons. US assistance, UN permission, and funding (e.g. NSF, DOD) are urgently required if this geoscientific initiative is to move forward in stopping the flow of conflict diamonds into the hands of terrorist organizations. We have a scientific obligation to society.

  20. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, K.; Heremans, F. J.; Bassett, L. C.; Myers, B. A.; Toyli, D. M.; Bleszynski Jayich, A. C.; Palmstrom, C. J.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2013-03-01

    The excellent spin properties of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers motivate applications from sensing to quantum information processing. Still, external electron and nuclear spin sensing are limited by weak magnetic dipole interactions, requiring NVs be within a few nm of the surface and retain long spin coherence times (T2). We report a nitrogen delta-doping technique to create artificial NVs meeting these requirements. Isotopically pure 15N2 gas is introduced to form a thin N-doped layer (1-2 nm thick) during chemical vapor deposition of a diamond film. Post growth electron irradiation creates vacancies and subsequent annealing forms NVs while mitigating crystal damage. We identified doped NVs through the hyperfine signature of the rare 15N isotope in electron spin resonance measurements. We confirm the doped NV depth dispersion is less than 4 nm by doping NVs in the 12C layer of an isotopically engineered 13C/12C/13C structure and probing the coupling between the doped NVs and the 13C nuclear spins. Furthermore, despite their surface proximity, doped NVs embedded in 12C films 5 (52) nm below the surface show T2 greater than 100 (600) μs. This work was supported by AFSOR and DARPA.