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Sample records for ultrasmall cofe2o4 nanoparticles

  1. Photodynamic Anticancer Activity of CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Conjugated with Hematoporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong Joo; Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Nam, Ki Chang; Min, Jeeeun; Lee, Kyu-Dong; Uhm, Han Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Ho-Joong; Jung, Jin-Seung

    2015-10-01

    This work reports the synthesis and the characterization of water-soluble and biocompatible photosensitizer (PS)-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles composed of a cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic core coated with a biocompatible hematoporphyrin (HP) shell. The photo-functional cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (CoFe2O4@HP) were uniform in size, stable against PS leaching, and highly efficient in the photo-generation of cytotoxic singlet oxygen under visible light. With the CoFe2O4@HP, we acquired in vitro MR images of cancer cells (PC-3) and confirmed good biocompatibility of the CoFe2O4@HP in both normal and cancer cells. In addition, we confirmed the potential of the CoFe2O4@HP as an agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications. The photodynamic anticancer activities in 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of CoFe2O4@HP were measured and found to exceed 99% (99.0, 99.4, and 99.5%) (p < 0.002). The photodynamic anticancer activity was 81.8% (p < 0.003). From these results, we suggest that our CoFe2O4@HP can be used safely as a type of photodynamic cancer therapy with potential as a therapeutic agent having good biocompatibility. Moreover, these photo-functional magnetic nanoparticles are highly promising for applications in versatile imaging diagnosis and as a therapy tool in biomedical engineering. PMID:26726437

  2. Monodisperse polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangshuo; Ma, Yingying; Mu, Jingbo; Zhang, Zhixiao; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Lina; Che, Hongwei; Bai, Yongmei; Hou, Junxian; Xie, Hailong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, monodisperse cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared successfully with various additions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by sonochemical method, in which PVP served as a stabilizer and dispersant. The effects and roles of PVP on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic properties of the obtained CoFe2O4 were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). It was found that PVP-coated CoFe2O4 showed relatively well dispersion with narrow size distribution. The field-dependent magnetization curves indicated superparamagnetic behavior of PVP-coated CoFe2O4 with moderate saturation magnetization and hydrophilic character at room temperature. More importantly, the in vitro cytotoxicity testing exhibited negligible cytotoxicity of as-prepared PVP-CoFe2O4 even at the concentration as high as 150 μg/mL after 24 h treatment. Considering the superparamagnetic properties, hydrophilic character and negligible cytotoxicity, the monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles hold great potential in a variety of biomedical applications.

  3. Magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles supported on titanate nanotubes (CoFe2O4/TNTs) as a novel heterogeneous catalyst for peroxymonosulfate activation and degradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Du, Yunchen; Ma, Wenjie; Liu, Pingxin; Zou, Bohua; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic spinel ferrites, as heterogeneous catalysts to generate powerful radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the degradation of organic pollutants, have received much attention in recent years due to the characteristic of environmental benefits. In this study, with titanate nanotubes (TNTs) as catalyst support, a novel CoFe2O4/TNTs hybrid was constructed by an impregnation-calcination method. Characterization results revealed that TNTs support could promise small size and good dispersion of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Compared to the pure CoFe2O4, the as-prepared CoFe2O4/TNTs not only exhibited better performance in catalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B, but also realized higher total organic carbon removal and less cobalt leaching, which could be attributed to the enhanced catalytic ability from smaller CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and the unique ion-exchange ability from TNTs support. Some influential factors, including reaction temperature, dosages of PMS and CoFe2O4/TNTs, and pH values were investigated and analyzed. Moreover, CoFe2O4/TNTs maintained its catalytic efficiency during the repeated batch experiments and also displayed functional advantages in the catalytic degradation of phenol. We believe the CoFe2O4/TNTs hybrid can be an efficient and green heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants, and this study provides insights into the rational design and development of alternative catalysts for wastewater treatment. PMID:26808243

  4. Synthesis and characterization of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with high coercivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Poudyal, Narayan; Ping Liu, J.

    2015-05-01

    Single crystalline CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with high coercivity were prepared via a one-step hydrothermal method. The shape and size of the nanocrystals (in the range of 20-100 nm) can be controlled by varying synthesis parameters such as the concentration of NaOH and CTAB. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra analysis confirmed that all the as-synthesized nanoparticles have a face centered cubic spinel crystal structure. HRTEM observation of particles shows interlayer spacing 0.48 nm of (111) lattice planes. A coercive force up to 5.0 kOe and saturation magnetization of 73 emu/g was achieved at room temperature for the 40 nm CoFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  5. High coercivity of oleic acid capped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Mukta V; Singh, Shashi B; Date, Sadgopal K; Kothari, Deepti; Reddy, V Raghavendra; Gupta, Ajay; Sathe, Vasant; Choudhary, Ram Jane; Kulkarni, Sulabha K

    2009-07-01

    High coercivity (9.47 kOe) has been obtained for oleic acid capped chemically synthesized CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles of crystallite size approximately 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of spinel phase in these nanoparticles. Thermal annealing at various temperatures increases the particle size and ultimately shows bulk like properties at particle size approximately 56 nm. The nature of bonding of oleic acid with CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles and amount of oleic acid in the sample is determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogrvimetric analysis, respectively. The Raman analysis suggests that the samples are under strain due to capping molecules. Cation distribution in the sample is studied using Mossbauer spectroscopy. Oleic acid concentration dependent studies show that the amount of capping molecules plays an important role in achieving such a high coercivity. On the basis of above observations, it has been proposed that very high coercivity (9.47 kOe) is the result of the magnetic anisotropy, strain, and disorder of the surface spins developed by covalently bonded oleic acid to the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles. PMID:19522478

  6. Dynamics of CoFe2O4 Single-Core Nanoparticles in Viscoelastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmer, Hilke; Dieckhoff, Jan; Tschöpe, Andreas; Roeben, Eric; Schmidt, Annette M.; Ludwig, Frank

    The dynamics of single-core CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in viscoelastic media was studied utilizing ac susceptibility and fluxgate magnetorelaxometry measurements. As viscoelastic medium aqueous gelatin suspensions with gelatin contents between 2.5 wt% and 10 wt% were used. Specifically, the gelation kinetics after cooling the sample from the sol state (313 K) to 296 K was investigated. It is shown that the measurement results can be analyzed with the Voigt-Kelvin model thus providing information on local dynamic viscosity and shear modulus.

  7. Temperature dependence of superparamagnetism in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gutiérrez, V; Climent-Pascual, E; Sáez-Puche, R; Torralvo-Fernández, María J

    2016-04-01

    CoFe2O4 particles of 16 nm and 17 nm embedded in a silica matrix have been prepared through the hydrothermal method and the sol-gel method, respectively. From neutron powder diffraction a cation distribution of (Fe0.72Co0.28)[Fe1.28Co0.72]O4 has been determined for Co-ferrite particles of 17 nm, which is in agreement with its particle size taking into account the reported x values for other nanometric Co-ferrite particles. Magnetic measurements were performed up to 700 K as the prepared ferrite samples present blocking temperatures above room temperature. The temperature dependence of the superparamagnetic moment has been analyzed and presents for both samples an abrupt drop in the magnitude once the blocking temperature is overcome. The temperature dependence of the calculated magnetic field needed to reach the magnetic saturation of the samples allows us to determine the temperature range for which the nanoparticles show superparamagnetic behaviour. The ordering temperature is in both cases lower than the tabulated one for bulk Co-ferrite (793 K) which has been ascribed mainly to two factors: a different cation distribution and the nanometric particle size, both contributing to lowering of the strength of the superexchange interactions. PMID:26974054

  8. Plasmachemical synthesis and basic properties of CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, A. V.; Karpov, I. V.; Lepeshev, A. A.; Fedorov, L. Yu.; Shaikhadinov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt-ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (CFNPs) are obtained using direct plasmachemical synthesis in the plasma of a low-pressure arc discharge. The formation of the CFNPs with an average size of 9 nm and a narrow granulometric composition is established employing the methods of X-ray structure analysis and transmission microscopy. The CFNP behavior upon high-temperature annealing is analyzed. The CFNP functional groups are determined using the infrared Fourier spectrum. The results of the X-ray energy dispersion confirm the correspondence of the ratio of the number of atoms of each material to the nominal stoichiometry. The basic magnetic properties of the obtained and annealed samples are investigated at room temperature using the vibrating spectrum magnetometry (VSM).

  9. A transmission electron microscopy study of CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles in silica aerogel matrix using HREM and STEM imaging and EDX spectroscopy and EELS.

    PubMed

    Falqui, Andrea; Corrias, Anna; Wang, Peng; Snoeck, Etienne; Mountjoy, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic nanocomposite materials consisting of 5 and 10 wt% CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a silica aerogel matrix have been synthesized by the sol-gel method. For the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample, bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF STEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) images showed distinct, rounded CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, with typical diameters of roughly 8 nm. For the CoFe2O4-5wt% sample, BF STEM images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements showed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with diameters of roughly 3 +/- 1 nm. EDX measurements indicate that all nanoparticles consist of stoichiometric CoFe2O4, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements from lines crossing nanoparticles in the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample show a uniform composition within nanoparticles, with a precision of at best than +/-0.5 nm in analysis position. BF STEM images obtained for the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample showed many "needle-like" nanostructures that typically have a length of 10 nm and a width of 1 nm, and frequently appear to be attached to nanoparticles. These needle-like nanostructures are observed to contain layers with interlayer spacing 0.33 +/- 0.1 nm, which could be consistent with Co silicate hydroxide, a known precursor phase in these nanocomposite materials. PMID:20199712

  10. Significantly improved dehydrogenation of ball-milled MgH2 doped with CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Jiawei; Li, Ping; Wan, Qi; Zhai, Fuqiang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ziliang; Liu, Zhaojiang; Volinsky, Alex A.; Qu, Xuanhui

    2014-12-01

    CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are added to magnesium hydride (MgH2) by high-energy ball milling in order to improve its hydriding properties. The hydrogen storage properties and catalytic mechanism are investigated by pressure-composition-temperature (PCT), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nonisothermal desorption results show that the onset desorption temperature of the MgH2 + 7 mol% CoFe2O4 is 160 °C, which is 200 °C lower than of the as-received MgH2. The dehydrogenation process of the MgH2 doped with the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles includes two steps. DTA curves and XRD patterns reveal that a chemical reaction happens between MgH2 and CoFe2O4, forming the final products of the ternary combination, corresponding to Co3Fe7, MgO and Co. The onset desorption temperature of the ball-milled MgH2 doped with Co3Fe7, MgO and Co is about 260 °C, approximately 100 °C lower than the un-doped MgH2, demonstrating that the ternary combination (Co3Fe7, MgO, and Co) also has a great catalytic effect on the MgH2 hydrogen storage properties. It is also confirmed that the various methods of adding the ternary combination have different effects on the MgH2 hydriding-dehydriding process.

  11. Synthesis of patterned nanogold and mesoporous CoFe2O4 nanoparticle assemblies and their application in clinical immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingqian; Li, Qunfang; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Yuling; Chen, Huafeng; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2011-05-01

    Herein, we describe a facile and feasible synthesis method for patterning nanogold particles onto magnetic mesoporous CoFe(2)O(4) nanostructures (Au-MMNs) by using poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as cross-linker. Initially, mesoporous CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles were initially synthesized with a thermal decomposition method by using mesoporous silica nanoparticles as templates, and then nanometre-sized gold particles were produced through the in situ reduction of the Au(III) on the PVP-functionalized CoFe(2)O(4). The as-prepared Au-MMNs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-visible adsorption spectrometer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, we also demonstrate the conjugation capacity of the synthesized Au-MMNs toward biomolecules by using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and the possible application in the electrochemical immunoassays. Experimental results indicated that the resulting Au-MMNs display good conjugation capability toward the biomolecules, and excellent analytical properties for determination of target molecules. PMID:21465042

  12. Effect of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles on the growth and development of Lycopersicon lycopersicum (tomato plants).

    PubMed

    López-Moreno, Martha L; Avilés, Leany Lugo; Pérez, Nitza Guzmán; Irizarry, Bianca Álamo; Perales, Oscar; Cedeno-Mattei, Yarilyn; Román, Félix

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthetized and studied to be incorporated in many industrial and medical applications in recent decades. Due to their different physical and chemical properties compared with bulk materials, researchers are focused to understand their interactions with the surroundings. Living organisms such as plants are exposed to these materials and they are able to tolerate different concentrations and types of NPs. Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) NPs are being studied for their application in medical sciences because of their high coercivity, anisotropy, and large magnetostriction. These properties are desirable in magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and cell labeling. This study is aimed to explore the tolerance of Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato) plants to CoFe2O4 NPs. Tomato plants were grown in hydroponic media amended with CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a range from 0 to 1000mgL(-1). Exposure to CoFe2O4 NPs did not affect germination and growth of plants. Uptake of Fe and Co inside plant tissues increased as CoFe2O4 nanoparticle concentration was increased in the media. Mg uptake in plant leaves reached its maximum level of 4.9mgg(-1) DW (dry weight) at 125mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs exposure and decreased at high CoFe2O4 NPs concentrations. Similar pattern was observed for Ca uptake in leaves where the maximum concentration found was 10mgg(-1) DW at 125mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs exposure. Mn uptake in plant leaves was higher at 62.5mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs compared with 125 and 250mgL(-1) treatments. Catalase activity in tomato roots and leaves decreased in plants exposed to CoFe2O4 NPs. Tomato plants were able to tolerate CoFe2O4 NPs concentrations up to 1000mgL(-1) without visible toxicity symptoms. Macronutrient uptake in plants was affected when plants were exposed to 250, 500 and 1000mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs. PMID:26803683

  13. Surface spin effects in La-doped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by microemulsion route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burianova, Simona; Poltierova Vejpravova, Jana; Holec, Petr; Plocek, Jiri; Niznansky, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    A comparative study of pure CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and La-doped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, prepared by microemulsion route has been performed. The samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy in order to obtain average particle size. The doping of small amount of La3+ ions (up to 3 molar %) causes significant reduction of the particle size using the identical preparation route. The samples were investigated by magnetization measurements, which revealed the coercivity values strongly dependent on particle size, but not significantly on level of La3+ doping. Detailed in-field Mössbauer spectroscopy studies were performed in order to determine spin canting angles and cation distribution within the spinel network. The non-negligible canting angles up to 40° in the La-doped samples were observed. The presence of the spin surface effects was also supported by magnetic measurement as the magnetization did not saturate even in considerably high magnetic fields (7 T). Moreover, significantly reduced values of the saturation magnetization were obtained. The observed features originated by the surface spin disorder in nanosized particles are explained in the frame of the core-shell model.

  14. Effective approach towards Si-bilayer-IDA modified CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles for high efficient protein separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhao; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Zhuo; Du, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-10-01

    Ultrafine cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles with narrow size distributions and regular morphologies were prepared through an improved procedure based on the high-temperature diol reduction method. By replacing the original reducing agent like expensive dihydric alcohol, oleylamine was applied as both stabilizer and reducing agent, which benefit for large scale synthesis of magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. To produce protein-separation agent with both high specific surface area and magnet content, inverse microemulsion system and substitution reaction were employed to render the produced CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with dense silica bilayer and iminodiacetic acid (IDA)-like structure modification. After the chelation with Cu(2+), the metal-immobilized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can specifically absorb bovine hemoglobin (BHb) with maximum adsorption capacity as qm=1812.3mg/g. Compared with the reported Cu(2+)-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles, the as-prepared CoFe2O4@Si-IDA-Cu(2+) nanoparticles exhibited excellent adsorption capacity and were applied as high efficient protein separation agent in a real complex biological fluid like bovine blood. PMID:27400241

  15. Monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles supported on Vulcan XC-72: High performance electrode materials for lithium-air and lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şener, Tansel; Kayhan, Emine; Sevim, Melike; Metin, Önder

    2015-08-01

    Addressed herein is the preparation and the electrode performance of monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Vulcan XC-72 for the Lithium-air battery (LAB) and Lithium-ion battery (LIB). Monodisperse CoFe2O4 NPs were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of cobalt(II) acetylacetonate and iron(III) acetylacetonate in oleylamine and oleic acid in the presence of 1,2-tetradecanediol and benzyl ether. As-prepared CoFe2O4 NPs with a particle size of 11 nm were then supported on Vulcan XC-72 (Vulcan-CoFe2O4) at different theoretical loadings (20, 40 and 60 wt % CoFe2O4 NPs) by using the simple liquid phase self assembly method. CoFe2O4 NPs dispersed on Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The AAS analyses indicated that the Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites with different loadings were included 3.7, 8.1 and 16.4 wt % CoFe2O4 on the metal basis. The electrode performance of Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites were evaluated as the anode active material for LIB and cathode active material for LABs by performing the galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The highest discharge capacity for both LAB (7510 mAh g(Vulcan+CoFe2O4)-1; 13380 mAh gCoFe2O4-1 @ 0.1C) and LIB (863 mAh g(Vulcan+CoFe2O4)-1; 9330 mAh gCoFe2O4-1@ 0.1C) was investigated with 16.4 wt % CoFe2O4.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles obtained by an electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Mazarío, E; Herrasti, P; Morales, M P; Menéndez, N

    2012-09-01

    Uniform size cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized in one step using an electrochemical technique. Synthesis parameters such as the current density, temperature and stirring were optimized to produce pure cobalt ferrite. The nanoparticles have been investigated by means of magnetic measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The average size of the electrosynthesized samples was controlled by the synthesis parameters and this showed a rather narrow size distribution. The x-ray analysis shows that the CoFe(2)O(4) obtained presents a totally inverse spinel structure. The magnetic properties of the stoichiometric nanoparticles show ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with a coercivity up to 6386 Oe and a saturation magnetization of 85 emu g(-1). PMID:22894928

  17. Bioavailability of cobalt and iron from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Romih, Tea; Drašler, Barbara; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Golobič, Miha; Makovec, Darko; Susič, Robert; Kogej, Ksenija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether citric acid adsorbed onto cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) influences the bioavailability of their constituents Co and Fe. Dissolution of Co and Fe was assessed by two measures: (i) in aqueous suspension using chemical analysis, prior to application onto the food of test organisms; and (ii) in vivo, measuring the bioavailability in the model terrestrial invertebrate (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). The isopods were exposed to citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs for 2 weeks, and tissue accumulation of Co and Fe was assessed. This was compared to pristine CoFe2O4 NPs, and CoCl2 and Fe(III) salts as positive controls. The combined data shows that citric acid enhances free metal ion concentration from CoFe2O4 NPs in aqueous suspension, although in vivo, very similar amounts of assimilated Co were found in isopods exposed to both types of NPs. Therefore, evaluation of the dissolution in suspension by chemical means is not a good predictor of metal assimilation of this model organism; body assimilation of Co and Fe is rather governed by the physiological capacity of P. scaber for the uptake of these metals. Moreover, we propose that citric acid, due to its chelating properties, may hinder the uptake of Co that dissolves from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs, if citric acid is present in sufficient quantity. PMID:25437955

  18. Magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by novel chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharat, S. P.; Darvade, T. C.; Gaikwad, S. K.; Baraskar, B. G.; Kakade, S. G.; Kambale, R. C.; Kolekar, Y. D.

    2016-05-01

    CoFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by modified and cost effective sol-gel autocombustion method. X-ray diffraction study confirms the spinel phase formation of face centered cubic lattice with space group Fd3m and without any impurity. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that the CoFe2O4 shows saturation magnetization of 2.73 µB/f.u. where as ZnFe2O4 shows paramagnetic behavior. Magnetic behavior of CoFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 is confirmed from Mössbauer studies. Effect of sintering on structural, magnetic and cation occupancy of substituted cobalt ferrite is discussed in this paper.

  19. Magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of hollow microcapsules made of silica-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubutin, I. S.; Gervits, N. E.; Starchikov, S. S.; Lin, Chun-Rong; Tseng, Yaw-Teng; Shih, Kun-Yauh; Wang, Cheng-Chien; Chen, I.-Han; Ogarkova, Yu L.; Korotkov, N. Yu

    2016-01-01

    The hollow microcapsules made of silica-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation, followed by the sol-gel method. Poly(MMA-co-MAA) microspheres were used as a core template which can be completely removed after annealing at 450 °C. The microcapsules are monodisperse with the outer diameter of about 450 nm and the thickness of the shell is about 50 nm. The nanoparticles of Co-ferrite are single crystalline. The size of the nanoparticles and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4/SiO2 hollow spheres can be tuned with high accuracy at the annealing stage. The Mössbauer data indicate that CoFe2O4 ferrite is an inverse spinel, in which Fe3+ and Co2+ ions are distributed in both octahedral and tetrahedral sites with the inversion degree close to the bulk ferrite value. At low temperature the CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanoparticles are in antiferromagnetic (AFM) state due to the canted or triangular magnetic structure. Under heating in the applied field, AFM structure transforms to the ferrimagnetic (FM) structure, that increases the magnetization. The Mössbauer data revealed that the small size CoFe2O4/SiO2 particles do not show superparamagnetic behavior, but they transit to the paramagnetic state by the jump-like first order magnetic transition (JMT). This effect is a specific property of the magnetic nanoparticles isolated by inert material. The suggested method of synthesis can be modified with various bio-ligands on the silane surface, and such materials can find many applications in diagnostics and bio-separation.

  20. Quasi-static magnetic properties and high-frequency energy losses in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tykhonenko-Polishchuk, Yu. O.; Kulyk, N. N.; Yelenich, O. V.; Bečyte, V.; Mažeika, K.; Kalita, V. M.; Belous, A. G.; Tovstolytkin, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Two series of nanosized cobalt spinel ferrites CoFe2O4 are synthesized from metal salts using high-energy ball milling with the addition of NaCl as a growth agent (series CFO-NaCl), and without (CFO Series). The particle properties are characterized using atomic force microscopy, as well as magnetic and calorimetric measurements. It is shown that the average sizes of the nanoparticles were ˜5.6 and ˜10.3 nm for CFO and CFO-NaCl series, respectively. We performed magnetostatic measurements and determined the parameters that are required to analyze the magnetic state and remagnetization processes of the nanoparticles. It is shown that the blocking temperature is ≈160 K for CFO samples and ≈300 K for the CFO-NaCl series. It was concluded that at 293 K the CFO series particles exhibit a superparamagnetic state, whereas the CFO-NaCl series are in the blocked state. The specific loss power that is scattered by the synthesized nanoparticle ensembles placed in an alternating magnetic field, is measured experimentally and theoretically assessed. The nature of the processes that determine the thermal characteristics of the nanoparticles is analyzed.

  1. Fabrication of Au nanoparticles supported on CoFe2O4 nanotubes by polyaniline assisted self-assembly strategy and their magnetically recoverable catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Yanzhou; Chi, Maoqiang; Yang, Zezhou; Nie, Guangdi; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Ce

    2016-02-01

    This article reports the fabrication of magnetically responsive Au nanoparticles supported on CoFe2O4 nanotubes through polyaniline (PANI) assisted self-assembly strategy which can be used as an efficient magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst. The central magnetic CoFe2O4 nanotubes possess a strong magnetic response under an externally magnetic field, enabling an easy and efficient separation from the reaction system for reuse. The thorn-like PANI layer on the surface of CoFe2O4 nanotubes provides large surface area for supporting Au nanocatalysts due to the electrostatic interactions. The as-prepared CoFe2O4/PANI/Au nanotube assemblies exhibit a high catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) at room temperature, with an apparent kinetic rate constant (Kapp) of about 7.8 × 10-3 s-1. Furthermore, the composite nanocatalyst shows a good recoverable property during the catalytic process. This work affords a reliable way in developing multifunctional nanocomposite for catalysis and other potential applications in many fields.

  2. Immobilization of glucose oxidase using CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanoparticles as carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai; Huang, Jun; Wang, Chao; Li, Dapeng; Ding, Liyun; Han, Yun

    2011-04-01

    Aminated-CoFe2O4/SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from primary silica particles using modified StÖber method. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on CoFe2O4/SiO2 NPs via cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (GA). The optimal immobilization condition was achieved with 1% (v/v) GA, cross-linking time of 3 h, solution pH of 7.0 and 0.4 mg GOD (in 3.0 mg carrier). The immobilized GOD showed maximal catalytic activity at pH 6.5 and 40 °C. After immobilization, the GOD exhibited improved thermal, storage and operation stability. The immobilized GOD still maintained 80% of its initial activity after the incubation at 50 °C for 25 min, whereas free enzyme had only 20% of initial activity after the same incubation. After kept at 4 °C for 28 days, the immobilized and free enzyme retained 87% and 40% of initial activity, respectively. The immobilized GOD maintained approximately 57% of initial activity after reused 7 times. The KM (Michaelis-Menten constant) values for immobilized GOD and free GOD were 14.6 mM and 27.1 mM, respectively.

  3. Large Faraday rotation in magnetophotonic crystals containing SiO2/ZrO2 matrix doped with CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Mehdi; Hocini, Abdesselam

    2016-08-01

    This paper has focused on the potential of the SiO2/ZrO2 matrix doped with CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles in order to achieve the high performance one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs) and to overcome the problem of integration of the magneto-optical devices. Because of importance of magneto-optical Faraday effect in most non-reciprocal optical components, we have investigated the capability of such silicon-based materials for providing large Faraday rotations. We have introduced some MPC structures containing SiO2/ZrO2 matrix doped with CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles and by varying the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles, influence of volume fraction VF% on the Faraday rotation and transmittance of the structures has studied.

  4. Determination of the effective anisotropy constant of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles through the T-dependence of the coercive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. H.; Lima, R. J. S.; Meneses, C. T.; Folly, W. S. D.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Coelho, A. A.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the coercive field of CoFe2O4-SiO2 nanocomposites. The samples were prepared via the sol-gel method by using the Tetraethyl Orthosilicate as starting reagent. Results of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence confirm the dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles inside the silica matrix. In addition, the shift in the maximum of Zero-Field-Cooled curves observed by varying the weight ratio of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to the precursor of silica is consistent with the increasing of average interparticle distances. Because our samples present a particle size distribution, we have used a generalized model which takes account such parameter to fit the experimental data of coercive field extracted from the magnetization curves as a function of applied field. Unlike most of the coercive field results reported in the literature for this material, the use of this model provided a successful description of the temperature dependence of the coercive field of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a wide temperature range. Surprisingly, we have observed the decreasing of the nanoparticles anisotropy constant in comparison to the bulk value expected for the material. We believe that this can be interpreted as due to both the migration of the Co2+ from octahedral to tetrahedral sites.

  5. An in vivo evaluation of acute toxicity of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles in larval-embryo Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Liu, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Ying; Yao, Hongzhou

    2015-09-01

    The broad spectrum applications of CoFe2O4 NPs have attracted much interest in medicine, environment and industry, resulting in exceedingly higher exposures to humans and environmental systems in succeeding days. Their health effects and potential biological impacts need to be determined for risk assessment. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of nano-CoFe2O4 (mean diameter of 40nm) with a concentration range of 10-500μM for 96h. Acute toxic end points were evaluated by survival rate, malformation, hatching delay, heart dysfunction and tail flexure of larvae. Dose and time dependent developmental toxicity with severe cardiac edema, down regulation of metabolism, hatching delay and tail/spinal cord flexure and apoptosis was observed. The biochemical changes were evaluated by ROS, Catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), Acid phophatase (AP) and Glutatione s- transferase (GST). An Agglomeration of NPs and dissolution of ions induces severe mechanical damage to membranes and oxidative stress. Severe apoptosis of cells in the head, heart and tail region with inhibition of catalase confirms ROS induced acute toxicity with increasing concentration. Increased activity of GST and AP at lower concentrations of CoFe2O4 NPs demonstrates the severe oxidative stress. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the weak interactions of NPs with BSA and slight changes in α-helix structure. In addition, CoFe2O4 NPs at lower concentrations do not show any considerable interference with assay components and analytical instruments. The results are possible elucidation of pathways of toxicity induced by these particles, as well as contributing in defining the protocols for risk assessment of these nanoparticles. PMID:26197244

  6. Synthesis of well-dispersed magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in cellulose aerogels via a facile oxidative co-precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2015-12-10

    With the increasing emphasis on green chemistry, it is becoming more important to develop environmentally friendly matrix materials for the synthesis of nanocomposites. Cellulose aerogels with hierarchical micro/nano-scale three-dimensional network beneficial to control and guide the growth of nanoparticles, are suitable as a class of ideal green nanoparticles hosts to fabricate multifunctional nanocomposites. Herein, a facile oxidative co-precipitation method was carried out to disperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the cellulose aerogels matrixes, and the cellulose aerogels were prepared from the native wheat straw based on a green NaOH/polyethylene glycol solution. The mean diameter of the well-dispersed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the hybrid aerogels is 98.5 nm. Besides, the hybrid aerogels exhibit strong magnetic responsiveness, which could be flexibly actuated by a small magnet. And this feature also makes this class of magnetic aerogels possibly useful as recyclable adsorbents and some magnetic devices. Meanwhile, the mild green preparation method could also be extended to fabricate other miscellaneous cellulose-based nanocomposites. PMID:26428110

  7. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxidase mimic-mediated chemiluminescence of aqueous luminol for sulfite in white wines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodan; He, Shaohui; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuming

    2013-01-30

    Recently, the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles (NPs) has become a growing area of interest. However, the analytical applications of the NP-based enzyme mimetic are mainly concentrated on their peroxidase-like activity; no attempts have been made to investigate the analytical applications based on the oxidase mimic activities of NPs. For the first time, we report that CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were found to possess intrinsic oxidase-like activity and could catalyze luminol oxidation by dissolved oxygen to produce intensified chemiluminescence (CL). The effect of sulfite on CoFe(2)O(4) NP oxidase mimic-mediated CL of aqueous luminol was investigated. It is very interesting that when adding sulfite to the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) system, the role of sulfite in the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite system depends on its concentration. At a relatively low concentration level, sulfite presents an inhibition effect on the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP system. However, it does have an enhancement effect at a higher concentration level. Investigations on the effect of the solution pH and luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NP concentrations on the kinetic characteristics of the studied CL system in the presence of trace sulfite suggested that the enhancement and inhibition of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system also depended on the solution pH. It seems that the concentrations of luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs did not influence the CL pathway. The possible mechanism of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system was also discussed. On this basis, a flow injection chemiluminescence method was established for the determination of trace sulfite in this study. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed system could respond down to 2.0 × 10(-8) M sulfite. The method has been applied to the determination of trace sulfite in white wine samples with satisfactory results. The results given by the proposed method are in good agreement with those given by the standard titration method. PMID

  8. The effect of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant on phase formation and magnetic properties of hydrothermally synthesized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalalian, M.; Mirkazemi, S. M.; Alamolhoda, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticles of CoFe2O4 were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 190 °C with and without poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) addition using treatment durations of 1.5-6 h. The synthesized powders were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. XRD results show presence of CoFe2O4 as the main phase and Co3O4 as the lateral phase in some samples. The results show that in the samples synthesized without PVA addition considerable amount of lateral phase is present after 3 h of hydrothermal treatment while with PVA addition this phase is undetectable in the XRD patterns of the sample synthesized at the same conditions. Microstructural studies represent increasing of particle size with increasing of hydrothermal duration and formation of coarser particles with PVA addition. The highest maximum magnetization (Mmax) values in both of the samples that were synthesized with and without PVA addition are about 59 emu/g that were obtained after 4.5 h of hydrothermal treatment. Intrinsic coercive field (iHc) value of the sample without PVA addition increases from 210 to 430 Oe. While with PVA addition the iHc value changes from 83 Oe to 493 Oe. The mechanism of changes in Mmax and iHc values has been explained.

  9. The anomalous memory effect related to the relaxation of surface and core moments observed in well-dispersed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Xu, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Well-dispersed uniform cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of a metal-organic salt in organic solvent with a high boiling point, and characterized by XRD, TEM and detailed magnetic measurements. The moments of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles consist of the core and canted surface moments below 200 K, and the exchange-coupling between the surface and core spins enhanced the remanence (Mr) to saturation (Ms) magnetization ratio (Mr/Ms) at the temperature of 10 K. Interestingly, the anomalous memory effect was observed in a broad temperature range which can be attributed to the relaxation of surface spins below 200 K and the one from the moments of magnetically ordered entity larger than one particle above 200 K.

  10. Comparison of the magnetic, radiolabeling, hyperthermic and biodistribution properties of hybrid nanoparticles bearing CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4 metal cores.

    PubMed

    Psimadas, D; Baldi, G; Ravagli, C; Comes Franchini, M; Locatelli, E; Innocenti, C; Sangregorio, C; Loudos, G

    2014-01-17

    Metal oxide nanoparticles, hybridized with various polymeric chemicals, represent a novel and breakthrough application in drug delivery, hyperthermia treatment and imaging techniques. Radiolabeling of these nanoformulations can result in new and attractive dual-imaging agents as well as provide accurate in vivo information on their biodistribution profile. In this paper a comparison study has been made between two of the most promising hybrid core-shell nanosystems, bearing either magnetite (Fe3O4) or cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) cores, regarding their magnetic, radiolabeling, hyperthermic and biodistribution properties. While hyperthermic properties were found to be affected by the metal-core type, the radiolabeling ability and the in vivo fate of the nanoformulations seem to depend critically on the size and the shell composition. PMID:24334365

  11. Defects/strain influenced magnetic properties and inverse of surface spin canting effect in single domain CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Simrjit; Khare, Neeraj

    2016-02-01

    Single domain CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with different amount of defects/strain have been synthesized by varying the growth temperature in the hydrothermal method. Nanoparticles grown at lower temperature are of larger size and exhibit more planar defects and oxygen vacancies as compared to nanoparticles grown at higher temperatures which are of smaller sizes and exhibit less planar defects and oxygen vacancies. The nanoparticles with larger amount of defects also possess a higher value of intrinsic strain as compared to nanoparticles with fewer defects. The presence of intrinsic strain in the nanoparticles is found to shift the cationic distribution at the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of the nanoparticles is found to depend upon both the intrinsic strain and size of the nanoparticles. The Ms increases with the decrease in the nanoparticles size from 32 nm to 20 nm, and this is correlated to the inverse of spin canting effect due to decrease in the intrinsic strain which leads to shifting of Co2+ ions from tetrahedral to octahedral sites. However, with further decrease in the size of the nanoparticles (16 nm), the size effect dominates over the strain effect leading to decrease in Ms. The coercivity is found to be higher in the nanoparticles with larger amount of defects/strain and has been attributed to strain induced strong spin canting and pinning due to defect sites. The variation of coercivity with particle size (D) exhibits deviation from D3/2 dependence for the nanoparticles with larger amount of strain/defects.

  12. Oleate-based hydrothermal preparation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, and their magnetic properties with respect to particle size and surface coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repko, Anton; Vejpravová, Jana; Vacková, Taťana; Zákutná, Dominika; Nižňanský, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We present a facile and high-yield synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles by hydrothermal hydrolysis of Co-Fe oleate in the presence of pentanol/octanol/toluene and water at 180 or 220 °C. The particle size (6-10 nm) was controlled by the composition of the organic solvent and temperature. Magnetic properties were then investigated with respect to the particle size and surface modification with citric acid or titanium dioxide (leading to hydrophilic particles). The as-prepared hydrophobic nanoparticles (coated by oleic acid) had a minimum inter-particle distance of 2.5 nm. Their apparent blocking temperature (estimated as a maximum of the zero-field-cooled magnetization) was 180 K, 280 K and 330 K for the particles with size of 6, 9 and 10.5 nm, respectively. Replacement of oleic acid on the surface by citric acid decreased inter-particle distance to less than 1 nm, and increased blocking temperature by ca. 10 K. On the other hand, coating with titanium dioxide, supported by nitrilotri(methylphosphonic acid), caused increase of the particle spacing, and lowering of the blocking temperature by ca. 20 K. The CoFe2O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were sufficiently stable in water, methanol and ethanol. The particles were also investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and alternating-current (AC) susceptibility measurements, and their analysis with Vögel-Fulcher and power law. Effect of different particle coating and dipolar interactions on the magnetic properties is discussed.

  13. A facile and effective immobilization of glucose oxidase on tannic acid modified CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Altun, Seher; Çakıroğlu, Bekir; Özacar, Münteha; Özacar, Mahmut

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a study of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization by employing tannic acid (TA) modified-CoFe2O4 (CFO) magnetic nanoparticles which demonstrates novel aspect for enzyme immobilization. By using the strong protein and tannic acid binding, GOx immobilization was carried out via physical adsorption in a simpler way compared with the other immobilization methods which require various chemicals and complicated procedures which is difficult, expensive, time-consuming, and destructive to the enzyme structure. CFO was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis and modified with TA to immobilize GOx. The immobilized GOx demonstrated maximum catalytic activity at pH 6.5 and 45 °C. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), all of which confirm the surface modification of CFO and GOx immobilization. Also, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to demonstrate the surface morphology and chemical structure of samples. According to the Lineweaver-Burk plot, GOx possessed lower affinity to glucose after immobilization, and the Michelis-Menten constant (KM) of immobilized and free GOx were found to be 50.05 mM and 28.00 mM, respectively. The immobilized GOx showed excellent reusability, and even after 8 consecutive activity assay runs, the immobilized GOx maintained ca. 60% of its initial activity. PMID:26562188

  14. CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles as a highly active heterogeneous catalyst of oxone for the degradation of diclofenac in water.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Tan, Chaoqun; Zhou, Shiqing; Hu, Xuhao

    2013-11-15

    A magnetic nanoscaled catalyst cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) was successfully prepared and used for the activation of oxone to generate sulfate radicals for the degradation of diclofenac. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The effects of calcination temperature, initial pH, catalyst and oxone dosage on the degradation efficiency were investigated. Results demonstrated that CoFe2O4-300 exhibited the best catalytic performance and almost complete removal of diclofenac was obtained in 15 min. The degradation efficiency increased with initial pH decreasing in the pH range of 5-9. The increase of catalyst and oxone dosage both had the positive effect on the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, CoFe2O4 could retain high degradation efficiency even after being reused for five cycles. Finally, the major diclofenac degradation intermediates were identified and the primary degradation pathways were proposed. PMID:24140535

  15. Determination of Montelukast in Plasma Using β - Cyclodextrins Coated on CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles in Luminol-H2O2 Chemiluminescence System Optimized by Doehlert Design.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Bakhtiar, Alireza; Fatemi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence method using β - cyclodextrins coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of montelukast in plasma. The effect of coated β - cyclodexterinon CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles in the chemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 system was investigated. It was found that β - cyclodexterin coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence of the luminol-H2O2 system. Doehlert design was applied in order to optimize the number of experiments to be carried out to ascertain the possible interactions between the parameters and their effects on the chemiluminescence emission intensity. This design was selected because the levels of each variable may vary in a very efficient way with few experiments. Doehlert design and response surface methodology have been employed for optimization pH and concentrations of the components. Results showed under the optimized experimental conditions, the relative CL intensity (ΔI) is increased linearly in the concentration range of 0.003-0.586 μgml(-1) of montelukast with limit of detection (LOD) 1.09 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) at S/N ratio of 3, limit of quantitative (LOQ) 3.59 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) and the relative standard deviation 2.63 %. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of montelukast in plasma of human body. Results specified that relative chemiluminescence intensity (ΔI) has good proportional with the montelukast concentration with R(2) = 0.99979. The test of the recovery efficiency for known amounts of montelukast was also performed, the recoveries range obtained from 98.2 to 103.3 %, with RSDs of <4 % indicated that the proposed method was reliable. PMID:26979057

  16. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  17. Morphology and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanocables fabricated by electrospinning based on the Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengmei; Yang, Guijin; Wei, Jinxin; Bian, Haiqin; Gao, Jiming; Li, Jinyun; Wang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    CoFe2O4 nanocables have been successfully fabricated by electrospinning involving the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of CoFe2O4 nanocables are around 200 nm and 85 nm, respectively. The detailed formation process nanoscale morphology, structure and unique magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanocables have been studied comprehensively. Each fully calcined individual nanocable is composed of CoFe2O4 monocrystallites, which stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The coercivity (Hc) of the CoFe2O4 nanocables decreases from 11043 Oe at 10 K to 707 Oe at 300 K, and a spin reorientation has been detected at 5 K and 100 K, which is different from CoFe2O4 nanorods and nanoparticles.

  18. Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and reduction of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Karimi, Hirbod

    2016-03-01

    The CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) performance was studied in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) to benzaldehyde (BzH) with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant under solvent-free conditions. The influences of reaction conditions like the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of H2O2:BzOH, reaction temperature and times on the oxidation of BzOH by using CoFe2O4 NPs were investigated in details. Under optimum conditions, excellent result, >99% conversation of BzOH to BzH as the only product, was obtained. The nanocatalyst was also used for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR), Methylene blue (MB) in water at room temperature. The magnetic properties of the catalyst provided a convenient and easy route for the separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture by an external bar magnet. No obvious loss of activity was observed when the spent catalyst reused in three consecutive runs. PMID:26674244

  19. Exchange bias of MnFe2O4@γFe2O3 and CoFe2O4@γFe2O3 core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabreira-Gomes, R.; G. Silva, F.; Aquino, R.; Bonville, P.; Tourinho, F. A.; Perzynski, R.; Depeyrot, J.

    2014-11-01

    We compare here exchange bias (EB) properties of chemically synthesized core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), based either on a core of soft ferrite (MnFe2O4) or hard ferrite (CoFe2O4) protected by a maghemite shell (γ-Fe2O3). These NPs dispersed in acidic solutions are electrostatically stabilized, yielding to stable colloidal dispersions with a strong interparticle repulsion and negligible dipolar interactions in the probed range of temperatures. Field cooled (FC) magnetic hysteresis loops of non-textured frozen dispersions (with magnetic anisotropy axis of NPs distributed at random) and those of a powder based on the same NPs present a shift along the H-axis, expressing the coupling between the spin-ordered cores and the disordered surface layer of the NPs. The bias field is found to present a maximum, larger for NPs based on harder ferrite core. It is obtained for a cooling field of the order of one half of the anisotropy field, which is much larger for the CoFe2O4 cores than for MnFe2O4 ones. In powders, particles are in contact leading to an interparticle exchange which is not present in the dilute solutions where exchange bias properties are only due to an intraparticle exchange between core and surface. The thermal dependence of the bias field is well described by a reduced exponential behavior with a characteristic freezing temperature of about 8 K.

  20. Facile synthesis and magnetorheological properties of superparamagnetic CoFe2O4/GO nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangshuo; Ma, Yingying; Dong, Xufeng; Tong, Yu; Zhang, Lina; Mu, Jingbo; Bai, Yongmei; Hou, Junxian; Che, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, cobalt ferrite/graphene oxide (CoFe2O4/GO) nanocomposites were synthesized successfully by a facile sonochemical method. The microstructure and physical properties of CoFe2O4/GO nanocomposites were investigated in detail by TEM, XRD and SQUID. It was found that GO nanosheets were fully exfoliated and decorated homogeneously with CoFe2O4 nanoparticles having diameters of 8∼15 nm. The field-dependent magnetization curve indicated superparamagnetic behavior of as-prepared CoFe2O4/GO with saturation magnetization (Ms) of 34.9 emu/g at room temperature. The ferrofluid was prepared by the obtained CoFe2O4/GO with 25 wt% particles and its magnetorheological (MR) properties were tested using a Physica MCR301 rheometer fitted with a magneto-rheological module. The CoFe2O4/GO-based ferrofluid exhibited typical MR effect with increasing viscosity, shear stress and yield stress depending on the applied magnetic field strength.

  1. Exchange coupling behavior in bimagnetic CoFe2O4/CoFe2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, G. C. P.; Chagas, E. F.; Pereira, R.; Prado, R. J.; Terezo, A. J.; Alzamora, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2012-09-01

    In this work we report a study of the magnetic behavior of ferrimagnetic oxide CoFe2O4 and ferrimagnetic oxide/ferromagnetic metal CoFe2O4/CoFe2 nanocomposite. The latter compound is a good system to study hard ferrimagnet/soft ferromagnet exchange coupled. Two steps were followed to synthesize the bimagnetic CoFe2O4/CoFe2 nanocomposite: (i) first, preparation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles using a simple hydrothermal method, and (ii) second, reduction reaction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles using activated charcoal in inert atmosphere and high temperature. The phase structures, particle sizes, morphology, and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with applied field up to 3.0 kOe at room temperature and 50 K. The mean diameter of CoFe2O4 particles is about 16 nm. Mossbauer spectra revealed two sites for Fe3+. One site is related to Fe in an octahedral coordination and the other one to the Fe3+ in a tetrahedral coordination, as expected for a spinel crystal structure of CoFe2O4. TEM measurements of nanocomposite showed the formation of a thin shell of CoFe2 on the cobalt ferrite and indicate that the nanoparticles increase to about 100 nm. The magnetization of the nanocomposite showed a hysteresis loop that is characteristic of exchange coupled systems. A maximum energy product (BH)max of 1.22 MGOe was achieved at room temperature for CoFe2O4/CoFe2 nanocomposites, which is about 115% higher than the value obtained for CoFe2O4 precursor. The exchange coupling interaction and the enhancement of product (BH)max in nanocomposite CoFe2O4/CoFe2 are discussed.

  2. CoFe2O4 nano-particles functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline for dispersive solid-phase micro-extraction and direct fluorometric monitoring of aluminum in human serum and water samples.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Rahimpour, Elaheh

    2015-06-30

    A simple dispersive solid-phase micro-extraction method based on CoFe2O4 nano-particles (NPs) functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) with the aid of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was developed for separation of Al(III) ions from aqueous solutions. Al(III) ions are separated at pH 7 via complex formation with 8-HQ using the functionalized CoFe2O4 nano-particles sol solution as a dispersed solid-phase extractor. The separated analyte is directly quantified by a spectrofluorometric method at 370nm excitation and 506nm emission wavelengths. A comparison of the fluorescence of Al(III)-8-HQ complex in bulk solution and that of Al(III) ion interacted with 8-HQ/SDS/CoFe2O4 NPs revealed a nearly 5-fold improvement in intensity. The experimental factors influencing the separation and in situ monitoring of the analyte were optimized. Under these conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-300ngmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9986. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.03ngmL(-1) and 0.10ngmL(-1), respectively. The inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for six replicate determinations of 150ngmL(-1) Al(III) ion were 2.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to direct determine Al(III) ion in various human serum and water samples. PMID:26041520

  3. Metal Organic Frameworks Combining CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles as Highly Efficient SERS Sensing Platform for Ultrasensitive Detection of N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Wang, Yue; Yang, Xia; Xie, Shunbi; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2016-03-30

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been demonstrated to be a sensitive and specific biomarker for heart failure (HF). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology can be used to accurately detect NT-proBNP at an early stage for its advantages of high sensitivity, less wastage and time consumption. In this work, we have demonstrated a new SERS-based immunosensor for ultrasensitive analysis of NT-proBNP by using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)@Au tetrapods (AuTPs) immobilized toluidine blue as SERS tag. Here, MOFs@AuTPs complexes were utilized to immobilize antibody and Raman probe for their excellent characteristics of high porosity, large surface area, and good biocompatibility which can obviously enhance the fixing amount of biomolecule. To simplify the experimental operation and improve the uniformity of the substrate, Au nanoparticles functionalized CoFe2O4 magnetic nanospheres (CoFe2O4@AuNPs) were further prepared to assemble primary antibody. Through sandwiched antibody-antigen interactions, the immunosensor can produce a strong SERS signal to detect NT-proBNP fast and effectively. With such design, the proposed immunosensor can achieve a large dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude from 1 fg mL(-1) to 1 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.75 fg mL(-1). And this newly designed amplification strategy holds high probability for ultrasensitive immunoassay of NT-proBNP. PMID:26953735

  4. Magnetic CoFe2O4/carbon nanotubes composites: fabrication, microstructure and magnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Panfeng; Xu, Jingcai; Han, Yanbing; Hong, Bo; Jin, Hongxiao; Jin, Dingfeng; Peng, Xiaoling; Li, Jing; Ge, Hongliang; Wang, Xinqing

    2014-05-01

    By combining the unique microstructure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the good magnetism of CoFe2O4 ferrites, CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites were prepared by the solvothermal method for the application of targeting therapy and tumor hyperthermia. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were introduced to study the influence of the solvothermal temperature, time and the CNTs content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites. The diameter of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles coating on the surface of CNTs and the saturation magnetization (Ms) increased with the solvothermal temperature. CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites prepared at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C exhibited superparamagnetism at room temperature, while the samples prepared at 240°C and 260°C presented ferromagnetism. And the solvothermal time and CNTs content slightly affected the microstructure and magnetic properties, Ms and coercivity (Hc) increased slightly with the increasing solvothermal time and the decreasing CNTs content.

  5. Effect of Mn2+ doping and SiO2 coating on magneto-optical properties of CoFe2O4 nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Kamal R.; Wahsh, M. M. S.; Othman, A. G. M.; Girgis, E.; Mabrouk, M. R.; Morsy, Fatma A.

    2015-11-01

    Co1-xMnxFe2O4 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using a modified citrate gel method and fired at 500 °C for 2 h. The modified Stöber method was used for coating the magnetic nanoparticles with a silica shell. The effects of Mn2+ substitution and the method of preparation on the formation of crystalline phases, particle size, morphology and the optical and magnetic properties of the synthesized materials were investigated by XRD, SAED, HR-TEM, EDX, UV/VIS double-beam spectrophotometry and vibrating sample magnetometry. The average crystallite size of the synthesized nanoparticles was 18.6-43.9 nm. The maximum value of saturation magnetization (Ms) achieved was 65.668 emu/g for Mn0.2Co0.8Fe2O4 nanoparticles. Diffuse reflectance increased with an increase of Mn2+content and SiO2 shell. These coated magnetic nanoparticles are promising materials for application to magnetic sensors and biomedical nanodevices.

  6. Structural and magnetic studies of the nickel doped CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Nisha; Rana, Dinesh S.; Kumar, Parmod; Arora, Manju; Pant, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of nickel doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles NixCo1-xFe2O4 (x=0.5, 0.75, 0.9) derived by the chemical co-precipitation route are characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, EPR, search coil and ac susceptibility techniques to develop stable kerosene based ferrofluid. XRD patterns and TEM images confirm the single phase formation of NixCo1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles whose crystallite size increases and lattice parameters decreases with the increase in Ni content. EPR resonance signal peak-to-peak line width and resonance field value decreases with the increase in Ni concentration in these samples. The broad nature of resonance signal is attributed to the ferromagnetic nature of the as-prepared nanoparticles and the increase in super exchange interaction among Ni2+-O-Co2+ facilitate the shifting of resonance value to lower field. The hysteresis loops of these nickel doped cobalt ferrite analogs exhibits highly magnetic nature of these nanoparticles at ambient temperature whose saturation magnetization, coerecivity and remanence magnetization decreases linearly with the increase in Ni-concentration in cobalt ferrite. The magnetic susceptibility with temperature curve shows increasing trend of blocking temperature with rise in nickel ion concentration.

  7. Synthesis of Trimagnetic Multishell MnFe2 O4 @CoFe2 O4 @NiFe2 O4 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov-Isaac, Véronica; Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent; Taverna, Dario; Gloter, Alexandre; Cabuil, Valérie

    2015-06-10

    The synthesis and characterization of original ferrite multishell magnetic nanoparticles made of a soft core (manganese ferrite) covered with two successive shells, a hard one (cobalt ferrite) and then a soft one (nickel ferrite), are described. The results demonstrate the modulation of the coercivity when new magnetic shells are added. PMID:25684735

  8. Impact of Nd3+ in CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles on cation distribution, structural and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Havlica, Jaromir; Masilko, Jiri; Kalina, Lukas; Wasserbauer, Jaromir; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Enev, Vojtěch; Kuřitka, Ivo; Kožáková, Zuzana

    2016-02-01

    Nd3+ doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The significant role played by Nd3+ added to cobalt ferrite in changing cation distribution and further in influencing structural and magnetic properties, was explored and reported. The crystal structure formation and crystallite size were studied from X-ray diffraction studies. The microstructural features were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy that demonstrates the nanocrystalline grain formation with spherical morphology. An infrared spectroscopy study shows the presence of two absorption bands related to tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes within the spinel ferrite lattice system. The change in Raman modes in synthesized ferrite system were observed with Nd3+ substitution, particle size and cation redistribution. The impact of Nd3+ on cation distribution of Co2+ and Fe3+ at octahedral and tetrahedral sites in spinel ferrite cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Room temperature magnetization measurements showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity increase with addition of Nd3+ substitution in cobalt ferrite.

  9. Intrinsic dependence of the magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared via chemical methods with addition of chelating agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, E. C.; Tenório, Mayara A.; Mecena, S. G.; Zucolotto, B.; Silva, L. S.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the effect of addition of different chelating agents on the magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles produced by the combining of both co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods is reported. The Rietveld analyses of X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that our samples are single phase (space group: Fd-3m) with small average sizes. The weight losses observed in the thermogravimetric measurements together with the M×H curves show that the organic contamination coming from chelating agent decomposition can give rise to misinterpretation of the magnetization measurements. Besides, analyses of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization measurements and the M×H curves measured at room temperature allows us to state that both the average blocking temperature and particles size distribution are sensitive to the kind of chelating agent.

  10. Simultaneous effects of surface spins: rarely large coercivity, high remanence magnetization and jumps in the hysteresis loops observed in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, S T; Ma, Y Q; Zheng, G H; Dai, Z X

    2015-04-21

    Well-dispersed uniform cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of a metal-organic salt in organic solvent with a high boiling point. Some of the nanoparticles were diluted in a SiO2 matrix and then the undiluted and diluted samples were characterized and their magnetic behavior explored. The undiluted and diluted samples exhibited maximum coercivity Hc of 23,817 and 15,056 Oe at 10 K, respectively, which are the highest values reported to date, and the corresponding ratios of remanence (Mr) to saturation (Ms) magnetization (Mr/Ms) were as high as 0.85 and 0.76, respectively. Interestingly, the magnetic properties of the samples changed at 200 K, which was observed in magnetic hysteresis M(H) loops and zero-field cooling curves as well as the temperature dependence of Hc, Mr/Ms, anisotropy, dipolar field, and the magnetic grain size. Below 200 K, both samples have large effective anisotropy, which arises from the surface spins, resulting in large Hc and Mr/Ms. Above 200 K, the effective anisotropy decreases because there is no contribution from surface spins, while the dipolar interaction increases, resulting in small Hc and Mr/Ms. Our results indicate that strong anisotropy and weak dipolar interaction tend to increase Hc and Mr/Ms, and also clarify that the jumps around H = 0 in M(H) loops can be attributed to the reorientation of surface spins. This work exposes the underlying mechanism in nanoscale magnetic systems, which should lead to improved magnetic performance. PMID:25787852

  11. Simultaneous effects of surface spins: rarely large coercivity, high remanence magnetization and jumps in the hysteresis loops observed in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. T.; Ma, Y. Q.; Zheng, G. H.; Dai, Z. X.

    2015-04-01

    Well-dispersed uniform cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of a metal-organic salt in organic solvent with a high boiling point. Some of the nanoparticles were diluted in a SiO2 matrix and then the undiluted and diluted samples were characterized and their magnetic behavior explored. The undiluted and diluted samples exhibited maximum coercivity Hc of 23 817 and 15 056 Oe at 10 K, respectively, which are the highest values reported to date, and the corresponding ratios of remanence (Mr) to saturation (Ms) magnetization (Mr/Ms) were as high as 0.85 and 0.76, respectively. Interestingly, the magnetic properties of the samples changed at 200 K, which was observed in magnetic hysteresis M(H) loops and zero-field cooling curves as well as the temperature dependence of Hc, Mr/Ms, anisotropy, dipolar field, and the magnetic grain size. Below 200 K, both samples have large effective anisotropy, which arises from the surface spins, resulting in large Hc and Mr/Ms. Above 200 K, the effective anisotropy decreases because there is no contribution from surface spins, while the dipolar interaction increases, resulting in small Hc and Mr/Ms. Our results indicate that strong anisotropy and weak dipolar interaction tend to increase Hc and Mr/Ms, and also clarify that the jumps around H = 0 in M(H) loops can be attributed to the reorientation of surface spins. This work exposes the underlying mechanism in nanoscale magnetic systems, which should lead to improved magnetic performance.

  12. A CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid as an efficient bi-functional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Weiyong; Yang, Zhenrong; Strasser, Peter; Yang, Ruizhi

    2014-03-01

    Development of efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) remain key issues for the commercialization of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. In this study, A CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid is facilely synthesized via a two-step process and applied as an electrocatalyst for the ORR and the OER. The as-prepared CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid demonstrates excellent catalytic activity for the ORR. At the same mass loading, the Tafel slope of CoFe2O4/graphene electrocatalyst for the ORR is comparable to that of the commercial Pt/C (20 wt% Pt on Vulcan XC-72, Johnson Matthey). The ORR on CoFe2O4/graphene mainly favours a direct 4e- reaction pathway. The CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid also affords high catalytic activity for the OER. The chronoamperometric tests show that CoFe2O4/graphene catalyst exhibits excellent stability for both the ORR and the OER, outperforming the commercial Pt/C. The high electrocatalytic activity and durability of CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid are attributed to the strong coupling between CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and graphene.

  13. A facile thermal decomposition route to synthesise CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpanadevi, K.; Sinduja, C. R.; Manimekalai, R.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles has been achieved by a simple thermal decomposition method from an inorganic precursor, cobalt ferrous cinnamate hydrazinate (CoFe2(cin)3(N2H4)3) which was obtained by a novel precipitation method from the corresponding metal salts, cinnamic acid and hydrazine hydrate. The precursor was characterized by hydrazine and metal analyses, infrared spectral analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis. Under appropriate annealing, CoFe2(cin)3(N2H4)3 yielded CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which were characterized for their size and structure using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques.

  14. Magnetoelectric CoFe2O4/polyvinylidene fluoride electrospun nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, R.; Martins, P.; Moya, X.; Ghidini, M.; Sencadas, V.; Botelho, G.; Mathur, N. D.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetoelectric 0-1 composites comprising CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer-fibre matrix have been prepared by electrospinning. The average diameter of the electrospun composite fibres is ~325 nm, independent of the nanoparticle content, and the amount of the crystalline polar β phase is strongly enhanced when compared to pure PVDF polymer fibres. The piezoelectric response of these electroactive nanofibres is modified by an applied magnetic field, thus evidencing the magnetoelectric character of the CFO/PVDF 0-1 composites.

  15. Microwave assisted combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline CoFe2O4 for LPG sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Prashant; Acharya, S. A.; Darunkar, S. S.; Gaikwad, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    A microwave-assisted citrate precursor method has been utilized for synthesis of nanocrystalline powders of CoFe2O4. The process takes only a few minutes to obtain as-synthesized CoFe2O4. Structural properties of the synthesized material were investigated by X-ray diffraction; scanning electron microscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The gas sensing properties of thick film of CoFe2O4 prepared by screen printing towards Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) revealed that CoFe2O4 thick films are sensitive and shows maximum sensitivity at 350°C for 2500 ppm of LPG.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic CoFe2O4/MWCNT hybrids for tumor-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanyu; Liu, Yong; Ding, Weihong; Gou, Yuancheng; Xu, Ke; Xia, Guowei; Ding, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their great potentialities of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based magnetic nano-composites, numerous applications of them have been found in nanotechnology, integrated functional system, and in medicine. Herein, nearly monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have been deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by high-temperature hydrolysis and inorganic polymerization of ionic Co(II) and Fe(III) salts and MWCNTs in a polyol solution. X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the final products. The average size of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and their coverage density on MWCNTs can be adjusted to some extent by altering the reaction parameters. A proposed formation mechanism of the magnetic hybrids is presented. Magnetic measurements showed that the hybrids were superparamagnetic at room temperature and their saturation magnetization could be fine tuned by changing the loading of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles on the MWCNTs. PMID:23646722

  17. Conduction mechanism and gas sensing properties of CoFe2O4 nanocomposite thick films for H2S gas.

    PubMed

    Bodade, Anjali B; Bodade, Archana B; Wankhade, H G; Chaudhari, G N; Kothari, D C

    2012-01-30

    Nanocrystalline 10 wt% Ni and 0.2 wt% Sm doped CoFe(2)O(4) was prepared by sol-gel citrate method and calcined at different temperatures. The CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrical properties were studied by impedance analysis. The XRD of CoFe(2)O(4) shows cubic structure with grain growth of 40 nm. The ac conductivity was studied for the sample 10 wt% Ni and 0.2 wt% Sm doped CoFe(2)O(4) calcined at 650°C, at temperature range from 100 to 700°C over a wide range of frequencies from 50 Hz to 200 kHz. The result indicates that the ac conductivity depend on temperature, frequency and concentration of dopant. Nanocrystalline 10 wt% Ni and 0.2 wt% Sm doped CoFe(2)O(4) was found to be good H(2)S sensor with high sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:22284478

  18. Microemulsion synthesis and magnetic properties of hydroxyapatite-encapsulated nano CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S. A.; Amighian, Jamshid

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite-encapsulated cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowders were synthesized by one step microemulsion method. The powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. TEM results showed that nanoparticles calcined at 700 °C have core-shell morphology. It was found that the resultant phases, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples depend on calcining temperature. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a maximum saturation magnetization of 7.8 emu/g with a wasp-waisted hysteresis loop. The magnetion was reduced by increasing calcining temperature to 900 °C. This reduction is due to the reaction of cobalt ferrite with hydroxyapatite which leads to CaFe12(PO4)8(OH)12 phase.

  19. Magnetic Properties of CoFe_2O4 and Fe_3O_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Robert; Chan, T.; Kenning, G. G.; Huang, L.; Yan, Y.

    2002-03-01

    In order to optimize the magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles for use as Magnetic Resonance Imaging contrast agents and other in vivo biological applications, we have synthesized CoFe_2O_4(Liu, C.; Bingsuo, Z.; Rondinone, A.J.; Zhang, Z.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc.) 122, 6263 (2000). and Fe_3O_4(Shen, T.; Weissleder, R.; Papisov, M.; Bogdanov, A.; Brady, T. MRM) 29, 599 (1993). magnetic nanoparticles of sizes 5, 8, and 11nm using water-in-oil reverse micelles. Size was determined using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Magnetic properties were measure from 10K-340K using SQUID magnetometry. Magnetization as a function of magnetic field has been performed at approximately body temperature ( ~310K) in order to help us determine the optimal size and composition for in vivo application.

  20. ZnO supported CoFe2O4 nanophotocatalysts for the mineralization of Direct Blue 71 in aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Pugazhenthiran, Nalenthiran; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2013-05-15

    In this study, an attempt was made to render both the magnetic and photocatalytic properties in a semiconductor material to enhance the efficiency of degradation and recycling possibility of magnetic nanophotocatalysts. CoFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 loaded ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized using various analytical tools and in addition to check its visible light assisted photocatalytic activity. CoFe2O4/ZnO nanocatalyst coupled with acceptor, peroxomonosulphate (PMS) showed 1.69-fold enhancement in Direct Blue 71 (triazo dye; DB71) mineralization within 5h. The accomplished enrichment in decolorization was due to the production of more number of non-selective and active free radicals at the catalyst surface. PMID:23523908

  1. High frequency study of core-shell reusable CoFe2O4-ZnO nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuanr, Bijoy K.; Veerakumar, V.; Mishra, S. R.; Wilson, Armstrong M.; Kuanr, Alka V.; Camley, R. E.; Celinski, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Recently, coated nanoshells combined with magnetic nanoparticles and cancer-cell-specific antibodies have been used to develop a multifunctional platform for simultaneously diagnosing and treating cancer, via magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal therapy. For this application, core-shell nano-spheres with a low resonance frequency (low GHz range) in a strong applied field are required. In this aspect, ferromagnetic resonance experiment is an important tool for determining the dynamic properties of nano-materials. Magnetic field dependence of resonance frequency (fr) and linewidths (Δƒ and ΔH) for both the ZnO coated and uncoated CoFe2O4 hollow spheres are studied using a vector network analyzer. As compared to uncoated CoFe2O4 hollow sphere, ZnO coated CoFe2O4 showed reduced resonance frequency, larger Δƒ and ΔH, reduced gyromagnetic ratio and effective fields. The experimental results are confirmed with the effective medium theory.

  2. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  3. Hollow CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7 microspheres applied in electromagnetic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wanxi; Wang, Liancheng; Li, Guomin; Xu, Yao

    2015-03-01

    In this work, monodisperse hollow cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) microspheres with mean diameter of 150 nm and shell thickness of 50 nm have been successfully prepared via a one-pot solvothermal method. In order to improve the microwave absorption, a thermal reduction process was designed to synthesize hollow CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7 microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7 microspheres retained hollow structure. Microwave absorption results revealed that hollow CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7 microspheres exhibited much stronger electromagnetic absorption than the original hollow CoFe2O4 microspheres. Most importantly, when the sample thickness was 1.3 mm, the reflection loss (RL) less than -10 dB was obtained in the frequency range of 12.5-17.7 GHz, which nearly covered the entire Ku-band. When the sample thickness increased to 2 mm, the minimum RL was as high as -41.6 dB with the effective bandwidth (the bandwidth of RL at -10 dB) of 3 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption was attributed to efficient complement between dielectric loss and magnetic loss. These results indicated that the hollow CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7 microspheres could be used as a new candidate for microwave absorbents, especially in Ku-band.

  4. Preparation and adsorption properties of magnetic CoFe2O4-chitosan composite microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Qi; Zheng, Xue-Fang; Hu, Tie-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic chitosan microspheres made from novel polymer materials show outstanding applied characteristics. Magnetic chitosan microspheres are rather cheap, non-toxic, tasteless, alkali resistant, corrosion resistant, easily degradable, easily recyclable, and so on. It can be widely used in many fields. In this paper, magnetic CoFe2O4/chitosan core-shell microspheres are prepared by means of emulsification cross-linking technique using CoFe2O4 as core and glutaric dialdehyde as crosslinking agent. The results demonstrated that the different calcining temperature of magnetic (CoFe2O4) particles, CoFe2O4/chitosan ratio and stirring time of the suspension medium are the most effective parameters that control the size, size distribution, morphology and magnetism of the described microspheres. Finally, the size, morphology and chemical structure of the prepared materials are studied by different methods. The results show that the optimal calcination temperature of magnetic particles is 700°C, the optimal ratio of CoFe2O4/chitosan is 1: 1, ultrasonic dispersion time is 30 min. The prepared chitosan magnetic microspheres have small size and are well dispersed when the stirring time is 3 h. The prepared magnetic chitosan microspheres are well shaped spheres with a diameter from 1 to 50 μm, in which CoFe2O4 particles are dispersed uniformly. The magnetic chitosan microspheres show excellent magnetic response and have good adsorption characteristics.

  5. Synthesize and characterization of a novel anticorrosive cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix (CoFe2O4-SiO2) to improve the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharagozlou, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Baradaran, Z.

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at studying the effect of an anticorrosive nickel ferrite nanoparticle dispersed in silica matrix (NiFe2O4-SiO2) on the corrosion protection properties of steel substrate. NiFe2O4 and NiFe2O4-SiO2 nanopigments were synthesized and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then, 1 wt.% of nanopigments was dispersed in an epoxy coating and the resultant nanocomposites were applied on the steel substrates. The corrosion inhibition effects of nanopigments were tested by an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray test. Results revealed that dispersing nickel ferrite nanoparticles in a silica matrix (NiFe2O4-SiO2) resulted in the enhancement of the nanopigment dispersion in the epoxy coating matrix. Inclusion of 1 wt.% of NiFe2O4-SiO2 nanopigment into the epoxy coating enhanced its corrosion protection properties before and after scratching.

  6. Deposition of luminescent Y2O3:Eu3+ on ferromagnetic mesoporous CoFe2O4@mSiO2 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaozhen; Tong, Lizhu; Chen, Xiaodong; Ding, Hong; Yang, Xuwei; Yang, Hua

    2014-06-14

    Luminescent Y2O3:Eu(3+) particles have been deposited on the surface of ferromagnetic mesoporous CoFe2O4@mSiO2 nanoparticles by a co-precipitation method, obtaining multifunctional CoFe2O4@mSiO2@Y2O3:Eu(3+) nanocomposites. XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, XPS, N2-adsorption-desorption, FT-IR, VSM and PL were used to characterized the samples. The results reveal that the nanocomposites display typical mesoporous characteristics with high surface areas (BET), large pore volumes and core-shell structures. The composites show ferromagnetic properties and red luminescence from the (5)D0-(7)F2 transition at 610 nm. The size and the magnetic and luminescence properties of the composites could be tuned by systematically varying the experimental parameters, such as the annealing temperature, the mass ratio of CoFe2O4@mSiO2 to Y2O3:Eu(3+), and the volume of TEOS. A possible quenching mechanism of the luminescent Y2O3:Eu(3+) by the ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 is proposed. The high BET and large pore volume may give the composite potential application in controlled drug release. PMID:24741669

  7. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in CoFe2O4/Pt films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Hao; Qintong, Zhang; Caihua, Wan; Ali, Syed Shahbaz; Yuan, Zhonghui; You, Lu; Wang, Junling; Choi, Yongseong; Han, Xiufeng

    2015-05-13

    Pulse laser deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques have been employed to prepare MgO(001)//CoFe2O4/Pt samples. Cross section transmission electron microscope results prove that the CoFe2O4 film epitaxially grew along (001) direction. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism results show that magnetic proximity effect in this sample is negligible. Magnetoresistance (MR) properties confirm that spin Hall MR (SMR) dominates in this system. Spin Hall effect-induced anomalous Hall voltage was also observed in this sample. Lastly, these results not only demonstrate the universality of SMR effect but also demonstrate the utility in spintronics of CoFe2O4 as a new type of magnetic insulator.

  8. Magnetoelectricity in CoFe2O4 nanocrystal-P(VDF-HFP) thin films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Transition metal ferrites such as CoFe2O4, possessing a large magnetostriction coefficient and high Curie temperature (Tc > 600 K), are excellent candidates for creating magnetic order at the nanoscale and provide a pathway to the fabrication of uniform particle-matrix films with optimized potential for magnetoelectric coupling. Here, a series of 0–3 type nanocomposite thin films composed of ferrimagnetic cobalt ferrite nanocrystals (8 to 18 nm) and a ferroelectric/piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene), P(VDF-HFP), were prepared by multiple spin coating and cast coating over a thickness range of 200 nm to 1.6 μm. We describe the synthesis and structural characterization of the nanocrystals and composite films by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, STEM, and SEM, as well as dielectric and magnetic properties, in order to identify evidence of cooperative interactions between the two phases. The CoFe2O4 polymer nanocomposite thin films exhibit composition-dependent effective permittivity, loss tangent, and specific saturation magnetization (Ms). An enhancement of the effective permittivity and saturation magnetization of the CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP) films was observed and directly compared with CoFe2O4-polyvinylpyrrolidone, a non-ferroelectric polymer-based nanocomposite prepared by the same method. The comparison provided evidence for the observation of a magnetoelectric effect in the case of CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP), attributed to a magnetostrictive/piezoelectric interaction. An enhancement of Ms up to +20.7% was observed at room temperature in the case of the 10 wt.% CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP) sample. PMID:24004499

  9. Formation Mechanism and Shape Control of Monodisperse Magnetic CoFe2O4 Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ningzhong; Shen, Liming; An, Wei; Padhan, Prahallad; Turner, C. H.; Gupta, Arunuba

    2009-07-28

    The formation mechanism and shape control of monodisperse magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanocrystals produced by thermolysis of a stoichiometric Co2+Fe2 3+-oleate complex in organic solution has been investigated. Synthesis of the pure ternary CoFe2O4 inverse spinel phase, without formation of any intermediate binary cobalt and iron oxides, is favored by the close thermal decomposition temperature of the Co2+-oleate and Fe3+-oleate precursors. For reaction temperatures between 250 and 320 ˚C, the nucleation and growth dynamics dictate the size and shape evolution of the nanocrystals. Prenucleation of CoFe2O4 occurs at 250-300 ˚C but without any growth of nanocrystals, because the monomer concentration is lower than the critical nucleation concentration. For temperatures in the range of 300-320 ˚C,which is above the thermolysis temperature of the mixed Co2+Fe2 3+-oleate complex, the monomer concentration increases rapidly resulting in homogeneous nucleation. Atomic clusters of CoFe2O4 with size<2 nm are initially formed at 314 ˚C that then grow rapidly when the temperature is raised to 320 ˚C in less than a minute. The shape of the CoFe2O4 nanocrystals can be reproducibly controlled by prolonging the aging time at 320 ˚C, evolving from initial spherical, to spherical-to-cubic, cubic, corner-grown cubic, or starlike shapes. Thus, with careful choice of reaction parameters, such as the precursor concentration and the heating rate, it is possible to achieve large-scale synthesis of shape-controlled monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanocrystals with high yield.

  10. Magnetoelectricity in CoFe2O4 nanocrystal-P(VDF-HFP) thin films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohua; Liu, Shuangyi; Han, Myung-Geun; Zhao, Lukas; Deng, Haiming; Li, Jackie; Zhu, Yimei; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; O'Brien, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Transition metal ferrites such as CoFe2O4, possessing a large magnetostriction coefficient and high Curie temperature (Tc > 600 K), are excellent candidates for creating magnetic order at the nanoscale and provide a pathway to the fabrication of uniform particle-matrix films with optimized potential for magnetoelectric coupling. Here, a series of 0-3 type nanocomposite thin films composed of ferrimagnetic cobalt ferrite nanocrystals (8 to 18 nm) and a ferroelectric/piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene), P(VDF-HFP), were prepared by multiple spin coating and cast coating over a thickness range of 200 nm to 1.6 μm. We describe the synthesis and structural characterization of the nanocrystals and composite films by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, STEM, and SEM, as well as dielectric and magnetic properties, in order to identify evidence of cooperative interactions between the two phases. The CoFe2O4 polymer nanocomposite thin films exhibit composition-dependent effective permittivity, loss tangent, and specific saturation magnetization (Ms). An enhancement of the effective permittivity and saturation magnetization of the CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP) films was observed and directly compared with CoFe2O4-polyvinylpyrrolidone, a non-ferroelectric polymer-based nanocomposite prepared by the same method. The comparison provided evidence for the observation of a magnetoelectric effect in the case of CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP), attributed to a magnetostrictive/piezoelectric interaction. An enhancement of Ms up to +20.7% was observed at room temperature in the case of the 10 wt.% CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP) sample. PMID:24004499

  11. Fabrication of CoFe2O4 ferrite nanowire arrays in porous silicon template and their local magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zheng; Man-Gui, Han; Long-Jiang, Deng

    2016-02-01

    CoFe2O4 ferrite nanowire arrays are fabricated in porous silicon templates. The porous silicon templates are prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching with gold (Au) nanoparticles as the catalyst. Subsequently, CoFe2O4 ferrite nanowires are successfully synthesized into porous silicon templates by the sol-gel method. The magnetic hysteresis loop of nanowire array shows an isotropic feature of magnetic properties. The coercivity and squareness ratio (Mr/Ms) of ensemble nanowires are found to be 630 Oe (1 Oe, = 79.5775 A·m-1 and 0.4 respectively. However, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) is adopted to reveal the probability density function of local magnetostatic properties (i.e., interwire interaction field and coercivity). The FORC diagram shows an obvious distribution feature for interaction field and coercivity. The local coercivity with a value of about 1000 Oe is found to have the highest probability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271039), the Scientific Projects of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2015HH0016), and the Natural Science Foundations of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LQ12E02001 and Y107255).

  12. Magnetostriction properties of oriented polycrystalline CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiquan; Gao, Xuexu; Yuan, Chao; Li, Jiheng; Bao, Xiaoqian

    2016-03-01

    Oriented polycrystalline CoFe2O4 have been prepared via a ceramic method. The CoFe2O4 powder was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol solution to produce semisolid slurries. The slurries were oriented under a magnetic field of 2 T, and were then sintered at 1623 K. The maximum magnetostriction λs up to -270×10-6 and strain derivative (dλ/dH)max of 7.7×10-9 m/A were achieved for oriented samples. Results show that a preferred <001> orientation has been obtained within oriented sample.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Cr doped CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Kavita; Patel, K. R.; Ram, Sahi; Barbar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline samples of pure and Cr-doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and CoCrFeO4) were prepared by solid state reaction route method. X-ray diffraction pattern infers that both the samples are in single phase with Fd3m space group. Slight reduction in the lattice parameter of CoCrFeO4 has been observed as compared to CoFe2O4. The dielectric dispersion has been explained on the basis of Fe2+ ↔ Fe3+ hopping mechanism. The polarizations at lower frequencies are mainly attributed to electronic exchange between Fe2+ ↔ Fe3+ ions on the octahedral site in the ferrite lattice. In the present system a part from n-type charge carrier (Fe3+/Fe2+), the presence of (Co3+/Co2+) ions give rise to p-type charge carrier. Therefore in addition to n-type charge carrier, the local displacement of p-type charge carrier in direction of external electric field also contributes to net polarization. However, the dielectric constant and loss tangent of CoCrFeO4 are found to be lower than CoFe2O4 and is attributed to the availability of ferrous ion. CoCrFeO4 have less amount of ferrous ion available for polarization as compared to that of CoFe2O4. The impedance spectra reveal a grain interior contribution to the conduction process.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CoFe2O4/polyaniline nanocomposites for electromagnetic interference applications.

    PubMed

    Praveena, K; Srinath, S

    2014-06-01

    The Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) powders were synthesized by Co-precipitation method. The as prepared ferrite powders were incorporated into a polyaniline matrix at various volumetric ratios. The as prepared composites of ferrite and polyaniline powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size of CoFe2O4 is found to be 20 nm. The saturation magnetization (M(s)) of all the composites was found to be decreasing with decrease of ferrite content, while coercivity (H(c)) remained at the value corresponding to pure cobalt ferrite nanopowders. The complex permittivity (epsilon' and epsilon") and permeability (mu' and mu") of composite samples were measured in the range of 1 MHz to 1.1 GHz. The value of epsilon' and mu' found to be increased with ferrite volume concentration. PMID:24738398

  15. Flux growth of high-quality CoFe 2O 4 single crystals and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Ren, X.

    2006-04-01

    We report the growth of high-quality CoFe 2O 4 single crystals using a borax flux method. The crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy. We found the crystals are flux-free and highly homogeneous in composition. X-ray rocking curves of the CoFe 2O 4 single crystals showed a full-width at half-maximum of 0.15°. The saturation magnetization of the CoFe 2O 4 single crystals was measured to be 90 emu/g or equivalently 3.65 μ B/f.u. at 5 K.

  16. Eco-friendly synthesized nanocrystalline CoFe2O4 materials by molten salt flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, T. S. Gokul; Sreenija, S. V.; Balamurugan, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this brief article, the synthesis of nanocrystalline CoFe2O4 material by molten salt flux (NaCl:KCl) method and their characterization by XRD, FTIR, and HRSEM-EDX are reported. The molten salt flux synthesized material reveals single cubic CoFe2O4 phase with lattice parameter, a = 0.8384(6) nm and average crystalline size, D of 44.66 nm. The fine particles with the size of 147 ˜ 386 nm is seen through HRSEM images on the surface of nanocrystalline CoFe2O4 materials.

  17. Fabrication, characterization, exchange coupling and magnetic behavior of CoFe2O4/CoFe2 nanocomposite nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Xionghui; Li, Jiale; Chu, Yanqiu; Shen, Xiangqian

    2013-06-01

    CoFe2O4/CoFe2 nanocomposite nanofibers (NFs) with superior magnetic performance have been fabricated using electrospinning technique combined with hydrogen-thermal reduction reaction. A detailed study on the evolution of structural, morphological and magnetic properties with reduction temperature is undertaken. It is found that these composite NFs exhibit a good single-phase magnetic behavior, indicating that the magnetically hard CoFe2O4 and soft CoFe2 phases in them are sufficiently exchange coupled. The composition dependence of magnetic properties of CoFe2O4/CoFe2 composite NFs is obviously different from the reported nanopowder and microfiber counterparts. Furthermore, a higher remanence and maximum energy product can be achieved for CoFe2O4/CoFe2 composite NFs.

  18. Robust SiO2-modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers with flexible room temperature magnetic performance.

    PubMed

    Jing, Panpan; Pan, Lining; Du, Jinlu; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-05-21

    A range of robust SiO2-modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers with high uniformity and productivity were successfully prepared via polyvinylpyrrolidone-sol assisted electrospinning followed by annealing at a high temperature of 1000 °C, and they were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in detail. It was demonstrated that amorphous SiO2 has a significant influence on not only the surface morphology, microstructure and crystalline size but also the room temperature magnetic performance of the inverse spinel CoFe2O4 nanofibers. The pure CoFe2O4 sample shows a particle chain rod-shape appearance but the SiO2-modified CoFe2O4 sample shows a robust hollow fibrous structure. With increasing SiO2 content, an increase at first and then a decrease in coercivity (Hc) and monotonously a decrease in saturation magnetization (Ms) have been determined in the obtained modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers. A maximum Ms of about 80 emu g(-1) and a maximum Hc of about 1477 Oe could be, respectively, acquired from the pure CoFe2O4 nanorods and the modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers with about 14.9% SiO2. The changes in Ms, Hc and the structure evolution mechanism of these SiO2-modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers have been elaborated systematically. Furthermore, it is suggested that amorphous SiO2 enables effectively improving the structure endurance of 1D electrospun inorganic oxide hollow nanostructures being subjected to high temperatures. PMID:25907405

  19. Transport critical current density of (Bi1.6Pb0.4)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10/Ag superconductor tapes with addition of nanosized CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M.; Abd-Shukor, R.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of nanosized CoFe2O4 (60 nm) addition on the transport critical current density, J c, of (Bi1.6Pb0.4)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10(CoFe2O4) x ( x = 0-0.05 wt%) superconductor prepared by the co-precipitation method was investigated. The optimal J c (measured using the four-point probe method) was observed in the x = 0.01 wt% pellets. Using this optimal wt%, Ag-sheathed (Bi1.6Pb0.4)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10(CoFe2O4)0.01 superconductor tapes were fabricated using the powder-in-tube method. The tapes were sintered for 50 and 100 h at 845 °C. The phase and microstructure of the samples were determined using the powder X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The temperature dependence of J c for the tapes in various applied magnetic fields was also measured. J c of (Bi1.6Pb0.4)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10(CoFe2O4)0.01/Ag tapes sintered for 100 h was 22,420 A/cm2 at 30 K. The non-added tapes sintered for 100 h showed a much lower J c (8280 A/cm2 at 30 K). This study showed that addition of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles enhanced the transport critical current density in the (Bi1.6Pb0.4)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductor tapes. This result is consistent with the previous calculations on frozen flux superconductor in a nanomagnet-superconductor hybrid system.

  20. Enhanced magnetic moment in ultrathin Fe-doped CoFe2O4 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, J. A.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Kumah, D. P.; Arena, D. A.; Henrich, V. E.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of film thickness on the magnetic properties of ultrathin Fe-doped cobalt ferrite (Co1-xFe2+xO4) grown on MgO (001) substrates is investigated by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism, while the distribution of the Co2+ cations between the octahedral and tetrahedral lattice sites is studied with x-ray absorption spectroscopy. For films thinner than 10 nm, there is a large enhancement of the magnetic moment; conversely, the remanent magnetization and coercive fields both decrease, while the magnetic spin axes of all the cations become less aligned with the [001] crystal direction. In particular, at 300 K the coercive fields of the thinnest films vanish. The spectroscopy data show that no changes occur in the cation distribution as a function of film thickness, ruling this out as the origin of the enhanced magnetic moment. However, the magnetic measurements all support the possibility that these ultrathin Fe-doped CoFe2O4 films are transitioning into a superparamagnetic state, as has been seen in ultrathin Fe3O4. A weakening of the magnetic interactions at the antiphase boundaries, leading to magnetically independent domains within the film, could explain the enhanced magnetic moment in ultrathin Fe-doped CoFe2O4 and the onset of superparamagnetism at room temperature.

  1. Research Update: Facile synthesis of CoFe2O4 nano-hollow spheres for efficient bilirubin adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Rupali; Pal, Monalisa; Chaudhuri, Arka; Mandal, Madhuri; Mandal, Kalyan

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report an unprecedented bilirubin (BR) adsorption efficiency of CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanostructures in contrast to the commercially available activated carbon and resin which are generally used for haemoperfusion and haemodialysis. We have synthesized CFO nanoparticles of diameter 100 nm and a series of nano-hollow spheres of diameter 100, 160, 250, and 350 nm using a simple template free solvothermal technique through proper variation of reaction time and capping agent, oleylamine (OLA), respectively, and carried out SiO2 coating by employing Stöber method. The comparative BR adsorption study of CFO and SiO2 coated CFO nanostructures indicates that apart from porosity and hollow configuration of nanostructures, the electrostatic affinity between anionic carboxyl group of BR and cationic amine group of OLA plays a significant role in adsorbing BR. Finally, we demonstrate that the BR adsorption capacity of the nanostructures can be tailored by varying the morphology as well as size of the nanostructures. We believe that our developed magnetic nanostructures could be considered as a potential material towards therapeutic applications against hyperbilirubinemia.

  2. Multiferroic behavior of templated BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 self-assembled nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Aimon, Nicolas M; Kim, Dong Hun; Sun, XueYin; Ross, C A

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembled BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 nanocomposites were templated into ordered structures in which the ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 pillars form square arrays of periods 60-100 nm in a ferroelectric BiFeO3 matrix. The ferroelectricity, magnetism, conductivity, and magnetoelectric coupling of the ordered nanocomposites were characterized by scanning probe microscopy. The insulating BiFeO3 matrix exhibited ferroelectric domains, whereas the resistive CoFe2O4 pillars exhibited single-domain magnetic contrast with high anisotropy due to the magnetoelasticity of the spinel phase. Magnetoelectric coupling was observed in which an applied voltage led to reversal of the magnetic pillars. PMID:25559139

  3. CoFe2O4/buffer layer ultrathin heterostructures on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, R.; de Coux, P.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Skumryev, V.; Fontcuberta, J.; Sánchez, F.

    2011-10-01

    Epitaxial films of ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si(001) buffered with ultrathin yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers in a single process. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction was used to monitor in real time the crystallization of YSZ, allowing the fabrication of epitaxial YSZ buffers with thickness of about 2 nm. CFO films, with thicknesses in the 2-50 nm range were subsequently deposited. The magnetization of the CFO films is close to the bulk value. The ultrathin CFO/YSZ heterostructures have very flat morphology (0.1 nm roughness) and thin interfacial SiOx layer (about 2 nm thick) making them suitable for integration in tunnel (e.g., spin injection) devices.

  4. Thermal generation of spin current in epitaxial CoFe2O4 thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Er -Jia; Herklotz, Andreas; Kehlberger, Andreas; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Klaeui, Mathias

    2016-01-12

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in high-quality epitaxial CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin films. The thermally excited spin currents in the CFO films are electrically detected in adjacent Pt layers due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The LSSE signal exhibits a linear increase with increasing temperature gradient, yielding a LSSE coefficient of –100 nV/K at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the LSSE is investigated from room temperature down to 30 K, showing a significant reduction at low temperatures, revealing that the total amount of thermally generated magnons decreases. Moreover, we demonstrate that the spin Seebeckmore » effect is an effective tool to study the magnetic anisotropy induced by epitaxial strain, especially in ultrathin films with low magnetic moments.« less

  5. Thickness dependence of exchange coupling in epitaxial Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 soft/hard magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavorato, G.; Winkler, E.; Rivas-Murias, B.; Rivadulla, F.

    2016-08-01

    Epitaxial magnetic heterostructures of (soft -) Fe3O4/(hard -) CoFe2O4(001 ) have been fabricated with a varying thicknesses of soft ferrite from 5 to 25 nm. We report a change in the regime of magnetic interaction between the layers from rigid-coupling to exchange-spring behavior, above a critical thickness of the soft magnetic Fe3O4 layer. We show that the symmetry and epitaxial matching between the spinel structures of CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4 at the interface stabilize the Verwey transition close to the bulk value even for 5-nm-thick Fe3O4 . The large interface exchange-coupling constant estimated from low-temperature M (H ) data confirmed the good quality of the ferrite-ferrite interface and the major role played by the interface in the magnetization dynamics. The results presented here constitute a model system for understanding the magnetic behavior of interfaces in core/shell nanoparticles and magnetic oxide-based spintronic devices.

  6. Effect of nanodisperse ferrite cobalt (CoFe2O4) particles on contractile reactions in guinea pigs airways.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; D'yakova, E Yu; Nosarev, A V; Zaitseva, T N; Petlina, Z R; Ogorodova, L M; Ageev, B G; Magaeva, A A; Itin, V I; Terekhova, O G

    2010-07-01

    The effect of nanopowder CoFe(2)O(4)on contractile responses of smooth-muscle segments of guinea pigs airways was studied by mechanography. Both in vivo inhalation of nanopowder aerosol or in vitro application of nanopowder to isolated airway segments increased the amplitude of contractile responses to histamine and potentiated the dilatory reaction to adrenergic salbutamol. PMID:21113462

  7. Toxicity of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanobeads in Chlorella vulgaris: interaction, adaptation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Yao, Hongzhou; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    The potential toxicity of CoFe2O4 nanobeads (NBs) in Chlorella vulgaris was observed up to 72h. Algal cell morphology, membrane integrity and viability were severely compromised due to adsorption and aggregation of NBs on algal surfaces, release of Fe(3+) and Co(2+) ions and possible mechanical damage by NBs. Interactions with NBs and effective decrease in ions released by aggregation and exudation of algal cells as a self defense mechanism were observed by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results corroborated CoFe2O4 NBs induced ROS triggered oxidative stress, leading to a reduction in catalase activity, activation of the mutagenic glutathione s-transferase (mu-GST) and acid phosphatase (AP) antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in genetic aberrations, metabolic and cellular signal transduction dysfunction. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the weak interactions of NBs with BSA, with slight changes in the α-helix structure of BSA confirming conformational changes in structure, hence the potential for functional interactions with biomolecules. Possible interferences of CoFe2O4 NBs with assay techniques and components indicated CoFe2O4 NBs at lower concentration do not show any significant interference with ROS, catalase, mu-GST and no interference with CD measurements. This study showed ROS production is one of the pathways of toxicity initiated by CoFe2O4 NBs and illustrates the complex processes that may occur between organisms and NBs in natural complex ecosystem. PMID:26291677

  8. FTIR and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy studies of the wet chemical (WC) route synthesized nano-structure CoFe(2)O(4) from CoCl(2) and FeCl(3).

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Parhizkar, Hadi Janan

    2014-06-01

    Nano-structure CoFe(2)O(4) has been fabricated by wet chemical route using CoCl2 and FeCl3 as simple precursors. The prepared nano-structure samples was calcined at 600°C and characterized by fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of the spinel phases with average crystallite sizes of 47nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy investigations showed spherical morphology of nanoparticles with average particle size of 46nm. The FTIR spectra of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles showed absorption bands at about 594cm(-1) and 401cm(-1) due to the stretching vibrations of Co-O and Fe-O respectively. Investigation of the optical properties of the produced nano-structure CoFe(2)O(4) confirmed its semiconducting properties by revealing two optical band gaps at 1.4 and 2.0eV. PMID:24637270

  9. In situ synthesis of hierarchical CoFe2O4 nanoclusters/graphene aerogels and their high performance for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Wang, Gang; Lv, Zhengyuan; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-28

    In this article, we demonstrate a simple solvothermal method towards in situ growth of hierarchical CoFe2O4 nanoclusters on graphene aerogels (GAs). SEM and TEM results confirm that CoFe2O4 nanoclusters are well wrapped by the graphene skeleton. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the CoFe2O4/GAs composite displays a stable cycling performance with a reversible capacity of over 100 discharge/charge cycles at the current density of 0.1 A g(-1), considerably higher than that of CoFe2O4 nanoclusters. Moreover, the reversible capacity of the CoFe2O4/GAs composite exhibits 966 mA h g(-1) after 300 cycles even at a high current density of 0.5 A g(-1). Most important of all, a new CoFe2O4/GAs//LiCoO2 full cell was successfully assembled, and this exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The superior electrochemical performance of the CoFe2O4/GAs composite in half and full cells can be attributed to the synergistic interaction between the uniform CoFe2O4 nanoclusters and GAs, the high electrical conductivity, and the three-dimensional hierarchically porous structure, which can not only facilitate the diffusion of Li ions and electrolyte into the electrodes, but also prevent volume expansion/contraction upon prolonged discharge/charge cycling. PMID:26411385

  10. In situ chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nanotubes on hollow CoFe2O4 as an efficient and low cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hong; Jiao, Qingze; Zhang, Shenli; Zhao, Yun; Wu, Qin; Li, Hansheng

    2016-09-01

    The composites of hollow CoFe2O4 and carbon nanotubes (h-CoFe2O4@CNTs) are successfully prepared by using a simple hydrothermal process coupling with the in-situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as electrocatalytic materials for counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. The CNTs are uniformly grown on the surface of hollow CoFe2O4 particles verified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. The electrochemical performances of hollow CoFe2O4@CNTs composites are evaluated by the EIS, Tafel polarization and CV measurements, and exhibiting high electrocatalytic performance for the reduction of triiodide. The presence of conductive polypyrrole nanoparticles could further improve the conductivity and catalytic performance of the resultant composites. Controlling the thickness of composites film, the optimum photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 6.55% is obtained, which is comparable to that of the cells fabricated with Pt counter electrode (6.61%). In addition, the composites exhibit a good long-term electrochemical stability in I3-/I- electrolyte.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of CoFe2O4/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Core/shell Magnetic Nanocomposite by the Wet Chemical Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarbakhsh-Raouf, A.; Emamian, H. R.; Yourdkhani, A.; Ataie, A.

    A cobalt ferrite/nickel-zinc ferrite core/shell nanocomposite was synthesized by a polymerized complex method using iron citrate, cobalt nitrate, nickel nitrate, zinc nitrate, citric acid, ethylene glycol, benzoic acid and sodium citrate as starting materials. The XRD, TEM and VSM techniques were employed to evaluate the phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples. The XRD results indicated the coexistence of characteristic reflections of CoFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2 O4 spinel ferrites in the composite sample. The core/shell structure of the composite sample has been confirmed by TEM images. The size of obtained spherical core/shell nanoparticles was 20-40 nm in core diameter and about 10 nm in shell thickness. The VSM results showed that both the coercivity and the saturation magnetization of the resulting core/shell nanocomposite were decreased compared to those of the CoFe2O4 core, due to the interaction at the interface of CoFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4.

  12. Structural study of Ti-doped CoFe2O4 mixed spinel ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, P.; Sharma, P.; Kumar, A.; Dar, M. A.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    We present the results on atomic and lattice structure of the polycrystalline spinel ferrites system Co1-x TixFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50) synthesized by following the conventional solid-state reaction route. The observed X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirms that all the prepared samples are indexed in cubic crystal structure (space group Fd3m). Diffraction pattern showed TiO2 phase due to presence of Ti+4 ions. Four Raman active phonon modes are observed for CoFe2O4 sample existing around 295, 462, 585, 689, cm-1 as Eg, T2g(2), T2g(3), and A1g, respectively. With 25 % Ti ion doping, the peak T2g(3) disappears, while to that T2g(1) emerges. This is an indication of presence of TiO2 phase in Co0.75Ti0.25Fe2O4 and Co0.5Ti0.5Fe2O4 ceramics.

  13. Could microwave induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process over CoFe2O4 effectively eliminate brilliant green in aqueous solution?

    PubMed

    Ju, Yongming; Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiao, Junqin; Li, Guohua; Wu, You; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyu; Xu, Zhencheng; Qi, Jianying; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we adopted the chemical co-precipitation (CP) method and sol-gel method followed by calcination at temperatures of 100-900°C for 12h to synthesize CoFe2O4 materials, which were further characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS techniques. The properties of CoFe2O4 materials were evaluated in a microwave (MW) induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process for the elimination of brilliant green (BG). The results showed that: (1) the removal rates of BG gradually decreased over a series of CoFe2O4 materials prepared by CP method and calcinated with 100-700°C (except 900°C) for 12h within three reuse cycles; for comparison, no removal of BG was obtained over CoFe2O4 synthesized by sol-gel method and CoFe2O4-900 (CP); (2) no hydroxyl radicals were captured with salicylic acid used as molecular probe in the MICO process; (3) MW irradiation enhanced the release of residual NaOH within the microstructure of CoFe2O4 and further discolored BG, because BG is sensitive to pH; (4) granular activated carbon (GAC), an excellent MW-absorbing material possessing higher dielectric loss tangent compared to that of a series of CoFe2O4 materials, could not remove BG in suspensions at a higher efficiency, even if the loading amount was 20 g L(-1). Accordingly, MICO process over CoFe2O4 materials and GAC could not effectively eliminate BG in suspensions. PMID:24220199

  14. Magnetic studies of CoFe2O4/SiO2 aerogel and xerogel nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J B; Mohallem, N D S; Sinnecker, E; Novak, M A; Alburquerque, A S; Ardisson, J D; Macedo, W A

    2009-10-01

    The evolution of the structural and magnetic properties of nanocomposites formed by cobalt ferrite particles dispersed in xerogel and aerogel silica matrices (CoFe2O4/SiO2) have been studied as a function of the temperature of preparation and the amount of ferrite dispersed in the matrix. Wet samples with different amounts of CoFe2O4 in SiO2 matrix were prepared by sol-gel process in monolithic form. Xerogel and aerogel samples were prepared by controlled and hypercritical drying, respectively, and heated at various temperatures between 300 and 1100 degrees C. Superparamagnetic behavior has been observed by magnetization studies at room temperature for xerogels prepared at low temperature. Aerogel samples showed significant superparamagnetic fractions for all thermal treatment temperatures as determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetization of the nanocomposites at 10 KOe applied field varied from 1 to 19 emu/g and the coercivity from 90 to 2320 Oe, respectively, for the different morphologies and textures of the analyzed material. The results show that besides the magnetization and coercivity depend on crystallite size, parameters such as ferrite content, porosity and drying conditions greatly influence the nanocomposite magnetic behavior. PMID:19908477

  15. Magnetic and magnetostrictive behavior of Dy 3+ doped CoFe 2O 4 single crystals grown by flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambale, Rahul C.; Song, K. M.; Won, C. J.; Lee, K. D.; Hur, N.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effect of Dy 3+ content on the magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite single crystal. The single crystals of CoFe 1.9Dy 0.1O 4 were grown by the flux method using Na 2B 4O 7.10 H 2O (Borax) as a solvent (flux). The black and shiny single crystals were obtained as a product. The X-ray diffraction analysis at room temperature confirmed the spinel cubic structure with lattice constant a=8.42 Å of the single crystals. The compositional analysis endorses the presence of constituents Co, Fe and Dy elements after sintering at 1300 °C within the final structure. The magnetic hysteresis measurements at various temperatures viz. 10 K, 100 K, 200 K and 300 K reveal the soft ferrimagnetic nature of the single crystal than that of for pure CoFe 2O 4. The observed saturation magnetization ( Ms) and coercivity ( Hc) are found to be lower than that of pure CoFe 2O 4 single crystal. The magnetostriction ( λ) measurement was carried out along the [001] direction. The magnetic measurements lead to conclude that the present single crystals can be used for magneto-optic recording media.

  16. A novel method to fabricate CoFe2O4/SrFe12O19 composite ferrite nanofibers with enhanced exchange coupling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lining; Cao, Derang; Jing, Panpan; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-03-01

    Nanocomposite of CoFe2O4/SrFe12O19 has been synthesized by the electrospinning and calcination process. A novel method that cobalt powder was used to replace traditional cobalt salt in the precursor sol-gel for electrospinning was proposed. The crystal structures, morphologies, and magnetic properties of these samples have been characterized in detail. Moreover, when the average crystallite size of the hard/soft phases reached up to an optimal value, the CoFe2O4 have an enhanced saturation magnetization of 62.8 emu/g and a coercivity of 2,290 Oe. Significantly, the hysteresis loops for the nanocomposites show a single-phase magnetization behavior, and it has been found that the exchange coupling interaction strongly exists in the CoFe2O4/SrFe12O19 magnetic nanocomposite nanofibers.

  17. A novel method to fabricate CoFe2O4/SrFe12O19 composite ferrite nanofibers with enhanced exchange coupling effect.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lining; Cao, Derang; Jing, Panpan; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite of CoFe2O4/SrFe12O19 has been synthesized by the electrospinning and calcination process. A novel method that cobalt powder was used to replace traditional cobalt salt in the precursor sol-gel for electrospinning was proposed. The crystal structures, morphologies, and magnetic properties of these samples have been characterized in detail. Moreover, when the average crystallite size of the hard/soft phases reached up to an optimal value, the CoFe2O4 have an enhanced saturation magnetization of 62.8 emu/g and a coercivity of 2,290 Oe. Significantly, the hysteresis loops for the nanocomposites show a single-phase magnetization behavior, and it has been found that the exchange coupling interaction strongly exists in the CoFe2O4/SrFe12O19 magnetic nanocomposite nanofibers. PMID:25852422

  18. Heterointerface design and strain tuning in epitaxial BiFeO3:CoFe2O4 nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenrui; Fan, Meng; Li, Leigang; Chen, Aiping; Su, Qing; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    The ability to control the morphology of heterointerfaces with coupled functionalities is fascinating from both fundamental and technological perspectives. Here, using BiFeO3:CoFe2O4 vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) films as a model system, we demonstrate a simple and effective method to modulate the heterointerface and its morphology in nanocomposite films with pulsed laser deposition. By tuning the deposition frequency through thickness during film growth, both vertically straight and gradient heterointerfaces have been achieved. The modulated heterointerface is strongly correlated with strain tuning and interface coupling, and thus modifies the magnetic anisotropy, coercive fields, and ferroelectric switching behavior. This study provides a viable approach for tailoring the interface strain and coupling in VAN and achieving tunable physical properties.

  19. Nucleation-induced self-assembly of multiferroic BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Stratulat, Sergiu M; Lu, Xiaoli; Morelli, Alessio; Hesse, Dietrich; Erfurth, Wilfried; Alexe, Marin

    2013-08-14

    Large areas of perfectly ordered magnetic CoFe2O4 nanopillars embedded in a ferroelectric BiFeO3 matrix were successfully fabricated via a novel nucleation-induced self-assembly process. The nucleation centers of the magnetic pillars are induced before the growth of the composite structure using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and lithography-defined gold membranes as hard mask. High structural quality and good functional properties were obtained. Magneto-capacitance data revealed extremely low losses and magneto-electric coupling of about 0.9 μC/cmOe. The present fabrication process might be relevant for inducing ordering in systems based on phase separation, as the nucleation and growth is a rather general feature of these systems. PMID:23902288

  20. Magnetic Properties of Liquid-Phase Sintered CoFe2O4 for Application in Magnetoelastic and Magnetoelectric Transducers

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Vera Lúcia Othéro; Cunha, Stéphanie Alá; Lemos, Leonardo Violim; Nunes, Cristina Bormio

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite is a ferrimagnetic magnetostrictive ceramic that has potential application in magnetoelastic and magnetoelectric transducers. In this work, CoFe2O4 was obtained using a conventional ceramic method and Bi2O3 was used as additive in order to obtain liquid-phase sintered samples. Bi2O3 was added to the ferrite in amounts ranging from 0.25 mol% to 0.45 mol% and samples were sintered at 900 °C and 950 °C. It was observed the presence of Bi-containing particles in the microstructure of the sintered samples and the magnetostriction results indicated microstructural anisotropy. It was verified that it is possible to get dense cobalt ferrites, liquid-phase sintered, with relative densities higher than 90% and with magnetostriction values very close to samples sintered without additives. PMID:23112589

  1. Comparative study of nano-sized particles CoFe2O4 effects on superconducting properties of Y-123 and Y-358

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, Y.; Hannachi, E.; Ben Salem, M. K.; Hamrita, A.; Varilci, A.; Dachraoui, W.; Ben Salem, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nano-sized CoFe2O4 particles (10 nm) addition on the structural and the normal state resistivity of YBa2Cu3O7 (noted Y-123) and Y3Ba5Cu8O18 (noted Y-358) polycrystalline were systematically studied. Samples were synthesized in oxygen atmosphere using a standard solid state reaction technique by adding CoFe2O4 up to 2 wt%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical measurements ρ(T). XRD results reveal that the lattice parameters change for both Y-123 and Y-358 phases. SEM observations reveal that the grain size is reduced with increasing the content of CoFe2O4. The measurements for the resistivity dependence of temperature show that the depression in superconducting temperature is more pronounced for CoFe2O4 addition in Y-358 compound than in Y-123 one. These results may be attributed to the existence of much more disorder due to a greater number of Cu sites to be substituted by Fe and Co in Y-358 compared to Y-123.

  2. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on enhanced signal amplification between Au@Pd and CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Jiaojiao; Wang, Zhiling; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Cheng, Qianhe; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    The improvement of sensitivity of electrochemical immunosensor can be achieved via two approaches: increasing loading capacities of antibody and enlarging responding electrochemical signals. Based on these, CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid (CoFe2O4/rGO) as support was firstly used for preparing electrochemical biosensor, and with the addition of Au@Pd nanorods (NRs) as mimic enzyme, a label-free electrochemical immunosensor was prepared. Due to the high electrical conductivity, open porous structure and large loading capacities of CoFe2O4/rGO, the enhanced signal amplification between Au@Pd NRs and CoFe2O4/rGO was studied. Fabricated as a novel substrate, the prepared immunosensor had a good analytical performance and exhibited a wide linear range from 0.01 to 18.0 ng·mL−1 with a low detection limit of 3.3 pg·mL−1 for estradiol, which was succeeded in applying to detect estradiol in the natural water. PMID:26987503

  3. Microstructure and properties of well-ordered multiferroic Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3)/CoFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingsen; Rodriguez, Brian J; Liu, Lifeng; Birajdar, Balaji; Pantel, Daniel; Ziese, Michael; Alexe, Marin; Hesse, Dietrich

    2010-02-23

    A nanofabrication technique combining pulsed laser deposition and a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide membrane mask is being proposed to prepare various types of multiferroic nanocomposites, viz. periodically ordered CoFe(2)O(4) dots covered by a continuous Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) layer, Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) dots covered with CoFe(2)O(4), and Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3)/CoFe(2)O(4) bilayer heterostructure dots. By properly tuning the processing parameters, epitaxial nanodot-matrix composites can be obtained. For the composite consisting of CoFe(2)O(4) nanostructures covered by a Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) film, an unexpected out-of-plane magnetic easy axis induced by the top Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) layer and a uniform microdomain structure can be observed. The nanocomposites tested by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) exhibit strong piezoelectric signals, and they also display magnetoelectric coupling revealed by magnetic-field dependent capacitance measurement. PMID:20112922

  4. Direct formation of reusable TiO2/CoFe2O4 heterogeneous photocatalytic fibers via two-spinneret electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Ju; Wang, Jiao-Na; Wang, Bin; Gong, Jian Ru; Lin, Zhang

    2012-03-01

    A reusable photocatalytic TiO2/CoFe2O4 composite nanofiber was directly formed by using a vertical two-spinneret electrospinning process and sol-gel method, followed by heat treatment at 550 degrees C for 2 h. The high photocatalytic activity of the composite nanofibers depends on the good morphology of the fibers and the appropriate calcination temperature. The crystal structure and magnetic properties of the fibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/CoFe2O4 fibers was investigated through ultraviolet-visible absorbance following the photo-oxidative decomposition of phenol. Meanwhile, the presence of CoFe2O4 not only broadens the response region of visible light, but also enhances the absorbance of UV light. Furthermore, these fibers displayed photocatalytic activity associated with magnetic activity of CoFe2O4 ferrites, allowing easy separated of the photocatalysts after the photo-oxidative process and effectively avoided the secondary pollution of the treated water. PMID:22755080

  5. Bistable Magnetoresistance Switching in Exchange-Coupled CoFe2O4-Fe3O4 Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices by Self-Assembly and Thermal Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J; Ye, XC; Oh, SJ; Kikkawa, JM; Kagan, CR; Murray, CB

    2013-02-01

    Self-assembly of multicomponent nanocrystal superlattices provides a modular approach to the design of metamaterials by choosing constituent nanocrystal building blocks with desired physical properties and engineering the interparticle coupling. In this work, we report the self-assembly of binary nanocrystal superlattices composed of magnetically hard CoFe2O4 nanocrystals and magnetically soft Fe3O4 nanocrystals. Both NaZn13- and MgZn2-type CoFe2O4-Fe3O4 binary nanocrystal superlattices have been formed by the liquid-air interfacial assembly approach. Exchange coupling is achieved in both types of binary superlattices after thermal annealing under vacuum at 400 degrees C. The exchange-coupled CoFe2O4-Fe3O4 binary nanocrystal superlattices show single-phase magnetization switching behavior and magnetoresistance switching behavior below 200 K. The NaZn13-type CoFe2O4-Fe3O4 binary nanocrystal superlattices annealed at 500 degrees C even exhibit bistable magnetoresistance switching behavior at room temperature constituting a simple nonvolatile memory function.

  6. Mössbauer studies on Mn substituted CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposites synthesized by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jie; Liu, Yang; Wang, Li; Feng, Ming; Zhao, Jialong; Li, Haibo

    2016-03-01

    Mn-substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed in SiO2 matrix (Co1-xMnxFe2O4/SiO2) were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The effects of Mn2+ content and annealing temperature on their structural and magnetic properties as well as cation distribution were studied in detail by X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. The results show that the Co1-xMnxFe2O4 in the samples annealed at above 700 °C exhibits cubic spinel structure. The lattice constant of Co1-xMnxFe2O4 nanoparticles increases with increasing Mn2+ content because of the substitution of Co2+ ion with a small ionic radius by Mn2+ ion with a relatively large ionic radius and most of Mn2+ ions tend to substitute Co2+ ions at octahedral B sites. The saturation magnetization, coercivity and hyperfine fields for Co1-xMnxFe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposites increase with increasing Mn2+ content when x≤0.2, and then decrease for higher Mn2+ content, these changes are strongly dependent on the cation distribution. Furthermore, with increasing annealing temperature, the crystallite size, saturation magnetization and coercivity of the samples increase, the sample transfers from the mixed state of superparamagnetic and magnetic order to the completely magnetic order and Mn2+ ions migrate from the tetrahedral A sites to octahedral B sites.

  7. Controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of bimagnetic spinel ferrite CoFe2O4 and MnFe2O4 nanocrystals with core-shell architecture.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing; Zhang, Z John

    2012-06-20

    A combination of hard phase CoFe(2)O(4) and soft phase MnFe(2)O(4) as the bimagnetic nanocrystals in a core-shell architecture has been synthesized, and their magnetic properties have been systematically studied. Both HRTEM and EDS results confirmed the formation of bimagnetic core-shell structured nanocrystals. On the basis of the systematic and comparative studies of the magnetic properties of a mechanical mixture of pure CoFe(2)O(4) and MnFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, chemically mixed Co(1-x)Mn(x)Fe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, and bimagnetic core-shell CoFe(2)O(4)@MnFe(2)O(4) and MnFe(2)O(4)@CoFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, the bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals show very unique magnetic properties, such as the blocking temperature and coercivity. Our results show that the coercivity correlates with the volume fraction of the soft phase as the theoretical hard-soft phase model has suggested. Furthermore, switching the hard phase CoFe(2)O(4) from the core to the shell shows great changes in the coercivity of the nanocrystals. The bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals evidently demonstrate the rational design capability to separately control the blocking temperature and the coercivity in magnetic nanocrystals by varying the materials, their combination, and the volume ratio between the core and the shell and by switching hard or soft phase materials between the core and shell. Such controls via a bimagnetic core-shell architecture are highly desirable for magnetic nanocrystals in various applications. PMID:22621435

  8. Antibacterial action of doped CoFe2O4 nanocrystals on multidrug resistant bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Velho-Pereira, S; Noronha, A; Mathias, A; Zakane, R; Naik, V; Naik, P; Salker, A V; Naik, S R

    2015-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of pristine and doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has been evaluated against multiple drug resistant clinical strains by assessing the number of colony-forming units (CFU). Monophasic polycrystalline ferrites have been prepared by the malate-glycolate sol-gel autocombustion method as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction study. Various changes occurring during the preparative stages have been demonstrated using TG-DTA analysis which is well complemented by the FTIR spectroscopy. The antibacterial studies carried out demonstrate a bactericidal effect of the nanoparticles wherein the number of CFU has been found to decrease with doping. Cellular distortions have been revealed through SEM. Variation in the number of CFU with dopant type has also been reported herein. PMID:25953569

  9. Octadecylamine-Mediated Versatile Coating of CoFe2O4 NPs for the Sustained Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drug Naproxen and in Vivo Target Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Violetta; Makris, George; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia; Vourlias, Georgios; Dendrinou-Samara, Catherine

    2016-04-13

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can play a distinct role in magnetic drug delivery via their distribution to the targeted area. The preparation of such MNPs is a challenging multiplex task that requires the optimization of size, magnetic, and surface properties for the achievement of desirable target selectivity, along with the sustained drug release as a prerequisite. In that context, CoFe2O4 MNPs with a small size of ∼7 nm and moderate saturation magnetization of ∼60 emu g(-1) were solvothermally synthesized in the presence of octadecylamine (ODA) with a view to investigate the functionalization route effect on the drug release. Synthetic regulations allowed us to prepare MNPs with aminated (AmMNPs) and amine-free (FAmMNPs) surface. The addition of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a carboxylate donor, Naproxen (NAP), was achieved by direct coupling with the NH2 groups, rendered by ODA, through the formation of an amide bond in the case of AmMNPs. In the case of FAmMNPs, indirect coupling of NAP was performed through an intermediate linker (polyethylenimine) and on PEG-ylated MNPs. FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and UV-vis data confirmed the addition of NAP, whereas diverse drug-release behavior was observed for the different functionalization approaches. The biological behavior of the MNPs@NAP was evaluated in vitro in rat serum and in vivo in mice, after radiolabeling with a γ-emitting radionuclide, (99m)Tc. The in vivo fate of MNPs@NAP carriers was in straightforward relation with the direct or indirect coupling of NAP. Furthermore, an inflammation was induced intramuscularly, where the directly coupled (99m)Tc-MNPs@NAP carriers showed increased accumulation at the inflammation site. PMID:26984632

  10. Exchange spring behaviour in SrFe12O19-CoFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debangsu; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2015-07-01

    Nanocomposites of hard (SrFe12O19) and soft ferrite (CoFe2O4) are prepared by mixing individual ferrite components at appropriate weight ratio and subsequent heat treatment. The magnetization of the composites showed hysteresis loop that is characteristic of the exchange spring system. The variation of Jr/Jr(∞) vs. Jd/ Jr(∞) for these nanocomposites are investigated to understand the presence of both the interacting field and the disorder in the system. This is further corroborated with the First Order Reversal Curve analysis (FORC) on the nanocomposites of 1:4 (Cobalt Ferrite: Strontium Ferrite) and 1:16 (Cobalt Ferrite: Strontium Ferrite). The FORC distribution reveals that the pinning mechanism is stronger in the nanocomposite of 1:4 compared to 1:16. However, the nanocomposite of 1:16 exhibit superior exchange coupling strength in contrast to 1:4. The asymmetric nature of the FORC distribution at Hc = 0 Oe for both the nanocomposites validates the intercoupling between the reversible and irreversible magnetization.

  11. Modification of structure and magnetic anisotropy of epitaxial CoFe2O4 films by hydrogen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aiping; Poudyal, Narayan; Xiong, Jie; Liu, J. Ping; Jia, Quanxi

    2015-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin films with different thicknesses were deposited on MgO (001) substrates. The as-deposited CFO films show a clear switching of magnetic anisotropy with increasing film thickness. The thinner films (<100 nm) show a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to the out-of-plane compressive strain. The thicker films exhibit an in-plane easy axis owing to the dominating shape anisotropy effect. The magnetostriction coefficient of CFO films is estimated to be λ[001] = -188 × 10-6. Metallic CoFe2 films were obtained by annealing the as-deposited CFO films in forming gas (Ar 93% + H2 7%) at 450 °C. XRD shows that CoFe2 films are textured out-of-plane and aligned in-plane, owing to lattice matching between CoFe2 and MgO substrate. TEM results indicate that as-deposited films are continuous while the annealed films exhibit a nanopore mushroom structure. The magnetic anisotropy of CoFe2 films is dominated by the shape effect. The results demonstrate that hydrogen reduction can be effectively used to modify microstructures and physical properties of complex metal oxide materials.

  12. Magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 composite nanofibers via electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bi; Lu, Ruie; Gao, Kun; Yang, Yaodong; Wang, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in Pb-based multiferroic composites has been widely investigated due to the excellent piezoelectric property of lead zirconate titanate (PZT). In this letter, we report a strategy to create a hybrid Pb-free ferroelectric and ferromagnetic material and detect its ME coupling at the nanoscale. Hybrid Pb-free multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 (BTO-CFO) composite nanofibers (NFs) were generated by sol-gel electrospinning. The perovskite structure of BTO and the spinel structure of CFO nanograins were homogenously distributed in the composite NFs and verified by bright-field transmission electron microscopy observations along the perovskite [111] zone axis. Multiferroicity was confirmed by amplitude-voltage butterfly curves and magnetic hysteresis loops. ME coupling was observed in terms of a singularity on a dM/dT curve at the ferroelectric Curie temperature (TC) of BaTiO3. The lateral ME coefficient was investigated by the evolution of the piezoresponse under an external magnetic field of 1000 Oe and was estimated to be α31 =0.78× 104 \\text{mV cm}-1 \\text{Oe}-1 . These findings could enable the creation of nanoscale Pb-free multiferroic composite devices.

  13. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Properties of CoFe2O4 on MgO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Scott A.; Farrow, Robin F.; Maat, S.; Toney, M.; Folks, L.; Catalano, J.G.; Trainor, T.P.; Brown, G.E. Jr.

    2002-04-01

    We have grown single-crystal Co ferrite (CoFe2O4) on MgO(001) by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE), and have characterized the composition, structure, surface morphology, and magnetic properties by a number of methods The as-grown OPA-MBE material forms a perfect inverse spinel, in which all Co is in the? formal oxidation state, and occupies octahedral sites within the cation sublattice. The OPA-MBE film surfaces are very flat, with mean roughnesses of only a few A, and exhibit large, stable magnetic domains. The measured moment per unit volume is 250 emu/cm3, and the saturation magnetization for films in the 1000A film thickness range is {approx}60% of that of bulk Co ferrite. The material also exhibits strain-dependent magnetic anisotropy that can be understood by considering the various contributions to the total magnetic energy. The overall quality of epitaxial Co ferrite grown on MgO by OPA-MBE is superior in every respect to that obtained using pulsed laser deposition as the growth method.

  14. Strain-controlled easy axis orientation of epitaxial CoFe2O4 films by He implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herklotz, Andreas; Wong, Antony T.; Rus, Stefania F.; Ward, Thomas Z.

    2015-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial strain engineering is an essential tool in the strongly correlated systems for investigating fundamental coupling effects and for more practical control of thin film properties. Here, we use strain doping by He implantation as an alternative technique to control thin film functionalities. We demonstrate the tuning of the magnetic anisotropy of CoFe2O4 (CFO) films through He implantation. Compressively strained thin films of CFO are grown coherently on MgO substrates and show pronounced out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy. Successive doping of the CFO films with He using a commercial ion gun results in an expansion of the out-of-plane lattice parameter while maintaining in-plane epitaxial lock to the substrate. We observe a continuous rotation of the magnetic easy axis towards the film plane with increasing unit cell tetragonality. The results are in agreement with the strain-induced change of the magnetic anisotropy due to the large negative magnetostriction of CFO and demonstrate that strain doping via He implantation is an elegant path to tune desired characteristics of transition metal oxide thin films. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  15. Epitaxial Bi5Ti3FeO15-CoFe2O4 pillar-matrix multiferroic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akira; Cheng, Xuan; Xin, Huolin L; Eliseev, Eugene A; Morozovska, Anna N; Kalinin, Sergei V; Takahashi, Ryota; Lippmaa, Mikk; Matsumoto, Yuji; Nagarajan, Valanoor

    2013-12-23

    Epitaxial self-assembled ferro(i)magnetic spinel (CoFe2O4 (CFO)) and ferroelectric bismuth layered perovskite (Bi5Ti3FeO15 (BTFO)) pillar-matrix nanostructures are demonstrated on (001) single-crystalline strontium titanate substrates. The CFO remains embedded in the BTFO matrix as vertical pillars (∼50 nm in diameter) up to a volume fraction of 50%. Piezoresponse force microscopy experiments evidence a weak out-of-plane and a strong in-plane ferroelectricity in the BTFO phase, despite previously reported paraelectricity along the c-axis in a pure BTFO film. Phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire-based thermodynamic computations show that the radial stress induced by the CFO nanopillars can influence these ferroelectric phases, thus signifying the importance of the nanopillars. The CFO pillars demonstrate robust ferromagnetic hysteresis loops with little degradation in the saturation magnetization (ca. 4 μB/f.u.). Thus BTFO-CFO nanocomposites show significant promise as a lead-free magnetoelectric materials system. PMID:24215598

  16. Fully spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas at the CoFe2O4/MgAl2O4(001) polar interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arras, R.; Calmels, L.

    2014-07-01

    We performed first-principles calculations to show that a fully spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas can be created at the interface between the polar and insulating spinel oxides CoFe2O4 and MgAl2O4. We give a clear description of the physical parameters (in particular the atomic termination of the interfaces), which favor the formation of this electron gas that is due either to an electric field induced in stoichiometric oxide layers because of their polar character or to a charge reorganization that preserves the global electric neutrality in nonstoichiometric layers. We show that the electric field-induced spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas can only exist if the thickness of the CoFe2O4 layer is large enough and that it may be destroyed by intermixing at the interfaces.

  17. Reusable nanocomposite of CoFe2O4/chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid) for removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Cuong; Huynh, Thi Kim Ngoc

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, CoFe2O4/chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid) (CoFe2O4/CS-graft-PAA) nanocomposites were prepared successfully by coprecipitation of the compounds in alkaline solution and were used for removal of nickel (II) ions from aqueous solution. The sorption rate was affected significantly by the initial concentration of the solution, sorbent amount, and pH value of the solution. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption capacity under different initial concentration (ranging from 25 to 150 mg L-1), solution pH (4.1, 5.3, 6.4 and 7.6), and contact time. These nanocomposites can be recycled conveniently from water with the assistance of an external magnet because of their exceptional properties. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  18. Development of novel exchange spring magnet by employing nanocomposites of CoFe2O4 and CoFe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi, Rohollah; Ghasemi, Ali; Shoja-Razavi, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2016-12-01

    CoFe2O4sbnd CoFe2 hard-soft nanocomposites were prepared via reduction of the cobalt ferrite CoFe2O4 in hydrogen atmosphere at different temperature. The structure and the room temperature magnetization of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was found that the saturation magnetization of the nanocomposite powders increases by reduction temperature while their coercivity decreases. The highest Mr/Ms ratio of 0.52 was obtained for sample reduced at 550 °C. Single smooth hysteresis loops of nanocomposites show that these nanocomposites behave as the single-phase materials. This result indicates the presence of exchange coupling between two different hard and soft phases.

  19. Role of epitaxial strain on the magnetic structure of Fe-doped CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, J. A.; Kumah, D. P.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Arena, D. A.; Henrich, V. E.

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic structure of Fe-doped CoFe2O4 (Co1-xFe2+xO4) grown on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates is studied with superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopies. X-ray and electron diffraction show that the choice of substrate has large effects on the strain, crystal structure and surface morphology of Co1-xFe2+xO4 thin films. Samples grown on MgO have small, coherent strains and surfaces that are nearly atomically flat, whereas films grown on SrTiO3 have large tensile strains and surfaces terminated with islands, which indicate the presence of a large density of misfit dislocations. These differences in structural properties correlate with the large differences seen in the magnetic structure; samples grown on SrTiO3 have larger magnetic moments and increased anisotropies compared to those grown on MgO. Most strikingly, the large magnetic spin and orbital moments found in the films grown on SrTiO3 suggest a suppression of anti-phase boundary formation, which we attribute to the large compressive lattice mismatch and the formation of misfit dislocations during the film growth in order to relieve the epitaxial strain. This results in the films grown on SrTiO3 having magnetic properties that are more similar to bulk Co1-xFe2+xO4 than those grown on MgO, demonstrating that epitaxial strain can result in large changes in the magnetic structure of Co1-xFe2+xO4.

  20. Fabrication of CoFe2O4-graphene nanocomposite and its application in the magnetic solid phase extraction of sulfonamides from milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Yazhen; Wu, Xuewen; Li, Zhaoqian; Zhong, Shuxian; Wang, Weiping; Wang, Aijun; Chen, Jianrong

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, a graphene-based magnetic nanocomposite (CoFe2O4-graphene, CoFe2O4-G) was synthesized and used successfully as an adsorbent for the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of sulfonamides for the first time. The surface morphologies and structures of the CoFe2O4-G nanocomposite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). Five sulfonamides, including sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfadoxine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfisoxazole were used as model analytes to evaluate the enrichment properties of the prepared adsorbent in MSPE. After preconcentration, the adsorbent could be conveniently separated from the aqueous samples by an external magnet, and the analytes desorbed from adsorbent were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Extraction parameters including sample pH, amount of sorbent, extraction time and desorption conditions were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, good linear relationships between the peak areas and the concentrations of the analytes were obtained. The linear ranges were 0.02-50.00 mg L(-1) with correlation coefficients (r)≧0.9982. The limits of detection were less than 1.59 μg L(-1). Good reproducibility was obtained. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day analysis were less than 4.3% and 6.5%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of sulfonamides in milk samples. The average recoveries determined for two milk samples spiked at levels from 5 to 20 μg L(-1) were 62.0-104.3% with relative standard deviations less than 14.0%. In addition, the CoFe2O4-G could be reused after cleaning with acetone and ultrapure water successively. PMID:26452959

  1. CoFe 2O 4 spinel protection coating thermally converted from the electroplated Co-Fe alloy for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Z. H.; Zhu, J. H.; Batey, J. L.

    CoFe 2O 4 has been demonstrated as a potential spinel coating for protecting the Cr-containing ferritic interconnects. This spinel had an electrical conductivity of 0.85 S cm -1 at 800 °C in air and an average coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of 11.80 × 10 -6 K -1 from room temperature to 800 °C. A series of Co-Fe alloys were co-deposited onto the Crofer 22 APU ferritic steel via electroplating with an acidic chloride solution. After thermal oxidation in air at 800 °C, a CoFe 2O 4 spinel layer was attained from the plated Co 0.40Fe 0.60 film. Furthermore, a channeled Crofer 22 APU interconnect electrodeposited with a 40-μm Co 0.40Fe 0.60 alloy film as a protective coating was evaluated in a single-cell configuration. The presence of the dense, Cr-free CoFe 2O 4 spinel layer was effective in blocking the Cr migration/transport and thus contributed to the improvement in cell performance stability.

  2. Magnetoelectric coupling effect in lead-free Bi4Ti3O12/CoFe2O4 composite films derived from chemistry solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhehong; Chen, Jieyu; Bai, Yulong; Zhao, Shifeng

    2016-08-01

    Lead-free magnetoelectric composite films combining Bi4Ti3O12 and CoFe2O4 were synthesized by chemical solution deposition on Pt (100)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. Morphological and electrical domain structure, ferroelectric, leakage, dielectric, piezoelectric, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties were investigated for Bi4Ti3O12/CoFe2O4 composite films. Well-defined interfaces between Bi4Ti3O12 and CoFe2O4 film layers and electrical domain structure were observed. The composite films show the coexistence of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orders at room temperature. Larger piezoelectric coefficient and magnetization are obtained for the composite films, which is contributed to the magnetoelectric effect since it originates from the interface coupling through mechanical strain transfer. This work presents a feasible way to modulate the magnetoelectric coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric composite films for developing lead-free micro-electro-mechanical system and information storage devices.

  3. Monolithic integration of room-temperature multifunctional BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial heterostructures on Si(001).

    PubMed

    Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Fina, Ignasi; Domingo, Neus; Herranz, Gervasi; Skumryev, Vassil; Fontcuberta, Josep; Sánchez, Florencio

    2016-01-01

    The multifunctional (ferromagnetic and ferroelectric) response at room temperature that is elusive in single phase multiferroic materials can be achieved in a proper combination of ferroelectric perovskites and ferrimagnetic spinel oxides in horizontal heterostructures. In this work, lead-free CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayers are integrated with Si(001) using LaNiO3/CeO2/YSZ as a tri-layer buffer. They present structural and functional properties close to those achieved on perovskite substrates: the bilayers are fully epitaxial with extremely flat surface, and exhibit robust ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity at room temperature. PMID:27550543

  4. General design of hollow porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes from metal-organic frameworks with extraordinary lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Li, Tingting; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Lixiang; Yang, Xiangjun; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yicheng

    2014-11-01

    Hollow porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes from metal-organic frameworks were fabricated through a general facile strategy. The intrinsic hollow nanostructure can shorten the lengths for both electronic and ionic transport, enlarge the surface area of electrodes, and improve accommodation of the volume change during Li insertion/extraction cycling. The hybrid multi-elements characteristics allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner during the electrochemical cycle. Therefore, the as-prepared CoFe2O4 electrode exhibits outstanding performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The stable capacity arrives at 815 mA h g-1 for 20 C. Subsequently, a specific capacity of ca. 1043 mA h g-1 is recovered when the current rate reduces back to 1 C after 200 cycles. This general strategy may shed light on a new avenue for large-scale synthesis of hollow porous hybrid nanocubes via MOFs for energy storage, environmental remediation and other novel applications.Hollow porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes from metal-organic frameworks were fabricated through a general facile strategy. The intrinsic hollow nanostructure can shorten the lengths for both electronic and ionic transport, enlarge the surface area of electrodes, and improve accommodation of the volume change during Li insertion/extraction cycling. The hybrid multi-elements characteristics allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner during the electrochemical cycle. Therefore, the as-prepared CoFe2O4 electrode exhibits outstanding performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The stable capacity arrives at 815 mA h g-1 for 20 C. Subsequently, a specific capacity of ca. 1043 mA h g-1 is recovered when the current rate reduces back to 1 C after 200 cycles. This general strategy may shed light on a new avenue for large-scale synthesis of hollow porous hybrid nanocubes via MOFs for energy storage, environmental remediation and other novel applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04422c

  5. Monolithic integration of room-temperature multifunctional BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial heterostructures on Si(001)

    PubMed Central

    Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Fina, Ignasi; Domingo, Neus; Herranz, Gervasi; Skumryev, Vassil; Fontcuberta, Josep; Sánchez, Florencio

    2016-01-01

    The multifunctional (ferromagnetic and ferroelectric) response at room temperature that is elusive in single phase multiferroic materials can be achieved in a proper combination of ferroelectric perovskites and ferrimagnetic spinel oxides in horizontal heterostructures. In this work, lead-free CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayers are integrated with Si(001) using LaNiO3/CeO2/YSZ as a tri-layer buffer. They present structural and functional properties close to those achieved on perovskite substrates: the bilayers are fully epitaxial with extremely flat surface, and exhibit robust ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity at room temperature. PMID:27550543

  6. Microstructure, Growth Mechanism, Magnetoelectricity, and Raman Scattering of Featherlike CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yu; Zhou, Jianxin; Wu, Di; Yu, Huiqiang; Du, Youwei

    2012-11-01

    Featherlike (CoFe2O4)0.3-(BaTiO3)0.7 (CFO-BTO) nanostructures were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction and polymer-assisted deposition. With CFO nanopillars embedded in the BTO matrix, the nanostructures show an average diameter of 250 nm and lengths of up to 5 µm. The microstructure and growth mechanism of the nanostructures were investigated. A large magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of 51.8 mV cm-1 Oe-1 at room temperature and a strong phonon abnormality between 110 and 140 °C are discussed.

  7. Multiferroic CoFe2O4-Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 core-shell nanofibers and their magnetoelectric coupling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuhong; Ma, Feiyue; Liu, Yuanming; Li, Jiangyu

    2011-08-01

    Multiferroic CoFe(2)O(4)-Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O(3) core-shell nanofibers have been synthesized by coaxial electrospinning in combination with a sol-gel process. The core-shell configuration of nanofibers has been verified by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the spinel structure of CoFe(2)O(4) and perovskite structure of Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O(3) have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction. The multiferroic properties of core-shell nanofibers have been demonstrated by magnetic hysteresis and piezoresponse force microscopy, and their magnetoelectric coupling has been confirmed by evolution of piezoresponse under an external magnetic field, showing magnetically induced ferroelectric domain switching and changes in switching characteristics. The lateral magnetoelectric coefficient is estimated to be 2.95 × 10(4) mV/cmOe, two orders of magnitude higher than multiferroic thin films of similar composition. PMID:21643573

  8. Structural and dielectric properties of laser ablated BaTiO3 films deposited over electrophoretically dispersed CoFe2O4 grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, J. G.; Gomes, I. T.; Pereira, M. R.; Moura, C.; Mendes, J. A.; Almeida, B. G.

    2014-10-01

    Thin film nanocomposites with mixed connectivity, composed by CoFe2O4 grains, deposited by electrophoresis on Si|Pt substrates, and subsequently covered by a laser ablation deposited BaTiO3 layer were prepared with different cobalt ferrite concentrations. Their structure presented a combination of BaTiO3, with its tetragonal and the orthorhombic phases coexisting at room temperature, and CoFe2O4 with the cubic spinel structure. The cobalt ferrite nanograins were under in-plane tensile stress, while the BaTiO3 phase was under in-plane compressive stress. The dielectric measurements showed that as the barium titanate grain size decreased, its ferroelectric Curie temperature shifted to lower temperatures relative to the bulk. This grain size dependent TC shift was associated and modeled by a core-shell structure of BaTiO3 grains in the films, with a tetragonal core and cubic shell. Additionally, a diffuse tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition was observed and, in agreement with Raman spectroscopy results, associated to the coexistence of barium titanate orthorhombic and tetragonal phases in the room temperature region. This led to the formation of polar nanoclusters with random polarization orientations, which induced a frustrated phase transition between the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases of barium titanate in the films.

  9. Electric in-plane polarization in multiferroic CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 nanocomposite tuned by magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz-Antoniak, Carolin; Schmitz, Detlef; Borisov, Pavel; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Stienen, Sven; Warland, Anne; Krumme, Bernhard; Feyerherm, Ralf; Dudzik, Esther; Kleemann, Wolfgang; Wende, Heiko

    2013-06-01

    Ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 nanopillars embedded in a ferroelectric BaTiO3 matrix are an example for a two-phase magnetoelectrically coupled system. They operate at room temperature and are free of any resource-critical rare-earth element, which makes them interesting for potential applications. Prior studies succeeded in showing strain-mediated coupling between the two subsystems. In particular, the electric properties can be tuned by magnetic fields and the magnetic properties by electric fields. Here we take the analysis of the coupling to a new level utilizing soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and its associated linear dichroism. We demonstrate that an in-plane magnetic field breaks the tetragonal symmetry of the (1,3)-type CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 structures and discuss it in terms of off-diagonal magnetostrictive-piezoelectric coupling. This coupling creates staggered in-plane components of the electric polarization, which are stable even at magnetic remanence due to hysteretic behaviour of structural changes in the BaTiO3 matrix. The competing mechanisms of clamping and relaxation effects are discussed in detail.

  10. On stoichiometry and intermixing at the spinel/perovskite interface in CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Duchamp, Martial; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Alford, Neil McN

    2015-01-01

    The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface stoichiometry, and cation intermixing are determined on the atomic level. The results reveal a surprisingly uneven BaTiO3 substrate surface formed after the film deposition and Fe atom incorporation in the top few monolayers inside the unit cell of the BaTiO3 crystal. Towards the CoFe2O4 side, a disordered region extending several nanometers from the interface was revealed and both Ba and Ti from the substrate were found to diffuse into the spinel layer. The analysis also shows that within this somehow incompatible composite interface, a different phase is formed corresponding to the compound Ba2Fe3Ti5O15, which belongs to the ilmenite crystal structure of FeTiO3 type. The results suggest a chemical activity between these two oxides, which could lead to the synthesis of complex engineered interfaces. PMID:25406863

  11. Multiferroic properties of Pb0.90Sr0.10TiO3-CoFe2O4 nanostructured bilayered thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Kanchan; Kotnala, R. K.; Negi, N. S.

    2015-05-01

    Pb0.90Sr0.10TiO3-CoFe2O4(PST10-CFO) nanostructured bilayered thin film were grown on Si (100) substrate by using metallo-organic decomposition chemical route and spin coating technique. Results show that PST (pervoskite structure) and CFO (spinel) phase coexist in the bilayered thin films, annealed at 650°C for 2hr and no obvious impurity phase can be detected. The structural, surface morphology and micro structural properties were confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) respectively. Excellent ferroelectric behavior at different voltage was observed, with two platinum electrodes only at surface of the bilayer thin film. A room temperature ferromagnetic behavior was observed in the bilayered Pb0.90Sr0.10TiO3-CoFe2O4 nanostructured thin film. The saturation magnetization and variation in coercivity value of the bilayer thin film is lower than that of the pure CFO film in the presence of non ferromagnetic PST layer which is the attributed that the significant coupling between the two phases.

  12. On stoichiometry and intermixing at the spinel/perovskite interface in CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Duchamp, Martial; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Alford, Neil Mcn.

    2014-11-01

    The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface stoichiometry, and cation intermixing are determined on the atomic level. The results reveal a surprisingly uneven BaTiO3 substrate surface formed after the film deposition and Fe atom incorporation in the top few monolayers inside the unit cell of the BaTiO3 crystal. Towards the CoFe2O4 side, a disordered region extending several nanometers from the interface was revealed and both Ba and Ti from the substrate were found to diffuse into the spinel layer. The analysis also shows that within this somehow incompatible composite interface, a different phase is formed corresponding to the compound Ba2Fe3Ti5O15, which belongs to the ilmenite crystal structure of FeTiO3 type. The results suggest a chemical activity between these two oxides, which could lead to the synthesis of complex engineered interfaces.The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface stoichiometry, and cation intermixing are determined on the atomic level. The results reveal a surprisingly uneven BaTiO3 substrate surface formed after the film deposition and Fe atom incorporation in the top few monolayers inside the unit cell of the BaTiO3 crystal. Towards the CoFe2O4 side, a disordered region extending several nanometers from the interface was revealed and both Ba and Ti from the substrate were found to diffuse into the spinel layer. The analysis also shows that within this somehow incompatible composite interface, a different phase is formed corresponding to the compound Ba2Fe3Ti5O15, which belongs to the ilmenite crystal structure of FeTiO3 type. The results suggest a chemical activity between these two oxides, which could lead to the synthesis of complex engineered interfaces. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnetic moment data of the structure, linear decomposition graph of the interface layer in its constituent components of CoFe2O4 and BaTiO3, reference Fe L3,2 EEL data used for MLLS analysis of the Fe oxidation and coordination variation, and a table detailing the partial ionization cross-sections used for quantitative MLLS analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04339a

  13. 100-nm-sized magnetic domain reversal by the magneto-electric effect in self-assembled BiFeO3/CoFe2O4 bilayer films.

    PubMed

    Sone, Keita; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Masaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Nakajima, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro

    2015-01-01

    A (001)-epitaxial-BiFeO3/CoFe2O4 bilayer was grown by self-assembly on SrTiO3 (100) substrates by just coating a mixture precursor solution. The thickness ratio of the bilayer could be controlled by adjusting the composition ratio. For example, a BiFeOx:CoFe2Ox = 4:1 (namely Bi4CoFe6Ox) mixture solution could make a total thickness of 110 nm divided into 85-nm-thick BiFeO3 and 25-nm-thick CoFe2O4. Self-assembly of the bilayer occurred because the perovskite BiFeO3 better matched the lattice constant (misfit approximately 1%) and crystal symmetry of the perovskite SrTiO3 than the spinel CoFe2O4 (misfit approximately 7%). The magnetic domains of the hard magnet CoFe2O4 were switched by the polarization change of BiFeO3 due to an applied vertical voltage, and the switched magnetic domain size was approximately 100 nm in diameter. These results suggest that self-assembled BiFeO3/CoFe2O4 bilayers are interesting in voltage driven nonvolatile memory with a low manufacturing cost. PMID:25906339

  14. Hyperfine interaction and tuning of magnetic anisotropy of Cu doped CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batoo, Khalid Mujasam; Salah, Dina; Kumar, Gagan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mahavir; Abd El-sadek, M.; Mir, Feroz Ahmad; Imran, Ahamad; Jameel, Daler Adil

    2016-08-01

    Ferrimagnetic oxides may contain single or multi domain particles which get converted into superparamagnetic state near a critical size. To explore the existence of these particles, we have made Mössbauer and magnetic studies of Cu2+ substitution effect in CoFe2-xO4 Ferrites (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5). All the samples have a cubic spinel structure with lattice parameters increasing linearly with increase in Cu content. The hysteresis loops yield a saturation magnetization, coercive field, and remanent magnetization that vary significantly with Cu content. The magnetic hysteresis curves shows a reduction in saturation magnetization and an increase in coercitivity with Cu2+ ion substitution. The anisotropy constant, K1, is found strongly dependent on the composition of Cu2+ ions. The variation of saturation magnetization with increasing Cu2+ ion content has been explained in the light of Neel's molecular field theory. Mössbauer spectra at room temperature shows two ferrimagnetically relaxed Zeeman sextets. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters such as isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, line width and hyperfine magnetic field on Cu2+ ion concentration have been discussed.

  15. Solvothermal synthesis of CoFe2O4 submicron compact spheres and tunable coercivity induced via low-temperature thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Fu, Qiuyun; Zhou, Dongxiang; Xue, Fei; Tian, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    Compact CoFe2O4 submicron spheres were successfully prepared by a typical solvothermal synthesis method using potassium acetate as protective agent. The as-prepared spheres exhibited the onset of superparamagnetism. The saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr), coercivity (Hc) and remanence ratio R (Mr/Ms) were 46.79 emu/g, 0.84 emu/g, 18.4 Oe and 0.018, respectively. Followed by thermal treatment at 250-600 °C, the annealed spheres exhibited a sharp increment in coercivity without significant growth in crystal size. The coercivity of the sample annealed at 250 °C was 597.5 Oe and the sample annealed at 600 °C was increased to 1371.7 Oe. The probable mechanism of the increment in coercivity was suggested to be induced by the enhanced exchange interactions as the organics degraded in thermal treatment.

  16. Ti diffusion in (001) SrTiO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial heterostructures: blocking role of a MgAl2O4 buffer.

    PubMed

    Rebled, J M; Foerster, M; Estradé, S; Rigato, F; Kanamadi, C; Sánchez, F; Peiró, F; Fontcuberta, J

    2013-11-01

    Titanium diffusion from (001) SrTiO3 (STO) substrates into CoFe2O4 (CFO) films grown using pulsed laser deposition is reported. To elucidate the reasons for Ti interdiffusion, a comparative study of CFO films grown on MgAl2O4 (MAO) and STO substrates, buffered by thin STO and MAO layers, has been made. It is shown that whereas bottom STO layers always result in Ti migration, a thin MAO layer, only 8 nm thick, is effective in blocking it. We argue that this success relies on the lower mobility of Ti ions in the MAO lattice compared to that of CFO. This result should contribute to the development of high quality epitaxial heterostructures of dissimilar complex oxides. PMID:24068072

  17. Hierarchical templating of a BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 multiferroic nanocomposite by a triblock terpolymer film.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Kyoon; Aimon, Nicolas M; Kim, Dong Hun; Sun, Xue Yin; Gwyther, Jessica; Manners, Ian; Ross, Caroline A

    2014-09-23

    A process route to fabricate templated BiFeO3/CoFe2O4 (BFO/CFO) vertical nanocomposites is presented in which the self-assembly of the BFO/CFO is guided using a self-assembled triblock terpolymer. A linear triblock terpolymer was selected instead of a diblock copolymer in order to produce a square-symmetry template, which had a period of 44 nm. The triblock terpolymer pattern was transferred to a (001) Nb:SrTiO3 substrate to produce pits that formed preferential sites for the nucleation of CFO crystals, in contrast to the BFO, which wetted the flat regions of the substrate. The crystallographic orientation and magnetic properties of the templated BFO/CFO were characterized. PMID:25184546

  18. Temperature dependent phonon Raman scattering of highly a-axis oriented CoFe2O4 inverse spinel ferromagnetic films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Y. Y.; Li, Y. W.; Hu, Z. G.; Chu, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Lattice vibrations of highly a-axis oriented CoFe2O4 (CFO) films have been investigated by Raman scattering in the temperature range of 80-873 K. The five phonon modes T1g(2), T1g(3), Eg, A1g(1), A1g(2), and their evolutions can be uniquely distinguished. It was found that an electron transfer between Co2+ and Fe3+ cations occurs in octahedral sites at about 173 K. The structure disorder in the CFO films appears with increasing the temperature, which indicates the cation migration between tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The phenomena suggest the structural transformation trend from inverse spinel to normal spinel at the elevated temperatures.

  19. Optical Properties and Electronic Structures of NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. C.; Wilser, S.; Guminiak, M.; Nakarmi, M. L.

    2010-03-01

    We present the growth and investigation of inverse spinel ferrite NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 thin films. An electron beam deposition system was used to prepare ferrite thin films in the oxygen environment on sapphire and STO single crystal substrates. We measured a variable temperature (80 - 500 K) transmittance of these films to investigate their optical and electronic structures. The optical spectra of thin film samples show insulating characters with several electronic transitions, such as on-site metal d to d and charge transfer oxygen 2p to metal 3d transitions. Electronic transitions have been assigned based on the first principles calculations and comparison with chemically similar Ni and Co-containing compounds.

  20. Core shell particles consisting of cobalt ferrite and silica as model ferrofluids [CoFe 2O 4-SiO 2 core shell particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Joachim; Autenrieth, Tina; Hempelmann, Rolf

    2002-11-01

    Nearly monodisperse core shell particles consisting of a magnetic core of cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2O 4) and a shell of silica (SiO 2) are prepared via a modified Stöber synthesis. The core shell structure is confirmed by TEM, the size distribution of the whole particles was determined by means of photon correlation spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. Due to charged surface groups of the silica shells and the magnetic moments of the cores, these particles interact both via a screened Coulomb potential and via a magnetic dipole potential. If stray ions are removed in the presence of a mixed bed ion exchanger, the electrostatic repulsion induces colloidal crystallisation. The lattice constant is influenced by the interaction with a magnetic field gradient, indicated by a blue shift of the Laue spots towards increasing field gradient.

  1. Multiferroics properties in BiFeO3/CoFe2O4 heterostructures thin films deposited on (111) SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gulab; Singh, Manoj K.; Kumar, Aditya; Dussan, S.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2016-05-01

    The multiferroic properties of BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 (BFO-CFO) heterostructures thin film grown on (111) SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by employing pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, have been studied.X ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of BFO and CFO in two separate phases. The heterostructures BFO/CFO/STO(111) thin films show well - shaped hysteresis loop with saturated magnetization and coercive field, which are much larger than pure BFO/STO thin film. The frequency dependent dielectric anomalies in BFO-CFO multilayer are attributed to the interfacial effect across the presence of CFO as a separate phase embedded in BFO matrix.

  2. Magnetic and thermoelectric properties of Fe3-xCoxO4 thin films and CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen van, Quang; Christian, Meny; Duong, Anh Tuan; Shin, Yooleemi; S. H, Rhim; Nguyen Thi, Minh Hai; Cho, Sunglae

    2015-03-01

    Microcrystalline ferrites are used as a medium for the magnetic recording and storage of information. Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a ferrimagnet with a cubic inverse spinel structure and exhibits a metal-insulator, Verwey, transition at about 120 K. It is predicted to possess as half-metallic nature, ~ 100% spin polarization, and high TC (850 K). Cobalt ferrite, Co3O4, is one of the most important members of the ferrite family, which is characterized by its high HC, moderate magnetization and very high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Here we report on the magnetic and thermoelectric properties of Fe3-xCoxO4 (x = 0 to 1) thin films and CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 superlattices grown on MgO (100) by MBE. XRD and RHEED patterns confirmed the inverse spinel structure of the Fe3O4 films. Magnetic properties of the Fe3-xCoxO4 films are markedly sensitive to the Co content. The Verwey transition was disappeared in Co-doped films. A negative MR curve with butterfly shape was observed with low Co content but disappeared for the samples with x = 0.8 and 1. Seebeck coefficients increased with Co concentration; -70 μV/K for x =0 and -220 μV/K for x =1. We will also discuss on the relationship between magnetic and thermoelectric characteristics in CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 superlattices with the modulations of 5, 10, and 20 nm.

  3. Tuning the magnetic properties of self-assembled BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 heteroepitaxy by magneto-structural coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrillah, Tahta; Vandrangi, Suresh K.; Bitla, Yugandhar; Do, Thi Hien; Liao, Sheng-Chieh; Tsai, Chih-Ya; Chin, Yi-Ying; Liu, Yen-Ting; Lin, Man-Ling; He, Qing; Lin, Hong-Ji; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Chih-Huang; Arenholz, Elke; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic and multiferroic nanocomposites with two distinct phases have been a topic of intense research for their profound potential applications in the field of spintronics. In addition to growing high-quality phase separated heteroepitaxial nanocomposites, the strain engineering that is conducive to enhance the tunability of material properties, in general, and the magnetic properties, in particular, is of utmost importance in exploring new possibilities. Here, we investigated the magneto-structural coupling between antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 (BFO) and ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) in self-assembled vertically aligned nanocomposites grown on LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. We found that BFO exhibits tetragonal (T) and rhombohedral (R) structures as the stable phases and CFO has high magnetocrystalline anisotropy even in the form of nanocomposites. The temperature and magnetic field dependent magnetizations of T_BFO-CFO/LAO and R_BFO-CFO/STO nanocomposites primarily demonstrate the magnetoelastic coupling between these variants.Magnetic and multiferroic nanocomposites with two distinct phases have been a topic of intense research for their profound potential applications in the field of spintronics. In addition to growing high-quality phase separated heteroepitaxial nanocomposites, the strain engineering that is conducive to enhance the tunability of material properties, in general, and the magnetic properties, in particular, is of utmost importance in exploring new possibilities. Here, we investigated the magneto-structural coupling between antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 (BFO) and ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) in self-assembled vertically aligned nanocomposites grown on LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. We found that BFO exhibits tetragonal (T) and rhombohedral (R) structures as the stable phases and CFO has high magnetocrystalline anisotropy even in the form of nanocomposites. The temperature and magnetic field dependent magnetizations of T_BFO-CFO/LAO and R_BFO-CFO/STO nanocomposites primarily demonstrate the magnetoelastic coupling between these variants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09269h

  4. Luminol-silver nitrate chemiluminescence enhancement induced by cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenbing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yuming

    2011-01-01

    CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) could stimulate the weak chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol and AgNO(3), resulting in a strong CL emission. The UV-visible spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra and TEM images of the investigated system revealed that AgNO(3) was reduced by luminol to Ag in the presence of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs and the formed Ag covered the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, resulting in CoFe(2)O(4)-Ag core-shell nanoparticles. Investigation of the CL reaction kinetics demonstrated that the reaction among luminol, AgNO(3) and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs was fast at the beginning and slowed down later. The CL spectra of the luminol - AgNO(3) - CoFe(2)O(4) NPs system indicated that the luminophor was still an electronically excited 3-aminophthalate anion. A CL mechanism has been postulated. When the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were injected into the mixture of luminol and AgNO(3), they catalyzed the reduction of AgNO(3) by luminol to produce luminol radicals and Ag, which immediately covered the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs to form CoFe(2)O(4)-Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the luminol radicals reacted with the dissolved oxygen, leading to a strong CL emission. With the continuous deposition of Ag on the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the catalytic activity of the core-shell nanoparticles was inhibited and a decrease in CL intensity was observed and also a slow growth of shell on the nanoparticles. PMID:21400653

  5. Regulation of the forming process and the set voltage distribution of unipolar resistance switching in spin-coated CoFe2O4 thin films.

    PubMed

    Mustaqima, Millaty; Yoo, Pilsun; Huang, Wei; Lee, Bo Wha; Liu, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    We report the preparation of (111) preferentially oriented CoFe2O4 thin films on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using a spin-coating process. The post-annealing conditions and film thickness were varied for cobalt ferrite (CFO) thin films, and Pt/CFO/Pt structures were prepared to investigate the resistance switching behaviors. Our results showed that resistance switching without a forming process is preferred to obtain less fluctuation in the set voltage, which can be regulated directly from the preparation conditions of the CFO thin films. Therefore, instead of thicker film, CFO thin films deposited by two times spin-coating with a thickness about 100 nm gave stable resistance switching with the most stable set voltage. Since the forming process and the large variation in set voltage have been considered as serious obstacles for the practical application of resistance switching for non-volatile memory devices, our results could provide meaningful insights in improving the performance of ferrite material-based resistance switching memory devices. PMID:25897310

  6. Tuning the photovoltaic effect of multiferroic CoFe2O4/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 composite films by magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Bi, Gui-Feng; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-05-01

    The 0-3 type CoFe2O4-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (CFO-PZT) multiferroic composite films have been prepared by a sol-gel process and spin-coating technique. A confirmable photovoltaic effect is observed under ultraviolet light irradiation. Moreover, this photovoltaic effect can be tuned by external magnetic fields. The maximum magnetic modulation ratios of short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage can reach as high as 13.7% and 12.8% upon the application of 6 kOe DC magnetic field. Through remnant polarization measurements under various magnetic fields and detailed analysis of the energy band structures, we elucidate the mechanism of tuning photovoltaic effect by magnetic fields and attribute it to the combination of two factors. One is the decreased ferroelectric-polarization-induced depolarization electric field and another is the band structure reconstruction at CFO-PZT interfaces, both of which are dominated by the magnetoelectric coupling via interfacial stress transferring at nanoscale. This work makes some attempts of coupling photo-induced effects with magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic materials and will widen the practical ranges of multiferroic-based applications.

  7. Switching of magnetic easy-axis using crystal orientation for large perpendicular coercivity in CoFe2O4 thin film

    PubMed Central

    Shirsath, Sagar E.; Liu, Xiaoxi; Yasukawa, Yukiko; Li, Sean; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Perpendicular magnetization and precise control over the magnetic easy axis in magnetic thin film is necessary for a variety of applications, particularly in magnetic recording media. A strong (111) orientation is successfully achieved in the CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin film at relatively low substrate temperature of 100 °C, whereas the (311)-preferred randomly oriented CFO is prepared at room temperature by the DC magnetron sputtering technique. The oxygen-deficient porous CFO film after post-annealing gives rise to compressive strain perpendicular to the film surface, which induces large perpendicular coercivity. We observe the coercivity of 11.3 kOe in the 40-nm CFO thin film, which is the highest perpendicular coercivity ever achieved on an amorphous SiO2/Si substrate. The present approach can guide the systematic tuning of the magnetic easy axis and coercivity in the desired direction with respect to crystal orientation in the nanoscale regime. Importantly, this can be achieved on virtually any type of substrate. PMID:27435010

  8. Magnetoelectric Coupling in Well-Ordered Epitaxial BiFeO3/CoFe2O4/SrRuO3 Heterostructured Nanodot Array.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guo; Zhang, Fengyuan; Yao, Junxiang; Fan, Hua; Li, Peilian; Li, Zhongwen; Song, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Qin, Minghui; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Zhang; Yao, Jianjun; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Junming

    2016-01-26

    Multiferroic magnetoelectric (ME) composites exhibit sizable ME coupling at room temperature, promising applications in a wide range of novel devices. For high density integrated devices, it is indispensable to achieve a well-ordered nanostructured array with reasonable ME coupling. For this purpose, we explored the well-ordered array of isolated epitaxial BiFeO3/CoFe2O4/SrRuO3 heterostructured nanodots fabricated by nanoporous anodic alumina (AAO) template method. The arrayed heterostructured nanodots demonstrate well-established epitaxial structures and coexistence of piezoelectric and ferromagnetic properties, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and peizoeresponse/magnetic force microscopy (PFM/MFM). It was found that the heterostructured nanodots yield apparent ME coupling, likely due to the effective transfer of interface couplings along with the substantial release of substrate clamping. A noticeable change in piezoelectric response of the nanodots can be triggered by magnetic field, indicating a substantial enhancement of ME coupling. Moreover, an electric field induced magnetization switching in these nanodots can be observed, showing a large reverse ME effect. These results offer good opportunities of the nanodots for applications in high-density ME devices, e.g., high density recording (>100 Gbit/in.(2)) or logic devices. PMID:26651132

  9. Tuning the magnetic properties of self-assembled BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 heteroepitaxy by magneto-structural coupling.

    PubMed

    Amrillah, Tahta; Vandrangi, Suresh K; Bitla, Yugandhar; Do, Thi Hien; Liao, Sheng-Chieh; Tsai, Chih-Ya; Chin, Yi-Ying; Liu, Yen-Ting; Lin, Man-Ling; He, Qing; Lin, Hong-Ji; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Chih-Huang; Arenholz, Elke; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2016-04-28

    Magnetic and multiferroic nanocomposites with two distinct phases have been a topic of intense research for their profound potential applications in the field of spintronics. In addition to growing high-quality phase separated heteroepitaxial nanocomposites, the strain engineering that is conducive to enhance the tunability of material properties, in general, and the magnetic properties, in particular, is of utmost importance in exploring new possibilities. Here, we investigated the magneto-structural coupling between antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 (BFO) and ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) in self-assembled vertically aligned nanocomposites grown on LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. We found that BFO exhibits tetragonal (T) and rhombohedral (R) structures as the stable phases and CFO has high magnetocrystalline anisotropy even in the form of nanocomposites. The temperature and magnetic field dependent magnetizations of T_BFO-CFO/LAO and R_BFO-CFO/STO nanocomposites primarily demonstrate the magnetoelastic coupling between these variants. PMID:27072287

  10. Switching of magnetic easy-axis using crystal orientation for large perpendicular coercivity in CoFe2O4 thin film.

    PubMed

    Shirsath, Sagar E; Liu, Xiaoxi; Yasukawa, Yukiko; Li, Sean; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Perpendicular magnetization and precise control over the magnetic easy axis in magnetic thin film is necessary for a variety of applications, particularly in magnetic recording media. A strong (111) orientation is successfully achieved in the CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin film at relatively low substrate temperature of 100 °C, whereas the (311)-preferred randomly oriented CFO is prepared at room temperature by the DC magnetron sputtering technique. The oxygen-deficient porous CFO film after post-annealing gives rise to compressive strain perpendicular to the film surface, which induces large perpendicular coercivity. We observe the coercivity of 11.3 kOe in the 40-nm CFO thin film, which is the highest perpendicular coercivity ever achieved on an amorphous SiO2/Si substrate. The present approach can guide the systematic tuning of the magnetic easy axis and coercivity in the desired direction with respect to crystal orientation in the nanoscale regime. Importantly, this can be achieved on virtually any type of substrate. PMID:27435010

  11. Substrate clamping effect onto magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 core-shell nanofibers via coaxial electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bi; Lu, Ruie; Gao, Kun; Yang, Yaodong; Wang, Yaping

    2015-10-01

    We report large lateral magnetoelectric (ME) coupling coefficients α 31 of 1.2×104 \\text{mV} \\text{cm}-1 \\text{Oe}-1 and 3.5× 104 \\text{mV} \\text{cm}-1 \\text{Oe}-1 in substrate bonded and free-standing multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 (BTO-CFO) core-shell nanofibers (NFs) with and without substrate clamping effect, respectively. The BTO-CFO core-shell NFs were synthesised by a sol-gel coaxial electrospinning technique, and their ME coupling was directly observed by demonstrating the evolution of piezoelectric coefficient (d 33), ferroelectric domain, and phase contrast induced by an external magnetic field. These impressed α 31 coefficients originated from the nanoconfinement of the interphase elastic interaction between the ferromagnetic core fiber and the ferroelectric shell interlayer, as well as the strain transformation at the one-dimensional (1D) fiber boundary. This means that the decreasing substrate clamping effect results in an enhanced ME coupling in multiferroic NFs, which is similar to that of thin films. These findings make people understand the substrate clamping effect and enable nanoscale ME device applications.

  12. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of PANI and CoFe2O4/PANI composite supported on graphene for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanraju, Karuppannan; Sreejith, Vasudevan; Ananth, Ramaiyan; Cindrella, Louis

    2015-06-01

    New catalysts of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with poly aniline (PANI) and cobalt ferrite (CF) have been successfully prepared by simple chemical reduction method. Their electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was evaluated. Semi-crystalline nature of CF was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Surface morphology by HR-SEM showed features of CF particles and PANI film on graphene sheets. FT-IR studies revealed changes in C-N and Cdbnd N stretching vibrations of PANI confirming bonding of PANI to graphene sheets. Raman spectrum showed presence of PANI on distorted graphene layers. TG/DTA revealed thermal stability and extent of loading of CF in composite. ORR performance was studied using catalyst modified rotating disc electrode (RDE). A maximum kinetic current density of -3.46 mA cm-2 at -0.2 V was obtained for CF/PANI/rGO. Tafel slope, onset and half wave potentials for the catalyst were obtained from ORR response. Durability studies showed that synthesized electrocatalyst has better stability and methanol tolerance than commercial Pt/C catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study aiming enhancement of ORR activity using PANI and CoFe2O4 on graphene support. A trace amount of Pt in the composite boosted the performance of single PEM fuel cell.

  13. Evidence on the presence of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in CoFe2O4@Au nano structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, H. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a straight forward method for preparing CoFe2O4/Au core shell nano composite is introduced. By this method, samples with different thickness of Au as shell were obtained. The crystal and micro structures of the prepared samples were studied using x-ray diffraction and TEM micrographs. The presence of plasmonic frequencies of gold nano particles was investigated by measuring absorbance spectra in the visible range. It was found that, the plasma frequency decreases with increasing the gold thickness. The effect of the gold thickness on the magnetization, nucleation field and magnetic loss were studied. The experimental measurements showed an oscillating behavior of the magnetic parameters with increasing gold thickness. These results could be explained in terms of the presence of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between the ferromagnetic components via the conduction electrons of the gold metal. The heating ability of the magnetic Co-Ferrite particles under high frequency magnetic field was enhanced by the presence of the gold as a shell.

  14. Thin (111) oriented CoFe2O4 and Co3O4 films prepared by decomposition of layered cobaltates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buršík, Josef; Soroka, Miroslav; Uhrecký, Róbert; Kužel, Radomír; Mika, Filip; Huber, Štěpán

    2016-07-01

    The formation and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented Co3O4 and CoFe2O4 films prepared by a novel procedure from 00l-oriented NaCoO2 and Na(CoFe)O2 is reported. The Na(CoFe)O2 films were deposited on MgO, SrTiO3, LaAlO3, and Zr(Y)O2 single crystals with (100) and (111) orientations by chemical solution deposition method and crystallized at 700 °C. Subsequently they were transformed into (111)-oriented spinel phase during post-growth annealing at 800-1000 °C. Morphology and structure of the films was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. While all spinel films exhibit pronounced out-of-plane orientation irrespective of substrate, the rate of in-plane orientation strongly depend on lattice misfit values. Different epitaxial phenomena ranging from true one-to-one epitaxy to the existence of many-to-one epitaxy involving two or more orientations were determined by full 3D texture analysis.

  15. Evaluation of SiO2@CoFe2O4 nano-hollow spheres through THz pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Rupali; Pal, Monalisa; Serita, Kazunori; Chaudhuri, Arka; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Mandal, Kalyan

    2016-05-01

    We have synthesized cobalt ferrite (CFO) nanoparticles (NPs) of diameter 100 nm and nano-hollow spheres (NHSs) of diameter 100, 160, 250, and 350 nm by a facile one step template free solvothermal technique and carried out SiO2 coating on their surface following Stöber method. The phase and morphology of the nanostructures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The magnetic measurements were carried out by vibrating sample magnetometer in order to study the influence of SiO2 coating on the magnetic properties of bare CFO nanostructures. Furthermore, we have applied THz time domain spectroscopy to investigate the THz absorption property of these nanostructures in the frequency range 1.0-2.5 THz. Detailed morphology and size dependent THz absorption study unfolds that the absorption property of these nanostructures sensitively carries the unique signature of its dielectric property.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and Monte Carlo simulation of CoFe2O4/Polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposites: The coercivity investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, Sh; Farjami shayesteh, S.; Mahdavifar, S.; Hekmatara, S. Hoda.

    2015-11-01

    To study the influence of polymer matrix on the effective magnetic anisotropy constant and coercivity of magnetic nanoparticles, we have synthesized the Cobalt ferrite/Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanocomposites by co-precipitation method in four different processes. In addition the Monte Carlo simulation and law of approach to the saturation magnetization have been applied to achieve the anisotropy constants. The obtained experimental and theoretical results showed a decrease in anisotropy constant relative to the bulk cobalt ferrite. We have showed that the PVP matrix can interact with metal cations and made them approximately immobilized to participate in spinel structure. Hence different anisotropy constants or coercivity were obtained for synthesized nanocomposites. In addition, PVP matrix can attach to the surface of magnetic particles and make them approximately non-interacting. The synthesized samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic measurements were made at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

  17. Ligand-induced evolution of intrinsic fluorescence and catalytic activity from cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pal, Monalisa; Kundu, Anirban; Rakshit, Rupali; Mandal, Kalyan

    2015-06-01

    To develop CoFe(2)O(4) as magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications, it would be advantageous to identify any intrinsic fluorescence of this important magnetic material by simply adjusting the surface chemistry of the NPs themselves. Herein, we demonstrate that intrinsic multicolor fluorescence, covering the whole visible region, can be induced by facile functionalization of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs with Na-tartrate. Moreover, the functionalized CoFe(2)O(4) NPs also show unprecedented catalytic efficiency in the degradation of both biologically and environmentally harmful dyes, pioneering the potential application of these NPs in therapeutics and wastewater treatment. Detailed investigation through various spectroscopic tools unveils the story behind the emergence of this unique optical property of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs upon functionalization with tartrate ligands. We believe our developed multifunctional CoFe(2)O(4) NPs hold great promise for advanced biomedical and technological applications. PMID:25867626

  18. Dependence of Site Occupancy and Structural and Electrical Properties on Successive Replacement of Co by Zn in CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, M.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.

    2014-02-01

    The crystal structure and cation distribution at particular sites in the crystal lattice play the primary role in determining the properties of nanocrystalline transition-metal oxide materials. Nanocrystalline ferrite particles of Co1- x Zn x Fe2O4 with x varying from 0.0 to 1.0 were synthesized by a coprecipitation method. Samples synthesized at the reaction temperature of 70°C were sintered at 600°C for 3 h. The face-centered cubic (FCC) spinel structure of the synthesized particles was confirmed by x-ray diffraction patterns. The grain sizes calculated from the most intense peak (311) using the Scherrer equation were found to be in the range from 10 nm to 35 nm. Extended x-ray absorption fine-structure and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy is a powerful tool for structural study of metal oxide materials. These techniques are element specific and sensitive to the local structure. These techniques were used at Fe, Co, and Zn K-edges to investigate the cation distribution in the crystal structure. The dependence of the electrical transport properties on the shift in the crystal structure due to successive replacement of Co by Zn in CoFe2O4 was examined. Direct-current (dc) electrical conduction measurements were carried out as a function of temperature from 313 K to 700 K. Activation energy values indicated the polaron hopping conduction mechanism. The alternating-current (ac) electrical transport properties were studied by measuring the dielectric constant as a function of frequency. A regular shift␣in the electrical properties was observed depending upon the cation distribution.

  19. Multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties of CoFe2O4/Pb1-xSrxTiO3 composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, N. S.; Bala, Kanchan; Yadav, Akash; Kotnala, R. K.

    2015-04-01

    To realize multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties, bi-layered nanocomposite films consisting of CoFe2O4 (CFO)/Pb1-xSrxTiO3 (PST) phases (x = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) have been deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by using a metallo-organic decomposition process. Both the PST perovskite and the CFO spinel phases are confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra of the composite films. The composite films exhibit room temperature multiferroic properties. The values of saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr), and coercive field (Hc) of the composite films are in the range of 108-119 kA/m, 42-51 kA/m, and 44.5-64.1 kA/m, respectively. In addition, the saturation polarization (Ps), remanent polarization (Pr), and electrical coercive field (Ec) are observed in the range of 11.3-14.4 μC/cm2, 2.9-4.8 μC/cm2, and 56-59.5 kV/cm, respectively. The dielectric response in the presence of applied magnetic field, Hdc ˜ 238.6 kA/m shows a high magnetocapacitance value ˜385% at frequency 100 kHz for CFO/PST composite film with x = 0.1. The maximum magnetoelectric voltage co-efficient value, αE ˜ 380 kV/(m × T) has been achieved in the composite films with x = 0.1. The influence of elastic/and or interfacial strain on multiferroic magnetoelectric properties is evident from the results.

  20. Preparation of silica coated cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for the purification of histidine-tagged proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygar, Gülfem; Kaya, Murat; Özkan, Necati; Kocabıyık, Semra; Volkan, Mürvet

    2015-12-01

    Surface modified cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles containing Ni-NTA affinity group were synthesized and used for the separation of histidine tag proteins from the complex matrices through the use of imidazole side chains of histidine molecules. Firstly, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were prepared in an aqueous solution using the controlled co-precipitation method. In order to obtain small CoFe2O4 agglomerates, oleic acid and sodium chloride were used as dispersants. The CoFe2O4 particles were coated with silica and subsequently the surface of these silica coated particles (SiO2-CoFe2O4) was modified by amine (NH2) groups in order to add further functional groups on the silica shell. Then, carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups were added to the SiO2-CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles through the NH2 groups. After that Nα,Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine hydrate (NTA) was attached to carboxyl ends of the structure. Finally, the surface modified nanoparticles were labeled with nickel (Ni) (II) ions. Furthermore, the modified SiO2-CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles were utilized as a new system that allows purification of the N-terminal His-tagged recombinant small heat shock protein, Tpv-sHSP 14.3.

  1. Adsorption of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles within layer-by-layer films: a kinetic study carried out using quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Gustavo B; Paterno, Leonardo G; Afonso, André S; Faria, Ronaldo C; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Morais, Paulo C; Soler, Maria A G

    2011-12-28

    The paper reports on the successful use of the quartz crystal microbalance technique to assess accurate kinetics and equilibrium parameters regarding the investigation of in situ adsorption of nanosized cobalt ferrite particles (CoFe(2)O(4)--10.5 nm-diameter) onto two different surfaces. Firstly, a single layer of nanoparticles was deposited onto the surface provided by the gold-coated quartz resonator functionalized with sodium 3-mercapto propanesulfonate (3-MPS). Secondly, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was used to build multilayers in which the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle-based layer alternates with the sodium sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) layer. The adsorption experiments were conducted by modulating the number of adsorbed CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers (n) and/or by changing the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration while suspended as a stable colloidal dispersion. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles onto the 3-MPS-functionalized surface follows perfectly a first order kinetic process in a wide range (two orders of magnitude) of nanoparticle concentrations. These data were used to assess the equilibrium constant and the adsorption free energy. Alternatively, the Langmuir adsorption constant was obtained while analyzing the isotherm data at the equilibrium. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles while growing multilayers of CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS was conducted using colloidal suspensions with CoFe(2)O(4) concentration in the range of 10(-8) to 10(-6) (moles of cobalt ferrite per litre) and for different numbers of cycles n = 1, 3, 5, and 10. We found the adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles within the CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers perfectly following a first order kinetic process, with the characteristic rate constant growing with the increase of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration and decreasing with the rise of the number of LbL cycles (n). Additionally, atomic force microscopy was employed for assessing the LbL film roughness and thickness. We found the film

  2. Comparative magneto-optical investigation of d-d charge-transfer transitions in Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, and NiFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Joo; Lee, Han Seung; Lee, Myoung Hee; Lee, Sung Ho

    2002-06-01

    Magneto-optical transitions in CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 spinel ferrites are investigated in comparison with those in isostructural Fe3O4. The Kerr angle and ellipticity of the ferrites have been measured by magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy in the 1.5-5 eV region. The results indicate that the d-d intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) transitions, Co2+(t2g)[right arrow]Fe3+(eg), and Ni2+(t2g)[right arrow]Fe3+(eg), in the octahedral sites in CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 are located at about 3.6 and 4.5 eV, respectively, shifted to higher energies by about 1.5 and 2.4 eV, respectively, from the corresponding IVCT transition in Fe3O4, Fe2+(t2g)[right arrow]Fe3+(eg). The MOKE spectra of CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 also indicate that the IVCT transitions, Co2+(t2g)[right arrow]Fe3+(t2g) and Ni2+(t2g)[right arrow]Fe3+(t2g), exist at about 2.2 and 3.1 eV, respectively. On the other hand, the intersublattice charge-transfer (ISCT) transitions between the tetrahedral and the octahedral Fe3+ sites in CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 are observed at about 2.6 and 4.0 eV, same as the corresponding ISCT transitions in Fe3O4. The observed IVCT and ISCT transitions involving octahedral Fe3+ ion consistently give the crystal-field energy splitting of about 1.4 eV between its t2g and eg orbitals for all the compounds.

  3. Improving magnetic properties of ultrasmall magnetic nanoparticles by biocompatible coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costo, R.; Morales, M. P.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with the effect of a biocompatible surface coating layer on the magnetic properties of ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles. Particles were synthesized by laser pyrolysis and fully oxidized to maghemite by acid treatment. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was systematically coated with either phosphonate (phosphonoacetic acid or pamidronic acid) or carboxylate-based (carboxymethyl dextran) molecules and the binding to the nanoparticle surface was analyzed. Magnetic properties at low temperature show a decrease in coercivity and an increase in magnetization after the coating process. Hysteresis loop displacement after field cooling is significantly reduced by the coating, in particular, for particles coated with pamidronic acid, which show a 10% reduction of the displacement of the loop. We conclude that the chemical coordination of carboxylates and phosphonates reduces the surface disorder and enhances the magnetic properties of ultrasmall maghemite nanoparticles.

  4. Strong magnetoelectric coupling in sol-gel derived multiferroic (Pb0.76Ca0.24)TiO3-CoFe2O4 composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T. D.; Tang, X. G.; Wang, Yu; Chan, H. L. W.

    2012-10-01

    A multilayer heterostructure composite thin films consisting of alternating layers (Pb0.76Ca0.24)TiO3 (PCT) and CoFe2O4 (CFO) were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by a sol-gel process. X-ray measurements indicated high quality of crystallization of both PCT and CFO layers. The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the composite were investigated. Well-defined polarization vs. electric field (P-E) and magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops were obtained. A strong magnetoelectric (ME) response was observed in the sample which was subjected to an alternating magnetic field, and a high ME voltage coefficient αE = 870 mV/Oe cm was obtained for the composite thin films when applied magnetic field parallel to the sample plane.

  5. Three-dimensional phases-connectivity and strong magnetoelectric response of self-assembled feather-like CoFe 2O 4-BaTiO 3 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yu; Zhou, Jianxin; Wu, Di; Du, Yulei; Zhang, Mingsheng; Wang, Dunhui; Yu, Huiqiang; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2010-08-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) (CoFe 2O 4) 0.3-(BaTiO 3) 0.7 (CFO-BTO) nanostructures have been synthesized by a combinative using of hydrothermal reaction and polymer-assisted deposition. The feather-like nanostructures have an average diameter of 250 nm and lengths up to 5 μm, with the single-crystal CFO nanopillars embedded in the BTO matrix. The CFO-BTO nanostructures exhibit good ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties, as well as a large ME coefficient of 51.8 mV/cm Oe. A model has been proposed to explain the three-dimensional phases-connectivity of the nanostructures. And it is suggested that the novel type of phases-connectivity greatly promote the ME response.

  6. Polyvinyl alcohol functionalized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salunkhe, A. B.; Khot, V. M.; Thorat, N. D.; Phadatare, M. R.; Sathish, C. I.; Dhawale, D. S.; Pawar, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NPs) have been synthesized by combustion method. The surface of the CoFe2O4 NPs was modified with biocompatible polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). To investigate effect and nature of coating on the surface of CoFe2O4 NPs, the NPs were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results demonstrate the monodispersed characteristics of CoFe2O4 NPs after surface modification with PVA. The decrease in contact angle from 162° to 50° with PVA coating on NPs indicates the transition from hydrophobic nature to hydrophilic. The Magnetic properties measurement system (MPMS) results show that the NPs have ferromagnetic behavior with high magnetization of 75.04 and 71.02 emu/g of uncoated and coated CoFe2O4 NPs respectively. These PVA coated NPs exhibit less toxicity over uncoated CoFe2O4 NPs up to 1.8 mg mL-1 when tested with mouse fibroblast L929 cell line.

  7. Structural and morphological studies of manganese substituted CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Patel, Rajesh

    2013-10-01

    Nanocrystalline manganese substituted cobalt and nickel ferrites have been synthesized through the evaporation method by using egg white. These powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD pattern of manganese substituted spinel ferrites contains some impurity peaks, which are the decomposition of the ferrites to α-Fe2O3 phase at higher annealing temperature. The microstructure and particle size of the annealed sample analyzed by TEM, which gives the particle size well with XRD. The magnetic properties were measured using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The surface/near-surface chemical states of the nanocrystalline manganese substituted cobalt and nickel ferrites are analyzed by XPS within a range of binding energies of 0-1000 eV.

  8. Effects of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on biological and artificial lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Valant, Janez; Boljte, Sabina; Otrin, Lado; Rappolt, Michael; Sartori, Barbara; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Šuštar, Vid; Makovec, Darko; Gyergyek, Sašo; Hočevar, Matej; Godec, Matjaž; Zupanc, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this work is to provide experimental evidence on the interactions of suspended nanoparticles with artificial or biological membranes and to assess the possibility of suspended nanoparticles interacting with the lipid component of biological membranes. Methods 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid vesicles and human red blood cells were incubated in suspensions of magnetic bare cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) or citric acid (CA)-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed in phosphate-buffered saline and glucose solution. The stability of POPC giant unilamellar vesicles after incubation in the tested nanoparticle suspensions was assessed by phase-contrast light microscopy and analyzed with computer-aided imaging. Structural changes in the POPC multilamellar vesicles were assessed by small angle X-ray scattering, and the shape transformation of red blood cells after incubation in tested suspensions of nanoparticles was observed using scanning electron microscopy and sedimentation, agglutination, and hemolysis assays. Results Artificial lipid membranes were disturbed more by CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions than by bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions. CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4-CA nanoparticles caused more significant shape transformation in red blood cells than bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Conclusion Consistent with their smaller sized agglomerates, CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles demonstrate more pronounced effects on artificial and biological membranes. Larger agglomerates of nanoparticles were confirmed to be reactive against lipid membranes and thus not acceptable for use with red blood cells. This finding is significant with respect to the efficient and safe application of nanoparticles as medicinal agents. PMID:24741305

  9. Synthesis of ultrasmall platinum nanoparticles and structural relaxation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Li, Gao; Kauffman, Douglas R; Pang, Guangsheng; Jin, Rongchao

    2014-06-01

    We report the synthesis of ligand-protected, ultrasmall Pt nanoparticles of ∼1 nm size via a one-phase wet chemical method. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), we determined the mass of the nanoparticles to be ∼8 kDa. Characterization of the Pt nanoparticles was further carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), optical absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Interestingly, we observed a large structural relaxation in the 8kDa nanoparticles (i.e. lattice parameter elongation by +10%) compared to bulk platinum. XPS analysis revealed a positive shift of Pt 4f core level energy by approximately +1 eV compared with bulk Pt, indicating charge transfer from Pt to S atom of the thiolate ligand on the particle. Compared to bulk Pt, the 5d band of Pt nanoparticles is narrower and shifts to higher binding energy. Overall, the ∼1 nm ultrasmall Pt nanoparticles exhibit quite distinct differences in electronic and structural properties compared to their larger counterparts and bulk Pt. PMID:24703677

  10. Synthesis of Monodisperse FeCo Nanoparticles by Reductive Salt-Matrix Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Poudyal, Narayan; Chaubey, Girija S.; Rong, Chuan-bing; Cui, Jun; Liu, J.Ping

    2013-08-02

    We report here a novel synthetic method to prepare monodisperse air-stable FeCo nanoparticles. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with different sizes were first synthesized by a chemical solution method. The as-synthesized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were then mixed with ball-milled NaCl powders and heated to 400–500oC in forming gas (Ar 93% + H2 7%). The salt powder worked as a separating medium that prevents the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles from agglomerating during the heat treatment while the forming gas reduces the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to FeCo nanoparticles. Monodisperse FeCo nanoparticles were recovered by dissolving the NaCl in water and subsequently washing with ethanol and acetone. Structural analyses confirmed that FeCo nanoparticles retained the same size as their oxide precursors. The size of the FeCo nanoparticles can be well tuned by controlling the size of the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The saturation magnetization of FeCo nanoparticles is size dependent and increases with size.

  11. [Ultrasmall nanoparticles for radiotherapy: AGuIX].

    PubMed

    Lux, F; Detappe, A; Dufort, S; Sancey, L; Louis, C; Carme, S; Tillement, O

    2015-10-01

    Since twenty years, many nanoparticles based on high atomic number elements have been developed as radiosensitizers. The design of these nanoparticles is limited by the classical rules associated with the development of nanoparticles for oncology and by the specific ones associated to radiosensitizers, which aim to increase the effect of the dose in the tumor area and to spare the health tissues. For this application, systemic administration of nanodrugs is possible. This paper will discuss the development of AGuIX nanoparticles and will emphasize on this example the critical points for the development of a nanodrug for this application. AGuIX nanoparticles display hydrodynamic diameters of a few nanometers and are composed of polysiloxane and gadolinium chelates. This particle has been used in many preclinical studies and is evaluated for a further phase I clinical trial. Finally, in addition to its high radiosensitizing potential, AGuIX display MRI functionality and can be used as theranostic nanodrug for personalized medicine. PMID:26343033

  12. Magnetoelectric properties of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 - CoFe2O4 particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Praveen, J.; Vinitha Reddy, M.; Das, Dibakar

    2016-05-01

    0.7[(Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3)]-0.3[CoFe2O4] multiferroic particulate ceramic composite with (0-3) connectivity has been synthesized by wet chemical methods. BCZT-CFO composite showed both polarization-electric field and magnetic hysteresis loops simultaneously at room temperature. A high dielectric constant of 2160 and tangent loss factor of 0.6 has been obtained. Magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient (αME =dE/dH) of the composite was measured as a function of applied d.c magnetic field at different frequencies. At resonance frequency (365kHz) the composite showed a maximum αME of 102mV/cm.Oe. It was observed that the transverse ME coefficient is 1.8 times higher than the longitudinal ME coefficient. The magnetoelectric properties of this composite has been studied in detail in this work and correlated with its structure.

  13. Direct Observation of Magnetic Field Induced Ferroelectric Domain Evolution in Self-Assembled Quasi (0-3) BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Li, Linglong; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Dawei; Su, Ran; Yang, Guang; Zhai, Junyi; Yang, Yaodong

    2016-01-13

    Strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effect is expected in self-assembly heterostructures engineered by ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, contributing to the enhanced overall magnetoelectric effect. Microstructures as well as the connectivity configuration are considered to play a significant role in achieving efficient magnetoelectric properties. Different from the conventional (1-3) and (2-2) type composite films, we fabricate BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 (BFO-CFO) composite thin films with a novel quasi (0-3) type connectivity via a dual-target pulsed laser deposition process. The self-assembly growth mechanism has been studied, which demonstrates that the perovskite (BFO) matrix segments the connectivity of spinel (CFO) resulting in a quasi (0-3) composite. Direct observation of ferroelectric domain wall motion under external magnetic fields proves a strong magnetoelectric coupling effect in these (0-3) thin films. Our preliminary findings reveal the promising application potential of this new structure as multiferroic domain wall devices. PMID:26698906

  14. Effect of thickness on the stress and magnetoelectric coupling in bilayered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-CoFe2O4 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jianjun; He, Hongcai; Nan, Cewen

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoelectric bilayered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-CoFe2O4(PZT-CFO) films with different PZT thicknesses were grown on (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using chemical solution spin-coating. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy shows pure phases and well-defined interfaces between the PZT and CFO films. The CFO-PZT-substrate structure effectively alleviates the substrate clamping effect for the CFO layer, showing appreciable magnetoelectric responses in the composite films. Both the direct magnetoelectric effect and the magnetic field-induced Raman shifts in the A1(TO1) soft mode of PZT demonstrate the magnetic-mechanical-electric coupling in the films. The results also indicate that with a constant CFO layer thickness, the thickness of the PZT layer plays an important role in the stress relaxation and strong magnetoelectric coupling. The coupling could be further enhanced by increasing the CFO thickness, optimizing the volume (thickness) fraction of the PZT thickness, and releasing the clamping effect from the substrate.

  15. Ultrasmall inorganic nanoparticles: State-of-the-art and perspectives for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zarschler, Kristof; Rocks, Louise; Licciardello, Nadia; Boselli, Luca; Polo, Ester; Garcia, Karina Pombo; De Cola, Luisa; Stephan, Holger; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasmall nanoparticulate materials with core sizes in the 1-3nm range bridge the gap between single molecules and classical, larger-sized nanomaterials, not only in terms of spatial dimension, but also as regards physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Due to these unique properties, ultrasmall nanoparticles appear to be promising materials for nanomedicinal applications. This review overviews the different synthetic methods of inorganic ultrasmall nanoparticles as well as their properties, characterization, surface modification and toxicity. We moreover summarize the current state of knowledge regarding pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and targeting of nanoscale materials. Aside from addressing the issue of biomolecular corona formation and elaborating on the interactions of ultrasmall nanoparticles with individual cells, we discuss the potential diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic applications of ultrasmall nanoparticles in the emerging field of nanomedicine in the final part of this review. PMID:27013135

  16. Photodynamic Anticancer Activities of Multifunctional Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles in Various Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong Joo; Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Nam, Ki Chang; Ali, Anser; Min, Joe Eun; Son, Hyungbin; Uhm, Han S; Kim, Ho-Joong; Jung, Jin-Seung; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-02-01

    To develop novel multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with good magnetic properties, biocompatibility, and anticancer activities by photodynamic therapy (PDT), we synthesized multifunctional cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs) functionalized by coating them with hematoporphyrin (HP) for introducing photo-functionality and by conjugating with folic acid (FA) for targeting cancer cells. We evaluated the activities of the CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs by checking magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro, its biocompatibility, and photodynamic anticancer activities on FA receptor (FR)-positive and FR-negative cancer cell lines, Hela, KB, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells, to use for clinical applications. In this study, we have demonstrated that the CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs have good MRI and biocompatibility with non-cytotoxicity, and remarkable photodynamic anticancer activities at very low concentrations regardless of cell types. Particularly, the photo-killing abilities in 3.13 μg/mL of CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs were measured to be 91.8% (p < 0.002) for Hela, 94.5% (p < 0.007) for KB, 79.1% (p < 0.003) for MCF-7, and 71.3% (p < 0.006) for PC-3. The photodynamic anticancer activities in 6.25 and 12.5 μg/mL of CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs were measured to be over 95% (p < 0.004) to almost 100% regardless of cell types. The newly developed multifunctional CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs are effective for PDT and have potential as therapeutic agents for MRI-based PDT, because they have a high saturation value of magnetization and superparamagnetism. PMID:26349298

  17. Magnetoelectric coupling in lead-free piezoelectric Lix(K0.5Na0.5)1 - xNb1 - yTayO3 and magnetostrictive CoFe2O4 laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiyong; Santa Rosa, Washington; M'Peko, Jean Claude; Algueró, Miguel; Venet, Michel

    2016-04-01

    To replace lead zirconium titanate in magnetoelectric (ME) composites owing to concerns regarding its toxicity, we investigate the ME coupling in bilayer composites comprising lead-free Lix(K0.5Na0.5)1 - xNb1 - yTayO3 (LKNNT) (piezoelectric) and CoFe2O4 (magnetostrictive) phases. We prepare the LKNNT ceramics and measure its piezoelectric coefficient d31, a crucial ingredient determining ME couplings, for several Li (x = 0.03 , 0.035 , 0.04) and Ta (y = 0.15 , 0.2 , 0.25) concentrations, and find that the highest d31 occurs at y = 0.2 for all the values of x studied here. We then evaluate both the transverse (αE,31) and the longitudinal (αE,33) low-frequency ME coupling coefficients of our composites, for each the above composition of (x , y). At x = 0.03, we find the usual scenario of αE,31 and αE,33, i.e., the strongest ME coupling occurs when d31 is maximal, namely at y = 0.2. On the other hand, interestingly, we also obtain the strongest ME coupling when the LKNNT layer has a relatively weaker d31, e.g., at y = 0.25 for x = 0.035 and y = 0.15 for x = 0.04, following from the interplay of d31 and other ingredients (e.g., dielectric constant). Our calculated ME couplings, with αE,31 in magnitude around twice of αE,33, are comparable to those in lead-based composites. The effect of the volume fraction and interface parameter on the ME coupling is also discussed.

  18. Molecularly stabilised ultrasmall gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifert, Annika; Pan-Bartnek, Yu; Simon, Ulrich; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2013-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely used as contrast agents in electron microscopy as well as for diagnostic tests. Due to their unique optical and electrical properties and their small size, there is also a growing field of potential applications in medical fields of imaging and therapy, for example as drug carriers or as active compounds in thermotherapy. Besides their intrinsic optical properties, facile surface decoration with (bio)functional ligands renders AuNPs ideally suited for many industrial and medical applications. However, novel AuNPs may have toxicological profiles differing from bulk and therefore a thorough analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is required. Several mechanisms are proposed that cause adverse effects of nanoparticles in biological systems. Catalytic generation of reactive species due to the large and chemically active surface area of nanomaterials is well established. Because nanoparticles approach the size of biological molecules and subcellular structures, they may overcome natural barriers by active or passive uptake. Ultrasmall AuNPs with sizes of 2 nm or less may even behave as molecular ligands. These types of potential interactions would imply a size and ligand-dependent behaviour of any nanomaterial towards biological systems. Thus, to fully understand their QSAR, AuNPs bioactivity should be analysed in biological systems of increasing complexity ranging from cell culture to whole animal studies.

  19. Synthesis and properties MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co) nanoparticles and core-shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelenich, O. V.; Solopan, S. O.; Greneche, J. M.; Belous, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Individual Fe3-xO4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, as well as Fe3-xO4/CoFe2O4 core/shell structures were synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from diethylene glycol solutions. Core/shell structure were synthesized with CoFe2O4-shell thickness of 1.0, 2.5 and 3.5 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of individual nanoparticles and core/shell are similar and indicate that all synthesized samples have a cubic spinel structure. Compares Mössbauer studies of CoFe2O4, Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles indicate superparamagnetic properties at 300 K. It was shown that individual magnetite nanoparticles are transformed into maghemite through oxidation during the synthesis procedure, wherein the smallest nanoparticles are completely oxidized while a magnetite core does occur in the case of the largest nanoparticles. The Mössbauer spectra of core/shell nanoparticles with increasing CoFe2O4-shell thickness show a gradual decrease in the relative intensity of the quadrupole doublet and significant decrease of the mean isomer shift value at both RT and 77 K indicating a decrease of the superparamagnetic relaxation phenomena. Specific loss power for the prepared ferrofluids was experimentally calculated and it was determined that under influence of ac-magnetic field magnetic fluid based on individual CoFe2O4 and Fe3-xO4 particles are characterized by very low heating temperature, when magnetic fluids based on core/shell nanoparticles demonstrate higher heating effect.

  20. Assembly of ultrasmall Cu3N nanoparticles into three-dimensional porous monolithic aerogels.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rupali; Tervoort, Elena; Käch, Julian; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    We present for the first time the synthesis of transition metal nitride aerogels, specifically Cu3N aerogels by destabilizing colloidal Cu3N nanoparticles into gels using controlled heat treatment. The resulting aerogels consist of interconnected three-dimensional networks with ultrasmall-sized nanoparticle bridges of a surface area of 381 m(2) g(-1) and only 5% relative density. PMID:27169877

  1. Cellular distribution and degradation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marmorato, Patrick; Ceccone, Giacomo; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Pascolo, Lorella; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François; Salomé, Murielle; Kaulich, Burkhard; Kiskinova, Maya

    2011-11-30

    The effect of the concentration of cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) on their intracellular location and distribution has been explored by synchrotron radiation X-ray and fluorescence microscopy (SR-XRF) monitoring the evolution of NPs elemental composition as well. In cells exposed to low concentrations of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the NPs preferentially segregate in the perinuclear region preserving their initial chemical content. At concentrations exceeding 500 μM the XRF spectra indicate the presence of Co and Fe also in the nuclear region, accompanied by sensible changes in the cellular morphology. The increase of the Co/Fe ratio measured in the nuclear compartment indicates that above certain concentrations the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs intracellular distribution could be accompanied by biodegradation resulting in Co accumulation in the nucleus. PMID:21925252

  2. Use of magnetic nanoparticles to enhance bioethanol production in syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kee; Lee, Haryeong

    2016-03-01

    The effect of two types of nanoparticles on the enhancement of bioethanol production in syngas fermentation by Clostridium ljungdahlii was examined. Methyl-functionalized silica and methyl-functionalized cobalt ferrite-silica (CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3) nanoparticles were used to improve syngas-water mass transfer. Of these, CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles showed better enhancement of syngas mass transfer. The nanoparticles were recovered using a magnet and reused five times to evaluate reusability, and it was confirmed that their capability for mass transfer enhancement was maintained. Both types of nanoparticles were applied to syngas fermentation, and production of biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid was enhanced. CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles were more efficient for the productivity of syngas fermentation due to improved syngas mass transfer. The biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid production compared to a control were increased by 227.6%, 213.5%, and 59.6%, respectively by addition of CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles. The reusability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by reuse of recovered nanoparticles for fermentation. PMID:26773957

  3. Biointeractions of ultrasmall glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles: effect of small size variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Alioscka A.; Hassan, Sergio A.; Knittel, Luiza L.; Balbo, Andrea; Aronova, Maria A.; Brown, Patrick H.; Schuck, Peter; Leapman, Richard D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate behaviors depending on nanoparticle size: particles between 2 and 3 nm in core diameter were found to readily aggregate in biological media, whereas those strictly under 2 nm were exceptionally stable. Molecular dynamics simulations provided microscopic insight into interparticle interactions leading to aggregation and their sensitivity to the solution composition and particle size. These results have important implications, in that seemingly small variations in size can impact the biointeractions of ultrasmall AuGSH, and potentially of other ultrasmall nanoparticles as well.Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate

  4. Biointeractions of ultrasmall glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles: effect of small size variations.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alioscka A; Hassan, Sergio A; Knittel, Luiza L; Balbo, Andrea; Aronova, Maria A; Brown, Patrick H; Schuck, Peter; Leapman, Richard D

    2016-03-28

    Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate behaviors depending on nanoparticle size: particles between 2 and 3 nm in core diameter were found to readily aggregate in biological media, whereas those strictly under 2 nm were exceptionally stable. Molecular dynamics simulations provided microscopic insight into interparticle interactions leading to aggregation and their sensitivity to the solution composition and particle size. These results have important implications, in that seemingly small variations in size can impact the biointeractions of ultrasmall AuGSH, and potentially of other ultrasmall nanoparticles as well. PMID:26934984

  5. Ultradispersed Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Assembled in Graphene Aerogel for Continuous Photo-Fenton Reaction and Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bocheng; Deng, Yuanxin; Du, Mengmeng; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    The Photo-Fenton reaction is an advanced technology to eliminate organic pollutants in environmental chemistry. Moreover, the conversion rate of Fe3+/Fe2+ and utilization rate of H2O2 are significant factors in Photo-Fenton reaction. In this work, we reported three dimensional (3D) hierarchical cobalt ferrite/graphene aerogels (CoFe2O4/GAs) composites by the in situ growing CoFe2O4 crystal seeds on the graphene oxide (GO) followed by the hydrothermal process. The resulting CoFe2O4/GAs composites demonstrated 3D hierarchical pore structure with mesopores (14~18 nm), macropores (50~125 nm), and a remarkable surface area (177.8 m2 g−1). These properties endowed this hybrid with the high and recyclable Photo-Fenton activity for methyl orange pollutant degradation. More importantly, the CoFe2O4/GAs composites can keep high Photo-Fenton activity in a wide pH. Besides, the CoFe2O4/GAs composites also exhibited excellent cyclic performance and good rate capability. The 3D framework can not only effectively prevent the volume expansion and aggregation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles during the charge/discharge processes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but also shorten lithium ions and electron diffusion length in 3D pathways. These results indicated a broaden application prospect of 3D-graphene based hybrids in wastewater treatment and energy storage. PMID:27373343

  6. Ultradispersed Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Assembled in Graphene Aerogel for Continuous Photo-Fenton Reaction and Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bocheng; Deng, Yuanxin; Du, Mengmeng; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    The Photo-Fenton reaction is an advanced technology to eliminate organic pollutants in environmental chemistry. Moreover, the conversion rate of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) and utilization rate of H2O2 are significant factors in Photo-Fenton reaction. In this work, we reported three dimensional (3D) hierarchical cobalt ferrite/graphene aerogels (CoFe2O4/GAs) composites by the in situ growing CoFe2O4 crystal seeds on the graphene oxide (GO) followed by the hydrothermal process. The resulting CoFe2O4/GAs composites demonstrated 3D hierarchical pore structure with mesopores (14~18 nm), macropores (50~125 nm), and a remarkable surface area (177.8 m(2 )g(-1)). These properties endowed this hybrid with the high and recyclable Photo-Fenton activity for methyl orange pollutant degradation. More importantly, the CoFe2O4/GAs composites can keep high Photo-Fenton activity in a wide pH. Besides, the CoFe2O4/GAs composites also exhibited excellent cyclic performance and good rate capability. The 3D framework can not only effectively prevent the volume expansion and aggregation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles during the charge/discharge processes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but also shorten lithium ions and electron diffusion length in 3D pathways. These results indicated a broaden application prospect of 3D-graphene based hybrids in wastewater treatment and energy storage. PMID:27373343

  7. Ultradispersed Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Assembled in Graphene Aerogel for Continuous Photo-Fenton Reaction and Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Bocheng; Deng, Yuanxin; Du, Mengmeng; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-07-01

    The Photo-Fenton reaction is an advanced technology to eliminate organic pollutants in environmental chemistry. Moreover, the conversion rate of Fe3+/Fe2+ and utilization rate of H2O2 are significant factors in Photo-Fenton reaction. In this work, we reported three dimensional (3D) hierarchical cobalt ferrite/graphene aerogels (CoFe2O4/GAs) composites by the in situ growing CoFe2O4 crystal seeds on the graphene oxide (GO) followed by the hydrothermal process. The resulting CoFe2O4/GAs composites demonstrated 3D hierarchical pore structure with mesopores (14~18 nm), macropores (50~125 nm), and a remarkable surface area (177.8 m2 g‑1). These properties endowed this hybrid with the high and recyclable Photo-Fenton activity for methyl orange pollutant degradation. More importantly, the CoFe2O4/GAs composites can keep high Photo-Fenton activity in a wide pH. Besides, the CoFe2O4/GAs composites also exhibited excellent cyclic performance and good rate capability. The 3D framework can not only effectively prevent the volume expansion and aggregation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles during the charge/discharge processes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but also shorten lithium ions and electron diffusion length in 3D pathways. These results indicated a broaden application prospect of 3D-graphene based hybrids in wastewater treatment and energy storage.

  8. A facile one-pot method to synthesize ultrasmall core-shell superparamagnetic and upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qian; Guo, Hongxuan; Li, Yu; Liu, Shouxin; Sui, Jiehe; Cai, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasmall core-shell Fe3O4@NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanoparticles with bifunctional properties have been successfully synthesized via one pot thermolysis method using oleylamine as both solvent and stabilizer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), upconversion (UC) luminescence spectra and the physical properties measurement system (PPMS) were used to characterize the resulting samples. The synthesized samples have uniform morphology with a mean size of 14.5nm and excellent dispersibility. Moreover, these nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour with saturation magnetization of 8.45emμ/g and efficient up-conversion emission with a two-photon induced process when excited by a 980nm laser. These results suggest that the synthesized ultrasmall bifunctional nanoparticles may find many biomedical applications, such as clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancers. PMID:27135942

  9. Ultra-small lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for tumor-penetrating drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehaini, Diana; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Kroll, Ashley V.; Yu, Chun Lai; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2016-07-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, consisting of a polymeric core coated by a layer of lipids, are a class of highly scalable, biodegradable nanocarriers that have shown great promise in drug delivery applications. Here, we demonstrate the facile synthesis of ultra-small, sub-25 nm lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using an adapted nanoprecipitation approach and explore their utility for targeted delivery of a model chemotherapeutic. The fabrication process is first optimized to produce a monodisperse population of particles that are stable under physiological conditions. It is shown that these ultra-small hybrid nanoparticles can be functionalized with a targeting ligand on the surface and loaded with drug inside the polymeric matrix. Further, the in vivo fate of the nanoparticles after intravenous injection is characterized by examining the blood circulation and biodistribution. In a final proof-of-concept study, targeted ultra-small hybrid nanoparticles loaded with the cancer drug docetaxel are used to treat a mouse tumor model and demonstrate improved efficacy compared to a clinically available formulation of the drug. The ability to synthesize a significantly smaller version of the established lipid-polymer hybrid platform can ultimately enhance its applicability across a wider range of applications.

  10. Confirmation of disordered structure of ultrasmall CdSe nanoparticles from X-ray atomic pair distribution function analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohao; Masadeh, Ahmad S; McBride, James R; Božin, Emil S; Rosenthal, Sandra J; Billinge, Simon J L

    2013-06-14

    The atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data has been used to study the structure of small and ultra-small CdSe nanoparticles. A method is described that uses a wurtzite and zinc-blende mixed phase model to account for stacking faults in CdSe particles. The mixed-phase model successfully describes the structure of nanoparticles larger than 2 nm yielding a stacking fault density of about 30%. However, for ultrasmall nanoparticles smaller than 2 nm, the models cannot fit the experimental PDF showing that the structure is significantly modified from that of larger particles and the bulk. The observation of a significant change in the average structure at ultra-small size is likely to explain the unusual properties of the ultrasmall particles such as their white light emitting ability. PMID:23525376

  11. Probing the interaction induced conformation transitions in acid phosphatase with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: Relation to inhibition and bio-activity of Chlorella vulgaris acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Zhou, Xing; Yao, Hongzhou; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Chao

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the interaction and kinetics of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) with acid phosphatase (ACP) by utilizing diverse range of spectroscopic techniques. The results corroborate, the CoFe2O4 NPs cause fluorescence quenching in ACP by static quenching mechanism. The negative values of van't Hoff thermodynamic expressions (ΔH=-0.3293Jmol(-1)K(-1) and ΔG=-3.960kJmol(-1)K(-1)) corroborate the spontaneity and exothermic nature of static quenching. The positive value of ΔS (13.2893Jmol(-1)K(-1)) corroborate that major contributors of higher and stronger binding affinity among CoFe2O4 NPs with ACP were electrostatic. In addition, FTIR, UV-CD, UV-vis spectroscopy and three dimensional fluorescence (3D) techniques confirmed that CoFe2O4 NPs binding induces microenvironment perturbations leading to secondary and tertiary conformation changes in ACP to a great extent. Furthermore, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) affirmed the comparatively significant changes in microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residue by CoFe2O4 NPs. The effect of CoFe2O4 NPs on the activation kinetics of ACP was further examined in Chlorella vulgaris. Apparent Michaelis constant (Km) values of 0.57 and 26.5mM with activation energy values of 0.538 and 3.428kJmol(-1) were determined without and with 200μM CoFe2O4 NPs. Apparent Vmax value of -7Umml(-1) corroborate that enzyme active sites were completely captured by the NPs leaving no space for the substrate. The results confirmed that CoFe2O4 NPs ceased the activity by unfolding of ACP enzyme. This suggests CoFe2O4 NPs perturbed the enzyme activity by transitions in conformation and hence the metabolic activity of ACP. This study provides the pavement for novel and simple approach of using sensitive biomarkers for sensing NPs in environment. PMID:27209386

  12. High-Performance Flexible Organic Nano-Floating Gate Memory Devices Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Hyung; Kim, Sunghwan; Kim, Hyeonjung; Park, Jongnam; Oh, Joon Hak

    2015-10-01

    Nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices are transistor-type memory devices that use nanostructured materials as charge trap sites. They have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to their excellent performance, capability for multilevel programming, and suitability as platforms for integrated circuits. Herein, novel NFGM devices have been fabricated using semiconducting cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) as charge trap sites and pentacene as a p-type semiconductor. Monodisperse CoFe2O4 NPs with different diameters have been synthesized by thermal decomposition and embedded in NFGM devices. The particle size effects on the memory performance have been investigated in terms of energy levels and particle-particle interactions. CoFe2O4 NP-based memory devices exhibit a large memory window (≈73.84 V), a high read current on/off ratio (read I(on)/I(off)) of ≈2.98 × 10(3), and excellent data retention. Fast switching behaviors are observed due to the exceptional charge trapping/release capability of CoFe2O4 NPs surrounded by the oleate layer, which acts as an alternative tunneling dielectric layer and simplifies the device fabrication process. Furthermore, the NFGM devices show excellent thermal stability, and flexible memory devices fabricated on plastic substrates exhibit remarkable mechanical and electrical stability. This study demonstrates a viable means of fabricating highly flexible, high-performance organic memory devices. PMID:26153227

  13. Unconventional route to encapsulated ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for high-temperature catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Hongyu; He, Shengnan; Liu, Kai; Liu, Hongyang; Yin, Yadong; Gao, Chuanbo

    2014-07-22

    Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (us-AuNPs, <3 nm) have been recently recognized as surprisingly active and extraordinarily effective green catalysts. Their stability against sintering during reactions, however, remains a serious issue for practical applications. Encapsulating such small nanoparticles in a layer of porous silica can dramatically enhance the stability, but it has been extremely difficult to achieve using conventional sol-gel coating methods due to the weak metal/oxide affinity. In this work, we address this challenge by developing an effective protocol for the synthesis of us-AuNP@SiO2 single-core/shell nanospheres. More specifically, we take an alternative route by starting with ultrasmall gold hydroxide nanoparticles, which have excellent affinity to silica, then carrying out controllable silica coating in reverse micelles, and finally converting gold hydroxide particles into well-protected us-AuNPs. With a single-core/shell configuration that prevents sintering of nearby us-AuNPs and amino group modification of the Au/SiO2 interface that provides additional coordinating interactions, the resulting us-AuNP@SiO2 nanospheres are highly stable at high temperatures and show high activity in catalytic CO oxidation reactions. A dramatic and continuous increase in the catalytic activity has been observed when the size of the us-AuNPs decreases from 2.3 to 1.5 nm, which reflects the intrinsic size effect of the Au nanoparticles on an inert support. The synthesis scheme described in this work is believed to be extendable to many other ultrasmall metal@oxide nanostructures for much broader catalytic applications. PMID:24984223

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles thinly coated with silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumb, A.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Choyke, P. L.; Fugger, L.; Eggeman, A.; Prabhakaran, D.; Hutchinson, J.; Dobson, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of iron chloride salts with ammonia and then encapsulated with thin (~2 nm) layers of silica. The particles have been characterized for size, diffraction pattern, surface charge, and magnetic properties. This rapid and economical synthesis has a number of industrial applications; however, the silica-coated particles have been optimized for use in medical applications such as magnetic resonance contrast agents and biosensors, and in DNA capturing, bioseparation and enzyme immobilization.

  15. Nanoencapsulation of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide into human serum albumin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Altinok, Mahmut; Urfels, Stephan; Bauer, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human serum albumin nanoparticles have been utilized as drug delivery systems for a variety of medical applications. Since ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) are used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, their encapsulation into the protein matrix enables the synthesis of diagnostic and theranostic agents by surface modification and co-encapsulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The present investigation deals with the surface modification and nanoencapsulation of USPIO into an albumin matrix by using ethanolic desolvation. Particles of narrow size distribution and with a defined particle structure have been achieved. PMID:25551054

  16. Geometrically confined ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles boost the T1 contrast ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kaiyuan; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhou, Zijian; Yang, Li; Wang, Lirong; Ai, Hua; Gao, Jinhao

    2016-02-01

    High-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and novel contrast enhancement strategies are urgently needed for sensitive and accurate diagnosis. Here we report a strategy to construct a new T1 contrast agent based on the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan (SBM) theory. We loaded the ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles into worm-like interior channels of mesoporous silica nanospheres (Gd2O3@MSN nanocomposites). This unique structure endows the nanocomposites with geometrical confinement, high molecular tumbling time, and a large coordinated number of water molecules, which results in a significant enhancement of the T1 contrast with longitudinal proton relaxivity (r1) as high as 45.08 mM-1 s-1. Such a high r1 value of Gd2O3@MSN, compared to those of ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles and gadolinium-based clinical contrast agents, is mainly attributed to the strong geometrical confinement effect. This strategy provides new guidance for developing various high-performance T1 contrast agents for sensitive imaging and disease diagnosis.High-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and novel contrast enhancement strategies are urgently needed for sensitive and accurate diagnosis. Here we report a strategy to construct a new T1 contrast agent based on the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan (SBM) theory. We loaded the ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles into worm-like interior channels of mesoporous silica nanospheres (Gd2O3@MSN nanocomposites). This unique structure endows the nanocomposites with geometrical confinement, high molecular tumbling time, and a large coordinated number of water molecules, which results in a significant enhancement of the T1 contrast with longitudinal proton relaxivity (r1) as high as 45.08 mM-1 s-1. Such a high r1 value of Gd2O3@MSN, compared to those of ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles and gadolinium-based clinical contrast agents, is mainly attributed to the strong geometrical confinement effect. This strategy

  17. Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles as Carriers for Nucleus-Based Gene Therapy Due to Size-Dependent Nuclear Entry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the size-dependent penetration ability of gold nanoparticles and the potential application of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for intranucleus delivery and therapy. We synthesized gold nanoparticles with diameters of 2, 6, 10, and 16 nm and compared their intracellular distribution in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm (2 and 6 nm) could enter the nucleus, whereas larger ones (10 and 16 nm) were found only in the cytoplasm. We then investigated the possibility of using ultrasmall 2 nm nanoparticles as carriers for nuclear delivery of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) that binds to the c-myc promoter. Compared to free TFO, the nanoparticle-conjugated TFO was more effective at reducing c-myc RNA and c-myc protein, which resulted in reduced cell viability. Our result demonstrated that the entry of gold nanoparticles into the cell nucleus is critically dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. We developed a strategy for regulating gene expression, by directly delivering TFOs into the nucleus using ultrasmall gold nanoparticles. More importantly, guidelines were provided to choose appropriate nanocarriers for different biomedical purposes. PMID:24824865

  18. Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles as carriers for nucleus-based gene therapy due to size-dependent nuclear entry.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuaidong; Jin, Shubin; Ma, Xiaowei; Xue, Xiangdong; Yang, Keni; Kumar, Anil; Wang, Paul C; Zhang, Jinchao; Hu, Zhongbo; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-06-24

    The aim of this study was to determine the size-dependent penetration ability of gold nanoparticles and the potential application of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for intranucleus delivery and therapy. We synthesized gold nanoparticles with diameters of 2, 6, 10, and 16 nm and compared their intracellular distribution in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm (2 and 6 nm) could enter the nucleus, whereas larger ones (10 and 16 nm) were found only in the cytoplasm. We then investigated the possibility of using ultrasmall 2 nm nanoparticles as carriers for nuclear delivery of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) that binds to the c-myc promoter. Compared to free TFO, the nanoparticle-conjugated TFO was more effective at reducing c-myc RNA and c-myc protein, which resulted in reduced cell viability. Our result demonstrated that the entry of gold nanoparticles into the cell nucleus is critically dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. We developed a strategy for regulating gene expression, by directly delivering TFOs into the nucleus using ultrasmall gold nanoparticles. More importantly, guidelines were provided to choose appropriate nanocarriers for different biomedical purposes. PMID:24824865

  19. Geometrically confined ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles boost the T(1) contrast ability.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kaiyuan; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhou, Zijian; Yang, Li; Wang, Lirong; Ai, Hua; Gao, Jinhao

    2016-02-14

    High-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and novel contrast enhancement strategies are urgently needed for sensitive and accurate diagnosis. Here we report a strategy to construct a new T1 contrast agent based on the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan (SBM) theory. We loaded the ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles into worm-like interior channels of mesoporous silica nanospheres (Gd2O3@MSN nanocomposites). This unique structure endows the nanocomposites with geometrical confinement, high molecular tumbling time, and a large coordinated number of water molecules, which results in a significant enhancement of the T1 contrast with longitudinal proton relaxivity (r1) as high as 45.08 mM(-1) s(-1). Such a high r1 value of Gd2O3@MSN, compared to those of ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles and gadolinium-based clinical contrast agents, is mainly attributed to the strong geometrical confinement effect. This strategy provides new guidance for developing various high-performance T1 contrast agents for sensitive imaging and disease diagnosis. PMID:26814592

  20. Oleylamine as a beneficial agent for the synthesis of CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles with potential biomedical uses.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Violetta; Kokotidou, Chrysoula; Le Droumaguet, Benjamin; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Choli-Papadopoulou, Theodora; Dendrinou-Samara, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    The multifunctional role of oleylamine (OAm) as a versatile and flexible reagent in synthesis as well as a desired surface ligand for the synthesis of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) is described. CoFe2O4 NPs were prepared by a facile, reproducible and scalable solvothermal approach in the presence of pure OAm. By monitoring the volume of OAm, different shapes of NPs, spherical and truncated, were formed. The syntheses led to high yields of monodispersed and considerably small (9-11 nm) CoFe2O4 NPs with enhanced magnetization (M(s) = 84.7-87.5 emu g(-1)). The resulting hydrophobic CoFe2O4 NPs were easily transferred to an aqueous phase through the formation of reverse micelles between the hydrophobic chains of OAm and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and transverse relaxivities (r2) were measured. The spherical NPs had a greater effect on water proton relaxivity (r2 = 553 mM(-1) s(-1)) at an applied magnetic field of 11.7 T. The NPs became fluorescent probes by exploiting the presence of the double bond of OAm in the middle of the molecule; a thiol-ene "click" reaction with the fluorophore bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) was achieved. The labeled/biofunctionalized CoFe2O4 NPs interacted with cancer (HeLa and A549) and non-cancer cell lines (MRC5 and dental MSCS) and cell viability was estimated. A clear difference of toxicity between the cancer and non-cancer cells was observed while low cytotoxicity in living cells was supported. Confocal laser microscopy showed that NPs entered the cell membranes and were firstly localized close to them provoking a membrane expansion and were further accumulated perinuclearly without entering the nuclei. PMID:24604256

  1. Rapid synthesis of PEGylated ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for cell labeling and tracking with MRI.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Luc; Tremblay, Mélanie; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Fortin, Marc-André

    2012-09-26

    Ultrasmall paramagnetic Gd(2)O(3) nanoparticles have been developed as contrast agents for molecular and cellular preclinical MRI procedures. These small particles (mean diameter <5 nm) have the highest Gd density of all paramagnetic contrast agents. They generate strong positive contrast enhancement in T(1)-weighted MRI. Signal enhancement is modulated by the interactions of water molecules with Gd, and very small particles provide the optimal surface-to-volume ratios necessary to reach high relaxivities. Conventional Gd(2)O(3) nanocrystal synthesis techniques, and subsequent polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafting procedures are usually time-consuming and recovery losses are also limitative. The present study reports on a new, fast, and efficient one-pot Gd(2)O(3) synthesis technique that provides PEGylated nanoparticles of very small size (mean diameter = 1.3 nm). Readily coated with PEG, the particles are colloidally stable in aqueous media and provide high longitudial relaxivities and small r(2)/r(1) ratios (r(1) = 14.2 mM(-1) s(-1) at 60 MHz; r(2)/r(1) = 1.20), ideal for T(1)-weighted MRI. In this study, F98 brain cancer cells (glioblastoma multiforme) were labeled with the contrast agent and implanted in vivo (mice brains). The labeled cells appeared positively contrasted at least 48 h after implantation. Each one of the implanted animals developed a brain tumor. The performance of PEG-Gd(2)O(3) was also compared with that of commercially available iron oxide nanoparticles. This study demonstrated that ultrasmall PEG-Gd(2)O(3) nanoparticles provide strong positive contrast enhancement in T(1)-weighted imaging, and allow the visualization of labeled cells implanted in vivo. PMID:22834680

  2. Influence of the morphology of ferrite nanoparticles on the directed assembly into magnetically anisotropic hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Lisjak, Darja; Jenuš, Petra; Mertelj, Alenka

    2014-06-10

    The effect of the morphology of ferrite nanoparticles on their assembly in a magnetic field was studied. Thin BaFe12O19 nanoplatelets were compared with isotropic, spherical or octahedral, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, all of which were synthesized hydrothermally. The nanoplatelets and nanoparticles assembled into a variety of hierarchical structures from stable suspensions during the "drop deposition" and drying in a magnetic field. The alignment of the nanoparticles in the magnetic field was observed in situ with an optical microscope. The morphologies of the nanoparticles and the subsequent assemblies were observed with transmission and scanning electron microscopes, respectively. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the assemblies were measured with a vibrating-sample magnetometer. The BaFe12O19 nanoplatelets aligned in the plane of the substrate and formed several-micrometers-thick, ordered films with a magnetic alignment of approximately 90%. The CoFe2O4 nanoparticles assembled into thick, dense columns with a height of several hundreds of micrometers and showed a magnetic alignment of up to 60%. The differences in the morphologies and the magnetic alignments between the BaFe12O19 and CoFe2O4 hierarchical structures could be explained in terms of the differences in the shape and magnetocrystalline structure of the specific nanoparticles. PMID:24841592

  3. Highly coercive cobalt ferrite nanoparticles-CuTl-1223 superconductor composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbar, Abdul; Qasim, Irfan; Khan, Shahid A.; Nadeem, K.; Waqee-ur-Rehman, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Zeb, F.

    2015-03-01

    We explored the effects of highly coercive cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles addition on structural, morphological, and superconducting properties of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ (CuTl-1223} matrix. Series of (CoFe2O4)x/CuTl-1223 (x=0 2.0 wt%) composites samples were synthesized and were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy, and dc-resistivity versus temperature measurements. The magnetic behavior of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was determined by MH-loops with the help of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). MH-loops analysis showed that these nanoparticles exhibit high saturation magnetization (86 emu/g) and high coercivity (3350 Oe) at 50 K. The tetragonal structure of host CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix was not altered after the addition of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which gave us a clue that these nanoparticles had occupied the inter-granular sites (grain-boundaries) and had filled the pores. The increase of mass density with increasing content of these nanoparticles in composites can also be an evidence of filling up the voids in the matrix. The resistivity versus temperature measurements showed an increase in zero resistivity critical {Tc(0)}, which could be most probably due to improvement of weak-links by the addition of these nanoparticles. But the addition of these nanoparticles beyond an optimum level caused the agglomeration and produced additional stresses in material and suppressed the superconductivity.

  4. Impact of agglomeration on the relaxometric properties of paramagnetic ultra-small gadolinium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, Luc; Gossuin, Yves; Hocq, Aline; Fortin, Marc-André

    2011-07-01

    Ultra-small gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (US-Gd2O3) are used to provide 'positive' contrast effects in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and are being considered for molecular and cellular imaging applications. However, these nanoparticles can aggregate over time in aqueous medium, as well as when internalized into cells. This study is aimed at measuring in vitro, in aqueous medium, the impact of aggregation on the relaxometric properties of paramagnetic US-Gd2O3 particles. First, the nanoparticle core size as well as aggregation behaviour was assessed by HRTEM. DLS (hydrodynamic diameter) was used to measure the hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles and nanoaggregates. The relaxometric properties were measured by NMRD profiling, as well as with 1H NMR relaxometers. Then, the positive contrast enhancement effect was assessed by using magnetic resonance scanners (at 1.5 and 7 T). At every magnetic field, the longitudinal relaxivity (r1) decreased upon agglomeration, while remaining high enough to provide positive contrast. On the other hand, the transverse relaxivity (r2) slightly decreased at 0.47 and 1.41 T, but it was enhanced at higher fields (7 and 11.7 T) upon agglomeration. All NMRD profiles revealed a characteristic relaxivity peak in the range 60-100 MHz, suggesting the possibility to use US-Gd2O3 as an efficient 'positive-T1' contrast agent at clinical magnetic fields (1-3 T), in spite of aggregation.

  5. Differential hERG ion channel activity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Annika; Pan, Yu; Kinkeldey, Anne; Schiefer, Frank; Setzler, Julia; Scheel, Olaf; Lichtenbeld, Hera; Schmid, Günter; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Simon, Ulrich

    2013-05-14

    Understanding the mechanism of toxicity of nanomaterials remains a challenge with respect to both mechanisms involved and product regulation. Here we show toxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Depending on the ligand chemistry, 1.4-nm-diameter AuNPs failed electrophysiology-based safety testing using human embryonic kidney cell line 293 cells expressing human ether-á-go-go-Related gene (hERG), a Food and Drug Administration-established drug safety test. In patch-clamp experiments, phosphine-stabilized AuNPs irreversibly blocked hERG channels, whereas thiol-stabilized AuNPs of similar size had no effect in vitro, and neither particle blocked the channel in vivo. We conclude that safety regulations may need to be reevaluated and adapted to reflect the fact that the binding modality of surface functional groups becomes a relevant parameter for the design of nanoscale bioactive compounds. PMID:23630249

  6. Differential hERG ion channel activity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Leifert, Annika; Pan, Yu; Kinkeldey, Anne; Schiefer, Frank; Setzler, Julia; Scheel, Olaf; Lichtenbeld, Hera; Schmid, Günter; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Simon, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of toxicity of nanomaterials remains a challenge with respect to both mechanisms involved and product regulation. Here we show toxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Depending on the ligand chemistry, 1.4-nm-diameter AuNPs failed electrophysiology-based safety testing using human embryonic kidney cell line 293 cells expressing human ether-á-go-go-Related gene (hERG), a Food and Drug Administration-established drug safety test. In patch-clamp experiments, phosphine-stabilized AuNPs irreversibly blocked hERG channels, whereas thiol-stabilized AuNPs of similar size had no effect in vitro, and neither particle blocked the channel in vivo. We conclude that safety regulations may need to be reevaluated and adapted to reflect the fact that the binding modality of surface functional groups becomes a relevant parameter for the design of nanoscale bioactive compounds. PMID:23630249

  7. Charge-controlled nanoprecipitation as a modular approach to ultrasmall polymer nanocarriers: making bright and stable nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reisch, Andreas; Runser, Anne; Arntz, Youri; Mély, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2015-05-26

    Ultrasmall polymer nanoparticles are rapidly gaining importance as nanocarriers for drugs and contrast agents. Here, a straightforward modular approach to efficiently loaded and stable sub-20-nm polymer particles is developed. In order to obtain ultrasmall polymer nanoparticles, we investigated the influence of one to two charged groups per polymer chain on the size of particles obtained by nanoprecipitation. Negatively charged carboxylate and sulfonate or positively charged trimethylammonium groups were introduced into the polymers poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). According to dynamic light scattering, atomic force and electron microscopy, the presence of one to two charged groups per polymer chain can strongly reduce the size of polymer nanoparticles made by nanoprecipitation. The particle size can be further decreased to less than 15 nm by decreasing the concentration of polymer in the solvent used for nanoprecipitation. We then show that even very small nanocarriers of 15 nm size preserve the capacity to encapsulate large amounts of ionic dyes with bulky counterions at efficiencies >90%, which generates polymer nanoparticles 10-fold brighter than quantum dots of the same size. Postmodification of their surface with the PEG containing amphiphiles Tween 80 and pluronic F-127 led to particles that were stable under physiological conditions and in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. This modular route could become a general method for the preparation of ultrasmall polymer nanoparticles as nanocarriers of contrast agents and drugs. PMID:25894117

  8. Adsorption kinetics of plasma proteins on ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jansch, M; Stumpf, P; Graf, C; Rühl, E; Müller, R H

    2012-05-30

    In this study the kinetics of plasma protein adsorption onto ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles have been analyzed and compared to previously published kinetic studies on polystyrene particles (PS particles), oil-in-water nanoemulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). SPIO and USPIO nanoparticles are commonly used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancers for tumor imaging as well as in drug delivery applications. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) has been used to determine the plasma protein adsorption onto the citrate/triethylene glycol-stabilized iron oxide surface. The results indicate that the existence of a Vroman effect, a displacement of previously adsorbed abundant proteins, such as albumin or fibrinogen, respectively, on USPIO particles has to be denied. Previously, identical findings have been reported for oil-in-water nanoemulsions. Furthermore, the protein adsorption kinetics differs dramatically from that of other solid drug delivery systems (PS, SLN). More relevant for the in vivo fate of long circulating particles is the protein corona after several minutes or even hours. Interestingly, the patterns received after an incubation time of 0.5 min to 240 min are found to be qualitatively and quantitatively similar. This leads to the assumption of a long-lived ("hard") protein corona around the iron oxide nanoparticles. PMID:22342465

  9. Ultrasmall cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as nontoxic and efficient MRI contrast agent and magnetic-targeting tool.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Mayara Klimuk; Toma, Sergio Hiroshi; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes de Paula; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Cervantes Rodríguez, Hernán Joel; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Luz, Maciel Santos; Rabbani, Said Rahnamaye; Toma, Henrique Eisi; Poliselli Farsky, Sandra Helena; Araki, Koiti

    2015-01-01

    Fully dispersible, cationic ultrasmall (7 nm diameter) superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, exhibiting high relaxivity (178 mM(-1)s(-1) in 0.47 T) and no acute or subchronic toxicity in Wistar rats, were studied and their suitability as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and material for development of new diagnostic and treatment tools demonstrated. After intravenous injection (10 mg/kg body weight), they circulated throughout the vascular system causing no microhemorrhage or thrombus, neither inflammatory processes at the mesentery vascular bed and hepatic sinusoids (leukocyte rolling, adhesion, or migration as evaluated by intravital microscopy), but having been spontaneously concentrated in the liver, spleen, and kidneys, they caused strong negative contrast. The nanoparticles are cleared from kidneys and bladder in few days, whereas the complete elimination from liver and spleen occurred only after 4 weeks. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles caused no effects on hepatic and renal enzymes dosage as well as on leukocyte count. In addition, they were readily concentrated in rat thigh by a magnet showing its potential as magnetically targeted carriers of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Summarizing, cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are nontoxic and efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents useful as platform for the development of new materials for application in theranostics. PMID:26251595

  10. Ultrasmall cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as nontoxic and efficient MRI contrast agent and magnetic-targeting tool

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Mayara Klimuk; Toma, Sergio Hiroshi; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Cervantes Rodríguez, Hernán Joel; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Luz, Maciel Santos; Rabbani, Said Rahnamaye; Toma, Henrique Eisi; Poliselli Farsky, Sandra Helena; Araki, Koiti

    2015-01-01

    Fully dispersible, cationic ultrasmall (7 nm diameter) superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, exhibiting high relaxivity (178 mM−1s−1 in 0.47 T) and no acute or subchronic toxicity in Wistar rats, were studied and their suitability as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and material for development of new diagnostic and treatment tools demonstrated. After intravenous injection (10 mg/kg body weight), they circulated throughout the vascular system causing no microhemorrhage or thrombus, neither inflammatory processes at the mesentery vascular bed and hepatic sinusoids (leukocyte rolling, adhesion, or migration as evaluated by intravital microscopy), but having been spontaneously concentrated in the liver, spleen, and kidneys, they caused strong negative contrast. The nanoparticles are cleared from kidneys and bladder in few days, whereas the complete elimination from liver and spleen occurred only after 4 weeks. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles caused no effects on hepatic and renal enzymes dosage as well as on leukocyte count. In addition, they were readily concentrated in rat thigh by a magnet showing its potential as magnetically targeted carriers of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Summarizing, cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are nontoxic and efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents useful as platform for the development of new materials for application in theranostics. PMID:26251595

  11. Chemisorption of cyanogen chloride by spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Glover, T Grant; DeCoste, Jared B; Sabo, Daniel; Zhang, Z John

    2013-05-01

    Spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, MnFe2O4, NiFe2O4, and CoFe2O4, were synthesized and used as gas-phase adsorbents for the removal of cyanogen chloride from dry air. Fixed-bed adsorption breakthrough experiments show adsorption wave behavior at the leading edge of the breakthrough curve that is not typical of physically adsorbed species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicate that CK is reacting with the spinel ferrite surface and forming a carbamate species. The reaction is shown to be a function of the hydroxyl groups and adsorbed water on the surface of the particles as well as the metallic composition of the particles. The surface reaction decreases the remnant and saturation magnetism of the MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 particles by approximately 25%. PMID:23540752

  12. Optical characterization of ultrasmall, hydrogen-terminated and carboxyl-functionalized silicon nanoparticles in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhoff, Dean Alan

    The primary theme of this dissertation is to characterize the optical and chemical properties of ultrasmall (˜1 nm) silicon nanoparticles (Si-np) in aqueous environments, focusing on their potential for use as luminescent markers in biophysical and biological applications. Two systems are presented in detail: hydrogen-terminated Si-np prepared through electrochemical dispersion of a crystalline Si wafer and carboxyl-functionalized Si-np prepared via thermal hydrosilylation of surface Si-H bonds with an o-ester 1-alkene. Chemical and physical characterizations are done using nuclear magnetic resonance, size exclusion chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy. Optical characterization is done via absorption and steady-state photoluminescence (PL) and using capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The behavior of the hydrogen-terminated Si-np is studied over time as-prepared in isopropanol and during treatments with water, NaOH, HCl, and H2O 2. The PL spectra show three distinct, near-Gaussian states with a FWHM ˜0.45 eV and their respective emissions in the UV-B (˜305 nm), UV-A (˜340 nm), and 'hard-blue' (˜400 nm) regions of the spectrum. The 'hard-blue' emission is shown to have a simple pH dependence with a pKa ˜3, demonstrating the possibility of using Si-np as environmental probes. These results offer some promise for tailoring the PL properties of ultrasmall Si-np through control of their surface chemistry. In the second part, three central elements establish that the carboxyl-functionalized Si-np have excellent potential for use as a luminescent marker in aqueous systems. First, they are shown to be ultrasmall, with a diameter of ˜1 nm, comparable to that of common organic fluorophores. Second, they are shown to have narrow PL in the near-UV with a nearly-symmetric lineshape and a FWHM as small as 30 nm. Third, it is shown that standard chemical means can be used to functionalize the Si-np with carboxyl groups, giving

  13. Size-selective synthesis of ultrasmall hydrophilic CdSe nanoparticles in aqueous solution at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon-Su; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophilic semiconductor nanoparticles are very attractive for various biological applications, such as in optical sensing, tracing, and imaging of biological molecules-of-interest, because of their broad excitation wavelength, tunable emission wavelength, strong photoluminescence, and relatively high stability against photobleaching and chemicals. Compared to organic phase synthesis and subsequent surface modification, aqueous phase synthesis approaches provide multiple advantages for obtaining hydrophilic semiconductor nanoparticles. Here, we describe methods for the size-selective growth and stabilization of ultrasmall hydrophilic CdSe nanoparticles in aqueous solution at room temperature by using amino acid cysteine or one of its derivatives as a surface capping agent. PMID:22791428

  14. RGD-functionalized ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Yang, Jia; Yan, Yu; Li, Jingchao; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Mignani, Serge; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration range, and display targeting specificity to glioma cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrin in vitro. With the relatively high r1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.4 mM-1 s-1), the Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles can be used as an efficient nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted positive MR imaging of glioma cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo via an active RGD-mediated targeting pathway. The developed RGD-functionalized Fe3O4 NPs may hold great promise to be used as a nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of different αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells or biological systems.We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration

  15. Kinetically-controlled synthesis of ultra-small silica nanoparticles and ultra-thin coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Tao; Yao, Lin; Liu, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    The understanding of silica as a polymer-like globule allows us to synthesize ultra-small silica nanoparticles (NPs) via a kinetic controlled process. The synthetic system is quite simple with Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TESO) as the precursor and H2O as the solvent and reactant. The reaction conditions are gentle with a temperature of around 35 to 60 °C with an incubation time of 7-12 hours. The final product of the silica NPs is very uniform and could be as small as 10 nm. The silica NPs can further grow up to 18 nm under the controlled addition of the precursors. Also, these silica NPs can be used as seeds to generate larger silica NPs with sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm, which can be a useful supplement to the size range made by the traditional Stöber method. Moreover, these ultra-small Au NPs can be used as a depletion reagent or as building blocks for an ultrathin silica coating, which has significant applications in fine-tuning the plasmons of AuNPs and thin spacers for surface enhanced spectroscopies.The understanding of silica as a polymer-like globule allows us to synthesize ultra-small silica nanoparticles (NPs) via a kinetic controlled process. The synthetic system is quite simple with Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TESO) as the precursor and H2O as the solvent and reactant. The reaction conditions are gentle with a temperature of around 35 to 60 °C with an incubation time of 7-12 hours. The final product of the silica NPs is very uniform and could be as small as 10 nm. The silica NPs can further grow up to 18 nm under the controlled addition of the precursors. Also, these silica NPs can be used as seeds to generate larger silica NPs with sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm, which can be a useful supplement to the size range made by the traditional Stöber method. Moreover, these ultra-small Au NPs can be used as a depletion reagent or as building blocks for an ultrathin silica coating, which has significant applications in fine-tuning the plasmons of Au

  16. Synthesis of core/shell spinel ferrite/carbon nanoparticles with enhanced cycling stability for lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yun-Ho; Seo, Seung-Deok; Shim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2012-03-01

    Monodispersed core/shell spinel ferrite/carbon nanoparticles are formed by thermolysis of metal (Fe3+, Co2+) oleates followed by carbon coating. The phase and morphology of nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Pure Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are initially prepared through thermal decomposition of metal-oleate precursors at 310 °C and they are found to exhibit poor electrochemical performance because of the easy aggregation of nanoparticles and the resulting increase in the interparticle contact resistance. In contrast, uniform carbon coating of Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles by low-temperature (180 °C) decomposition of malic acid allowed each nanoparticle to be electrically wired to a current collector through a conducting percolative path. Core/shell Fe3O4/C and CoFe2O4/C nanocomposite electrodes show a high specific capacity that can exceed 700 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles, along with enhanced cycling stability.

  17. Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles anchored to graphene and enhanced photothermal effects by laser irradiation of gold nanostructures in graphene oxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Zedan, Abdallah F; Moussa, Sherif; Terner, James; Atkinson, Garrett; El-Shall, M Samy

    2013-01-22

    In this work we demonstrate the coupling of the photothermal effects of gold nanostructures of controlled size and shape with graphene oxide nanosheets dispersed in water. The enhanced photothermal effects can be tuned by controlling the shape and size of the gold nanostructures, which result in a remarkable increase in the heating efficiency of the laser-induced size reduction of gold nanostructures. The Raman spectra of the Au-graphene nanosheets provide direct evidence for the presence of more structural defects in the graphene lattice induced by laser irradiation of graphene oxide nanosheets in the presence of Au nanostructures. The large surface areas of the laser-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with multiple defect sites and vacancies provide efficient nucleation sites for the ultrasmall gold nanoparticles with diameters of 2-4 nm to be anchored to the graphene surface. This defect filling mechanism decreases the mobility of the ultrasmall gold nanoparticles and, thus, stabilizes the particles against the Ostwald ripening process, which leads to a broad size distribution of the laser-size-reduced gold nanoparticles. The Au nanostructures/graphene oxide solutions and the ultrasmall gold-graphene nanocomposites are proposed as promising materials for photothermal therapy and for the efficient conversion of solar energy into usable heat for a variety of thermal, thermochemical, and thermomechanical applications. PMID:23194145

  18. Clinical translation of an ultrasmall inorganic optical-PET imaging nanoparticle probe.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Evan; Penate-Medina, Oula; Zanzonico, Pat B; Carvajal, Richard D; Mohan, Pauliah; Ye, Yunpeng; Humm, John; Gönen, Mithat; Kalaigian, Hovanes; Schöder, Heiko; Strauss, H William; Larson, Steven M; Wiesner, Ulrich; Bradbury, Michelle S

    2014-10-29

    A first-in-human clinical trial of ultrasmall inorganic hybrid nanoparticles, "C dots" (Cornell dots), in patients with metastatic melanoma is described for the imaging of cancer. These renally excreted silica particles were labeled with (124)I for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and modified with cRGDY peptides for molecular targeting. (124)I-cRGDY-PEG-C dot particles are inherently fluorescent, containing the dye, Cy5, so they may be used as hybrid PET-optical imaging agents for lesion detection, cancer staging, and treatment management in humans. However, the clinical translation of nanoparticle probes, including quantum dots, has not kept pace with the accelerated growth in minimally invasive surgical tools that rely on optical imaging agents. The safety, pharmacokinetics, clearance properties, and radiation dosimetry of (124)I-cRGDY-PEG-C dots were assessed by serial PET and computerized tomography after intravenous administration in patients. Metabolic profiles and laboratory tests of blood and urine specimens, obtained before and after particle injection, were monitored over a 2-week interval. Findings are consistent with a well-tolerated inorganic particle tracer exhibiting in vivo stability and distinct, reproducible pharmacokinetic signatures defined by renal excretion. No toxic or adverse events attributable to the particles were observed. Coupled with preferential uptake and localization of the probe at sites of disease, these first-in-human results suggest safe use of these particles in human cancer diagnostics. PMID:25355699

  19. Clinical translation of an ultrasmall inorganic optical-PET imaging nanoparticle probe

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Evan; Penate-Medina, Oula; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Carvajal, Richard D.; Mohan, Pauliah; Ye, Yunpeng; Humm, John; Gönen, Mithat; Kalaigian, Hovanes; Schöder, Heiko; Strauss, H. William; Larson, Steven M.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Bradbury, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial of ultrasmall inorganic hybrid nanoparticles, “C dots” (Cornell dots), in patients with metastatic melanoma is described for the imaging of cancer. These renally excreted silica particles were labeled with 124I for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and modified with cRGDY peptides for molecular targeting. 124I-cRGDY–PEG–C dot particles are inherently fluorescent, containing the dye, Cy5, so they may be used as hybrid PET-optical imaging agents for lesion detection, cancer staging, and treatment management in humans. However, the clinical translation of nanoparticle probes, including quantum dots, has not kept pace with the accelerated growth in minimally invasive surgical tools that rely on optical imaging agents. The safety, pharmacokinetics, clearance properties, and radiation dosimetry of 124I-cRGDY–PEG–C dots were assessed by serial PET and computerized tomography after intravenous administration in patients. Metabolic profiles and laboratory tests of blood and urine specimens, obtained before and after particle injection, were monitored over a 2-week interval. Findings are consistent with a well-tolerated inorganic particle tracer exhibiting in vivo stability and distinct, reproducible pharmacokinetic signatures defined by renal excretion. No toxic or adverse events attributable to the particles were observed. Coupled with preferential uptake and localization of the probe at sites of disease, these first-in-human results suggest safe use of these particles in human cancer diagnostics. PMID:25355699

  20. Ultrasmall dual-modality silica nanoparticle drug conjugates: Design, synthesis, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Barney; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Li; Burns, Andrew; Sequeira, Sonia; Mellinghoff, Ingo; Brennan, Cameron; Wiesner, Ulrich; Bradbury, Michelle S

    2015-11-15

    The physicochemical design and synthesis of effective cancer-directed and particle-based nanotherapeutic imaging agents remains a challenging task. Of critical importance is the ability to demonstrate maximum delivery, retention, and treatment efficacy for platforms designed to deposit their cargo at sites of disease without attendant dose-limiting toxicity. In this work, we describe dual-modality nanoparticle drug conjugates (NDCs) which utilize protease sensitive linkers to attached drug compounds and imaging labels to a clinically translated class of ultrasmall silica nanoparticle (C' dots). We describe the synthesis and characterization of these linker-drug constructs. Linkers incorporating dipeptide enzyme substrates are attached to analogs of a prototypical epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), through a cleavable amide bond or para-aminobenzyloxycarbonyl (PABC) group. These constructs are conjugated onto C' dots leading to the desired NDCs. These NDCs exhibit fast and predictable release kinetics in the presence of model proteases, and are stable in various biological media. Finally, in vitro assays show NDCs to be highly active in reducing phosphorylated EGFR levels in H1650 cells, a human tumor-derived cell line. The data suggests that NDCs exhibit desirable properties that warrant further development toward oncological therapy. PMID:26462054

  1. Superparamagnetic MFe2O 4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn, Mn) nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, induction heating and cell viability studies for cancer hyperthermia applications.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Sandip; Jadhav, Vidhya; Khot, Vishwajeet; Zhu, Xiaoli; Xin, Meiling; Chen, Hongxia

    2015-03-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoferrites are prepared by simple and one step refluxing in polyol synthesis. The ferrite nanoparticles prepared by this method exhibit particle sizes below 10 nm and high degree of crystallinity. These ferrite nanoparticles are compared by means of their magnetic properties, induction heating and cell viability studies for its application in magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Out of all studied nanoparticles in present work, only ZnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 MNPs are able to produce threshold hyperthermia temperature. This rise in temperature is discussed in detail in view of their magneto-structural properties. Therefore ZnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 MNPs with improved stability, magnetic induction heating and cell viability are suitable candidates for magnetic hyperthermia. PMID:25690622

  2. The use of ultrasmall iron(0) nanoparticles as catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated C-C bonds.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Vinciane; Wendt, Bianca; Werkmeister, Svenja; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias; Chaudret, Bruno

    2013-04-28

    The performance of well-defined ultrasmall iron(0) nanoparticles (NPs) as catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated C-C and C=X bonds is reported. Monodisperse iron nanoparticles of about 2 nm size are synthesized by the decomposition of {Fe(N[Si(CH3)3]2)2}2 under dihydrogen. They are found to be active for the hydrogenation of various alkenes and alkynes under mild conditions and weakly active for C=O bond hydrogenation. PMID:23505625

  3. Determination of biodistribution of ultrasmall, near-infrared emitting gold nanoparticles by photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Wilson; Heinmiller, Andrew; Zhang, Xuan; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2015-06-01

    This study compares fluorescence and photoacoustic (PA) imaging of ex vivo tumors and organs from tumor-bearing mice injected intravenously with ultrasmall (<3 nm) tiopronin-capped Au nanoparticles and compares the data with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Good agreement is seen in particle distributions and concentrations at the organ level. The spatial resolution from the imaging techniques allows for localization of the particles within organ structures. Although the particles do not have a plasmon peak, their absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) is sufficient for PA excitation. PA imaging shows an increase of signal as particle concentrations increase, with changes in spectrum if particles aggregate. Fluorescence imaging using the particles' native NIR emission shows agreement in general intensity in each organ, though quenching of emission can be seen at very high concentrations. Both of these imaging techniques are noninvasive and labor-saving alternatives to organ digestion and ICP-MS and may provide insight into cellular distribution of particles. The simple construct avoids the use of toxic semiconductor materials or dyes, relying upon the gold itself for both the fluorescence and PA signal. This provides a useful alternative to more complex approaches to multimodal imaging and one that is readily translatable to the clinic.

  4. Intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph node metastases using a clinically translated ultrasmall silica nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Michelle S; Pauliah, Mohan; Zanzonico, Pat; Wiesner, Ulrich; Patel, Snehal

    2016-07-01

    The management of regional lymph nodes in patients with melanoma has undergone a significant paradigm shift over the past several decades, transitioning from the use of more aggressive surgical approaches, such as lymph node basin dissection, to the application of minimally invasive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy methods to detect the presence of nodal micrometastases. SLN biopsy has enabled reliable, highly accurate, and low-morbidity staging of regional lymph nodes in early stage melanoma as a means of guiding treatment decisions and improving patient outcomes. The accurate identification and staging of lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor, identifying those patients for whom the expected benefits of nodal resection outweigh attendant surgical risks. However, currently used standard-of-care technologies for SLN detection are associated with significant limitations. This has fueled the development of clinically promising platforms that can serve as intraoperative visualization tools to aid accurate and specific determination of tumor-bearing lymph nodes, map cancer-promoting biological properties at the cellular/molecular levels, and delineate nodes from adjacent critical structures. Among a number of promising cancer-imaging probes that might facilitate achievement of these ends is a first-in-kind ultrasmall tumor-targeting inorganic (silica) nanoparticle, designed to overcome translational challenges. The rationale driving these considerations and the application of this platform as an intraoperative treatment tool for guiding resection of cancerous lymph nodes is discussed and presented within the context of alternative imaging technologies. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:535-553. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1380 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26663853

  5. Synergistic Effect between Ultra-Small Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide sheets for the Application in High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonghuan; Wang, Rutao; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale electrode materials including metal oxide nanoparticles and two-dimensional graphene have been employed for designing supercapacitors. However, inevitable agglomeration of nanoparticles and layers stacking of graphene largely hamper their practical applications. Here we demonstrate an efficient co-ordination and synergistic effect between ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for synthesizing ideal electrode materials. On one hand, to make the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles work at full capacity as an ideal pseudocapacitive material, RGO sheets are employed as an suitable substrate to anchor these nanoparticles against agglomeration. As a consequence, an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1717 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 is achieved. On the other hand, to further facilitate ion transfer within RGO sheets as an ideal electrical double layer capacitor material, the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles are introduced among RGO sheets as the recyclable sacrificial spacer to prevent the stacking. The resulting RGO sheets exhibit superior rate capability with a high capacitance of 182 F g−1 at 100 A g−1. On this basis, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled using the two materials, delivering a superior energy density of 75 Wh kg−1 and an ultrahigh power density of 40 000 W kg−1. PMID:26053847

  6. Synergistic Effect between Ultra-Small Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide sheets for the Application in High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonghuan; Wang, Rutao; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale electrode materials including metal oxide nanoparticles and two-dimensional graphene have been employed for designing supercapacitors. However, inevitable agglomeration of nanoparticles and layers stacking of graphene largely hamper their practical applications. Here we demonstrate an efficient co-ordination and synergistic effect between ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for synthesizing ideal electrode materials. On one hand, to make the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles work at full capacity as an ideal pseudocapacitive material, RGO sheets are employed as an suitable substrate to anchor these nanoparticles against agglomeration. As a consequence, an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1717 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 is achieved. On the other hand, to further facilitate ion transfer within RGO sheets as an ideal electrical double layer capacitor material, the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles are introduced among RGO sheets as the recyclable sacrificial spacer to prevent the stacking. The resulting RGO sheets exhibit superior rate capability with a high capacitance of 182 F g-1 at 100 A g-1. On this basis, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled using the two materials, delivering a superior energy density of 75 Wh kg-1 and an ultrahigh power density of 40 000 W kg-1.

  7. Synergistic Effect between Ultra-Small Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide sheets for the Application in High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yonghuan; Wang, Rutao; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale electrode materials including metal oxide nanoparticles and two-dimensional graphene have been employed for designing supercapacitors. However, inevitable agglomeration of nanoparticles and layers stacking of graphene largely hamper their practical applications. Here we demonstrate an efficient co-ordination and synergistic effect between ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for synthesizing ideal electrode materials. On one hand, to make the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles work at full capacity as an ideal pseudocapacitive material, RGO sheets are employed as an suitable substrate to anchor these nanoparticles against agglomeration. As a consequence, an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1717 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) is achieved. On the other hand, to further facilitate ion transfer within RGO sheets as an ideal electrical double layer capacitor material, the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles are introduced among RGO sheets as the recyclable sacrificial spacer to prevent the stacking. The resulting RGO sheets exhibit superior rate capability with a high capacitance of 182 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1). On this basis, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled using the two materials, delivering a superior energy density of 75 Wh kg(-1) and an ultrahigh power density of 40 000 W kg(-1). PMID:26053847

  8. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of PVP-coated ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahdatkhah, Parisa; Madaah Hosseini, Hamid Reza; Khodaei, Azin; Montazerabadi, Ali Reza; Irajirad, Rasoul; Oghabian, Mohamad Ali; Delavari H., Hamid

    2015-05-01

    Synthesis of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) with enhanced T1-weighted signal intensity and r2/r1 ratio close to unity is performed by a microwave-assisted polyol process. PVP coated Gd2O3NPs with spherical shape and uniform size of 2.5 ± 0.5 nm have been synthesized below 5 min and structure and morphology confirmed by HRTEM, XRD and FTIR. The longitudinal (r1) and transversal relaxation (r2) of Gd2O3NPs is measured by a 3 T MRI scanner. The results showed considerable increasing of relaxivity for Gd2O3NPs in comparison to gadolinium chelates which are commonly used for clinical magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, a mechanism for Gd2O3NPs formation and in situ surface modification of PVP-grafted Gd2O3NPs is proposed.

  9. Biological reactivity of nanoparticles: mosaics from optical microscopy videos of giant lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Jernej; Dobnikar, Andrej; Drobne, Damjana; Valant, Janez; Erdogmus, Deniz; Bas, Erhan

    2011-02-01

    Emerging fields such as nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, demand new information on the effects of nanoparticles on biological membranes and lipid vesicles are suitable as an experimental model for bio-nano interaction studies. This paper describes image processing algorithms which stitch video sequences into mosaics and recording the shapes of thousands of lipid vesicles, which were used to assess the effect of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles on the population of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles. The applicability of this methodology for assessing the potential of engineered nanoparticles to affect morphological properties of lipid membranes is discussed. PMID:21361687

  10. Biological reactivity of nanoparticles: mosaics from optical microscopy videos of giant lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupanc, Jernej; Dobnikar, Andrej; Drobne, Damjana; Valant, Janez; Erdogmus, Deniz; Bas, Erhan

    2011-02-01

    Emerging fields such as nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, demand new information on the effects of nanoparticles on biological membranes and lipid vesicles are suitable as an experimental model for bio-nano interaction studies. This paper describes image processing algorithms which stitch video sequences into mosaics and recording the shapes of thousands of lipid vesicles, which were used to assess the effect of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles on the population of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles. The applicability of this methodology for assessing the potential of engineered nanoparticles to affect morphological properties of lipid membranes is discussed.

  11. Transfer of ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles from human brain-derived endothelial cells to human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Halamoda Kenzaoui, Blanka; Angeloni, Silvia; Overstolz, Thomas; Niedermann, Philippe; Chapuis Bernasconi, Catherine; Liley, Martha; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are being used or explored for the development of biomedical applications in diagnosis and therapy, including imaging and drug delivery. Therefore, reliable tools are needed to study the behavior of NPs in biological environment, in particular the transport of NPs across biological barriers, including the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB), a challenging question. Previous studies have addressed the translocation of NPs of various compositions across cell layers, mostly using only one type of cells. Using a coculture model of the human BBTB, consisting in human cerebral endothelial cells preloaded with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO NPs) and unloaded human glioblastoma cells grown on each side of newly developed ultrathin permeable silicon nitride supports as a model of the human BBTB, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of USPIO NPs from human brain-derived endothelial cells to glioblastoma cells. The reduced thickness of the permeable mechanical support compares better than commercially available polymeric supports to the thickness of the basement membrane of the cerebral vascular system. These results are the first report supporting the possibility that USPIO NPs could be directly transferred from endothelial cells to glioblastoma cells across a BBTB. Thus, the use of such ultrathin porous supports provides a new in vitro approach to study the delivery of nanotherapeutics to brain cancers. Our results also suggest a novel possibility for nanoparticles to deliver therapeutics to the brain using endothelial to neural cells transfer. PMID:23578059

  12. Ligand-size and ligand-chain hydrophilicity effects on the relaxometric properties of ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Lee, Sang Hyup; Chae, Kwon Seok; Cha, Hyunsil; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Gang Ho

    2016-06-01

    The relaxometric properties of ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles coated with various ligands were investigated. These ligands include small diacids with hydrophobic chains, namely, succinic acid (Mw = 118.09 amu), glutaric acid (Mw = 132.12 amu), and terephthalic acid (Mw = 166.13 amu), and large polyethylenimines (PEIs) with hydrophilic chains, namely, PEI-1300 ( M ¯ n = 1300 ) and PEI-10000 ( M ¯ n = 10000 ). Ligand-size and ligand-chain hydrophilicity effects were observed. The longitudinal (r1) and transverse (r2) water proton relaxivities generally decreased with increasing ligand-size (the ligand-size effect). The ligand-size effect was weaker for PEI because its hydrophilic chains allow water molecules to access the nanoparticle (the ligand-chain hydrophilicity effect). This result was explained on the basis of the magnetic dipole interaction between the dipoles of the nanoparticle and water proton. In addition, all samples were found to be non-toxic in cellular cytotoxicity tests.

  13. Ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticle decorated graphene nanosheets with superior cyclic performance and rate capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Song, Bohang; Lu, Li; Xue, Junmin

    2013-07-01

    Advanced anode materials for next generation lithium ion batteries have attracted great interest due to the ever increasing demand for powerful, light-weight, and compact electrical devices. In this work, graphene nanosheets decorated with ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticles (USIO/G) were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. Compared with other reported Fe3O4-based anode composites, USIO/G demonstrated superior cyclic ability and excellent rate capability owing to its ultra-small size of active lithium storage sites, Fe3O4, with an average diameter less than 5 nm. Furthermore, graphene nanosheets played an important role in the overall electrochemical performance of the composite by enhancing the electrical conductivity, forming a flexible network, and providing extra lithium storage sites. The obtained composites were tested for electrochemical performance for a total number of 2120 cycles: a rate capability test with current densities ranged from 90 to 7200 mA g-1 for 920 cycles, followed by a cycling test at 1800 mA g-1 for 1200 cycles. For the rate capability test, steady reversible capacities were delivered under each current density with final reversible capacities of 1177, 1096, 833, 488, 242, and 146 mA h g-1 at 90, 180, 900, 1800, 3600, and 7200 mA g-1, respectively. The subsequent cyclic test demonstrated the superior cyclic stability of USIO/G and a reversible capacity of 437 mA h g-1 at the 2120th cycle was delivered.Advanced anode materials for next generation lithium ion batteries have attracted great interest due to the ever increasing demand for powerful, light-weight, and compact electrical devices. In this work, graphene nanosheets decorated with ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticles (USIO/G) were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. Compared with other reported Fe3O4-based anode composites, USIO/G demonstrated superior cyclic ability and excellent rate capability owing to its ultra-small size of active lithium storage sites, Fe3O4, with

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and X-ray Attenuation Properties of Ultrasmall BiOI Nanoparticles: Toward Renal Clearable Particulate CT Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A unique decelerated hydrolytic procedure is developed and reported here for the preparation of ultrasmall nanoparticles (NPs) of PVP-coated BiOI with a narrow size distribution, i.e., 2.8 ± 0.5 nm. The crystal structure of this compound is determined by X-ray powder diffraction using the bulk materials. The stability, cytotoxicity, and potential use of the PVP-coated ultrasmall BiOI NPs as a CT contrast agent are investigated. Because of the combined X-ray attenuation effect of bismuth and iodine, such NPs exhibit a CT value that is among the best of those of the inorganic nanoparticle-based CT contrast agents reported in the literature. PMID:25283335

  15. PEG-nanolized ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles overcome drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through induction of mitochondria dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shanyuan; Li, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yibo; Xie, Qiang; Wong, Yum-Shing; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Gray selenium (Se) is one of the most widely used Se sources with very limited biocompatibility and bioactivity. In the present study, a simple method for the preparation of ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) through direct nanolization of gray selenium by polyethylene glycol (PEG) was demonstrated. Monodisperse and homogeneous PEG-SeNPs with ultrasmall diameters were successfully prepared under optimized conditions. The products were characterized using various microscopic and spectroscopic methods, and the results suggest that the amphoteric properties of PEG and the coordination between oxygen and selenium atoms contributed to the formation of ultrasmall nanoparticles. PEG-SeNPs exhibited stronger growth inhibition on drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (R-HepG2) cells than on normal HepG2 cells. Dose-dependent apoptosis was induced by PEG-SeNPs in R-HepG2 cells, as evidenced by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population. Further investigation on the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of superoxide anions contributed to PEG-SeNPs-induced apoptotic cell death in R-HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that PEG-SeNPs may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for drug-resistant liver cancer, and the strategy to use PEG200 as a surface decorator could be a highly efficient way to enhance the anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. PMID:22915845

  16. Multidentate block-copolymer-stabilized ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with enhanced colloidal stability for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chan, Nicky; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Chevallier, Pascale; Bianchi, Andrea; Fortin, Marc-André; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) with diameters <5 nm hold great promise as T1-positive contrast agents for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. However, control of the surface chemistry of USPIOs to ensure individual colloidal USPIOs with a ligand monolayer and to impart biocompatibility and enhanced colloidal stability is essential for successful clinical applications. Herein, an effective and versatile strategy enabling the development of aqueous colloidal USPIOs stabilized with well-defined multidentate block copolymers (MDBCs) is reported. The multifunctional MDBCs are designed to consist of an anchoring block possessing pendant carboxylates as multidentate anchoring groups strongly bound to USPIO surfaces and a hydrophilic block having pendant hydrophilic oligo(ethylene oxide) chains to confer water dispersibility and biocompatibility. The surface of USPIOs is saturated with multiple anchoring groups of MDBCs, thus exhibiting excellent long-term colloidal stability as well as enhanced colloidal stability at biologically relevant electrolyte, pH, and temperature conditions. Furthermore, relaxometric properties as well as in vitro and in vivo MR imaging results demonstrate that the MDBC-stabilized USPIO colloids hold great potential as an effective T1 contrast agent. PMID:24785001

  17. Synthesis of ultra-small cysteine-capped gold nanoparticles by pH switching of the Au(I)-cysteine polymer.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Paula S; Buceta, David; Morales, Gustavo M; Barbero, Cesar A; Sergio Moreno, M; Giovanetti, Lisandro J; Ramallo-López, José Martín; Requejo, Felix G; Craievich, Aldo F; Planes, Gabriel A

    2015-03-01

    We report a synthetic approach for the production of ultra-small (0.6 nm) gold nanoparticles soluble in water with a precise control of the nanoparticle size. Our synthetic approach utilizes a pH-depending Au-cysteine polymer as a quencher for the AuNPs grown. The method extends the synthetic capabilities of nanoparticles with sizes down to 1 nm. In addition to the strict pH control, the existence of free -SH groups present in the mixture of reaction has been observed as a key requirement for the synthesis of small nanoparticles in mild conditions. UV-Vis, SAXS, XANES, EXAFS and HR-TEM, has been used to determinate the particle size, characterization of the gold precursor and gold-cysteine interaction. PMID:25485807

  18. Synthesis of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with controlled morphology, monodispersity and composition: the influence of solvent, surfactant, reductant and synthetic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Le T.; Dung, Ngo T.; Tung, Le D.; Thanh, Cao T.; Quy, Ong K.; Chuc, Nguyen V.; Maenosono, Shinya; Thanh, Nguyen T. K.

    2015-11-01

    In our present work, magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised by thermal decomposition of Fe(iii) and Co(ii) acetylacetonate compounds in organic solvents in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/ oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants and 1,2-hexadecanediol (HDD) or octadecanol (OCD-ol) as an accelerating agent. As a result, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles of different shapes were tightly controlled in size (range of 4-30 nm) and monodispersity (standard deviation only at ca. 5%). Experimental parameters, such as reaction time, temperature, surfactant concentration, solvent, precursor ratio, and accelerating agent, in particular, the role of HDD, OCD-ol, and OA/OLA have been intensively investigated in detail to discover the best conditions for the synthesis of the above magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles have been successfully applied for producing oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and they have potential to be used in biomedical applications.In our present work, magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised by thermal decomposition of Fe(iii) and Co(ii) acetylacetonate compounds in organic solvents in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/ oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants and 1,2-hexadecanediol (HDD) or octadecanol (OCD-ol) as an accelerating agent. As a result, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles of different shapes were tightly controlled in size (range of 4-30 nm) and monodispersity (standard deviation only at ca. 5%). Experimental parameters, such as reaction time, temperature, surfactant concentration, solvent, precursor ratio, and accelerating agent, in particular, the role of HDD, OCD-ol, and OA/OLA have been intensively investigated in detail to discover the best conditions for the synthesis of the above magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles have been successfully applied for producing oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and they have potential to be used in biomedical applications. Electronic

  19. Microwave characterization of magnetically hard and soft ferrite nanoparticles in K-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Pina, C.; Falletta, E.; Ferretti, A. M.; Ponti, A.; Gentili, G. G.; Verri, V.; Nesti, R.

    2014-10-01

    Nano-sized magnetic particles show great promise in improving the performance of microwave absorbers with respect to the corresponding bulk materials. In this paper, magnetically hard and soft ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4) having an average size of 14 and 11 nm were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized in terms of morphology, structure, and magnetic properties. Their permeability and permittivity were measured by a waveguide technique, embedding each sample in a host medium. Their parameters at microwave frequencies were retrieved by comparing different effective medium equations.

  20. Magnetocaloric effect in ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, P.; Gass, J.; Rebar, D. J.; Srinath, S.; Srikanth, H.; Morrison, S. A.; Carpenter, E. E.

    2006-12-01

    A comparative study of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is reported in two different types of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticle systems—cobalt ferrite and manganese zinc ferrite with mean size around 5 and 15 nm, respectively. While CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation, the Mn 0.68Zn 0.25Fe 2.07O 4 (MZFO) nanoparticles were prepared by reverse micelle technique using AOT as surfactant. Our results indicate that the change in entropy with the change in applied magnetic field (d S/d H) is reasonably large for this class of nanoparticles and has a wide distribution over a broad temperature range covering the region above and below the blocking temperature. The maximum entropy change is influenced by the particle size, overall distribution in anisotropy and magnetic moments.

  1. Direct isolation of flavonoids from plants using ultra-small anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kurepa, Jasmina; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Paunesku, Tatjana; Suzuki, Makoto; Saito, Kazuki; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Smalle, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Surface functionalization of nanoparticles has become an important tool for the in vivo delivery of bioactive agents to their target sites. Here we describe the reverse strategy, nanoharvesting, in which nanoparticles are used as a tool to isolate and enrich bioactive compounds from living cells. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm form strong bonds with molecules carrying enediol and especially catechol groups. We show that these nanoparticles can enter plant cells, conjugate enediol and catechol group-rich flavonoids in situ, and exit plant cells as flavonoid-nanoparticle conjugates. The source plant tissues remain viable after treatment. As predicted by the surface chemistry of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, the quercetin-based flavonoids were enriched amongst the nanoharvested flavonoid species. Nanoharvesting eliminates the use of organic solvents, allows spectral identification of the isolated compounds, and offers a new avenue for the use of nanomaterials for the coupled isolation and testing of bioactive properties of plant-made compounds. PMID:24147867

  2. Ultra-small rhenium nanoparticles immobilized on DNA scaffolds: An excellent material for surface enhanced Raman scattering and catalysis studies.

    PubMed

    Anantharaj, S; Sakthikumar, K; Elangovan, Ayyapan; Ravi, G; Karthik, T; Kundu, Subrata

    2016-12-01

    Highly Sensitive and ultra-small Rhenium (Re) metal nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully stabilized in water by the staging and fencing action of the versatile biomolecule DNA that resulted in two distinct aggregated chain-like morphologies with average grain sizes of 1.1±0.1nm and 0.7±0.1nm for the very first time within a minute of reaction time. Re NPs are formed by the borohydride reduction of ammonium perrhenate (NH4ReO4) in the presence of DNA at room temperature (RT) under stirring. The morphologies were controlled by carefully monitoring the molar ratio of NH4ReO4 and DNA. The synthesized material was employed in two potential applications: as a substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies and as a catalyst for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. SERS study was carried out by taking methylene blue (MB) as the probe and the highest SERS enhancement factor (EF) of 2.07×10(7) was found for the aggregated chain-like having average grain size of 0.7±0.1nm. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitro phenol (4-NP), 2-nitro phenol (2-NP) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) with a rate constant value of 6×10(-2)min(-1), 33.83×10(-2)min(-1) and 37.4×10(-2)min(-1) have testified the excellent catalytic performance of our Re NPs immobilized on DNA. The overall study have revealed the capability of DNA in stabilizing the highly reactive Re metal at nanoscale and made them applicable in practice. The present route can also be extended to prepare one dimensional (1-D), self-assembled NPs of other reactive metals, mixed metals or even metal oxides for specific applications in water based solutions. PMID:27571687

  3. Hollow magnetic microspheres obtained by nanoparticle adsorption on surfactant stabilized microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, Artem; Jouhannaud, Julien; Polavarapu, Prasad; Krafft, Marie Pierre; Waton, Gilles; Pourroy, Geneviève

    2014-07-28

    We report on the stabilization of nanoparticle-decorated microbubbles for long periods of time using a synergism between a soluble surfactant and nanoparticles. The soluble surfactant is the perfluoroalkyl phosphate C8F17(CH2)2OP(O)(OH)2 (labeled F8H2Phos) and the nanoparticles (NPs) are 20-25 nm cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4). The NP-F8H2Phos system has been studied by dynamic light scattering, dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis. Microbubbles with diameters in the 1-20 μm range have been stabilized in 0.1 M NaCl brine. Its presence is crucial for the long-term stabilization. The surfactant adsorbs rapidly on bubbles and slows down the bubble shrinkage. Thus, the NPs can attach to the bubble and form a hollow sphere with a rigid shell. The charge screening by NaCl favors the attachment of NPs to the bubble surface. The coverage of the bubbles by the CoFe2O4 nanoparticle layer is confirmed by thermally induced inflation-deflation experiments and the control of bubbles with a magnetic field. PMID:24909785

  4. Iridium ultrasmall nanoparticles, worm-like chain nanowires, and porous nanodendrites: One-pot solvothermal synthesis and catalytic CO oxidation activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Shuai-Chen; Zhu, Wei; Ke, Jun; Yu, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Dai, Lin-Xiu; Gu, Jun; Zhang, Ya-Wen

    2016-06-01

    We report a facile one-pot solvothermal synthesis of monodisperse iridium (Ir) ultrasmall (1.5-2.5 nm in diameter) nanoparticles (NPs), worm-like chain nanowires (NWs), and porous nanodendrites (NDs), for which CO oxidation reaction has been employed as a probe reaction to investigate the effects of nanoparticle size and surface-capping organics on the catalytic activities. Time-dependent experiments revealed that an oriented attachment mechanism induced by the strong adsorption of halide anions (Br- and I-) on specific facet of Ir nanoclusters or by decreasing the reduction rate of Ir precursors with changing their concentrations during the synthesis was responsible for the formation of Ir NWs and NDs. Annealing tests indicated that an O2-H2 atmosphere treatment turned out to be an effective measure to clean up the surface-capping organics of Ir NPs supported on commercial SiO2. Catalytic CO oxidation reaction illustrated that a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of CO oxidation reaction was achieved together with the changing of activation energies after such atmosphere treatment for the supported catalysts of the ultrasmall Ir NPs. It is noteworthy that this enhancement in catalytic activity could be ascribed to the changes in the surface status (including populations of Ir species in metallic and oxidized states, removal of surface capping organics, the variety of active sites, and total effective active site number) for the supported nanocatalysts during the atmosphere treatment.

  5. Dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application.

    PubMed

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Ahmad, Md Wasi; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-11

    A new type of dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd(3+) ((8)S7/2) plays an important role in T1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy(3+) ((6)H15/2) has the potential to be used in T2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy2O3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd(3+) and Dy(3+) and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T1 and T2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (davg = 1.0 nm) showed large r1 and r2 values (r2/r1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R1 and R2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T1 and T2 MR images. PMID:26291827

  6. Maghemite decorated with ultra-small palladium nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3–Pd): applications in the Heck–Mizoroki olefination, Suzuki reaction and allylic oxidation of alkenes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nanocatalyst comprising ultra-small Pd/PdO nanoparticles (<5 nm) supported on maghemite was prepared by a co-precipitation protocol using inexpensive raw materials and was deployed successfully in various significant synthetic transformations, namely the Heck–Mizoroki olefinati...

  7. Copper(0) nanoparticles supported on silica-coated cobalt ferrite magnetic particles: cost effective catalyst in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane with an exceptional reusability performance.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Ozkar, Saim; Volkan, Mürvet

    2012-08-01

    Herein we report the development of a new and cost-effective nanocomposite catalyst for the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane (NH(3)BH(3)), which is considered to be one of the most promising solid hydrogen carriers because of its high gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (19.6% wt) and low molecular weight. The new catalyst system consisting of copper nanoparticles supported on magnetic SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) particles was reproducibly prepared by wet-impregnation of Cu(II) ions on SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) followed by in situ reduction of the Cu(II) ions on the surface of magnetic support during the hydrolysis of NH(3)BH(3) and characterized by ICP-MS, XRD, XPS, TEM, HR-TEM and N(2) adsorption-desorption technique. Copper nanoparticles supported on silica coated cobalt(II) ferrite SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) (CuNPs@SCF) act as highly active catalyst in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane, providing an initial turnover frequency of TOF = 2400 h(-1) at room temperature, which is not only higher than all the non-noble metal catalysts but also higher than the majority of the noble metal based homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts employed in the same reaction. More importantly, they were easily recovered by using a permanent magnet in the reactor wall and reused for up to 10 recycles without losing their inherent catalytic activity significantly, which demonstrates the exceptional reusability of the CuNPs@SCF catalyst. PMID:22856878

  8. Enhancing the antimicrobial activity of natural extraction using the synthetic ultrasmall metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen; Urmila, Khulal

    2015-01-01

    The use of Catechin as an antibacterial agent is becoming ever-more common, whereas unstable and easy oxidation, have limited its application. A simple and low-energy-consuming approach to synthesize highly stable and dispersive Catechin-Cu nanoparticles(NPs) has been developed, in which the stability and dispersivity of the NPs are varied greatly with the pH value and temperature of the reaction. The results demonstrate that the optimal reaction conditions are pH 11 at room temperature. As-synthesized NPs display excellent antimicrobial activity, the survival rates of bacterial cells exposed to the NPs were evaluated using live/dead Bacterial Viability Kit. The results showed that NPs at the concentration of 10 ppm and 20 ppm provided rapid and effective killing of up to 90% and 85% of S. aureus and E. coli within 3 h, respectively. After treatment with 20 ppm and 40 ppm NPs, the bacteria are killed completely. Furthermore, on the basis of assessing the antibacterial effects by SEM, TEM, and AFM, it was found the cell membrane damage of the bacteria caused by direct contact of the bacteria with the NPs was the effective mechanism in the bacterial inactivation. PMID:26046938

  9. Enhancing the antimicrobial activity of natural extraction using the synthetic ultrasmall metal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen; Urmila, Khulal

    2015-01-01

    The use of Catechin as an antibacterial agent is becoming ever-more common, whereas unstable and easy oxidation, have limited its application. A simple and low-energy-consuming approach to synthesize highly stable and dispersive Catechin-Cu nanoparticles(NPs) has been developed, in which the stability and dispersivity of the NPs are varied greatly with the pH value and temperature of the reaction. The results demonstrate that the optimal reaction conditions are pH 11 at room temperature. As-synthesized NPs display excellent antimicrobial activity, the survival rates of bacterial cells exposed to the NPs were evaluated using live/dead Bacterial Viability Kit. The results showed that NPs at the concentration of 10 ppm and 20 ppm provided rapid and effective killing of up to 90% and 85% of S. aureus and E. coli within 3 h, respectively. After treatment with 20 ppm and 40 ppm NPs, the bacteria are killed completely. Furthermore, on the basis of assessing the antibacterial effects by SEM, TEM, and AFM, it was found the cell membrane damage of the bacteria caused by direct contact of the bacteria with the NPs was the effective mechanism in the bacterial inactivation. PMID:26046938

  10. Ultrasmall Organic Nanoparticles with Aggregation-Induced Emission and Enhanced Quantum Yield for Fluorescence Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Suying; Bai, Xilin; Ma, Jingwen; Xu, Minmin; Hu, Gaofei; James, Tony D; Wang, Leyu

    2016-08-01

    The use of fluorescence probes for biomedical imaging has attracted significant attention over recent years owing to their high resolution at cellular level. The probes are available in many formats including small particle size based imaging agents which are considered to be promising candidates, due to their excellent stabilities. Yet, concerns over the potential cytotoxicity effects of inorganic luminescent particles have led to questions about their suitability for imaging applications. Exploration of alternatives inspired us to use organic fluorophores with aggregation-induced emission (AIE), prepared by functionalizing the amine group on tetraphenylethene with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl isocyanate. The as-synthesized novel AIE fluorophore (TPE-F) display enhanced quantum yield and longer lifetime as compared with its counterparts (4,4',4″,4‴-(ethene-1,1,2,2-tetrayl)tetraaniline, TPE-AM). Furthermore, the TPE-F was encapsulated into small-size organic nanoparticles (NPs; dynamic light scattering size, ∼10 nm) with polysuccinimide (PSI). The biocompatibility, excellent stability, bright fluorescence, and selective cell targeting of these NPs enable the as-prepared TPE-F NPs to be suitable for specific fluorescence cell imaging. PMID:27349933