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1

Non-equilibrium cation distribution and enhanced spin disorder in hollow CoFe2O4 nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present magnetic properties of hollow and solid CoFe2O4 nanoparticles that were obtained by annealing of Co33Fe67\\/CoFe2O4 (core\\/shell) nanoparticles. Hollow nanoparticles were polycrystalline whereas the solid nanoparticles were mostly single crystal. Electronic structure studies were performed by photoemission which revealed that particles with hollow morphology have a higher degree of inversion compared to solid nanoparticles and the bulk counterpart. Electronic

G Hassnain Jaffari; A Ceylan; Holt P Bui; Thomas P Beebe Jr; S Ozcan; S Ismat Shah

2012-01-01

2

Size-dependent magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared in polyol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly crystalline CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with different diameters ranging from 2.4 to 6.1 nm have been synthesized by forced hydrolysis in polyol. The size can be controlled through adjusting the nominal water/metal molar ratio. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry were employed to investigate the structure and the microstructure of the particles produced. Magnetic measurements performed on these particles show that they are superparamagnetic with a size-dependent blocking temperature. At 5 K, high saturation magnetization (˜85 emu g-1) approaching that of the bulk was found for the larger particles, whereas a very large coercivity (14.5 kOe) is observed for the 3.5 nm sized particles.

Artus, Mathieu; Ben Tahar, Lotfi; Herbst, Frédéric; Smiri, Leila; Villain, Françoise; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Ammar, Souad; Fiévet, Fernand

2011-12-01

3

Feasibility of TEOS coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to a GMR biosensor agent for single molecular detection.  

PubMed

Magnetic properties of 200 nm ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles before and after coating with TEOS were explored and compared to soft ferrimagnetic MgFe2O4 nanoparticles (200 nm) to evaluate the feasibility as an in-vitro GMR SV (giant magnetoresistance spin-valve) biosensor agent for single molecular detection (SMD). It was found that the magnetic degradation (or variation) of TEOS coated CoFe2O4 and MgFe2O4 nanoparticles are dominantly affected by the chemical dispersion process, which is carried out in the oleic acid (OA), oleylamine (OL), or OA+OL surfactant, before starting major coating process. In addition, the TEOS coating thickness controlled by TEOS concentration and pH level in the buffer solution prominently influenced on the magnetic degradation of TEOS coated nanoparticles. According to the experimental analysis results, the magnetic degradation of TEOS coated nanoparticles is mainly attributed to the variation of particle dipole interaction caused by the degree of particle aggregation depending on TEOS coating process conditions. The TEOS coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited a higher magnetic stability for a GMR biosensor agent, e.g., small variation of remnant magnetization, saturation magnetization and magnetic coercivity, than that of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles at the different coating process conditions. The physical and chemical analysis confirmed that this is primarily due to its higher magnetic anisotropy. The experimentally verified high biocompatibility as well as the stably maintained magnetic properties of TEOS coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles demonstrate that CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can be considered as one of the promising ferrimagnetic nanoparticle sensor agent for an SMD GMR SV biosensor. PMID:21446410

Tang, Shao Qiang; Moon, Seung Je; Park, Ki Ho; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Kyung-Won; Bae, Seongtae

2011-01-01

4

Self Assembled CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles within Block Copolymer Films: Structural and Magnetic Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosize CoFe2O4 particles have been synthesized by self-assembly within diblock co-polymers, through a room-temperature templating strategy, amenable to large scale fabrication. XRD, TEM, SQUID and Mossbauer studies are combined in order to explore the morphological, structural, micromagnetic and interfacial characteristics of this nanocomposite system. TEM micrographs indicate low polydispersity, with particle size of 9.6 nm diam. Low temperature Mossbauer studies predict average sub lattice saturation hyperfine magnetic fields H (A) =501 kOe and H [B] = 527 kOe, respectively, for the tetrahedral and octahedral iron coordination sites of the ferrite spinel structure. Superparamagnetic relaxation processes, analyzed within a cubic magnetic anisotropy model, give a magnetic anisotropy density K = 3.23 x 10^5J/m^3, while SQUID magnetometry predicts a saturation coercivity of 6.1 kOe. Deviations from bulk CoFe2O4 and unsupported CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are discussed in terms of finite-size effects and interfacial interactions.

Papaefthymiou, G. C.; Viescas, A. J.; Ahmed, S. R.; Kofinas, P.

2006-03-01

5

Non-equilibrium cation distribution and enhanced spin disorder in hollow CoFe2O4 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present magnetic properties of hollow and solid CoFe2O4 nanoparticles that were obtained by annealing of Co33Fe67/CoFe2O4 (core/shell) nanoparticles. Hollow nanoparticles were polycrystalline whereas the solid nanoparticles were mostly single crystal. Electronic structure studies were performed by photoemission which revealed that particles with hollow morphology have a higher degree of inversion compared to solid nanoparticles and the bulk counterpart. Electronic structure and the magnetic measurements show that particles have uncompensated spins. Quantitative comparison of saturation magnetization (MS ), assuming bulk Néel type spin structure with cationic distribution, calculated from quantitative XPS analysis, is presented. The thickness of uncompensated spins is calculated to be significantly large for particles with hollow morphology compared to solid nanoparticles. Both morphologies show a lack of saturation up to 7 T. Moreover magnetic irreversibility exists up to 7 T of cooling fields for the entire temperature range (10-300 K). These effects are due to the large bulk anisotropy constant of CoFe2O4 which is the highest among the cubic spinel ferrites. The effect of the uncompensated spins for hollow nanoparticles was investigated by cooling the sample in large fields of up to 9 T. The magnitude of horizontal shift resulting from the unidirectional anisotropy was more than three times larger than that of solid nanoparticles. As an indication signature of uncompensated spin structure, 11% vertical shift for hollow nanoparticles is observed, whereas solid nanoparticles do not show a similar shift. Deconvolution of the hysteresis response recorded at 300 K reveals the presence of a significant paramagnetic component for particles with hollow morphology which further confirms enhanced spin disorder.

Hassnain Jaffari, G.; Ceylan, A.; Bui, Holt P.; Beebe, Thomas P., Jr.; Ozcan, S.; Shah, S. Ismat

2012-08-01

6

Synthesis, structural, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties of Cr substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles by co-precipitation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles of chromium substituted cobalt ferrite (CoFe2-xCrxO4) were prepared by the co-precipitation method for different concentrations (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) of chromium (Cr) and were annealed at 600 °C for 3 h. Formation of single phase cubic spinel structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis and the average crystallite size was in the range of 15-23 nm. Studies on the energy dispersive spectroscopy confirm the presence of Cr in Cr substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that CoFe2O4 and Cr substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are uniformly distributed and not highly agglomerated. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (??) and dielectric loss (??) of prepared nanoparticles were investigated as a function of frequency and temperature. The dielectric study reveals that dielectric constant and dielectric loss are higher for Cr substituted CoFe2O4 than the corresponding value of pure CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Studies on magnetic properties revealed that the saturation magnetization of samples decreases with increasing Cr concentration and lies in the range of 69.67-42.71 emu/g for the prepared samples. Strong red emission and weak blue and UV emissions are observed from the fluorescence spectral analysis of the prepared pure and Cr substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles.

Vadivel, M.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Sethuraman, K.; Ramamurthi, K.; Arivanandhan, M.

2014-08-01

7

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide by CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles and corresponding changes in magnetism.  

PubMed

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on 10 nm CoFe(2)O(4) spinel ferrite nanoparticles was examined. Adsorption loadings of sulfur dioxide at breakthrough conditions were determined to be approximately 0.62 mol/kg, which is significant given the 150 m(2)/g surface area of the nanoparticles. Adsorption proceeds through a chemisorption mechanism with sulfur dioxide forming a sulfate upon adsorption on the particle surface, which leads to a 23% decrease in the remnant magnetization, a 20% decrease in the saturation magnetization, and a 9% decrease in the coercivity of the magnetic nanoparticles. Adsorbent materials that provide a magnetic signal when adsorption occurs could have broad implications on adsorption-based separations. PMID:22400990

Glover, T Grant; Sabo, Daniel; Vaughan, Lisa A; Rossin, Joseph A; Zhang, Z John

2012-04-01

8

The enhanced microwave absorption property of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles coated with a Co3Fe7-Co nanoshell by thermal reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were fabricated by a sol-gel method and then were coated with Co3Fe7-Co by means of a simple reduction process at different temperatures under 2% H2 with the protection of argon to generate the dielectric-core/metallic-shell structure. The optimum reflection loss (RL) calculated from permittivity and permeability of the 80 wt% CoFe2O4/Co3Fe7-Co and 20 wt% epoxy resin composites reached - 34.4 dB, which was much lower than that of unreduced CoFe2O4 and epoxy resin composites, at 2.4 GHz with a matching thickness of 4.0 mm. Moreover the RL exceeding - 10 dB in the maximum frequency range of 2.2-16 GHz was achieved for a thickness of composites of 1.0-4.5 mm with 600 °C thermal reduction process. The improved microwave absorption properties are a consequence of a proper electromagnetic match and the enhanced magnetic loss besides its dielectric loss due to the existence of the core/shell structure in CoFe2O4 composites. Thus, the reductive CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have great potential for being a highly efficient microwave absorber.

Xi, Li; Wang, Zhen; Zuo, Yalu; Shi, Xiaoning

2011-01-01

9

Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Nearly Monodisperse CoFe2O4Nanoparticles Through a Simple Hydrothermal Condition  

PubMed Central

Nearly monodisperse cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles without any size-selection process have been prepared through an alluring method in an oleylamine/ethanol/water system. Well-defined nanospheres with an average size of 5.5 nm have been synthesized using metal chloride as the law materials and oleic amine as the capping agent, through a general liquid–solid-solution (LSS) process. Magnetic measurement indicates that the particles exhibit a very high coercivity at 10 K and perform superparamagnetism at room temperature which is further illuminated by ZFC/FC curves. These superparamagnetic cobalt ferrite nanomaterials are considered to have potential application in the fields of biomedicine. The synthesis method is possible to be a general approach for the preparation of other pure binary and ternary compounds. PMID:20672131

2010-01-01

10

Immobilization of glucose oxidase using CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanoparticles as carrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aminated-CoFe2O4/SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from primary silica particles using modified StÖber method. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on CoFe2O4/SiO2 NPs via cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (GA). The optimal immobilization condition was achieved with 1% (v/v) GA, cross-linking time of 3 h, solution pH of 7.0 and 0.4 mg GOD (in 3.0 mg carrier). The immobilized GOD showed maximal catalytic activity at pH 6.5 and 40 °C. After immobilization, the GOD exhibited improved thermal, storage and operation stability. The immobilized GOD still maintained 80% of its initial activity after the incubation at 50 °C for 25 min, whereas free enzyme had only 20% of initial activity after the same incubation. After kept at 4 °C for 28 days, the immobilized and free enzyme retained 87% and 40% of initial activity, respectively. The immobilized GOD maintained approximately 57% of initial activity after reused 7 times. The KM (Michaelis-Menten constant) values for immobilized GOD and free GOD were 14.6 mM and 27.1 mM, respectively.

Wang, Hai; Huang, Jun; Wang, Chao; Li, Dapeng; Ding, Liyun; Han, Yun

2011-04-01

11

Ethanol Gas Sensing of Mn-Doped CoFe$_{2}$O $_{4}$ Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and Mn-doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe O ) nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized for thermal conductivity and magnetic properties. Room temperature ferro- magnetism and an increase in saturation magnetization due to Mn doping (65.4 emu\\/g for 3 at.% of Mn and 20.8 emu\\/g for undoped CoFe O nanoparticles) are observed. The ethanol gas sensitivity of undoped and Mn-doped (3 at.%)

P. Indra Devi; N. Rajkumar; B. Renganathan; D. Sastikumar; K. Ramachandran

2011-01-01

12

Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of gadolinium-doped CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CoFe 2- xGd xO 4 ( x=0-0.25) nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process at 200 °C for 16 h without the assistance of surfactant. The as-synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and a vibrating sample magnetometer. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the as-synthesized powders were in the pure phase with a doping amount of ?0.25, and the peaks could be readily indexed to the cubic spinel cobalt ferrite. Transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the gadolinium-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were single crystal, roughly spherical, uniformly distributed, and not highly agglomerated. The room temperature magnetic field versus magnetization measurements confirmed a strong influence of gadolinium doping on the saturation magnetization and coercivity due to large lattice distortion and grain growth of small particles.

Peng, Jianhong; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Xu, Yunhua; Cao, Baowei; Wang, Juan; Wu, Hong

2011-01-01

13

Enhanced hydrogen storage properties of LiAlH4 catalyzed by CoFe2O4 nanoparticles  

E-print Network

temperatures, and the low des- orbed hydrogen content of the reaction R3 from the practical applications Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD pattern for the as-milled LiAlH4 doped with CoFe2O4

Volinsky, Alex A.

14

Stabilization of surface spin glass behavior in core-shell Fe67Co33-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of Co33Fe67-CoFe2O4 (core-shell) nanoparticles are presented. Both dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements indicate a spin glass (SG) like transition occurring at TF˜175 K. The SG nature of the transition is also confirmed by the field dependence of the freezing temperature (TF(H)) following the well known Almeida-Thouless line, ?TF˜H2/3. Additionally, the particles exhibit a large exchange bias (HEB˜1357 Oe) arising from the core-shell (ferromagnetic-SG) coupling. The unusually high SG transition temperature and large exchange bias effects are attributed to a combination of several factors including the thickness of the amorphous oxide shell and large values of the exchange and anisotropy constants associated with the CoFe2O4 shell.

Hassnain Jaffari, G.; Rizwan Ali, S.; Hasanain, S. K.; Güntherodt, Gernot; Ismat Shah, S.

2010-09-01

15

Exchange bias of MnFe2O4@?Fe2O3 and CoFe2O4@?Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare here exchange bias (EB) properties of chemically synthesized core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), based either on a core of soft ferrite (MnFe2O4) or hard ferrite (CoFe2O4) protected by a maghemite shell (?-Fe2O3). These NPs dispersed in acidic solutions are electrostatically stabilized, yielding to stable colloidal dispersions with a strong interparticle repulsion and negligible dipolar interactions in the probed range of temperatures. Field cooled (FC) magnetic hysteresis loops of non-textured frozen dispersions (with magnetic anisotropy axis of NPs distributed at random) and those of a powder based on the same NPs present a shift along the H-axis, expressing the coupling between the spin-ordered cores and the disordered surface layer of the NPs. The bias field is found to present a maximum, larger for NPs based on harder ferrite core. It is obtained for a cooling field of the order of one half of the anisotropy field, which is much larger for the CoFe2O4 cores than for MnFe2O4 ones. In powders, particles are in contact leading to an interparticle exchange which is not present in the dilute solutions where exchange bias properties are only due to an intraparticle exchange between core and surface. The thermal dependence of the bias field is well described by a reduced exponential behavior with a characteristic freezing temperature of about 8 K.

Cabreira-Gomes, R.; G. Silva, F.; Aquino, R.; Bonville, P.; Tourinho, F. A.; Perzynski, R.; Depeyrot, J.

2014-11-01

16

The effect of annealing on phase evolution, microstructure and magnetic properties of Mn substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles has been prepared by a simple evaporation method and auto combustion method. The role of annealing temperature on phase, particle size and morphology of Mn-Co ferrite nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The lowest size of particles (~3 nm) is obtained by auto combustion method. The annealing effect creates a vital change in magnetic properties which is studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These spinel ferrites are decomposed to ?-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. However, ?-Fe2O3 phase was slowly vanished after ferrites annealing above 900 °C. The effect of this secondary phase on the structural and magnetic properties of Mn substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is also discussed.

Ranjith Kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Prakash, T.

2014-05-01

17

Comparison of the magnetic, radiolabeling, hyperthermic and biodistribution properties of hybrid nanoparticles bearing CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4 metal cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal oxide nanoparticles, hybridized with various polymeric chemicals, represent a novel and breakthrough application in drug delivery, hyperthermia treatment and imaging techniques. Radiolabeling of these nanoformulations can result in new and attractive dual-imaging agents as well as provide accurate in vivo information on their biodistribution profile. In this paper a comparison study has been made between two of the most promising hybrid core-shell nanosystems, bearing either magnetite (Fe3O4) or cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) cores, regarding their magnetic, radiolabeling, hyperthermic and biodistribution properties. While hyperthermic properties were found to be affected by the metal-core type, the radiolabeling ability and the in vivo fate of the nanoformulations seem to depend critically on the size and the shell composition.

Psimadas, D.; Baldi, G.; Ravagli, C.; Comes Franchini, M.; Locatelli, E.; Innocenti, C.; Sangregorio, C.; Loudos, G.

2014-01-01

18

Engineered spin-valve type magnetoresistance in Fe3O4-CoFe2O4 core-shell nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally occurring spin-valve-type magnetoresistance (SVMR), recently observed in Sr2FeMoO6 samples, suggests the possibility of decoupling the maximal resistance from the coercivity of the sample. Here we present the evidence that SVMR can be engineered in specifically designed and fabricated core-shell nanoparticle systems, realized here in terms of soft magnetic Fe3O4 as the core and hard magnetic insulator CoFe2O4 as the shell materials. We show that this provides a magnetically switchable tunnel barrier that controls the magnetoresistance of the system, instead of the magnetic properties of the magnetic grain material, Fe3O4, and thus establishing the feasibility of engineered SVMR structures.

Anil Kumar, P.; Ray, Sugata; Chakraverty, S.; Sarma, D. D.

2013-09-01

19

Comparison of the magnetic, radiolabeling, hyperthermic and biodistribution properties of hybrid nanoparticles bearing CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4 metal cores.  

PubMed

Metal oxide nanoparticles, hybridized with various polymeric chemicals, represent a novel and breakthrough application in drug delivery, hyperthermia treatment and imaging techniques. Radiolabeling of these nanoformulations can result in new and attractive dual-imaging agents as well as provide accurate in vivo information on their biodistribution profile. In this paper a comparison study has been made between two of the most promising hybrid core-shell nanosystems, bearing either magnetite (Fe3O4) or cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) cores, regarding their magnetic, radiolabeling, hyperthermic and biodistribution properties. While hyperthermic properties were found to be affected by the metal-core type, the radiolabeling ability and the in vivo fate of the nanoformulations seem to depend critically on the size and the shell composition. PMID:24334365

Psimadas, D; Baldi, G; Ravagli, C; Comes Franchini, M; Locatelli, E; Innocenti, C; Sangregorio, C; Loudos, G

2014-01-17

20

Size-regulated group separation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles using centrifuge and their magnetic resonance contrast properties  

PubMed Central

Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) have been the subject of extensive research over recent decades. The particle size of MNPs varies widely and is known to influence their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. There are two commonly used methods for synthesizing MNPs, organometallic and aqueous solution coprecipitation. The former has the advantage of being able to control the particle size more effectively; however, the resulting particles require a hydrophilic coating in order to be rendered water soluble. The MNPs produced using the latter method are intrinsically water soluble, but they have a relatively wide particle size distribution. Size-controlled water-soluble MNPs have great potential as MRI CAs and in cell sorting and labeling applications. In the present study, we synthesized CoFe2O4 MNPs using an aqueous solution coprecipitation method. The MNPs were subsequently separated into four groups depending on size, by the use of centrifugation at different speeds. The crystal shapes and size distributions of the particles in the four groups were measured and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, the MNPs were found to have an inverse spinel structure. Four MNP groups with well-selected semi-Gaussian-like diameter distributions were obtained, with measured T2 relaxivities (r2) at 4.7 T and room temperature in the range of 60 to 300 mM?1s?1, depending on the particle size. This size regulation method has great promise for applications that require homogeneous-sized MNPs made by an aqueous solution coprecipitation method. Any group of the CoFe2O4 MNPs could be used as initial base cores of MRI T2 CAs, with almost unique T2 relaxivity owing to size regulation. The methodology reported here opens up many possibilities for biosensing applications and disease diagnosis. PACS 75.75.Fk, 78.67.Bf, 61.46.Df PMID:24004536

2013-01-01

21

Effect hyperthermia in CoFe2O4@MnFe2O4 nanoparticles studied by using field-induced Mössbauer spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CoFe2O4@MnFe2O4, with a mixed core-shell structure was fabricated by a high temperature thermal decomposition. From the Rietveld refinement, these nanoparticles were found to be cubic spinel with space group Fd-3 m and with a Bragg factor ( R B ) and a structure factor ( R F ) less than 5%. The size and the shape of the nanoparticles were examined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The values of the magnetization ( M S ) and the coercivity ( H C ) of these nanoparticles at room temperature were 78.95 emu/g and 21.2 mT, respectively. The effect of hyperthermia, measured with a magneTherm device showed that the self-heating temperature of the nanoparticles could reach 133 °C. To determine the applicability of nanoparticles in hyperthermia therapy, we evaluated the in-vitro cell viability of nanoparticles. Based on the probability distribution of cations, we determined the Mössbauer spectra at 4.2 K with two sets of six lines under various applied fields parallel to the direction of the ?-rays. To separate the A and the B sites, we also obtained the Mössbauer spectra of the nanoparticles under high external field up to 5 T at 4.2 K. From the detailed analysis of the Mössbauer spectra, the spin canting angles and the anisotropy energies at the A and the B sites were determined.

Kim, Minseon; Kim, Chul Sung; Kim, Hyung Joon; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa; Hahn, Eunjoo

2013-12-01

22

Synthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2O 4) nanoparticles prepared by wet chemical route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite have been synthesized by wet chemical method using stable ferric and cobalt salts with oleic acid as the surfactant. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) confirmed the formation of single-phase cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in the range 15–48nm depending on the annealing temperature and time. The size of the particles increases with annealing temperature

K. Maaz; Arif Mumtaz; S. K. Hasanain; Abdullah Ceylan

2007-01-01

23

Controlled synthesis of monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles by the phase transfer method and their catalytic activity on methylene blue discoloration with H2O2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monodisperse spinel CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized through the solvothermal-assisted phase transfer method using aqueous soluble metal salts as starting materials and sodium oleate (SO) as the phase-transfer agent. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry and Mössbauer spectrum. The results revealed that the as-obtained nanoparticles have a cubic spinel structure and an average diameter of 2-6 nm. It was found that SO played an important role during the transfer of the hydrophilic inorganic precursor from aqueous phase to the organic phase. On the basis of the experimental results, a possible mechanism for the formation of the nanoparticles was proposed. Surface functionalization of the as-prepared nanoparticles was conducted to render the hydrophobic nanoparticles water-soluble, which makes the nanoparticles suitable for catalytic applications. The nanoparticles showed catalytic activity in the oxidation of methylene blue with H2O2 as an oxidizing agent.

Feng, X.; Mao, G. Y.; Bu, F. X.; Cheng, X. L.; Jiang, D. M.; Jiang, J. S.

2013-10-01

24

Magnetic CoFe2O4/carbon nanotubes composites: fabrication, microstructure and magnetic response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining the unique microstructure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the good magnetism of CoFe2O4 ferrites, CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites were prepared by the solvothermal method for the application of targeting therapy and tumor hyperthermia. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were introduced to study the influence of the solvothermal temperature, time and the CNTs content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites. The diameter of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles coating on the surface of CNTs and the saturation magnetization (Ms) increased with the solvothermal temperature. CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites prepared at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C exhibited superparamagnetism at room temperature, while the samples prepared at 240°C and 260°C presented ferromagnetism. And the solvothermal time and CNTs content slightly affected the microstructure and magnetic properties, Ms and coercivity (Hc) increased slightly with the increasing solvothermal time and the decreasing CNTs content.

Wang, Panfeng; Xu, Jingcai; Han, Yanbing; Hong, Bo; Jin, Hongxiao; Jin, Dingfeng; Peng, Xiaoling; Li, Jing; Ge, Hongliang; Wang, Xinqing

2014-05-01

25

X-ray diffraction studies on crystallite size evolution of CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles prepared using mechanical alloying and sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosized cobalt ferrite spinel particles have been prepared by using mechanically alloyed nanoparticles. The effects of various preparation parameters on the crystallite size of cobalt ferrite which includes milling time; ball-to powder weight ratio (BPR) and sintering temperature, were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Scherrer's equation was used to study the crystallite size evolution of the as-prepared materials. The results of the as-milled sample revealed that both milling time and BPR plays a role in determining the crystallite size of the milled powder. However, where sintering is involved, the sintering temperature results in grain growth, and thus plays a dominant role in determining the final crystallite size of the samples sintered at higher temperature (above 900 °C). From the vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) measurement it was observed that the coercivity of the as-milled samples without sintering is almost negligible, which is a type characteristic of superparamagnetic material. However, for the sintered samples, the saturation increases while coercivity decreases with increases sintering temperature.

Waje, Samaila Bawa; Hashim, Mansor; Yusoff, Wan Daud Wan; Abbas, Zulkifly

26

Hollow glass microspheres coated with CoFe 2O 4 and its microwave absorption property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinel CoFe 2O 4 coating on the surface of hollow glass microspheres of low density was synthesized by co-precipitation method. The phase structures, morphologies, particle size, shell thickness, chemical compositions of the composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that CoFe 2O 4 coating on hollow glass microspheres can be achieved, and the coating layers are constituted by CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles of mean size ca. 10 nm. The as-synthesized powder materials were uniformly dispersed into the phenolic cement, then the mixture was pasted on metal plate with the area of 200 mm×200 mm as the test plate. The test of microwave absorption was carried out by the radar-absorbing materials (RAM) reflectivity far field radar cross-section (RCS) method. The results indicate that the coated CoFe 2O 4/hollow glass microspheres composites can be applied in lightweight and strong absorption microwave absorbers.

Fu, Wuyou; Liu, Shikai; Fan, Wenhua; Yang, Haibin; Pang, Xiaofen; Xu, Jing; Zou, Guangtian

2007-09-01

27

A facile thermal decomposition route to synthesise CoFe2O4 nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles has been achieved by a simple thermal decomposition method from an inorganic precursor, cobalt ferrous cinnamate hydrazinate (CoFe2(cin)3(N2H4)3) which was obtained by a novel precipitation method from the corresponding metal salts, cinnamic acid and hydrazine hydrate. The precursor was characterized by hydrazine and metal analyses, infrared spectral analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis. Under appropriate annealing, CoFe2(cin)3(N2H4)3 yielded CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which were characterized for their size and structure using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques.

Kalpanadevi, K.; Sinduja, C. R.; Manimekalai, R.

2014-01-01

28

FePt 3/CoFe 2O 4 core/shell nanostructures and their magnetic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monodisperse 2 nm Fe100-xPtx nanoparticles were synthesized using polyol process. As-synthesized FePt (x = 37) and FePt3 (x = 66) nanoparticles have the chemically-disordered face-centred cubic (fcc) structure. To achieve ordered structure (L12 phase), high-temperature annealing is required. During annealing, coalescence occurs and large agglomeration is formed with multi-domain particles. Core/shell structure, CoFe2O4 as a shell, is prepared to prevent the uncontrolled agglomeration. The shell thickness of CoFe2O4 is changed and controlled by varying ratio of initial precursor. The results show a decrease in coercivity by increasing shell thickness. This reveals effective exchange coupling between core and shell and confirms that shell thickness has a major role in magnetic properties of FePt3/CoFe2O4 nanoparticles.

Akbari, Hossein; Sebt, Seyed Ali; Arabi, Hadi; Zeynali, Hossein; Elahi, Mohhamad

2012-02-01

29

Experimental study of Hopkinson effect in single domain CoFe2 O4 particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanosize particles of CoFe2O4 have been synthesized by the citrate precursor technique. Considerably higher coercive force (1.68 kOe) than that obtained by the conventional technique (1.00 kOe) is associated with the nanostructure of CoFe2 O4. These nanosize ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 particles exhibit chainlike clusters indicating strong interparticle interactions and reduced magnetic moment, which is attributed to anisotropy and canted spin structure

N. S. Gajbhiye; Seema Prasad; G. Balaji

1999-01-01

30

ZnO supported CoFe2O4 nanophotocatalysts for the mineralization of Direct Blue 71 in aqueous environments.  

PubMed

In this study, an attempt was made to render both the magnetic and photocatalytic properties in a semiconductor material to enhance the efficiency of degradation and recycling possibility of magnetic nanophotocatalysts. CoFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 loaded ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized using various analytical tools and in addition to check its visible light assisted photocatalytic activity. CoFe2O4/ZnO nanocatalyst coupled with acceptor, peroxomonosulphate (PMS) showed 1.69-fold enhancement in Direct Blue 71 (triazo dye; DB71) mineralization within 5h. The accomplished enrichment in decolorization was due to the production of more number of non-selective and active free radicals at the catalyst surface. PMID:23523908

Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Pugazhenthiran, Nalenthiran; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

2013-05-15

31

A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2014-11-01

32

Magnetic and elastic properties of CoFe2O4- polydimethylsiloxane magnetically oriented elastomer nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic elastic structured composites were prepared by using CoFe2O4 ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrixes, which were cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Cobalt-iron oxide nanoparticles of three different average sizes (between 2 and 12 nm) were synthesized and characterized. The smallest nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic behavior, with a blocking temperature of approximately 75 K, while larger particles are already blocked at room temperature. Macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-CoFe2O4 composites were obtained when curing the dispersion of the nanoparticles in the presence of a uniform magnetic field (0.3 T). The formation of the particle's chains (needles) orientated in the direction of the magnetic field was observed only when loading with the larger magnetically blocked nanoparticles. The SEM images show that the needles are formed by groups of nanoparticles which retain their original average size. The Young's moduli of the structured composites are four times larger when measured along the oriented needles than in the perpendicular direction. Magnetization (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance curves of the structured composites were determined as a function of the relative orientation between the needles and the probe field. The remanence magnetization was 30% higher when measured parallel to the needles, while the coercive field remains isotropic. These observations are discussed in terms of the individual nanoparticle's properties and its aggregation in the composites.

Soledad Antonel, P.; Jorge, Guillermo; Perez, Oscar E.; Butera, Alejandro; Gabriela Leyva, A.; Martín Negri, R.

2011-08-01

33

Exchange-spring behavior in nanopowders of CoFe2O4-CoFe2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the magnetic interactions among core-shell nanoparticles of CoFe2O4-CoFe2 having an average particle size of 32 nm were investigated by ?m plots. It was found that the interactions are mainly demagnetizing in nature for nanoparticles with core diameters larger than 26 nm. For smaller values of core diameters, the exchange-spring phenomenon takes place due to the exchange-coupling at the core-shell interface. The critical thickness of the shell was estimated to be 7.8 nm. The overall results are in excellent agreement with current theoretical models.

Soares, J. M.; Cabral, F. A. O.; de Araújo, J. H.; Machado, F. L. A.

2011-02-01

34

Self-oriented CoFe2O4 composites for non-reciprocal microwave components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In telecommunication systems, heavy bulky magnets are used to establish the proper functioning of a circulator by ensuring the uniform orientation of the ferrite material's magnetic moment. Thus to develop an unbiased coplanar microwave circulator, the approach based on "ferromagnetic nanowired composite substrates" was promising. The idea was to do a magnetophoretic deposition of nanocoloidal cobalt ferrite nanoparticles into porous alumina membranes and permanently orient them uniformly. Therefore, in order to check the orientation possibility of the nanoparticle, samples of magnetic thin films on glass substrates were synthetized from CoFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed in a silica sol-gel matrix using the dip-coating technique with and without a uniformly applied magnetic field. To investigate the magnetic behavior of the prepared samples, the Faraday rotation as a function of the applied magnetic field was measured using a spectral polarimeter. The unambiguous qualitative difference between the Faraday rotation hysteresis loops shows a large variation of coercive (?0Hc) and remanent field (Mr/Ms) values, thus proving the orientation of the nanoparticles. Such nanocomposite is a promising candidate for future miniature microwave circulators fabrication.

Tchangoulian, A.; Abou Diwan, E.; Vincent, D.; Neveu, S.; Nader, C.; Habchy, R.

2014-07-01

35

Synthesis and characterization of CoFe2O4/polyaniline nanocomposites for electromagnetic interference applications.  

PubMed

The Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) powders were synthesized by Co-precipitation method. The as prepared ferrite powders were incorporated into a polyaniline matrix at various volumetric ratios. The as prepared composites of ferrite and polyaniline powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size of CoFe2O4 is found to be 20 nm. The saturation magnetization (M(s)) of all the composites was found to be decreasing with decrease of ferrite content, while coercivity (H(c)) remained at the value corresponding to pure cobalt ferrite nanopowders. The complex permittivity (epsilon' and epsilon") and permeability (mu' and mu") of composite samples were measured in the range of 1 MHz to 1.1 GHz. The value of epsilon' and mu' found to be increased with ferrite volume concentration. PMID:24738398

Praveena, K; Srinath, S

2014-06-01

36

Coupling interaction in multiferroic BaTiO3 CoFe2O4 nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental results (Zheng et al 2004 Science 303 661) have shown that a 1-3-type BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 composite film exhibited a strong coupling between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order parameters. The coupling interaction in the nanostructured multiferroic film could be different from that in a bulk composite because there exists a giant residual stress\\/strain in the film. In this paper, by

Gang Liu; Ce-Wen Nan; Z. K. Xu; Haydn Chen

2005-01-01

37

Multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 Nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic order parameters in a nanostructured BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 ferroelectromagnet. This facilitates the interconversion of energies stored in electric and magnetic fields and plays an important role in many devices, including transducers, field sensors, etc. Such nanostructures were deposited on single-crystal SrTiO3 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition from a single Ba-Ti-Co-Fe-oxide target. The

H. Zheng; J. Wang; S. E. Lofland; Z. Ma; L. Mohaddes-Ardabili; T. Zhao; L. Salamanca-Riba; S. R. Shinde; S. B. Ogale; F. Bai; D. Viehland; Y. Jia; D. G. Schlom; M. Wuttig; A. Roytburd; R. Ramesh

2004-01-01

38

Multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 Nanostructures.  

PubMed

We report on the coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic order parameters in a nanostructured BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 ferroelectromagnet. This facilitates the interconversion of energies stored in electric and magnetic fields and plays an important role in many devices, including transducers, field sensors, etc. Such nanostructures were deposited on single-crystal SrTiO3 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition from a single Ba-Ti-Co-Fe-oxide target. The films are epitaxial in-plane as well as out-of-plane with self-assembled hexagonal arrays of CoFe2O4 nanopillars embedded in a BaTiO3 matrix. The CoFe2O4 nanopillars have uniform size and average spacing of 20 to 30 nanometers. Temperature-dependent magnetic measurements illustrate the coupling between the two order parameters, which is manifested as a change in magnetization at the ferroelectric Curie temperature. Thermodynamic analyses show that the magnetoelectric coupling in such a nanostructure can be understood on the basis of the strong elastic interactions between the two phases. PMID:14752158

Zheng, H; Wang, J; Lofland, S E; Ma, Z; Mohaddes-Ardabili, L; Zhao, T; Salamanca-Riba, L; Shinde, S R; Ogale, S B; Bai, F; Viehland, D; Jia, Y; Schlom, D G; Wuttig, M; Roytburd, A; Ramesh, R

2004-01-30

39

Flux growth of high-quality CoFe 2O 4 single crystals and their characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the growth of high-quality CoFe 2O 4 single crystals using a borax flux method. The crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy. We found the crystals are flux-free and highly homogeneous in composition. X-ray rocking curves of the CoFe 2O 4 single crystals showed a full-width at half-maximum of 0.15°. The saturation magnetization of the CoFe 2O 4 single crystals was measured to be 90 emu/g or equivalently 3.65 ? B/f.u. at 5 K.

Wang, W. H.; Ren, X.

2006-04-01

40

Microwave absorbing properties of CoFe2O4\\/ Bamboo charcoal\\/Titania -LDPE polymer composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, spinel CoFe2O4 were synthesized by co-precipitation method and a graded composite of CoFe2O4, Titania and Bamboo charcoal with LDPE are prepared for 1% volume fraction. Structural characterization is done by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. Inclusion of Titania has increased the permittivity.The reflection loss of the graded composites measured in the microwave frequency range of X-band

S. Ozah; J. P. Gogoi; N. S. Bhattacharyya

2009-01-01

41

Controlled synthesis of CoFe2O4 nano-octahedra Andr Lus Lopes-Moriyamaa,b *  

E-print Network

,2,3], photocatalytic and catalytic activity in oxidation reactions [4,5,6,7], adsorptive capacity for dyes and metal1 Title Controlled synthesis of CoFe2O4 nano-octahedra Authors Andr� Lu�s Lopes-Moriyamaa,b * , V: +558432153770 Abstract Nano-octahedral grains of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) with size around 20 nm were

Boyer, Edmond

42

Mössbauer studies of superexchange interactions and atomic migration in CoFe 2O 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Co ferrite, CoFe 2O 4, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The crystal structure is found to be an inverse cubic spinel with the lattice constants a0=8.381±0.005 Å and 8.391±0.005 Å for slowly cooled and quenched CoFe 2O 4, respectively. The iron ions are in ferric Fe 3+ states. The temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine fields of 57Fe at the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites is analyzed by the Néel theory of ferrimagnetism. For the slowly cooled sample, the A-B intersublattice superexchange interaction is found to be antiferromagnetic with a strength of JA-B=-24.4 kB, while A-A and B-B intrasublattice superexchange interactions are antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic with JA-A=-18.2 kB and JB-B=3.9 kB, respectively. For the quenched sample JA-B=-23.6 kB,JA-A=-17.8 kB, and JB-B=3.9 kB are found. The decrease of the Möss-bauer absorption area ratio of A to B patterns above 400 K is explained in terms of migrating iron ions from A to B sites.

Jin Kim, Sam; Wha Lee, Seung; Yong An, Sung; Kim, Chul Sung

2000-06-01

43

CoFe2O4/buffer layer ultrathin heterostructures on Si(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epitaxial films of ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si(001) buffered with ultrathin yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers in a single process. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction was used to monitor in real time the crystallization of YSZ, allowing the fabrication of epitaxial YSZ buffers with thickness of about 2 nm. CFO films, with thicknesses in the 2-50 nm range were subsequently deposited. The magnetization of the CFO films is close to the bulk value. The ultrathin CFO/YSZ heterostructures have very flat morphology (0.1 nm roughness) and thin interfacial SiOx layer (about 2 nm thick) making them suitable for integration in tunnel (e.g., spin injection) devices.

Bachelet, R.; de Coux, P.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Skumryev, V.; Fontcuberta, J.; Sánchez, F.

2011-10-01

44

FTIR and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy studies of the wet chemical (WC) route synthesized nano-structure CoFe2O4 from CoCl2 and FeCl3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-structure CoFe2O4 has been fabricated by wet chemical route using CoCl2 and FeCl3 as simple precursors. The prepared nano-structure samples was calcined at 600 °C and characterized by fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of the spinel phases with average crystallite sizes of 47 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy investigations showed spherical morphology of nanoparticles with average particle size of 46 nm. The FTIR spectra of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles showed absorption bands at about 594 cm-1 and 401 cm-1 due to the stretching vibrations of Co-O and Fe-O respectively. Investigation of the optical properties of the produced nano-structure CoFe2O4 confirmed its semiconducting properties by revealing two optical band gaps at 1.4 and 2.0 eV.

Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Parhizkar, Hadi Janan

2014-06-01

45

Mössbauer Studies on Exchange Interactions in CoFe2O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two polycrystalline samples of CoFe2O4 were prepared by slow cooling and quenching and studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The crystals were found to have a cubic spinel structure with the lattice constants of the slowly cooled sample being a0=8.381 Å and the quenched sample being a0=8.391 Å. The temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field in 57Fe nuclei at the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites was analyzed based on the Néel theory of ferrimagnetism. For the slowly cooled sample, the intersublattice A-B superexchange interaction and intrasublattice A-A superexchange interaction were antiferromagnetic with a strength of JA--B=-25.0kB and JA--A=-18.9kB, respectively, while the intrasublattice B--B superexchange interaction was ferromagnetic with a strength of JB--B=3.9kB. In the quenched sample, however, their strengths were JA--B=-22.6kB, JA--A=-17.6kB, and JB--B=3.9kB, respectively.

Kim, Sam Jin; Lee, Seung Wha; Kim, Chul Sung

2001-08-01

46

Synthesis and Characterization of CoFe2O4/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Core/shell Magnetic Nanocomposite by the Wet Chemical Route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cobalt ferrite/nickel-zinc ferrite core/shell nanocomposite was synthesized by a polymerized complex method using iron citrate, cobalt nitrate, nickel nitrate, zinc nitrate, citric acid, ethylene glycol, benzoic acid and sodium citrate as starting materials. The XRD, TEM and VSM techniques were employed to evaluate the phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples. The XRD results indicated the coexistence of characteristic reflections of CoFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2 O4 spinel ferrites in the composite sample. The core/shell structure of the composite sample has been confirmed by TEM images. The size of obtained spherical core/shell nanoparticles was 20-40 nm in core diameter and about 10 nm in shell thickness. The VSM results showed that both the coercivity and the saturation magnetization of the resulting core/shell nanocomposite were decreased compared to those of the CoFe2O4 core, due to the interaction at the interface of CoFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4.

Honarbakhsh-Raouf, A.; Emamian, H. R.; Yourdkhani, A.; Ataie, A.

47

Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 heterostructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 heterostructure was epitaxially grown on the (001)-SrTiO3 substrate via pulsed laser deposition, in which the bottom BaTiO3 layer epitaxially grown on the substrate acts as a buffer layer and effectively reduces the coherent constraint in the magnetic layer arising from the substrate. Microstructure studies from x-ray diffraction and electron microscopies showed good coherent epitaxy thin films of the (001)-CoFe2O4 and (001)-BaTiO3 on the substrate, which exhibits simultaneously strong ferroelectric and ferromagnetic responses. An obvious direct magnetoelectric coupling effect was observed in the thin films, which shows an enhancement compared to previous NiFe2O4-BaTiO3 heterostructures.

Zhang, Yi; Deng, Chaoyong; Ma, Jing; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

2008-02-01

48

Dimensionality fluctuation in the superconducting order parameter of YBa2Cu3O7-?+x CoFe2O4 Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuations on the electrical conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-?+x CoFe2O4 (x = 0.0,0.1,0.2, and 0.3 wt.%) superconductors were investigated from the resistivity vs. temperature data. Attempts have been made to identify the optimum inclusion of ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 particles in YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) superconductor. With the increase of CoFe2O4, Tc decreases and dropped sharply with higher wt.%. Excess conductivity fluctuation analysis using Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) model fitting reveals transition of two dominant regions (2D and 3D) above Tc. The decrease in 2D-3D crossover temperature (Lawerence-Doniach temperature) in the mean field region has been observed as a consequent dominance of 3D region with increase in wt.% of CoFe2O4 in the composite.

Sahoo, M.; Bhol, B.; Kujur, A.; Behera, D.

2012-07-01

49

Role of spinel substrate in the morphology of BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial nanocomposite films  

E-print Network

distinction with similar composite films on (001) perovskite SrTiO3 substrates where CoFe2O4 forms nanopillars embedded in a BFO matrix when grown on perovskite SrTiO3 (STO) (001) substrates.5 The strongRole of spinel substrate in the morphology of BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial nanocomposite films Ilan

Spinu, Leonard

50

Magnetic and magnetostrictive behavior of Dy 3+ doped CoFe 2O 4 single crystals grown by flux method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the effect of Dy 3+ content on the magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite single crystal. The single crystals of CoFe 1.9Dy 0.1O 4 were grown by the flux method using Na 2B 4O 7.10 H 2O (Borax) as a solvent (flux). The black and shiny single crystals were obtained as a product. The X-ray diffraction analysis at room temperature confirmed the spinel cubic structure with lattice constant a=8.42 Å of the single crystals. The compositional analysis endorses the presence of constituents Co, Fe and Dy elements after sintering at 1300 °C within the final structure. The magnetic hysteresis measurements at various temperatures viz. 10 K, 100 K, 200 K and 300 K reveal the soft ferrimagnetic nature of the single crystal than that of for pure CoFe 2O 4. The observed saturation magnetization ( Ms) and coercivity ( Hc) are found to be lower than that of pure CoFe 2O 4 single crystal. The magnetostriction ( ?) measurement was carried out along the [001] direction. The magnetic measurements lead to conclude that the present single crystals can be used for magneto-optic recording media.

Kambale, Rahul C.; Song, K. M.; Won, C. J.; Lee, K. D.; Hur, N.

2012-02-01

51

Band gap hierarchy of single crystal CoFe2O4 thin films from optical absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film materials have a wide variety of applications and also serve as an useful bridge between bulk single crystals and the nanoscale. In this work, we report temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy of single crystal CoFe2O4 thin-films along with complimentary electronic structure analysis. This magnetic insulator has one of the highest Curie temperature among complex oxides and potentially useful in areas such as spintronics. Similar to its Nickel analogue,footnotetextQ.C. Sun, H. Sims, D.Mazumdar, J.X.Ma, B. Holinswoth, K.O'Neal, G.Kim, W.H.Butler, A.Gupta, and J.Musfeldt (accepted to Phys. Rev. B). our work reveals CoFe2O4 to be an indirect band gap material (1.2 eV) with a direct gap much higher (2.8eV) at 300K. These gap values are robust down to 4.2K. Electronically, both chemical tuning and inversion fraction are found to be important factors in lowering of the band gap compared to NiFe2O4.

Holinsworth, Brian; Sims, Hunter; Mazumdar, Dipanjan; Sun, Qi; Yurtisigi, Mehmet; Sarker, Sanjoy; Gupta, Arun; Butler, Bill; Musfeldt, Janice

2013-03-01

52

CoFe2O4 and/or Co3Fe7 loaded porous activated carbon balls as a lightweight microwave absorbent.  

PubMed

In order to prepare a lightweight and efficient microwave absorbent, porous activated carbon balls (PACB) were used to load Fe(3+) and Co(2+) ions, because the PACB carrier has a high specific surface area of 800 m(2) g(-1) and abundant pores, including micropores and macropores. The loaded Fe(3+) and Co(2+) ions in the PACB composite were transformed into magnetic CoFe2O4 and/or Co3Fe7 particles during subsequent heat-treatment under an Ar atmosphere. According to the XRD and SEM results, the magnetic particles were embedded in the PACB macropores and showed different crystalline phases and morphologies after heat-treatment. CoFe2O4 flakes with spinel structure were obtained at approximately 450 °C, and were then transformed into loose quasi-spheres between 500 °C and 600 °C, where CoFe2O4 and Co3Fe7 coexisted because of the partial reduction of CoFe2O4. Co3Fe7 microspheres appeared above 700 °C. The density of the magnetic PACB composites was in the range of 2.2-2.3 g cm(-3). The as-synthesized PACB composites exhibited excellent microwave absorbability, which was mainly attributed to the magnetism of CoFe2O4 and Co3Fe7, as well as the presence of graphitized carbon. The minimum reflection loss value of the CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7-PACB composite reached -32 dB at 15.6 GHz, and the frequency of microwave absorption obeyed the quarter-wavelength matching model, showing a good match between dielectric loss and magnetic loss. The microwave reflection loss (RL) value could be modulated by adjusting the composition and thickness of the PACB composite absorbent. PACB composites with CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7 are a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials. PMID:24829135

Li, Guomin; Wang, Liancheng; Li, Wanxi; Ding, Ruimin; Xu, Yao

2014-06-28

53

Preparation and characterization of self-assembled percolative BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 nanocomposites via magnetron co-sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 composite films were prepared on (100) SrTiO3 substrates by using a radio-frequency magnetron co-sputtering method at 750 °C. These films contained highly (001)-oriented crystalline phases of perovskite BaTiO3 and spinel CoFe2O4, which can form a self-assembled nanostructure with BaTiO3 well-dispersed into CoFe2O4 under optimized sputtering conditions. A prominent dielectric percolation behavior was observed in the self-assembled nanocomposite. Compared with pure BaTiO3 films sputtered under similar conditions, the nanocomposite film showed higher dielectric constants and lower dielectric losses together with a dramatically suppressed frequency dispersion. This dielectric percolation phenomenon can be explained by the ‘micro-capacitor’ model, which was supported by measurement results of the electric polarization and leakage current.

Yang, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Meiling; Kang, Limin; Feng, Junxiao; Pan, Wei; Ouyang, Jun

2014-04-01

54

Spin-filtering efficiency of ferrimagnetic spinels CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the potential of the ferrimagnetic spinel ferrites CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 to act as spin filtering barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions. Our study is based on the electronic structure calculated by means of first-principles density functional theory within different approximations for the exchange correlation energy. We show that, in agreement with previous calculations, the density of states suggests a lower tunneling barrier for minority spin electrons, and thus a negative spin-filter effect. However, a more detailed analysis based on the complex band structure reveals that both signs for the spin-filtering efficiency are possible, depending on the band alignment between the electrode and the barrier materials and depending on the specific wave-function symmetry of the relevant bands within the electrode.

Caffrey, Nuala M.; Fritsch, Daniel; Archer, Thomas; Sanvito, Stefano; Ederer, Claude

2013-01-01

55

The resistive switching memory of CoFe2O4 thin film using nanoporous alumina template  

PubMed Central

A novel conductive process for resistive random access memory cells is investigated based on nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide template. Bipolar resistive switching characteristic is clearly observed in CoFe2O4 thin film. Stable and repeatable resistive switching behavior is acquired at the same time. On the basis of conductive filament model, possible generation mechanisms for the resistive switching behaviors are discussed intensively. Besides, the magnetic properties of samples (before and after the annealing process) are characterized, and the distinct changes of magnetic anisotropy and coercive field are detected. The present results provide a new perspective to comprehend the underlying physical origin of the resistive switching effect. PACS 68.37.-d; 73.40.Rw; 73.61.-r

2014-01-01

56

Chemical tuning of the optical band gap in spinel ferrites: CoFe2O4 vs NiFe2O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the optical properties of epitaxial CoFe2O4 thin films and compared our findings with complementary electronic structure calculations and similar studies on the Ni analog. Our work reveals CoFe2O4 to be an indirect band gap material (1.2 eV, X ? ? in the spin-down channel) with a direct gap at 2.7 eV. The latter is robust up to 800 K. Compared to NiFe2O4, the indirect gap is ?0.5 eV lower, a difference we discuss in terms of size and covalency effects in spinel ferrites.

Holinsworth, B. S.; Mazumdar, D.; Sims, H.; Sun, Q.-C.; Yurtisigi, M. K.; Sarker, S. K.; Gupta, A.; Butler, W. H.; Musfeldt, J. L.

2013-08-01

57

Fabrication and Characterization of Heterostructural CoFe2O4\\/ Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Nanofibers by Electrospinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterostructural CoFe2O4\\/Pb(Zr0.52Ti 0.48)O3 composite nanofibers with diameters about 100 nm were prepared by electrospinning. The thermal decomposition process, structure and morphology of the precursor composite fibers and the calcined CoFe 2O4\\/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 nanofibers were investigated by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM

Jin-Cai Zheng; Xiang-Qian Shen; Chun-Ying Min; Xian-Feng Meng; Qing-Rong Liang

2010-01-01

58

Comparative study of nano-sized particles CoFe2O4 effects on superconducting properties of Y-123 and Y-358  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of nano-sized CoFe2O4 particles (10 nm) addition on the structural and the normal state resistivity of YBa2Cu3O7 (noted Y-123) and Y3Ba5Cu8O18 (noted Y-358) polycrystalline were systematically studied. Samples were synthesized in oxygen atmosphere using a standard solid state reaction technique by adding CoFe2O4 up to 2 wt%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical measurements ?(T). XRD results reveal that the lattice parameters change for both Y-123 and Y-358 phases. SEM observations reveal that the grain size is reduced with increasing the content of CoFe2O4. The measurements for the resistivity dependence of temperature show that the depression in superconducting temperature is more pronounced for CoFe2O4 addition in Y-358 compound than in Y-123 one. These results may be attributed to the existence of much more disorder due to a greater number of Cu sites to be substituted by Fe and Co in Y-358 compared to Y-123.

Slimani, Y.; Hannachi, E.; Ben Salem, M. K.; Hamrita, A.; Varilci, A.; Dachraoui, W.; Ben Salem, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.

2014-10-01

59

Multiferroic properties of Pb,,Zr,Ti...O3/CoFe2O4 composite thin films N. Ortega,a  

E-print Network

Multiferroic properties of Pb,,Zr,Ti...O3/CoFe2O4 composite thin films N. Ortega,a P. Bhattacharya; published online 26 December 2006 In the present work we report multiferroic behavior in lead zirconate in multiferroic materials due to their potential applications.1 The available single-phase materials have lower

Rubloff, Gary W.

60

Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Properties of CoFe2O4 on MgO(001)  

SciTech Connect

We have grown single-crystal Co ferrite (CoFe2O4) on MgO(001) by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE), and have characterized the composition, structure, surface morphology, and magnetic properties by a number of methods The as-grown OPA-MBE material forms a perfect inverse spinel, in which all Co is in the? formal oxidation state, and occupies octahedral sites within the cation sublattice. The OPA-MBE film surfaces are very flat, with mean roughnesses of only a few A, and exhibit large, stable magnetic domains. The measured moment per unit volume is 250 emu/cm3, and the saturation magnetization for films in the 1000A film thickness range is {approx}60% of that of bulk Co ferrite. The material also exhibits strain-dependent magnetic anisotropy that can be understood by considering the various contributions to the total magnetic energy. The overall quality of epitaxial Co ferrite grown on MgO by OPA-MBE is superior in every respect to that obtained using pulsed laser deposition as the growth method.

Chambers, Scott A.; Farrow, Robin F.; Maat, S.; Toney, M.; Folks, L.; Catalano, J.G.; Trainor, T.P.; Brown, G.E. Jr.

2002-04-01

61

Magnetodielectric properties of CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 core-shell nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magneto-electric (ME) and multiferroic CoFe2O4 (CFO)/BaTiO3 (BTO) core-shell nanocomposite is prepared by co-precipitation followed by citrate-gel method. The XRD patterns indicate that the magnetic CFO phase is compatible with the ferroelectric BTO phase. The core-shell nature with homogeneous mixing of magnetic and dielectric phase is confirmed by microstructural analysis. The magnetic and ferroelectric phase preserves their basic individual properties in the core-shell form. The magnetodielectric (MD) response of the nanocomposite is attributed to magnetostriction of CFO at low frequencies, and at high frequencies is due to magnetostriction and the magnetoresistance effects. The Maxwell-Wagner effect combined with the magnetoresistance (MR) is dominant at the intermediate frequencies. The ME coupling susceptibility of the sample was indirectly derived through the MD measurements by eliminating the combined ‘Maxwell-Wagner and the magnetoresistive effects’. ME coupling susceptibility of 0.6±0.2 mV/cm Oe is obtained indirectly by MD measurements at room temperature upto a maximum field of 7 kOe. The observed MD effects are attributed to the presence of magnetostrictive and magnetoresistive behavior of core-shell nanocomposite.

Selvi, M. Malar; Manimuthu, P.; Kumar, K. Saravana; Venkateswaran, C.

2014-11-01

62

Crossover of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy direction mediated by interfacial strain of CoFe2O4 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the deposition temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropy of CoFe2O4 films grown on Al2O3(0001) substrates using pulsed-laser deposition. X-ray diffraction revealed all films to have a <111> orientation except for the films grown at room temperature, which exhibited amorphous characteristics. Furthermore, the films deposited between 350 °C and 550 °C exhibited out-of-plane tensile strain even though, which was relieved as the deposition temperature increased. On the other hand, film deposited at 650 °C showed out-of-plane compressive strain. The in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic hysteresis loops, which were measured at room temperature, showed a decreased out-of-plane anisotropy when the deposition temperature was increased. Simple uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy calculations based on the experimental data showed a direct correlation between the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy direction and stress of the films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed variations in the cation distribution according to the deposition temperature.

Cho, C.-W.; Lee, D. Y.; Bae, J. S.; Park, S.

2014-11-01

63

Role of epitaxial strain on the magnetic structure of Fe-doped CoFe2O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic structure of Fe-doped CoFe2O4 (Co1-xFe2+xO4) grown on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates is studied with superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopies. X-ray and electron diffraction show that the choice of substrate has large effects on the strain, crystal structure and surface morphology of Co1-xFe2+xO4 thin films. Samples grown on MgO have small, coherent strains and surfaces that are nearly atomically flat, whereas films grown on SrTiO3 have large tensile strains and surfaces terminated with islands, which indicate the presence of a large density of misfit dislocations. These differences in structural properties correlate with the large differences seen in the magnetic structure; samples grown on SrTiO3 have larger magnetic moments and increased anisotropies compared to those grown on MgO. Most strikingly, the large magnetic spin and orbital moments found in the films grown on SrTiO3 suggest a suppression of anti-phase boundary formation, which we attribute to the large compressive lattice mismatch and the formation of misfit dislocations during the film growth in order to relieve the epitaxial strain. This results in the films grown on SrTiO3 having magnetic properties that are more similar to bulk Co1-xFe2+xO4 than those grown on MgO, demonstrating that epitaxial strain can result in large changes in the magnetic structure of Co1-xFe2+xO4.

Moyer, J. A.; Kumah, D. P.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Arena, D. A.; Henrich, V. E.

2013-11-01

64

First-principles calculation of magnetoelastic coefficients and magnetostriction in the spinel ferrites CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present calculations of magnetostriction constants for the spinel ferrites CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 using density functional theory within the GGA+U approach. Special emphasis is devoted to the influence of different possible cation distributions on the B-site sublattice of the inverse spinel structure on the calculated elastic and magnetoelastic constants. We show that the resulting symmetry lowering has only a negligible effect on the elastic constants of both systems as well as on the magnetoelastic response of NiFe2O4, whereas the magnetoelastic response of CoFe2O4 depends more strongly on the specific cation arrangement. In all cases our calculated magnetostriction constants are in good agreement with available experimental data. Our work thus paves the way for more detailed first-principles studies regarding the effect of stoichiometry and cation inversion on the magnetostrictive properties of spinel ferrites.

Fritsch, Daniel; Ederer, Claude

2012-07-01

65

Magnetization-induced enhancement of photoluminescence in core-shell CoFe2O4@YVO4:Eu3+ composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the core-shell CoFe2O4@YVO4:Eu3+ composite synthesized through a facile sol-gel method was magnetized under an external magnetic field of 0.25 T for 4 h, an enhancement of ˜56% in photoluminescence intensity was observed. The remanent magnetization of the CoFe2O4 core increases the intensity of the excited charge transfer transition of VO43- group in YVO4:Eu3+ shell, which may enhance the probability related to the Eu3+ radiative transition 5D0-7F2, yielding to a high photoluminescence. The obvious remanent-magnetization-induced enhancement in photoluminescence is helpful in developing excellent magnetic/luminescent material for the practical display devices.

Jia, Yanmin; Zhou, Zhihua; Wei, Yongbin; Wu, Zheng; Chen, Jianrong; Zhang, Yihe; Liu, Yongsheng

2013-12-01

66

Enhanced photoluminescence of core-shell CoFe2O4/SiO2/Y2O3:Eu3+ composite by remanent magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A core-shell cobalt ferrite/silicon dioxide/europium ion-doped Y2O3 (CoFe2O4/SiO2/Y2O3:Eu3+) composite was synthesized by a facile layer-by-layer method. Magnetization of the composite under an external magnetic field of approximately 0.25 T enhanced the photoluminescence (PL) intensity by 56%. The remanent magnetization of the CoFe2O4 core increased the excited charge-transfer transition between O2- and Eu3+ in the Y2O3:Eu3+ shell, thus enhancing the probability of radiative transition (5D0?7F2) of Eu3+ ions and leading to enhanced PL. Remanent magnetization is a noncontact, easy-to-operate technique with high growth amplitude and potential for practical application for smart display devices.

Jia, Yanmin; Zhou, Zhihua; Wei, Yongbin; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Haihang; Chen, Jianrong; Zhang, Yihe; Liu, Yongsheng

2013-12-01

67

Influence of substrate temperature in BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 nanocomposites deposited on SrTiO3 (0 0 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial nanocomposites have been deposited on SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. We present here a study of the influence of the deposition temperature (TS), in the 550-800 °C range, on the film composition, morphology and microstructure. Electron-probe microanalysis shows strong reduction of the Bi content in the films when increasing TS. Films prepared at TS=750

N. Dix; R. Muralidharan; J. M. Caicedo; D. Hrabovsky; I. Fina; L. Fàbrega; V. Skumryev; M. Varela; J. Guyonnet; P. Paruch; F. Sánchez; J. Fontcuberta

2009-01-01

68

Core shell particles consisting of cobalt ferrite and silica as model ferrofluids [CoFe2O4SiO2 core shell particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly monodisperse core shell particles consisting of a magnetic core of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and a shell of silica (SiO2) are prepared via a modified Stöber synthesis. The core shell structure is confirmed by TEM, the size distribution of the whole particles was determined by means of photon correlation spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. Due to charged surface groups

Joachim Wagner; Tina Autenrieth; Rolf Hempelmann

2002-01-01

69

CoFe 2O 4 and NiFe 2O 4 synthesized by sol–gel procedures for their use as anode materials for Li ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt and nickel spinel ferrites with CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 stoichiometries have been prepared by a sol–gel process based on a vacuum sublimation of a citrate precursor. Several samples of CoFe2O4 were obtained by varying the conditions of citrate precursor formation and further annealing. SEM images demonstrated the strong influence of synthesis parameters on the morphologies of secondary and primary particles.

P. Lavela; J. L. Tirado

2007-01-01

70

General design of hollow porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes from metal-organic frameworks with extraordinary lithium storage.  

PubMed

Hollow porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes from metal-organic frameworks were fabricated through a general facile strategy. The intrinsic hollow nanostructure can shorten the lengths for both electronic and ionic transport, enlarge the surface area of electrodes, and improve accommodation of the volume change during Li insertion/extraction cycling. The hybrid multi-elements characteristics allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner during the electrochemical cycle. Therefore, the as-prepared CoFe2O4 electrode exhibits outstanding performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The stable capacity arrives at 815 mA h g(-1) for 20 C. Subsequently, a specific capacity of ca. 1043 mA h g(-1) is recovered when the current rate reduces back to 1 C after 200 cycles. This general strategy may shed light on a new avenue for large-scale synthesis of hollow porous hybrid nanocubes via MOFs for energy storage, environmental remediation and other novel applications. PMID:25374151

Guo, Hong; Li, Tingting; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Lixiang; Yang, Xiangjun; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yicheng

2014-12-21

71

Structural and dielectric properties of laser ablated BaTiO3 films deposited over electrophoretically dispersed CoFe2O4 grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film nanocomposites with mixed connectivity, composed by CoFe2O4 grains, deposited by electrophoresis on Si|Pt substrates, and subsequently covered by a laser ablation deposited BaTiO3 layer were prepared with different cobalt ferrite concentrations. Their structure presented a combination of BaTiO3, with its tetragonal and the orthorhombic phases coexisting at room temperature, and CoFe2O4 with the cubic spinel structure. The cobalt ferrite nanograins were under in-plane tensile stress, while the BaTiO3 phase was under in-plane compressive stress. The dielectric measurements showed that as the barium titanate grain size decreased, its ferroelectric Curie temperature shifted to lower temperatures relative to the bulk. This grain size dependent TC shift was associated and modeled by a core-shell structure of BaTiO3 grains in the films, with a tetragonal core and cubic shell. Additionally, a diffuse tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition was observed and, in agreement with Raman spectroscopy results, associated to the coexistence of barium titanate orthorhombic and tetragonal phases in the room temperature region. This led to the formation of polar nanoclusters with random polarization orientations, which induced a frustrated phase transition between the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases of barium titanate in the films.

Barbosa, J. G.; Gomes, I. T.; Pereira, M. R.; Moura, C.; Mendes, J. A.; Almeida, B. G.

2014-10-01

72

Controlled Room Temperature Synthesis of CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles through a Block Copolymer Nanoreactor Route  

E-print Network

- ment of such mixed-metal oxide polymer-based nano- composites is targeting the functionalization this particular mixed-metal oxide composition. Our modification of prior reported templating schemes using block polymerization of norbornene derivatives. The self-assembly of the mixed-metal oxide within the polymer template

Rubloff, Gary W.

73

Hierarchical templating of a BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 multiferroic nanocomposite by a triblock terpolymer film.  

PubMed

A process route to fabricate templated BiFeO3/CoFe2O4 (BFO/CFO) vertical nanocomposites is presented in which the self-assembly of the BFO/CFO is guided using a self-assembled triblock terpolymer. A linear triblock terpolymer was selected instead of a diblock copolymer in order to produce a square-symmetry template, which had a period of 44 nm. The triblock terpolymer pattern was transferred to a (001) Nb:SrTiO3 substrate to produce pits that formed preferential sites for the nucleation of CFO crystals, in contrast to the BFO, which wetted the flat regions of the substrate. The crystallographic orientation and magnetic properties of the templated BFO/CFO were characterized. PMID:25184546

Choi, Hong Kyoon; Aimon, Nicolas M; Kim, Dong Hun; Sun, Xue Yin; Gwyther, Jessica; Manners, Ian; Ross, Caroline A

2014-09-23

74

Preparation and characterization of multiferroic CoFe2O4/Bi0.97Ce0.03FeO3 coaxial nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroic CoFe2O4 (CFO)/Bi0.97Ce0.03FeO3 (BCFO) coaxial nanotubes were prepared by a sol-gel template method. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the coaxial nanotubes featured with inner CFO and outer BCFO nanotubes. Selected area electron diffraction confirmed the coexistence of spinel CFO and perovskite BCFO phases in the coaxial nanotubes. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements showed that the saturated magnetization of the coaxial nanotubes was 3.3 emu/g, smaller than that of CFO nanotubes. The P- E hysteresis loop of the coaxial nanotubes was of poor shape due to possible high conductivity in the inner CFO nanotubes. Dielectric measurements exhibited that the dielectric constant of the coaxial nanotubes decreased while the dielectric loss increased due probably to the small dielectric constant and high conductivity in the inner CFO nanotube. Ferroelectric and magnetic properties were simultaneously demonstrated in the CFO/BCFO coaxial nanotubes.

Liu, X. L.; Li, M. Y.; Wang, J.; Hu, Z. Q.; Zhu, Y. D.; Zhao, X. Z.

2012-09-01

75

Annealing control of magnetic anisotropy and phase separation in CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 nanocomposite films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroic heteroepitaxial nanocomposite films of BaTiO3 and CoFe2O4 (CFO) have been grown by pulsed laser deposition employing alternating ablation of two ceramic targets. Films grown at temperatures between 650 °C and 710 °C contain columnar CFO grains about 10-20 nm in diameter embedded in a BaTiO3 matrix. The very strong vertical compression of these grains causes large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Post-growth annealing treatments above the growth temperature gradually release the compression. This allows one to tune the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy. Additionally, annealing leads to substantial enhancement of the saturation magnetization MS. Since MS of a pure CFO film remains unchanged by a similar annealing procedure, MS is proposed to depend on the volume fraction of the obtained CFO phase. We suggest that MS can be utilized to monitor the degree of phase separation in nanocomposite films.

Rafique, Mohsin; Herklotz, A.; Guo, E.-J.; Roth, R.; Schultz, L.; Dörr, K.; Manzoor, Sadia

2013-12-01

76

Engineered magnetic shape anisotropy in BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 self-assembled thin films.  

PubMed

We report growth of various phase architectures of self-assembled BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 (BFO-CFO) thin films on differently oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. CFO forms segregated square, stripe, and triangular nanopillars embedded in a coherent BFO matrix on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented STO substrates, respectively. Nanostructures with an aspect ratio of up to 5:1 with a prominent magnetic anisotropy were obtained on both (001) and (110) STO along out-of-plane and in-plane directions. Magnetic easy axis rotation from in-plane to out-of-plane directions was realized through aspect ratio control. An intractable in-plane anisotropy was fixed in CFO on (111) STO due to the triangular shape of the ferromagnetic phase nanopillars. These studies established a detailed relationship of magnetic anisotropy with specific shape and dimensions of ordered magnetic arrays. The results suggest a way to effectively control the magnetic anisotropy in patterned ferromagnetic oxide arrays with tunable shape, aspect ratio, and elastic strain conditions of the nanostructures. PMID:23473343

Wang, Zhiguang; Li, Yanxi; Viswan, Ravindranath; Hu, Bolin; Harris, Vincent G; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight

2013-04-23

77

Exchange coupling in NiO/CoFe2 and CoFe2O4/CoFe2 systems grown by pulsed laser deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiO(30 nm)/CoFe2(5 nm) bilayers are grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si (001). After annealing under a magnetic field we observe an exchange bias of -86 Oe, corresponding to an exchange coupling of 0.06 erg/cm2. While a similar exchange coupling is observed in NiO(30 nm)/CoFe2(5 nm)/SrTiO3(3 nm)/Ni80Fe20(5 nm)/Ta(5 nm), the stack SFMO(30 nm)/SrTiO3(3 nm)/CoFe2(5 nm)/NiO(30 nm)/Ta(5 nm) does not provide any exchange bias with NiO on the top electrode. Alternatively, we have used a ferrimagnetic oxide (CoFe2O4) as a bias layer of the top electrode. The stack SFMO(30 nm)/STO(3 nm)/CoFe2(5 nm)/CoFe2O4(70 nm) provides a shift of -70 Oe for the CoFe2(5 nm) layer, corresponding to an exchange coupling of 0.05 erg/cm2.

Fix, T.; Colis, S.; Sauvet, K.; Loison, J. L.; Versini, G.; Pourroy, G.; Dinia, A.

2006-02-01

78

Synthesis and magnetic properties of polycrystalline films of Co x Fe y Cr3 - x - y O4 and Cr2O3/CoFe2O4 multiferroics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of first obtained polycrystalline films of FeCr2O4, CoCr2O4, and CoFe0.5Cr1.5O4 multiferroics and films of a Cr2O3/CoFe2O4 composite multiferroic have been studied. In particular, magnetization curves and temperature dependences of the magnetic moment of the samples were measured in the temperature range 4.2-300 K in fields of up to 10 kOe. It was shown that the Curie point of a multiferroic depends on its cation composition. It was found that an exchange bias of the hysteresis loop exists in films of the Cr2O3/CoFe2O4 composite multiferroic at temperatures below the Néel point of Cr2O3 (330 K).

Polyakova, K. P.; Polyakov, V. V.; Velikanov, D. A.; Yurkin, G. Yu.; Patrin, G. S.

2014-08-01

79

Co L2,3 resonant x-ray scattering in magnetic CoFe2 O4 in the perpendicular geometry: Experimental and theoretical results on circular dichroism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of resonant x-ray Raman scattering at the Co L2,3 edges in CoFe2 O4 with circularly polarized x-rays incident perpendicularly to the magnetization direction. We have selected the scattering channel having a 3s hole in the final state. The L3 scattering gives dichroism spectra very much dependent on the excitation energy showing a typical Raman regime with a

M. Taguchi; L. Braicovich; E. Annese; C. Dallera; G. Ghiringhelli; A. Tagliaferri; N. B. Brookes

2004-01-01

80

Synthysis of Ultrasmall Ultrabright Photostable Yellow Luminescent SI Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized ultrasmall yellow luminescent Si nanoparticles that are ultrabright under uv single photon excitation or under two-photon near infrared excitation. The brightness is comparable to that of rhodamine dye molecules. Monte Carlo quantum calculations yield a Si66 prototype structure. Previously we synthesized ultrabright blue luminescent particles (Si29 prototype). Direct imaging of single particles using transmission electron microscopy and

Gennadiy Belomoin; Nick Barry; Adam Smith; Osman Akcakir; Laila Abuhassan; Enrico Gratton; Munir Nayfeh

2001-01-01

81

Preparation of magnetic spinel ferrite core\\/shell nanoparticles: Soft ferrites on hard ferrites and vice versa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard\\/soft CoFe2O4\\/ZnFe2O4 and soft\\/hard ZnFe2O4\\/CoFe2O4 core\\/shell nanoparticles were prepared by combining high-temperature thermolysis of metal oxide precursors with seed-mediated growth. Magnetic properties of the core\\/shell nanoparticles were compared to those of individual CoFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles of similar size prepared by the same method. The structure of the core\\/shell materials was established using a combination of X-ray and neutron powder

Ombretta Masala; Darin Hoffman; Nalini Sundaram; Katharine Page; Thomas Proffen; Gavin Lawes; Ram Seshadri

2006-01-01

82

Effect of the CoFe2O4 thin film thickness on multiferroic property of (00l )-oriented Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3/CoFe2O4/Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 trilayer structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have fabricated (00l)-oriented Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3/CoFe2O4/Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 (PZT/CFO/PZT) trilayer thin films on LaNiO3 coated substrates by dual-cathode rf sputtering system. The thicknesses of top and bottom PZT thin films were fixed at 100nm but those of the CFO interlayer were 40, 80, and 120nm, respectively. The x-ray diffraction showed well-defined PZT and CFO peaks with (00l ) orientation, and large grains with columnar structure were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Hard-magnetic M-H loop with a saturation magnetization of ˜235emu /cm3 and ferroelectric hysteresis curve with saturation polarization of ˜40.1?C/cm2 were measured at room temperature for the PZT/CFO (120 nm)/PZT trilayer thin films. Due to the low-resistance CFO interlayer in series with the PZT layers, the ferroelectric property does not significantly vary with the CFO interlayer thickness. In contrast, the possibility of the existence of nonmagnetic interfacial layer at the CFO/PZT interface causes the reduction of the magnetization. Both of the good magnetic and ferroelectric responses suggest that the (00l)-oriented PZT/CFO/PZT trilayer thin film is a promising magnetoeletric material for study.

Lin, Rueijer; Liao, Jeng-hwa; Hung, Lung-jie; Wu, Tai-bor

2008-04-01

83

Si{endash}N linkage in ultrabright, ultrasmall Si nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Ultrabright ultrasmall ({similar_to}1 nm) blue luminescent Si{sub 29} nanoparticles are chlorinated by reaction with Cl{sub 2} gas. A Si{endash}N linkage is formed by the reaction of the chlorinated particles with the functional amine group in butylamine. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photospectroscopy measurements confirm the N linkage and the presence of the butyl group, while emission, excitation, and autocorrelation femtosecond optical spectroscopy show that, after the linkage formation, the particles with the ultrabright blue luminescent remain, but with a redshift of 40 nm. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Rogozhina, E.; Belomoin, G.; Smith, A.; Abuhassan, L.; Barry, N.; Akcakir, O.; Braun, P. V.; Nayfeh, M. H.

2001-06-04

84

Structural and morphological studies of manganese substituted CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline manganese substituted cobalt and nickel ferrites have been synthesized through the evaporation method by using egg white. These powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD pattern of manganese substituted spinel ferrites contains some impurity peaks, which are the decomposition of the ferrites to ?-Fe2O3 phase at higher annealing temperature. The microstructure and particle size of the annealed sample analyzed by TEM, which gives the particle size well with XRD. The magnetic properties were measured using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The surface/near-surface chemical states of the nanocrystalline manganese substituted cobalt and nickel ferrites are analyzed by XPS within a range of binding energies of 0-1000 eV.

Ranjith kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Patel, Rajesh

2013-10-01

85

Synthesis of monodisperse FeCo nanoparticles by reductive salt-matrix annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here a novel synthetic method to prepare monodisperse air-stable FeCo nanoparticles with average sizes of 8, 12 and 20 nm. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles of different sizes were first synthesized by a chemical solution method. The as-synthesized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were then mixed with ball-milled NaCl powders and heated to 400-500?° C in forming gas (Ar 93%+H2 7%). The salt powder worked as a separating medium that prevents the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles from agglomerating during the heat treatment while the forming gas reduces the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to FeCo nanoparticles. Monodisperse FeCo nanoparticles were recovered by dissolving the NaCl in water and subsequently washing with ethanol and acetone. Structural analyses confirmed that FeCo nanoparticles retained the same size as their oxide precursors. The size of the FeCo nanoparticles can be well tuned by controlling the size of the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The saturation magnetization of FeCo nanoparticles is size dependent and increases with size.

Poudyal, Narayan; Chaubey, Girija S.; Rong, Chuan-Bing; Cui, Jun; Liu, J. Ping

2013-08-01

86

Synthysis of Ultrasmall Ultrabright Photostable Yellow Luminescent SI Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized ultrasmall yellow luminescent Si nanoparticles that are ultrabright under uv single photon excitation or under two-photon near infrared excitation. The brightness is comparable to that of rhodamine dye molecules. Monte Carlo quantum calculations yield a Si66 prototype structure. Previously we synthesized ultrabright blue luminescent particles (Si29 prototype). Direct imaging of single particles using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements show atomically resolved silicon planes. A small number of the particles and dye molecules were immobilized in agarose gel or on a quartz substrate. Emission from single stationary particles is readily detectable. "Parking" the excitation beam, focused to an average intensity as high as 1MW/cm2, on stationery particles shows that they, unlike the dye molecules, are photostable and do not blink, hence paving the way for their use as fluorescent biomedical labels.

Belomoin, Gennadiy; Barry, Nick; Smith, Adam; Akcakir, Osman; Abuhassan, Laila; Gratton, Enrico; Nayfeh, Munir

2001-03-01

87

Crafting the strain state in epitaxial thin films: A case study of CoFe2O4 films on Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain dependence of electric and magnetic properties has been widely investigated, both from a fundamental science perspective and an applications point of view. Electromechanical coupling through field-induced polarization rotation (PRO) and polarization reorientation (PRE) in piezoelectric single crystals can provide an effective strain in film/substrate epitaxial heterostructures. However, the specific pathway of PRO and PRE is a complex thermodynamic process, depending on chemical composition, temperature, electric field, and mechanical load. Here, systematic studies of the temperature-dependent field-induced phase transitions in Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals with different initial phase and orientation configurations have been performed. Different types of strains, volatile/nonvolatile and biaxial/uniaxial, have been measured by both macroscopic and in situ x-ray diffraction techniques. In addition, the strain state of epitaxial Mn-doped CoFe2O4 thin films was examined by magnetic anisotropy measurements, where a giant magnetoelectric coupling has been demonstrated.

Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Yaojin; Luo, Haosu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

2014-10-01

88

Probing optical band gaps at the nanoscale in NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 epitaxial films by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale optical band gap variations in epitaxial thin films of two different spinel ferrites, i.e., NiFe2O4 (NFO) and CoFe2O4 (CFO), have been investigated by spatially resolved high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Experimentally, both NFO and CFO show indirect/direct band gaps around 1.52 eV/2.74 and 2.3 eV, and 1.3 eV/2.31 eV, respectively, for the ideal inverse spinel configuration with considerable standard deviation in the band gap values for CFO due to various levels of deviation from the ideal inverse spinel structure. Direct probing of the regions in both the systems with tetrahedral A site cation vacancy, which is distinct from the ideal inverse spinel configuration, shows significantly smaller band gap values. The experimental results are supported by the density functional theory based modified Becke-Johnson exchange correlation potential calculated band gap values for the different cation configurations.

Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Pachauri, N.; Gupta, A.; Datta, R.

2014-09-01

89

Magnetic properties of ultra-small goethite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goethite (?-FeOOH) is a common nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic mineral. However, it is typically difficult to study the properties of isolated single-crystalline goethite nanoparticles, because goethite has a strong tendency to form particles of aggregated nanograins often with low-angle grain boundaries. This nanocrystallinity leads to complex magnetic properties that are dominated by magnetic fluctuations in interacting grains. Here we present a study of the magnetic properties of 5.7 nm particles of goethite by use of magnetization measurements, inelastic neutron scattering and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ‘ultra-small’ size of these particles (i.e. that the particles consist of one or only a few grains) allows for more direct elucidation of the particles' intrinsic magnetic properties. We find from ac and dc magnetization measurements a significant upturn of the magnetization at very low temperatures most likely due to freezing of spins in canted spin structures. From hysteresis curves we estimate the saturation magnetization from uncompensated magnetic moments to be ?s = 0.044 A m2 kg-1 at room temperature. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements show a strong signal from excitations of the uniform mode (q = 0 spin waves) at temperatures of 100-250 K and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies show that the magnetic fluctuations are dominated by ‘classical’ superparamagnetic relaxation at temperatures above ˜170 K. From the temperature dependence of the hyperfine fields and the excitation energy of the uniform mode we estimate a magnetic anisotropy constant of around 1.0 × 105 J m-3.

Brok, E.; Frandsen, C.; Madsen, D. E.; Jacobsen, H.; Birk, J. O.; Lefmann, K.; Bendix, J.; Pedersen, K. S.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Berhe, A. A.; Simeoni, G. G.; Mørup, S.

2014-09-01

90

Effect of BaTiO3 addition on structural, multiferroic and magneto-dielectric properties of 0.3CoFe2O4?0.7BiFeO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the various physical properties of (1 − x)(0.3CoFe2O4-0.7BiFeO3)-xBaTiO3 composites (equivalently denoted as 0.3CFO-0.7BFO/BT) with the compositions x = 0, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40 and 1.0. The composites are synthesized through a hybrid processing technique in which 0.3CFO–0.7BFO is prepared through a sol-gel process, and BT is processed through a solid state reaction method. Subsequently, the effects of the addition of BT on the structural, dielectric, magnetic and magneto-dielectric properties of 0.3CFO–0.7BFO have been investigated for various BT concentrations. The Rietveld refinement analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns reveals the structural distortion in the BFO phase with the addition of BT, while no such distortion has been observed for the CFO phase. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms the presence of two types of grains that correspond to the 0.3CFO–0.7BFO and BT phases in field emission scanning electron micrographs of the composites. Improved dielectric properties have been observed, which are associated with the improved density of composites with the addition of BT. Measurements of the magnetic and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature indicate that the composites exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism simultaneously at room temperature. An increase of the electric polarization has been observed due to structural distortion arising with the addition of BT. The significant dependence of the dielectric constant on the magnetic field has been observed in the prepared composites. The highest value of the magneto-dielectric response (3.2%) has been observed for a 40 mol% addition of BT.

Adhlakha, Nidhi; Yadav, K. L.; Singh, Ripandeep

2014-10-01

91

Anatase TiO 2 nanolayer coating on cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for magnetic photocatalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2\\/CoFe2O4 composite nanoparticles with a core–shell structure have been obtained. The core CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method, and the shell TiO2 nanocrystals were derived via sol–gel technology followed by heat-treatment at 450 °C. The morphology and the crystalline structure of composite nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The as-prepared composite particles can

Wuyou Fu; Haibin Yang; Minghua Li; Minghui Li; Nan Yang; Guangtian Zou

2005-01-01

92

SiN linkage in ultrabright, ultrasmall Si nanoparticles E. Rogozhina  

E-print Network

Si­N linkage in ultrabright, ultrasmall Si nanoparticles E. Rogozhina Department of Material are chlorinated by reaction with Cl2 gas. A Si­N linkage is formed by the reaction of the chlorinated particles measurements confirm the N linkage and the presence of the butyl group, while emission, excitation

Braun, Paul

93

Cellular distribution and degradation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The effect of the concentration of cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) on their intracellular location and distribution has been explored by synchrotron radiation X-ray and fluorescence microscopy (SR-XRF) monitoring the evolution of NPs elemental composition as well. In cells exposed to low concentrations of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the NPs preferentially segregate in the perinuclear region preserving their initial chemical content. At concentrations exceeding 500 ?M the XRF spectra indicate the presence of Co and Fe also in the nuclear region, accompanied by sensible changes in the cellular morphology. The increase of the Co/Fe ratio measured in the nuclear compartment indicates that above certain concentrations the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs intracellular distribution could be accompanied by biodegradation resulting in Co accumulation in the nucleus. PMID:21925252

Marmorato, Patrick; Ceccone, Giacomo; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Pascolo, Lorella; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François; Salomé, Murielle; Kaulich, Burkhard; Kiskinova, Maya

2011-11-30

94

Synthesis and characterization of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles thinly coated with silica  

PubMed Central

Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) were synthesized by co-precipitation of iron chloride salts with ammonia and then encapsulated with thin (~2nm) layers of silica. The particles have been characterized for size, diffraction pattern, surface charge, and magnetic properties. This rapid and economical synthesis has a number of industrial applications; however, the silica-coated particles have been optimized for use in medical applications as MR contrast agents, biosensors, DNA capturing, bioseparation and enzyme immobilization PMID:19701448

Bumb, A; Brechbiel, M W; Choyke, P L; Fugger, L; Eggeman, A; Prabhakaran, D; Hutchinson, J; Dobson, P J

2008-01-01

95

Unconventional route to encapsulated ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for high-temperature catalysis.  

PubMed

Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (us-AuNPs, <3 nm) have been recently recognized as surprisingly active and extraordinarily effective green catalysts. Their stability against sintering during reactions, however, remains a serious issue for practical applications. Encapsulating such small nanoparticles in a layer of porous silica can dramatically enhance the stability, but it has been extremely difficult to achieve using conventional sol-gel coating methods due to the weak metal/oxide affinity. In this work, we address this challenge by developing an effective protocol for the synthesis of us-AuNP@SiO2 single-core/shell nanospheres. More specifically, we take an alternative route by starting with ultrasmall gold hydroxide nanoparticles, which have excellent affinity to silica, then carrying out controllable silica coating in reverse micelles, and finally converting gold hydroxide particles into well-protected us-AuNPs. With a single-core/shell configuration that prevents sintering of nearby us-AuNPs and amino group modification of the Au/SiO2 interface that provides additional coordinating interactions, the resulting us-AuNP@SiO2 nanospheres are highly stable at high temperatures and show high activity in catalytic CO oxidation reactions. A dramatic and continuous increase in the catalytic activity has been observed when the size of the us-AuNPs decreases from 2.3 to 1.5 nm, which reflects the intrinsic size effect of the Au nanoparticles on an inert support. The synthesis scheme described in this work is believed to be extendable to many other ultrasmall metal@oxide nanostructures for much broader catalytic applications. PMID:24984223

Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Hongyu; He, Shengnan; Liu, Kai; Liu, Hongyang; Yin, Yadong; Gao, Chuanbo

2014-07-22

96

Synthesis and characterization of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles thinly coated with silica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of iron chloride salts with ammonia and then encapsulated with thin (~2 nm) layers of silica. The particles have been characterized for size, diffraction pattern, surface charge, and magnetic properties. This rapid and economical synthesis has a number of industrial applications; however, the silica-coated particles have been optimized for use in medical applications such as magnetic resonance contrast agents and biosensors, and in DNA capturing, bioseparation and enzyme immobilization.

Bumb, A.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Choyke, P. L.; Fugger, L.; Eggeman, A.; Prabhakaran, D.; Hutchinson, J.; Dobson, P. J.

2008-08-01

97

Coupling of HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for studying the aging of ultrasmall multifunctional gadolinium-based silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Sub-5 nm multimodal nanoparticles have great potential for theranostic applications due to their easy renal elimination combined with complementary imaging properties and therapeutic facilities. Their potential clinical use requires the full characterization of not only the nanoparticle but also all its possible degradation products. We have recently proposed new ultrasmall gadolinium-based nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and radiosensitization. The aim of this article is to describe an analytical tool to characterize degradation products in a highly diluted medium. We demonstrate that HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can be used in order to determine precisely the composition of nanoparticles and their degradation fragments during aging. PMID:24160370

Truillet, Charles; Lux, François; Tillement, Olivier; Dugourd, Philippe; Antoine, Rodolphe

2013-11-01

98

Differential hERG ion channel activity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanism of toxicity of nanomaterials remains a challenge with respect to both mechanisms involved and product regulation. Here we show toxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Depending on the ligand chemistry, 1.4-nm-diameter AuNPs failed electrophysiology-based safety testing using human embryonic kidney cell line 293 cells expressing human ether-á-go-go-Related gene (hERG), a Food and Drug Administration-established drug safety test. In patch-clamp experiments, phosphine-stabilized AuNPs irreversibly blocked hERG channels, whereas thiol-stabilized AuNPs of similar size had no effect in vitro, and neither particle blocked the channel in vivo. We conclude that safety regulations may need to be reevaluated and adapted to reflect the fact that the binding modality of surface functional groups becomes a relevant parameter for the design of nanoscale bioactive compounds. PMID:23630249

Leifert, Annika; Pan, Yu; Kinkeldey, Anne; Schiefer, Frank; Setzler, Julia; Scheel, Olaf; Lichtenbeld, Hera; Schmid, Günter; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Simon, Ulrich

2013-05-14

99

Differential hERG ion channel activity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanism of toxicity of nanomaterials remains a challenge with respect to both mechanisms involved and product regulation. Here we show toxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Depending on the ligand chemistry, 1.4-nm-diameter AuNPs failed electrophysiology-based safety testing using human embryonic kidney cell line 293 cells expressing human ether-á-go-go-Related gene (hERG), a Food and Drug Administration-established drug safety test. In patch-clamp experiments, phosphine-stabilized AuNPs irreversibly blocked hERG channels, whereas thiol-stabilized AuNPs of similar size had no effect in vitro, and neither particle blocked the channel in vivo. We conclude that safety regulations may need to be reevaluated and adapted to reflect the fact that the binding modality of surface functional groups becomes a relevant parameter for the design of nanoscale bioactive compounds. PMID:23630249

Leifert, Annika; Pan, Yu; Kinkeldey, Anne; Schiefer, Frank; Setzler, Julia; Scheel, Olaf; Lichtenbeld, Hera; Schmid, Gunter; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Simon, Ulrich

2013-01-01

100

Clinical translation of an ultrasmall inorganic optical-PET imaging nanoparticle probe.  

PubMed

A first-in-human clinical trial of ultrasmall inorganic hybrid nanoparticles, "C dots" (Cornell dots), in patients with metastatic melanoma is described for the imaging of cancer. These renally excreted silica particles were labeled with (124)I for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and modified with cRGDY peptides for molecular targeting. (124)I-cRGDY-PEG-C dot particles are inherently fluorescent, containing the dye, Cy5, so they may be used as hybrid PET-optical imaging agents for lesion detection, cancer staging, and treatment management in humans. However, the clinical translation of nanoparticle probes, including quantum dots, has not kept pace with the accelerated growth in minimally invasive surgical tools that rely on optical imaging agents. The safety, pharmacokinetics, clearance properties, and radiation dosimetry of (124)I-cRGDY-PEG-C dots were assessed by serial PET and computerized tomography after intravenous administration in patients. Metabolic profiles and laboratory tests of blood and urine specimens, obtained before and after particle injection, were monitored over a 2-week interval. Findings are consistent with a well-tolerated inorganic particle tracer exhibiting in vivo stability and distinct, reproducible pharmacokinetic signatures defined by renal excretion. No toxic or adverse events attributable to the particles were observed. Coupled with preferential uptake and localization of the probe at sites of disease, these first-in-human results suggest safe use of these particles in human cancer diagnostics. PMID:25355699

Phillips, Evan; Penate-Medina, Oula; Zanzonico, Pat B; Carvajal, Richard D; Mohan, Pauliah; Ye, Yunpeng; Humm, John; Gönen, Mithat; Kalaigian, Hovanes; Schöder, Heiko; Strauss, H William; Larson, Steven M; Wiesner, Ulrich; Bradbury, Michelle S

2014-10-29

101

High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for analysis of ultrasmall palladium nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have recently attracted considerable attention in many areas of research including bioscience, chemistry and material science. Regrettably, most current and past work usually focuses on studies of multi-component NPs mixture where there is a plethora of NPs species co-existing. This work highlights the merits of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for disclosing the genuine properties of individual palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) species present in an as-synthesized N,N'-dimethylformamide-stabilized PdNPs product (DMF-PdNPs) which might have been previously hidden or misinterpreted. DMF-PdNPs is successfully separated by RP-HPLC that smaller DMF-PdNPs are approximately eluted first and then follow by the large ones on a C18 column. The separation fractions are further collected and determined their chemical compositions by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results unambiguously reveal that the as-synthesized DMF-PdNPs product is indeed a complex mixture of ultrasmall PdxNPs (x=10-20) stabilized with different numbers of DMF ligands. It is anticipated that the separated fractions afforded by RP-HPLC will offer more accurate determinations of the catalytic, electronic, optical and toxicological properties of metal NPs which might have been previously misinterpreted. PMID:25281151

Zhang, Lei; Li, Zhongping; Zhang, Yan; Chin Paau, Man; Hu, Qin; Gong, Xiaojuan; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Peng, Xiaoguang; Choi, Martin M F

2015-01-01

102

Synthesis of core\\/shell spinel ferrite\\/carbon nanoparticles with enhanced cycling stability for lithium ion battery anodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monodispersed core\\/shell spinel ferrite\\/carbon nanoparticles are formed by thermolysis of metal (Fe3+, Co2+) oleates followed by carbon coating. The phase and morphology of nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Pure Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are initially prepared through thermal decomposition of metal–oleate precursors at 310 °C and they are found to exhibit poor electrochemical performance because

Yun-Ho Jin; Seung-Deok Seo; Hyun-Woo Shim; Kyung-Soo Park; Dong-Wan Kim

2012-01-01

103

Influence of the morphology of ferrite nanoparticles on the directed assembly into magnetically anisotropic hierarchical structures.  

PubMed

The effect of the morphology of ferrite nanoparticles on their assembly in a magnetic field was studied. Thin BaFe12O19 nanoplatelets were compared with isotropic, spherical or octahedral, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, all of which were synthesized hydrothermally. The nanoplatelets and nanoparticles assembled into a variety of hierarchical structures from stable suspensions during the "drop deposition" and drying in a magnetic field. The alignment of the nanoparticles in the magnetic field was observed in situ with an optical microscope. The morphologies of the nanoparticles and the subsequent assemblies were observed with transmission and scanning electron microscopes, respectively. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the assemblies were measured with a vibrating-sample magnetometer. The BaFe12O19 nanoplatelets aligned in the plane of the substrate and formed several-micrometers-thick, ordered films with a magnetic alignment of approximately 90%. The CoFe2O4 nanoparticles assembled into thick, dense columns with a height of several hundreds of micrometers and showed a magnetic alignment of up to 60%. The differences in the morphologies and the magnetic alignments between the BaFe12O19 and CoFe2O4 hierarchical structures could be explained in terms of the differences in the shape and magnetocrystalline structure of the specific nanoparticles. PMID:24841592

Lisjak, Darja; Jenuš, Petra; Mertelj, Alenka

2014-06-10

104

Chemisorption of cyanogen chloride by spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, MnFe2O4, NiFe2O4, and CoFe2O4, were synthesized and used as gas-phase adsorbents for the removal of cyanogen chloride from dry air. Fixed-bed adsorption breakthrough experiments show adsorption wave behavior at the leading edge of the breakthrough curve that is not typical of physically adsorbed species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicate that CK is reacting with the spinel ferrite surface and forming a carbamate species. The reaction is shown to be a function of the hydroxyl groups and adsorbed water on the surface of the particles as well as the metallic composition of the particles. The surface reaction decreases the remnant and saturation magnetism of the MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 particles by approximately 25%. PMID:23540752

Glover, T Grant; DeCoste, Jared B; Sabo, Daniel; Zhang, Z John

2013-05-01

105

Re-Appearance of Cooperativity in Ultra-Small Spin-Crossover [Fe(pz){Ni(CN)4 }] Nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A reverse nanoemulsion technique was used for the elaboration of [Fe(pz){Ni(CN)4 }] nanoparticles. Low-temperature micellar exchange made it possible to elaborate ultra-small nanoparticles with sizes down to 2?nm. When decreasing the size of the particles from 110 to 12?nm the spin transition shifts to lower temperatures, becomes gradual, and the hysteresis shrinks. On the other hand, a re-opening of the hysteresis was observed for smaller (2?nm) particles. A detailed (57) Fe?Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis was used to correlate this unusual phenomenon to the modification of the stiffness of the nanoparticles thanks to the determination of their Debye temperature. PMID:25160504

Peng, Haonan; Tricard, Simon; Félix, Gautier; Molnár, Gábor; Nicolazzi, William; Salmon, Lionel; Bousseksou, Azzedine

2014-10-01

106

Synthesis of core/shell spinel ferrite/carbon nanoparticles with enhanced cycling stability for lithium ion battery anodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monodispersed core/shell spinel ferrite/carbon nanoparticles are formed by thermolysis of metal (Fe3+, Co2+) oleates followed by carbon coating. The phase and morphology of nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Pure Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are initially prepared through thermal decomposition of metal-oleate precursors at 310?°C and they are found to exhibit poor electrochemical performance because of the easy aggregation of nanoparticles and the resulting increase in the interparticle contact resistance. In contrast, uniform carbon coating of Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles by low-temperature (180?°C) decomposition of malic acid allowed each nanoparticle to be electrically wired to a current collector through a conducting percolative path. Core/shell Fe3O4/C and CoFe2O4/C nanocomposite electrodes show a high specific capacity that can exceed 700 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles, along with enhanced cycling stability.

Jin, Yun-Ho; Seo, Seung-Deok; Shim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Dong-Wan

2012-03-01

107

Relaxation of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in macrophages: In vitro and in vivo studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relaxation characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (CoFe 2O 4) were investigated in J774A.1 macrophages and after voluntary inhalation. In dry form 25% of the particles showed Néel relaxation. Relaxation in macrophages occurred within minutes and could be inhibited by fixation, showing Brownian relaxation and intracellular transport processes. Relaxation in the lung happened similarly, but was dependent on the time after deposition. The particles were cleared from the lung within 2 weeks.

Möller, Winfried; Takenaka, Shinji; Buske, Norbert; Felten, Kathrin; Heyder, Joachim

2005-05-01

108

Ultrasmall NHC-coated gold nanoparticles obtained through solvent free thermolysis of organometallic Au(i) complexes.  

PubMed

Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (Au UNPs) represent a unique class of nanomaterials making them very attractive for certain applications. Herein, we developed an organometallic approach to the synthesis of Au UNPs stabilized with the C18H37-NHC ligand by the solvent free thermolysis of [RMIM][Au(C6F5)2] () or [Au(C6F5)(RNHC)] () (with R = C18H37-), by controlling the reactivity of pentafluorophenyl ligands as deprotonating or reductive elimination agents; Au UNPs can be achieved by solvent free thermolysis. Pentafluorophenyl Au(i) complexes and are synthesized from the corresponding ionic and neutral precursors. The presence of long alkyl chain imidazolium or carbene species in the complexes makes them to behave as isotropic liquids at moderate temperatures. The use of multinuclear NMR allows the description of the mechanism of formation of the UNPs as well as the surface state of the UNPs. PMID:25245422

Crespo, Julián; Guari, Yannick; Ibarra, Alfonso; Larionova, Joulia; Lasanta, Tania; Laurencin, Danielle; López-de-Luzuriaga, José M; Monge, Miguel; Olmos, M Elena; Richeter, Sébastien

2014-10-01

109

A top-down synthesis route to ultrasmall multifunctional Gd-based silica nanoparticles for theranostic applications.  

PubMed

New, ultrasmall nanoparticles with sizes below 5?nm have been obtained. These small rigid platforms (SRP) are composed of a polysiloxane matrix with DOTAGA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1-glutaric anhydride-4,7,10-triacetic acid)-Gd(3+) chelates on their surface. They have been synthesised by an original top-down process: 1)?formation of a gadolinium oxide Gd2O3 core, 2)?encapsulation in a polysiloxane shell grafted with DOTAGA ligands, 3)?dissolution of the gadolinium oxide core due to chelation of Gd(3+) by DOTAGA ligands and 4)?polysiloxane fragmentation. These nanoparticles have been fully characterised using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to demonstrate the dissolution of the oxide core and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mass spectrometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, (29)Si solid-state NMR, (1)H?NMR and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) to determine the nanoparticle composition. Relaxivity measurements gave a longitudinal relaxivity r1 of 11.9?s(-1) ?mM(-1) per Gd at 60?MHz. Finally, potentiometric titrations showed that Gd(3+) is strongly chelated to DOTAGA (complexation constant log?110 =24.78) and cellular tests confirmed the that nanoconstructs had a very low toxicity. Moreover, SRPs are excreted from the body by renal clearance. Their efficiency as contrast agents for MRI has been proved and they are promising candidates as sensitising agents for image-guided radiotherapy. PMID:23512788

Mignot, Anna; Truillet, Charles; Lux, François; Sancey, Lucie; Louis, Cédric; Denat, Franck; Boschetti, Frédéric; Bocher, Laura; Gloter, Alexandre; Stéphan, Odile; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Luneau, Dominique; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Figueiredo, Leandro Carlos; de Morais, Paulo Cesar; Bonneviot, Laurent; Albela, Belen; Ribot, François; Van Lokeren, Luk; Déchamps-Olivier, Isabelle; Chuburu, Françoise; Lemercier, Gilles; Villiers, Christian; Marche, Patrice N; Le Duc, Géraldine; Roux, Stéphane; Tillement, Olivier; Perriat, Pascal

2013-05-01

110

Synthesis, Characterization, and X-ray Attenuation Properties of Ultrasmall BiOI Nanoparticles: Toward Renal Clearable Particulate CT Contrast Agents.  

PubMed

A unique decelerated hydrolytic procedure is developed and reported here for the preparation of ultrasmall nanoparticles (NPs) of PVP-coated BiOI with a narrow size distribution, i.e., 2.8 ± 0.5 nm. The crystal structure of this compound is determined by X-ray powder diffraction using the bulk materials. The stability, cytotoxicity, and potential use of the PVP-coated ultrasmall BiOI NPs as a CT contrast agent are investigated. Because of the combined X-ray attenuation effect of bismuth and iodine, such NPs exhibit a CT value that is among the best of those of the inorganic nanoparticle-based CT contrast agents reported in the literature. PMID:25283335

Kandanapitiye, Murthi S; Gao, Min; Molter, Joseph; Flask, Chris A; Huang, Songping D

2014-10-01

111

Morphology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte multilayered nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel magnetic nanocomposite films with controlled morphology were produced via the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of cationic CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles and anionic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) complex. The electrostatic interaction between nanoparticle and the polyelectrolyte complex ensured a stepwise growth of the nanocomposite film with virtually identical amounts of materials being adsorbed at each deposition cycle as observed by UV-vis spectroscopy. AFM images acquired under the tapping mode revealed a globular morphology with dense and continuous layers of nanoparticles with voids being filled with polymeric material.

Alcantara, G. B.; Paterno, L. G.; Fonseca, F. J.; Morais, P. C.; Soler, M. A. G.

2011-05-01

112

Luminescent ultra-small gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation in silica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The room temperature photoluminescence properties of ultra-small Au nanoclusters (made by 5-10 atoms) obtained by ion implantation in silica are presented. The results show a broad and intense luminescent emission in three different spectral regions around 750 nm, 980 nm and 1150 nm. The luminescence properties of the molecule-like Au clusters have been also correlated to the energy-transfer process to Er3+ ions in Au-Er co-implanted silica samples. A partial quenching of the 980 nm component is observed due to the Er3+ absorption level at 980 nm that acts as a de-excitation channel through which the photon energy is transferred from the Au nanoclusters to the Er ions, eventually producing the Er-related emission at 1.5 microns.

Cesca, T.; Maurizio, C.; Kalinic, B.; Scian, C.; Trave, E.; Battaglin, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Mattei, G.

2014-05-01

113

PEG-nanolized ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles overcome drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through induction of mitochondria dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Gray selenium (Se) is one of the most widely used Se sources with very limited biocompatibility and bioactivity. In the present study, a simple method for the preparation of ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) through direct nanolization of gray selenium by polyethylene glycol (PEG) was demonstrated. Monodisperse and homogeneous PEG-SeNPs with ultrasmall diameters were successfully prepared under optimized conditions. The products were characterized using various microscopic and spectroscopic methods, and the results suggest that the amphoteric properties of PEG and the coordination between oxygen and selenium atoms contributed to the formation of ultrasmall nanoparticles. PEG-SeNPs exhibited stronger growth inhibition on drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (R-HepG2) cells than on normal HepG2 cells. Dose-dependent apoptosis was induced by PEG-SeNPs in R-HepG2 cells, as evidenced by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population. Further investigation on the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of superoxide anions contributed to PEG-SeNPs-induced apoptotic cell death in R-HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that PEG-SeNPs may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for drug-resistant liver cancer, and the strategy to use PEG200 as a surface decorator could be a highly efficient way to enhance the anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. PMID:22915845

Zheng, Shanyuan; Li, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yibo; Xie, Qiang; Wong, Yum-Shing; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

2012-01-01

114

Ultra-small BaGdF5-based upconversion nanoparticles as drug carriers and multimodal imaging probes.  

PubMed

A new type of drug-delivery system (DDS) was constructed, in which the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to the ultra-small sized (sub-10 nm) BaGdF5:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) based upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). This multifunctional DDS simultaneously possesses drug delivery and optical/magnetic/X-ray computed tomography imaging capabilities. The DOX can be selectively released by cleavage of hydrazone bonds in acidic environment, which shows a pH-triggered drug release behavior. The MTT assay shows these DOX-conjugated UCNPs exhibit obvious cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, to improve the upconversion luminescence intensity, core-shell structured UCNPs were constructed. The in vitro upconversion luminescence images of these UCNPs uptaken by HeLa cells show bright emission with high contrast. In addition, these UCNPs were further explored for T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging in vitro. Long-term in vivo toxicity studies indicated that mice intravenously injected with 10 mg/kg of UCNPs survived for 40 days without any apparent adverse effects to their health. The results indicate that this multifunctional drug-delivery system with optimized size, excellent optical/MR/CT trimodal imaging capabilities, and pH-triggered drug release property is expected to be a promising platform for simultaneous cancer therapy and bioimaging. PMID:24314558

Yang, Dongmei; Dai, Yunlu; Liu, Jianhua; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yinyin; Li, Chunxia; Ma, Ping'an; Lin, Jun

2014-02-01

115

Effect of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Ferumoxtran-10) on human monocyte-macrophages in vitro.  

PubMed

Ferumoxtran-10, a dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particle, has the potential to reveal macrophages in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging potentially acting as a marker of inflammatory status. Pending clinical trials, we examined the interactions of Ferumoxtran-10 with human monocyte-macrophages (HMMs) in vitro to assess its safety and lack of pro-inflammatory activity. After 72 h, Ferumoxtran-10 was not toxic at 1 mg/ml and may be only mildly toxic at 10 mg/ml. Viability in cells with a high intracellular Ferumoxtran-10 load was not affected over 14 days. Ferumoxtran-10 did not interfere with baseline or stimulated cytokine (interleukin-12, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-1beta) or superoxide anion production or with Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Similarly, Ferumoxtran-10 did not induce cytokine production and was not chemotactic. High-resolution electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction confirmed the core of Ferumoxtran-10 is composed of crystalline magnetite. Bright field transmission electron microscopy of thin sections demonstrated that Ferumoxtran-10 was retained in lysosomes of HMM for several days. Ferumoxtran-10 is not toxic to HMMs in vitro, does not activate them to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines or superoxide anions, is not chemotactic and does not interfere with Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Furthermore, extremely high intracellular Ferumoxtran-10 concentrations had only slight or no effects on these key activities. PMID:17178155

Müller, Karin; Skepper, Jeremy N; Posfai, Mihaly; Trivedi, Rikin; Howarth, Simon; Corot, Claire; Lancelot, Eric; Thompson, Paul W; Brown, Andrew P; Gillard, Jonathan H

2007-03-01

116

Synthesis of ultrasmall magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and study of their colloid and surface chemistry  

PubMed Central

Colloidal nanoparticles of Fe3O4 (4 nm) were synthesized by high-temperature hydrolysis of chelated iron (II) and (III) diethylene glycol alkoxide complexes in a solution of the parent alcohol (H2DEG) without using capping ligands or surfactants: [Fe(DEG)Cl2]2- + 2[Fe(DEG)Cl3]2- + 2H2O + 2OH- ? Fe3O4 + 3H2DEG + 8Cl- The obtained particles were reacted with different small-molecule polydentate ligands, and the resulting adducts were tested for aqueous colloid formation. Both the carboxyl and ?-hydroxyl groups of the hydroxyacids are involved in coordination to the nanoparticles’ surface. This coordination provides the major contribution to the stability of the ligand-coated nanoparticles against hydrolysis. PMID:20161232

Goloverda, Galina; Jackson, Barry; Kidd, Clayton; Kolesnichenko, Vladimir

2009-01-01

117

Differential stress reaction of human colon cells to oleic-acid-stabilized and unstabilized ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic engineered nanoparticles (NPs), including ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) NPs, may accumulate in the lower digestive tract following ingestion or injection. In order to evaluate the reaction of human colon cells to USPIO NPs, the effects of non-stabilized USPIO NPs (NS-USPIO NPs), oleic-acid-stabilized USPIO NPs (OA-USPIO NPs), and free oleic acid (OA) were compared in human HT29 and CaCo2 colon epithelial cancer cells. First the biophysical characteristics of NS-USPIO NPs and OA-USPIO NPs in water, in cell culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, and in cell culture medium preconditioned by HT29 and CaCo2 cells were determined. Then, stress responses of the cells were evaluated following exposure to NS-USPIO NPs, OA-USPIO NPs, and free OA. No modification of the cytoskeletal actin network was observed. Cell response to stress, including markers of apoptosis and DNA repair, oxidative stress and degradative/autophagic stress, induction of heat shock protein, or lipid metabolism was determined in cells exposed to the two NPs. Induction of an autophagic response was observed in the two cell lines for both NPs but not free OA, while the other stress responses were cell- and NP-specific. The formation of lipid vacuoles/droplets was demonstrated in HT29 and CaCo2 cells exposed to OA-USPIO NPs but not to NS-USPIO NPs, and to a much lower level in cells exposed to equimolar concentrations of free OA. Therefore, the induction of lipid vacuoles in colon cells exposed to OA utilized as a stabilizer for USPIO NPs is higly amplified compared to free OA, and is not observed in the absence of this lipid in NS-USPIO NPs. PMID:25092978

Schutz, Catherine A; Staedler, Davide; Crosbie-Staunton, Kieran; Movia, Dania; Chapuis Bernasconi, Catherine; Kenzaoui, Blanka Halamoda; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne

2014-01-01

118

Mössbauer and magnetic study of Co x Fe 3? x O 4 nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrites CoxFe3?x\\u000a O4 (x=1 or 2) have been obtained either by mechanical milling or thermal treatment of pre-prepared layered double hydroxide carbonate\\u000a x-LDH-CO3. Mechanical milling of the 1-LDH-CO3 leads to the large-scale preparation of nearly spherical nanoparticles of CoFe2O4, the size of which (5 to 20 nm) is controlled by the treatment time. Core-shell structure with

C. Estournès; C. D’Orléans; J.-L. Rehspringer; E. Manova; B. Kunev; D. Paneva; I. Mitov; L. Petrov; M. Kurmoo

119

Differential magnetic catch and release: experimental parameters for controlled separation of magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Differential magnetic catch and release (DMCR) has been used as a method for the purification and separation of magnetic nanoparticles. DMCR separates nanoparticles in the mobile phase by magnetic trapping of magnetic nanoparticles against the wall of an open tubular capillary wrapped between two narrowly spaced electromagnetic poles. Using Au and CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles as model systems, the loading capacity of the 250 ?m diameter capillary is determined to be ?130 ?g, and is scalable to higher quantities with larger bore capillary. Peak resolution in DMCR is externally controlled by selection of the release time (R(t)) at which the magnetic flux density is removed, however, longer capture times are shown to reduce the capture yield. In addition, the magnetic nanoparticle capture yields are observed to depend on the nanoparticle diameter, mobile phase viscosity and velocity, and applied magnetic flux. Using these optimized parameters, three samples of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles whose diameters are different by less than 10 nm are separated with excellent resolution and capture yield, demonstrating the capability of DMCR for separation and purification of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:21562675

Beveridge, Jacob S; Stephens, Jason R; Williams, Mary Elizabeth

2011-06-21

120

Synthesis of stable ultra-small Cu nanoparticles for direct writing flexible electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, pure Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized and the Cu nano-ink was prepared for direct writing on photo paper using a roller pen. The tri-sodium citrate was used as initial reducing-cum-surfactant agent followed by hydrazine as a second massive reducing agent and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as extra surfactant agent. From the XRD, TEM, and HR-TEM analyses, the synthesized particles are confirmed to be Cu in spherical shape with sizes range of 2.5 ± 1.0 nm. By analyzing the FT-IR spectroscopy and TGA curves, it was found that the obtained particles capped with tri-sodium citrate and CTAB layers are stable to oxidation up to the temperature 228 °C. The reduced size and enhanced air-stability of the Cu NPs result in an improved particle density upon sintering, which is mainly responsible for the increased conductivity of the Cu patterns. The resistivity of Cu patterns sintered in Ar at 160 °C for 2 h is 7.2 ± 0.6 ?? cm, which is 4.40 times the bulk Cu resistivity. The drawn Cu lines exhibited excellent integrity and good conductivity, which were experimentally tested. Moreover, a Cu electrode and a sample RFID antenna were successfully made.

Li, Wei; Chen, Minfang

2014-01-01

121

One-step synthesis of monodisperse, water-soluble ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticles for potential bio-application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that ultra-small, monodisperse, water-dispersible magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles can be synthesized by a facile one-pot approach using trisodium citrate as crystal grain growth inhibitor and stabilizer in polyol solution. The resultant Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit an excellent long-term colloidal stability in various buffer solutions without any modification. They are also superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic property relies heavily on their size. Due to the low magnetization and good water-dispersibility, the 1.9 nm-sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles reveal a low r2/r1 ratio of 2.03 (r1 = 1.415 mM-1 s-1, r2 = 2.87 mM-1 s-1), demonstrating that they can be efficient T1 contrast agents. On the other hand, because of the excellent magnetic responsivity, the 13.8 nm-sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be readily modified with nitrilotriacetic acid and used to separate the protein simply with the assistance of a magnet. In addition, these Fe3O4 nanoparticles may be useful in other fields, such as hyperthermia treatment of cancer and targeted drug delivery based on their size-dependent magnetic property and excellent stability.

Shen, Li-Hua; Bao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yi-Xiao; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Ren, Lei; Zhou, Xi; Ke, Xue-Bin; Chen, Min; Yang, An-Qi

2013-02-01

122

Microwave characterization of magnetically hard and soft ferrite nanoparticles in K-band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-sized magnetic particles show great promise in improving the performance of microwave absorbers with respect to the corresponding bulk materials. In this paper, magnetically hard and soft ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4) having an average size of 14 and 11 nm were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized in terms of morphology, structure, and magnetic properties. Their permeability and permittivity were measured by a waveguide technique, embedding each sample in a host medium. Their parameters at microwave frequencies were retrieved by comparing different effective medium equations.

Della Pina, C.; Falletta, E.; Ferretti, A. M.; Ponti, A.; Gentili, G. G.; Verri, V.; Nesti, R.

2014-10-01

123

Metal-induced self-assembly of peroxiredoxin as a tool for sorting ultrasmall gold nanoparticles into one-dimensional clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomanipulation of matter to create responsive, ordered materials still remains extremely challenging. Supramolecular chemistry has inspired new strategies by which such nanomaterials can be synthesized step by step by exploiting the self-recognition properties of molecules. In this work, the ring-shaped architecture of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin I protein from Schistosoma mansoni, engineered to have metal ion-binding sites, is used as a template to build up 1D nanoscopic structures through metal-induced self-assembly. Chromatographic and microscopic analyses demonstrate the ability of the protein rings to stack directionally upon interaction with divalent metal ions and form well-defined nanotubes by exploiting the intrinsic recognition properties of the ring surfaces. Taking advantage of such behavior, the rings are then used to capture colloidal Ni2+-functionalized ultrasmall gold nanoparticles and arrange them into 1D arrays through stacking into peapod-like complexes. Finally, as the formation of such nano-peapods strictly depends on nanoparticle dimensions, the peroxiredoxin template is used as a colloidal cut-off device to sort by size the encapsulated nanoparticles. These results open up possibilities in developing Prx-based methods to synthesize new advanced functional materials.Nanomanipulation of matter to create responsive, ordered materials still remains extremely challenging. Supramolecular chemistry has inspired new strategies by which such nanomaterials can be synthesized step by step by exploiting the self-recognition properties of molecules. In this work, the ring-shaped architecture of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin I protein from Schistosoma mansoni, engineered to have metal ion-binding sites, is used as a template to build up 1D nanoscopic structures through metal-induced self-assembly. Chromatographic and microscopic analyses demonstrate the ability of the protein rings to stack directionally upon interaction with divalent metal ions and form well-defined nanotubes by exploiting the intrinsic recognition properties of the ring surfaces. Taking advantage of such behavior, the rings are then used to capture colloidal Ni2+-functionalized ultrasmall gold nanoparticles and arrange them into 1D arrays through stacking into peapod-like complexes. Finally, as the formation of such nano-peapods strictly depends on nanoparticle dimensions, the peroxiredoxin template is used as a colloidal cut-off device to sort by size the encapsulated nanoparticles. These results open up possibilities in developing Prx-based methods to synthesize new advanced functional materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01526f

Ardini, Matteo; Giansanti, Francesco; di Leandro, Luana; Pitari, Giuseppina; Cimini, Annamaria; Ottaviano, Luca; Donarelli, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Angelucci, Francesco; Ippoliti, Rodolfo

2014-06-01

124

Ultrasmall c(RGDyK)-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their specific targeting to integrin alpha(v)beta3-rich tumor cells.  

PubMed

We report a direct synthesis of ultrasmall c(RGDyK) peptide-coated Fe3O4 NPs (<10 nm in hydrodynamic diameter) and demonstrate their in vivo tumor-specific targeting capability. The Fe3O4 NPs are synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in the presence of 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), and the peptide is coupled to the nanoparticles through 4-MC via Mannich reaction. The c(RGDyK)-MC-Fe3O4 NPs have an overall diameter of approximately 8.4 nm and are stable in physiological conditions. When administrated intravenously, these c(RGDyK)-MC-Fe3O4 NPs accumulate preferentially in the integrin alphavbeta3-rich tumor area, which are readily tracked by MRI. PMID:18500805

Xie, Jin; Chen, Kai; Lee, Ha-Young; Xu, Chenjie; Hsu, Andrew R; Peng, Sheng; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Sun, Shouheng

2008-06-18

125

Atorvastatin and uptake of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Ferumoxtran-10) in human monocyte-macrophages: implications for magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Ferumoxtran-10 is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle potentially useful as a contrast material in magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of inflammatory and degenerative disorders associated with high macrophage activity. In clinical trials, it is currently applied to monitor the effect of atorvastatin therapy on macrophage activity in human carotid plaques. A recent study reported the inhibition of iron oxide nanoparticle uptake in macrophages by lovastatin, an effect which could compromise the suitability of Ferumoxtran-10 as an MRI contrast material in patients on statin therapy. Therefore, we examined the effect of atorvastatin on human monocyte-macrophage uptake of Ferumoxtran-10 in vitro using biochemical assays, magnetic resonance imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Our study showed that non-toxic concentrations of atorvastatin did not affect the amount of Ferumoxtran-10 taken up by HMMs. Furthermore, the intracellular distribution of iron oxide nanoparticles and the resulting MRI signal intensities remained unchanged by statin treatment. These results were obtained using atorvastatin concentrations probably vastly exceeding those reached in patient plasma in vivo. Atorvastatin therapy itself is therefore unlikely to affect Ferumoxtran-10 based macrophage detection by MRI, a prerequisite for the use of this contrast material to monitor lesion macrophage burden during lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:18377983

Müller, Karin; Skepper, Jeremy N; Tang, Tjun Y; Graves, Martin J; Patterson, Andrew J; Corot, Claire; Lancelot, Eric; Thompson, Paul W; Brown, Andrew P; Gillard, Jonathan H

2008-06-01

126

Giant enhancement of upconversion in ultra-small Er³?/Yb³?:NaYF? nanoparticles via laser annealing.  

PubMed

Most of the synthesis routes of lanthanide-doped phosphors involve thermal processing which results in nanocrystallite growth, stabilization of the crystal structure and augmentation of luminescence intensity. It is of great interest to be able to transform the sample in a spatially localized manner, which may lead to many applications like 2D and 3D data storage, anti-counterfeiting protection, novel design bio-sensors and, potentially, to fabrication of metamaterials, 3D photonic crystals or plasmonic devices. Here we demonstrate irreversible spatially confined infrared-laser-induced annealing (LIA) achieved in a thin layer of dried colloidal solution of ultra-small ?8 nm NaYF? nanocrystals (NCs) co-doped with 2% Er³? and 20% Yb³? ions under a localized tightly focused beam from a continuous wave 976 nm medium power laser diode excitation. The LIA results from self-heating due to non-radiative relaxation accompanying the NIR laser energy upconversion in lanthanide ions. We notice that localized LIA appears at optical power densities as low as 15.5 kW cm?² (?354 ± 29 mW) threshold in spots of 54 ± 3 µm diameter obtained with a 10 × microscope objective. In the course of detailed studies, a complete recrystallization to different phases and giant 2-3 order enhancement in luminescence yield is found. Our results are highly encouraging and let us conclude that the upconverting ultra-small lanthanide-doped nanophosphors are particularly promising for direct laser writing applications. PMID:22433162

Bednarkiewicz, A; Wawrzynczyk, D; Gagor, A; Kepinski, L; Kurnatowska, M; Krajczyk, L; Nyk, M; Samoc, M; Strek, W

2012-04-13

127

Ultrasmall TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen doped porous graphene for high rate and long life lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifying TiO2 with nitrogen and porous N doped graphene to form mesoporous TiO2/N doped graphene nanostuctures has been successfully achieved by a two-step hydrothermal-calcining method with urea as an inhibitor and nitrogen source. Porous N doped graphene network hinders the agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles, and enhances the conductivity of TiO2 based electrode simultaneously, achieving the enhanced capacity and fast discharge and charge rate. As a anode material, such nanocomposite exhibits a capacity as high as 330.7 mAh g-1at a current rate of 0.5 C and a reversible capacity over 288.6 mAh g-1 accompanying a coulombic efficiency of 96.4% at a current rate of 30 C after 1000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is ascribed to the excellent rate performance and cycling stability, moreover, highly exciting from a fundamental point of view, the good electronic conductivity caused by N incorporated graphene sheets and the positive synergistic effect between ultrafined nanoparticles and porous N decorated graphene matrix. Additionally, the restriction to ultrasmall reaction domains with high specific surface area and mesoporous structure allowing for an almost diffusion less and nucleation-free “conversion” results in highly efficient lithium ion batteries with fast charge/discharge rate and a remarkably enhanced cycling performance.

Qin, Guohui; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Chengyang

2014-12-01

128

Mössbauer and magnetic study of Co x Fe3--x O4 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrites Co x Fe3-x O4 (x = 1 or 2) have been obtained either by mechanical milling or thermal treatment of pre-prepared layered double hydroxide carbonate x-LDH CO3. Mechanical milling of the 1-LDH CO3 leads to the large-scale preparation of nearly spherical nanoparticles of CoFe2O4, the size of which (5 to 20 nm) is controlled by the treatment time. Core-shell structure with surface spin-canting has been considered for the nanoparticles formed to explain the observed hysteresis loop shift (from ZFC FC) in the magnetic properties. Annealing treatment of the 2-LDH CO3 below 673 K results in the formation of nearly spherical pure Co2FeO4 nanoparticles. At 673 K and above, the LDH decomposition leads to the formation of a mixture of both spinels phases Co2FeO4 and CoFe2O4, the amount of the latter increases with annealing temperature. Unusually high magnetic hardness characterized by a 22 kOe coercive field at 1.8 K has been observed, which reflects the high intrinsic anisotropy for Co2FeO4.

Estournès, C.; D'Orléans, C.; Rehspringer, J.-L.; Manova, E.; Kunev, B.; Paneva, D.; Mitov, I.; Petrov, L.; Kurmoo, M.

2005-09-01

129

Synthesis and properties of bimagnetic core-shell nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimagnetic core-shell nanoparticles are synthesized from high-temperature solution phase coating of FePt core with tunable Fe3O4, CoFe2O4 or FeCo shell. Magnetic properties of the as-synthesized core-shell particles are dependent on shell material and its thickness due to the exchange coupling between core and shell. Upon reductive annealing, an assembly of the core/shell nanoparticles is transformed into a hard magnetic nanocomposite with enhanced energy product which is 30% higher than single FePt phase. With proper choice of materials and dimension tuning of both core and shell, these core-shell nanoparticles may be used as building blocks for creation of novel functional nanomaterials for various magnetic applications.

Nandwana, Vikas; Chaubey, Girija; Yano, Kazuaki; Liu, Ping

2006-10-01

130

Detection sensitivity of MRI using ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide nano-particles (USPIO) in biological tissues.  

PubMed

Today, by injecting iron oxide based nanoparticles (USPIO) as MRI contrast agents, it is possible to study lymphatic system and some specific tumors and their metastasis. The type of surface coating, and coating characteristics of the nanoparticles are important factors for the biological properties of nanoparticles and their destination target. On the other hand, these properties contribute to different signal intensities. This may confine application of all types of USPIO based contrast agents in routine daily experiments. In this study, the ability of detecting these particles having various sizes and coating properties was evaluated for MRI applications. Signal intensity changes after administration of these particles into tissues have been studied and their detection sensitivity was evaluated using a liver phantom and animal model (rat). IO based nanoparticles of various sizes (8-30 nm) functionalized and coated with various surface polymers such as dextran and starch, amine and hydroxide groups, and bear IO particles were used to investigate the signal changes. The optimized pulse sequences for proper demonstration of lymph nodes using these contrast agents were found (T2* FSPGR protocol with fat suppressions). A detection sensitivity of 98% was achieved in most experiments during applying a proper MR protocol. However, the type of surface coating, and coating characteristics such as thickness were shown to be essential factors for MRI signal intensity in both T1 and T2 protocols. PMID:17945909

Oghabian, M A; Guiti, M; Haddad, P; Gharehaghaji, N; Saber, R; Alam, N R; Malekpour, M; Rafie, B

2006-01-01

131

Role of oxygen defects on the magnetic properties of ultra-small Sn1-xFexO2 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the role of oxygen defects in the magnetism of metal oxide semiconductors has been widely discussed, it is been difficult to directly measure the oxygen defect concentration of samples to verify this. This work demonstrates a direct correlation between the photocatalytic activity of Sn1-xFexO2 nanoparticles and their magnetic properties. For this, a series of ˜2.6 nm sized, well characterized, single-phase Sn1-xFexO2 crystallites with x = 0-0.20 were synthesized using tin acetate, urea, and appropriate amounts of iron acetate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the concentration and 3+ oxidation state of the doped Fe ions. The maximum magnetic moment/Fe ion, ?, of 1.6 × 10-4 ?B observed for the 0.1% Fe doped sample is smaller than the expected spin-only contribution from either high or low spin Fe3+ ions, and ? decreases with increasing Fe concentration. This behavior cannot be explained by the existing models of magnetic exchange. Photocatalytic studies of pure and Fe-doped SnO2 were used to understand the roles of doped Fe3+ ions and of the oxygen vacancies and defects. The photocatalytic rate constant k also showed an increase when SnO2 nanoparticles were doped with low concentrations of Fe3+, reaching a maximum at 0.1% Fe, followed by a rapid decrease of k for further increase in Fe%. Fe doping presumably increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies, and both Fe3+ ions and oxygen vacancies act as electron acceptors to reduce e--h+ recombination and promote transfer of electrons (and/or holes) to the nanoparticle surface, where they participate in redox reactions. This electron transfer from the Fe3+ ions to local defect density of states at the nanoparticle surface could develop a magnetic moment at the surface states and leads to spontaneous ferromagnetic ordering of the surface shell under favorable conditions. However, at higher doping levels, the same Fe3+ ions might act as recombination centers causing a decrease of both k and magnetic moment ?.

Dodge, Kelsey; Chess, Jordan; Eixenberger, Josh; Alanko, Gordon; Hanna, Charles B.; Punnoose, Alex

2013-05-01

132

Ultrasmall Li2S Nanoparticles Anchored in Graphene Nanosheets for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.  

PubMed

Li2S has a high theoretical capacity of 1166?mAh g(-1), but it suffers from limited rate and cycling performance. Herein we reported in-situ synthesis of thermally exfoliated graphene-Li2S (in-situ TG-Li2S) nanocomposite and its application as a superior cathode material alternative to sulfur. Li2S nanoparticles with the size of ~8.5?nm homogeneously anchored in graphene nanosheets were prepared via chemical reduction of pre-sublimed sulfur by lithium triethylborohydride (LiEt3BH). The in-situ TG-Li2S nanocomposite exhibited an initial capacity of 1119?mAh g(-1) Li2S (1609?mAh g(-1) S) with a negligible charged potential barrier in the first cycle. The discharge capacity retained 791?mAh g(-1) Li2S (1137?mAh g(-1) S) after 100 cycles at 0.1C and exceeded 560?mAh g(-1) Li2S (805?mAh g(-1) S) at a high rate of 2C. Moreover, coupling the composite with Si thin film anode, a Li2S/Si full cell was produced, delivering a high specific capacity of ~900?mAh g(-1) Li2S (1294?mAh g(-1) S). The outstanding electrode performance of in-situ TG-Li2S composite was attributed to the well dispersed small Li2S nanoparticles and highly conductive graphene nanosheets, which provided merits of facile ionic and electronic transport, efficient utilization of the active material, and flexible accommodation of volume change. PMID:25253198

Zhang, Kai; Wang, Lijiang; Hu, Zhe; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

2014-01-01

133

Ultrasmall Li2S Nanoparticles Anchored in Graphene Nanosheets for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li2S has a high theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh g-1, but it suffers from limited rate and cycling performance. Herein we reported in-situ synthesis of thermally exfoliated graphene-Li2S (in-situ TG-Li2S) nanocomposite and its application as a superior cathode material alternative to sulfur. Li2S nanoparticles with the size of ~8.5 nm homogeneously anchored in graphene nanosheets were prepared via chemical reduction of pre-sublimed sulfur by lithium triethylborohydride (LiEt3BH). The in-situ TG-Li2S nanocomposite exhibited an initial capacity of 1119 mAh g-1 Li2S (1609 mAh g-1 S) with a negligible charged potential barrier in the first cycle. The discharge capacity retained 791 mAh g-1 Li2S (1137 mAh g-1 S) after 100 cycles at 0.1C and exceeded 560 mAh g-1 Li2S (805 mAh g-1 S) at a high rate of 2C. Moreover, coupling the composite with Si thin film anode, a Li2S/Si full cell was produced, delivering a high specific capacity of ~900 mAh g-1 Li2S (1294 mAh g-1 S). The outstanding electrode performance of in-situ TG-Li2S composite was attributed to the well dispersed small Li2S nanoparticles and highly conductive graphene nanosheets, which provided merits of facile ionic and electronic transport, efficient utilization of the active material, and flexible accommodation of volume change.

Zhang, Kai; Wang, Lijiang; Hu, Zhe; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

2014-09-01

134

Ultrasmall Li2S Nanoparticles Anchored in Graphene Nanosheets for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries  

PubMed Central

Li2S has a high theoretical capacity of 1166?mAh g?1, but it suffers from limited rate and cycling performance. Herein we reported in-situ synthesis of thermally exfoliated graphene?Li2S (in-situ TG?Li2S) nanocomposite and its application as a superior cathode material alternative to sulfur. Li2S nanoparticles with the size of ~8.5?nm homogeneously anchored in graphene nanosheets were prepared via chemical reduction of pre-sublimed sulfur by lithium triethylborohydride (LiEt3BH). The in-situ TG?Li2S nanocomposite exhibited an initial capacity of 1119?mAh g?1 Li2S (1609?mAh g?1 S) with a negligible charged potential barrier in the first cycle. The discharge capacity retained 791?mAh g?1 Li2S (1137?mAh g?1 S) after 100 cycles at 0.1C and exceeded 560?mAh g?1 Li2S (805?mAh g?1 S) at a high rate of 2C. Moreover, coupling the composite with Si thin film anode, a Li2S/Si full cell was produced, delivering a high specific capacity of ~900?mAh g?1 Li2S (1294?mAh g?1 S). The outstanding electrode performance of in-situ TG?Li2S composite was attributed to the well dispersed small Li2S nanoparticles and highly conductive graphene nanosheets, which provided merits of facile ionic and electronic transport, efficient utilization of the active material, and flexible accommodation of volume change. PMID:25253198

Zhang, Kai; Wang, Lijiang; Hu, Zhe; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

2014-01-01

135

Grain Size Control of the Magnetic Nanoparticles by Solid State Route Modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized exploiting a co-precipitation method and afterward calcinated at 400 °C through two different experimental apparatus: a conventional muffle and rotatory oven. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that nanocrystalline ferrites grew with a face center cubic structure (fcc) and Fd3 m symmetry space group. XRD, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements confirmed the compositional homogeneity and the narrow size particle distribution (6-8 nm) of the sample thermally treated in a rotary oven, in all likelihood due to the sample's constant turning movement. The size of the magnetic particles is extremely important and influences the choice of a potential technological application. For this reason, our study emerges as a new and simple innovating procedure to control the size of magnetic nanoparticles.

Barreto, A. C. H.; Santiago, V. R.; Freire, R. M.; Mazzetto, S. E.; Sasaki, J. M.; Vasconcelos, I. F.; Denardin, J. C.; Mele, Giuseppe; Carbone, Luigi; Fechine, P. B. A.

2013-07-01

136

In-field Mössbauer characterization of MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle samples of Fe3O4, CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 with mean sizes in the 5-8 nm range and excellent crystallinity have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic precursors. Mössbauer spectra taken at 4.2 K in applied fields from 0 to 12 T could be fitted with two sextets corresponding to the A and B Fe sites of the spinel structure. The cation distribution was deduced from the relative intensities of both sextets. The Fe oxide spectrum was more similar to ?-Fe2O3 than to Fe3O4, suggesting this sample has undergone partial or total oxidation. A small residual intensity at lines 2 and 5 reveals some spin canting at both Fe sites, however the absence of a third sextet indicates that a "core-shell" spin structure, with disordered spins near the surface, does not occur in these nanoparticles.

Arelaro, Amanda D.; Rossi, Liane M.; Rechenberg, Hercilio R.

2010-03-01

137

Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

138

Evaluation of iron-cobalt/ferrite core-shell nanoparticles for cancer thermotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) offer promise for local hyperthermia or thermoablative cancer therapy. Magnetic hyperthermia uses MNPs to heat cancerous regions in an rf field. Metallic MNPs have larger magnetic moments than iron oxides, allowing similar heating at lower concentrations. By tuning the magnetic anisotropy in alloys, the heating rate at a particular particle size can be optimized. Fe-Co core-shell MNPs have protective CoFe2O4 shell which prevents oxidation. The oxide coating also aids in functionalization and improves biocompatibility of the MNPs. We predict the specific loss power (SLP) for FeCo (SLP ˜450W /g) at biocompatible fields to be significantly larger in comparision to oxide materials. The anisotropy of Fe-Co MNPs may be tuned by composition and/or shape variation to achieve the maximum SLP at a desired particle size.

Habib, A. H.; Ondeck, C. L.; Chaudhary, P.; Bockstaller, M. R.; McHenry, M. E.

2008-04-01

139

Optimization of sol-gel synthesis of CoFe2O4 nanowires using template assisted vacuum suction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, cobalt ferrite nanowires were synthesized by a sol-gel route using anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template by applying mechanical vacuum suction. The parameters of calcination temperature and pH value were optimized subsequently. The single phase cobalt ferrite was obtained at 600 °C. The results showed that pH=1 is appropriate for synthesis of uniform nanowires because at the higher pH values the autocombustion of the gel, with making cracks in nanowires, will be happened. Furthermore, the nanowires showed higher coercivity in the direction parallel to the axis of the nanowires (Hc?=1050 Oe) rather than that in the perpendicular direction (Hc?=772 Oe).

Pirouzfar, A.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.

2014-12-01

140

Effect of non-magnetic ion substitution on the magnetoelastic properties of CoFe2O4 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe1.9Zr0.1O4 films under epitaxial strain. The films are grown with high structural quality on MgO, SrTiO3, and piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.72Ti0.28O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The substrate-induced strain is found effective to alter the magnetic anisotropy of the films. Reversible strain measurements using the piezoelectric substrates are providing evidence that nearly bulk-like magnetoelastic properties are maintained for films of down to at least 25 nm thickness. This is in contrast to unsubstituted cobalt ferrite films and suggests that a chemical control of the spinel lattice provides a promising route to optimize the tunability of the magnetic properties of thin ferrite films.

Rus, S. F.; Vlazan, P.; Herklotz, A.

2014-07-01

141

On the formation of CoFe 2O 4 when drilling hematite with WC–Co drill bit inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly observed that WC–Co drill bit inserts wear more rapidly when drilling hematite ore than when drilling other ores of comparable hardness, e.g. ores that contain high percentages of SiO2. This investigation was carried out to assess if chemical wear is part of the wear process of these inserts, i.e. if chemical reactions occur between hematite (?-Fe2O3) and

C. Banganayi; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi; S. Luyckx

2006-01-01

142

Tunable multiferroic properties in nanocomposite PbTiO3CoFe2O4 epitaxial thin films  

E-print Network

Tunable multiferroic properties in nanocomposite PbTiO3­CoFe2O4 epitaxial thin films M. Murakami, K of PbTiO3­CoFe2O4 multiferroic nanocomposites and continuous tuning of their ferroelectric and magnetic other. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2041825 Multiferroic materials

Rubloff, Gary W.

143

Spin-flop transition, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of ?-Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared NiFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles by surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The spin-flop transition, magnetic, dielectric and permittivity characterizations have been investigated. The spin-flop transition occurs from antiferromagnetic state to mixed state and then ferromagnetic state for Zn doped samples. The spin-flop transition occurs in the temperature range of 50-250 K. The ionic conduction, dipolar relaxation, atomic polarization and electronic polarization are the main mechanisms that contribute to the permittivity of a dielectric material. The permittivity increases with increasing frequency. This suggests a resonance behavior, which is expected when the ferrite samples are highly conductive and skin effect become significant. These samples will provide great benefits for electromagnetic applications and electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics.

Yalç?n, Orhan; Bayrakdar, Harun; Özüm, Songül

2013-10-01

144

Synthesis and characterization of hard/soft bimagnetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimagnetic nanoparticles are synthesized from high-temperature solution method by growing soft magnetic phases on a hard magnetic phase. The hard phase is chosen as the FePt phase and the soft phases include Fe3O4, CoFe2O4 and FeCo. The soft phases can be coated or attached to the hard phase by changing reaction conditions. When the soft phases are coated on the hard phase, core/shell structured bimagnetic nanoparticles are formed; when the soft phases are attached to the hard phase, brick-like bimagnetic nanoparticles are formed. Magnetic properties of these nanoparticles are affected by dimensions of the soft and hard components due to the exchange coupling between them. Upon reductive annealing, an assembly of the bimagnetic nanoparticles is transformed into a hard magnetic nanocomposite with enhanced energy product which is 35% higher than single FePt phase. With proper choice of materials and dimension of both phases, these bimangetic nanoparticles may be used as building blocks for novel functional nanomaterials for various applications.

Nandwana, Vikas; Shankar Chaubey, Girija; Yano, Kazuaki; Liu, J. Ping

2007-03-01

145

Enigmatic, ultrasmall, uncultivated Archaea  

SciTech Connect

Metagenomics has provided access to genomes of as yet uncultivated microorganisms in natural environments, yet there are gaps in our knowledge particularly for Archaea that occur at relatively low abundance and in extreme environments. Ultrasmall cells (<500 nm in diameter) from lineages without cultivated representatives that branch near the crenarchaeal/euryarchaeal divide have been detected in a variety of acidic ecosystems. We reconstructed composite, near-complete 1-Mb genomes for three lineages, referred to as ARMAN (archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms), from environmental samples and a biofilm filtrate. Genes of two lineages are among the smallest yet described, enabling a 10% higher coding density than found genomes of the same size, and there are noncontiguous genes. No biological function could be inferred for up to 45% of genes and no more than 63% of the predicted proteins could be assigned to a revised set of archaeal clusters of orthologous groups. Some core metabolic genes are more common in Crenarchaeota than Euryarchaeota, up to 21% of genes have the highest sequence identity to bacterial genes, and 12 belong to clusters of orthologous groups that were previously exclusive to bacteria. A small subset of 3D cryo-electron tomographic reconstructions clearly show penetration of the ARMAN cell wall and cytoplasmic membranes by protuberances extended from cells of the archaeal order Thermoplasmatales. Interspecies interactions, the presence of a unique internal tubular organelle [Comolli, et al. (2009) ISME J 3:159 167], and many genes previously only affiliated with Crenarchaea or Bacteria indicate extensive unique physiology in organisms that branched close to the time that Cren- and Euryarchaeotal lineages diverged.

Baker, Brett J. [University of California, Berkeley; Comolli, Luis [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Dick, Gregory J. [University of California, Berkeley; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Hyatt, Philip Douglas [ORNL; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

2010-01-01

146

Synthesis, magnetic and optical properties of core/shell Co1- x Zn x Fe2O4/SiO2 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of multi-functionalized cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), cobalt zinc ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4), and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanoparticles have been enhanced by coating them with silica shell using a modified Stöber method. The ferrites nanoparticles were prepared by a modified citrate gel technique. These core/shell ferrites nanoparticles have been fired at temperatures: 400°C, 600°C and 800°C, respectively, for 2 h. The composition, phase, and morphology of the prepared core/shell ferrites nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The diffuse reflectance and magnetic properties of the core/shell ferrites nanoparticles at room temperature were investigated using UV/VIS double-beam spectrophotometer and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. It was found that, by increasing the firing temperature from 400°C to 800°C, the average crystallite size of the core/shell ferrites nanoparticles increases. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles fired at temperature 800°C; show the highest saturation magnetization while the zinc ferrite nanoparticles coated with silica shell shows the highest diffuse reflectance. On the other hand, core/shell zinc ferrite/silica nanoparticles fired at 400°C show a ferromagnetic behavior and high diffuse reflectance when compared with all the uncoated or coated ferrites nanoparticles. These characteristics of core/shell zinc ferrite/silica nanostructures make them promising candidates for magneto-optical nanodevice applications.

Girgis, Emad; Wahsh, Mohamed Ms; Othman, Atef Gm; Bandhu, Lokeshwar; Rao, Kv

2011-07-01

147

Synthesis and magnetic behavior of silica-coated cobalt ferrite hollow spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used functional polymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) latex (500 nm) as a core template to prepare magnetic hollow SiO2/CoFe2O4 spheres. The mean crystallite sizes of coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, depending on the calcined temperature, are in the range from 2.2 to 10.1 nm. The thickness of the CoFe2O4/SiO2 composite shell is between 40 and 50 nm and the content of CoFe2O4 in the composites is 73 wt %. The magnetic properties of the hollow spherical particles can go from superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic behavior depending on the sizes of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles.

Lin, Chun-Rong; Wang, Cheng-Chien; Chen, I.-Han

2006-04-01

148

Enhanced Magnetic Properties in Nanoparticle-Filled CNTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much interest in magnetic polymer nanocomposites (MPNCs) recently due to potential applications for EMI shielding, tunable EM devices and flexible electronics. In past studies, using ferrite fillers, we have shown MPNCs to be magnetically tunable when passing a microwave signal through films under the influence of an external magnetic field. We extend this study to include nanoparticle-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized by CVD. These high-aspect ratio magnetic nanostructures, with tunable anisotropy, are of particular interest in enhancing magnetic and microwave responses in existing MPNCs. CNTs have an average diameter and length of 300nm and 6 ?m, respectively and are partially filled with CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (˜ 7nm). When comparing NPs to NP-filled CNTs, TB increases by ˜ 40K and relaxation time, ?0, increases several orders of magnitude, indicating that enclosing NPs in CNTs enhances interparticle interactions. Structural and magnetic characterization were completed using XRD, TEM and Quantum Design PPMS, using VSM and ACMS options.

Stojak, K.; Chandra, S.; Khurshid, H.; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.

2013-03-01

149

Core/Shell and High Aspect Ratio Magnetic Oxide Nanoparticles for Antenna Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved antenna gain, reduced antenna aperture size, and improved bandwidth are of interest to an increasingly mobile world. To obtain these improvements our efforts are directed at developing new magnetic oxide nanoparticle/polymer composites with modifiable permeability and permittivity and low electrical losses. Our approach consists of producing core/shell and shape controlled magnetic nanoparticles. Methods of synthesis utilize microwave and traditional heating to perform hydrothermal and solvothermal reactions. Decomposition of metal acetylacetonates is performed using various alcohols resulting in spherical nanoparticles with diameters of 8-16 nm and 3-7 nm for Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4, respectively. Microwave methods result in similar particles, but are produced in an hour or less as compared to 48 hrs via the traditional solvothermal method. Successive growths are used to produce larger monolithic particles as well as core/shell systems where exchange coupling between the core and shell is observed. Hexaferrite particles have been produced via hydrothermal synthesis, while high aspect ratio Fe3O4 nanoparticles ( 10-100 nm) produced via hydrothermal synthesis result in nanoneedles with high ?r.

Ekiert, Thomas F., Jr.; O'Malley, Matthew; Yocum, Brandon; Lippold, Jennifer; Lyle, Mallory; Griner, Angela; Flynn, Cory; Nickel, Anna; Alexander, Max D., Jr.

2012-02-01

150

Giant Magnetioimpedance in Co-Based Amorphous Ribbons Coated in Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biosensing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) is a large change in the ac impedance of a ferromagnetic conductor subject to a dc magnetic field. It forms the basis for developing highly sensitive magnetic sensors. We report studies aimed at developing GMI as a magnetic biosensing technique. We have investigated the GMI effect and its field sensitivity in Co-based amorphous alloys with and without coated magnetic nanoparticles. Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (mean size, 5-10 nm) were patterned onto the ribbon surfaces and the number of particle layers was varied from 10 to 80. The influences of particles size, concentration, and layer thickness on the GMI and field sensitivity have been investigated systematically. The coating of the nanoparticles has been shown to enhance the GMI and field sensitivity, both of which increase with increase of particle concentration and layer thickness. Overall, our studies demonstrate the possibility of using GMI as a magnetic biosensor with high sensitivity for applications in biomolecular detection.

Laurita, N.; Chaturvedi, A.; Stojak, K.; Chandra, S.; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.

2011-03-01

151

Synthesis and magnetic behavior of silica-coated cobalt ferrite hollow spheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used functional polymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) latex (500 nm) as a core template to prepare magnetic hollow SiO2\\/CoFe2O4 spheres. The mean crystallite sizes of coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, depending on the calcined temperature, are in the range from 2.2 to 10.1 nm. The thickness of the CoFe2O4\\/SiO2 composite shell is between 40 and 50 nm and the content of

Chun-Rong Lin; Cheng-Chien Wang; I.-Han Chen

2006-01-01

152

Multiferroic CoFe2O4-Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 thick films for magnetoelectric application.  

E-print Network

??Recent theoretical breakthroughs in understanding the concurrence of magnetic and electrical ordering, combined with advances in thin film growth techniques and experimental methods for observing… (more)

Chen, Wei.

2012-01-01

153

Enhanced Flux-Pinning Properties in Superconducting YBa2Cu3 O7-? Thin Films with Nanoengineering Methods  

E-print Network

thin films. The 0-D ferromagnetic Fe2O 3 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, 2-D CeO2 multilayers, and tunable vertically aligned nanocomposites (VAN) of (Fe2O 3)x:(CeO2)1-x and (CoFe2O4)x:(CeO2)1-x systems are introduced into the YBCO matrix as artificial pinning...

Tsai, Chen-Fong

2013-05-01

154

The role of annealing temperature and bio template (egg white) on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of manganese substituted MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese substituted ferrites (ZnFe2O4, CuFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4) have been prepared in the bio template medium by using a simple evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important position on changing particle size and morphology of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were found out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The role of manganese substitution in the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in magnetic properties which is studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These spinel ferrites are decomposed to ?-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. However, ?-Fe2O3 phase was slowly vanished after ferrites annealing above 900 °C. The effect of this secondary phase on the structural change and magnetic properties of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles is discussed.

Ranjith Kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Kumar, Sanjay

2014-02-01

155

Synthesis, size and magnetic properties of controllable MnFe2O4 nanoparticles with versatile surface functionalities.  

PubMed

Size controllable MnFe2O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a solvothermal method using low-cost metal oleate as the source. The particle size, chemical composition and magnetic properties were investigated. The MnFe2O4 nanomaterials exhibit high colloidal stabilities and superparamagnetic properties, with an average particle size in the range of 2 to 10 nm by modifying the reaction condition, such as surfactant, reaction temperature and reaction time. By changing Mn(2+) to different cations, CoFe2O4, NiFe2O4, and ZnFe2O4 with different magnetic properties could be obtained. The hydrophobic MnFe2O4 NPs could also be modified with many surfactants, such as cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), with the aim of achieving high zeta-potential hydrophilic bilayer-coated MnFe2O4 NPs. In addition, the water soluble MnFe2O4 magnetic NPs can be applied to the removal of Pb(ii) from waste water with good recovery under external magnetic field. PMID:24847889

Bateer, Buhe; Tian, Chungui; Qu, Yang; Du, Shichao; Yang, Ying; Ren, Zhiyu; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

2014-07-14

156

Magneto-electric Nanoparticles to Enable Field-controlled High-Specificity Drug Delivery to Eradicate Ovarian Cancer Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanotechnology capable of high-specificity targeted delivery of anti-neoplastic drugs would be a significant breakthrough in Cancer in general and Ovarian Cancer in particular. We addressed this challenge through a new physical concept that exploited (i) the difference in the membrane electric properties between the tumor and healthy cells and (ii) the capability of magneto-electric nanoparticles (MENs) to serve as nanosized converters of remote magnetic field energy into the MENs' intrinsic electric field energy. This capability allows to remotely control the membrane electric fields and consequently trigger high-specificity drug uptake through creation of localized nano-electroporation sites. In in-vitro studies on human ovarian carcinoma cell (SKOV-3) and healthy cell (HOMEC) lines, we applied a 30-Oe d.c. field to trigger high-specificity uptake of paclitaxel loaded on 30-nm CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 MENs. The drug penetrated through the membrane and completely eradicated the tumor within 24 hours without affecting the normal cells.

Guduru, Rakesh; Liang, Ping; Runowicz, Carolyn; Nair, Madhavan; Atluri, Venkata; Khizroev, Sakhrat

2013-10-01

157

The synthesis of Co1-xDyxFe2O4 nanoparticles and thin films as well as investigating their magnetic and magneto-optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modification and optimization of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of cobalt ferrite are of great importance due to their various applications in well-known scientific and industrial categories. In order to observe the effect of adding Dy3+ to the cobalt ferrite composition, Co1-xDyxFe2O4 (0?x?0.1) ceramic nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation chemical method and then their microstructure and magnetism were investigated through x-ray diffractometry, TEM micrography, IR spectroscopy and VSM magnetometry. The polar magneto-optical Kerr effect of the thin film specimens was also studied. The results reveal that the doping of Dy3+ ions could effectively alter the inversion degree of the spinel structure and the following magnetic and magneto-optical features. The ferrite coercivity was enhanced by 150% after adding Dy. The perceptible shifts of peak rotations were observed in the Kerr spectra for the Dy-doped CoFe2O4 films. Furthermore, TC had a descending trend with the addition of Dy from 440 °C to 420 °C for Co0.95Dy0.05Fe2O4.

Mohammadifar, Y.; Shokrollahi, H.; Karimi, Z.; Karimi, L.

2014-10-01

158

Dynamic Fluctuations in Ultrasmall Nanocrystals Induce White Light Timothy J. Pennycook,*,,,  

E-print Network

Dynamic Fluctuations in Ultrasmall Nanocrystals Induce White Light Emission Timothy J. Pennycook Information ABSTRACT: Individual ultrasmall CdSe nanocrystals have recently been found to emit white light ultrasmall.7-12 White light emission from ultrasmall CdSe nanocrystals13-16 is a particularly interesting

Pennycook, Steve

159

Magnetic properties of CoFe 1.9RE 0.1O 4 nanoparticles (RE=La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho) prepared in polyol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly crystalline CoFe 1.9RE 0.1O 4 ferrite nanoparticles, where RE=La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Ho, have been synthesized by forced hydrolysis in polyol. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, Co K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic measurements using a SQUID magnetometer were employed to investigate the effect of the substitution RE 3+ ions for Fe 3+ ones on the structure, the microstructure, the chemical homogeneity, and the magnetic properties of the cobalt ferrite system. All the produced particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Nevertheless, the substitution causes reduction of the blocking temperature which is mainly ascribed to partial cation exchange among the spinel-like sublattices of CoFe 2O 4 induced by the insertion of the relatively large RE 3+ ions. The low-temperature saturation magnetization and coercivity appear to be greatly affected by the nature of RE 3+ ions—maxima values were found for Gd 3+ and Eu 3+, respectively.

Tahar, L. Ben; Artus, M.; Ammar, S.; Smiri, L. S.; Herbst, F.; Vaulay, M.-J.; Richard, V.; Grenèche, J.-M.; Villain, F.; Fiévet, F.

160

Atomic scale dynamics of ultrasmall germanium clusters  

PubMed Central

Starting from the gas phase, small clusters can be produced and deposited with huge flexibility with regard to composition, materials choice and cluster size. Despite many advances in experimental characterization, a detailed morphology of such clusters is still lacking. Here we present an atomic scale observation as well as the dynamical behaviour of ultrasmall germanium clusters. Using quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with ab initio calculations, we are able to characterize the transition between different equilibrium geometries of a germanium cluster consisting of less than 25 atoms. Seven-membered rings, trigonal prisms and some smaller subunits are identified as possible building blocks that stabilize the structure. PMID:22692540

Bals, S.; Van Aert, S.; Romero, C.P.; Lauwaet, K.; Van Bael, M.J.; Schoeters, B.; Partoens, B.; Yucelen, E.; Lievens, P.; Van Tendeloo, G.

2012-01-01

161

Influence of cobalt on structural and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving the magnetic response of nanocrystalline nickel ferrites is the key issue in high density recording media. A series of cobalt substituted nickel ferrite nanoparticles with composition Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4, where 0.0 ? x ? 1.0, are synthesized using co-precipitation method. The XRD spectra revealed the single phase spinel structure and the average sizes of nanoparticles are estimated to be 16-19 nm. These sizes are small enough to achieve the suitable signal to noise ratio in the high density recording media. The lattice parameter and coercivity shows monotonic increment with the increase of Co contents ascribed to the larger ionic radii of the cobalt ion. The specific saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr) and the coercivity (Hc) of the spinel ferrites are further improved by the substitutions of Co+2 ions. The values of Ms for NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 are found to be 43.92 and 78.59 emu/g, respectively and Hc are in the range of 51-778 Oe. The FTIR spectra of the spinel phase calcinated at 600 °C exhibit two prominent fundamental absorption bands in the range of 350-600 cm-1 assigned to the intrinsic stretching vibrations of the metal at the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The role played by the Co ions in improving the structural and magnetic properties are analyzed and understood. Our simple, economic and environmental friendly preparation method may contribute towards the controlled growth of high quality ferrite nanopowders, potential candidates for recording.

Ati, Ali A.; Othaman, Zulkafli; Samavati, Alireza

2013-11-01

162

Co-ferrite spinel and FeCo alloy core shell nanocomposites and mesoporous systems for multifunctional applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication of condensed and mesoporous silica coated CoFe2O4 and FeCo alloy magnetic nanocomposites. The CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles were encapsulated by well defined silica layer with a uniform thickness of 5 nm. The mesoporous silica shells lead to a larger magnetic coercivity than that of the pure CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles due to decrease of interparticle interactions and magneto-elastic anisotropy. In addition, the FeCo nanoparticles were coated with condensed and mesoporous silica. As a consequence, the condensed silica protects the reactive FeCo alloy from oxidation up to 300 °C, maintaining the high magnetization of the nanoparticles. However, saturation magnetization of silica coated FeCo nanoparticles is dramatically decreased after annealing at 400 °C due to the oxidation of the FeCo core.

Zhang, Kai; Amponsah, O.; Arslan, M.; Holloway, T.; Cao, Wei; Pradhan, A. K.

2012-04-01

163

Ultrasmall spot size scanning laser ophthalmoscopy  

PubMed Central

An ultrasmall spot size scanning laser ophthalmoscope has been developed that employs an annular aberration-corrected incident beam to increase the effective numerical aperture of the eye thereby reducing the width of the probing light spot. Parafovea and foveal cone photoreceptor visibility determined from small area retinal image scans are discussed from the perspective of mode matching between the focused incident beam and the waveguide modes of individual cones. The cone visibility near the fovea centralis can be increased with the annular illumination scheme whereas the visibility of larger parafovea cones drops significantly as a consequence of poorer mode match. With further improvements of the implemented wavefront correction technology it holds promise for individual cone-photoreceptor imaging at the fovea centralis and for optical targeting of the retina with increased resolution. PMID:21698022

Vohnsen, Brian; Rativa, Diego

2011-01-01

164

Brine assemblages of ultrasmall microbial cells within the ice cover of Lake Vida, Antarctica.  

PubMed

The anoxic and freezing brine that permeates Lake Vida's perennial ice below 16 m contains an abundance of very small (?0.2-?m) particles mixed with a less abundant population of microbial cells ranging from >0.2 to 1.5 ?m in length. Fluorescent DNA staining, electron microscopy (EM) observations, elemental analysis, and extraction of high-molecular-weight genomic DNA indicated that a significant portion of these ultrasmall particles are cells. A continuous electron-dense layer surrounding a less electron-dense region was observed by EM, indicating the presence of a biological membrane surrounding a cytoplasm. The ultrasmall cells are 0.192 ± 0.065 ?m, with morphology characteristic of coccoid and diplococcic bacterial cells, often surrounded by iron-rich capsular structures. EM observations also detected the presence of smaller unidentified nanoparticles of 0.020 to 0.140 ?m among the brine cells. A 16S rRNA gene clone library from the brine 0.1- to 0.2-?m-size fraction revealed a relatively low-diversity assemblage of Bacteria sequences distinct from the previously reported >0.2-?m-cell-size Lake Vida brine assemblage. The brine 0.1- to 0.2-?m-size fraction was dominated by the Proteobacteria-affiliated genera Herbaspirillum, Pseudoalteromonas, and Marinobacter. Cultivation efforts of the 0.1- to 0.2-?m-size fraction led to the isolation of Actinobacteria-affiliated genera Microbacterium and Kocuria. Based on phylogenetic relatedness and microscopic observations, we hypothesize that the ultrasmall cells in Lake Vida brine are ultramicrocells that are likely in a reduced size state as a result of environmental stress or life cycle-related conditions. PMID:24727273

Kuhn, Emanuele; Ichimura, Andrew S; Peng, Vivian; Fritsen, Christian H; Trubl, Gareth; Doran, Peter T; Murray, Alison E

2014-06-01

165

Synthesis and magnetic characterization of cobalt-substituted ferrite (Co xFe 3-xO 4) nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cobalt-substituted ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized with a narrow size distribution using reverse micelles formed in the system water/AOT/isooctane. Fe:Co ratios of 3:1, 4:1, and 5:1 were used in the synthesis, obtaining cobalt-substituted ferrites (Co xFe 3-xO 4) and some indication of ?-Fe 3O 4 when 4:1 and 5:1 Fe:Co ratios were used. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) verified the presence of cobalt in all samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) showed bands at ˜560 and ˜400 cm -1, characteristic of the metal-oxygen bond in ferrites. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the number median diameter of the particles was ˜3 nm with a geometric deviation of ˜0.2. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the inverse spinel structure typical of ferrites with a lattice parameter of a=8.388 Å for Co 0.61Fe 0.39O 4, which is near that of CoFe 2O 4 ( a=8.394 Å). Magnetic properties were determined using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Coercivities higher than 8 kOe were observed at 5 K, whereas at 300 K the particles showed superparamagnetic behavior. The anisotropy constant was determined based on the Debye model for a magnetic dipole in an oscillating field and an expression relating ?' and the temperature of the in-phase susceptibility peak. Anisotropy constant values in the order of ˜10 6 erg/cm 3 were determined using the Debye model, whereas anisotropy constants in the order of ˜10 7 erg/cm 3 were calculated assuming ??=1 at the temperature peak of the in-phase component of the susceptibility curve as commonly done in the literature. Our analysis demonstrates that the assumption ??=1 at the temperature peak of ?' is rigorously incorrect.

Calero-DdelC, Victoria L.; Rinaldi, Carlos

2007-07-01

166

Magnetic behavior of core–shell particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have prepared composite magnetic core–shell particles using the process of soap-free emulsion polymerization and the co-precipitation method. The shell of the synthesized composite sphere is cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles and the core consists of poly(styrene-co-methacrylic acid) polymer. The mean crystallite sizes of the coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were controlled in the range of 2.4–6.7nm by the concentration of [NH4+] and

Chun-Rong Lin; Cheng-Chien Wang; I-Han Chen

2006-01-01

167

Development of stir bar sorptive-dispersive microextraction mediated by magnetic nanoparticles and its analytical application to the determination of hydrophobic organic compounds in aqueous media.  

PubMed

A novel microextraction technique combining the principles of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D?SPE) is presented. The main feature of the method is the use of a neodymium-core stirring bar physically coated with a hydrophobic magnetic nanosorbent. Depending on stirring speed, the magnetic sorbent either acts as a coating material to the stir bar, thus affording extraction alike SBSE, or as a dispersed nanosorbent medium for the collection and extraction of the target analytes, in close analogy to D?SPE. Once the stirring process is finished, the strong magnetic field of the stir bar prevails again and rapidly retrieves the dispersed MNPs. Alike SBSE, the stir bar is collected and the analytes are back-extracted by liquid desorption into an appropriate organic solvent, which is used for analysis. This enrichment technique is easy to prepare since it does not require special surface modification procedures, uses low volumes of non-toxic organic solvents and most importantly imbues SBSE with additional functionalities against a wide range of analytes (since nanosorbents with various coatings can be employed) while it affords additional merits to D?SPE in terms of extraction and post-extraction treatment. As proof-of-concept this new approach was applied to the determination of organic UV filters in seawater samples using oleic acid-coated cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4@oleic acid) magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent material. The method showed good analytical features in terms of linearity, enrichment factors (11-148), limits of detection (low ngmL(-1)), intra- and inter-day repeatability (RSD<11%) and relative recoveries (87-120%). PMID:25173996

Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Salvador, Amparo

2014-10-01

168

Synthesis and characterization of a mixture of CoFe2O4 and MgFe2O4 from layered double hydroxides: Band gap energy and magnetic responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixture of nanocrystals of cobalt ferrite and magnesium ferrite was obtained from Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) through a co-precitation method with a theoretical molar ratio M2+:Fe3+=3:1, where M2+represents Mg2+ and/or Co2+. The molar ratios between Co2+:Fe3+ were 0.0 (0Co), 0.2 (5Co), and 0.4 (10Co). In order to assess the effect on the properties of the LDH and their oxides, the molar percentages were 0, 5 and 10%. Two different synthesis methods were evaluated; (i) ageing at room temperature (rt), and (ii) hydrothermal ageing at 200 °C in autoclave (ht), both methods needed 15 h of ageing. Then, these LDH were calcined in air atmosphere at 550 °C for 10 h. The calcined materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravymetric analysis (TGA), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR), Diffuse Reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS), Mössbauer spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The magnetic response was analyzed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The band gap energy of the iron oxides was determined through the UV-vis-DRS analysis. Through these studies it was possible to identify the presence of a mixture of cobalt ferrite and magnesium ferrite. Samples did not show hematite and cobalt oxides, but the presence of MgO in the periclase phase was determined. This magnesium oxide promoted a good dispersion of the ferrites. Moreover, when a single ferrite phase of Co or Mg was formed, a diminution of the crystal size with consequent enlarged values of band gap energy was observed. Thus, materials synthesized by room temperature ageing promoted the superparamagnetic behaviour of samples, attributed to the content of the cobalt ferrite structure in nanocrystals. In regard to the estimated band gap energy, all samples exhibited low levels. These results indicate that these solids would be suitable for photocatalysts use in all visible light range, and that they could be easily removed from the reaction medium by a simple magnetic separation procedure.

Agú, Ulises A.; Oliva, Marcos I.; Marchetti, Sergio G.; Heredia, Angélica C.; Casuscelli, Sandra G.; Crivello, Mónica E.

2014-11-01

169

Interfacial engineering and coupling of electric and magnetic properties in Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3/CoFe2O4 multiferroic epitaxial multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epitaxial magnetoelectric (ME) Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3(PZT)/CoFe2O4(CFO) multilayer nanocomposite thin films with up to 11 alternative layers are grown on Nb doped SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy studies reveal a good epitaxial relationship between the PZT and CFO layers without interfacial reaction at their interfaces. These epitaxial composite films exhibit strong ferroelectric and magnetic responses simultaneously at room temperature, and the interfacial-coupling-modulated dielectric behavior, polarization, and magnetic properties are observed and analyzed systematically. These results suggest that the magnetic, electric, and ME coupling effect may be tuned by the "strain engineering" in ferroelectric/magnetic or other multiferroic superlattice.

Zhang, J. X.; Dai, J. Y.; Chan, H. L. W.

2010-05-01

170

Submitted for publication Sept. 2007 Magnetoelectric nano-Fe3O4/CoFe2O4//PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 Composite 1/11  

E-print Network

magnetoelectric hybrid device composed of a nano-particulate magnetostrictive iron oxide-cobalt ferrite film consisting of papers reporting on metal-oxide composites and the second containing those publications dealing with oxide-oxide structures. High MEC susceptibilities at low magnetic fields are achieved with metal- oxide

Rubloff, Gary W.

171

Synthesis and Characterization of CoFe2O4\\/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Core\\/shell Magnetic Nanocomposite by the Wet Chemical Route  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cobalt ferrite\\/nickel-zinc ferrite core\\/shell nanocomposite was synthesized by a polymerized complex method using iron citrate, cobalt nitrate, nickel nitrate, zinc nitrate, citric acid, ethylene glycol, benzoic acid and sodium citrate as starting materials. The XRD, TEM and VSM techniques were employed to evaluate the phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples. The XRD results indicated the coexistence

A. Honarbakhsh-Raouf; H. R. Emamian; A. Yourdkhani; A. Ataie

2010-01-01

172

Observation of magnetoelectric coupling and local piezoresponse in modified (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 lead-free composites.  

PubMed

Lead-free particulate multiferroic composites of [0.94(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.06 BaTiO3]:(Co0.6Zn0.4)(Fe1.7Mn0.3)O4 were synthesized and magnetoelectric (ME) properties were studied. X-ray diffraction and microstructural studies indicated the formation of a two-phase composite system without any impurities. The shift of Raman modes corresponding to ferroelectric and ferrite phases was assigned to the induced strain amid the formation of a two-phase system, in relation to the fraction of each phase in the samples. A strong local piezoresponse and hysteresis loops observed for composites established the ferroelectric properties at a nanoscale. Magnetostriction measurements revealed values of ?11 = -10.4 and ?12 = 5.3 ppm and piezomagnetic coefficient d?11/dH = -0.0087 ppm Oe(-1) at 0.45 kOe for a composite with a ferrite concentration of 35 mol%. A maximum change of 18.5% in magnetization after electrical poling indicates a strong magnetoelectric response of the present composites followed by a direct ME coefficient of 8.2 mV cm(-1) Oe(-1). Our studies point to the fact that the present multiferroic composites having strong ME coupling are useful for lead-free electronic applications. PMID:24849499

Ramana, E Venkata; Figueiras, F; Graça, M P F; Valente, M A

2014-07-14

173

Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrasmall silicon periodic dielectric waveguides-based multimode interference all-optical logic gate has been proposed. The device consists of three 205nm wide single-mode input waveguides, a 1.1?m wide and 5.5?m long multimode interference waveguide, and three 205nm wide single-mode output waveguides. The total length and width of the device are 13.7?m and 3.2?m, respectively. By changing the states of the input

Shunquan Zeng; Yao Zhang; Baojun Li; Edwin Yue-Bun Pun

2010-01-01

174

Ultrasmall Silver Nanopores Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasmall nanopores in silver thin films with a diameter of about 2 nm have been fabricated using femtosecond laser ablation in liquid [1]. Ultrafast laser pulse ablation generates highly nonequilibrium excitated states, from which silver thin films emerge and progressively grow with the assistance of capping agent molecules. During this growth process, capping agent molecules are enclaves within the film, leaving individual ultrasmall pores in the thin film. Our first-principles calculations show that the pore size is critically determined by the dimension of the confined molecules. Furthermore, by using smaller capping agent molecules, we were able to fabricate smaller nanopores with 1.6nm diameter. Our approach advances the capability of optical methods in making nanoscale structures with potential applications in areas such as near-field aperture probes, imaging masks, magnetic plasmonic resonances, and biosensing with individual nanopores. [4pt] [1] F. Bian, Y. C. Tian, R. Wang, H. X. Yang, H. X. Xu, Sheng Meng, and Jimin Zhao, Ultrasmall Silver Nanopores Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses, Nano Lett. 11, 3251--3257 (2011).

Zhao, Jimin; Bian, F.; Tian, Y. C.; Wang, R.; Yang, H. X.; Xu, Hongxing; Meng, Sheng

2012-02-01

175

Dynamic fluctuations in ultrasmall nanocrystals induce white light emission  

SciTech Connect

Nanocrystals typically emit monochromatically at their size-dependent energy gaps. Recently, it was found that by pushing the size of a nanocrystal to its lower limits, absorption occurs at increasingly larger energies, but the expected blue to ultraviolet emission does not occur. Instead, individual ultrasmall CdSe nanocrystals emit white light1-5. Here we show that following excitation, partial thermalization sets the ultrasmall nanocrystals into a fluxional6 state, with a continuously varying energy gap which results in white light emission. Even the larger, monochromatic nanocrystals have a fluxional surface but a stable crystal core. A degree of fluxionality persists even at room temperature and represents a radical change to the accepted view of nanocrystals, with wide-ranging ramifications for other applications. The results were obtained using a combination of state-of-the-art experiment and theory: dynamic imaging by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and finite-temperature quantum molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that small is different, but ultrasmall is different yet again.

Pennycook, Timothy J [ORNL; Mcbride, J. R. [Vanderbilt University; Rosenthal, Sandra [Vanderbilt University; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University

2012-01-01

176

Mesoscopic superconductivity in ultrasmall metallic grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nano-scale metallic grain (nanoparticle) with irregular boundaries in which the single-particle dynamics are chaotic is a zero-dimensional system described by the so-called universal Hamiltonian in the limit of a large number of electrons. The interaction part of this Hamiltonian includes a superconducting pairing term and a ferromagnetic exchange term. Spin-orbit scattering breaks spin symmetry and suppresses the exchange interaction term. Of particular interest is the fluctuation-dominated regime, typical of the smallest grains in the experiments, in which the bulk pairing gap is comparable to or smaller than the single-particle mean-level spacing, and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) mean-field theory of superconductivity is no longer valid. Here we study the crossover between the BCS and fluctuation-dominated regimes in two limits. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering, the pairing and exchange interaction terms compete with each other. We describe the signatures of this competition in thermodynamic observables, the heat capacity and spin susceptibility. In the presence of strong spin-orbit scattering, the exchange interaction term can be ignored. We discuss how the magnetic-field response of discrete energy levels in such a nanoparticle is affected by pairing correlations. We identify signatures of pairing correlations in this response, which are detectable even in the fluctuation-dominated regime.

Alhassid, Y.; Nesterov, K. N.

2014-10-01

177

Mesoscopic superconductivity in ultrasmall metallic grains  

E-print Network

A nano-scale metallic grain (nanoparticle) with irregular boundaries in which the single-particle dynamics are chaotic is a zero-dimensional system described by the so-called universal Hamiltonian in the limit of a large number of electrons. The interaction part of this Hamiltonian includes a superconducting pairing term and a ferromagnetic exchange term. Spin-orbit scattering breaks spin symmetry and suppresses the exchange interaction term. Of particular interest is the fluctuation-dominated regime, typical of the smallest grains in the experiments, in which the bulk pairing gap is comparable to or smaller than the single-particle mean-level spacing, and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) mean-field theory of superconductivity is no longer valid. Here we study the crossover between the BCS and fluctuation-dominated regimes in two limits. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering, the pairing and exchange interaction terms compete with each other. We describe the signatures of this competition in thermodynamic observables, the heat capacity and spin susceptibility. In the presence of strong spin-orbit scattering, the exchange interaction term can be ignored. We discuss how the magnetic-field response of discrete energy levels in such a nanoparticle is affected by pairing correlations. We identify signatures of pairing correlations in this response, which are detectable even in the fluctuation-dominated regime.

Y. Alhassid; K. N. Nesterov

2014-07-31

178

Bright White Light Emission from Ultrasmall Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

A simple treatment method using formic acid has been found to increase the fluorescence quantum yield of ultrasmall white light-emitting CdSe nanocrystals from 8% to 45%. Brighter white-light emission occurs with other carboxylic acids as well, and the magnitude of the quantum yield enhancement is shown to be dependent on the alkyl chain length. Additionally, the nanocrystal luminescence remains enhanced relative to the untreated nanocrystals over several days. This brightened emission opens the possibility for even further quantum yield improvement and potential for use of these white-light nanocrystals in solid-state lighting applications.

Rosson, Teresa [Vanderbilt University; Claiborne, Sarah [Vanderbilt University; McBride, James [Vanderbilt University; Stratton, Benjamin S [Vanderbilt University; Rosenthal, Sandra [ORNL

2012-01-01

179

Physicochemical characterization of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO) for biomedical application as MRI contrast agents.  

PubMed

Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles are maghemite or magnetite nanoparticles currently used as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging. The coatings surrounding the USPIO inorganic core play a major role in both the in vitro stability and, over all, USPIO's in vivo fate. Different physicochemical properties such as final size, surface charge and coating density are key factors in this respect. Up to now no precise structure--activity relationship has been described to predict entirely the USPIOs stability, as well as their pharmacokinetics and their safety. This review is focused on both the classical and the latest available techniques allowing a better insight in the magnetic core structure and the organic surface of these particles. Concurrently, this work clearly shows the difficulty to obtain a complete physicochemical characterization of USPIOs particles owing to their small dimensions, reaching the analytical resolution limits of many commercial instruments. An extended characterization is therefore necessary to improve the understanding of the properties of USPIOs when dispersed in an aqueous environment and to set the specifications and limits for their conception. PMID:18203428

Di Marco, Mariagrazia; Sadun, Claudia; Port, Marc; Guilbert, Irene; Couvreur, Patrick; Dubernet, Catherine

2007-01-01

180

Engineering ultrasmall water-soluble gold and silver nanoclusters for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Gold and silver nanoclusters or Au/Ag NCs with core sizes smaller than 2 nm have been an attractive frontier of nanoparticle research because of their unique physicochemical properties such as well-defined molecular structure, discrete electronic transitions, quantized charging, and strong luminescence. As a result of these unique properties, ultrasmall size, and good biocompatibility, Au/Ag NCs have great potential for a variety of biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, biosensing, antimicrobial agents, and cancer therapy. In this feature article, we will first discuss some critical biological considerations, such as biocompatibility and renal clearance, of Au/Ag NCs that are applied for biomedical applications, leading to some design criteria for functional Au/Ag NCs in the biological settings. According to these biological considerations, we will then survey some efficient synthetic strategies for the preparation of protein- and peptide-protected Au/Ag NCs with an emphasis on our recent contributions in this fast-growing field. In the last part, we will highlight some potential biomedical applications of these protein- and peptide-protected Au/Ag NCs. It is believed that with continued efforts to understand the interactions of biomolecule-protected Au/Ag NCs with the biological systems, scientists can largely realize the great potential of Au/Ag NCs for biomedical applications, which could finally pave their way towards clinical use. PMID:24266029

Luo, Zhentao; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Xie, Jianping

2014-05-25

181

nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the observation of intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism in pure La2O3 nanoparticles. Magnetism measurement indicates that all of the samples exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism and the saturation magnetization for the samples decreases with the increase in annealing temperature from 700 to 1,000 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy identifies the presence of oxygen vacancies in the La2O3 nanoparticles. The fitting results of the O 1 s spectrum indicate that the variation of the oxygen vacancy concentration is in complete agreement with the change of the saturation magnetization. It is also found that the saturation magnetization of the La2O3 nanoparticles can be tuned by post-annealing in argon or oxygen atmosphere. These results suggest that the oxygen vacancies are largely responsible for the room temperature ferromagnetism in pure La2O3 nanoparticles.

Xu, Qiang; Gao, Daqiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Zhaolong; Zhang, Zhipeng; Rao, Jinwei; Xue, Desheng

2014-09-01

182

nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and Zn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol gel method. The dopant (Zn) was taken at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 mol%. The initial precursors were titanium tetraisopropoxide and zinc acetate. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared nanoparticles was studied by observing their role in degradation of two azo dyes, i.e., Eriochrome Black T and Methyl Red under UV-visible light. The results revealed that Zn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited better degradation as compared to undoped TiO2 nanoparticles. In this study, 0.7 mol% Zn-doped TiO2 showed highest photocatalytic activity. Doping of Zn allowed better separation of electron-hole pairs which results in increased oxidation and reduction reactions.

Singla, Pooja; Sharma, Manoj; Pandey, O. P.; Singh, K.

2014-07-01

183

Ultrasmall SnO2 Nanocrystals: Hot-bubbling Synthesis, Encapsulation in Carbon Layers and Applications in High Capacity Li-Ion Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasmall SnO2 nanocrystals as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been synthesized by bubbling an oxidizing gas into hot surfactant solutions containing Sn-oleate complexes. Annealing of the particles in N2 carbonifies the densely packed surface capping ligands resulting in carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2/C). Carbon encapsulation can effectively buffer the volume changes during the lithiation/delithiation process. The assembled SnO2/C thus deliver extraordinarily high reversible capacity of 908 mA.h.g-1 at 0.5 C as well as excellent cycling performance in the LIBs. This method demonstrates the great potential of SnO2/C nanoparticles for the design of high power LIBs.

Ding, Liping; He, Shulian; Miao, Shiding; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Leubner, Susanne; Yan, Chenglin; Hickey, Stephen G.; Eychmüller, Alexander; Xu, Jinzhang; Schmidt, Oliver G.

2014-04-01

184

Ultrasmall SnO2 Nanocrystals: Hot-bubbling Synthesis, Encapsulation in Carbon Layers and Applications in High Capacity Li-Ion Storage  

PubMed Central

Ultrasmall SnO2 nanocrystals as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been synthesized by bubbling an oxidizing gas into hot surfactant solutions containing Sn-oleate complexes. Annealing of the particles in N2 carbonifies the densely packed surface capping ligands resulting in carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2/C). Carbon encapsulation can effectively buffer the volume changes during the lithiation/delithiation process. The assembled SnO2/C thus deliver extraordinarily high reversible capacity of 908?mA·h·g?1 at 0.5 C as well as excellent cycling performance in the LIBs. This method demonstrates the great potential of SnO2/C nanoparticles for the design of high power LIBs. PMID:24732294

Ding, Liping; He, Shulian; Miao, Shiding; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Leubner, Susanne; Yan, Chenglin; Hickey, Stephen G.; Eychmuller, Alexander; Xu, Jinzhang; Schmidt, Oliver G.

2014-01-01

185

New directions in developing ultrasmall fiber-optic ion sensors  

SciTech Connect

We have recently investigated the fluorescent properties of a number of pH-selective chromoionophores and evaluated their potential for use in cation exchange optode membranes. Three approaches were developed to monitor the response of these bulk-optodes. The Nile Blue derivative, ETH 5350, shows the greatest promise exhibiting bright fluorescence and an emission peak shift upon protonation. Another Nile Blue derivatives, ETH 2439, has sufficient molar absorptivity to act as an inner-filter for the highly lipophilic fluorescent membrane label, DiIC{sub 18}. These chromogenic systems, used in traditional, PVC-based, liquid polymer membranes along with ionophores and lipophilic charge sites, are placed on the end of optical fibers. An ultra-small optode capable of measuring cytosolic levels of sodium at physiological pH has been constructed based on a highly lipophilic bridged-calixarene. Progress in the construction of analogous anion-selective optodes will also be presented.

Shortreed, M.R.; Kopelman, R. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bakker, E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

1995-12-31

186

nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

2014-10-01

187

Photocatalytic Oxidation of Hydrosulfide Ions by Molecular Oxygen Over Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photocatalytic activity of CdS nanoparticles in hydrosulfide-ions air oxidation was revealed and thoroughly investigated. HS? photooxidation in the presence of CdS nanoparticles results predominantly in the formation of SO32? and SO42? ions. Photocatalytic activity of ultrasmall CdS crystallites in HS– photooxidation is much more prononced as compared to bulk CdS crystals due to high surface area of nanoparticles, their negligible

A. E. Raevskaya; A. L. Stroyuk; S. Ya. Kuchmii

2004-01-01

188

Gold Nanoparticles for Neural Prosthetics Devices  

PubMed Central

Treatments of neurological diseases and the realization of brain-computer interfaces require ultrasmall electrodes which are “invisible” to resident immune cells. Functional electrodes smaller than 50?m are impossible to produce with traditional materials due to high interfacial impedance at the characteristic frequency of neural activity and insufficient charge storage capacity. The problem can be resolved by using gold nanoparticle nanocomposites. Careful comparison indicates that layer-by-layer assembled films from Au NPs provide more than threefold improvement in interfacial impedance and one order of magnitude increase in charge storage capacity. Prototypes of microelectrodes could be made using traditional photolithography. Integration of unique nanocomposite materials with microfabrication techniques opens the door for practical realization of the ultrasmall implantable electrodes. Further improvement of electrical properties is expected when using special shapes of gold nanoparticles. PMID:22734673

Zhang, Huanan; Shih, Jimmy; Zhu, Jian; Kotov, Nicholas A.

2012-01-01

189

Nanoparticles for neuroimaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of nanotechnology has introduced a variety of novel exciting possibilities into the medical and clinical field. Nanoparticles, ultra-small object sized between 100 and 1 nm, are promising diagnostic tools for various diseases among other devices, thanks to the possibility of their functionalization allowing the selective targeting of organs, tissues and cells and to facilitate their transport to primary target organs. However, brain targeting represents a still unresolved challenge due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, a tightly packed layer of endothelial cells that prevents unwanted substances entering the central nervous system. We review a range of nanoparticles suitable for in vivo diagnostic imaging of neurodegenerative diseases and brain disorders, highlighting the possibility to potentially increase their efficiency and kinetics of brain-targeting. We also review a range of imaging techniques with an emphasis on most recently introduced molecular imaging modalities, their current status and future potential.

Re, F.; Moresco, R.; Masserini, M.

2012-02-01

190

Mössbauer and magnetic study of Co  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrites Co x Fe3-x O4 (x = 1 or 2) have been obtained either by mechanical milling or thermal treatment of pre-prepared layered double hydroxide carbonate x-LDH CO3. Mechanical milling of the 1-LDH CO3 leads to the large-scale preparation of nearly spherical nanoparticles of CoFe2O4, the size of which (5 to 20 nm) is controlled by

C. Estournès; C. D'Orléans; J.-L. Rehspringer; E. Manova; B. Kunev; D. Paneva; I. Mitov; L. Petrov; M. Kurmoo

2005-01-01

191

Synthesis and characterization of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-chitosan-coated cobalt ferrite core\\/shell nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-chitosan-coated cobalt ferrite core\\/shell nanoparticles have been synthesized via a novel zero-length emulsion crosslinking process and characterized via crosslinking degree, simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibration sample magnetometry. The experimental results showed that the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were really encapsulated with

Runhua Qin; Fengsheng Li; Wei Jiang; Mingyue Chen

2010-01-01

192

nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present the role of vanadium ions (V+5 and V+3), oxygen vacancies (VO), and interstitial zinc (Zni) to the contribution of specific magnetization for a mixture of ZnO-V2O5 nanoparticles (NPs). Samples were obtained by mechanical milling of dry powders and ethanol-assisted milling for 1 h with a fixed atomic ratio V/Zn?=?5% at. For comparison, pure ZnO samples were also prepared. All samples exhibit a room temperature magnetization ranging from 1.18?×?10-3 to 3.5?×?10-3 emu/gr. Pure ZnO powders (1.34?×?10-3 emu/gr) milled with ethanol exhibit slight increase in magnetization attributed to formation of Zni, while dry milled ZnO powders exhibit a decrease of magnetization due to a reduction of VO concentration. For the ZnO-V2O5 system, dry milled and thermally treated samples under reducing atmosphere exhibit a large paramagnetic component associated to the formation of V2O3 and secondary phases containing V+3 ions; at the same time, an increase of VO is observed with an abrupt fall of magnetization to ??~?0.7?×?10-3 emu/gr due to segregation of V oxides and formation of secondary phases. As mechanical milling is an aggressive synthesis method, high disorder is induced at the surface of the ZnO NPs, including VO and Zni depending on the chemical environment. Thermal treatment restores partially structural order at the surface of the NPs, thus reducing the amount of Zni at the same time that V2O5 NPs segregate reducing the direct contact with the surface of ZnO NPs. Additional samples were milled for longer time up to 24 h to study the effect of milling on the magnetization; 1-h milled samples have the highest magnetizations. Structural characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Identification of VO and Zni was carried out with Raman spectra, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to verify that V did not diffuse into ZnO NPs as well to quantify O/Zn ratios.

Olive-Méndez, Sion F.; Santillán-Rodríguez, Carlos R.; González-Valenzuela, Ricardo A.; Espinosa-Magaña, Francisco; Matutes-Aquino, José A.

2014-04-01

193

Ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering photon correlation spectroscopy over extended length and time scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) is an emerging technique offering unprecedented sensitivity to dynamics of structural changes in materials. Existing XPCS facilities are limited to microstructure length scales less than 50 nm, eliminating large classes of important materials. Recently, the scale range has been extended dramatically by combining XPCS speckle measurements with ultrasmall-angle scattering (USAXS) studies at the Advanced Photon

Andrew Allen; Fan Zhang; Lyle Levine; Jan Ilavsky; Gabrielle Long

2010-01-01

194

Design of an ultrasmall Au nanocluster-CeO2 mesoporous nanocomposite catalyst for nitrobenzene reduction.  

PubMed

In this work we are inspired to explore gold nanoclusters supported on mesoporous CeO2 nanospheres as nanocatalysts for the reduction of nitrobenzene. Ultrasmall Au nanoclusters (NCs) and mesoporous CeO2 nanospheres were readily synthesized and well characterized. Due to their ultrasmall size, the as-prepared Au clusters can be easily absorbed into the mesopores of the mesoporous CeO2 nanospheres. Owing to the unique mesoporous structure of the CeO2 support, Au nanoclusters in the Au@CeO2 may effectively prevent the aggregation which usually results in a rapid decay of the catalytic activity. It is notable that the ultrasmall gold nanoclusters possess uniform size distribution and good dispersibility on the mesoporous CeO2 supports. Compared to other catalyst systems with different oxide supports, the as-prepared Au nanocluster-CeO2 nanocomposite nanocatalysts showed efficient catalytic performance in transforming nitrobenzene into azoxybenzene. In addition, a plausible mechanism was deeply investigated to explain the transforming process. Au@CeO2 exhibited efficient catalytic activity for reduction of nitrobenzene. This strategy may be easily extended to fabricate many other heterogeneous catalysts including ultrasmall metal nanoclusters and mesoporous oxides. PMID:23842689

Chong, Hanbao; Li, Peng; Xiang, Ji; Fu, Fangyu; Zhang, Dandan; Ran, Xiaorong; Zhu, Manzhou

2013-08-21

195

Structure and magnetic properties of Co and Ni nano-ferrites prepared by a two step direct microemulsions synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-particles of CoFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were synthesized by a two step microemulsion precipitation where inverse micelles of water in hexanol were stabilized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis and Transmission electron microscopy measurements provided data to clarify the crystal structure and size of the produced nano-particles. Different measurements of magnetic properties at low temperatures of 2 K revealed that nano-particles of NiFe2O4 represent magnetically soft ferrite with a coercivity ?40 kA/m, whereas nano-particles of CoFe2O4 and Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were magnetically harder with a coercivity of 815 and 947 kA/m, respectively. Additionally zero field cooling and field cooling measurements provided data for estimating the blocking temperature of the materials produced. For NiFe2O4 this temperature is lower, 23 K. The blocking temperature of CoFe2O4 of 238 K and Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 of 268 K are higher in comparison with NiFe2O4.

Pulišová, P.; Ková?, J.; Voigt, A.; Raschman, P.

2013-09-01

196

Biomagnetic of Apatite-Coated Cobalt Ferrite: A Core–Shell Particle for Protein Adsorption and pH-Controlled Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic nanoparticle composite with a cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4, (CF)) core and an apatite (Ap) coating was synthesized using a biomineralization process in which a modified simulated body fluid (1.5SBF) solution is the source of the calcium phosphate for the apatite formation. The core–shell structure formed after the citric acid–stabilized cobalt ferrite (CFCA) particles were incubated in the 1.5 SBF solution

I.-Ming Tang; Nateetip Krishnamra; Narattaphol Charoenphandhu; Rassmidara Hoonsawat; Weeraphat Pon-On

2011-01-01

197

Synthesis and reactivity of nanophase ferrites in reverse micellar solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self assembly preparative techniques in confined media that lead to magnetic materials with nanometer dimensions are described. Synthesis of nanoparticles using the restricted environments offered by surfactant systems such as water-in-oil microemulsions (reverse micelles) provide excellent control over particle size, inter-particle spacing, and particle shape. These environments have been used in the synthesis of ?-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, MnFe2O4, and CoFe2O4 with

Charles J. O'Connor; Candace T. Seip; Everett E. Carpenter; Sichu Li; Vijay T. John

1999-01-01

198

Microwave absorption properties of cobalt ferrite-modified carbonized bacterial cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel magnetic nanocomposite of carbonized bacterial cellulose (CBC) modified by CoFe2O4 nanocrystals with different contents were synthesized successfully using an effective solvothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the CBC fibers were intertwined and networks were loaded with well-distributed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. With a CBC/CoFe2O4 ratio of 10 wt%, the optimal reflection loss (RL) of -45 dB at 8.6 GHz with a thickness of 2.0 mm because of the enhanced interfacial polarization related to the developed ??. This novel electromagnetic nanocomposite material is believed to have potential applications in terms of microwave-absorbing performance.

Ren, Yong; Li, Shirong; Dai, Bo; Huang, Xiaohu

2014-08-01

199

Preparation of entangled nanocellulose fibers from APMP and its magnetic functional property as matrix.  

PubMed

Nanocellulose fibers (NCFs) aerogels were prepared from poplar alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp (APMP) using physical ultrasonication method. As raw materials, the unique mechanical effects of APMP cause the fiber folding and loose during the pulping process, which was beneficial to further chemical purification and subsequent treatment for long and entangled NCFs. The obtained NCFs exhibited higher crystallinity (77.8%) compared with that of APMP (72.6%) together with diameters range from 20 to 90 nm and self-assembled to network. The primary thermal degradation of NCFs occurred at 331.5°C. The prepared NCFs network aerogels acted as matrix which can prevent the growth and aggregation of ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The ratio of the CoFe2O4 of magnetic composites increased from 34 wt% to 75 wt%, and the magnetic properties were all increased with increasing the reaction concentration of FeSO4/CoCl2 salt. PMID:23544539

Li, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Shouxin

2013-04-15

200

Templated synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous cobalt ferrite and its microwave absorption properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the nanocasting strategy, highly ordered mesoporous CoFe2O4 is synthesized via the ‘two-solvent’ impregnation method using a mesoporous SBA-15 template. An ordered two-dimensional (P6mm) structure is preserved for the CoFe2O4/SBA-15 composite after the nanocasting. After the SBA-15 template is dissolved by NaOH solution, a mesoporous structure composed of aligned nanoparticles can be obtained, and the P6mm structure of the parent SBA-15 is preserved. With a high specific surface area (above 90 m2/g) and ferromagnetic behavior, the obtained material shows potential in light weight microwave absorption application. The minimum reflection loss (RL) can reach ?18 dB at about 16 GHz with a thickness of 2 mm and the corresponding absorption bandwidth is 4.5 GHz.

Li, Guo-Min; Wang, Lian-Cheng; Xu, Yao

2014-08-01

201

Control of Mass Transport and Chemical Reaction Kinetics in Ultrasmall Volumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will describe means for triggering chemical reactions for studying reaction kinetics under extreme confinement with sub-millisecond temporal resolution, including on-demand generation and fusion of femtoliter (10-15 L) volume water-in-oil droplets, and triggering reactions in femtoliter chambers microfabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). We demonstrated a reversible chemical toggle switch, which lays the groundwork for exploring more complex chemical and biochemical reaction sequences triggered and monitored in real time in discrete ultrasmall reactors, such as sequential and coupled enzymatic reactions. We are also developing methods to vary confinement and macromolecular crowding in ultrasmall, water-in-oil droplets and chambers micromolded in PDMS as biomimetic reaction vessels containing minimal synthetic gene circuits, in order to better understand how confinement, reduced dimensionality and macromolecular crowding affect molecular mechanisms involved in the operation and regulation of genetic circuits in living cells.

Collier, Charles

2012-02-01

202

Comparison of Superparamagnetic and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Cell Labeling for Tracking Green Fluorescent Protein Gene Marker with Negative and Positive Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of imaging green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cells labeled with iron oxide nanoparticles with the fast low-angle positive contrast steady-state free precession (FLAPS) method and to compare them with the traditional negative contrast technique. The GFP-R3230Ac cell line (GFP cell) was incubated for 24 hours using 20 ?g Fe/mL concentration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles. Cell samples were prepared for iron content analysis and cell function evaluation. The labeled cells were imaged using positive contrast with FLAPS imaging, and FLAPS images were compared with negative contrast T2*-weighted images. The results demonstrated that SPIO and USPIO labeling of GFP cells had no effect on cell function or GFP expression. Labeled cells were successfully imaged with both positive and negative contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The labeled cells were observed as a narrow band of signal enhancement surrounding signal voids in FLAPS images and were visible as signal voids in T2*-weighted images. Positive contrast and negative contrast imaging were both valuable for visualizing labeled GFP cells. MRI of labeled cells with GFP expression holds potential promise for monitoring the temporal and spatial migration of gene markers and cells, thereby enhancing the understanding of cell- and gene-based therapeutic strategies. PMID:19723472

Zhang, Zhuoli; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Mascheri, Nicole; Fan, Zhaoyang; Wu, Shengyong; Li, Debiao

2010-01-01

203

Equation of state and spin-correlation functions of ultrasmall classical Heisenberg magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain analytical expressions for the total magnetic moment and the static spin-correlation functions of the classical Heisenberg model for ultrasmall systems of spins (unit vectors), that interact via isotropic, nearest-neighbor (n-n) exchange and that are subject to a uniform dc magnetic field of arbitrary strength. Explicit results are presented for the dimer, equilateral triangle, square, and regular tetrahedron arrays

Orion Ciftja; Marshall Luban; M. Auslender; James Luscombe

1999-01-01

204

Genome sequence of the ultrasmall unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small, compact genomes of ultrasmall unicellular algae provide information on the basic and essential genes that support the lives of photosynthetic eukaryotes, including higher plants. Here we report the 16,520,305-base-pair sequence of the 20 chromosomes of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D as the first complete algal genome. We identified 5,331 genes in total, of which at least 86.3%

Motomichi Matsuzaki; Osami Misumi; Tadasu Shin-i; Shinichiro Maruyama; Manabu Takahara; Shin-ya Miyagishima; Toshiyuki Mori; Keiji Nishida; Fumi Yagisawa; Keishin Nishida; Yamato Yoshida; Yoshiki Nishimura; Shunsuke Nakao; Tamaki Kobayashi; Yu Momoyama; Tetsuya Higashiyama; Ayumi Minoda; Masako Sano; Hisayo Nomoto; Kazuko Oishi; Hiroko Hayashi; Fumiko Ohta; Satoko Nishizaka; Shinobu Haga; Sachiko Miura; Tomomi Morishita; Yukihiro Kabeya; Kimihiro Terasawa; Yutaka Suzuki; Yasuyuki Ishii; Shuichi Asakawa; Hiroyoshi Takano; Niji Ohta; Haruko Kuroiwa; Kan Tanaka; Nobuyoshi Shimizu; Sumio Sugano; Naoki Sato; Hisayoshi Nozaki; Naotake Ogasawara; Yuji Kohara; Tsuneyoshi Kuroiwa

2004-01-01

205

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque With Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Particles of Iron Oxide in Hyperlipidemic Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Based on the observation that ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIOs) are phagocytosed by cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system, the purpose of this study was to evaluate their use as a marker of atherosclerosis-associated inflammatory changes in the vessel wall before luminal narrowing is present. Methods and Results—Experiments were conducted on 6 heritable hyperlipidemic and 3 New Zealand

Stefan G. Ruehm; Claire Corot; Peter Vogt; Stefan Kolb; Jörg F. Debatin

2009-01-01

206

Highly bright multicolor tunable ultrasmall ?-Na(Y,Gd)F?:Ce,Tb,Eu/?-NaYF? core/shell nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Herein, we report highly bright multicolor-emitting ?-Na(Y,Gd)F?:Ce,Tb,Eu/?-NaYF? nanoparticles (NPs) with precise color tunability. First, highly bright sub-20 nm ?-Na(Y,Gd)F?:Ce,Tb,Eu NPs were synthesized via a heating-up method. By controlling the ratio of Eu(3+) to Tb(3+), we generated green, yellow-green, greenish yellow, yellow, orange, reddish orange, and red emissions from the NP solutions via energy transfer of Ce(3+)? Gd(3+)? Tb(3+) (green) and Ce(3+)? Gd(3+)? Tb(3+)? Eu(3+) (red) ions under ultraviolet light illumination (254 nm). Because of Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) sensitization, Tb(3+) ions exhibited strong green emission. The decay time of Tb(3+) emission decreased from 4.0 to 1.4 ms as the Eu(3+) concentration was increased, suggesting that energy was transferred from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+). As a result, Eu(3+) emission peaks were generated and the emission color was transformed from green to red. Monodisperse sub-6 nm ?-Na(Y,Gd)F?:Ce,Tb,Eu NPs were synthesized through a simple reduction of the reaction temperature. Although fine color tunability was retained, their brightness was considerably decreased owing to an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio. The formation of a ?-NaYF? shell on top of the sub-6 nm NP core to produce ?-Na(Y,Gd)F?:Ce,Tb,Eu/?-NaYF? significantly increased the emission intensity, while maintaining the sub-10 nm sizes (8.7-9.5 nm). Quantum yields of the ultrasmall NPs increased from 1.1-6.9% for the core NPs to 6.7-44.4% for the core/shell NPs. Moreover, highly transparent core/shell NP-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites featuring a variety of colors, excellent color tunability, and high brightness were also prepared. PMID:23945563

Kim, Su Yeon; Woo, Kyoungja; Lim, Kipil; Lee, Kwangyeol; Jang, Ho Seong

2013-10-01

207

An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids.  

PubMed

Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary alpha-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle physiological responses on mammalian metabolism, and can be employed to investigate the potential adverse effects of other nanoparticles and nanomaterials on the environment and human health. PMID:20820093

Feng, Jianghua; Liu, Huili; Zhang, Limin; Bhakoo, Kishore; Lu, Lehui

2010-10-01

208

Ultrasmall particle detection using a submicron Hall sensor  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate detection of a single FePt nanoparticle (diameter 150 nm, moment {approx}10{sup 7} {mu}{sub B}) using an ultrasensitive InSb Hall sensor with the bar lateral width of 600 nm. The white noise of a typical nanodevice, S{sub V}{sup 1/2{approx_equal}}28 nV/{radical}Hz, is limited only by two-terminal resistance of the voltage leads which results in a minimum field sensitivity of the device B{sub min}=0.87 {mu}T/{radical}Hz. To detect a single FePt bead, we employed a phase-sensitive method based on measuring the ac susceptibility change in a bead when exposed to a switched dc magnetic field. Such nano-Hall devices, enabling detection of potentially even smaller moments, are of considerable significance both for nanomagnetic metrology and high sensitivity biological and environmental detectors.

Kazakova, O.; Gallop, J. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Panchal, V. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); See, P. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cox, D. C. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Spasova, M. [Center for Nanointegration, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg 47048 (Germany); Cohen, L. F. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15

209

Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned plasmonic nanopillars with ultrasmall separations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the fabrication of well-aligned gold and silver nanopillars with various array parameters via interference lithography followed by ion beam milling and compare the etching rates of these two metallic materials. Silver is suitable for fabricating ultrafine arrays with ultrasmall separations due to high milling rates. The optical properties of the fabricated nanopillars are specifically characterized from both normal incidence and oblique incident angles. Tunable surface plasmon resonances are achieved with varying structural parameters. Strong coupling effects are enabled when the separation between adjacent nanopillars is dramatically reduced, leading to useful applications in sensing and waveguiding.

Si, Guangyuan; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Lv, Jiangtao; Gu, Qiongchan; Wang, Fengwen

2014-06-01

210

Holographic interferometry of ultrasmall-pressure-induced curvature changes of bilayer lipid membranes  

SciTech Connect

Two-exposure interferometric holograms have been shown to sensitively report ultrasmall-pressure (10 natm)-induced curvature changes in glyceryl monooleate (GMO) bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The number of concentric fringes observed, and hence the lateral distance between the plane of the Teflon and the BLM, increased linearly with increasing transmembrane pressure and led to a value of 1.1 {plus minus} 0.05 dyn/cm for the surface tension of the BLM. BLMs with appreciable Plateau-Gibbs borders have been shown to undergo nonuniform deformation; the bilayer portion is distorted less than the surrounding Plateau-Gibbs border upon the application of a transmembrane pressure gradient.

Picard, G.; Schneider-Henriquez, J.E.; Fendler, J.H. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1990-01-25

211

Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs): a future alternative magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for patients at risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)?  

PubMed Central

Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents (GBCAs) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in daily clinical practice and appear safe in most patients; however, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a recently recognized severe complication associated with GBCAs. It affects primarily patients with renal disease, such as stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD; glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2), acute kidney injury, or kidney and liver transplant recipients with kidney dysfunction. Contrast-enhanced MRI and computed tomography (CT) scans provide important clinical information and influence patient management. An alternative contrast agent is needed to obtain adequate imaging results while avoiding the risk of NSF in this vulnerable patient group. One potential alternative is ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles, which provide enhancement characteristics similar to GBCAs. We review our experience in approximately 150 patients on the potential benefits of the USPIOs ferumoxtran-10 and ferumoxytol. We focus on central nervous system (CNS) MRI but also review imaging of other vascular beds. Safety studies, including USPIO administration (ferumoxytol) as iron supplement therapy in CKD patients on and not on dialysis, suggest that decreased kidney function does not alter the safety profile. We conclude that for both CNS MR imaging and MR angiography, USPIO agents like ferumoxytol are a viable option for patients at risk for NSF. PMID:18843256

Neuwelt, Edward A.; Hamilton, Bronwyn E.; Varallyay, Csanad G.; Rooney, William R.; Edelman, Robert D.; Jacobs, Paula M.; Watnick, Suzanne G.

2008-01-01

212

Specific targeting of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE1 by C225-conjugated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles with magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

An accurate definition of clinical target volume (CTV) is essential for the application of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment. A novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting contrast agent (C225-USPIO) was designed by conjugating ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles with cetuximab (C225), to non-invasively define the CTV of tumor. The immunobinding activity of C225-USPIO to NPC cell line CNE1 was confirmed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The time-dependent accumulation of C225-USPIO in CNE1 cells was evaluated using Prussian blue staining. Targeted internalization and subcellular localization of C225-USPIO was confirmed by transmission electron microscope. The results indicated that C225-USPIO specifically bound to EGFR on the surface of CNE1 cells and was taken up into the cell. The uptake of C225-USPIO by CNE1 cells increased significantly with time, when compared with human IgG-USPIO. In addition, 4.7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that C225-USPIO had a capacity to accumulate in the CNE1 cells, with a resultant marked decrease in MRI T2-weighted signal intensity over time. These findings imply that C225-USPIO has the potential as an MRI contrast agent and can be employed to non-invasively detect early-stage NPC with EGFR overexpression. This provides sufficient theoretical basis for commencing in vivo experiments with the compound. PMID:21345916

Liu, Dongbo; Chen, Chunli; Hu, Guangyuan; Mei, Qi; Qiu, Hong; Long, Guoxian; Hu, Guoqing

2011-04-01

213

Sub-2 nm size and density tunable platinum nanoparticles using room temperature tilted-target sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a tilted-target RF magnetron sputter deposition system to grow nanoparticles in a controlled way. With detailed characterization of ultra-high density (up to 1.1 × 1013 cm-2) and ultra-small size Pt nanoparticles (0.5-2 nm), it explains their growth and crystalline properties on amorphous Al2O3 thin films. It is shown that Pt nanoparticle size and number density can be precisely engineered by varying selected experimental parameters such as target angle, sputtering power and time of deposition to control the energy of the metal atoms in the deposition flux. Based on rate equation modelling of nanoparticle growth, three distinct growth regimes, namely nucleation dependent, coalescence dependent and agglomeration dependent regimes, were observed. The correlation between different nanoparticle growth regimes and the consequent crystal structure transformation, non-crystalline clusters ? single crystalline nanoparticles ? polycrystalline islands, is also discussed.

Ramalingam, Balavinayagam; Mukherjee, Somik; Mathai, Cherian J.; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

2013-05-01

214

Ultrasmall peptides self-assemble into diverse nanostructures: morphological evaluation and potential implications.  

PubMed

In this study, we perform a morphological evaluation of the diverse nanostructures formed by varying concentration and amino acid sequence of a unique class of ultrasmall self-assembling peptides. We modified these peptides by replacing the aliphatic amino acid at the C-aliphatic terminus with different aromatic amino acids. We tracked the effect of introducing aromatic residues on self-assembly and morphology of resulting nanostructures. Whereas aliphatic peptides formed long, helical fibers that entangle into meshes and entrap >99.9% water, the modified peptides contrastingly formed short, straight fibers with a flat morphology. No helical fibers were observed for the modified peptides. For the aliphatic peptides at low concentrations, different supramolecular assemblies such as hollow nanospheres and membrane blebs were found. Since the ultrasmall peptides are made of simple, aliphatic amino acids, considered to have existed in the primordial soup, study of these supramolecular assemblies could be relevant to understanding chemical evolution leading to the origin of life on Earth. In particular, we propose a variety of potential applications in bioengineering and nanotechnology for the diverse self-assembled nanostructures. PMID:22016623

Lakshmanan, Anupama; Hauser, Charlotte A E

2011-01-01

215

Equation of state and spin-correlation functions of ultrasmall classical Heisenberg magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain analytical expressions for the total magnetic moment and the static spin-correlation functions of the classical Heisenberg model for ultrasmall systems of spins (unit vectors), that interact via isotropic, nearest-neighbor (n-n) exchange and that are subject to a uniform dc magnetic field of arbitrary strength. Explicit results are presented for the dimer, equilateral triangle, square, and regular tetrahedron arrays of spins. These systems provide a useful theoretical framework for calculating the magnetic properties of several recently synthesized molecular magnets. The tetrahedron as well as the equilateral triangle systems, each considered for n-n antiferromagnetic exchange, are of particular interest since they exhibit frustrated spin ordering for sufficiently low temperatures and weak magnetic fields.

Ciftja, Orion; Luban, Marshall; Auslender, Mark; Luscombe, James H.

1999-10-01

216

Equation of state and spin-correlation functions of ultrasmall classical Heisenberg magnets  

SciTech Connect

We obtain analytical expressions for the total magnetic moment and the static spin-correlation functions of the classical Heisenberg model for ultrasmall systems of spins (unit vectors), that interact via isotropic, nearest-neighbor (n-n) exchange and that are subject to a uniform dc magnetic field of arbitrary strength. Explicit results are presented for the dimer, equilateral triangle, square, and regular tetrahedron arrays of spins. These systems provide a useful theoretical framework for calculating the magnetic properties of several recently synthesized molecular magnets. The tetrahedron as well as the equilateral triangle systems, each considered for n-n antiferromagnetic exchange, are of particular interest since they exhibit frustrated spin ordering for sufficiently low temperatures and weak magnetic fields. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Ciftja, O.; Luban, M. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Auslender, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Luscombe, J.H. [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 (United States)

1999-10-01

217

Manipulating superconducting fluctuations by the Little-Parks-de Gennes effect in ultrasmall Al loops  

PubMed Central

The destruction of superconducting phase coherence by quantum fluctuations and the control of these fluctuations are a problem of long-standing interest, with recent impetus provided by the relevance of these issues to the pursuit of high temperature superconductivity. Building on the work of Little and Parks, de Gennes predicted more than three decades ago that superconductivity could be destroyed near half-integer-flux quanta in ultrasmall loops, resulting in a destructive regime, and restored by adding a superconducting side branch, which does not affect the flux quantization condition. We report the experimental observation of this Little–Parks–de Gennes effect in Al loops prepared by advanced e-beam lithography. We show that the effect can be used to restore the lost phase coherence by employing side branches. PMID:22927386

Staley, Neal E.; Liu, Ying

2012-01-01

218

Ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering analysis of photonic crystal structure  

SciTech Connect

The results of an ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering study of iron(III) oxide inverse opal thin films are presented. The photonic crystals examined are shown to have fcc structure with amount of stacking faults varying among the samples. The method used in this study makes it possible to easily distinguish between samples with predominantly twinned fcc structure and nearly perfect fcc stacking. The difference observed between samples fabricated under identical conditions is attributed to random layer stacking in the self-assembled colloidal crystals used as templates for fabricating the inverse opals. The present method provides a versatile tool for analyzing photonic crystal structure in studies of inverse opals made of various materials, colloidal crystals, and three-dimensional photonic crystals of other types.

Abramova, V. V.; Sinitskii, A. S., E-mail: sinitsky@inorg.chem.msu.r [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Grigor'eva, N. A. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Grigor'ev, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Konstantinov St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Belov, D. V.; Petukhov, A. V. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute (Netherlands); Mistonov, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Vasil'eva, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Konstantinov St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Tret'yakov, Yu. D. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15

219

Design and implementation of fiber lenses for ultra-small probes used in biomedical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality and parameters of probing optical beams are extremely important in biomedical imaging systems both for image quality and light coupling efficiency considerations. For example, the shape, size, focal position, and focal range of such beams could have a great impact on the lateral resolution, penetration depth, and signal-to-noise ratio of the image in optical coherence tomography. We present a design, construction and characterization of different variations of GRIN and ball fiber lenses, which were recently proposed for ultra-small biomedical imaging probes. Those fiber lens modules are made of a single mode fiber and a GRIN or ball fiber lens with or without a fiber spacer between them. The lens diameters are smaller than 0.3 mm. We discuss design methods, fabrication techniques, and measured performance compared with modeling results.

Mao, Youxin; Chang, Shoude; Sherif, Sherif; Flueraru, Costel

2007-11-01

220

Mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles as dual imaging agent in biomedicine  

PubMed Central

There is no doubt that the molecular imaging is an extremely important technique in diagnosing diseases. Dual imaging is emerging as a step forward in molecular imaging technique because it can provide us with more information useful for diagnosing diseases than single imaging. Therefore, diverse dual imaging modalities should be developed. Molecular imaging generally relies on imaging agents. Mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles could be valuable materials for dual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-fluorescent imaging (FI) because they have both excellent and diverse magnetic and fluorescent properties useful for dual MRI-FI, depending on lanthanide ions used. Since they are mixed nanoparticles, they are compact, robust, and stable, which is extremely useful for biomedical applications. They can be also easily synthesized with facile composition control. In this study, we explored three systems of ultrasmall mixed lanthanide (Dy/Eu, Ho/Eu, and Ho/Tb) oxide nanoparticles to demonstrate their usefulness as dual T2 MRI–FI agents. PMID:24220641

Xu, Wenlong; Bony, Badrul Alam; Kim, Cho Rong; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

2013-01-01

221

Detection and Isolation of Ultrasmall Microorganisms from a 120,000YearOld Greenland Glacier Ice Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundant microbial population in a 3,043-m-deep Greenland glacier ice core was dominated by ultra- small cells (<0.1 m3) that may represent intrinsically small organisms or starved, minute forms of normal- sized microbes. In order to examine their diversity and obtain isolates, we enriched for ultrasmall psychro- philes by filtering melted ice through filters with different pore sizes, inoculating anaerobic

Vanya I. Miteva; Jean E. Brenchley

2005-01-01

222

Ultrafine Sulfur Nanoparticles in Conducting Polymer Shell as Cathode Materials for High Performance Lithium/Sulfur Batteries  

PubMed Central

We report the synthesis of ultrafine S nanoparticles with diameter 10 ~ 20?nm via a membrane-assisted precipitation technique. The S nanoparticles were then coated with conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to form S/PEDOT core/shell nanoparticles. The ultrasmall size of S nanoparticles facilitates the electrical conduction and improves sulfur utilization. The encapsulation of conducting PEDOT shell restricts the polysulfides diffusion, alleviates self-discharging and the shuttle effect, and thus enhances the cycling stability. The resulting S/PEDOT core/shell nanoparticles show initial discharge capacity of 1117?mAh g?1 and a stable capacity of 930?mAh g?1 after 50 cycles. PMID:23714786

Chen, Hongwei; Dong, Weiling; Ge, Jun; Wang, Changhong; Wu, Xiaodong; Lu, Wei; Chen, Liwei

2013-01-01

223

Magnetic and magnetorheological characterization of a polymer liquid crystal ferronematic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (˜12nm diameter) were suspended in the polymer liquid crystal hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)/m-cresol to obtain a new type of ferronematic. Suspension of these particles in 35%wt HPC in m-cresol did not affect the appearance of the liquid crystalline phase as evidenced by small angle x-ray scattering. Magnetic measurements performed on the 35%wt HPC/m-cresol/CoFe2O4 ferronematic showed the appearance of ferromagnetic behavior and magnetic hysteresis. In addition, rheometry of the samples showed magnetorheological effect upon application of a dc magnetic field, with the ferronematic having the largest response.

Santiago-Quiñones, Darlene I.; Acevedo, Aldo; Rinaldi, Carlos

2009-04-01

224

Simultaneous formation of ferrite nanocrystals and deposition of thin films via a microwave-assisted nonaqueous sol–gel process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combination of the surfactant-free nonaqueous sol–gel approach with the microwave technique makes it possible to synthesize\\u000a Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, MnFe2O4, and NiFe2O4 nanoparticles of about 5–6 nm and with high crystallinity and good morphological uniformity. The synthesis involves the reaction\\u000a of metal acetates or acetylacetonates as precursors with benzyl alcohol at 170 °C under microwave irradiation of 12 min. Immersion\\u000a of glass substrates in

Idalia Bilecka; Martin Kubli; Esther Amstad; Markus Niederberger

2011-01-01

225

How size evaluation of lymph node is protocol dependent in MRI when using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the volume of susceptibility artifact was evaluated in T1 and T2-weighted spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) images at various parameters using registration and subtraction methods. In order to state an important misinterpretation problem in lymphography, it was demonstrated that a lymph node size may be enlarged approximately 10 times when a T2*-weighted GRE protocol is used. To overcome this problem a technical consideration using multisequence (GRE and SE) paradigm was suggested to ensure both lymph node detection and metastasis identification in lymphatic system. The paradigm was also extended by post-processing manipulation of the SE images using a registration and subtraction approach for detection of lymphatic lesions.

Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Sarkar, Saeed; Darki, Fahimeh; Beitollahi, Ali

2009-05-01

226

Author's personal copy Facile synthesis of ultra-small Bi2Te3 nanoparticles, nanorods and nanoplates and  

E-print Network

vibrations were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The 2D nanoplates showed similar Raman features as few-organo complexes [12], and hydrothermal (solvothermal) method [8]. Due to the application of high pressure, hydrothermal (solvothermal) approaches normally result in oversized Bi2Te3 nanocrystals [8]. Purkayastha et al

Ruan, Xiulin

227

Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr32922d

Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

2013-08-01

228

Highly bright multicolor tunable ultrasmall ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu/?-NaYF4 core/shell nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, we report highly bright multicolor-emitting ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu/?-NaYF4 nanoparticles (NPs) with precise color tunability. First, highly bright sub-20 nm ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu NPs were synthesized via a heating-up method. By controlling the ratio of Eu3+ to Tb3+, we generated green, yellow-green, greenish yellow, yellow, orange, reddish orange, and red emissions from the NP solutions via energy transfer of Ce3+ --> Gd3+ --> Tb3+ (green) and Ce3+ --> Gd3+ --> Tb3+ --> Eu3+ (red) ions under ultraviolet light illumination (254 nm). Because of Ce3+ and Gd3+ sensitization, Tb3+ ions exhibited strong green emission. The decay time of Tb3+ emission decreased from 4.0 to 1.4 ms as the Eu3+ concentration was increased, suggesting that energy was transferred from Tb3+ to Eu3+. As a result, Eu3+ emission peaks were generated and the emission color was transformed from green to red. Monodisperse sub-6 nm ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu NPs were synthesized through a simple reduction of the reaction temperature. Although fine color tunability was retained, their brightness was considerably decreased owing to an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio. The formation of a ?-NaYF4 shell on top of the sub-6 nm NP core to produce ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu/?-NaYF4 significantly increased the emission intensity, while maintaining the sub-10 nm sizes (8.7-9.5 nm). Quantum yields of the ultrasmall NPs increased from 1.1-6.9% for the core NPs to 6.7-44.4% for the core/shell NPs. Moreover, highly transparent core/shell NP-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites featuring a variety of colors, excellent color tunability, and high brightness were also prepared.Herein, we report highly bright multicolor-emitting ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu/?-NaYF4 nanoparticles (NPs) with precise color tunability. First, highly bright sub-20 nm ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu NPs were synthesized via a heating-up method. By controlling the ratio of Eu3+ to Tb3+, we generated green, yellow-green, greenish yellow, yellow, orange, reddish orange, and red emissions from the NP solutions via energy transfer of Ce3+ --> Gd3+ --> Tb3+ (green) and Ce3+ --> Gd3+ --> Tb3+ --> Eu3+ (red) ions under ultraviolet light illumination (254 nm). Because of Ce3+ and Gd3+ sensitization, Tb3+ ions exhibited strong green emission. The decay time of Tb3+ emission decreased from 4.0 to 1.4 ms as the Eu3+ concentration was increased, suggesting that energy was transferred from Tb3+ to Eu3+. As a result, Eu3+ emission peaks were generated and the emission color was transformed from green to red. Monodisperse sub-6 nm ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu NPs were synthesized through a simple reduction of the reaction temperature. Although fine color tunability was retained, their brightness was considerably decreased owing to an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio. The formation of a ?-NaYF4 shell on top of the sub-6 nm NP core to produce ?-Na(Y,Gd)F4:Ce,Tb,Eu/?-NaYF4 significantly increased the emission intensity, while maintaining the sub-10 nm sizes (8.7-9.5 nm). Quantum yields of the ultrasmall NPs increased from 1.1-6.9% for the core NPs to 6.7-44.4% for the core/shell NPs. Moreover, highly transparent core/shell NP-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites featuring a variety of colors, excellent color tunability, and high brightness were also prepared. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02591h

Kim, Su Yeon; Woo, Kyoungja; Lim, Kipil; Lee, Kwangyeol; Jang, Ho Seong

2013-09-01

229

Ultrasmall particles of CdSe and CdS formed in nafion by an ion-dilution technique  

SciTech Connect

The transition of semiconductor chalcogenides from molecular CdX (X = Se, S) to bulk material has been observed in Nafion, a cation-exchange membrane. The two-phase structure of Nafion, consisting of a hydrophobic region and ionic clusters, has been utilized to form ultrasmall particles of CdS/Se by using a technique analogous to an inverted micelle microemulsion method, where the Cd ion/ionomer cluster ratio is controlled by diluting the cadmium-exchange solution with an inert ion (Ca{sup 2+}). The absorption onset for the cadmium chalcogenides formed ban be tuned over a range of more than 3.5 eV by varying the Cd{sup 2+}Ca{sup 2+} ratio in the solution used to exchange the acidic form of the ionomer membrane.

Smotkin, E.S.; Brown, R.M. Jr.; Rabenberg, L.K.; Salomon, K.; Bard, A.J.; Campion, A.; Fox, M.A.; Mallouk, T.E.; Webber, S.E.; White, J.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1990-09-20

230

Oxidized silicon nanoparticles for radiosensitization of cancer and tissue cells.  

PubMed

The applicability of ultrasmall uncapped and aminosilanized oxidized silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs and NH2-SiNPs) as radiosensitizer was studied by internalizing these nanoparticles into human breast cancer (MCF-7) and mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) that were exposed to X-rays at a single dose of 3 Gy. While SiNPs did not increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in X-ray treated cells, the NH2-SiNPs significantly enhanced the ROS formation. This is due to the amino functionality as providing positive surface charges in aqueous environment. The NH2-SiNPs were observed to penetrate into the mitochondrial membrane, wherein these nanoparticles provoked oxidative stress. The NH2-SiNPs induced mitochondrial ROS production was confirmed by the determination of an increased malondialdehyde level as representing a gauge for the extent of membrane lipid peroxidation. X-ray exposure of NH2-SiNPs incubated MCF-7 and 3T3 cells increased the ROS concentration for 180%, and 120%, respectively. Complementary cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that these silicon nanoparticles are more cytotoxic for MCF-7 than for 3T3 cells. PMID:23535374

Klein, Stefanie; Dell'Arciprete, Maria L; Wegmann, Marc; Distel, Luitpold V R; Neuhuber, Winfried; Gonzalez, Mónica C; Kryschi, Carola

2013-05-01

231

Facile synthesis of phosphine free ultra-small PbSe nanocrystals and their light harvesting studies in ETA solar cells.  

PubMed

Ultra-small PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via a 'one-pot' approach in olive oil as the reaction medium and capping agent. The optical spectra showed discernible blue shifts in the absorption band edges (570-780 nm) due to strong quantum confinement effects and photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed significant strong emission peaks in the range of 780-850 nm. The broad peaks in the powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) pattern indicate the ultra-small size of the as-prepared NCs. These NCs were used to construct an extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar device after surface modification. The preliminary results indicate their potential as light harvesting entities in nanostructure based solar cells. PMID:25247625

Akhtar, Javeed; Banski, Mateusz; Malik, Mohammad Azad; Revaprasadu, Neerish; Podhorodecki, Artur; Misiewicz, Jan

2014-10-14

232

Particle size distribution analysis for nano-SiO 2 powder by ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) using synchrotron radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) experiments were conducted with the BL15XU beamline (SPring-8) to perform a particle size distribution analysis of nano-powder, i.e. aggregations of particles with dimensions on the order of nanometers. The samples measured were amorphous nano-SiO2 powders of varying specific surface areas. Since a highly collimated and high-intensity X-ray beam is available, it is possible to obtain

Hisayuki Hashimoto; Toshiaki Nagumo; Tohru Inaba; Yoichiro Furukawa; Masato Okui; Sei Fukushima

2005-01-01

233

Ultrasmall biomolecule-anchored hybrid GdVO4 nanophosphors as a metabolizable multimodal bioimaging contrast agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal molecular imaging has recently attracted much attention on disease diagnostics by taking advantage of individual imaging modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated a new paradigm for multimodal bioimaging based on amino acids-anchored ultrasmall lanthanide-doped GdVO4 nanoprobes. On the merit of special metal-cation complexation and abundant functional groups, these amino acids-anchored nanoprobes showed high colloidal stability and excellent dispersibility. Additionally, due to typical paramagnetic behaviour, high X-ray mass absorption coefficient and strong fluorescence, these nanoprobes would provide a unique opportunity to develop multifunctional probes for MRI, CT and luminescence imaging. More importantly, the small size and biomolecular coatings endow the nanoprobes with effective metabolisability and high biocompatibility. With the superior stability, high biocompatibility, effective metabolisability and excellent contrast performance, amino acids-capped GdVO4:Eu3+ nanocastings are a promising candidate as multimodal contrast agents and would bring more opportunities for biological and medical applications with further modifications.Multimodal molecular imaging has recently attracted much attention on disease diagnostics by taking advantage of individual imaging modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated a new paradigm for multimodal bioimaging based on amino acids-anchored ultrasmall lanthanide-doped GdVO4 nanoprobes. On the merit of special metal-cation complexation and abundant functional groups, these amino acids-anchored nanoprobes showed high colloidal stability and excellent dispersibility. Additionally, due to typical paramagnetic behaviour, high X-ray mass absorption coefficient and strong fluorescence, these nanoprobes would provide a unique opportunity to develop multifunctional probes for MRI, CT and luminescence imaging. More importantly, the small size and biomolecular coatings endow the nanoprobes with effective metabolisability and high biocompatibility. With the superior stability, high biocompatibility, effective metabolisability and excellent contrast performance, amino acids-capped GdVO4:Eu3+ nanocastings are a promising candidate as multimodal contrast agents and would bring more opportunities for biological and medical applications with further modifications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03819c

Dong, Kai; Ju, Enguo; Liu, Jianhua; Han, Xueli; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

2014-09-01

234

Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued down-scaling of electronic devices, in particular the commercially dominant MOSFET, will force a fundamental change in the process of new electronics technology development in the next five to ten years. The cost of developing new technology generations is soaring along with the price of new fabrication facilities, even as competitive pressure intensifies to bring this new technology to market faster than ever before. To reduce cost and time to market, device simulation must become a more fundamental, indeed dominant, part of the technology development cycle. In order to produce these benefits, simulation accuracy must improve markedly. At the same time, device physics will become more complex, with the rapid increase in various small-geometry and quantum effects. This work describes both an approach to device simulator development and a physical model which advance the effort to meet the tremendous electronic device simulation challenge described above. The device simulation approach is to specify the physical model at a high level to a general-purpose (but highly efficient) partial differential equation solver (in this case PROPHET, developed by Lucent Technologies), which then simulates the model in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D for a specified device and test regime. This approach allows for the rapid investigation of a wide range of device models and effects, which is certainly essential for device simulation to catch up with, and then stay ahead of, electronic device technology of the present and future. The physical device model used in this work is the density-gradient (DG) quantum correction to the drift-diffusion model [Ancona, Phys. Rev. B 35(5), 7959 (1987)]. This model adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We used the DG model in 1-D and 2-D (for the first time) to simulate both bipolar and unipolar devices. Simulations of heavily-doped, short-base diodes indicated that the DG quantum corrections do not have a large effect on the IN characteristics of electronic devices without heteroj unction s. On the other hand, ultra-small MOSFETs certainly exhibit important quantum effects that the DG model will include: quantum repulsion of the inversion and gate charges from the oxide interfaces, and quantum tunneling through thin gate oxides. We present initial results of 2-D DG simulations of ultra-small MOSFETs. Subtle but important issues involving the specification of the model, boundary conditions, and interface constraints for DG simulation of MOSFETs will also be illuminated.

Biegal, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Connor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Ancona, Mario G.; Dutton, Robert W.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

235

Silica nanoparticles separation from water: aggregation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB).  

PubMed

Nanoparticles will inevitably be found in industrial and domestic wastes in the near future and as a consequence soon in water resources. Due to their ultra-small size, nanoparticles may not only have new hazards for environment and human health, but also cause low separation efficiency by classical water treatments processes. Thus, it would be an important challenge to develop a specific treatment with suitable additives for recovery of nanoparticles from waters. For this propose, this paper presents aggregation of silica nanoparticles (Klebosol 30R50 (75nm) and 30R25 (30nm)) by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Different mechanisms such as charge neutralization, "depletion flocculation" or "volume-restriction", and "hydrophobic effect" between hydrocarbon tails of CTAB have been proposed to explicate aggregation results. One important finding is that for different volume concentrations between 0.05% and 0.51% of 30R50 suspensions, the same critical coagulation concentration was observed at CTAB=0.1mM, suggesting the optimized quantity of CTAB during the separation process for nanoparticles of about 75nm. Furthermore, very small quantities of CTAB (0.01mM) can make 30R25 nanosilica aggregated due to the "hydrophobic effect". It is then possible to minimize the sludge and allow the separation process as "greener" as possible by studying this case. It has also shown that aggregation mechanisms can be different for very small particles so that a special attention has to be paid to the treatment of nanoparticles contained in water and wastewaters. PMID:23618346

Liu, Y; Tourbin, M; Lachaize, S; Guiraud, P

2013-07-01

236

Cd1-xMnxTe ultrasmall quantum dots growth in a silicate glass matrix by the fusion method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we synthesized Cd1-xMnxTe ultrasmall quantum dots (USQDs) in SiO2-Na2CO3-Al2O3-B2O3 glass system using the fusion method. Growth of these Cd1-xMnxTe USQDs was confirmed by optical absorption, atomic force microscopy (AFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The blueshift of absorption transition with increasing manganese concentration gives evidence of incorporation of manganese ions (Mn2+) in CdTe USQDs. AFM, TEM, and MFM confirmed, respectively, the formation of high quality Cd1-xMnxTe USQDs with uniformly distributed size and magnetic phases. Furthermore, EPR spectra showed six lines associated to the S = 5/2 spin half-filled d-state, characteristic of Mn2+, and confirmed that Mn2+ are located in the sites core and surface of the CdTe USQD. Therefore, synthesis of high quality Cd1-xMnxTe USQDs may allow the control of optical and magnetic properties.

Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; de Lima Fernandes, Guilherme; Baffa, Oswaldo; Gómez, Jorge Antônio; Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine

2014-09-01

237

Ultrasmall biomolecule-anchored hybrid GdVO4 nanophosphors as a metabolizable multimodal bioimaging contrast agent.  

PubMed

Multimodal molecular imaging has recently attracted much attention on disease diagnostics by taking advantage of individual imaging modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated a new paradigm for multimodal bioimaging based on amino acids-anchored ultrasmall lanthanide-doped GdVO4 nanoprobes. On the merit of special metal-cation complexation and abundant functional groups, these amino acids-anchored nanoprobes showed high colloidal stability and excellent dispersibility. Additionally, due to typical paramagnetic behaviour, high X-ray mass absorption coefficient and strong fluorescence, these nanoprobes would provide a unique opportunity to develop multifunctional probes for MRI, CT and luminescence imaging. More importantly, the small size and biomolecular coatings endow the nanoprobes with effective metabolisability and high biocompatibility. With the superior stability, high biocompatibility, effective metabolisability and excellent contrast performance, amino acids-capped GdVO4:Eu(3+) nanocastings are a promising candidate as multimodal contrast agents and would bring more opportunities for biological and medical applications with further modifications. PMID:25185795

Dong, Kai; Ju, Enguo; Liu, Jianhua; Han, Xueli; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

2014-10-21

238

On the feasibility of visualizing ultrasmall gold labels in biological specimens by STEM tomography  

PubMed Central

Labeling with heavy atom clusters attached to antibody fragments is an attractive technique for determining the 3D distribution of specific proteins in cells using electron tomography. However, the small size of the labels makes them very difficult to detect by conventional bright-field electron tomography. Here we evaluate quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) at a beam voltage of 300 kV for detecting 11-gold atom clusters (Undecagold) and 1.4 nm-diameter nanoparticles (Nanogold) for a variety of specimens and imaging conditions. STEM images as well as tomographic tilt series are simulated by means of the NIST Elastic Scattering Cross-Section Database for gold clusters embedded in carbon. The simulations indicate that the visibility in 2D of Undecagold clusters in a homogeneous matrix is maximized for low inner collection semi-angles of the STEM annular dark-field detector (15–20 mrad). Furthermore, our calculations show that the visibility of Undecagold in 3D reconstructions is significantly higher than in 2D images for an inhomogeneous matrix corresponding to fluctuations in local density. The measurements demonstrate that it is possible to detect Nanogold particles in plastic sections of tissue freeze-substituted in the presence of osmium. STEM tomography has the potential to localize specific proteins in permeabilized cells using antibody fragments tagged with small heavy atom clusters. Our quantitative analysis provides a framework for determining the detection limits and optimal experimental conditions for localizing these small clusters. PMID:17689263

Sousa, A. A.; Aronova, M. A.; Kim, Y. C.; Dorward, L. M.; Zhang, G.; Leapman, R. D.

2009-01-01

239

Biotemplated synthesis of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles via lignocellulosic waste material.  

PubMed

Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using rice straw as a soft biotemplate. Rice straw, as a lignocellulosic waste material, is a biomass feedstock which is globally produced in high rate and could be utilized in an innovative approach to manufacture a value-added product. Rice straw as a reliable biotemplate has been used in the sol-gel method to synthesize ultrasmall sizes of TiO2-NPs with high potential application in photocatalysis. The physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were investigated by a number of techniques such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet visible spectra (UV-Vis), and surface area and pore size analysis. All results consensually confirmed that particle sizes of synthesized titanium dioxide were template-dependent, representing decrease in the nanoparticles sizes with increase of biotemplate concentration. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles as small as 13.0 ± 3.3?nm were obtained under our experimental conditions. Additionally, surface area and porosity of synthesized TiO2-NPs have been enhanced by increasing rice straw amount which results in surface modification of nanoparticles and potential application in photocatalysis. PMID:25126547

Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

2014-01-01

240

New Nanoparticles Dispersing Beads Mill with Ultra Small Beads and its Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the major problems related to nanoparticle dispersion with a conventional beads mill are re-agglomeration and damage to the crystalline structure of the particles. The Ultra Apex Mill was developed to solve these problems by enabling the use of ultra-small beads with a diameter of less than 0.1mm. The core of this breakthrough development is centrifugation technology which allows the use of beads as small as 0.015mm. When dispersing agglomerated nanoparticles the impulse of the small beads is very low which means there is little influence on the particles. The surface energy of the nanoparticles remains low so the properties are not likely to change. As a result, stable nanoparticle dispersions can be achieved without re-cohesion. The Ultra Apex Mill is superior to conventional beads mills that are limited to much larger bead sizes. The technology of the Ultra Apex Mill has pioneered practical applications for nanoparticles in various fields: composition materials for LCD screens, ink-jet printing, ceramic condensers and cosmetics.

Inkyo, M.; Tahara, T.; Imajyo, Y.

2011-10-01

241

Polymeric nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems for the treatment of dermatological diseases  

PubMed Central

Human skin not only functions as a permeation barrier (mainly due to the stratum corneum layer), but also provides a unique delivery pathway for therapeutic and other active agents. These compounds penetrate via intercellular, intracellular and transappendageal routes, resulting in topical delivery (into skin strata) and transdermal delivery (to subcutaneous tissues and into the systemic circulation). Passive and active permeation enhancement methods have been widely applied to increase the cutaneous penetration. The pathology, pathogenesis and topical treatment approaches of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer, are then discussed. Recent literature has demonstrated that nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems can be successful in treating these skin conditions. The studies are reviewed starting with the nanoparticles based on natural polymers specially chitosan, followed by those made of synthetic, degradable (aliphatic polyesters) and non-degradable (polyarylates) polymers; emphasis is given to nanospheres made of polymers derived from naturally occurring metabolites, the tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres™). In summary, the nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems combine the advantages of both the nano-sized drug carriers and the topical approach, and are promising for the treatment of skin diseases. For the perspectives, the penetration of ultra-small nanoparticles (size smaller than 40 nm) into skin strata, the targeted delivery of the encapsulated drugs to hair follicle stem cells, and the combination of nanoparticles and microneedle array technologies for special applications such as vaccine delivery are discussed. PMID:23386536

Zhang, Zheng; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Ramezanli, Tannaz; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

2013-01-01

242

Fluorescent Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Clemson University shows how fluorescence enables the tracking of nanoparticles in living cells. Illustrations include the fluorescence of different kinds of nanoparticles, close-up views of the fluorescent particles, and the fluorescent particles as seen within cells.

Mcneill, Jason

2008-04-16

243

Macrophage imaging in central nervous system and in carotid atherosclerotic plaque using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide in magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The long blood circulating time and the progressive macrophage uptake in inflammatory tissues of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles are 2 properties of major importance for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pathologic tissue characterization. This article reviews the proof of principle of applications such as imaging of carotid atherosclerotic plaque, stroke, brain tumor characterization, or multiple sclerosis. In the human carotid artery, USPIO accumulation in activated macrophages induced a focal drop in signal intensity compared with preinfusion MRI. The USPIO signal alterations observed in ischemic areas of stroke patients is probably related to the visualization of inflammatory macrophage recruitment into human brain infarction since animal experiments in such models demonstrated the internalization of USPIO into the macrophages localized in these areas. In brain tumors, USPIO particles which do not pass the ruptured blood-brain barrier at early times postinjection can be used to assess tumoral microvascular heterogeneity. Twenty-four hours after injection, when the cellular phase of USPIO takes place, the USPIO tumoral contrast enhancement was higher in high-grade than in low-grade tumors. Several experimental studies and a pilot multiple sclerosis clinical trial in 10 patients have shown that USPIO contrast agents can reveal the presence of inflammatory multiple sclerosis lesions. The enhancement with USPIO does not completely overlap with the gadolinium chelate enhancement. While the proof of concept that USPIO can visualize macrophage infiltrations has been confirmed in animals and patients in several applications (carotid atherosclerotic lesions, stroke, brain tumors and multiple sclerosis), larger prospective clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the clinical benefit of using USPIO as an MRI in vivo surrogate marker for brain inflammatory diseases. PMID:15377941

Corot, Claire; Petry, Klaus G; Trivedi, Rikin; Saleh, Andreas; Jonkmanns, Cornelia; Le Bas, Jean-François; Blezer, Erwin; Rausch, Martin; Brochet, Bruno; Foster-Gareau, Paula; Balériaux, Danièle; Gaillard, Sophile; Dousset, Vincent

2004-10-01

244

Mouse lymphatic endothelial cell targeted probes: anti-LYVE-1 antibody-based magnetic nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the specific targeting property of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 binding polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO) nanoparticles to mouse lymphatic endothelial cells (MLECs). Methods A ligand specific target to lymphatic vessels was selected by immunohistochemical staining on the sections of a Lewis subcutaneous transplanted tumor. The z-average hydrodynamic diameter (HD), zeta potential, and the relaxivity of PEG-USPIO and LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO nanoparticles were determined with a laser particle analyzer and magnetic resonance T2 spin echo sequence, respectively. Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of nanoparticle labeled cells were performed to determine the nanoparticles’ binding form. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in vitro to evaluate the signal enhancement on the T2 spin echo sequence of the nanoparticle labeled cells. The iron content of the labeled cells after the Prussian blue staining and MRI scanning was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results The anti-LYVE-1 antibody was used as the specific ligand to synthesize the target probe to the MLECs. The mean z-average HDs of the LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO and PEG-USPIO nanoparticles were 57.42 ± 0.31 nm and 47.91 ± 0.73 nm, respectively, and the mean zeta potentials of the LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO and PEG-USPIO nanoparticles were 12.38 ± 4.87 mV and 2.57 ± 0.83 m V, respectively. The relaxivities of the LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO and PEG-USPIO nanoparticles were 185.48 mM?1s?1 and 608.32 mM?1s?1. Cells binding nanoparticles were visualized as blue granules in the Prussian blue staining. The TEM results of the labeled cells showed the specific localization of nanoparticles. The AAS results of labeled cells after the Prussian blue staining and MRI scanning showed that the LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO nanoparticles had good binding selectivity for MLECs. MRI results indicated that the PEG-USPIO and LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO nanoparticles could generate contrast on T2-weighted imaging, and the correlation between R2 and the iron content of the labeled cells was significantly positive. Conclusion This study demonstrated that LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO nanoparticles might potentially be used as an MRI contrast agent for targeting MLECs, and the magnetic properties of LYVE-1-PEG-USPIO nanoparticles were suitable for MRI. PMID:23818783

Guo, Qiu; Liu, Yi; Xu, Ke; Ren, Ke; Sun, WenGe

2013-01-01

245

Bi-photon imaging and diagnostics using ultra-small diagnostic probes engineered from semiconductor nanocrystals and single-domain antibodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have just demonstrated their numerous advantages over organic dyes in bioimaging and diagnostics. One of characteristics of QDs is a very large cross section of their twophoton absorption. A common approach to biodetection by means of QDs is to use monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting. Recently, we have engineered ultrasmall diagnostic nanoprobes (sdAb-QD) based on highly oriented conjugates of QDs with the single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) against cancer biomarkers. With a molecular weight of only 13 kDa (12-fold smaller than full-size mAbs) and extreme stability and capacity to refolding, sdAbs are the smallest functional Ab fragments capable of binding antigens with affinities comparable to those of conventional Abs. Ultrasmall diagnostic sdAb-QD nanoprobes were engineered through oriented conjugation of QDs with sdAbs. This study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of immunohistochemical imaging of colon carcinoma biomarkers with sdAb-QD conjugates by means of two-photon excitation. The optimal excitation conditions for imaging of the markers in clinical samples with sdAb-QD nanoprobes have been determined. The absence of sample autofluorescence significantly improves the sensitivity of biomarker detection with the use of the two-photon excitation diagnostic setup.

Hafian, Hilal; Sukhanova, Alyona; Chames, Patrick; Baty, Daniel; Pluot, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Nabiev, Igor R.; Millot, Jean-Marc

2012-10-01

246

Thermal signatures of pairing correlations in nuclei and nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pairing correlations in nuclei at zero temperature are well documented but much less is known about their thermal signatures. Nuclei are in the crossover regime between the bulk BCS limit and the fluctuation-dominated regime. We have used the shell model Monte Carlo approach to study pairing correlations at finite temperature beyond the BCS limit. We identify signatures of pairing correlations in both the heat capacity and moment of inertia [1]. These signatures depend on the particle- number parity of protons and neutrons. Ultra-small metallic grains (nanoparticles) whose linear size is below a few nanometers are also close to the fluctuation-dominated regime. We use auxiliary-field Monte Carlo methods to study pairing correlations in such nanoparticles and find odd-even effects in their heat capacity and spin susceptibility, in analogy to the signatures found in nuclei. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE grant No. DE-FG-0291-ER-40608. [1] Y. Alhassid, G.F. Bertsch, L. Fang, and S. Liu, Phys. Rev. C 72, 064326 (2005).

Fang, L.; Schmidt, S.; Alhassid, Y.

2006-10-01

247

Peripherally administered nanoparticles target monocytic myeloid cells, secondary lymphoid organs and tumors in mice.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles have been extensively developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. While the focus of nanoparticle trafficking in vivo has traditionally been on drug delivery and organ-level biodistribution and clearance, recent work in cancer biology and infectious disease suggests that targeting different cells within a given organ can substantially affect the quality of the immunological response. Here, we examine the cell-level biodistribution kinetics after administering ultrasmall Pluronic-stabilized poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles in the mouse. These nanoparticles depend on lymphatic drainage to reach the lymph nodes and blood, and then enter the spleen rather than the liver, where they interact with monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. They were more readily taken up into lymphatics after intradermal (i.d.) compared to intramuscular administration, leading to ?50% increased bioavailability in blood. When administered i.d., their distribution favored antigen-presenting cells, with especially strong targeting to myeloid cells. In tumor-bearing mice, the monocytic and the polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell compartments were efficiently and preferentially targeted, rendering this nanoparticulate formulation potentially useful for reversing the highly suppressive activity of these cells in the tumor stroma. PMID:23626707

Kourtis, Iraklis C; Hirosue, Sachiko; de Titta, Alexandre; Kontos, Stephan; Stegmann, Toon; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Swartz, Melody A

2013-01-01

248

Peripherally Administered Nanoparticles Target Monocytic Myeloid Cells, Secondary Lymphoid Organs and Tumors in Mice  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles have been extensively developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. While the focus of nanoparticle trafficking in vivo has traditionally been on drug delivery and organ-level biodistribution and clearance, recent work in cancer biology and infectious disease suggests that targeting different cells within a given organ can substantially affect the quality of the immunological response. Here, we examine the cell-level biodistribution kinetics after administering ultrasmall Pluronic-stabilized poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles in the mouse. These nanoparticles depend on lymphatic drainage to reach the lymph nodes and blood, and then enter the spleen rather than the liver, where they interact with monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. They were more readily taken up into lymphatics after intradermal (i.d.) compared to intramuscular administration, leading to ?50% increased bioavailability in blood. When administered i.d., their distribution favored antigen-presenting cells, with especially strong targeting to myeloid cells. In tumor-bearing mice, the monocytic and the polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell compartments were efficiently and preferentially targeted, rendering this nanoparticulate formulation potentially useful for reversing the highly suppressive activity of these cells in the tumor stroma. PMID:23626707

Kourtis, Iraklis C.; Hirosue, Sachiko; de Titta, Alexandre; Kontos, Stephan; Stegmann, Toon; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Swartz, Melody A.

2013-01-01

249

Precision Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

John Hemminger

2009-07-21

250

Precision Nanoparticles  

ScienceCinema

A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

John Hemminger

2010-01-08

251

T 1 and T 2 relaxivities of succimer-coated MFe 23+O 4 (M=Mn 2+, Fe 2+ and Co 2+) inverse spinel ferrites for potential use as phase-contrast agents in medical MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superparamagnetic MFe 23+O 4 (M=Mn 2+, Fe 2+ and Co 2+) inverse spinel ferrite (ISF) nanoparticles with narrow size distribution having average diameters of 6-8 nm were synthesized by a diol reduction of organic metals and the surface was modified to be hydrophilic by coating with succimer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement by dipolar coupling defined interactions between the synthesized ISFs and protons in the bulk water was investigated with initial susceptibility, magnetization and anisotropy of the succimer-coated ISFs. The relaxivity ratios, r2/ r1, for MnFe 2O 4, Fe 3O 4 and CoFe 2O 4 were measured to be 12.2, 23.1 and 62.3, respectively, which demonstrate the potential usefulness of these magnetic nanoparticles as T2 contrast agents for MRI.

Kim, Dong-Hyun; Zeng, Huadong; Ng, Thian C.; Brazel, Christopher S.

2009-12-01

252

Magnetic PEGylated Pt3Co nanoparticles as a novel MR contrast agent: in vivo MR imaging and long-term toxicity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using magnetic nanoparticles as the contrast agent has been extensively explored in biomedical imaging and disease diagnosis. Herein, we develop biocompatible polymer coated ultra-small Pt3Co magnetic nanoparticles as a new T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agent. A unique class of alloy Pt3Co nanoparticles is synthesized through a thermal decomposition method. After being modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles exhibit an extremely high T2-weighted relaxivity rate (r2) up to 451.2 mM s-1, which is much higher than that of Resovist®, a commercial T2-MR contrast agent used in the clinic. In vitro experiments indicate no obvious cytotoxicity of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles to various cell lines. After intravenous injection of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles, in vivo T2-weighted MR imaging of tumor-bearing mice reveals strong tumor contrast, which is much higher than that offered by injecting Resovist®. We further study the long-term biodistribution and toxicology of this new type of MR contrast nanoparticles after intravenous injection into healthy mice. Despite the significant retention of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles in the mouse liver and spleen, no appreciable toxicity of these nanoparticles to the treated animals has been noted in our detailed histological and hematological analysis over a course of 60 days. Our work demonstrates that functionalized Pt3Co nanoparticles may be a promising new type of T2-weighted MR contrast agent potentially useful in biomedical imaging and diagnosis.Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using magnetic nanoparticles as the contrast agent has been extensively explored in biomedical imaging and disease diagnosis. Herein, we develop biocompatible polymer coated ultra-small Pt3Co magnetic nanoparticles as a new T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agent. A unique class of alloy Pt3Co nanoparticles is synthesized through a thermal decomposition method. After being modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles exhibit an extremely high T2-weighted relaxivity rate (r2) up to 451.2 mM s-1, which is much higher than that of Resovist®, a commercial T2-MR contrast agent used in the clinic. In vitro experiments indicate no obvious cytotoxicity of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles to various cell lines. After intravenous injection of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles, in vivo T2-weighted MR imaging of tumor-bearing mice reveals strong tumor contrast, which is much higher than that offered by injecting Resovist®. We further study the long-term biodistribution and toxicology of this new type of MR contrast nanoparticles after intravenous injection into healthy mice. Despite the significant retention of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles in the mouse liver and spleen, no appreciable toxicity of these nanoparticles to the treated animals has been noted in our detailed histological and hematological analysis over a course of 60 days. Our work demonstrates that functionalized Pt3Co nanoparticles may be a promising new type of T2-weighted MR contrast agent potentially useful in biomedical imaging and diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04212j

Yin, Shengnan; Li, Zhiwei; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yumeng; Chen, Qian; Gong, Hua; Guo, Liang; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

2013-11-01

253

OxLDL-targeted iron oxide nanoparticles for in vivo MRI detection of perivascular carotid collar induced atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, and oxidized LDL (OxLDL) plays a key role in the formation, rupture, and subsequent thrombus formation in atherosclerotic plaques. In the current study, anti-mouse OxLDL polyclonal antibody and nonspecific IgG antibody were conjugated to polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles, and a carotid perivascular collar model in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice was imaged at 7.0 Tesla MRI before contrast administration and at 8 h and 24 h after injection of 30 mg Fe/kg. The results showed MRI signal loss in the carotid atherosclerotic lesions after administration of targeted anti-OxLDL-USPIO at 8 h and 24 h, which is consistent with the presence of the nanoparticles in the lesions. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the colocalization of the OxLDL/macrophages and iron oxide nanoparticles. The nonspecific IgG-USPIO, unconjugated USPIO nanoparticles, and competitive inhibition groups had limited signal changes (p < 0.05). This report shows that anti-OxLDL-USPIO nanoparticles can be used to directly detect OxLDL and image atherosclerotic lesions within 24 h of nanoparticle administration and suggests a strategy for the therapeutic evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. PMID:22393161

Wen, Song; Liu, Dong-Fang; Liu, Zhen; Harris, Steven; Yao, Yu-Yu; Ding, Qi; Nie, Fang; Lu, Tong; Chen, Hua-Jun; An, Yan-Li; Zang, Feng-Chao; Teng, Gao-Jun

2012-01-01

254

Silver confined within zeolite EMT nanoparticles: preparation and antibacterial properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of pure zeolite nanocrystals (EMT-type framework) and their silver ion-exchanged (Ag+-EMT) and reduced silver (Ag0-EMT) forms is reported. The template-free zeolite nanocrystals are stabilized in water suspensions and used directly for silver ion-exchange and subsequent chemical reduction under microwave irradiation. The high porosity, low Si/Al ratio, high concentration of sodium and ultrasmall crystal size of the EMT-type zeolite permitted the introduction of a high amount of silver using short ion-exchange times in the range of 2-6 h. The killing efficacy of pure EMT, Ag+-EMT and Ag0-EMT against Escherichia coli was studied semi-quantitatively. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing Ag content for both types of samples (Ag+-EMT and Ag0-EMT). The Ag0-EMT samples show slightly enhanced antimicrobial efficacy compared to that of Ag+-EMT, however, the differences are not substantial and the preparation of Ag nanoparticles is not viable considering the complexity of preparation steps.The preparation of pure zeolite nanocrystals (EMT-type framework) and their silver ion-exchanged (Ag+-EMT) and reduced silver (Ag0-EMT) forms is reported. The template-free zeolite nanocrystals are stabilized in water suspensions and used directly for silver ion-exchange and subsequent chemical reduction under microwave irradiation. The high porosity, low Si/Al ratio, high concentration of sodium and ultrasmall crystal size of the EMT-type zeolite permitted the introduction of a high amount of silver using short ion-exchange times in the range of 2-6 h. The killing efficacy of pure EMT, Ag+-EMT and Ag0-EMT against Escherichia coli was studied semi-quantitatively. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing Ag content for both types of samples (Ag+-EMT and Ag0-EMT). The Ag0-EMT samples show slightly enhanced antimicrobial efficacy compared to that of Ag+-EMT, however, the differences are not substantial and the preparation of Ag nanoparticles is not viable considering the complexity of preparation steps. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Zeta potential data of Ag-EMT suspensions, pore-size distributions and antibacterial data for Ag-EMT 2 h samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03169e

Dong, B.; Belkhair, S.; Zaarour, M.; Fisher, L.; Verran, J.; Tosheva, L.; Retoux, R.; Gilson, J.-P.; Mintova, S.

2014-08-01

255

High-efficiency single photon detector combined with an ultra-small APD module and a self-training discriminator for high-speed quantum cryptosystems  

E-print Network

A single-photon avalanche detector (SPAD) for high-speed quantum-key generation has successfully been developed. It has the highest photon detection repetition frequency and the lowest dark count rate in the world, as a board-mountable sub-system. The SPAD consists of an ultra-small dual-avalanche photodiode (APD) module and a novel discriminator. The APD module design is consistent with cooling capability and high-frequency characteristics. The new module has a 3 GHz bandwidth enabling 1 GHz gate-pulse repetition. The bandwidth is extended 15-fold relative to the most wideband peltier cooled APD module. The discriminator has a self-training mechanism to compensate charge pulse. Dark count rare of the SPAD is reduced 1/10th relative to the lowest dark count single photon detector. The SPAD allows 3.2-fold multiplying the quantum key generation rate in theoretical estimation.

Seigo Takahashi; Akio Tajima; Akihisa Tomita

2007-12-27

256

Shrunk to femtolitre: Tuning high-throughput monodisperse water-in-oil droplet arrays for ultra-small micro-reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a facile, low-cost, and high-yielding microfluidic technology for in situ generating and arraying water-in-oil droplets by shrinking them to the order of femtolitres (fLs) as scalable batch micro-reactors. Instead of generating ultra-small droplets by the direct atomization, which requires dedicate control and high energy input, we shrink droplets to stable smaller ones by utilizing the controlled water diffusion in oil. This "shrunk to fL" method is combined with a three-dimensional microwell design to create high-density addressable droplet arrays. As the result, scalable, high-throughput, and well-aligned W/O arrays with excellent long-term stability and predicable droplet sizes have been achieved.

Wu, Tianzhun; Hirata, Katsuki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Xiang, Rong; Tang, Zikang; Yomo, Tetsuya

2012-08-01

257

Multimodal silica nanoparticles are effective cancer-targeted probes in a model of human melanoma  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle-based materials, such as drug delivery vehicles and diagnostic probes, currently under evaluation in oncology clinical trials are largely not tumor selective. To be clinically successful, the next generation of nanoparticle agents should be tumor selective, nontoxic, and exhibit favorable targeting and clearance profiles. Developing probes meeting these criteria is challenging, requiring comprehensive in vivo evaluations. Here, we describe our full characterization of an approximately 7-nm diameter multimodal silica nanoparticle, exhibiting what we believe to be a unique combination of structural, optical, and biological properties. This ultrasmall cancer-selective silica particle was recently approved for a first-in-human clinical trial. Optimized for efficient renal clearance, it concurrently achieved specific tumor targeting. Dye-encapsulating particles, surface functionalized with cyclic arginine–glycine–aspartic acid peptide ligands and radioiodine, exhibited high-affinity/avidity binding, favorable tumor-to-blood residence time ratios, and enhanced tumor-selective accumulation in ?v?3 integrin–expressing melanoma xenografts in mice. Further, the sensitive, real-time detection and imaging of lymphatic drainage patterns, particle clearance rates, nodal metastases, and differential tumor burden in a large-animal model of melanoma highlighted the distinct potential advantage of this multimodal platform for staging metastatic disease in the clinical setting. PMID:21670497

Benezra, Miriam; Penate-Medina, Oula; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Schaer, David; Ow, Hooisweng; Burns, Andrew; DeStanchina, Elisa; Longo, Valerie; Herz, Erik; Iyer, Srikant; Wolchok, Jedd; Larson, Steven M.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Bradbury, Michelle S.

2011-01-01

258

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

Klein, Stefanie; Sommer, Anja [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Distel, Luitpold V.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 27, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 27, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Neuhuber, Winfried [Department of Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy I, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstr. 9, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy I, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstr. 9, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kryschi, Carola, E-mail: kryschi@chemie.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2012-08-24

259

Synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide by the thermal decomposition of oxalate precursor.  

PubMed

A synthesis method was newly developed to prepare mesoporous transition metal oxides by thermal decomposition of transition metal oxalates, and the method was advantageous in its versatility, low cost, and environmental friendliness. Various mesoporous transition metal oxides were successfully synthesized by the newly developed method, such as magnetic ?-Fe2O3, CoFe2O4, and NiFe2O4, MnxOy, Co3O4, and NiO. Morphology, structure, and magnetic property of the synthesized mesoporous transition metal oxides were characterized by XRD, TG-DTA, SEM, TEM, quantum design SQUID, and N2 sorption techniques. From the dependency of the heating rate, calcination time, and calcination temperature on the metal oxide structures, it was revealed that the calcination temperature was the major factor to determine the final mesoporous structure of the metal oxides. The mesoporous structures were well constructed by their corresponding metal oxide nanoparticles resulting from oxalate thermal decomposition. PMID:23480232

Guo, Limin; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Norio

2013-04-01

260

Multiferroism and Magnetoelectric Coupling in Nano-Microscale Lead-Free Composite by 0.3Co-FERRITE and 0.7(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-BASED Ferroelectric Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nontoxic lead-free multiferroic composites are synthesized by incorporating the dispersed 0.3CoFe2O4 (CFO) ferromagnetic nanoparticles into 0.7(K0.5Na0.5) NbO3-LiSbO3 (KNN-LS5.2) ferroelectric micromatrix. The multiferroicity of the composite can be verified by polarization-electric field hysteresis loop and magnetic hysteresis loop. The composite exhibits excellent magnetic properties. A dilution effect is observed in magnetic hysteresis loops. The field dependence of ME voltage coefficient is given as a function of magnetic field from -4 kOe to 4 kOe with a maximum magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 10.7 mV?cm-1?Oe-1 at the frequency of 1 kHz. It is a very high value in the lead-free magnetoelectric composites system for the potential use on multifunctional devices.

Zhou, Yun; Wang, Xinyan; Li, Li; Su, Yuling; Zhang, Jincang; Cao, Shixun

261

Magnetic superlattices and their nanoscale phase transition effects  

PubMed Central

The systematic assembly of nanoscale constituents into highly ordered superlattices is of significant interest because of the potential of their multifunctionalities and the discovery of new collective properties. However, successful observations of such superlattice-associated nanoscale phenomena are still elusive. Here, we present magnetic superlattices of Co and Fe3O4 nanoparticles with multidimensional symmetry of either AB (NaCl) or AB2 (AlB2). The discovery of significant enhancement (?25 times) of ferrimagnetism is further revealed by forming previously undescribed superlattices of magnetically soft–hard Fe3O4@CoFe2O4 through the confined geometrical effect of thermally driven intrasuperlattice phase transition between the nanoparticulate components. PMID:16492783

Cheon, Jinwoo; Park, Jong-Il; Choi, Jin-sil; Jun, Young-wook; Kim, Sehun; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Youn Joong

2006-01-01

262

Magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic properties of magnetic nanoparticles are reviewed, with special emphasis on the effects of finite size on zero-temperature spin ordering, magnetic excitations, and relaxation. Effects on zero-temperature spin ordering include moment enhancement due to band narrowing in 3d transition metal particles, surface spin disorder in ferrite particles, and multi-sublattice states in antiferromagnetic oxide particles. Magnetic excitations include discretized spin wave

R. H Kodama

1999-01-01

263

Silver confined within zeolite EMT nanoparticles: preparation and antibacterial properties.  

PubMed

The preparation of pure zeolite nanocrystals (EMT-type framework) and their silver ion-exchanged (Ag(+)-EMT) and reduced silver (Ag(0)-EMT) forms is reported. The template-free zeolite nanocrystals are stabilized in water suspensions and used directly for silver ion-exchange and subsequent chemical reduction under microwave irradiation. The high porosity, low Si/Al ratio, high concentration of sodium and ultrasmall crystal size of the EMT-type zeolite permitted the introduction of a high amount of silver using short ion-exchange times in the range of 2-6 h. The killing efficacy of pure EMT, Ag(+)-EMT and Ag(0)-EMT against Escherichia coli was studied semi-quantitatively. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing Ag content for both types of samples (Ag(+)-EMT and Ag(0)-EMT). The Ag(0)-EMT samples show slightly enhanced antimicrobial efficacy compared to that of Ag(+)-EMT, however, the differences are not substantial and the preparation of Ag nanoparticles is not viable considering the complexity of preparation steps. PMID:25117582

Dong, B; Belkhair, S; Zaarour, M; Fisher, L; Verran, J; Tosheva, L; Retoux, R; Gilson, J-P; Mintova, S

2014-09-21

264

Engineered magnetic hybrid nanoparticles with enhanced relaxivity for tumor imaging.  

PubMed

Clinically used contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suffer by the lack of specificity; short circulation time; and insufficient relaxivity. Here, a one-step combinatorial approach is described for the synthesis of magnetic lipid-polymer (hybrid) nanoparticles (MHNPs) encapsulating 5 nm ultra-small super-paramagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIOs) and decorated with Gd(3+) ions. The MHNPs comprise a hydrophobic poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core, containing up to ~5% USPIOs (w/w), stabilized by lipid and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Gd(3+) ions are directly chelated to the external lipid monolayer. Three different nanoparticle configurations are presented including Gd(3+) chelates only (Gd-MHNPs); USPIOs only (Fe-MHNPs); and the combination thereof (MHNPs). All three MHNPs exhibit a hydrodynamic diameter of about 150 nm. The Gd-MHNPs present a longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 12.95 ± 0.53 (mM s)(-1)) about four times larger than conventional Gd-based contrast agents (r1 = 3.4 (mM s)(-1)); MHNPs have a transversal relaxivity of r2 = 164.07 ± 7.0 (mM s)(-1), which is three to four times larger than most conventional systems (r2 ~ 50 (mM s)(-1)). In melanoma bearing mice, elemental analysis for Gd shows about 3% of the injected MHNPs accumulating in the tumor and 2% still circulating in the blood, at 24 h post-injection. In a clinical 3T MRI scanner, MHNPs provide significant contrast confirming the observed tumor deposition. This approach can also accommodate the co-loading of hydrophobic therapeutic compounds in the MHNP core, paving the way for theranostic systems. PMID:23871540

Aryal, Santosh; Key, Jaehong; Stigliano, Cinzia; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Zhong, Meng; Decuzzi, Paolo

2013-10-01

265

Enhanced performance of p-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on ultrasmall Mg-doped CuCrO2 nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Herein, we present ultrasmall delafossite-type Mg-doped CuCrO2 nanocrystals prepared by using hydrothermal synthesis and their first application as photocathodes in efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The short-circuit current density (Jsc ) is notably increased by approximately 27% owing to the decreased crystallite size and the enhanced optical transmittance associated with Mg doping of the CuCrO2 nanocrystalline sample. An open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of 201 mV, Jsc of 1.51 mA cm(-2) , fill factor of 0.449, and overall photoconversion efficiency of 0.132% have been achieved with the CuCr0.9 Mg 0.1 O2 dye photocathode sensitized with the P1 dye under optimized conditions. This efficiency is nearly three times higher than that of the NiO-based reference device, which is attributed to the largely improved Voc and Jsc . The augmentation of Voc and Jsc can be attributed to the lower valance band position and the faster hole diffusion coefficient of CuCr0.9 Mg 0.1 O2 compared to those of the NiO reference, respectively, which leads to a higher hole collection efficiency. PMID:23794483

Xiong, Dehua; Zhang, Wenjun; Zeng, Xianwei; Xu, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Cui, Jin; Wang, Mingkui; Sun, Licheng; Cheng, Yi-Bing

2013-08-01

266

Ultra-small, uniform, and single bcc-phased Fe(x)Co(1-x)/graphitic shell nanocrystals for T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.  

PubMed

We have synthesized ultra-small and uniform Fe(x)Co(1-x)/graphitic carbon shell (Fe(x)Co(1-x)/GC) nanocrystals (x=0.13, 0.36, 0.42, 0.50, 0.56, and 0.62, respectively) with average diameters of <4 nm by thermal decomposition of metal precursors in approximately 60 nm MCM-41 and methane CVD. The composition of the Fe(x)Co(1-x)/GC nanocrystals can be tuned by changing the Fe:Co ratios of the metal precursors. The Fe(x)Co(1-x)/GC nanocrystals show superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. The Fe(0.50)Co(0.50)/GC, Fe(0.56)Co(0.44)/GC, and Fe(0.62)Co(0.38)/GC nanocrystals have a single bcc FeCo structure, whereas the Fe(0.13)Co(0.87)/GC, Fe(0.36)Co(0.64)/GC, and Fe(0.42)Co(0.58)/GC nanocrystals have a mixed structure of bcc FeCo and fcc Co. The single bcc-phased Fe(x)Co(1-x)/GC nanocrystals functionalized with phospholipid-poly(ethylene glycol) (PL-PEG) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) are demonstrated to be excellent T(1) MRI contrast agents. PMID:23161874

Choi, In Ae; Li, Yan; Kim, Da Jeong; Pal, Mou; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Kyujoon; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Chulhyun; Seo, Won Seok

2013-01-01

267

Ultrathin InAs nanowire growth by spontaneous Au nanoparticle spreading on indium-rich surfaces.  

PubMed

Ultrathin InAs nanowires (NWs) can enable true one-dimensional electronics. We report a growth phenomenon where a bimodal size distribution (?? nm and ?5 nm in diameter) of InAs NWs can be achieved from gold (Au) nanoparticles of a single size, ? (? = 50-250 nm). We determine that ultrathin InAs NW growth is seeded by ultra-small Au nanoparticles shed from the large Au seeds upon indium (In) introduction into the growth system and formed prior to the supersaturation of In in Au. The Au spreading phenomenon is explained by the balancing of Gibbs free energy lowering from In-Au mixing and the surface tension increase. Ultrathin InAs NWs formed in this way exhibit a perfect wurtzite structure with no stacking faults. We have observed InAs NWs with diameters down to ?2 nm using our growth method. Passivating the ultrathin InAs NWs with an AlAs shell, subsequently oxidized in air, results in physical deformation of the InAs core, demonstrating the mechanical pliability of these ultrathin NWs. PMID:25383665

Jung, Kyooho; Mohseni, Parsian K; Li, Xiuling

2014-12-21

268

Morphological, magnetic and electronic structural studies of nanostructured spinel ferrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scope of this thesis includes study of structural, magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructured ferrites with different morphology/geometries (e.g. core/shell and hollow nanoparticles), and non-stroichiomteric thin-films. In the case of core/shell, shell composition is varied and spin glass (SG) features due to the thick amorphous shells are explored. Exchange Bias (EB) for core/shell (ferromagnetic/SG) nanoparticles namely X33Fe 67/XFe67O4 (X = Co, Ni, Fe) is presented. Limitations in the synthesis of various other alloys by inert gas condensation (IGC) due to the difference in the melting points are discussed. The existence of SG phase in these nanoparticles with CoFe2O4 shell results in the enhancement in EB. This is attributed to the large bulk anisotropy constant of the shell compared to other spinel cubic ferrites. Both dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements revealed a SG like transition which occurs at unusually large spin freezing temperature (TF ˜ 175K). The SG nature of the transition is also confirmed by the field dependence of the freezing temperature (TF(H)) following the well-known Almeida-Thouless (AT) line, deltaT F ˜ H2/3. Particles exhibit a large exchange bias (HEB ˜ 1357Oe) arising from the core-shell (ferromagnetic-SG) coupling. The unusually high SG transition temperature and large exchange bias effects are attributed to a combination of several factors including the thickness of the amorphous oxide shell and large values of the exchange and anisotropy constants associated with the CoFe2O 4 shell. In another extreme case of disordered spin systems, we synthesized NPs with hollow morphology with intentional choice of material namely NiFe 2O4 (CoFe2O4) which has lowest (highest) bulk anisotropy constant among the spinel ferrites. The hollow NPs are synthesized by self-templating process utilizing coupled interfacial chemical reactions and Kirkendall effect between the core (X33Fe67) and the shell (XFe2O4) of the core/shell structure is described. Reaction temperature and time dependent structural and morphological transformations are presented in detail. NiFe2O4 hollow particles show lack of saturation, enhancement in EB and inverse trend in the blocking temperature as a function of particles size. These are explained as being due to stabilized spin disorder and surface anisotropy. Unlike solid NPs, hollow NPs are polycrystalline. Electronic structure studies are performed by photoemission which reveals that CoFe2O4 particles with hollow morphology have higher degree of inversion compared to solid NPs. Electronic structure in comparison with magnetic studies reveal that particles exhibit uncompensated spins unlike bulk where Neel's collinear spin alignment is expected. For CoFe2O 4, both morphologies show lack of saturation up to 7T of applied field and magnetic irreversibility exists up to 7T of cooling fields for the entire temperature range (10 to 300K). These effects are explained in terms of temperature dependent large bulk anisotropy constant of CoFe2O4. Strong influence of uncompensated spins for particles with hollow morphology is characterized by cooling the sample in large fields, up to (˜9T). Magnitude of horizontal shift is more than three times larger compared to that of particles with solid morphology. 11% vertical shift for particles with hollow morphology is observed, whereas solid particles do not show corresponding shift. Finally, off-stoichiometric NiFe2O4 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at low pressures and relatively high substrate temperatures were studied. Details of electronic structure of the films are presented and compared with stoichiometric bulk counterpart. Significant amount of oxygen vacancies and enhanced cationic inversion for non-stoichiometric thin films is observed. Films show spin glass features which are contrary to the usual ferrimagnetic response of the bulk nickel ferrite and spin freezing temperature which lies above room temperature in low fields (cooling field ˜ 0.1T). Interestingly, an exceptionally large exchange bi

Jardim, Marcos; Moura Prata, Daniela

269

Magnetoelectric Properties of CoFe O -BaTiO Core-Shell Structure Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 core-shell structure composite has been successfully synthesized by wet chemical method. X-ray characterization showed that the composite consisted of two single phases: CoFe2O4 and BaTiO3. The saturation magnetization of the CoFe2O4 component in composite was found to be similar to those of the bulk sample. It was observed that the longitudinal and transverse magnetoelectric coefficients of the core-shell

Giap V. Duong; Roland Groessinger; Reiko Sato Turtelli

2006-01-01

270

Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review concerns nanoparticles collected in the form of nanopowder or a colloidal solution by laser ablating a solid target that lies in a gaseous or a liquid environment. The paper discusses the advantages of the method as compared with other methods for nanoparticle synthesis, outlines the factors on which the properties of the produced nanoparticles depend, explains the mechanisms

N. G. Semaltianos

2010-01-01

271

Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

2012-07-01

272

Cell tracking using nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Tracking cells in regenerative medicine is becoming increasingly important for basic cell therapy science, for cell delivery optimization and for accurate biodistribution studies. This report describes nanoparticles that utilize stable-isotope metal labels for multiple detection technologies in preclinical studies. Cells labeled with nanoparticles can be imaged by electron microscopy, fluorescence, and magnetic resonance. The nanoparticle-labeled cells can be quantified by neutron activation, thereby allowing, with the use of standard curves, the determination of the number of labeled cells in tissue samples from in vivo sources. This report describes the characteristics of these nanoparticles and methods for using these nanoparticles to label and track cells. PMID:20559922

Vaccaro, Dennis E; Yang, Meiheng; Weinberg, James S; Reinhardt, Christopher P; Groman, Ernest V

2008-09-01

273

De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

Strasser, Peter (Houston, TX); Koh, Shirlaine (Houston, TX); Mani, Prasanna (Houston, TX); Ratndeep, Srivastava (Houston, TX)

2011-08-09

274

J-Aggregates of Organic Dye Molecules Complexed with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy Under 915-nm Light.  

PubMed

Recently, the development of nano-theranostic agents aiming at imaging guided therapy has received great attention. In this work, a near-infrared (NIR) heptamethine indocyanine dye, IR825, in the presence of cationic polymer, polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), forms J-aggregates with red-shifted and significantly enhanced absorbance. After further complexing with ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and the followed functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained IR825@PAH-IONP-PEG composite nanoparticles are highly stable in different physiological media. With a sharp absorbance peak, IR825@PAH-IONP-PEG can serve as an effective photothermal agent under laser irradiation at 915 nm, which appears to be optimal in photothermal therapy application considering its improved tissue penetration compared with 808-nm light and much lower water heating in comparison to 980-nm light. As revealed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, those nanoparticles after intravenous injection exhibit high tumor accumulation, which is then harnessed for in vivo photothermal ablation of tumors, achieving excellent therapeutic efficacy in a mouse tumor model. This study demonstrates for the first time that J-aggregates of organic dye molecules are an interesting class of photothermal material, which when combined with other imageable nanoprobes could serve as a theranostic agent for imaging-guided photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:24976309

Song, Xuejiao; Gong, Hua; Liu, Teng; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Liang, Chao; Liu, Zhuang

2014-11-01

275

A nanoparticle in plasma  

SciTech Connect

Charge and energy fluxes onto a nanoparticle under conditions typical of laboratory plasmas are investigated theoretically. Here, by a nanoparticle is meant a grain the size of which is much smaller than both the electron Larmor radius and Debye length and the thermionic emission from which is not limited by the space charge. Under conditions at which thermionic emission plays an important role, the electric potential and temperature T{sub p} of a nanoparticle are determined by solving a self-consistent set of equations describing the balance of energy and charge fluxes onto the nanoparticle. It is shown that, when the degree of plasma ionization exceeds a critical level, the potential of the nanoparticle and the energy flux onto it increase with increasing nanoparticle temperature, so that, starting from a certain temperature, the nanoparticle potential becomes positive. The critical degree of ionization starting from which the potential of a nanoparticle is always positive is determined as a function of the plasma density and electron temperature. The nanoparticle temperature T{sub p} corresponding to the equilibrium state of a positively charged nanoparticle is found as a function of the electron density for different electron temperatures.

Martynenko, Yu. V.; Nagel', M. Yu.; Orlov, M. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15

276

Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Background: Synthetic nanoparticles are emerging as versatile tools in biomedical applications, particularly in the area of biomedical imaging. Nanoparticles 1 to 100 nm in diameter possess dimensions comparable to biological functional units. Diverse surface chemistries, unique magnetic properties, tunable absorption and emission properties, and recent advances in the synthesis and engineering of various nanoparticles suggest their potential as probes for early detection of diseases such as cancer. Surface functionalization has further expanded the potential of nanoparticles as probes for molecular imaging. Objective: To summarize emerging research of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging with increased selectivity and reduced non-specific uptake with increased spatial resolution containing stabilizers conjugated with targeting ligands. Methods: This review summarizes recent technological advances in the synthesis of various nanoparticle probes, and surveys methods to improve the targeting of nanoparticles for their applications in biomedical imaging. Conclusion: Structural design of nanomaterials for biomedical imaging continues to expand and diversify. Synthetic methods have aimed to control the size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles to control distribution, half-life and elimination. Although molecular imaging applications using nanoparticles are advancing into clinical applications, challenges such as storage stability and long-term toxicology should continue to be addressed. Keywords: nanoparticle synthesis, surface modification, targeting, molecular imaging, and biomedical imaging.

Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Lin, Ying-Ying; Forrest, Laird M.; Berkland, Cory J.

2009-11-01

277

Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to provide a rational for the use of nanoparticles in pulmonary delivery as well as an overview of strategies\\u000a and physiological implications of nanoparticle delivery to the lungs. Formulation aspects of nanoparticle systems in the form\\u000a of liquid dispersions and inhaled dry powders are also reviewed. The chapter also addresses the expanse of lung toxicology\\u000a research surrounding

Alan B. Watts; Robert O. Williams

278

Reactivity of Metal Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter will be concerned with the parameters governing interactions between metallic nanoparticles and a reactive surrounding material, and hence with the catalytic properties of such nanoparticles. Indeed, most industrial metal catalysts contain very costly metals, such as the precious metals at the end of the transition series and the noble metals, and must therefore have as large a surface-to-volume ratio as possible in order to economise the number of atoms required. This is the solution provided by nanoparticles.

Bertolini, J.-C.; Rousset, J.-L.

279

Stimulus responsive nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

280

Nanoparticles for biomedical imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic nanoparticles are emerging as versatile tools in biomedical applications, particularly in the area of biomedical imaging. Nanoparticles 1 – 100 nm in diameter have dimensions comparable to biological functional units. Diverse surface chemistries, unique magnetic properties, tunable absorption and emission properties, and recent advances in the synthesis and engineering of various nanoparticles suggest their potential as probes for early detection of diseases such as cancer. Surface functionalization has expanded further the potential of nanoparticles as probes for molecular imaging. Objective To summarize emerging research of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging with increased selectivity and reduced nonspecific uptake with increased spatial resolution containing stabilizers conjugated with targeting ligands. Methods This review summarizes recent technological advances in the synthesis of various nanoparticle probes, and surveys methods to improve the targeting of nanoparticles for their application in biomedical imaging. Conclusion Structural design of nanomaterials for biomedical imaging continues to expand and diversify. Synthetic methods have aimed to control the size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles to control distribution, half-life and elimination. Although molecular imaging applications using nanoparticles are advancing into clinical applications, challenges such as storage stability and long-term toxicology should continue to be addressed. PMID:19743894

Nune, Satish K; Gunda, Padmaja; Thallapally, Praveen K; Lin, Ying-Ying; Forrest, M Laird; Berkland, Cory J

2011-01-01

281

Transferring biomarker into molecular probe: melanin nanoparticle as a naturally active platform for multimodality imaging.  

PubMed

Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (<10 nm) water-soluble melanin nanoparticle (MNP) was developed and showed unique photoacoustic property and natural binding ability with metal ions (for example, (64)Cu(2+), Fe(3+)). Therefore, MNP can serve not only as a photoacoustic contrast agent, but also as a nanoplatform for positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditional passive nanoplatforms require complicated and time-consuming processes for prebuilding reporting moieties or chemical modifications using active groups to integrate different contrast properties into one entity. In comparison, utilizing functional biomarker melanin can greatly simplify the building process. We further conjugated ?v?3 integrins, cyclic c(RGDfC) peptide, to MNPs to allow for U87MG tumor accumulation due to its targeting property combined with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The multimodal properties of MNPs demonstrate the high potential of endogenous materials with multifunctions as nanoplatforms for molecular theranostics and clinical translation. PMID:25292385

Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

2014-10-29

282

The pharmacokinetics of the lymphotropic nanoparticle MRI contrast agent ferumoxtran-10.  

PubMed

Ferumoxtran-10 is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic biodegradable iron oxide which serves as a MRI contrast agent in the differentiation of metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes in primary malignancies and imaging of phagocyte-associated disease processes. Ferumoxtran-10 is supplied as a lyophilized powder containing 210 mg of iron, 631 mg of dextran, and 27 mg of sodium citrate. The iron oxide core determines the magnetic properties of ferumoxtran-10, primarily its effects on the MR relaxation times, T1, T2, and T2*. Attachment of dextran prolongs the circulatory time of the nanoparticles. The intended human dose of ferumoxtran-10 is 2.6 mg Fe/kg. Reconstituted and diluted with physiological saline it is administered intravenously by means of a slow drip infusion. After initial vascular distribution of the particles, they are slowly phagocytosed by the reticuloendothelial system cells of the spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and liver. When ferumoxtran-10 is present in phagocytic cells the iron oxide causes local magnetic field inhomogeneities which lead to increases in proton relaxation rates, resulting in signal loss on mid-T1/T2 or heavily T2-weighted MR images. Stored in lysosomes the particles are ultimately degraded: the iron enters the normal body iron metabolism cycle and dextran is eliminated mainly via the kidney. PMID:19414923

Islam, Tina; Wolf, Gerald

2009-01-01

283

Nanoparticles in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic nanoparticles are increasingly being used in everyday products, but little is known about environmental releases of these materials. Our knowledge of how many natural nanoparticles occur in drinking water is also inadequate. An initial assessment is presented here. Drinking water is clear, and yet it contains millions of particles. Substances are described as particulate - as opposed to dissolved

Ralf Kaegi

284

Biocompatible nanoparticles and biopolyelectrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this manuscript encompasses a merger of two research directions: a study of aqueous nanoparticle colloids and a study of biological polyelectrolytes. The majority of biomedical applications of nanoparticles require stable aqueous colloids of nanoparticles as a starting point. A new one-step method of preparation of aqueous solutions of ultra-fine ferroelectric barium titanate nanoparticles was developed and generalized to the preparation of stable aqueous colloids of semiconductor nanoparticles. This high-energy ball milling technique is low cost, environmentally friendly, and allows for control of nanoparticle size by changing milling time. Aqueous colloids of BaTiO3 nanoparticles are stable over time, maintain ferroelectricity and can be used as second harmonic generating nanoprobes for biomedical imaging. Biopolyelectrolytes exhibit a variety of novel liquid-crystalline phases in aqueous solutions where their electrolytic nature is a driving force behind phase formation. We study medically relevant mixtures of F-actin, DNA and oppositely charged ions (such as multivalent salts and antibiotic drugs) and map out phase diagrams and laws that govern phase transitions. We combine these research directions in studies of the condensation behavior in aqueous solutions of biocompatible nanoparticles and biopolyelectrolytes.

Zribi, Olena

285

Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Summary We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions. PMID:21977409

Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine

2010-01-01

286

Edible oil structures at low and intermediate concentrations. II. Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering of in situ tristearin solids in triolein  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering has been used for the first time to elucidate, in situ, the aggregation structure of a model edible oil system. The three-dimensional nano- to micro-structure of tristearin solid particles in triolein solvent was investigated using 5, 10, 15, and 20% solids. Three different sample preparation procedures were investigated: two slow cooling rates of 0.5°/min, case 1 (22 days of storage at room temperature) and case 2 (no storage), and one fast cooling of 30°/min, case 3 (no storage). The length scale investigated, by using the Bonse-Hart camera at beamline ID-15D at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, covered the range from 300?Å to 10??m. The unified fit and the Guinier-Porod models in the Irena software were used to fit the data. The former was used to fit 3 structural levels. Level 1 structures showed that the primary scatterers were essentially 2-dimensional objects for the three cases. The scatterers possessed lateral dimensions between 1000 and 4300?Å. This is consistent with the sizes of crystalline nanoplatelets present which were observed using cryo-TEM. Level 2 structures were aggregates possessing radii of gyration, R{sub g2} between 1800?Å and 12000?Å and fractal dimensions of either D{sub 2}=1 for case 3 or 1.8?D{sub 2}?2.1 for case 1 and case 2. D{sub 2}?=?1 is consistent with unaggregated 1-dimensional objects. 1.8???D{sub 2}???2.1 is consistent with these 1-dimensional objects (below) forming structures characteristic of diffusion or reaction limited cluster-cluster aggregation. Level 3 structures showed that the spatial distribution of the level 2 structures was uniform, on the average, for case 1, with fractal dimension D{sub 3}?3 while for case 2 and case 3 the fractal dimension was D{sub 3}?2.2, which suggested that the large-scale distribution had not come to equilibrium. The Guinier-Porod model showed that the structures giving rise to the aggregates with a fractal dimension given by D{sub 2} in the unified fit level 2 model were cylinders described by the parameter s?1 in the Guinier-Porod model. The size of the base of these cylinders was in agreement with the cryo-TEM observations as well as with the results of the level 1 unified fit model. By estimating the size of the nanoplatelets and understanding the structures formed via their aggregation, it will be possible to engineer novel lipids systems that embody desired functional characteristics.

Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G. [Food Science Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Ilavsky, Jan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S Cass Ave., Bldg. 434D, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Mazzanti, Gianfranco [Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Pink, David A. [Food Science Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Physics Department, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2W5 (Canada)

2013-12-21

287

GADOLINIUM(Gd)-BASED and Ion Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri) Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that one strength of MRI is its excellent soft tissue discrimination. It naturally provides sufficient contrast between the structural differences of normal and pathological tissues, their spatial extent and progression. However, to further extend its applications and enhance even more contrast for clinical studies, various Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents have been developed for different organs (brain strokes, cancer, cardio-MRI, etc). These Gd-based contrast agents are paramagnetic compounds that have strong T1-effect for enhancing the contrast between tissue types. Gd-contrast can also enhance magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for studying stenosis and for measuring perfusion, vascular susceptibility, interstitial space, etc. Another class of contrast agents makes use of ferrite iron oxide nanoparticles (including Superparamagnetic Ion Oxide (SPIO) and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO)). These nanoparticles have superior magnetic susceptibility effect and produce a drop in signal, namely in T2*-weighted images, useful for the determination of lymph nodes metastases, angiogenesis and arteriosclerosis plaques.

Ng, Thian C.

2012-06-01

288

Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles and aptamer-functionalized silver nanoclusters-based multimodal molecular imaging nanoprobe for optical/magnetic resonance cancer cell imaging.  

PubMed

Multimodal molecular imaging has attracted more and more interest from researchers due to its combination of the strengths of each imaging modality. The development of specific and multifunctional molecular imaging probes is the key for this method. In this study, we fabricated an optical/magnetic resonance (MR) dual-modality molecular imaging nanoprobe, polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall gadolinium oxide (PEG-Gd2O3)/aptamer-Ag nanoclusters (NCs), for tracking cancer cells. To achieve this aim, PEG-Gd2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and aptamer functionalized silver nanoclusters (aptamer-Ag NCs) as fluorescence reporter were first synthesized by a one-pot approach, respectively. They were then conjugated by the covalent coupling reaction between the carboxyl group on the surface of PEG-Gd2O3 NPs and amino group modified on the 5'-end of AS1411 aptamer. With a suitable ratio, the fluorescence intensity of aptamer-Ag NCs and MR signal of PEG-Gd2O3 nanoparticles could both be enhanced after the formation of PEG-Gd2O3/aptamer-Ag NCs nanoprobe, which favored their application for multimodal molecular imaging. With this nanoprobe, MCF-7 tumor cells could be specifically tracked by both fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging in vitro. PMID:25338209

Li, Jingjing; You, Jia; Dai, Yue; Shi, Meilin; Han, Cuiping; Xu, Kai

2014-11-18

289

Nanoparticles & Quantum Dots  

E-print Network

formed by citrate reduction ­ PEG linker ­ Oxaliplatin attched to linker #12;SEM imaging of Au.J.Wheate "Oxaliplatin tethered gold nanoparticles for improved anticancer drug delivery" · In vitro cytotoxicity tests

Strathclyde, University of

290

Divalent metal nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

DeVries, Gretchen Anne

2008-01-01

291

Engines and nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the particle number emitted by engines is in the nanoparticle range, Dp<50 nm, while most of the mass is in the accumulation mode, 50nmNanoparticles are typically hydrocarbons or sulfate and form by nucleation during dilution and cooling of the exhaust, while accumulation mode particles are mainly carbonaceous soot agglomerates formed directly by combustion. Emission standards

David B. Kittelson

1998-01-01

292

Functional nanoparticles in cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an overview of our recent studies regarding the interactions of functional nanoparticles with the human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and laser hyperthermia of cells loaded with gold nanoparticles are discussed. Particles with different shape, size and charge are compared and evaluated to conclude at the most appropriate types for specific biomedical applications (i.e. drug delivery, laser hyperthermia).

Bartczak, Dorota; Muskens, Otto L.; Nitti, Simone; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman; Millar, Timothy M.; Kanaras, Antonios G.

2012-03-01

293

Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

2013-01-01

294

Fluorescence from Coated Oxide Nanoparticles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In many cases, coated nanoparticles behave like isolated ones. Using the microwave plasma process, it is possible to produce oxide nanoparticles with ceramic or polymer coating. Coating the particles has the additional advantage that by proper selection o...

D. Vollath, D. V. Szabo, I. Lamparth

2001-01-01

295

MEASUREMENT OF NANOPARTICLES IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Measuring nanoparticles in water differs from traditional dissolved solute measurement in several ways. The most salient difference is that nanoparticles are colloids rather than solutes and therefore are subject to the interparticle interactions (mainly electrostatic and Van de...

296

Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery  

E-print Network

Nanoparticles were synthesized and modified for target drug delivery. The research involved the aqueous synthesis of near infrared (NIR) sensitive Au-Au2S nanoparticles. An anti-cancer drug (cis-platin) ...

Chow, Gan-Moog

297

Automated Morphology Analysis of Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

of the UECS ( = 0:1). : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 108 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I.1. Nanoparticles and Their Morphology-related Properties The British and several international standard organizations de ne nanoparticles as ultra ne particles having... only two-dimensional projection images of three-dimensional nanoparticles, they are popularly used in the nanoparticle research because of their ultra-high resolution; the highest resolution is 0.05 nm for TEM or 1 nm for SEM (Allard and O...

Park, Chiwoo

2012-10-19

298

Bioconjugation of colloidal silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied bioconjugation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and DNA with colloidal silver nanoparticles. BSA and DNA modified silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and FTIR studies. The emergence of new peaks in UV-Vis spectra corresponding to these biomolecules without shift in surface plasmon peak of silver nanoparticles showed successful modification of metal nanoparticles with BSA and DNA. FTIR spectra also supported these results.

Kaur, Harmandeep; Bhatnagar, Archana; Tripathi, S. K.

2013-06-01

299

Facile synthesis of ultrafine carbon-coated SnO2 nanoparticles for high-performance reversible lithium storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine carbon-coated SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 3-6 nm are prepared by a hydrothermal method in the presence of ascorbic acid and subsequent thermal treatment. The ascorbic acid, on the one hand, serves as a ligand to control the growth of the ultrafine SnO2 NPs during the hydrothermal process and on the other hand it acts as carbon precursor to form carbon shell surrounding the ultrafine SnO2 NPs in the thermal treatment process. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-synthesized ultrafine carbon-coated SnO2 NPs exhibit a high reversible capacity of 688.6 mAh g-1 at a rate of 1 C after 50 cycles. Even charging at the rate of as high as 5 C, they still deliver a reversible capacity of 414 mAh g-1, which is about 50% of the theoretical capacity of SnO2. The perfect electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the synergic effects of the conductive carbon shell surrounding the SnO2 NPs and the ultra-small size of the SnO2 NPs.

Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua; Zhao, Xinyu; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Changwen

2013-12-01

300

Phase-controlled synthesis of ?-NiS nanoparticles confined in carbon nanorods for High Performance Supercapacitors.  

PubMed

A facile and phase-controlled synthesis of ?-NiS nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in carbon nanorods (CRs) is reported by in-situ sulfurating the preformed Ni/CRs. The nanopore confinement by the carbon matrix is essential for the formation of ?-NiS and preventing its transition to ?-phase, which is in strong contrast to large aggregated ?-NiS particles grown freely without the confinement of CRs. When used as electrochemical electrode, the hybrid electrochemical charge storage of the ultrasmall ?-NiS nanoparticels dispersed in CRs is benefit for the high capacitor (1092, 946, 835, 740?F g(-1) at current densities of 1, 2, 5, 10?A g(-1), respectively.). While the high electrochemical stability (approximately 100% retention of specific capacitance after 2000 charge/discharge cycles) is attributed to the supercapacitor-battery electrode, which makes synergistic effect of capacitor (CRs) and battery (NiS NPs) components rather than a merely additive composite. This work not only suggests a general approach for phase-controlled synthesis of nickel sulfide but also opens the door to the rational design and fabrication of novel nickel-based/carbon hybrid supercapacitor-battery electrode materials. PMID:25394517

Sun, Chencheng; Ma, Mingze; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yufei; Chen, Peng; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

2014-01-01

301

Nanoparticle conjugation of CpG enhances adjuvancy for cellular immunity and memory recall at low dose.  

PubMed

In subunit vaccines, strong CD8(+) T-cell responses are desired, yet they are elusive at reasonable adjuvant doses. We show that targeting adjuvant to the lymph node (LN) via ultrasmall polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), which rapidly drain to the LN after intradermal injection, greatly enhances adjuvant efficacy at low doses. Coupling CpG-B or CpG-C oligonucleotides to NPs led to better dual-targeting of adjuvant and antigen (codelivered on separate NPs) in cross-presenting dendritic cells compared with free adjuvant. This led to enhanced dendritic cell maturation and T helper 1 (Th1)-cytokine secretion, in turn driving stronger effector CD8(+) T-cell activation with enhanced cytolytic profiles and, importantly, more powerful memory recall. With only 4 ?g CpG, NP-CpG-B could substantially protect mice from syngeneic tumor challenge, even after 4 mo of vaccination, compared with free CpG-B. Together, these results show that nanocarriers can enhance vaccine efficacy at a low adjuvant dose for inducing potent and long-lived cellular immunity. PMID:24248387

de Titta, Alexandre; Ballester, Marie; Julier, Ziad; Nembrini, Chiara; Jeanbart, Laura; van der Vlies, André J; Swartz, Melody A; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

2013-12-01

302

Phase-controlled synthesis of ?-NiS nanoparticles confined in carbon nanorods for High Performance Supercapacitors  

PubMed Central

A facile and phase-controlled synthesis of ?-NiS nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in carbon nanorods (CRs) is reported by in-situ sulfurating the preformed Ni/CRs. The nanopore confinement by the carbon matrix is essential for the formation of ?-NiS and preventing its transition to ?-phase, which is in strong contrast to large aggregated ?-NiS particles grown freely without the confinement of CRs. When used as electrochemical electrode, the hybrid electrochemical charge storage of the ultrasmall ?-NiS nanoparticels dispersed in CRs is benefit for the high capacitor (1092, 946, 835, 740?F g?1 at current densities of 1, 2, 5, 10?A g?1, respectively.). While the high electrochemical stability (approximately 100% retention of specific capacitance after 2000 charge/discharge cycles) is attributed to the supercapacitor-battery electrode, which makes synergistic effect of capacitor (CRs) and battery (NiS NPs) components rather than a merely additive composite. This work not only suggests a general approach for phase-controlled synthesis of nickel sulfide but also opens the door to the rational design and fabrication of novel nickel-based/carbon hybrid supercapacitor-battery electrode materials. PMID:25394517

Sun, Chencheng; Ma, Mingze; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yufei; Chen, Peng; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

2014-01-01

303

Nanoparticle conjugation of CpG enhances adjuvancy for cellular immunity and memory recall at low dose  

PubMed Central

In subunit vaccines, strong CD8+ T-cell responses are desired, yet they are elusive at reasonable adjuvant doses. We show that targeting adjuvant to the lymph node (LN) via ultrasmall polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), which rapidly drain to the LN after intradermal injection, greatly enhances adjuvant efficacy at low doses. Coupling CpG-B or CpG-C oligonucleotides to NPs led to better dual-targeting of adjuvant and antigen (codelivered on separate NPs) in cross-presenting dendritic cells compared with free adjuvant. This led to enhanced dendritic cell maturation and T helper 1 (Th1)-cytokine secretion, in turn driving stronger effector CD8+ T-cell activation with enhanced cytolytic profiles and, importantly, more powerful memory recall. With only 4 ?g CpG, NP-CpG-B could substantially protect mice from syngeneic tumor challenge, even after 4 mo of vaccination, compared with free CpG-B. Together, these results show that nanocarriers can enhance vaccine efficacy at a low adjuvant dose for inducing potent and long-lived cellular immunity. PMID:24248387

de Titta, Alexandre; Ballester, Marie; Julier, Ziad; Nembrini, Chiara; Jeanbart, Laura; van der Vlies, Andre J.; Swartz, Melody A.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

304

Intracellular antioxidants dissolve man-made antioxidant nanoparticles: using redox vulnerability of nanoceria to develop a responsive drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Regeneratable antioxidant property of nanoceria has widely been explored to minimize the deleterious influences of reactive oxygen species. Limited information is, however, available regarding the biological interactions and subsequent fate of nanoceria in body fluids. This study demonstrates a surprising dissolution of stable and ultrasmall (4 nm) cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in response to biologically prevalent antioxidant molecules (glutathione, vitamin C). Such a redox sensitive behavior of CeO2 NPs is subsequently exploited to design a redox responsive drug delivery system for transporting anticancer drug (camptothecin). Upon exposing the CeO2 capped and drug loaded nanoconstruct to vitamin c or glutathione, dissolution-accompanied aggregation of CeO2 nanolids unleashes the drug molecules from porous silica to achieve a significant anticancer activity. Besides stimuli responsive drug delivery, immobilization of nanoceria onto the surface of mesoporous silica also facilitates us to gain a basic insight into the biotransformation of CeO2 in physiological mediums. PMID:25312332

Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Aifei; Qi, Wenxiu; Zhang, Shixing; Zhu, Guangshan

2014-11-12

305

Efficient magneto-optical mode converter on glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of magneto-optical materials to realize non-reciprocal functions is still a difficult problem, because classical magneto-optical materials require an annealing temperature as high as 700°C. In this framework, this study shows how it is possible to realize efficient magneto-optical mode converter using the association of a magnetic nanoparticles silica/zirconia composite with an ion-exchanged glass waveguide. Using a sol gel process, a silica/zirconia matrix is doped by magnetic nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) and coated on a glass substrate containing straight channel waveguides made by a silver/sodium ion exchange. The extremities of the guides were previously buried using electric field-assisted burial in order to facilitate light injection. Soft annealing (90°C) and UV treatment, both compatible with the ion exchange process, have been implemented to finalize the magneto-optical film. Depending on the amount of nanoparticles in the composite, on the spatial distribution of the field in the guide and on the modal birefringence of the hybrid structure, the TE-TM conversion varies from several degrees to several tens of degrees.

Garayt, Jean Philippe; Parsy, François; Jamon, Damien; Neveu, Sophie; Royer, François; Ghibaudo, Elise; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel

2014-03-01

306

Carbon nanoparticles from laser pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanoparticles synthesised by laser pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in a flow reactor have been investigated as a function of laser power. Samples are cross-characterised by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Nanoparticles appear highly aromatic in character in all the experimental conditions explored here. As the flame temperature in the interaction zone increases, the nanoparticles evolve

Aymeric Galvez; Nathalie Herlin-Boime; Cécile Reynaud; Christian Clinard; Jean-Noël Rouzaud

2002-01-01

307

Gold Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used for many scientific applications and have attracted attention due to the specific chemical, electronic and optical size dependent properties that make them very promising agents in many fields such as medicine, imagine techniques and electronics. More specifically, biocompatible gold nanoparticles have a huge potential for use as the contrast augmentation agent in X-ray Computed Tomography and Photo Acoustic Tomography for early tumor diagnostic as well these nanoparticles are extensively researched for enhancing the targeted cancer treatment effectiveness such as photo-thermal and radiotherapy. In most biomedical applications biocompatible gold nanoparticles are labeled with specific tumor or other pathology targeting antibodies and used for site specific drug delivery. However, even though gold nanoparticles poses very high level of anti cancer properties, the question of their cytotoxicity ones they are released in normal tissue has to be researched. Moreover, the huge amount of industrially produced gold nanoparticles raises the question of these particles being a health hazard, since the penetration is fairly easy for the "nano" size substances. This study focuses on the effect of AuNPs on a human skin tissue, since it is fall in both categories -- the side effects for biomedical applications and industrial workers and users' exposure during production and handling. Therefore, in the present project, gold nanoparticles stabilized with the biocompatible agent citric acid were generated and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxic effect of AuNPs release to healthy skin tissue was modeled on 3 different cell types: human keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and human adipose derived stromal (ADS) cells. The AuNPs localization inside the cell was found to be cell type dependent. Overall cytotoxicity was found to be dependent on time, concentration and nanoparticle size. Additionally, the question of cell recovery once the source of AuNPs is removed was investigated in the present work. It was found that full cell functions recovery is possible after removing the source of nanoparticles.

Mironava, Tatsiana

308

Electron beam manipulation of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We report on electron beam manipulation and simultaneous transmission electron microscopy imaging of gold nanoparticle movements in an environmental cell. Nanoparticles are trapped with the beam and move dynamically toward the location with higher electron density. Their global movements follow the beam positions. Analysis on the trajectories of nanoparticle movements inside the beam reveals a trapping force in the piconewton range at the electron density gradient of 10(3)-10(4) (e·nm(-2)·s(-1))·nm(-1). Multiple nanoparticles can also be trapped with the beam. By rapidly converging the beam, we further can "collect" nanoparticles on the membrane surface and assemble them into a cluster. PMID:23035740

Zheng, Haimei; Mirsaidov, Utkur M; Wang, Lin-Wang; Matsudaira, Paul

2012-11-14

309

In situ assembly of well-dispersed Ni nanoparticles on silica nanotubes and excellent catalytic activity in 4-nitrophenol reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The easy aggregation nature of ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by conventional routes usually leads to a large particle size and low loading, which greatly limits their applications to the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Herein, we developed a novel in situ thermal decomposition and reduction strategy to prepare Ni nanoparticles/silica nanotubes (Ni/SNTs), which can markedly prevent the aggregation and growth of Ni NPs, resulting in an ultra-small particle size (about 6 nm), good dispersion and especially high loading of Ni NPs. It was found that Ni/SNTs, which have a high specific surface area (416 m2 g-1), exhibit ultra-high catalytic activity in the 4-NP reduction (complete reduction of 4-NP within only 60 s at room temperature), which is superior to most noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) supported catalysts. Ni/SNTs still showed high activity even after re-use for several cycles, suggesting good stability. In particular, the magnetic property of Ni/SNTs makes it easy to recycle for reuse.The easy aggregation nature of ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by conventional routes usually leads to a large particle size and low loading, which greatly limits their applications to the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Herein, we developed a novel in situ thermal decomposition and reduction strategy to prepare Ni nanoparticles/silica nanotubes (Ni/SNTs), which can markedly prevent the aggregation and growth of Ni NPs, resulting in an ultra-small particle size (about 6 nm), good dispersion and especially high loading of Ni NPs. It was found that Ni/SNTs, which have a high specific surface area (416 m2 g-1), exhibit ultra-high catalytic activity in the 4-NP reduction (complete reduction of 4-NP within only 60 s at room temperature), which is superior to most noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) supported catalysts. Ni/SNTs still showed high activity even after re-use for several cycles, suggesting good stability. In particular, the magnetic property of Ni/SNTs makes it easy to recycle for reuse. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD pattern and TEM image of SNTs after calcination, XRD pattern and EDS of NiSNTs, SEM images of a single SNT, NiSNTs and Ni/SNTs, enlarged HRTEM of Ni/SNTs, XRD pattern of NiO/SNTs, UV-vis spectra of the catalytic reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP over Ni/SNTs with different loading amounts, Ni/SNTs synthesized by wet impregnation and Ni/CNTs, TEM images of Ni/SNTs synthesized by wet impregnation and Ni/CNTs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02096k

Zhang, Shenghuan; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; Ding, Shujiang; Li, Lei; Yang, Piaoping

2014-09-01

310

Nanoparticle shuttle memory  

DOEpatents

A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

Zettl, Alex Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

2012-03-06

311

Nanoparticles from renewable polymers  

PubMed Central

The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights (polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin) or by complex structure (proteins, lignin). This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications. PMID:25101259

Wurm, Frederik R.; Weiss, Clemens K.

2014-01-01

312

Nanoparticles from renewable polymers.  

PubMed

The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights (polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin) or by complex structure (proteins, lignin). This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications. PMID:25101259

Wurm, Frederik R; Weiss, Clemens K

2014-01-01

313

Nanoparticles: pharmacological and toxicological significance  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles are tiny materials (<1000 nm in size) that have specific physicochemical properties different to bulk materials of the same composition and such properties make them very attractive for commercial and medical development. However, nanoparticles can act on living cells at the nanolevel resulting not only in biologically desirable, but also in undesirable effects. In contrast to many efforts aimed at exploiting desirable properties of nanoparticles for medicine, there are limited attempts to evaluate potentially undesirable effects of these particles when administered intentionally for medical purposes. Therefore, there is a pressing need for careful consideration of benefits and side effects of the use of nanoparticles in medicine. This review article aims at providing a balanced update of these exciting pharmacological and potentially toxicological developments. The classes of nanoparticles, the current status of nanoparticle use in pharmacology and therapeutics, the demonstrated and potential toxicity of nanoparticles will be discussed. PMID:17245366

Medina, C; Santos-Martinez, M J; Radomski, A; Corrigan, O I; Radomski, M W

2007-01-01

314

Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports  

DOEpatents

An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

2012-11-13

315

Enzyme Nanoparticles-Based Electronic Biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for fabricating electronic biosensors based on coupling enzyme nanoparticles and self assembly technology is illustrated. Redox horseradish peroxidase nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation with ethanol and subsequent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The cross-linked enzyme nanoparticles were functionalized by cysteine to introduce thiol groups on the nanoparticle surface. Immobilized enzyme nanoparticle on the gold electrode by self-assembly kept redox

Guodong Liu; Yuehe Lin; V. Ostatna; Joseph Wang

2005-01-01

316

High relaxivities and strong vascular signal enhancement for NaGdF4 nanoparticles designed for dual MR/optical imaging.  

PubMed

Near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconverting NaY(Gd)F4 :Tm(3+) ,Yb(3+) paramagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are efficiently detected by NIR imaging techniques. As they contain Gd(3+) ions, they also provide efficient "positive" contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Water-dispersible small (?25 nm, "S-") and ultrasmall (<5 nm diam., "US-") NaY(Gd)F4 :Tm(3+) ,Yb(3+) NPs are synthesized by thermal decomposition and capped with citrate. The surface of citrate-coated US-NPs shows sodium depletion and high Gd elemental ratios, as confirmed by a comparative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)/neutron absorption analysis study. US-NaGd0.745 F4 :Tm0.005 ,Yb0.25 NPs have hydrodynamic diameters close to that measured by TEM, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2 /r1 = 1.18) reported for NaGdF4 nanoparticle suspensions (r1 = 3.37 mM(-1) s(-1) at 1.4 T and 37 °C). Strong relaxivity peaks in the range of 20 (0.47 T) - 300 MHz (7.05 T) are revealed in nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion profiles, with high r2 /r1 ratios at increasing field strengths for S-NPs. This indicates the superiority of US-NPs over S-NPs for achieving high positive contrast at clinical MRI field strengths. I.-v. injected citrate-coated US-NPs evidence long blood retention times (>90 min) in mice. Biodistribution studies (48 h, 8 d) show elimination through the reticuloendothelial and urinary systems, similarly to other citrate-capped US-NP systems. In summary, upconverting NaY(Gd)F4 :Tm(3+) ,Yb(3+) nanoparticles have promising luminescent, relaxometric and blood-retention properties for dual MRI/optical imaging. PMID:23666643

Naccache, Rafik; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Vander Elst, Luce; Chilian, Cornelia; Capobianco, John A; Fortin, Marc-André

2013-11-01

317

Highly lattice-mismatched semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures: gold nanoparticle encapsulated luminescent silicon quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of hybrid core-shell nanostructures requires moderate lattice mismatch (<5%) between the materials of the core and the shell and usually results in the formation of structures with an atomically larger entity comprising the core. A reverse situation, where an atomically larger entity encapsulates a smaller atomic radius component having substantial lattice mismatch is unachievable by conventional growth techniques. Here, we report successful synthesis of ultra-small, light-emitting Si quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated by Au nanoparticles (NPs) forming a hybrid nanocomposite that exhibits intense room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and intriguing plasmon-exciton coupling. A facile strategy was adopted to utilize the active surface of oxide etched Si QDs as preferential sites for Au NP nucleation and growth which resulted in the formation of core-shell nanostructures consisting of an atomically smaller Si QD core surrounded by a substantially lattice-mismatched Au NP shell. The PL characteristics of the luminescent Si QDs (quantum yield ~28%) are dramatically altered following Au NP encapsulation. Au coverage of the bare Si QDs effectively stabilizes the emission spectrum and leads to a red-shift of the PL maxima by ~37 nm. The oxide related PL peaks observed in Si QDs are absent in the Au treated sample suggesting the disappearance of oxide states and the appearance of Au NP associated Stark shifted interface states within the widened band-gap of the Si QDs. Emission kinetics of the hybrid system show accelerated decay due to non-radiative energy transfer between the Si QDs and the Au NPs and associated quenching in PL efficiency. Nevertheless, the quantum yield of the hybrid remains high (~20%) which renders these hetero-nanostructures exciting candidates for multifarious applications.Synthesis of hybrid core-shell nanostructures requires moderate lattice mismatch (<5%) between the materials of the core and the shell and usually results in the formation of structures with an atomically larger entity comprising the core. A reverse situation, where an atomically larger entity encapsulates a smaller atomic radius component having substantial lattice mismatch is unachievable by conventional growth techniques. Here, we report successful synthesis of ultra-small, light-emitting Si quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated by Au nanoparticles (NPs) forming a hybrid nanocomposite that exhibits intense room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and intriguing plasmon-exciton coupling. A facile strategy was adopted to utilize the active surface of oxide etched Si QDs as preferential sites for Au NP nucleation and growth which resulted in the formation of core-shell nanostructures consisting of an atomically smaller Si QD core surrounded by a substantially lattice-mismatched Au NP shell. The PL characteristics of the luminescent Si QDs (quantum yield ~28%) are dramatically altered following Au NP encapsulation. Au coverage of the bare Si QDs effectively stabilizes the emission spectrum and leads to a red-shift of the PL maxima by ~37 nm. The oxide related PL peaks observed in Si QDs are absent in the Au treated sample suggesting the disappearance of oxide states and the appearance of Au NP associated Stark shifted interface states within the widened band-gap of the Si QDs. Emission kinetics of the hybrid system show accelerated decay due to non-radiative energy transfer between the Si QDs and the Au NPs and associated quenching in PL efficiency. Nevertheless, the quantum yield of the hybrid remains high (~20%) which renders these hetero-nanostructures exciting candidates for multifarious applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05960j

Ray, Mallar; Basu, Tuhin Shuvra; Bandyopadhyay, Nil Ratan; Klie, Robert F.; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Raja, Sufi Oasim; Dasgupta, Anjan K.

2014-01-01

318

Nanoparticles as biochemical sensors  

PubMed Central

There is little doubt that nanoparticles offer real and new opportunities in many fields, such as biomedicine and materials science. Such particles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including cells and organelles, potentially leading to new approaches in nanomedicine. Sensors for small molecules of biochemical interest are of critical importance. This review is an attempt to trace the use of nanomaterials in biochemical sensor design. The possibility of using nanoparticles functionalized with antibodies as markers for proteins will be elucidated. Moreover, capabilities and applications for nanoparticles based on gold, silver, magnetic, and semiconductor materials (quantum dots), used in optical (absorbance, luminescence, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance), electrochemical, and mass-sensitive sensors will be highlighted. The unique ability of nanosensors to improve the analysis of biochemical fluids is discussed either through considering the use of nanoparticles for in vitro molecular diagnosis, or in the biological/biochemical analysis for in vivo interaction with the human body. PMID:24198472

El-Ansary, Afaf; Faddah, Layla M

2010-01-01

319

Engineering Pharmaceutical Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Engineering Pharmaceutical Nanoparticles Cory Berkland Assistant Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Assistant Professor Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering The University of Kansas 2 Acknowledgements Postdocs: David Shi... enough to enter cells. Particle size >200 nm enables intracellular delivery. www.genovis.com 6 Particle engineering is critical for pharmaceutical applications. ? Dissolution rate #0;z Control size ? Pulmonary delivery #0;z ~3 microns ? Nasal...

Berkland, Cory

2006-10-26

320

Traveling Nanoparticles Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) about diffusion of small molecules across cell membranes. Learners will use gelatin to represent a cell and dye to represent molecules to model how small molecules such as nanoparticles can penetrate living environments. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Nanosilver.

Forbes, Neil; Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

321

In vitro biomedical applications of functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles, including those not related to magnetic properties.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are very promising contrast media, especially for molecular imaging, due to their superior NMR efficacy. They even have wider biomedical applications such as in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and bioseparation, or as sensitive biological nanosensors. By coupling them to affinity ligands, SPION can bind to drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies or nucleotides. For in vitro biomedical applications, the detection of molecular interaction is possible by using a diversity of systems capable of sensing the magnetic properties of these materials. The goal of the present work was to develop and validate various in vitro biomedical applications of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO), including some that are not related to their magnetic properties. USPIO coated with dextran, starch or bisphosphonate exposing carboxylate groups were synthesized and some of them were functionalized by conjugating various biomolecules, such as biotin, streptavidin and apoptosis, or VCAM-1 specific peptides. The in vitro biomedical applications assessed in the present work included: (1) the relaxometric measurement of antibody concentration, cell receptor expression, molecular interaction, and enzymatic activity in aqueous suspensions; (2) MRI visualization of cells and detection of molecular interaction in an ELISA system; (3) ELISA applications of USPIO derivatives; and (4) detection of specific biomolecules by histochemistry. Our results confirm that rapid and simple in vitro detection of a diversity of functionalized SPION with relevance in medicine is possible by the existing NMR techniques and by chemical staining reactions. The protocols can be applied to minimally prepared biological samples (e.g. whole blood, blood plasma or serum, cell suspensions, biopsies, histological preparations, etc.), and often do not need complicated systems of signal amplification. The use of SPION labeled compounds could furthermore contribute to cost reductions in the diagnosis and in patient care. PMID:21861284

Burtea, Carmen; Laurent, Sophie; Mahieu, Isabelle; Larbanoix, Lionel; Roch, Alain; Port, Marc; Rousseaux, Olivier; Ballet, Sébastien; Murariu, Oltea; Toubeau, Gérard; Corot, Claire; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

2011-01-01

322

Photoacoustic signal amplification through plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic imaging, using targeted plasmonic metallic nanoparticles, is a promising noninvasive molecular imaging method. Analysis of the photoacoustic signal generated by plasmonic metallic nanoparticles is complex because of the dependence upon physical properties of both the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. We studied the effect of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles on the photoacoustic signal amplitude. We found that the photoacoustic signal from aggregated silica-coated gold nanoparticles is greatly enhanced in comparison to disperse silica-coated gold nanoparticles. Because cellular uptake and endocytosis of nanoparticles results in their aggregation, these results have important implications for the application of plasmonic metallic nanoparticles towards quantitative molecular imaging.

Bayer, Carolyn L.; Nam, Seung Yun; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2013-01-01

323

Evaluation of monolayer protected metal nanoparticle technology  

E-print Network

Self assembling nanostructured nanoparticles represent a new class of synthesized materials with unique functionality. Such monolayer protected metal nanoparticles are capable of resisting protein adsorption, and if utilized ...

Wu, Diana J

2005-01-01

324

Nanoparticles for Detection and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle-based platforms for identification of chemical and biological agents offer substantial benefits to biomedical and environmental science. These platforms benefit from the availability of a wide variety of core materials as well as the unique physical and chemical properties of these nanoscale materials. This review surveys some of the emerging approaches in the field of nanoparticle based detection systems, highlighting the nanoparticle based screening methods for metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and biologically relevant small molecules. PMID:19913581

Agasti, Sarit S.; Rana, Subinoy; Park, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Chae Kyu; You, Chang-Cheng; Rotello, Vincent M.

2009-01-01

325

Semishells: versatile plasmonic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Localized surface plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures have a strong impact on light scattering, absorption, and local field intensities at the nanoscale. Tweaking the nanoparticle shape, size, and material enables researchers to engineer the resonance wavelength position, the nanoparticles' local field enhancement, and their scattering properties. In particular, by breaking the symmetry of originally symmetric nanostructures, additional degrees of freedom can be explored. One particular example of a highly investigated nanostructure is the so-called semishell (or nanocup or nanocrescent moon). In this issue of ACS Nano, King et al. report on the angular and spectral scattering properties of plasmonic semishells and the effect of a high-index substrate on these properties. PMID:21866935

Van Dorpe, Pol; Ye, Jian

2011-09-27

326

Magnetism in gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles currently elicit an intense and very broad research activity because of their peculiar properties. Be it in catalysis, optics, electronics, sensing or theranostics, new applications are found daily for these materials. Approximately a decade ago a report was published with magnetometry data showing that gold nanoparticles, most surprisingly, could also be magnetic, with features that the usual rules of magnetism were unable to explain. Many ensuing experimental papers confirmed this observation, although the reported magnetic behaviours showed a great variability, for unclear reasons. In this review, most of the experimental facts pertaining to ``magnetic gold'' are summarized. The various theories put forth for explaining this unexpected magnetism are presented and discussed. We show that despite much effort, a satisfying explanation is still lacking and that the field of hypotheses should perhaps be widened.

Nealon, Gareth L.; Donnio, Bertrand; Greget, Romain; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Terazzi, Emmanuel; Gallani, Jean-Louis

2012-08-01

327

Magnetic Nanoparticle Sensors  

PubMed Central

Many types of biosensors employ magnetic nanoparticles (diameter = 5–300 nm) or magnetic particles (diameter = 300–5,000 nm) which have been surface functionalized to recognize specific molecular targets. Here we cover three types of biosensors that employ different biosensing principles, magnetic materials, and instrumentation. The first type consists of magnetic relaxation switch assay-sensors, which are based on the effects magnetic particles exert on water proton relaxation rates. The second type consists of magnetic particle relaxation sensors, which determine the relaxation of the magnetic moment within the magnetic particle. The third type is magnetoresistive sensors, which detect the presence of magnetic particles on the surface of electronic devices that are sensitive to changes in magnetic fields on their surface. Recent improvements in the design of magnetic nanoparticles (and magnetic particles), together with improvements in instrumentation, suggest that magnetic material-based biosensors may become widely used in the future. PMID:22408498

Koh, Isaac; Josephson, Lee

2009-01-01

328

Reflection of nanoparticles  

E-print Network

This work is devoted to molecular dynamics modeling of collision of nanoparticle having a small number of degrees of freedom with a structureless plain. The new regularities are established that determine properties of such particles. Generalized collision law is obtained where particle properties are determined by two coefficient, on of which corresponds to restitution coefficient. The discovered regularity predicts the existence of anomalous mode of particle reflection from a massive plain. In this mode, velocity of nanoparticle after reflection from a plain can exceed the initial one. The criterion of realization of such mode is obtained. Anomalous collision mode was observed during numerical modeling. Physical mechanism are discussed of phenomena that are observed during numerical experiments.

M. A. Ratner; A. V. Tur; V. V. Yanovsky

2013-12-18

329

Nanoparticle Toxicity Mechanisms: Genotoxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the relatively small amount of convincing experimental data, the potentially genotoxic nature of certain nanoparticles seems plausible, owing in particular to the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as the superoxide anion O2 • - , the hydroxyl radical • OH, and singlet oxygen 1O2, and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitrogen monoxide NO, the peroxynitrite anion ONOO - , the peroxynitrite radical ONOO • , and dinitrogen trioxide N2O3, a powerful nitration agent.

Botta, Alain; Benameur, La??la

330

Nanoparticles in dermatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology have allowed the manufacturing of elaborated nanometer-sized particles for\\u000a various biomedical applications. A broad spectrum of particles, extending from various lipid nanostructures such as liposomes\\u000a and solid lipid nanoparticles, to metal, nanocrystalline and polymer particles have already been tested as drug delivery systems\\u000a in different animal models with remarkable results, promising an extensive

Dimitrios Papakostas; Fiorenza Rancan; Wolfram Sterry; Ulrike Blume-Peytavi; Annika Vogt

331

Characterization of starch nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

Szymo?ska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

2009-01-01

332

Sensing with fluorescent nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent chemosensors are chemical systems that can detect and signal the presence of selected analytes through variations in their fluorescence emission. Their peculiar properties make them arguably one of the most useful tools that chemistry has provided to biomedical research, enabling the intracellular monitoring of many different species for medical and biological purposes. In its simplest design, a fluorescent chemosensor is composed of a fluorescent dye and a receptor, with a built-in transduction mechanism that converts recognition events into variations of the emission properties of the fluorescent dye. As soon as fluorescent nanoparticles became available, several applications in the field of sensing were explored. Nanoparticles have been used not only as better-performing substitutes of traditional dyes but also as multivalent scaffolds for the realization of supramolecular assemblies, while their high surface to volume ratio allows for distinct spatial domains (bulk, external surface, pores and shells) to be functionalized to a comparable extent with different organic species. Over the last few years, nanoparticles proved to be versatile synthetic platforms for the implementation of new sensing schemes.

Baù, Luca; Tecilla, Paolo; Mancin, Fabrizio

2011-01-01

333

Nanoparticles forNanoparticles for Pharmaceutical ApplicationsPharmaceutical Applications  

E-print Network

1 Nanoparticles forNanoparticles for Pharmaceutical ApplicationsPharmaceutical Applications Robert--soluble drugssoluble drugs 40% of pharmaceutical drugs in development40% of pharmaceutical drugs in development engineering 4 Solution: delivery system for PWS drugsSolution: delivery system for PWS drugs Melt extrusion

Lightsey, Glenn

334

Immobilizing gold nanoparticles in mesoporous silica covered reduced graphene oxide: a hybrid material for cancer cell detection through hydrogen peroxide sensing.  

PubMed

A new kind of two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid material (RGO-PMS@AuNPs), fabricated by the immobilization of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, ?3 nm) onto sandwich-like periodic mesopourous silica (PMS) coated reduced graphene oxide (RGO), was employed for both electrocatalytic application and cancer cell detection. The hybrid-based electrode sensor showed attractive electrochemical performance for sensitive and selective nonenzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline, with wide linear detection range (0.5 ?M to 50 mM), low detection limit (60 nM), and good sensitivity (39.2 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2)), and without any interference by common interfering agents. In addition, the sensor exhibited a high capability for glucose sensing and H2O2 detection in human urine. More interestingly, the hybrid was found to be nontoxic, and the electrode sensor could sensitively detect a trace amount of H2O2 in a nanomolar level released from living tumor cells (HeLa and HepG2). Because the hybrid presents significant properties for the detection of bioactive species and certain cancerous cells by the synergistic effect from RGO, PMS, and AuNPs, it could be able to serve as a versatile platform for biosensing, bioanalysis, and biomedical applications. PMID:25046127

Maji, Swarup Kumar; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Mandal, Amal Kumar; Ma, Xing; Zhao, Yanli

2014-08-27

335

Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and, more importantly, “application research” in nanotechnology. A variety of chemical and physical procedures could be used for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. However, these methods are fraught with many problems including use of toxic solvents, generation of hazardous by-products, and high energy consumption. Accordingly, there is an essential need

Kaushik N. Thakkar; Snehit S. Mhatre; Rasesh Y. Parikh

2010-01-01

336

Role of Nanoparticles in Photocatalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review paper is to give an overview of the development and implications of nanotechnology in photocatalysis. The topics covered include a detailed look at the unique properties of nanoparticles and their relation to photocatalytic properties. Current applications of and research into the use of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has also been reviewed. Also covered is the utilization

D. Beydoun; R. Amal; G. Low; S. McEvoy

1999-01-01

337

Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential health and environmental effects of nanoparticles need to be thoroughly assessed before their widespread commercialization. Though there are few studies on cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on mammalian and human cell lines, there are hardly any reports on genotoxic and cytotoxic behavior of nanoparticles in plant cells. This study aims to investigate cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of silver nanoparticles using root

Mamta Kumari; A. Mukherjee; N. Chandrasekaran

2009-01-01

338

Functionalized nanoparticles for sensor applications.  

SciTech Connect

We will describe our work on functionalized arrays of nanoparticles crosslinked with short conducting molecules that contain sensing functionalities. These bridging ligands modulate their conductivity based on their interaction with analytes. This functionalized nanoparticles organic ligand composite material once it is assembled between nanogaps electrodes will provide nanosized sensors that can be easily interrogated. These nanogap sensors will be engineered so that they can be fabricated into arrays of different sensor elements. This project consists of a number of different requirements that must be met in order to enable the use of functionalized nanoparticles for sensor applications. The first requirement is the appropriately functionalized nanoparticle. The second is a method to assemble the particles. The third requirement is the generation of a nanogap to contain the nanoparticles. The successes in each of these areas will be discussed as will the sensing behavior of the final films.

Simonson, Robert Joseph; Childs, Kenton David; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David Roger

2005-09-01

339

Physical contribution of Néel and Brown relaxation to interpreting intracellular hyperthermia characteristics using superparamagnetic nanofluids.  

PubMed

In this work, the AC magnetically-induced heating characteristics of various viscous nanofluids with either soft ferrite (Fe3O4) or hard ferrite (CoFe2O4) superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) were investigated to empirically and physically interpret the contribution of "Néel relaxation loss power, P(Néel relaxation loss)," or "Brown relaxation loss power, P(Brown relaxation loss)," to the total AC heat generation of intracellular hyperthermia or in-vivo hyperthermia. It was found that the contribution of P(Brown relaxation loss) to the total AC heating power, P(totaI), and the specific loss power (SLP) was severely affected by the surrounding environment (or in-vivo environment) while the contribution of P(Néel relaxation loss) to the P(total) was independent of the variation of surrounding environment. Furthermore, all the theoretical and experimental results strongly suggested that highly efficacious intracellular hyperthermia (or in-vivo hyperthermia) modality can be achieved by enhancing the P(Néel relaxation loss) rather than the P(Brown relaxation loss) of SPNP agents in nanofluids. PMID:23882824

Jeun, Minhong; Kim, Yu Jeong; Park, Ki Ho; Paek, Sun Ha; Bae, Seongtae

2013-08-01

340

Biomagnetic of Apatite-Coated Cobalt Ferrite: A Core-Shell Particle for Protein Adsorption and pH-Controlled Release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticle composite with a cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4, (CF)) core and an apatite (Ap) coating was synthesized using a biomineralization process in which a modified simulated body fluid (1.5SBF) solution is the source of the calcium phosphate for the apatite formation. The core-shell structure formed after the citric acid-stabilized cobalt ferrite (CFCA) particles were incubated in the 1.5 SBF solution for 1 week. The mean particle size of CFCA-Ap is about 750 nm. A saturation magnetization of 15.56 emug-1 and a coercivity of 1808.5 Oe were observed for the CFCA-Ap obtained. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the model protein to study the adsorption and release of the proteins by the CFCA-Ap particles. The protein adsorption by the CFCA-Ap particles followed a more typical Freundlich than Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The BSA release as a function of time became less rapid as the CFCA-Ap particles were immersed in higher pH solution, thus indicating that the BSA release is dependent on the local pH.

Tang, I.-Ming; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara; Pon-On, Weeraphat

2010-12-01

341

Carcinogenicity of inhaled nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Large epidemiological studies in the United States have shown a statistical association between air concentration of the fine dust fraction PM(2.5) in the general environment and increased risk of lung cancer. A quantitative risk assessment for lung cancer based on these studies corresponds to risk estimates based on studies at workplaces with exposure to diesel engine emissions; its magnitude cannot be explained by the known carcinogenicity of organic substances or metals adsorbed to the insoluble particle core. Carcinogenic effects of diesel particles were observed after inhalation in rats independently in several studies. The surprisingly strong effect of diesel particles was partially attributed to their small size. This hypothesis was corroborated by inhalation studies with synthetic nanoparticles virtually free of organic compounds. IARC found sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of carbon black and of titanium dioxide in experimental animals. Long-term studies by the method of intratracheal instillation confirmed the carcinogenic effects in rats for an even broader spectrum of synthetic nanoparticles. Non-positive studies with hamsters are not valid because hamsters did not develop lung tumors after inhalation of some known human carcinogens. In recent years, the number of publications reporting in vitro genotoxicity of TiO(2) and of carbon black nanomaterials has increased. Overall, there is clear positive evidence for carcinogenicity in rats, together with supporting evidence from human data of structurally related substances. Therefore, the European Union (EU) criteria for category 2 of carcinogenic substances appear to be fulfilled for bio-durable nanoparticles consisting of matter without known significant specific toxicity. PMID:19558247

Roller, Markus

2009-07-01

342

Biological nanoparticles and their influence on organisms.  

PubMed

Over millions of years, biological systems have evolved wide varieties of nanoparticles. Naturally occurring nanoparticles show great diversity: they may be intracellular or extracellular, formed of organic or inorganic materials and have wide-ranging biological roles. Despite this diversity, nanoparticles found in nature possess several characteristics that make them attractive for biomedical purposes. This review presents an overview of the most common biological nanoparticles and outlines the potential applications of natural and modified biological nanoparticles. PMID:24832077

Stanley, Sarah

2014-08-01

343

Baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel class of baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles was designed based on the pressure-induced miscibility between a low Tg component core and a high Tg component shell and obtained by a two-stage miniemulsion polymerization technique. By changing the amount of surfactant and monomer feed ratio, the size and composition of core-shell nanoparticles were controlled and almost homogenous particles with very narrow particle size distribution were obtained in each synthetic step. Trilayerd core-shell nanoparticles, which have an additional inner-core, were also successfully synthesized by sequential addition of monomers. The baroplasticity of these core-shell nanoparticles was demonstrated by compression molding and characterized by SANS, DSC, and TEM. Transparent objects were molded at temperatures as low as 25 oC under 5000 psi pressure, and recycled up to 10 times, from poly(n-butyl acrylate)/polystyrene or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate)/polystyrene systems. The particle size was found to play an important role to determine the optical and mechanical properties of the resulting product. By comparison with bilayered core-shell nanoparticles, improved mechanical properties were observed in trilayered systems due to the enlarged interface region. Finally, blend or hybrid baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles were prepared incorporating other polymer or inorganic nanoparticles.

Woog Ryu, Sang; Gonzalez, Juan; Acar, Metin; Mayes, Anne

2004-03-01

344

Nanoparticle optical notch filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing novel light blocking products involves the design of a nanoparticle optical notch filter, working on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). These light blocking products can be used in many applications. One such application is to naturally reduce migraine headaches and light sensitivity. Melanopsin ganglion cells present in the retina of the human eye, connect to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN-the body's clock) in the brain, where they participate in the entrainment of the circadian rhythms. As the Melanopsin ganglion cells are involved in triggering the migraine headaches in photophobic patients, it is necessary to block the part of visible spectrum that activates these cells. It is observed from the action potential spectrum of the ganglion cells that they absorb light ranging from 450-500nm (blue-green part) of the visible spectrum with a ?max (peak sensitivity) of around 480nm (blue line). Currently prescribed for migraine patients is the FL-41 coating, which blocks a broad range of wavelengths, including wavelengths associated with melanopsin absorption. The nanoparticle optical notch filter is designed to block light only at 480nm, hence offering an effective prescription for the treatment of migraine headaches.

Kasinadhuni, Pradeep Kumar

345

Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of ˜800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of ˜324 emu/cm3.

Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

2012-12-01

346

Electrochemiluminescent metallopolymer-nanoparticle composites: nanoparticle size effects.  

PubMed

Metallopolymer-gold nanocomposites have been synthesized in which the metal complex-Au nanoparticle (NP) mole ratio is systematically varied by mixing solutions of 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine protected gold nanoparticles and a [Ru(bpy)(2)PVP(10)](2+) metallopolymer; bpy is 2,2'-bipyridyl and PVP is poly-(4-vinylpyridine). The impact of changing the gold nanoparticle diameter ranging from 4.0 ± 0.5 to 12.5 ± 1 nm has been investigated. The photo induced emission of the metallopolymer undergoes static quenching by the metal nanoparticles irrespective of their size. When the volume ratio of Au NP-Ru is 1, the quenching efficiency increases from 38% to 93% on going from 4.0 ± 0.5 to 12.5 ± 1 nm diameter nanoparticles while the radius of the quenching sphere remains unaffected at 75 ± 5 Å. The conductivity of thin films is initially unaffected by nanoparticle incorporation until a percolation threshold is reached at a mole ratio of 4.95 × 10(-2) after which the conductivity increases before reaching a maximum. For thin films of the nanocomposites on electrodes, the electrochemiluminescence intensity of the nanocomposite initially increases as nanoparticles are added before decreasing for the highest loadings. The electrochemiluminescence intensity increases with increasing nanoparticle diameter. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emission intensity of the nanocomposite formed using 12.5 nm particles at mole ratios between 5 × 10(-3) and 10 × 10(-3) is approximately 7-fold higher than that found for the parent metallopolymer. The application of these materials for low cost ECL-based point of care devices is discussed. PMID:21361366

Devadoss, Anitha; Dickinson, Calum; Keyes, Tia E; Forster, Robert J

2011-03-15

347

Enhancement of Faraday effect in one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal including a magnetic layer with wavelength dependent off-diagonal elements of dielectric constant tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal (1-D MPC) prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating method, including a magnetic defect layer composed of mixture of CoFe2O4 and SiO2, are investigated from both the experimental and theoretical standpoints. The resonant transmission of light was observed around 570 nm in the photonic band gap. The Faraday rotation angle ?F showed two maxima at 490 and 640 nm, and the wavelength dependence of ?F above 760 nm was similar to that of the CoFe2O4+SiO2 single-layer film. The two maxima of ?F are attributed to the enhanced Faraday rotation of nonmagnetic TiO2 layers in the cavity structure and that in magnetic CoFe2O4+SiO2 layer through the light localization in MPC. The maximum value of ?F due to the magnetic CoFe2O4+SiO2 layer in the MPC was 22-times larger than that in the single-layer film. The simulation study of MPC with CoFe2O4+SiO2 magnetic defect layer, based on the matrix approach method, showed that the resonant light transmission was accompanied by the localization of electric field, and large enhancement of ?F appeared at different wavelengths so as to agree with the experimental features. This can be explained in terms of the wavelength dependent off-diagonal components of the dielectric constant tensor in addition to the large extinction coefficient in the CoFe2O4+SiO2 magnetic defect layer.

Inui, Chie; Ozaki, Shinsuke; Kura, Hiroaki; Sato, Tetsuya

2011-10-01

348

Non-Engineered Nanoparticles of C60  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discovered that rubbing bulk solids of C60 between fingertips generates nanoparticles including the ones smaller than 20 nm. Considering the difficulties usually associated with nanoparticle production by pulverisation, formation of nanoparticles by such a mundane method is unprecedented and noteworthy. We also found that nanoparticles of C60 could be generated from bulk solids incidentally without deliberate engineering of any sort. Our findings imply that there exist highly unusual human exposure routes to nanoparticles of C60, and elucidating formation mechanisms of nanoparticles is crucial in assessing their environmental impacts.

Deguchi, Shigeru; Mukai, Sada-Atsu; Sakaguchi, Hide; Nonomura, Yoshimune

2013-06-01

349

Non-engineered nanoparticles of C??.  

PubMed

We discovered that rubbing bulk solids of C?? between fingertips generates nanoparticles including the ones smaller than 20?nm. Considering the difficulties usually associated with nanoparticle production by pulverisation, formation of nanoparticles by such a mundane method is unprecedented and noteworthy. We also found that nanoparticles of C?? could be generated from bulk solids incidentally without deliberate engineering of any sort. Our findings imply that there exist highly unusual human exposure routes to nanoparticles of C??, and elucidating formation mechanisms of nanoparticles is crucial in assessing their environmental impacts. PMID:23807024

Deguchi, Shigeru; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Sakaguchi, Hide; Nonomura, Yoshimune

2013-01-01

350

Interaction of erythrocytes with magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Internalization of biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles by red blood cells (RBCs) is a key issue for opportunities of new applications in the biomedical field. In this study, we used in vitro tests to provide evidences of magnetic nanoparticle internalization by mice red blood cells. The internalization process depends upon the nanoparticle concentration and the nanoparticle hydrodynamic radii. The cell internalization of surface-coated maghemite nanoparticles was indirectly tracked by Raman spectroscopy and directly observed using transmission electron microscopy. The observation of nanoparticle cell uptaking using in vitro experiments represents an important breakthrough for the application of nanomagnetism in diagnosis and therapy of RBC-related diseases. PMID:17450877

Soler, Maria A G; Báo, Sônia N; Alcântara, Gustavo B; Tibúrcio, Victor H S; Paludo, Giane R; Santana, José F B; Guedes, Maria H; Lima, Emilia C D; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Morais, Paulo C

2007-03-01

351

Citrate Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of gold nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

2009-01-22

352

Multiscaffold DNA Origami Nanoparticle Waveguides  

PubMed Central

DNA origami templated self-assembly has shown its potential in creating rationally designed nanophotonic devices in a parallel and repeatable manner. In this investigation, we employ a multiscaffold DNA origami approach to fabricate linear waveguides of 10 nm diameter gold nanoparticles. This approach provides independent control over nanoparticle separation and spatial arrangement. The waveguides were characterized using atomic force microscopy and far-field polarization spectroscopy. This work provides a path toward large-scale plasmonic circuitry. PMID:23841957

2013-01-01

353

Spontaneous emission in dielectric nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical expression is obtained for the radiative-decay rate of an excited optical center in an ellipsoidal dielectric\\u000a nanoparticle (with sizes much less than the wavelength) surrounded by a dielectric medium. It is found that the ratio of the\\u000a decay rate A\\u000a nano of an excited optical center in the nanoparticle to the decay rate A\\u000a bulk of an excited

K. K. Pukhov; T. T. Basiev; Yu. V. Orlovskii

2008-01-01

354

Exposure to Nanoparticles and Hormesis  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles are particles with lengths that range from 1 to 100 nm. They are increasingly being manufactured and used for commercial purpose because of their novel and unique physicochemical properties. Although nanotechnology-based products are generally thought to be at a pre-competitive stage, an increasing number of products and materials are becoming commercially available. Human exposure to nanoparticles is therefore inevitable as they become more widely used and, as a result, nanotoxicology research is now gaining attention. However, there are many uncertainties as to whether the unique properties of nanoparticles also pose occupational health risks. These uncertainties arise because of gaps in knowledge about the factors that are essential for predicting health risks such as routes of exposure, distribution, accumulation, excretion and dose-response relationship of the nanoparticles. In particular, uncertainty remains with regard to the nature of the dose-response curve at low level exposures below the toxic threshold. In fact, in the literature, some studies that investigated the biological effects of nanoparticles, observed a hormetic dose-response. However, currently available data regarding this topic are extremely limited and fragmentary. It therefore seems clear that future studies need to focus on this issue by studying the potential adverse health effects caused by low-level exposures to nanoparticles. PMID:21191487

Iavicoli, Ivo; Calabrese, Edward J.; Nascarella, Marc A.

2010-01-01

355

Nitric Oxide Nanoparticle Technology  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus infections account for the majority of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. Staphylococcus aureus is rapidly evolving resistance to contemporary topical as well as systemic antibiotics. Alternatives to current treatment options for skin and soft tissue infections are needed for more effective treatment now and in the future. Nitric oxide's proven roles in both wound repair and as an antimicrobial agent make it an excellent candidate for the treatment of skin infections. Recent attempts at novel nitric oxide therapies, in the form of nitric oxide donors, have shown limited potential in treating cutaneous infection. However, more recent developments in nitric oxide delivery, using nitric oxide nanoparticle technology, demonstrate substantial promise in the promotion of wound repair and eradication of skin and soft tissue infections. PMID:20725551

Englander, Laura

2010-01-01

356

Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Humans are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter < 100 nm) from ambient air and certain workplaces. There are two main types of NPs; combustion-derived NPs (e.g., particulate matters, diesel exhaust particles, welding fumes) and manufactured or engineered NPs (e.g., titanium dioxide, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, silver, zinc oxide, copper oxide). Recently, there have been increasing reports indicating that inhaled NPs can reach the brain and may be associated with neurodegeneration. It is necessary to evaluate the potential toxic effects of NPs on brain because most of the neurobehavioral disorders may be of environmental origin. This review highlights studies on both combustion-derived NP- and manufactured or engineered NP-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and gene expression, as well as the possible mechanism of these effects in animal models and in humans. PMID:22016657

Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

2011-01-01

357

Interfacial functionalization and engineering of nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intense research interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology is largely fueled by the unique properties of nanoscale materials. In this dissertation, the research efforts are focused on surface functionalization and interfacial engineering of functional nanoparticles in the preparation of patchy nanoparticles (e.g., Janus nanoparticles and Neapolitan nanoparticles) such that the nanoparticle structures and properties may be manipulated to an unprecedented level of sophistication. Experimentally, Janus nanoparticles were prepared by an interfacial engineering method where one hemisphere of the originally hydrophobic nanoparticles was replaced with hydrophilic ligands at the air|liquid or solid|liquid interface. The amphiphilic surface characters of the Janus nanoparticles were verified by contact angle measurements, as compared to those of the bulk-exchange counterparts where the two types of ligands were distributed rather homogeneously on the nanoparticle surface. In a further study, a mercapto derivative of diacetylene was used as the hydrophilic ligands to prepare Janus nanoparticles by using hydrophobic hexanethiolate-protected gold nanoparticles as the starting materials. Exposure to UV irradiation led to effective covalent cross-linking between the diacetylene moieties of neighboring ligands and hence marked enhancement of the structural integrity of the Janus nanoparticles, which was attributable to the impeded surface diffusion of the thiol ligands on the nanoparticle surface, as manifested in fluorescence measurements of aged nanoparticles. More complicated bimetallic AgAu Janus nanoparticles were prepared by interfacial galvanic exchange reactions of a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of 1-hexanethiolate-passivated silver nanoparticles on a glass slide with gold(I)-mercaptopropanediol complex in a water/ethanol solution. The resulting nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution not only of the organic capping ligands on the nanoparticle surface but also of the metal elements in the nanoparticle cores, in contrast to the bulk-exchange counterparts where these distributions were homogeneous within the nanoparticles, as manifested in contact angle, UV--vis, XPS, and TEM measurements. More interestingly, the electrocatalytic performance of the Janus nanoparticles was markedly better than the bulk-exchange ones, suggesting that the segregated distribution of the polar ligands from the apolar ones might further facilitate charge transfer from Ag to Au in the nanoparticle cores, leading to additional improvement of the adsorption and reduction of oxygen. This interfacial protocol was then adopted to prepare trimetallic Ag AuPt Neapolitan nanoparticles by two sequential galvanic exchange reactions of 1-hexanethiolate-capped silver nanoparticles with gold(I)-thiomalic acid and platinum(II)-hexanethiolate complexes. As both reactions were confined to an interface, the Au and Pt elements were situated on two opposite poles of the original Ag nanoparticles, which was clearly manifested in elemental mapping of the nanoparticles, and consistent with the damping and red-shift of the nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance. As nanoscale analogs to conventional amphiphilic molecules, the resulting Janus nanoparticles were found to form oil-in-water micelle-like or water-in-oil reverse micelle-like superparticulate structures depending on the solvent media. These unique characteristics were exploited for the effective transfer of diverse guest nanoparticles between organic and water phase. The transfer of hydrophobic nanoparticles from organic to water media or water-soluble nanoparticles to the organic phase was evidenced by TEM, DLS, UV-Vis, and PL measurements. In particular, line scans based on EDS analysis showed that the vesicle-like structures consisted of multiple layers of the Janus nanoparticles, which encapsulated the guest nanoparticles in the cores. The results highlight the unique effectiveness of using Janus nanoparticles in the formation of functional nanocomposites. Part of the dissertation research was al

Song, Yang

358

Creation of "bonding structures" on nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles can be used as a new type of fundamental building blocks to construct macroscopic materials, and hierarchically organized nanoparticles often show enhanced properties originated from the collective interactions among these individual nanoscale building blocks. Taking one step further, colloidal molecules with well-defined architectures made by directed assembly of nanoparticles could serve as the basic structural units of more complex functional materials. This is highly desirable but challenging due to the lack of "bonding structures" on nanoparticles. In this thesis, we aim to create "bonding structures" on nanoparticles by modifying them with heterogeneously functionalized polymers bearing "click" moieties. We hypothesize that by controlling the location of "click" recognition pairs on nanoparticles, well-defined polymer linkers, nanoparticle geometry and reaction stoichiometry, the "directionality", "bonding length", and "valency" characteristics of real chemical bonds could be introduced on as-synthesized nanoparticles, which will help organize nanoparticles into colloidal molecules via highly specific and efficient "click" reactions. Using gold nanoparticles as models, we show here that well-defined, heterogeneously functionalized polymer chains bearing "click" recognition pairs can be prepared, and subsequently used to modify gold nanoparticles at controlled locations. Our future work is to study the broad utility of this strategy on creating "bonding structures" on nanoparticles to transform them into "artificial atoms", as well as the system design to assemble these nanoparticles into well-defined colloidal molecules.

Zheng, Wan

359

Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems. Ultrasound parameters are optimized to achieve maximum cell internalization of molecules and increased nanoparticle delivery to a cell layer on a coverslip. In-vivo studies demonstrate the possibility of using a lower dose of paclitaxel to slow tumor growth rates, increase doxorubicin concentration in tumor tissue, and enhance tumor delivery of fluorescent molecules through treatments that combine nanoparticles with ultrasound and microbubbles.

Mullin, Lee B.

360

Nanofabricated upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy  

E-print Network

Nanofabricated upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy Baris Ungun,1 Robert K. Prud, "Upconverting nanoparticles as nanotransducers for photodynamic therapy in cancer cells," Nanomed. 3, 73, "Versatile photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy at infrared excitation," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 4526

361

Targeted Nanoparticle Tested in Patients with Cancer  

Cancer.gov

By packaging molecules of the chemotherapy drug docetaxel in nanoparticles, researchers aim to deliver a high dose directly to tumors and reduce the drug's toxicity. A trial to test the targeted nanoparticle is underway in humans.

362

Improved Stability of Solid Mixture Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Engineering #12;Flash Nanoprecipitation Hydrophobic regions simultaneously precipitate to form nanoparticles nanoprecipitation to form a stabilized hydrophobic mixture by co-precipitating Hydrophobic Active Hydrophobic Inert Flash Nanoprecipitation Hydrophobic active Hydrophobic Inert Block copolymer Mixture Nanoparticles

Petta, Jason

363

Synthesis and Characterization of Environmentally Benign Nanoparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

There has been a growing interest in replacing current non-biodegradable and toxic nanosystems with environmentally benign biopolymer based ones to minimize post-utilization hazards due to uncontrolled accumulation of nanoparticles in the environment. Lignin based nanoparticles (...

364

Regenerative synthesis of copper nanoparticles by photoirradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their low cost, and because their use can contribute toward the sustainability of metal resources. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized by the photoirradiation of copper acetate solution at room temperature. The diameter and chemical composition of the obtained copper nanoparticles were analyzed using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) spectrophotometer and an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. Well-dispersed copper nanoparticles with ~5 nm in diameter were observed in the solution. On the other hand, when the nanoparticle solution was exposed to fresh air, nanoparticles were not observed in the solution. Furthermore, the copper nanoparticles were recovered from a solution of decomposed nanoparticles by re-photoirradiation.

Nishida, N.; Miyashita, A.; Hashimoto, N.; Murayama, H.; Tanaka, H.

2011-07-01

365

Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assembly of small building blocks such as atoms, molecules and nanoparticles into macroscopic structures-that is, `bottom up' assembly-is a theme that runs through chemistry, biology and material science. Bacteria, macromolecules and nanoparticles can self-assemble, generating ordered structures with a precision that challenges current lithographic techniques. The assembly of nanoparticles of two different materials into a binary nanoparticle superlattice (BNSL) can

Elena V. Shevchenko; Dmitri V. Talapin; Nicholas A. Kotov; Stephen O'Brien; Christopher B. Murray

2006-01-01

366

Mycogenic metal nanoparticles: progress and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology is relevant to diverse fields of science and technology. Due to the many advantages over non-biological systems,\\u000a several research groups have exploited the use of biological systems for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Among the different\\u000a microbes used for the synthesis of nanoparticles, fungi are efficient candidates for fabrication of metal nanoparticles both\\u000a intra- and extracellulary. The nanoparticles synthesized using

Aniket Gade; Avinash Ingle; Chris Whiteley; Mahendra Rai

2010-01-01

367

Interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of nanoparticles with biomolecules and microorganisms is an expanding field of research. Within this field, an area that has been largely unexplored is the interaction of metal nanoparticles with viruses. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a size-dependent interaction with HIV-1, with nanoparticles exclusively in the range of 1–10 nm attached to the virus. The

Jose Luis Elechiguerra; Justin L Burt; Jose R Morones; Alejandra Camacho-Bragado; Xiaoxia Gao; Humberto H Lara; Miguel Jose Yacaman

2005-01-01

368

Friction mechanism of individual multilayered nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Inorganic nanoparticles of layered [two-dimensional (2D)] compounds with hollow polyhedral structure, known as fullerene-like nanoparticles (IF), were found to have excellent lubricating properties. This behavior can be explained by superposition of three main mechanisms: rolling, sliding, and exfoliation-material transfer (third body). In order to elucidate the tribological mechanism of individual nanoparticles in different regimes, in situ axial nanocompression and shearing forces were applied to individual nanoparticles using a high resolution scanning electron microscope. Gold nanoparticles deposited onto the IF nanoparticles surface served as markers, delineating the motion of individual IF nanoparticle. It can be concluded from these experiments that rolling is an important lubrication mechanism for IF-WS2 in the relatively low range of normal stress (0.96±0.38 GPa). Sliding is shown to be relevant under slightly higher normal stress, where the spacing between the two mating surfaces does not permit free rolling of the nanoparticles. Exfoliation of the IF nanoparticles becomes the dominant mechanism at the high end of normal stress; above 1.2 GPa and (slow) shear; i.e., boundary lubrication conditions. It is argued that the modus operandi of the nanoparticles depends on their degree of crystallinity (defects); sizes; shape, and their mechanical characteristics. This study suggests that the rolling mechanism, which leads to low friction and wear, could be attained by improving the sphericity of the IF nanoparticle, the dispersion (deagglomeration) of the nanoparticles, and the smoothness of the mating surfaces. PMID:22084073

Tevet, Ofer; Von-Huth, Palle; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rosentsveig, Rita; Wagner, H. Daniel; Tenne, Reshef

2011-01-01

369

Tannin biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized with gallic acid and tannic acid are characterized using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Its size, form, and structure are compared with nanoparticles obtained previously using alfalfa biomass in order to find a simpler, consistent, and environmentally friendly method in the production of iron oxide nanoparticles.

Herrera-Becerra, R.; Rius, J. L.; Zorrilla, C.

2010-08-01

370

Hydrophobic Drug for Nanoparticle Cancer Therapy  

E-print Network

Hydrophobic Drug for Nanoparticle Cancer Therapy Sarah Ludwig, Dr. Lei Shi, and Dr. Robert Prud of Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy Drug delivery method (1) Doxil, Caelyx and Myocet are commercially available drugs that utilize nanoparticles Imaging of cancer Used in MRI, PET and CT scans to improve

Petta, Jason

371

Nanoparticles for imaging: top or flop?  

PubMed

Nanoparticles are frequently suggested as diagnostic agents. However, except for iron oxide nanoparticles, diagnostic nanoparticles have been barely incorporated into clinical use so far. This is predominantly due to difficulties in achieving acceptable pharmacokinetic properties and reproducible particle uniformity as well as to concerns about toxicity, biodegradation, and elimination. Reasonable indications for the clinical utilization of nanoparticles should consider their biologic behavior. For example, many nanoparticles are taken up by macrophages and accumulate in macrophage-rich tissues. Thus, they can be used to provide contrast in liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and inflammatory lesions (eg, atherosclerotic plaques). Furthermore, cells can be efficiently labeled with nanoparticles, enabling the localization of implanted (stem) cells and tissue-engineered grafts as well as in vivo migration studies of cells. The potential of using nanoparticles for molecular imaging is compromised because their pharmacokinetic properties are difficult to control. Ideal targets for nanoparticles are localized on the endothelial luminal surface, whereas targeted nanoparticle delivery to extravascular structures is often limited and difficult to separate from an underlying enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The majority of clinically used nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are based on the EPR effect, and, for their more personalized use, imaging markers can be incorporated to monitor biodistribution, target site accumulation, drug release, and treatment efficacy. In conclusion, although nanoparticles are not always the right choice for molecular imaging (because smaller or larger molecules might provide more specific information), there are other diagnostic and theranostic applications for which nanoparticles hold substantial clinical potential. PMID:25247562

Kiessling, Fabian; Mertens, Marianne E; Grimm, Jan; Lammers, Twan

2014-10-01

372

Extracellular Palladium Nanoparticle Production using Geobacter sulfurreducens  

E-print Network

(II) to Pd(0), but in previous tests using dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB), the nanoparticles, are then used to generate bulk insoluble palladium.3 The production of palladium nanoparticle catalysts (0Extracellular Palladium Nanoparticle Production using Geobacter sulfurreducens Matthew D. Yates

373

Cytotoxicity and ion release of alloy nanoparticles.  

PubMed

It is well-known that nanoparticles could cause toxic effects in cells. Alloy nanoparticles with yet unknown health risk may be released from cardiovascular implants made of Nickel-Titanium or Cobalt-Chromium due to abrasion or production failure. We show the bio-response of human primary endothelial and smooth muscle cells exposed to different concentrations of metal and alloy nanoparticles. Nanoparticles having primary particle sizes in the range of 5-250 nm were generated using laser ablation in three different solutions avoiding artificial chemical additives, and giving access to formulations containing nanoparticles only stabilized by biological ligands. Endothelial cells are found to be more sensitive to nanoparticle exposure than smooth muscle cells. Cobalt and Nickel nanoparticles caused the highest cytotoxicity. In contrast, Titanium, Nickel-Iron, and Nickel-Titanium nanoparticles had almost no influence on cells below a nanoparticle concentration of 10 ?M. Nanoparticles in cysteine dissolved almost completely, whereas less ions are released when nanoparticles were stabilized in water or citrate solution. Nanoparticles stabilized by cysteine caused less inhibitory effects on cells suggesting cysteine to form metal complexes with bioactive ions in media. PMID:22448125

Hahn, Anne; Fuhlrott, Jutta; Loos, Anneke; Barcikowski, Stephan

2012-01-01

374

Safety-relevant properties of Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper physically measurable properties of Nanoparticles are discussed which are known or supposed to be relevant for toxicological endpoints. First a review of well-known safety-relevant facts about Nanoparticles is given. After discussing some thermodynamic properties a list of features is derived, specifying those objective parameters of Nanoparticles which are responsible for possibly hazardous properties. These can in our

Gerhard Klein

375

Spherical nanoparticle ordering in block copolymer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, nanoparticles and self-assembled systems have both been areas of extensive research. Our work combines the unique properties of both fields into a single system by investigating the ordering of nanoparticles in block copolymers (BCPs). Balazs et al. put forth an expansive set of theories which predict the behavior of hard nanoparticle inclusions in BCP systems. These composites

John Papalia; Mary Galvin

2006-01-01

376

Spherical nanoparticle ordering in block copolymer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, nanoparticles and self-assembled systems have both been areas of extensive research. Our work combines the unique properties of both fields into a single system by investigating the ordering of nanoparticles in block copolymers (BCPs). Balazs et al. put forth an expansive set of theories which predict the behavior of hard nanoparticle inclusions in BCP systems. These composites

John Papalia

2005-01-01

377

Nanoparticles for Imaging: Top or Flop?  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles are frequently suggested as diagnostic agents. However, except for iron oxide nanoparticles, diagnostic nanoparticles have been barely incorporated into clinical use so far. This is predominantly due to difficulties in achieving acceptable pharmacokinetic properties and reproducible particle uniformity as well as to concerns about toxicity, biodegradation, and elimination. Reasonable indications for the clinical utilization of nanoparticles should consider their biologic behavior. For example, many nanoparticles are taken up by macrophages and accumulate in macrophage-rich tissues. Thus, they can be used to provide contrast in liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and inflammatory lesions (eg, atherosclerotic plaques). Furthermore, cells can be efficiently labeled with nanoparticles, enabling the localization of implanted (stem) cells and tissue-engineered grafts as well as in vivo migration studies of cells. The potential of using nanoparticles for molecular imaging is compromised because their pharmacokinetic properties are difficult to control. Ideal targets for nanoparticles are localized on the endothelial luminal surface, whereas targeted nanoparticle delivery to extravascular structures is often limited and difficult to separate from an underlying enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The majority of clinically used nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are based on the EPR effect, and, for their more personalized use, imaging markers can be incorporated to monitor biodistribution, target site accumulation, drug release, and treatment efficacy. In conclusion, although nanoparticles are not always the right choice for molecular imaging (because smaller or larger molecules might provide more specific information), there are other diagnostic and theranostic applications for which nanoparticles hold substantial clinical potential. PMID:25247562

Kiessling, Fabian; Mertens, Marianne E.; Grimm, Jan; Lammers, Twan

2014-01-01

378

Optical trapping of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Optical trapping is a technique for immobilizing and manipulating small objects in a gentle way using light, and it has been widely applied in trapping and manipulating small biological particles. Ashkin and co-workers first demonstrated optical tweezers using a single focused beam. The single beam trap can be described accurately using the perturbative gradient force formulation in the case of small Rayleigh regime particles. In the perturbative regime, the optical power required for trapping a particle scales as the inverse fourth power of the particle size. High optical powers can damage dielectric particles and cause heating. For instance, trapped latex spheres of 109 nm in diameter were destroyed by a 15 mW beam in 25 sec, which has serious implications for biological matter. A self-induced back-action (SIBA) optical trapping was proposed to trap 50 nm polystyrene spheres in the non-perturbative regime. In a non-perturbative regime, even a small particle with little permittivity contrast to the background can influence significantly the ambient electromagnetic field and induce a large optical force. As a particle enters an illuminated aperture, light transmission increases dramatically because of dielectric loading. If the particle attempts to leave the aperture, decreased transmission causes a change in momentum outwards from the hole and, by Newton's Third Law, results in a force on the particle inwards into the hole, trapping the particle. The light transmission can be monitored; hence, the trap can become a sensor. The SIBA trapping technique can be further improved by using a double-nanohole structure. The double-nanohole structure has been shown to give a strong local field enhancement. Between the two sharp tips of the double-nanohole, a small particle can cause a large change in optical transmission, thereby inducing a large optical force. As a result, smaller nanoparticles can be trapped, such as 12 nm silicate spheres and 3.4 nm hydrodynamic radius bovine serum albumin proteins. In this work, the experimental configuration used for nanoparticle trapping is outlined. First, we detail the assembly of the trapping setup which is based on a Thorlabs Optical Tweezer Kit. Next, we explain the nanofabrication procedure of the double-nanohole in a metal film, the fabrication of the microfluidic chamber and the sample preparation. Finally, we detail the data acquisition procedure and provide typical results for trapping 20 nm polystyrene nanospheres. PMID:23354173

Bergeron, Jarrah; Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Ghaffari, Saeedeh; Pang, Yuanjie; Gordon, Reuven

2013-01-01

379

Nanoparticle Superlattice Engineering with DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we describe a set of design rules for using programmable oligonucleotide interactions, elements of both thermodynamic and kinetic control, and an understanding of the dominant forces that are responsible for particle assembly to design and deliberately make a wide variety of nanoparticle-based superlattices. Like the rules for ionic solids developed by Linus Pauling, these rules are guidelines for determining relative nanoparticle superlattice stability, rather than rigorous mathematical descriptions. However, unlike Pauling's rules, the set of rules developed herein allow one to not just predict crystal stability, but also to deliberately and independently control the nanoparticle sizes, interparticle spacings, and crystallographic symmetries of a superlattice. In the first chapter of this thesis, a general background is given for using DNA as a tool in programmable materials synthesis. Chapter 2 demonstrates how altering oligonucleotide length and nanoparticle size can be used to control nanoparticle superlattice lattice parameters with nanometer-scale precision. In the third chapter, the kinetics of crystallization are examined, and a method to selectively stabilize kinetic products is presented. The data in chapter 4 prove that it is the overall hydrodynamic radius of a DNA-functionalized particle, rather than the sizes of the inorganic nanoparticles being assembled, that dictates particle packing behavior. Chapter 5 demonstrates how particles that exhibit non-equivalent packing behavior can be used to control superlattice symmetry, and chapter 6 utilizes these data to develop a phase diagram that predicts lattice stability a priori to synthesis. In chapter 7, the ability to functionalize a particle with multiple types of oligonucleotides is used to synthesize complex lattices, including ternary superlattices that are capable of dynamic symmetry conversion between a binary and a ternary state. The final chapter provides an outlook on other developments in DNA-programmed nanoparticle assembly not covered in this thesis, as well as future challenges for this field. Supplementary information to support the conclusions of the thesis, as well as provide technical details on how these materials are synthesized, are provided in appendices at the end of the thesis. As a whole, this methodology presents a major advance towards nanoparticle superlattice engineering, as it effectively separates the identity of a particle core (and thereby its physical properties) from the variables that control its assembly, enabling the synthesis of designer nanoparticle-based materials.

Macfarlane, Robert John

380

Nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccination.  

PubMed

The living epidermis and dermis are rich in antigen presenting cells (APCs). Their activation can elicit a strong humoral and cellular immune response as well as mucosal immunity. Therefore, the skin is a very attractive site for vaccination, and an intradermal application of antigen may be much more effective than a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. However, the stratum corneum (SC) is a most effective barrier against the invasion of topically applied vaccines. Products which have reached the stage of clinical testing, avoid this problem by injecting the nano-vaccine intradermally or by employing a barrier disrupting method and applying the vaccine to a relatively large skin area. Needle-free vaccination is desirable from a number of aspects: ease of application, improved patient acceptance and less risk of infection among them. Nanocarriers can be designed in a way that they can overcome the SC. Also incorporation into nanocarriers protects instable antigen from degradation, improves uptake and processing by APCs, and facilitates endosomal escape and nuclear delivery of DNA vaccines. In addition, sustained release systems may build a depot in the tissue gradually releasing antigen which may avoid booster doses. Therefore, nanoformulations of vaccines for transcutaneous immunization are currently a very dynamic field of research. Among the huge variety of nanocarrier systems that are investigated hopes lie on ultra-flexible liposomes, superfine rigid nanoparticles and nanocarriers, which are taken up by hair follicles. The potential and pitfalls associated with these three classes of carriers will be discussed. PMID:21854553

Hansen, Steffi; Lehr, Claus-Michael

2012-03-01

381

Vaccine delivery using nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Vaccination has had a major impact on the control of infectious diseases. However, there are still many infectious diseases for which the development of an effective vaccine has been elusive. In many cases the failure to devise vaccines is a consequence of the inability of vaccine candidates to evoke appropriate immune responses. This is especially true where cellular immunity is required for protective immunity and this problem is compounded by the move toward devising sub-unit vaccines. Over the past decade nanoscale size (<1000 nm) materials such as virus-like particles, liposomes, ISCOMs, polymeric, and non-degradable nanospheres have received attention as potential delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens which can both stabilize vaccine antigens and act as adjuvants. Importantly, some of these nanoparticles (NPs) are able to enter antigen-presenting cells by different pathways, thereby modulating the immune response to the antigen. This may be critical for the induction of protective Th1-type immune responses to intracellular pathogens. Their properties also make them suitable for the delivery of antigens at mucosal surfaces and for intradermal administration. In this review we compare the utilities of different NP systems for the delivery of sub-unit vaccines and evaluate the potential of these delivery systems for the development of new vaccines against a range of pathogens. PMID:23532930

Gregory, Anthony E; Titball, Richard; Williamson, Diane

2013-01-01

382

Nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccination  

PubMed Central

Summary The living epidermis and dermis are rich in antigen presenting cells (APCs). Their activation can elicit a strong humoral and cellular immune response as well as mucosal immunity. Therefore, the skin is a very attractive site for vaccination, and an intradermal application of antigen may be much more effective than a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. However, the stratum corneum (SC) is a most effective barrier against the invasion of topically applied vaccines. Products which have reached the stage of clinical testing, avoid this problem by injecting the nano?vaccine intradermally or by employing a barrier disrupting method and applying the vaccine to a relatively large skin area. Needle?free vaccination is desirable from a number of aspects: ease of application, improved patient acceptance and less risk of infection among them. Nanocarriers can be designed in a way that they can overcome the SC. Also incorporation into nanocarriers protects instable antigen from degradation, improves uptake and processing by APCs, and facilitates endosomal escape and nuclear delivery of DNA vaccines. In addition, sustained release systems may build a depot in the tissue gradually releasing antigen which may avoid booster doses. Therefore, nanoformulations of vaccines for transcutaneous immunization are currently a very dynamic field of research. Among the huge variety of nanocarrier systems that are investigated hopes lie on ultra?flexible liposomes, superfine rigid nanoparticles and nanocarriers, which are taken up by hair follicles. The potential and pitfalls associated with these three classes of carriers will be discussed. PMID:21854553

Hansen, Steffi; Lehr, Claus-Michael

2012-01-01

383

Vaccine delivery using nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Vaccination has had a major impact on the control of infectious diseases. However, there are still many infectious diseases for which the development of an effective vaccine has been elusive. In many cases the failure to devise vaccines is a consequence of the inability of vaccine candidates to evoke appropriate immune responses. This is especially true where cellular immunity is required for protective immunity and this problem is compounded by the move toward devising sub-unit vaccines. Over the past decade nanoscale size (<1000 nm) materials such as virus-like particles, liposomes, ISCOMs, polymeric, and non-degradable nanospheres have received attention as potential delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens which can both stabilize vaccine antigens and act as adjuvants. Importantly, some of these nanoparticles (NPs) are able to enter antigen-presenting cells by different pathways, thereby modulating the immune response to the antigen. This may be critical for the induction of protective Th1-type immune responses to intracellular pathogens. Their properties also make them suitable for the delivery of antigens at mucosal surfaces and for intradermal administration. In this review we compare the utilities of different NP systems for the delivery of sub-unit vaccines and evaluate the potential of these delivery systems for the development of new vaccines against a range of pathogens. PMID:23532930

Gregory, Anthony E.; Titball, Richard; Williamson, Diane

2013-01-01

384

Metal Nanoparticle Aerogel Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have fabricated sol-gels containing gold and silver nanoparticles. Formation of an aerogel produces a blue shift in the surface plasmon resonance as a result of the decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix upon supercritical extraction of the solvent. However, as a result of chemical interface damping this blue shift does not obey effective medium theories. Annealing the samples in a reducing atmosphere at 400 C eliminates this discrepancy and results in narrowing and further blue shifting of the plasmon resonance. Metal particle aggregation also results in a deviation from the predictions of effective medium theories, but can be controlled through careful handling and by avoiding the use of alcohol. By applying effective medium theories to the heterogeneous interlayer surrounding each metal particle, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to inhomogeneous materials characterized by spatially dependent dielectric constants, such as aerogels. We demonstrate that the shift in the surface plasmon wavelength provides the average fractional composition of each component (air and silica) in this inhomogeneous layer, i.e. the porosity of the aerogel or equivalently, for these materials, the catalytic dispersion. Additionally, the kinetics suggest that collective particle interactions in coagulated metal clusters are perturbed during silica gelation resulting in a change in the aggregate geometry.

Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Ignont, Erica; Snow, Lanee; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

385

A review of recent methods for efficiently quantifying immunogold and other nanoparticles using TEM sections through cells, tissues and organs.  

PubMed

Detecting, localising and counting ultrasmall particles and nanoparticles in sub- and supra-cellular compartments are of considerable current interest in basic and applied research in biomedicine, bioscience and environmental science. For particles with sufficient contrast (e.g. colloidal gold, ferritin, heavy metal-based nanoparticles), visualization requires the high resolutions achievable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, if particles can be counted, their spatial distributions can be subjected to statistical evaluation. Whatever the level of structural organisation, particle distributions can be compared between different compartments within a given structure (cell, tissue and organ) or between different sets of structures (in, say, control and experimental groups). Here, a portfolio of stereology-based methods for drawing such comparisons is presented. We recognise two main scenarios: (1) section surface localisation, in which particles, exemplified by antibody-conjugated colloidal gold particles or quantum dots, are distributed at the section surface during post-embedding immunolabelling, and (2) section volume localisation (or full section penetration), in which particles are contained within the cell or tissue prior to TEM fixation and embedding procedures. Whatever the study aim or hypothesis, the methods for quantifying particles rely on the same basic principles: (i) unbiased selection of specimens by multistage random sampling, (ii) unbiased estimation of particle number and compartment size using stereological test probes (points, lines, areas and volumes), and (iii) statistical testing of an appropriate null hypothesis. To compare different groups of cells or organs, a simple and efficient approach is to compare the observed distributions of raw particle counts by a combined contingency table and chi-squared analysis. Compartmental chi-squared values making substantial contributions to total chi-squared values help identify where the main differences between distributions reside. Distributions between compartments in, say, a given cell type, can be compared using a relative labelling index (RLI) or relative deposition index (RDI) combined with a chi-squared analysis to test whether or not particles preferentially locate in certain compartments. This approach is ideally suited to analysing particles located in volume-occupying compartments (organelles or tissue spaces) or surface-occupying compartments (membranes) and expected distributions can be generated by the stereological devices of point, intersection and particle counting. Labelling efficiencies (number of gold particles per antigen molecule) in immunocytochemical studies can be determined if suitable calibration methods (e.g. biochemical assays of golds per membrane surface or per cell) are available. In addition to relative quantification for between-group and between-compartment comparisons, stereological methods also permit absolute quantification, e.g. total volumes, surfaces and numbers of structures per cell. Here, the utility, limitations and recent applications of these methods are reviewed. PMID:19135344

Mayhew, Terry M; Mühlfeld, Christian; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Ochs, Matthias

2009-04-01

386

Ostwald Ripening of ?-Carotene Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ostwald ripening, the interfacial-energy-driven dissolution and reprecipitation of solutes, becomes an increasingly significant problem for nanoparticle formulations. We present the first quantitative study of Ostwald ripening for nanoparticle dispersions. The Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory of particle growth driven by diffusion is applied to study ?-carotene nanoparticles with sizes of O(100nm) formed by our block-copolymer protected Flash Nanoprecipitation process. A numerical implementation of the LSW theory that accounts for the original particle size distribution is presented. The predicted particle sizes from the numerical simulation are compared with the experimental results measured by dynamical light scattering. The results show quantitative agreement with no adjustable parameters. The addition of antisolvent results in the reduction of the ripening rate by dramatically decreasing bulk solubility.

Liu, Ying; Kathan, Kendra; Saad, Walid; Prud'Homme, Robert K.

2007-01-01

387

Collective oxidation behavior of aluminum nanoparticle aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggregates of aluminum nanoparticles are good solid fuel due to high flame propagation rates. Multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations reveal the mechanism underlying higher reaction rate in a chain of aluminum nanoparticles as compared to an isolated nanoparticle. This is due to the penetration of hot atoms from reacting nanoparticles to an adjacent, unreacted nanoparticle, which brings in external heat and initiates exothermic oxidation reactions. The calculated speed of penetration is 54 m/s, which is within the range of experimentally measured flame propagation rates.

Shekhar, Adarsh; Wang, Weiqiang; Clark, Richard; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

2013-06-01

388

Cytotoxic Effects of Fucoidan Nanoparticles against Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

In this study, we analyzed the size-dependent bioactivities of fucoidan by comparing the cytotoxic effects of native fucoidan and fucoidan lipid nanoparticles on osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments indicated that nanoparticle fucoidan induced apoptosis of an osteosarcoma cell line more efficiently than native fucoidan. The more potent effects of nanoparticle fucoidan, relative to native fucoidan, were confirmed in vivo using a xenograft osteosarcoma model. Caco-2 cell transport studies showed that permeation of nanoparticle fucoidan was higher than native fucoidan. The higher bioactivity and superior bioavailability of nanoparticle fucoidan could potentially be utilized to develop novel therapies for osteosarcoma. PMID:24177673

Kimura, Ryuichiro; Rokkaku, Takayoshi; Takeda, Shinji; Senba, Masachika; Mori, Naoki

2013-01-01

389

Multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles for targeted therapy.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles can be near infrared (NIR)-fluorescent (e.g., gold nanoparticles, quantum dots or carbon nanotubes) or can have magnetic properties (e.g., iron oxide nanoparticles). These optical or magnetic properties can be exploited for use in thermal therapy and molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles have proven to be promising tools in the diagnosis and therapy of malignant processes due to their multivalency and as multi-modal imaging agents. Furthermore, these radiopharmaceuticals may function simultaneously as both radiotherapy systems and thermal-ablation systems. This review examines the application of radiolabeled nanoparticles in the development of multifunctional nanosystems for targeted therapy. PMID:23992338

Ferro-Flores, G; Ocampo-García, B E; Santos-Cuevas, C L; Morales-Avila, E; Azorín-Vega, E

2014-01-01

390

Scintillation of rare earth doped fluoride nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The scintillation response of rare earth (RE) doped core/undoped (multi-)shell fluoride nanoparticles was investigated under x-ray and alpha particle irradiation. A significant enhancement of the scintillation response was observed with increasing shells due: (i) to the passivation of surface quenching defects together with the activation of the REs on the surface of the core nanoparticle after the growth of a shell, and (ii) to the increase of the volume of the nanoparticles. These results are expected to reflect a general aspect of the scintillation process in nanoparticles, and to impact radiation sensing technologies that make use of nanoparticles.

Jacobsohn, L. G.; McPherson, C. L.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Ballato, J. [Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Yukihara, E. G. [Physics Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States); DeVol, T. A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0905 (United States)

2011-09-12

391

Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Kreytsberg, G. N.; Gracheva, I. E.; Kibrik, B. S.; Golikov, I. V.

2011-04-01

392

Optical Properties of Metallic Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bright and changing colours obtained by dispersing metallic compounds in a glass matrix have been known empirically for centuries. Indeed, glasses have been coloured in the bulk by inclusion of metallic powders since ancient times to make jewellery and ornaments (see Chap. 25). Then in the Middle Ages, they were used for stained glass windows and later on for coloured glass artefacts, e.g., ruby red glass objects. However, the role played by nanoparticles in this colouring effect, i.e., the effects of nanoparticles on optical properties, were only first studied scientifically in the nineteenth century, by Michael Faraday [1].

Vallée, F.

393

DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies  

DOEpatents

In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

2013-07-16

394

Superhydrophobicity of silica nanoparticles modified with polystyrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polystyrene/silica nanoparticles were prepared by radical polymerization of silica nanoparticles possessing vinyl groups and styrene with benzoyl peroxide. The resulting vinyl silica nanoparticles, polystyrene/silica nanoparticles were characterized by means of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated that polystyrene had been successfully grafted onto vinyl silica nanoparticles via covalent bond. The morphological structure of polystyrene/silica nanoparticles film, investigated by scanning electron microscopy, showed a characteristic rough structure. Surface wetting properties of the polystyrene/silica nanoparticles film were evaluated by measuring water contact angle and the sliding angle using a contact angle goniometer, which were measured to be 159° and 2°, respectively. The excellent superhydrophobic property enlarges potential applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces.

Sun, X. L.; Fan, Z. P.; Zhang, L. D.; Wang, L.; Wei, Z. J.; Wang, X. Q.; Liu, W. L.

2011-01-01

395

Mechanical properties of nanoparticles: basics and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The special mechanical properties of nanoparticles allow for novel applications in many fields, e.g., surface engineering, tribology and nanomanufacturing/nanofabrication. In this review, the basic physics of the relevant interfacial forces to nanoparticles and the main measuring techniques are briefly introduced first. Then, the theories and important results of the mechanical properties between nanoparticles or the nanoparticles acting on a surface, e.g., hardness, elastic modulus, adhesion and friction, as well as movement laws are surveyed. Afterwards, several of the main applications of nanoparticles as a result of their special mechanical properties, including lubricant additives, nanoparticles in nanomanufacturing and nanoparticle reinforced composite coating, are introduced. A brief summary and the future outlook are also given in the final part.

Guo, Dan; Xie, Guoxin; Luo, Jianbin

2014-01-01

396

Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology has wide applications in many fields, especially in the biological sciences and medicine. Nanomaterials are applied as coating materials or in treatment and diagnosis. Nanoparticles such as titania, zirconia, silver, diamonds, iron oxides, carbon nanotubes, and biodegradable polymers have been studied in diagnosis and treatment. Many of these nanoparticles may have toxic effects on cells. Many factors such as size, inherent properties, and surface chemistry may cause nanoparticle toxicity. There are methods for improving the performance and reducing toxicity of nanoparticles in medical design, such as biocompatible coating materials or biodegradable/biocompatible nanoparticles. Most metal oxide nanoparticles show toxic effects, but no toxic effects have been observed with biocompatible coatings. Biodegradable nanoparticles are also used in the efficient design of medical materials, which will be reviewed in this article. PMID:21698080

Ai, Jafar; Biazar, Esmaeil; Jafarpour, Mostafa; Montazeri, Mohamad; Majdi, Ali; Aminifard, Saba; Zafari, Mandana; Akbari, Hanie R; Rad, Hadi Gh

2011-01-01

397

Nanoparticle growth Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles on Strontium  

E-print Network

nanoparticles are grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the surfaces of SrTiO3 nanocubes. The size. The SrTiO3 nanocubes average 60 nm on a side with {001} faces. The Pt loading increases linearly with Pt, and Michael J. Bedzyk* With an eye toward using surface morphology to enhance heterogeneous catalysis, Pt

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

398

SCATTERING GOLD NANOPARTICLES STRATEGIES FOR ULTRA SENSITIVE DNA DETECTION  

E-print Network

SCATTERING GOLD NANOPARTICLES STRATEGIES FOR ULTRA SENSITIVE DNA DETECTION ~ © REMCO VERDOOLD #12;Scattering gold nanoparticleS: StrategieS for ultra SenSitive Dna Detection By Remco Verdoold #12;Members for a sustainable future! #12;Scattering gold nanoparticleS: StrategieS for ultra SenSitive Dna Detection

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

399

Environmental Transformations of Engineered Nanoparticles: Implications for Nanoparticle Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical transformations that engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may undergo in different environments very poorly characterized. Sulfidation of metallic nanoparticles (NPs), particularly class B soft metals such as Ag NPs, is expected in the environment. Transformation will alter the surface properties and fate of Ag NPs. ENMs are often coated with a polymeric coating to prevent aggregation or to provide specific functionality. These coatings dramatically impact their transport properties. The potential for biological processes to remove covalently bound polymeric coatings from nanoparticles, and the effect of coating loss on the particle's transport properties is not known. The objectives of this work were to 1) better understand the environmental conditions that would promote sufidation of class B soft metal nanoparticles (Ag NPs and ZnO NPs), and to determine the effect that this has on their surface properties and aggregation potential, and 2) to determine if microbes can access covalently bound polymeric coatings from an engineered NP, and the effect on their surface properties and aggregation potential. Ag and ZnO NPs were synthesized and characterized for size, shape, coating mass, charge, crystal structure, and chemical composition using a range of analytical methods (TEM, DLS, TGA, EPM, XAS). These particles were sulfidized in the laboratory, biosolids, and wetland soils and the transformed materials were characterized. Sulfidation was rapid in all cases and resulted in a mixed crystalline/amorphous Ag2S/Ag2O particle depending on the ratio of Ag to HS- in the system. Sulfidation decreased surface charge and displayed significant aggregation compared to the unsulfidized materials. Sulfidation also occurred in biosolids and in wetland soils. Polymer coatings covalently bound to ENMs are bioavailable. Model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush-coated nanoparticles (30 nm hydrodynamic radius) were synthesized to obtain a nanomaterial in which biodegradation was the only available coating breakdown mechanism. PEO-degrading enrichment cultures were supplied with either PEO homopolymer or PEO brush nanoparticles as the sole carbon source, and protein and CO¬2 production were monitored as a measure of biological conversion. Protein production after 90 h corresponded to 14% and 8% of the total carbon available in the PEO homopolymer and PEO brush nanoparticle cultures, respectively, and CO2 production corresponded to 37% and 3.8% of the carbon added to the respective system. Brush biodegradation resulted in particle aggregation, indicating that biologically mediated transformations of nanoparticle coatings can affect fate and transport of NPs in the environment.

Lowry, G. V.; Levard, C.; Reinsch, B.; Ma, R.; Kirschling, T.; Brown, G. E.; Tilton, R.

2011-12-01

400

Breakthrough: Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Argonne nanoscientist Elena Rozhkova is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue. Read more at http://1.usa.gov/JAXh7Q.

Rozhkova, Elena

2012-01-01

401

Engineered nanoparticles for biomolecular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the production of nanoparticles (NPs) and exploration of their unusual properties have attracted the attention of physicists, chemists, biologists and engineers. Interest in NPs arises from the fact that the mechanical, chemical, electrical, optical, magnetic, electro-optical and magneto-optical properties of these particles are different from their bulk properties and depend on the particle size. There are numerous

Morteza Mahmoudi; Vahid Serpooshan; Sophie Laurent

2011-01-01

402

Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control  

PubMed Central

Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77?nm AgNPs and 46.48?nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

2014-01-01

403

Gluing gels: A nanoparticle solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic polymer gels with certain surface chemistries can be glued together by a simple and inexpensive method that uses commercially available silica nanoparticles. Biological tissues can also be joined by this nanotechnological route, eliminating the need for sutures, additional adhesives or chemical reactions.

Appel, Eric A.; Scherman, Oren A.

2014-03-01

404

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccine delivery.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of calcium phosphate (CAP) nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccine delivery. CAP nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method followed by sequential adsorption of sugars and ovalbumin. Nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering, XRD, ATR-FTIR, and microscopy methods. In-vitro release of ovalbumin from nanoparticles was studied in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). In-vivo immunization studies were carried out in Balb/C mice. The size and zeta potential of ovalbumin-sugar adsorbed CAP nanoparticles was 350 +/- 22.5 nm and -12.93 +/- 1.02 mV respectively. Around 60% ovalbumin was released from nanoparticles within 24 hrs. To test the feasibility for transcutaneous vaccine delivery, the nanoparticles were applied in mice after removing the stratum corneum by tape-stripping. In the positive control group, the nanoparticles were administered by intradermal injection. Ovalbumin-sugar coated CAP nanoparticles showed significantly higher antibody titers (Total IgG and IgG1) compared to ovalbumin alone. IgG2a antibodies were only seen with intradermal injection. Both topical and intradermal treatment groups showed splenocyte proliferation when re-stimulated with ovalbumin. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of using CAP nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccine delivery. PMID:23627076

Sahdev, Preety; Podaralla, Satheesh; Kaushik, Radhey S; Perumal, Omathanu

2013-01-01

405

Gold nanoparticles: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

This perspective reviews recent developments in the synthesis, electrochemistry, and optical properties of gold nanoparticles, with emphasis on papers initiating the developments and with an eye to their consequences. Key aspects of Au nanoparticle synthesis have included the two-phase synthesis of thiolated nanoparticles, the sequestration and reduction of Au salts within dendrimers, the controlled growth of larger particles of well-defined shapes via the seeded approach, and the assembling of a variety of nanoparticle networks and nanostructures. The electrochemistry of thiolated Au nanoparticles is systemized as regions of bulk-continuum voltammetry, voltammetry reflective of quantized double-layer charging, and molecule-like voltammetry reflective of molecular energy gaps. These features are principally determined by the nanoparticle core. Interesting multielectron Au nanoparticle voltammetry is observed when the thiolate ligand shell has been decorated with redox groupings. Another development is that Au nanoparticles were discovered to exhibit unanticipated properties as heterogeneous catalysts, starting with the low-temperature oxidation of CO. Substantial progress has also been made in understanding the surface plasmon spectroscopy of Au nanoparticles and nanorods. The need to investigate the optical properties of metal particles of a single, well-defined shape and size has motivated the development of a number of new techniques, leading to the study of electron transfer and redox catalysis on single nanoparticles. PMID:19572538

Sardar, Rajesh; Funston, Alison M; Mulvaney, Paul; Murray, Royce W

2009-12-15

406

PEGylated nanoparticles: protein corona and secondary structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles have important biological and biomedical applications ranging from drug and gene delivery to biosensing. In the presence of extracellular proteins, a "corona" of proteins adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles, altering their interaction with cells, including immune cells. Nanoparticles are often functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce this non-specific adsorption of proteins. To understand the change in protein corona that occurs following PEGylation, we first quantified the adsorption of blood serum proteins on bare and PEGylated gold nanoparticles using gel electrophoresis. We find a threefold decrease in the amount of protein adsorbed on PEGylated gold nanoparticles compared to the bare gold nanoparticles, showing that PEG reduces, but does not prevent, corona formation. To determine if the secondary structure of corona proteins was altered upon adsorption onto the bare and PEGylated gold nanoparticles, we use CD spectroscopy to characterize the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin following incubation with the nanoparticles. Our results show no significant change in protein secondary structure following incubation with bare or PEGylated nanoparticles. Further examination of the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin, ?2-macroglobulin, and transferrin in the presence of free PEG showed similar results. These findings provide important insights for the use of PEGylated gold nanoparticles under physiological conditions.

Runa, Sabiha; Hill, Alexandra; Cochran, Victoria L.; Payne, Christine K.

2014-09-01

407

Nanoparticle toxicity and cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) have provided significant advancements in cancer treatment. But as in any technology, there is a darkside. Experiments have shown NPs in body fluids pose a health risk by causing DNA damage that in of itself may lead to cancer. To avoid the dilemma that NPs are toxic to both cancer cells and DNA alike, the mechanism of NP toxicity must be understood so that the safe use of NPs may go forward. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) of peroxide and hydroxyl radicals damage the DNA by chemical reaction, but require NPs provide energies of about 5 eV not possible by surface effects. Only electromagnetic (EM) radiations beyond ultraviolet (UV) levels may explain the toxicity of NPs. Indeed, experiments show DNA damage from <100 nm NPs mimic the same reaction pathways of conventional sources of ionizing radiation, Hence, it is reasonable to hypothesize that NPs produce their own source of UV radiation, albeit at low intensity. Ionizing radiation from NPs at UV levels is consistent with the theory of QED induced EM radiation. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. By this theory, fine < 100 nm NPs absorb low frequency thermal energy in the far infrared (FIR) from collisions with the water molecules in body fluids. Since quantum mechanics (QM) precludes NPs from having specific heat, absorbed EM collision energy cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. But total internal reflection (TIR) momentarily confines the absorbed EM energy within the NP. Conservation proceeds by the creation of QED photons by frequency up-conversion of the absorbed EM energy to the TIR confinement frequency, typically beyond the UV. Subsequently, the QED photons upon scattering from atoms within the NP avoid TIR confinement and leak UV to the surroundings, thereby explaining the remarkable toxicity of NPs. But QED radiation need not be limited to natural or man-made NPs. Extensions suggest UV radiation is produced from biological NPs within the body, e.g., enzyme induced fragmentation of epithelial tissue, exocytosis of small proteins, and ironically, the same molecular markers used to detect cancer itself.

Prevenslik, T.

2011-07-01

408

Bisphosphonate-anchored PEGylation and radiolabeling of superparamagnetic iron oxide: long-circulating nanoparticles for in vivo multimodal (T1 MRI-SPECT) imaging.  

PubMed

The efficient delivery of nanomaterials to specific targets for in vivo biomedical imaging is hindered by rapid sequestration by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and consequent short circulation times. To overcome these two problems, we have prepared a new stealth PEG polymer conjugate containing a terminal 1,1-bisphosphonate (BP) group for strong and stable binding to the surface of ultrasmall-superparamagnetic oxide nanomaterials (USPIOs). This polymer, PEG(5)-BP, can be used to exchange the hydrophobic surfactants commonly used in the synthesis of USPIOs very efficiently and at room temperature using a simple method in 1 h. The resulting nanoparticles, PEG(5)-BP-USPIOs are stable in water or saline for at least 7 months and display a near-zero ?-potential at neutral pH. The longitudinal (r(1)) and transverse (r(2)) relaxivities were measured at a clinically relevant magnetic field (3 T), revealing a high r(1) of 9.5 mM(-1) s(-1) and low r(2)/r(1) ratio of 2.97, making these USPIOs attractive as T1-weighted MRI contrast agents at high magnetic fields. The strong T1-effect was demonstrated in vivo, revealing that PEG(5)-BP-USPIOs remain in the bloodstream and enhance its signal 6-fold, allowing the visualization of blood vessels and vascular organs with high spatial definition. Furthermore, the optimal relaxivity properties allow us to inject a dose 4 times lower than with other USPIOs. PEG(5)-BP-USPIOs can also be labeled using a radiolabeled-BP for visualization with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and thus affording dual-modality contrast. The SPECT studies confirmed low RES uptake and long blood circulation times (t(1/2) = 2.97 h). These results demonstrate the potential of PEG(5)-BP-USPIOs for the development of targeted multimodal imaging agents for molecular imaging. PMID:23194247

Sandiford, Lydia; Phinikaridou, Alkystis; Protti, Andrea; Meszaros, Levente K; Cui, Xianjin; Yan, Yong; Frodsham, George; Williamson, Peter A; Gaddum, Nicholas; Botnar, René M; Blower, Philip J; Green, Mark A; de Rosales, Rafael T M

2013-01-22

409

Electrostatically Tuned Interactions in Silica Microsphere-Polystyrene Nanoparticle Mixtures  

E-print Network

Electrostatically Tuned Interactions in Silica Microsphere-Polystyrene Nanoparticle Mixtures Angel mechanism in binary mixtures of silica microspheres and polystyrene nanoparticles. By selectively tuning of silica microspheres and polystyrene nanoparticles whose mutual electrostatic interactions can be tuned

Lewis, Jennifer

410

Nanofluidic preconcentration and detection of nanoparticles Anirban Mitra,1  

E-print Network

Nanofluidic preconcentration and detection of nanoparticles Anirban Mitra,1 Filipp Ignatovich,2 nanofluidic scheme for preconcentration and subsequent detection of nanoparticle samples within a continuous characteriza- tion of nanoparticle and virus samples, several nanofluidic flow-through schemes have been

Novotny, Lukas

411

Magnetic Nanoparticle Targeted Hyperthermia of Cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus Infection  

E-print Network

Magnetic Nanoparticle Targeted Hyperthermia of Cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus Infection MIN-HO KIM to rapidly heat magnetic nanoparticles that are bound to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The antimicrobial magnetic field, S. aureus biofilm, Magnetic nanoparticle. INTRODUCTION Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus

Simon, Scott I.

412

Structure and magnetic properties of Cr nanoparticles and Cr 2O 3 nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized Cr nanoparticles by arc-discharge and Cr2O3 nanoparticles by subsequent annealing the as-prepared Cr nanoparticles. The structure of these nanoparticles is studied by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Most of the particles show a good crystal habit of well-defined cubic or orthorhombic shape, while some small particles show spherical shape. The

W. S. Zhang; E. Brück; Z. D. Zhang; O. Tegus; W. F. Li; P. Z. Si; D. Y. Geng; K. H. J. Buschow

2005-01-01

413

Metallic nano-particles for trapping light  

PubMed Central

We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping. PACS 73.20.Mf, 42.25.s, 88.40.hj PMID:23391493

2013-01-01

414

Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles to Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle technology is being incorporated into many areas of molecular science and biomedicine. Because nanoparticles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including the circulatory system and cells, they have been and continue to be exploited for basic biomedical research as well as clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, nanoparticles hold great promise for enabling gene therapy to reach its full potential by facilitating targeted delivery of DNA into tissues and cells. Substantial progress has been made in binding DNA to nanoparticles and controlling the behavior of these complexes. In this article, we review research on binding DNAs to nanoparticles as well as our latest study on non-viral gene delivery using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:21747701

Kami, Daisuke; Takeda, Shogo; Itakura, Yoko; Gojo, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Toyoda, Masashi

2011-01-01

415

Approaches to Single-Nanoparticle Catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles are among the most important industrial catalysts, with applications ranging from chemical manufacturing to energy conversion and storage. Heterogeneity is a general feature among these nanoparticles, with their individual differences in size, shape, and surface sites leading to variable, particle-specific catalytic activity. Assessing the activity of individual nanoparticles, preferably with subparticle resolution, is thus desired and vital to the development of efficient catalysts. It is challenging to measure the activity of single-nanoparticle catalysts, however. Several experimental approaches have been developed to monitor catalysis on single nanoparticles, including electrochemical methods, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, X-ray microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This review focuses on these experimental approaches, the associated methods and strategies, and selected applications in studying single-nanoparticle catalysis with chemical selectivity, sensitivity, or subparticle spatial resolution.

Sambur, Justin B.; Chen, Peng

2014-04-01

416

Deterministic nanoparticle assemblies: from substrate to solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deterministic assembly of metallic nanoparticles is an exciting field with many potential benefits. Many promising techniques have been developed, but challenges remain, particularly for the assembly of larger nanoparticles which often have more interesting plasmonic properties. Here we present a scalable process combining the strengths of top down and bottom up fabrication to generate deterministic 2D assemblies of metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their stable transfer to solution. Scanning electron and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of these assemblies suggested the formation of nanobridges between touching nanoparticles that hold them together so as to maintain the integrity of the assembly throughout the transfer process. The application of these nanoparticle assemblies as solution-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) materials is demonstrated by trapping analyte molecules in the nanoparticle gaps during assembly, yielding uniformly high enhancement factors at all stages of the fabrication process.

Barcelo, Steven J.; Kim, Ansoon; Gibson, Gary A.; Norris, Kate J.; Yamakawa, Mineo; Li, Zhiyong

2014-04-01

417

Effect of reflux time on nanoparticle shape.  

PubMed

In the present work, Pt nanoparticles were produced from a reaction mixture containing a trace amount of cobalt carbonyl salt acting as a shape inducer. Nanoparticle shape evolution during reaction mixture reflux was monitored by characterizing particles extracted from the reaction mixture at different times. It was observed that 5 min of reflux produced spherical nanoparticles, 30 min of reflux produced cube shaped nanoparticles, and 60 min of reflux produced truncated octahedron morphology nanoparticles. It is illustrated that during nanoparticle synthesis the reflux process can provide energy needed for shape transformation from a metastable cube morphology to a truncated octahedron morphology which is thermodynamically the most stable geometry for fcc crystals. An optimization of the reaction reflux is thus needed for isolating metastable shapes. PMID:24548558

Srivastava, Chandan; Sushma, K V L

2014-06-01

418

Nanoparticles and cars - analysis of potential sources  

PubMed Central

Urban health is potentially affected by particle emissions. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles is heavily debated and there is an enormous global increase in research activity in this field. In this respect, it is commonly accepted that nanoparticles may also be generated in processes occurring while driving vehicles. So far, a variety of studies addressed traffic-related particulate matter emissions, but only few studies focused on potential nanoparticles. Therefore, the present study analyzed the literature with regard to nanoparticles and cars. It can be stated that, to date, only a limited amount of research has been conducted in this area and more studies are needed to 1) address kind and sources of nanoparticles within automobiles and to 2) analyse whether there are health effects caused by these nanoparticles. PMID:22726351

2012-01-01

419

CCMR: Nanoparticle Catalyst and Kinetic Characterization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanoparticles of noble metals exhibit unique electronic and chemical properties that make them more attractive as alternative catalysts. These particles catalyze many chemical transformations in organic synthesis, pollutant removal and energy production as they can impact technologies for producing electricity from solar or fuel cells. Nanoparticle activity at a single nanoparticle level is being studied using single-molecule level fluorescence. The utilization of this technique involves the use of a fluorogenic reaction; for this a reaction that transforms resazurin into resofurin with the use of metal nanoparticles as catalysts was developed. Two new systems that can be studied using this technique and that are catalyzed by palladium metal nanoparticles were discovered. The kinetics of these reactions was also characterized. The importance of finding these chemical systems is that they will enable a more in-depth study of the activity of metal nanoparticles as catalysts.

Young, Montwaun

2009-08-15

420

Fluorescent Multiblock ?-Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for In Vivo Tumor Targeting  

E-print Network

Highly fluorescent multiblock conjugated polymer nanoparticles with folic acid surface ligands are highly effective for bioimaging and in vivo tumor targeting. The targeted nanoparticles were preferentially localized in ...

Ahmed, Eilaf